WorldWideScience

Sample records for poleward boundary intensification

  1. Western boundary currents and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Richard; Simpson, Isla R.

    2016-09-01

    A recent paper in Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans connects recent changes in atmospheric circulation to poleward movement and intensification of western boundary currents. Causes and characteristics of past and future trends in surface wind stress and western boundary currents are discussed here.

  2. Pulsed flows at the high-altitude cusp poleward boundary, and associated ionospheric convection and particle signatures, during a Cluster - FAST - SuperDARN- Søndrestrøm conjunction under a southwest IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle and magnetic field observations during a magnetic conjunction Cluster 1-FAST-Søndrestrøm within the field of view of SuperDARN radars on 21 January 2001 allow us to draw a detailed, comprehensive and self-consistent picture at three heights of signatures associated with transient reconnection under a steady south-westerly IMF (clock angle ≈130°. Cluster 1 was outbound through the high altitude (~12RE exterior northern cusp tailward of the bifurcation line (geomagnetic Bx>0 when a solar wind dynamic pressure release shifted the spacecraft into a boundary layer downstream of the cusp. The centerpiece of the investigation is a series of flow bursts observed there by the spacecraft, which were accompanied by strong field perturbations and tailward flow deflections. Analysis shows these to be Alfvén waves. We interpret these flow events as being due to a sequence of reconnected flux tubes, with field-aligned currents in the associated Alfvén waves carrying stresses to the underlying ionosphere, a view strengthened by the other observations. At the magnetic footprint of the region of Cluster flow bursts, FAST observed an ion energy-latitude disperison of the stepped cusp type, with individual cusp ion steps corresponding to individual flow bursts. Simultaneously, the SuperDARN Stokkseyri radar observed very strong poleward-moving radar auroral forms (PMRAFs which were conjugate to the flow bursts at Cluster. FAST was traversing these PMRAFs when it observed the cusp ion steps. The Søndrestrøm radar observed pulsed ionospheric flows (PIFs just poleward of the convection reversal boundary. As at Cluster, the flow was eastward (tailward, implying a coherent eastward (tailward motion of the hypothesized open flux tubes. The joint Søndrestrøm and FAST observations indicate that the open/closed field line boundary was equatorward of the convection reversal boundary by ~2°. The unprecedented accuracy of the conjunction argues strongly

  3. Motion of the dayside polar cap boundary during substorm cycles: II. Generation of poleward-moving events and polar cap patches by pulses in the magnetopause reconnection rate

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    M. Lockwood

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter VHF and CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin-Located Auroral Sounding System HF radars, we study the formation of ionospheric polar cap patches and their relationship to the magnetopause reconnection pulses identified in the companion paper by Lockwood et al. (2005. It is shown that the poleward-moving, high-concentration plasma patches observed in the ionosphere by EISCAT on 23 November 1999, as reported by Davies et al. (2002, were often associated with corresponding reconnection rate pulses. However, not all such pulses generated a patch and only within a limited MLT range (11:00-12:00 MLT did a patch result from a reconnection pulse. Three proposed mechanisms for the production of patches, and of the concentration minima that separate them, are analysed and evaluated: (1 concentration enhancement within the patches by cusp/cleft precipitation; (2 plasma depletion in the minima between the patches by fast plasma flows; and (3 intermittent injection of photoionisation-enhanced plasma into the polar cap. We devise a test to distinguish between the effects of these mechanisms. Some of the events repeat too frequently to apply the test. Others have sufficiently long repeat periods and mechanism (3 is shown to be the only explanation of three of the longer-lived patches seen on this day. However, effect (2 also appears to contribute to some events. We conclude that plasma concentration gradients on the edges of the larger patches arise mainly from local time variations in the subauroral plasma, via the mechanism proposed by Lockwood et al. (2000.

  4. Excitation of transient lobe cell convection and auroral arc at the cusp poleward boundary during a transition of the interplanetary magnetic field from south to north

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    P. E. Sandholt

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available We document the activation of transient polar arcs emanating from the cusp within a 15 min long intermediate phase during the transition from a standard two-cell convection pattern, representative of a strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, to a "reverse" two-cell pattern, representative of strongly northward IMF conditions. During the 2–3 min lifetime of the arc, its base in the cusp, appearing as a bright spot, moved eastward toward noon by ~ 300 km. As the arc moved, it left in its "wake" enhanced cusp precipitation. The polar arc is a tracer of the activation of a lobe convection cell with clockwise vorticity, intruding into the previously established large-scale distorted two-cell pattern, due to an episode of localized lobe reconnection. The lobe cell gives rise to strong flow shear (converging electric field and an associated sheet of outflowing field-aligned current, which is manifested by the polar arc. The enhanced cusp precipitation represents, in our view, the ionospheric footprint of the lobe reconnection process.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; plasma convection

  5. Role of extratropical cyclones in the recently observed increase in poleward moisture transport into the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil-Otero, Gian A.; Zhang, Jing; He, Juanxiong; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-01-01

    Poleward atmospheric moisture transport (AMT) into the Arctic Ocean can change atmospheric moisture or water vapor content and cause cloud formation and redistribution, which may change downward longwave radiation and, in turn, surface energy budgets, air temperatures, and sea-ice production and melt. In this study, we found a consistently enhanced poleward AMT across 60°N since 1959 based on the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis. Regional analysis demonstrates that the poleward AMT predominantly occurs over the North Atlantic and North Pacific regions, contributing about 57% and 32%, respectively, to the total transport. To improve our understanding of the driving force for this enhanced poleward AMT, we explored the role that extratropical cyclone activity may play. Climatologically, about 207 extratropical cyclones move across 60°N into the Arctic Ocean each year, among which about 66 (32% of the total) and 47 (23%) originate from the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean, respectively. When analyzing the linear trends of the time series constructed by using a 20-year running window, we found a positive correlation of 0.70 between poleward yearly AMT and the integrated cyclone activity index (measurement of cyclone intensity, number, and duration). This shows the consistent multidecadal changes between these two parameters and may suggest cyclone activity plays a driving role in the enhanced poleward AMT. Furthermore, a composite analysis indicates that intensification and poleward extension of the Icelandic low and accompanying strengthened cyclone activity play an important role in enhancing poleward AMT over the North Atlantic region.

  6. Intensification of Chile-Peru upwelling under climate change: diagnosing the impact of natural and anthropogenic forcing from the IPSL-CM5 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebri, B.; Khodri, M.; Gastineau, G.; Echevin, V.; Thiria, S.

    2017-12-01

    Upwelling is critical to the biological production, acidification, and deoxygenation of the ocean's major eastern boundary current ecosystems. A conceptual hypothesis suggests that the winds that favour coastal upwelling intensify with anthropogenic global warming due to increased land-sea temperature contrast. We examine this hypothesis for the dynamics of the Peru-Chile upwelling using a set of four large ensembles of coupled, ocean-atmosphere model simulations with the IPSL model covering the 1940-2014 period. In one large ensemble we prescribe the standard CMIP5 greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, anthropogenic aerosol, ozone and volcanic forcings, following the historical experiments through 2005 and RCP8.5 from 2006-2014, while the other ensembles consider separately the GHG, ozone and volcanic forcings. We find evidence for intensification of upwelling-favourable winds with however little evidence of atmospheric pressure gradients in response to increasing land-sea temperature differences. Our analyses reveal poleward migration and intensification of the South Pacific Anticyclone near poleward boundaries of climatological Peruvian and Chilean upwelling zones. This contribution further investigates the physical mechanisms for the Peru-Chile upwelling intensification and the relative role of natural and anthropogenic forcings.

  7. Poleward intrusion in the northern Galician shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, I.; Ospina-Alvarez, N.; deCastro, M.; Varela, M.; Gomez-Gesteira, M.; Prego, R.

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of a warm water mass related to the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC) was characterized along the northern Galician shelf in November 2008 by means of Sea Surface Temperature and wind data. It was observed that under upwelling favorable conditions water temperature decreased along the northern coast and a temperature break appeared between Cape Vilano and Cape Ortegal showing a relaxation of the poleward intrusion. The effect of the IPC was also analyzed inside the Northern Galician Rias taking into account the hydrographical and biogeochemical properties measured on November 18. Water driven by the IPC was observed close to the mouth of the rias, around Cape Estaca de Bares, causing a nutrient salts decrease. Inside the rias a slight biological activity was found near surface resulting from fluvial contributions.

  8. Enhanced poleward propagation of storms under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarin-Brodsky, Talia; Kaspi, Yohai

    2017-12-01

    Earth's midlatitudes are dominated by regions of large atmospheric weather variability—often referred to as storm tracks— which influence the distribution of temperature, precipitation and wind in the extratropics. Comprehensive climate models forced by increased greenhouse gas emissions suggest that under global warming the storm tracks shift poleward. While the poleward shift is a robust response across most models, there is currently no consensus on what the underlying dynamical mechanism is. Here we present a new perspective on the poleward shift, which is based on a Lagrangian view of the storm tracks. We show that in addition to a poleward shift in the genesis latitude of the storms, associated with the shift in baroclinicity, the latitudinal displacement of cyclonic storms increases under global warming. This is achieved by applying a storm-tracking algorithm to an ensemble of CMIP5 models. The increased latitudinal propagation in a warmer climate is shown to be a result of stronger upper-level winds and increased atmospheric water vapour. These changes in the propagation characteristics of the storms can have a significant impact on midlatitude climate.

  9. Is Climate Change Shifting the Poleward Limit of Mangroves?

    KAUST Repository

    Hickey, Sharyn M.

    2017-02-01

    Ecological (poleward) regime shifts are a predicted response to climate change and have been well documented in terrestrial and more recently ocean species. Coastal zones are amongst the most susceptible ecosystems to the impacts of climate change, yet studies particularly focused on mangroves are lacking. Recent studies have highlighted the critical ecosystem services mangroves provide, yet there is a lack of data on temporal global population response. This study tests the notion that mangroves are migrating poleward at their biogeographical limits across the globe in line with climate change. A coupled systematic approach utilising literature and land surface and air temperature data was used to determine and validate the global poleward extent of the mangrove population. Our findings indicate that whilst temperature (land and air) have both increased across the analysed time periods, the data we located showed that mangroves were not consistently extending their latitudinal range across the globe. Mangroves, unlike other marine and terrestrial taxa, do not appear to be experiencing a poleward range expansion despite warming occurring at the present distributional limits. Understanding failure for mangroves to realise the global expansion facilitated by climate warming may require a focus on local constraints, including local anthropogenic pressures and impacts, oceanographic, hydrological, and topographical conditions.

  10. Process intensification : Industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter presents process intensification technologies used in industrial applications, for increasing the eco-efficiency of the chemical equipment with the benefit of lower capital costs, substantial energy saving, reduced footprint, and safety by design. The key topics cover compact heat

  11. Is the poleward migration of tropical cyclone maximum intensity associated with a poleward migration of tropical cyclone genesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daloz, Anne Sophie; Camargo, Suzana J.

    2018-01-01

    A recent study showed that the global average latitude where tropical cyclones achieve their lifetime-maximum intensity has been migrating poleward at a rate of about one-half degree of latitude per decade over the last 30 years in each hemisphere. However, it does not answer a critical question: is the poleward migration of tropical cyclone lifetime-maximum intensity associated with a poleward migration of tropical cyclone genesis? In this study we will examine this question. First we analyze changes in the environmental variables associated with tropical cyclone genesis, namely entropy deficit, potential intensity, vertical wind shear, vorticity, skin temperature and specific humidity at 500 hPa in reanalysis datasets between 1980 and 2013. Then, a selection of these variables is combined into two tropical cyclone genesis indices that empirically relate tropical cyclone genesis to large-scale variables. We find a shift toward greater (smaller) average potential number of genesis at higher (lower) latitudes over most regions of the Pacific Ocean, which is consistent with a migration of tropical cyclone genesis towards higher latitudes. We then examine the global best track archive and find coherent and significant poleward shifts in mean genesis position over the Pacific Ocean basins.

  12. Method to locate the polar cap boundary in the nightside ionosphere and application to a substorm event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a new method to be used for the polar cap boundary (PCB determination in the nightside ionosphere by using the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR field-aligned measurements by the 42-m antenna and southward directed low-elevation measurements by the ESR 32 m antenna or northward directed low-elevation measurements by the EISCAT VHF radar at Tromsø. The method is based on increased electron temperature (Te caused by precipitating particles on closed field lines. Since the Svalbard field-aligned measurement provides the reference polar cap Te height profile, the method can be utilised only when the PCB is located between Svalbard and the mainland. Comparison with the Polar UVI images shows that the radar-based method is generally in agreement with the PAE (poleward auroral emission boundary from Polar UVI. The new technique to map the polar cap boundary was applied to a substorm event on 6 November 2002. Simultaneous measurements by the MIRACLE magnetometers enabled us to put the PCB location in the framework of ionospheric electrojets. During the substorm growth phase, the polar cap expands and the region of the westward electrojet shifts gradually more apart from the PCB. The substorm onset takes place deep within the region of closed magnetic field region, separated by about 6–7° in latitude from the PCB in the ionosphere. We interpret the observations in the framework of the near-Earth neutral line (NENL model of substorms. After the substorm onset, the reconnection at the NENL reaches within 3 min the open-closed field line boundary and then the PCB moves poleward together with the poleward boundary of the substorm current wedge. The poleward expansion occurs in the form of individual bursts, which are separated by 2–10 min, indicating that the reconnection in the magnetotail neutral line is impulsive. The poleward expansions of the PCB are followed by latitude dispersed intensifications in the westward electrojet

  13. Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsch, Susanne; Primicerio, Raul; Fossheim, Maria; Dolgov, Andrey V.; Aschan, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Climate-driven poleward shifts, leading to changes in species composition and relative abundances, have been recently documented in the Arctic. Among the fastest moving species are boreal generalist fish which are expected to affect arctic marine food web structure and ecosystem functioning substantially. Here, we address structural changes at the food web level induced by poleward shifts via topological network analysis of highly resolved boreal and arctic food webs of the Barents Sea. We detected considerable differences in structural properties and link configuration between the boreal and the arctic food webs, the latter being more modular and less connected. We found that a main characteristic of the boreal fish moving poleward into the arctic region of the Barents Sea is high generalism, a property that increases connectance and reduces modularity in the arctic marine food web. Our results reveal that habitats form natural boundaries for food web modules, and that generalists play an important functional role in coupling pelagic and benthic modules. We posit that these habitat couplers have the potential to promote the transfer of energy and matter between habitats, but also the spread of pertubations, thereby changing arctic marine food web structure considerably with implications for ecosystem dynamics and functioning. PMID:26336179

  14. Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsch, Susanne; Primicerio, Raul; Fossheim, Maria; Dolgov, Andrey V; Aschan, Michaela

    2015-09-07

    Climate-driven poleward shifts, leading to changes in species composition and relative abundances, have been recently documented in the Arctic. Among the fastest moving species are boreal generalist fish which are expected to affect arctic marine food web structure and ecosystem functioning substantially. Here, we address structural changes at the food web level induced by poleward shifts via topological network analysis of highly resolved boreal and arctic food webs of the Barents Sea. We detected considerable differences in structural properties and link configuration between the boreal and the arctic food webs, the latter being more modular and less connected. We found that a main characteristic of the boreal fish moving poleward into the arctic region of the Barents Sea is high generalism, a property that increases connectance and reduces modularity in the arctic marine food web. Our results reveal that habitats form natural boundaries for food web modules, and that generalists play an important functional role in coupling pelagic and benthic modules. We posit that these habitat couplers have the potential to promote the transfer of energy and matter between habitats, but also the spread of pertubations, thereby changing arctic marine food web structure considerably with implications for ecosystem dynamics and functioning. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Holtbruegge, Johannes; Lutze, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable process design can be achieved by performing process synthesis and process intensification together. This approach first defines a design target through a sustainability analysis and then finds design alternatives that match the target through process intensification. A systematic, mu...... concepts and the framework are presented together with the results from a case study highlighting the application of the framework to the sustainable design of a production process for dimethyl carbonate.......Sustainable process design can be achieved by performing process synthesis and process intensification together. This approach first defines a design target through a sustainability analysis and then finds design alternatives that match the target through process intensification. A systematic......, multi-stage framework for process synthesis- intensification that identifies more sustainable process designs has been developed. At stages 1-2, the working scale is at the level of unit operations, where a base case design is identified and analyzed with respect to sustainability metrics. At stages 3...

  16. Crop pests and pathogens move polewards in a warming world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebber, Daniel P.; Ramotowski, Mark A. T.; Gurr, Sarah J.

    2013-11-01

    Global food security is threatened by the emergence and spread of crop pests and pathogens. Spread is facilitated primarily by human transportation, but there is increasing concern that climate change allows establishment in hitherto unsuitable regions. However, interactions between climate change, crops and pests are complex, and the extent to which crop pests and pathogens have altered their latitudinal ranges in response to global warming is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate an average poleward shift of 2.7+/-0.8kmyr-1 since 1960, in observations of hundreds of pests and pathogens, but with significant variation in trends among taxonomic groups. Observational bias, where developed countries at high latitudes detect pests earlier than developing countries at low latitudes, would result in an apparent shift towards the Equator. The observed positive latitudinal trends in many taxa support the hypothesis of global warming-driven pest movement.

  17. Mangrove expansion and saltmarsh decline at mangrove poleward limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintilan, Neil; Wilson, Nicholas C.; Rogers, Kerrylee; Rajkaran, Anusha; Krauss, Ken W.

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are species of halophytic intertidal trees and shrubs derived from tropical genera and are likely delimited in latitudinal range by varying sensitivity to cold. There is now sufficient evidence that mangrove species have proliferated at or near their poleward limits on at least five continents over the past half century, at the expense of salt marsh. Avicennia is the most cold-tolerant genus worldwide, and is the subject of most of the observed changes. Avicennia germinans has extended in range along the US Atlantic coast and expanded into salt marsh as a consequence of lower frost frequency and intensity in the southern USA. The genus has also expanded into salt marsh at its southern limit in Peru, and on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Mangroves of several species have expanded in extent and replaced salt marsh where protected within mangrove reserves in Guangdong Province. In south-eastern Australia, the expansion of Avicennia marina into salt marshes is now well documented, and Rhizophora stylosa has extended its range southward, while showing strong population growth within estuaries along its southern limits in northern New South Wales. Avicennia marina has extended its range southwards in South Africa. The changes are consistent with the pole-ward extension of temperature thresholds co-incident with sea-level rise, although the specific mechanism of range extension might be complicated by limitations on dispersal or other factors. The shift from salt marsh to mangrove dominance on subtropical and temperate shorelines has important implications for ecological structure, function, and global change adaptation.

  18. An explanation of auroral intensification during the substorm expansion phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhonghua; Rae, I. J.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Murphy, K. R.; Owen, C. J.; Pu, Z. Y.; Forsyth, C.; Grodent, D.; Zong, Q.-G.; Du, A. M.; Kalmoni, N. M. E.

    2017-08-01

    A multiple auroral onset substorm on 28 March 2010 provides an opportunity to understand the physical mechanism in generating auroral intensifications during a substorm expansion phase. Conjugate observations of magnetic fields and plasma from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft, of field-aligned currents (FACs) from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) satellites, and from ground-based magnetometers and aurora are all available. The comprehensive measurements allow us to further our understanding of the complicated causalities among dipolarization, FAC generation, particle acceleration, and auroral intensification. During the substorm expansion phase, the plasma sheet expanded and was perturbed leading to the generation of a slow mode wave, which modulated electron flux in the outer plasma sheet. During this current sheet expansion, field-aligned currents formed, and geomagnetic perturbations were simultaneously detected by ground-based instruments. However, a magnetic dipolarization did not occur until about 3 min later in the outer plasma sheet observed by THEMIS-A spacecraft (THA). We believe that this dipolarization led to an efficient Fermi acceleration to electrons and consequently the cause of a significant auroral intensification during the expansion phase as observed by the All-Sky Imagers (ASIs). This Fermi acceleration mechanism operating efficiently in the outer plasma sheet during the expansion phase could be a common explanation of the poleward auroral development after substorm onset. These results also show a good agreement between the upward FAC derived from AMPERE measurements and the auroral brightening observed by the ASIs.

  19. Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Holtbruegge, Johannes; Lutze, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable process design can be achieved by performing process synthesis and process intensification together. This approach first defines a design target through a sustainability analysis and then finds design alternatives that match the target through process intensification. A systematic......, multi-stage framework for process synthesis- intensification that identifies more sustainable process designs has been developed. At stages 1-2, the working scale is at the level of unit operations, where a base case design is identified and analyzed with respect to sustainability metrics. At stages 3......, a phenomena-based process synthesis method is applied, where the phenomena involved in each tasks are identified, manipulated and recombined to generate new and/or existing unit operations configured into flowsheets that are more sustainable from those found in the previous levels. An overview of the key...

  20. The poleward shift of storm tracks under global warming: A Lagrangian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarin, T.; Kaspi, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Comprehensive models of climate change projections have shown that the latitudinal band of extratropical storms will likely shift poleward under global warming. Here we study this poleward shift from a Lagrangian storm perspective, through simulations with an idealized general circulation model. By employing a feature tracking technique to identify the storms, we demonstrate that the poleward motion of individual cyclones increases with increasing global mean temperature. A potential vorticity tendency analysis of the cyclone composites highlights two leading mechanisms responsible for enhanced poleward motion: nonlinear horizontal advection and diabatic heating associated with latent heat release. Our results imply that for a 4 K rise in the global mean surface temperature, the mean poleward displacement of cyclones increases by about 0.85° of latitude, and this occurs in addition to a poleward shift of about 0.6° in their mean genesis latitude. Changes in cyclone tracks may have a significant impact on midlatitude climate, especially in localized storm tracks such as the Atlantic and Pacific storm tracks, which may exhibit a more poleward deflected shape.

  1. The Poleward Shift of Storm Tracks Under Climate Change: Tracking Cyclones in CMIP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Y.; Tamarin, T.

    2017-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate the distribution of precipitation and wind in the midlatitudes, and therefore their frequency, intensity, and paths have a significant effect on weather and climate. Comprehensive climate models forced by enhanced greenhouse gas emissions suggest that under a climate change scenario, the latitudinal band of storm tracks would shift poleward. While the poleward shift is a robust response across most models, there is currently no consensus on what is the dominant dynamical mechanism. Here we use a Lagrangian approach to study the poleward shift, by employing a storm-tracking algorithm on an ensemble of CMIP5 models forced by increased CO2 emissions. We demonstrate that in addition to a poleward shift in the latitude of storm genesis, associated with the expansion of the Hadley cell, the averaged cyclonic storm also propagates more poleward until it reaches its maximum intensity. A mechanism for enhanced poleward motion of cyclones in a warmer climate is proposed, supported by idealized global warming experiments, and relates the shift to changes in upper level jet and atmospheric water vapour content. Our results imply that under the RCP8.5 climate change scenario, the averaged latitude of peak cyclone intensity shifts poleward by about 1.2○ (1.0○) in the Atlantic (Pacific) storm track in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), and by about 1.6○ in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) storm track. These changes in cyclone tracks can have a significant impact on midlatitude climate.

  2. Kinetochore-independent chromosome poleward movement during anaphase of meiosis II in mouse eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manqi Deng

    Full Text Available Kinetochores are considered to be the key structures that physically connect spindle microtubules to the chromosomes and play an important role in chromosome segregation during mitosis. Due to different mechanisms of spindle assembly between centrosome-containing mitotic cells and acentrosomal meiotic oocytes, it is unclear how a meiotic spindle generates the poleward forces to drive two rounds of meiotic chromosome segregation to achieve genome haploidization. We took advantage of the fact that DNA beads are able to induce bipolar spindle formation without kinetochores and studied the behavior of DNA beads in the induced spindle in mouse eggs during meiosis II. Interestingly, DNA beads underwent poleward movements that were similar in timing and speed to the meiotic chromosomes, although all the beads moved together to the same spindle pole. Disruption of dynein function abolished the poleward movements of DNA beads but not of the meiotic chromosomes, suggesting the existence of different dynein-dependent and dynein-independent force generation mechanisms for the chromosome poleward movement, and the latter may be dependent on the presence of kinetochores. Consistent with the observed DNA bead poleward movement, sperm haploid chromatin (which also induced bipolar spindle formation after injection to a metaphase egg without forming detectable kinetochore structures also underwent similar poleward movement at anaphase as DNA beads. The results suggest that in the chromatin-induced meiotic spindles, kinetochore attachments to spindle microtubules are not absolutely required for chromatin poleward movements at anaphase.

  3. Modelling the re-intensification of tropical storm Erin over Oklahoma: understanding the key role of downdraft formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, F.; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the inland re-intensification of tropical storm (TS) Erin (2007). In this research, the physical processes that resulted in the re-intensification of TS Erin over Oklahoma, USA, on 19 August 2007 was determined and a sensitivity study on microphysics, planetary boundary layer

  4. AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION: FEEDING OURSELVES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new vision of humanity's welfare is that our common future demands a second green revolution that will redress inequities in distribution of the benefits of agricultural intensification in favor of the rural poor. Furthermore, future gains in food security should not be achieved at the expense of environmental conservation.

  5. Ecological intensification of agriculture - sustainable by nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Strategies towards agricultural intensification differ on the definitions of sustainability and the variables included in its evaluation. Different notions of the qualifiers of intensification (ecological, sustainable, durable, etc.) need to be unpacked. This paper examines conceptual differences

  6. Climate change. Climate change and wind intensification in coastal upwelling ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydeman, W J; García-Reyes, M; Schoeman, D S; Rykaczewski, R R; Thompson, S A; Black, B A; Bograd, S J

    2014-07-04

    In 1990, Andrew Bakun proposed that increasing greenhouse gas concentrations would force intensification of upwelling-favorable winds in eastern boundary current systems that contribute substantial services to society. Because there is considerable disagreement about whether contemporary wind trends support Bakun's hypothesis, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature on upwelling-favorable wind intensification. The preponderance of published analyses suggests that winds have intensified in the California, Benguela, and Humboldt upwelling systems and weakened in the Iberian system over time scales ranging up to 60 years; wind change is equivocal in the Canary system. Stronger intensification signals are observed at higher latitudes, consistent with the warming pattern associated with climate change. Overall, reported changes in coastal winds, although subtle and spatially variable, support Bakun's hypothesis of upwelling intensification in eastern boundary current systems. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Sustainable process synthesis–intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Holtbruegge, Johannes; Lutze, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Chemical industry is facing global challenges such as the need to find sustainable production processes.Process intensification as part of process synthesis has the potential to find truly innovative and moresustainable solutions. In this paper, a computer-aided, multi-level, multi-scale framework...... for synthesis,design and intensification of processes, for identifying more sustainable alternatives is presented. Withinthe framework, a three stage work-flow has been implemented where, in the first “synthesis” stage anoptimal processing route is synthesized through a network superstructure optimization...... is illustrated througha case study related to the production of di-methyl carbonate, which is an important bulk chemical dueto its multiplicity of uses....

  8. Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    The chemical and biochemical industry needs major reductions in energy consumption, waste generation, number of equipment used in the construction of plants and capital/operational cost. These required reductions can be addressed through process intensification that is the efficient use of raw...... materials (feedstock) and the use of sustainable technologies or processes which directly impacts and improves sustainability/LCA factors. Process intensification is a concept by which processes, whether conceptual or existing, can be designed or redesigned to achieve more efficient and sustainable designs...... in order to generate new and/or existing unit operations that are configured into flowsheet alternatives inclusive of hybrid/intensified unit operations. The flowsheet alternatives that satisfy the performance criteria and design targets, give innovative and more sustainable, non-trade off flowsheet...

  9. Paradigms for Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    two components are combined, a picture emerges in which air parcels spiral inwards, upwards and outwards. The combined spiralling circulation is...interaction process and found unstable modes at sub- synoptic scales shorter than a few hundred kilometres. In order to distinguish this macro instability...of the Second Kind (CISK) by Rosenthal and Koss (1968). A clear picture of the linear dynamics of the intensification process was provided by

  10. Plasma structure within poleward-moving cusp/cleft auroral transients: EISCAT Svalbard radar observations and an explanation in terms of large local time extent of events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available We report high-resolution observations of the southward-IMF cusp/cleft ionosphere made on December 16th 1998 by the EISCAT (European incoherent scatter Svalbard radar (ESR, and compare them with observations of dayside auroral luminosity, as seen at a wavelength of 630 nm by a meridian scanning photometer at Ny Ålesund, and of plasma flows, as seen by the CUTLASS (co-operative UK twin location auroral sounding system Finland HF radar. The optical data reveal a series of poleward-moving transient red-line (630 nm enhancements, events that have been associated with bursts in the rate of magnetopause reconnection generating new open flux. The combined observations at this time have strong similarities to predictions of the effects of soft electron precipitation modulated by pulsed reconnection, as made by Davis and Lockwood (1996; however, the effects of rapid zonal flow in the ionosphere, caused by the magnetic curvature force on the newly opened field lines, are found to be a significant additional factor. In particular, it is shown how enhanced plasma loss rates induced by the rapid convection can explain two outstanding anomalies of the 630 nm transients, namely how minima in luminosity form between the poleward-moving events and how events can re-brighten as they move poleward. The observations show how cusp/cleft aurora and transient poleward-moving auroral forms appear in the ESR data and the conditions which cause enhanced 630 nm emission in the transients: they are an important first step in enabling the ESR to identify these features away from the winter solstice when supporting auroral observations are not available.

    Key words: Ionosphere (polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause; cusp and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  11. Plasma structure within poleward-moving cusp/cleft auroral transients: EISCAT Svalbard radar observations and an explanation in terms of large local time extent of events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We report high-resolution observations of the southward-IMF cusp/cleft ionosphere made on December 16th 1998 by the EISCAT (European incoherent scatter Svalbard radar (ESR, and compare them with observations of dayside auroral luminosity, as seen at a wavelength of 630 nm by a meridian scanning photometer at Ny Ålesund, and of plasma flows, as seen by the CUTLASS (co-operative UK twin location auroral sounding system Finland HF radar. The optical data reveal a series of poleward-moving transient red-line (630 nm enhancements, events that have been associated with bursts in the rate of magnetopause reconnection generating new open flux. The combined observations at this time have strong similarities to predictions of the effects of soft electron precipitation modulated by pulsed reconnection, as made by Davis and Lockwood (1996; however, the effects of rapid zonal flow in the ionosphere, caused by the magnetic curvature force on the newly opened field lines, are found to be a significant additional factor. In particular, it is shown how enhanced plasma loss rates induced by the rapid convection can explain two outstanding anomalies of the 630 nm transients, namely how minima in luminosity form between the poleward-moving events and how events can re-brighten as they move poleward. The observations show how cusp/cleft aurora and transient poleward-moving auroral forms appear in the ESR data and the conditions which cause enhanced 630 nm emission in the transients: they are an important first step in enabling the ESR to identify these features away from the winter solstice when supporting auroral observations are not available.Key words: Ionosphere (polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause; cusp and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  12. Lagrangian transport in poleward breaking Rossby waves in the North Atlantic - Europe tropopause region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J.; Peters, D. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1997-12-31

    The poleward advection of upper-tropospheric air is investigated for poleward Rossby wave breaking events. During boreal winter months the isentropic deformations of the tropopause are examined using maps of Ertel`s potential vorticity (EPV) and contour advection (CA) calculations. The role of ambient baro-tropic flow is further examined by idealized numerical models. In the vicinity of the tropopause the characteristic Lagrangian transport of air masses for ECMWF-analysis data are compared with high resolution (T106) ECHAM4 experiments. (author) 3 refs.

  13. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Lydia K; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-06-07

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.

  14. Decline and poleward shift in Indian summer monsoon synoptic activity in a warming climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, S; Ajayamohan, R S; Boos, William R; Sabin, T P; Praveen, V

    2018-03-13

    Cyclonic atmospheric vortices of varying intensity, collectively known as low-pressure systems (LPS), travel northwest across central India and produce more than half of the precipitation received by that fertile region and its ∼600 million inhabitants. Yet, future changes in LPS activity are poorly understood, due in part to inadequate representation of these storms in current climate models. Using a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model that realistically simulates the genesis distribution of LPS, here we show that Indian monsoon LPS activity declines about 45% by the late 21st century in simulations of a business-as-usual emission scenario. The distribution of LPS genesis shifts poleward as it weakens, with oceanic genesis decreasing by ∼60% and continental genesis increasing by ∼10%; over land the increase in storm counts is accompanied by a shift toward lower storm wind speeds. The weakening and poleward shift of the genesis distribution in a warmer climate are confirmed and attributed, via a statistical model, to the reduction and poleward shift of low-level absolute vorticity over the monsoon region, which in turn are robust features of most coupled model projections. The poleward shift in LPS activity results in an increased frequency of extreme precipitation events over northern India. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Poleward propagating subinertial alongshore surface currents off the U.S. West Coast

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sung Yong

    2013-12-01

    The network comprising 61 high-frequency radar systems along the U.S. West Coast (USWC) provides a unique, high resolution, and broad scale view of ocean surface circulation. Subinertial alongshore surface currents show poleward propagating signals with phase speeds of O(10) and O(100-300) km d -1 that are consistent with historical in situ observations off the USWC and that can be possibly interpreted as coastally trapped waves (CTWs). The propagating signals in the slow mode are partly observed in southern California, which may result from scattering and reflection of higher-mode CTWs due to curvature of shoreline and bathymetry near Point Conception, California. On the other hand, considering the order of the phase speed in the slow mode, the poleward propagating signals may be attributed to alongshore advection or pressure-driven flows. A statistical regression of coastal winds at National Data Buoy Center buoys on the observed surface currents partitions locally and remotely wind-forced components, isolates footprints of the equatorward propagating storm events in winter off the USWC, and shows the poleward propagating signals year round. Key Points A unique resource to examine synoptic-scale alongshore variability Isolation of equatorward wind events in winter using a statistical model Poleward propagating surface signals year-round © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Decline and poleward shift in Indian summer monsoon synoptic activity in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, S.; Ajayamohan, R. S.; Boos, William R.; Sabin, T. P.; Praveen, V.

    2018-03-01

    Cyclonic atmospheric vortices of varying intensity, collectively known as low-pressure systems (LPS), travel northwest across central India and produce more than half of the precipitation received by that fertile region and its ˜600 million inhabitants. Yet, future changes in LPS activity are poorly understood, due in part to inadequate representation of these storms in current climate models. Using a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model that realistically simulates the genesis distribution of LPS, here we show that Indian monsoon LPS activity declines about 45% by the late 21st century in simulations of a business-as-usual emission scenario. The distribution of LPS genesis shifts poleward as it weakens, with oceanic genesis decreasing by ˜60% and continental genesis increasing by ˜10%; over land the increase in storm counts is accompanied by a shift toward lower storm wind speeds. The weakening and poleward shift of the genesis distribution in a warmer climate are confirmed and attributed, via a statistical model, to the reduction and poleward shift of low-level absolute vorticity over the monsoon region, which in turn are robust features of most coupled model projections. The poleward shift in LPS activity results in an increased frequency of extreme precipitation events over northern India.

  17. Plants on the move: plant-soil interactions in poleward shifting plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunsven, van R.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of recent global climate change, areas that have previously been climatically unsuitable for species have now become suitable new habitats. Many plant-species are expanding their range polewards, colonizing these newly available areas. If these species are able to expand their range

  18. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms 'sustainable' and 'intensification' is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural-environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and incentives necessary for the wider adoption of

  19. Agricultural intensification : saving space for wildlife?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudron, F.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: agricultural frontier; smallholder; intensification; semi-arid area; wildlife; conservation agriculture; cotton; Zimbabwe. Increasing agricultural production and preventing further losses in biodiversity are both legitimate objectives, but they compete strongly in the developing world.

  20. Agricultural intensification : saving space for wildlife?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudron, F.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: agricultural frontier; smallholder; intensification; semi-arid area; wildlife; conservation agriculture; cotton; Zimbabwe.

    Increasing agricultural production and preventing further losses in biodiversity are both legitimate objectives, but they compete strongly in the

  1. A note on poleward undercurrent along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; RameshKumar, M.R.; Rao, L.V.G.

    . The climatological data supports this observation but the wind stress further south contradicts the climatological picture. Similarly the trend of the northerly wind from Cochin to Marmagao appears to be far from reality when compared to the climatological wind... and SALAT, 1981). If the narrowing of surface currents at Quilon is associated with the topography of the sea floor which could funnel or constrict the longshore current, it might augment the intensity of upwelling close to the coast• The poleward...

  2. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘intensification’ is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. Scope and Conclusions This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural–environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and

  3. Changing storm track diffusivity and the upper limit to poleward latent heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, R.

    2010-12-01

    Poleward atmospheric energy transport plays a key role in the climate system by helping set the mean equator-pole temperature gradient. The mechanisms controlling the response of poleward heat flux to climate change are still poorly understood. Recent work shows that midlatitude poleward latent heat flux in atmospheric GCMs generally increases as the climate warms but reaches an upper limit at sufficiently high temperature and decreases with further warming. The reasons for this non-monotonic behavior have remained unclear. Simple arguments suggests that the latent heat flux Fl should scale as Fl ˜ vref qs, where vref is a typical meridional velocity in the baroclinic zone and qs is saturation humidity. While vref decreases with temperature, qs increases much more rapidly, so this scaling implies monotonically increasing moisture flux. We study this problem using a series of simulations employing NCAR’s CAM3 GCM coupled to a slab-ocean aquaplanet and spanning a wide range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that a modified scaling, Fl ˜ vref2 qs, describes the changes in moisture flux much more accurately. Using Lagrangian trajectory analysis, we explain the success of this scaling in terms of changes in the mixing length, which contracts proportionally to vref.

  4. Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Jacob; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Webb, Edward L; Koh, Lian Pin; Pascual, Unai

    2013-05-07

    The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive "slash-and-burn" farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives.

  5. Intensification of ethylene glycol production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisutwattanaa, Apiwit; Frauzem, Rebecca; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2017-01-01

    -case design was obtained, resulting in the production of ethylene glycol via two steps: ethylene oxidation synthesis followed by ethylene oxide hydration to produce ethylene glycol. Feasibility of the design was verified and the process was rigorously designed using a computer process simulation program......This study aims to generate an alternative design for ethylene glycol production process focusing on a reduction of operating cost and emissions. To achieve this, the phenomena-based method for process intensification was applied. 3 stages of process intensification were performed. First, the base...... solutions. As the result of intensification method, membrane separation was suggested and applied to the design. With the operation of the new equipment, the ethylene glycol production process was improved for 54.51 percent in terms of energy consumption....

  6. Are Calanus spp. shifting poleward in the North Atlantic? A habitat modelling approach

    KAUST Repository

    Chust, Guillem

    2013-09-16

    In the last decade, the analysis based on Continuous Plankton Recorder survey in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean detected one of the most striking examples of marine poleward migration related to sea warming. The main objective of this study is to verify the poleward shift of zooplankton species (Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis, C. helgolandicus, C. hyperboreus) for which distributional changes have been recorded in the North Atlantic Ocean and to assess how much of this shift was triggered by sea warming, using Generalized Additive Models. To this end, the population gravity centre of observed data was compared with that of a series of simulation experiments: (i) a model using only climate factors (i.e. niche-based model) to simulate species habitat suitability, (ii) a model using only temporal and spatial terms to reconstruct the population distribution, and (iii) a model using both factors combined, using a subset of observations as independent dataset for validation. Our findings show that only C. finmarchicus had a consistent poleward shift, triggered by sea warming, estimated in 8.1 km per decade in the North Atlantic (16.5 per decade for the northeast), which is substantially lower than previous works at the assemblage level and restricted to the Northeast Atlantic. On the contrary, C. helgolandicus is expanding in all directions, although its northern distribution limit in the North Sea has shifted northward. Calanus glacialis and C. hyperboreus, which have the geographic centres of populations mainly in the NW Atlantic, showed a slight southward shift, probably responding to cool water penetrating southward in the Labrador Current. Our approach, supported by high model accuracy, shows its power in detecting species latitudinal shifts and identifying its causes, since the trend of occurrence observed data is influenced by the sampling frequency, which has progressively concentrated to lower latitudes with time. © 2013 © 2013 International Council for

  7. Post-development image intensification by autoradiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, B. S.; Craven, P. D.; Odell, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    A method of post-development intensification of photographic images using a newly developed autoradiographic procedure is described. Radioactive Thiourea-S35 is combined with silver in the developed emulsion, which is then contact printed with a receiver emulsion. The beta decay from S35 produces an enhanced autoradiographic image. The laboratory technique is described and results of astronomical applications are presented.

  8. Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovac, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    ISBN: 978-94-6257-443-4 Author: Catarina C. Jakovac Title: Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification Swidden cultivation is the traditional agricultural system in riverine Amazonia, which supports local livelihoods and

  9. The poleward migration of the location of tropical cyclone maximum intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossin, James P; Emanuel, Kerry A; Vecchi, Gabriel A

    2014-05-15

    Temporally inconsistent and potentially unreliable global historical data hinder the detection of trends in tropical cyclone activity. This limits our confidence in evaluating proposed linkages between observed trends in tropical cyclones and in the environment. Here we mitigate this difficulty by focusing on a metric that is comparatively insensitive to past data uncertainty, and identify a pronounced poleward migration in the average latitude at which tropical cyclones have achieved their lifetime-maximum intensity over the past 30 years. The poleward trends are evident in the global historical data in both the Northern and the Southern hemispheres, with rates of 53 and 62 kilometres per decade, respectively, and are statistically significant. When considered together, the trends in each hemisphere depict a global-average migration of tropical cyclone activity away from the tropics at a rate of about one degree of latitude per decade, which lies within the range of estimates of the observed expansion of the tropics over the same period. The global migration remains evident and statistically significant under a formal data homogenization procedure, and is unlikely to be a data artefact. The migration away from the tropics is apparently linked to marked changes in the mean meridional structure of environmental vertical wind shear and potential intensity, and can plausibly be linked to tropical expansion, which is thought to have anthropogenic contributions.

  10. Poleward upgliding Siberian atmospheric rivers over sea ice heat up Arctic upper air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kensuke K; Alexeev, Vladimir A; Repina, Irina A; Tachibana, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-13

    We carried out upper air measurements with radiosondes during the summer over the Arctic Ocean from an icebreaker moving poleward from an ice-free region, through the ice edge, and into a region of thick ice. Rapid warming of the Arctic is a significant environmental issue that occurs not only at the surface but also throughout the troposphere. In addition to the widely accepted mechanisms responsible for the increase of tropospheric warming during the summer over the Arctic, we showed a new potential contributing process to the increase, based on our direct observations and supporting numerical simulations and statistical analyses using a long-term reanalysis dataset. We refer to this new process as "Siberian Atmospheric Rivers (SARs)". Poleward upglides of SARs over cold air domes overlying sea ice provide the upper atmosphere with extra heat via condensation of water vapour. This heating drives increased buoyancy and further strengthens the ascent and heating of the mid-troposphere. This process requires the combination of SARs and sea ice as a land-ocean-atmosphere system, the implication being that large-scale heat and moisture transport from the lower latitudes can remotely amplify the warming of the Arctic troposphere in the summer.

  11. Poleward energy transport: is the standard definition physically relevant at all time scales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minyi; Czaja, Arnaud; Graversen, Rune; Tailleux, Remi

    2018-03-01

    Poleward energy transport in the atmosphere and oceans constitutes an important branch of the global energy budget, and its role in the climate system has been the subject of many studies. In the atmosphere, the transport is affected by "eddies" and large scale meridional cells, both with zero net mass transport across latitude circles, but also partly by processes associated with a net transport of mass across latitude circles. The latter must cease to operate in steady state, but they may be significant when time variability of the heat budget is considered. Indeed, examination of reanalysis data on short (daily to monthly) timescales shows that mass variations on these timescales result in surprisingly large fluctuations (in excess of 10^{15} W = 1 PW) in the poleward heat transport. These fluctuations are referred to as "extensive", for they primarily alter the mass integrated energy of the region considered, but not its averaged value. It is suggested that extensive fluctuations mask more meaningful climate signals present in the heat transport variability on monthly and interannual timescales, and a new formulation is proposed to isolate the latter. This new formulation is applied successfully to reanalysis data and climate model simulations.

  12. Fundamentals of process intensification: A process systems engineering view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Sales Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the fundamentals of process intensification from a process systems engineering point of view. The concept of process intensification, including process integration, is explained together with the drivers for applying process intensification, which can be achieved...

  13. Measuring the potential for sustainable intensification of aquaculture in Bangladesh using life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Patrik John Gustav; Belton, Ben; Jahan, Khondker Murshed-E-; Rico, Andreu

    2018-03-20

    Food production is a major driver of global environmental change and the overshoot of planetary sustainability boundaries. Greater affluence in developing nations and human population growth are also increasing demand for all foods, and for animal proteins in particular. Consequently, a growing body of literature calls for the sustainable intensification of food production, broadly defined as "producing more using less". Most assessments of the potential for sustainable intensification rely on only one or two indicators, meaning that ecological trade-offs among impact categories that occur as production intensifies may remain unaccounted for. The present study addresses this limitation using life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify six local and global environmental consequences of intensifying aquaculture production in Bangladesh. Production data are from a unique survey of 2,678 farms, and results show multidirectional associations between the intensification of aquaculture production and its environmental impacts. Intensification (measured in material and economic output per unit primary area farmed) is positively correlated with acidification, eutrophication, and ecotoxicological impacts in aquatic ecosystems; negatively correlated with freshwater consumption; and indifferent with regard to global warming and land occupation. As production intensifies, the geographical locations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, acidifying emissions, freshwater consumption, and land occupation shift from the immediate vicinity of the farm to more geographically dispersed telecoupled locations across the globe. Simple changes in fish farming technology and management practices that could help make the global transition to more intensive forms of aquaculture be more sustainable are identified. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Poleward propagation of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations in a coupled model: role of internal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayamohan, R. S.; Annamalai, H.; Luo, Jing-Jia; Hafner, Jan; Yamagata, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    The study compares the simulated poleward migration characteristics of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations (BSISO) in a suite of coupled ocean-atmospheric model sensitivity integrations. The sensitivity experiments are designed in such a manner to allow full coupling in specific ocean basins but forced by temporally varying monthly climatological sea surface temperature (SST) adopted from the fully coupled model control runs (ES10). While the local air-sea interaction is suppressed in the tropical Indian Ocean and allowed in the other oceans in the ESdI run, it is suppressed in the tropical Pacific and allowed in the other oceans in the ESdP run. Our diagnostics show that the basic mean state in precipitation and easterly vertical shear as well as the BSISO properties remain unchanged due to either inclusion or exclusion of local air-sea interaction. In the presence of realistic easterly vertical shear, the continuous emanation of Rossby waves from the equatorial convection is trapped over the monsoon region that enables the poleward propagation of BSISO anomalies in all the model sensitivity experiments. To explore the internal processes that maintain the tropospheric moisture anomalies ahead of BSISO precipitation anomalies, moisture and moist static energy budgets are performed. In all model experiments, advection of anomalous moisture by climatological winds anchors the moisture anomalies that in turn promote the northward migration of BSISO precipitation. While the results indicate the need for realistic simulation of all aspects of the basic state, our model results need to be taken with caution because in the ECHAM family of coupled models the internal variance at intraseasonal timescales is indeed very high, and therefore local air-sea interactions may not play a pivotal role.

  15. Low temperature waste form process intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This study successfully demonstrated process intensification of low temperature waste form production. Modifications were made to the dry blend composition to enable a 50% increase in waste concentration, thus allowing for a significant reduction in disposal volume and associated costs. Properties measurements showed that the advanced waste form can be produced using existing equipment and processes. Performance of the waste form was equivalent or better than the current baseline, with approximately double the amount of waste incorporation. The results demonstrate the feasibility of significantly accelerating low level waste immobilization missions across the DOE complex and at environmental remediation sites worldwide.

  16. Phosphors for X-ray intensification screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebatin, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    An improved rare earth oxyhalide phosphor for x-ray intensification screens is described. The phosphors, of formula LnOX.T where Ln = La or Gd, X = Cl or Br and T = Tm or Tb, are mixed with a small amount of a trivalent antimony compound. The addition of antimony overcomes ageing due to attack by atmospheric moisture and renders the phosphor freeflowing so that dispersions can be readily made. Preferably the phosphor is washed with an aqueous solution of the antimony compound and the compound is the fluoride, chloride or butoxide, or potassium antimony tartrate. (U.K.)

  17. On the pattern of CO2 radiative forcing and poleward energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Xia, Yan; Tan, Xiaoxiao

    2017-10-01

    A set of general circulation model experiments are conducted to analyze how the poleward energy transport (PET) is related to the spatial pattern of CO2 radiative forcing. The effects of forcing pattern are affirmed by comparing the conventional doubling CO2 experiment, in which the forcing pattern is inhomogeneous, to a set of forcing homogenization experiments, in which the top of atmosphere (TOA), surface, or atmospheric forcing distribution is homogenized respectively. In addition, we separate and compare the effects of CO2 forcing to various feedbacks on atmospheric and oceanic PETs, by using a set of radiative kernels that we have developed for both TOA and surface radiation fluxes. The results here show that both the enhancement of atmospheric PET and weakening of oceanic PET during global warming are directly driven by the meridional gradients of the CO2 forcing. Interestingly, the overall feedback effect is to reinforce the forcing effect, mainly through the cloud feedback in the case of atmospheric PET and the albedo feedback in the case of the oceanic PET. Contrary to previous studies, we find that the water vapor feedback only has a weak effect on atmospheric PET. The Arctic warming amplification, which strongly affects atmospheric PET, is sensitive to the CO2 forcing pattern.

  18. Bioprocess intensification for the effective production of chemical products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John

    2017-01-01

    The further implementation of new bioprocesses, using biocatalysts in various formats, for the synthesis of chemicals is highly dependent upon effective process intensification. The need for process intensification reflects the fact that the conditions under which a biocatalyst carries out a reac...

  19. Intensification to reduce the carbon footprint of smallholder milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, Henk; Weiler, Viola; Modupeore, Ogun; Viets, Theo; Oosting, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Will the intensification of cattle-keeping lower the carbon footprint of milk production in resource-poor environments? The authors included the multiple functions of cattle in carbon footprint estimates of milk production in farming systems with different degrees of intensification in Kenya. The

  20. Sustainable intensification of agriculture for human prosperity and global sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rockstrom, J.; Williams, J.; Daily, G.; Noble, A.; Matthews, N.; Gordon, L.; Wetterstrand, H.; DeClerck, F.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate on what constitutes sustainable intensification of agriculture (SIA). In this paper, we propose that a paradigm for sustainable intensification can be defined and translated into an operational framework for agricultural development. We argue that this paradigm must now be

  1. Determinants Of Dairy Intensification In Uganda - An Integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is worthwhile to suspect that farmers are exposed to variable human capital, market access, land and labour resources, agro-climatic and location factors that influence the level of intensification adopted. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that determine adoption of dairy intensification. Data used in the ...

  2. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the

  3. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the

  4. Climate mitigation by dairy intensification depends on intensive use of spared grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, David; Gonzalez-Mejia, Alejandra; Moorby, Jon; Foskolos, Andreas; Gibbons, James

    2018-02-01

    Milk and beef production cause 9% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have shown that dairy intensification reduces the carbon footprint of milk by increasing animal productivity and feed conversion efficiency. None of these studies simultaneously evaluated indirect GHG effects incurred via teleconnections with expansion of feed crop production and replacement suckler-beef production. We applied consequential LCA to incorporate these effects into GHG mitigation calculations for intensification scenarios among grazing-based dairy farms in an industrialized country (UK), in which milk production shifts from average to intensive farm typologies, involving higher milk yields per cow and more maize and concentrate feed in cattle diets. Attributional LCA indicated a reduction of up to 0.10 kg CO 2 e kg -1 milk following intensification, reflecting improved feed conversion efficiency. However, consequential LCA indicated that land use change associated with increased demand for maize and concentrate feed, plus additional suckler-beef production to replace reduced dairy-beef output, significantly increased GHG emissions following intensification. International displacement of replacement suckler-beef production to the "global beef frontier" in Brazil resulted in small GHG savings for the UK GHG inventory, but contributed to a net increase in international GHG emissions equivalent to 0.63 kg CO 2 e kg -1 milk. Use of spared dairy grassland for intensive beef production can lead to net GHG mitigation by replacing extensive beef production, enabling afforestation on larger areas of lower quality grassland, or by avoiding expansion of international (Brazilian) beef production. We recommend that LCA boundaries are expanded when evaluating livestock intensification pathways, to avoid potentially misleading conclusions being drawn from "snapshot" carbon footprints. We conclude that dairy intensification in industrialized

  5. The western boundary current of the seasonal subtropical gyre in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Sundar, D.; Michael, G.S.; Nampoothiri, G.

    , and monthly mean wind stress, we propose that the poleward current is the western boundary current of a seasonal anticyclonic subtropical gyre which forms in the Bay during January, is best developed during March-April, and decays by June. The gyre...

  6. Rounding, work intensification and new public management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Eileen; Toffoli, Luisa; Henderson, Julie; Couzner, Leah; Hamilton, Patricia; Verrall, Claire; Blackman, Ian

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we argue that contemporary nursing care has been overtaken by new public management strategies aimed at curtailing budgets in the public hospital sector in Australia. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 15 nurses from one public acute hospital with supporting documentary evidence, we demonstrate what happens to nursing work when management imposes rounding as a risk reduction strategy. In the case study outlined rounding was introduced across all wards in response to missed care, which in turn arose as a result of work intensification produced by efficiency, productivity, effectiveness and accountability demands. Rounding is a commercially sponsored practice consistent with new public management. Our study illustrates the impact that new public management strategies such as rounding have on how nurses work, both in terms of work intensity and in who controls their labour. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Process Intensification: A Perspective on Process Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Gani, Rafiqul; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, process intensification (PI) has attracted considerable academic interest as a potential means for process improvement, to meet the increasing demands for sustainable production. A variety of intensified operations developed in academia and industry creates a large number...... of options to potentially improve the process but to identify the set of feasible solutions for PI in which the optimal can be found takes considerable resources. Hence, a process synthesis tool to achieve PI would potentially assist in the generation and evaluation of PI options. Currently, several process...... design tools with a clear focus on specific PI tasks exist. Therefore, in this paper, the concept of a general systematic framework for synthesis and design of PI options in hierarchical steps through analyzing an existing process, generating PI options in a superstructure and evaluating intensified...

  8. An Innovative Synthesis Methodology for Process Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip

    of the mathematical problem but decreasing its size. The best PI options are ordered in terms of a performance index and a related set are verified through detailed process simulation. Two building blocks can be used for the synthesis/design which is PI unit‐operations as well as phenomena. The use of PI unit......Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing processes or create new process options, which are needed in order to produce products using more sustainable methods. A variety of intensified equipment has been developed which potentially creates a large number of options......‐operations as building block aims to allow a quicker implementation/retrofit of processes while phenomena as building blocks enable the ability to develop novel process solutions beyond those currently in existence. Implementation of this methodology requires the use of a number of methods/algorithms, models, databases...

  9. Intensification of the amethyst color by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorski, Maria Silvia

    2000-01-01

    Brazil is great natural quartz producer. Amethyst, variety of the violet color is very appreciated in the world and since the Antiquity it is said to have many supernatural powers. Is the most highly valued stone in the quartz group and the graduation of the color is responsible for the commercial value that varies of US$ 0.5 to US$ 25.0 for carat. As carried through studies the violet color is related with the amount of Fe 4+ distributed in the crystal . The present work consists of the induction and intensification of the violet color by rays gamma of sources of Co-60 in quartz samples of diverse origins. It was used analyses by fluorescence for X-rays in samples of amethyst and citrine for the evaluation of the the iron and aluminium for the induction of the violet color. (author)

  10. Dynamic habitat suitability modelling reveals rapid poleward distribution shift in a mobile apex predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicholas J; Tobin, Andrew J; Reside, April E; Pepperell, Julian G; Bridge, Tom C L

    2016-03-01

    Many taxa are undergoing distribution shifts in response to anthropogenic climate change. However, detecting a climate signal in mobile species is difficult due to their wide-ranging, patchy distributions, often driven by natural climate variability. For example, difficulties associated with assessing pelagic fish distributions have rendered fisheries management ill-equipped to adapt to the challenges posed by climate change, leaving pelagic species and ecosystems vulnerable. Here, we demonstrate the value of citizen science data for modelling the dynamic habitat suitability of a mobile pelagic predator (black marlin, Istiompax indica) within the south-west Pacific Ocean. The extensive spatial and temporal coverage of our occurrence data set (n = 18 717), collected at high resolution (~1.85 km(2) ), enabled identification of suitable habitat at monthly time steps over a 16-year period (1998-2013). We identified considerable monthly, seasonal and interannual variability in the extent and distribution of suitable habitat, predominately driven by chlorophyll a and sea surface height. Interannual variability correlated with El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, with suitable habitat extending up to ~300 km further south during La Nina events. Despite the strong influence of ENSO, our model revealed a rapid poleward shift in the geometric mean of black marlin habitat, occurring at 88.2 km decade(-1) . By incorporating multiple environmental factors at monthly time steps, we were able to demonstrate a rapid distribution shift in a mobile pelagic species. Our findings suggest that the rapid velocity of climate change in the south-west Pacific Ocean is likely affecting mobile pelagic species, indicating that they may be more vulnerable to climate change than previously thought. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Methods for Converter Sludge Dehydration Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhromeev, M. I.; Moreva, Y. A.; Starkova, L. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the intensification methods for converter sludge dehydration exemplified by the sludges of the Oxygen Converter Workshop (OCW) of the Open Joint-Stock Company “Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works” (MMK, OJSC), one of the largest metallurgical companies in the Southern Urals. Converter sludges can contain up to 45-70% of ferrum [21] which is interesting in terms of their use as an addition to a sinter-feed mixture. Sludge intensifies the sintering process. It positively influences pelletizing and fusion mixture melting dynamics at sintering. Over the period of the converter sludge dehydration complex operation at the OCW, MMK, OJSC, it was revealed that processing results in obtaining of high humidity sludge. It causes sludge freezing during the winter period, thus, its transportation involves extra costs for sludge warming up. To resolve the above-mentioned problem, the following works were performed in 2016: - experimental studies of how the application of the low-molecular anionic flocculate “SEURVEY” FL-3 influences sludge humidity reduction. - experimental studies of how the filtering press process operation parameters influence sludge humidity reduction. The new flocculate application didn't lower the dehydrated sludge humidity (the objective was the humidity of not more than 15%). Basing upon the conducted research results, we can make a conclusion that putting into operation the sewage water reactant treatment technology with the use of “SEURVEY”, FL-3 (H-10) is not recommended. The research of the influence the filtering press process parameters have on the dehydration process intensification demonstrated that reaching of the obtained residue humidity value lower than 15% is possible under the reduction of the filtering press chamber depths to 30 mm and with the application of additional operation “Residue drying” with compressed air. This way of the sludge dehydration problem resolving at filtering presses of the

  12. Rural Architectural Intensification: A Multidisciplinar Planning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto De Lotto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When approaching a composite territorial problem that involves different scales and disciplines, it is necessary to establish a precise logical framework. Every planning or design activity is an iterative process applied to a complex system; not linear relations among the entities that compose the system are numerous and it is problematic to spell out them.  Authors developed a framework that has a hybrid structure in which different classical tool such as Spatial Decision Support Systems, Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD, and Expert Systems (ES converge. The method is not completely automatic and there is a continuous interaction between user and system. The main aim of the entire research group who participated to a national research (PRIN 2009 was to define an informed methodology for decision makers, stakeholders and public bureaus who have to (or want to face the problem of improving and intensifying insediative activities in minor centers located in rural-urban context. In particular authors defined Rural Architectural Intensification (RAI as a way to improve territorial features throughout a serie of interventions in small settlements and buildings. The explanation of the relations among different disciplines, different scales and different related methodologies is the key point of the paper. After an introduction and the description of RAI, authors introduce the main methodological structure; then each passage is detailed and specified considering the elements involved and the technical operations.

  13. Long-term induced agricultural intensification in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Shuqing; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of agricultural intensification has great implications for biodiversity conservation faced with increasing human population and food demand. How agricultural intensification evolves with human population growth is differently described by three theories, namely......, the Boserupian, Malthusian and induced intensification theories. The Malthusian theory suggests quick adoption of available techniques that increase human population, while the other two share one viewpoint that increased intensive level of agriculture is passively induced by population growth. Which theory has...... a prediction that matches long-term dynamics of agricultural intensification in history? Using historical land-use data spanning two thousand years, this study estimated the dynamic trajectories of four cultivation practices with different intensive levels in a part of China and assessed the three theories...

  14. Irrigation et intensification de la production agricole au Sahel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrigation et intensification de la production agricole au Sahel : perceptions paysannes sur la double riziculture et les variétés de riz utilisées sur les aménagements hydro - agricoles au Niger.

  15. Ecological intensification: harnessing ecosystem services for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommarco, R.; Kleijn, D.; Potts, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    Rising demands for agricultural products will increase pressure to further intensify crop production, while negative environmental impacts have to be minimized. Ecological intensification entails the environmentally friendly replacement of anthropogenic inputs and/or enhancement of crop

  16. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Ramos

    Full Text Available Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  17. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  18. Sustainable intensification: A new paradigm for African agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    The Montpellier Panel

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces a rapid population growth that drives food demand and scarcity together with scarcity in natural resources such as land, water, and soil fertility. This Montpellier Panel report identifies the paradigm of sustainable intensification as a framework to address both of these issues. It provides a comprehensive overview of the sustainable intensification paradigm, which seeks to utilize existing land to maximize yields, incomes, and nutrition while minimizing negative ext...

  19. Governance, agricultural intensification, and land sparing in tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceddia, Michele Graziano; Bardsley, Nicholas Oliver; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Sedlacek, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South American countries and quantify the effects of major determinants of agricultural land expansion, including various dimensions of governance, over the period 1970–2006. The results indicate that the effect of agricultural intensification on agricultural expansion is conditional on the quality and type of governance. When considering conventional aspects of governance, agricultural intensification leads to an expansion of agricultural area when governance scores are high. When looking specifically at environmental aspects of governance, intensification leads to a spatial contraction of agriculture when governance scores are high, signaling a sustainable intensification process. PMID:24799696

  20. Governance, agricultural intensification, and land sparing in tropical South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceddia, Michele Graziano; Bardsley, Nicholas Oliver; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Sedlacek, Sabine

    2014-05-20

    In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South American countries and quantify the effects of major determinants of agricultural land expansion, including various dimensions of governance, over the period 1970-2006. The results indicate that the effect of agricultural intensification on agricultural expansion is conditional on the quality and type of governance. When considering conventional aspects of governance, agricultural intensification leads to an expansion of agricultural area when governance scores are high. When looking specifically at environmental aspects of governance, intensification leads to a spatial contraction of agriculture when governance scores are high, signaling a sustainable intensification process.

  1. Agricultural innovations for sustainable crop production intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production intensification should be the first strategic objective of innovative agronomic research for the next 40 years. A range of options exist (often very location specific for farming practices, approaches and technologies that ensure sustainability, while at the same time improving crop production. The main challenge is to encourage farmers in the use of appropriate technologies,  and  to  ensure  that  knowledge  about  sound  production  practices  is  increasingly accepted and applied by farmers. There is a huge, but underutilized potential to link farmers’ local knowledge with science-based innovations, through favourable institutional arrangements.  The same  holds  for  the  design,  implementation  and  monitoring  of  improved  natural  resource management  that  links  community  initiatives  to  external  expertise.  It is also suggested that a comprehensive effort be undertaken to measure different stages of the innovation system, including technological adoption and diffusion at the farm level, and to investigate the impact of agricultural policies on technological change and technical efficiency. This paper provides a brief review of agronomic management practices that support sustainable crop production system and evidence on developments  in the selection of crops and cultivars; describes farming systems for crop which take a predominantly ecosystem approach; discusses the scientific application of ecosystem principles for the management of pest and weed populations; reviews the  improvements in fertilizer and nutrient management that explain productivity growth; describes the benefits and constraints of irrigation technologies; and suggests a way forward. Seven changes in the context for agricultural development are proposed that heighten the need to examine how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector.

  2. Raising Crop Productivity in Africa through Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tadele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of Africa will double in the next 33 years to reach 2.5 billion by 2050. Although roughly 60% of the continent’s population is engaged in agriculture, the produce from this sector cannot feed its citizens. Hence, in 2013 alone, Africa imported 56.5 million tons of wheat, maize, and soybean at the cost of 18.8 billion USD. Although crops cultivated in Africa play a vital role in their contribution to Food Security, they produce inferior yields compared to those in other parts of the world. For instance, the average cereal yield in Africa is only 1.6 t·ha−1 compared to the global 3.9 t·ha−1. Low productivity in Africa is also related to poor soil fertility and scarce moisture, as well as a variety of insect pests, diseases, and weeds. While moisture scarcity is responsible for up to 60% of yield losses in some African staple cereals, insect pests inflict annually substantial crop losses. In order to devise a strategy towards boosting crop productivity on the continent where food insecurity is most prevalent, these production constraints should be investigated and properly addressed. This review focuses on conventional (also known as genetic intensification in which crop productivity is raised through breeding for cultivars with high yield-potential and those that thrive well under diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Improved crop varieties alone do not boost crop productivity unless supplemented with optimum soil, water, and plant management practices as well as the promotion of policies pertaining to inputs, credit, extension, and marketing. Studies in Kenya and Uganda have shown that the yield of cassava can be increased by 140% in farmers’ fields using improved varieties and management practices. In addition to traditional organic and inorganic fertilizers, biochar and African Dark Earths have been found to improve soil properties and to enhance productivity, although their availability and affordability to

  3. Intensification of hot extremes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2010-08-01

    Governments are currently considering policies that will limit greenhouse gas concentrations, including negotiation of an international treaty to replace the expiring Kyoto Protocol. Existing mitigation targets have arisen primarily from political negotiations, and the ability of such policies to avoid dangerous impacts is still uncertain. Using a large suite of climate model experiments, we find that substantial intensification of hot extremes could occur within the next 3 decades, below the 2°C global warming target currently being considered by policy makers. We also find that the intensification of hot extremes is associated with a shift towards more anticyclonic atmospheric circulation during the warm season, along with warm-season drying over much of the U.S. The possibility that intensification of hot extremes could result from relatively small increases in greenhouse gas concentrations suggests that constraining global warming to 2°C may not be sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change.

  4. On Quality Intensification Expression Means in German And Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesta Račienė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of German Adjectives’ derivational means, which intensify the meaning of quality, and which are compared with functional equivalents in Lithuanian. The intensification of quality is treated as the functional semantic category, implemented in various language levels. This semantics may be expressed morphologically, by lexical and syntactic means, as well as by stress and intonation. The German language has many first components of compound adjectives, representing the intensification of quality, such as: stock-, blitz-, hoch-, brand-, grund-, etc. The rendering function of this semantics is typical of German adjectives prefixes erz-, ur- as well as prefixes of foreign origin super-, ultra-, extra-, mega-, hyper-, top-. In the Lithuanian language, the intensifying meaning of quality is realized by syntactic com-pounds, while on the morphological level it can be conveyed by diminutive suffixes. The paper presents the comparison of German and Lithuanian quality intensification expression means in order to highlight typological similarities and differences.

  5. Structure of the poleward wall of the trough and the inclination of the geomagnetic field above the EISCAT radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Jones

    Full Text Available A special high-resolution routine of the EISCAT radar has been used to investigate the structure and development of the poleward wall of a deep trough in electron density. The feature was tracked by the radar during a 7-hour period under very quiet geomagnetic conditions. The field-aligned nature of the structure enabled an estimate to be made of the inclination of the geomagnetic field above EISCAT that was in good agreement with the current model. Observations of narrow field-aligned enhancements in electron temperature demonstrated that the wall of this trough is a dynamic feature, reforming regularly as the electron density responds on a time scale of tens of minutes to energy input from soft-particle precipitation.

  6. Structure of the poleward wall of the trough and the inclination of the geomagnetic field above the EISCAT radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Jones

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A special high-resolution routine of the EISCAT radar has been used to investigate the structure and development of the poleward wall of a deep trough in electron density. The feature was tracked by the radar during a 7-hour period under very quiet geomagnetic conditions. The field-aligned nature of the structure enabled an estimate to be made of the inclination of the geomagnetic field above EISCAT that was in good agreement with the current model. Observations of narrow field-aligned enhancements in electron temperature demonstrated that the wall of this trough is a dynamic feature, reforming regularly as the electron density responds on a time scale of tens of minutes to energy input from soft-particle precipitation.

  7. The role of process intensification in cutting greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reay, David

    2008-01-01

    Between 1900 and 1955 the average rate of global energy use rose from about 1 TW to 2 TW. Between 1955 and 1999 energy use rose from 2 TW to about 12 TW, and to 2006 a further 16% growth in primary energy use was recorded world-wide. There are recommendations by the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, subsequently supported by others in the UK, that we need to reduce CO 2 emissions by over 50% in order to stabilise their impact on global warming (CO 2 being the principal gas believed to be contributing to this phenomenon). One way in which we can address this is by judicious use of process intensification technology. Process intensification may be defined as: 'Any engineering development that leads to a substantially smaller, cleaner, safer and more energy-efficient technology.' It is most often characterised by a huge reduction in plant volume - orders of magnitude - but its contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions may also be significant. Potential energy savings due to investment in process intensification were studied by several UK organisations in the mid 1990s, to assist the UK Government in formulating a strategy on intensification. It is relevant to the themes of the PRES 07 Conference that process integration features in these analyses. Overall plant intensification in the UK was identified as having a technical potential of 40 PJ/year (about 1 million tonnes of oil equivalent/annum). The total potential energy savings due to investment in process intensification in a range of process unit operations were predicted to be over 74 PJ/year (1 PJ = 10 15 J). Projections for The Netherlands suggest that savings of 50-100 PJ/year should be achieved across chemicals and food processing by 2050. Substantial benefits to industry in the USA are highlighted by US Department of Energy studies. This paper relates by discussion and example process intensification to the main themes of the PRES 07 Conference, including process integration. It also

  8. Phase 2 Neoadjuvant Treatment Intensification Trials in Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teo, Mark T W; McParland, Lucy; Appelt, Ane L

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Multiple phase 2 trials of neoadjuvant treatment intensification in locally advanced rectal cancer have reported promising efficacy signals, but these have not translated into improved cancer outcomes in phase 3 trials. Improvements in phase 2 trial design are needed to reduce these false......-positive signals. This systematic review evaluated the design of phase 2 trials of neoadjuvant long-course radiation or chemoradiation therapy treatment intensification in locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for published...... among the reported effect sizes (I2 = 55.3%, Prectal cancer trials is urgently required. A significant increase...

  9. The future demographic niche of a declining grassland bird fails to shift poleward in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Lisa A.; Ribic, Christine; Pomara, Lars Y.; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    ContextTemperate grasslands and their dependent species are exposed to high variability in weather and climate due to the lack of natural buffers such as forests. Grassland birds are particularly vulnerable to this variability, yet have failed to shift poleward in response to recent climate change like other bird species in North America. However, there have been few studies examining the effect of weather on grassland bird demography and consequent influence of climate change on population persistence and distributional shifts.ObjectivesThe goal of this study was to estimate the vulnerability of Henslow’s Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii), an obligate grassland bird that has been declining throughout much of its range, to past and future climatic variability.MethodsWe conducted a demographic meta-analysis from published studies and quantified the relationship between nest success rates and variability in breeding season climate. We projected the climate-demography relationships spatially, throughout the breeding range, and temporally, from 1981 to 2050. These projections were used to evaluate population dynamics by implementing a spatially explicit population model.ResultsWe uncovered a climate-demography linkage for Henslow’s Sparrow with summer precipitation, and to a lesser degree, temperature positively affecting nest success. We found that future climatic conditions—primarily changes in precipitation—will likely contribute to reduced population persistence and a southwestward range contraction.ConclusionsFuture distributional shifts in response to climate change may not always be poleward and assessing projected changes in precipitation is critical for grassland bird conservation and climate change adaptation.

  10. How Agricultural Intensification Affects Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerson, M.; Morales, M.B.; Oñate, J.J.; Batáry, P.; Berendse, F.; Liira, J.; Aavik, T.; Guerrero, I.; Bommarco, R.; Eggers, S.; Pärt, T.; Tscharntke, T.; Weisser, W.; Clement, L.; Bengtsson, J.

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population continues to grow, the demand for food, fodder, fibre and bioenergy will increase. In Europe, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has driven the intensification of agriculture, promoting the simplification and specialization of agroecosystems through the decline in

  11. Premiers Resultats Sur L'intensification Ecologique Et Demarche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'intensification écologique (IE) constitue une voie intéressante pour accroitre durablement la production agricole en substituant à des facteurs de productions industriels, des processus biologiques. La littérature nous enseigne que les légumineuses jouent un rôle important dans l'amélioration des systèmes de culture.

  12. Bio-economic household modelling for agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study contributes to the quest for sustainable agricultural intensification through the development of a quantitative bio-economic modelling framework that allows assessment of new technology and policy measures in terms of household welfare and sustainability indicators. The main aim

  13. Phenomena based Methodology for Process Synthesis incorporating Process Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing as well as conceptual processes, in order to achieve a more sustainable production. PI can be achieved at different levels. That is, the unit operations, functional and/or phenomena level. The highest impact is expected by looking...

  14. Factors of Intensification in the Hops Cluster of Chuvashia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Anatoly I.; Evgrafov, Oleg V.; Zakharov, Dmitry A.; Ivanova, Elena V.; Tolstova, Marija L.; Tsaregorodtsev, Evgeny I.

    2016-01-01

    The complex analysis of development of hop-growing for 1971-2015 is carried out. In the conditions of the field experiment made in the Chuvash Republic hop-growing intensification elements--technology of its cultivation, mechanization are fulfilled. Based on researches it is established that the main internal allowance of increase in efficiency of…

  15. Sustainable agriculture and agricultural land use intensification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post studies had indicated that population pressure, soil fertility, spatial location and land tenure are among the dominant factors that influence agricultural land use intensification in a number of regions. The present study carried out in Egbado Division of Ogun State in Nigeria showed that these factors (or their proxies) are ...

  16. A computer-aided approach for achieving sustainable process design by process intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantasarn, Nateetorn; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    2017-01-01

    Process intensification can be applied to achieve sustainable process design. In this paper, a systematic, 3-stage synthesis-intensification framework is applied to achieve more sustainable design. In stage 1, the synthesis stage, an objective function and design constraints are defined and a bas....../intensified unit operations are generated from the application of phenomena-based process intensification....

  17. Mangrove expansion and contraction at a poleward range limit: climate extremes and land-ocean temperature gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J; Day, Richard H; Hall, Courtney T; Brumfield, Marisa D; Dugas, Jason L; Jones, William R

    2017-01-01

    Within the context of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand the ecological implications of changes in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. Along subtropical coasts, less frequent and warmer freeze events are expected to permit freeze-sensitive mangrove forests to expand poleward and displace freeze-tolerant salt marshes. Here, our aim was to better understand the drivers of poleward mangrove migration by quantifying spatiotemporal patterns in mangrove range expansion and contraction across land-ocean temperature gradients. Our work was conducted in a freeze-sensitive mangrove-marsh transition zone that spans a land-ocean temperature gradient in one of the world's most wetland-rich regions (Mississippi River Deltaic Plain; Louisiana, USA). We used historical air temperature data (1893-2014), alternative future climate scenarios, and coastal wetland coverage data (1978-2011) to investigate spatiotemporal fluctuations and climate-wetland linkages. Our analyses indicate that changes in mangrove coverage have been controlled primarily by extreme freeze events (i.e., air temperatures below a threshold zone of -6.3 to -7.6°C). We expect that in the past 121 yr, mangrove range expansion and contraction has occurred across land-ocean temperature gradients. Mangrove resistance, resilience, and dominance were all highest in areas closer to the ocean where temperature extremes were buffered by large expanses of water and saturated soil. Under climate change, these areas will likely serve as local hotspots for mangrove dispersal, growth, range expansion, and displacement of salt marsh. Collectively, our results show that the frequency and intensity of freeze events across land-ocean temperature gradients greatly influences spatiotemporal patterns of range expansion and contraction of freeze-sensitive mangroves. We expect that, along subtropical coasts, similar processes govern the distribution and abundance of other freeze

  18. Compression Fracture of CFRP Laminates Containing Stress Intensifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Christian; Schütt, Martin; Liebig, Wilfried V; Philipkowski, Timo; Kürten, Jonas; Schulte, Karl; Fiedler, Bodo

    2017-09-05

    For brittle fracture behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) under compression, several approaches exist, which describe different mechanisms during failure, especially at stress intensifications. The failure process is not only initiated by the buckling fibres, but a shear driven fibre compressive failure beneficiaries or initiates the formation of fibres into a kink-band. Starting from this kink-band further damage can be detected, which leads to the final failure. The subject of this work is an experimental investigation on the influence of ply thickness and stacking sequence in quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates containing stress intensifications under compression loading. Different effects that influence the compression failure and the role the stacking sequence has on damage development and the resulting compressive strength are identified and discussed. The influence of stress intensifications is investigated in detail at a hole in open hole compression (OHC) tests. A proposed interrupted test approach allows identifying the mechanisms of damage initiation and propagation from the free edge of the hole by causing a distinct damage state and examine it at a precise instant of time during fracture process. Compression after impact (CAI) tests are executed in order to compare the OHC results to a different type of stress intensifications. Unnotched compression tests are carried out for comparison as a reference. With this approach, a more detailed description of the failure mechanisms during the sudden compression failure of CFRP is achieved. By microscopic examination of single plies from various specimens, the different effects that influence the compression failure are identified. First damage of fibres occurs always in 0°-ply. Fibre shear failure leads to local microbuckling and the formation and growth of a kink-band as final failure mechanisms. The formation of a kink-band and finally steady state kinking is shifted to higher compressive strains

  19. Reflection of equatorial Kelvin waves at eastern ocean boundaries Part II: Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soares

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of viscosity, non linearities, incident wave period and realistic eastern coastline geometry on energy fluxes are investigated using a shallow water model with a spatial resolution of 1/4 degree in both meridional and zonal directions. Equatorial and mid-latitude responses are considered. It is found that (1 the influence of the coastline geometry and the incident wave period is more important for the westward energy flux than for the poleward flux, and (2 the effect of the inclination of the eastern ocean boundary on the poleward energy flux, for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, decline as the period of the incident wave increases. Furthermore, the model simulations suggest that the poleward energy fluxes from meridional boundaries give plausible results for motions of seasonal and annual periods. For comparatively shorter periods, a realistic coastline geometry has to be included for more accurate results. It is recommended that any numerical model involving the reflection of baroclinic Rossby waves (of intraseasonal, seasonal or annual periods on the eastern Pacific or Atlantic Oceans, should consider the effect of the coastline geometry in order to improve the accuracy of the results.Key words. Oceanography: general (climate and interannual variability; equatorial oceanography. Oceanography: physical (eastern boundary currents.

  20. Initiation and intensification of east Pacific easterly waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydbeck, Adam V.

    are, at times, associated with very weak EW convection anomalies due to weaker moisture and diluted CAPE variations. The in-situ generation of EWs in the EPAC is then investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). Sensitivity tests are performed to examine the atmospheric response to the removal of external and internal EW forcing in the EPAC warm pool. External forcing of EPAC EWs is removed by filtering EWs in wavenumber frequency space from the model's boundary forcing. Internal forcing of EWs is removed by reducing the terrain height in portions of Central and South America to suppress the strong source of diurnal convective variability in the Panama Bight. These regions of high terrain are associated with mesoscale convective systems that routinely initiate in the early morning and propagate westward into the EPAC warm pool. In both sensitivity tests, EW variance is significantly reduced in the EPAC, suggesting that both EWs propagating into the EPAC from the east and EWs generated locally in association with higher frequency convective disturbances are critical to EPAC EW variability. A new mechanism is proposed to explain the in-situ generation of EPAC EWs. Serial mid-level diurnal vorticity and divergence anomalies generated in association with deep convection originating in the Panama Bight underpin the local generation, intensification, and spatial scale selection of EW vorticity by vertical vorticity stretching. Diurnal vorticity anomalies in the Panama Bight are able to initiate disturbances capable of growing into robust EWs through a tendency to organize vorticity upscale.

  1. Negotiating boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke

    2010-01-01

    to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home....

  2. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors...... in the period of post-acquisition when their organization is being integrated into the acquiring MNC. The paper contributes to the literature on boundary spanning in three ways: First, by illustrating that boundary spanning is performed by numerous organizational actors in a variety of positions in MNCs......, inclusively by locals in subsidiaries. Second, by showing that boundary spanning is ‘situated’ in the sense that its result depends on the kind of knowledge to be transmitted and the attitude of the receivers. A third contribution is methodological. The study illustrates that combining bottom-up grounded...

  3. Ecological intensification: harnessing ecosystem services for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Kleijn, David; Potts, Simon G

    2013-04-01

    Rising demands for agricultural products will increase pressure to further intensify crop production, while negative environmental impacts have to be minimized. Ecological intensification entails the environmentally friendly replacement of anthropogenic inputs and/or enhancement of crop productivity, by including regulating and supporting ecosystem services management in agricultural practices. Effective ecological intensification requires an understanding of the relations between land use at different scales and the community composition of ecosystem service-providing organisms above and below ground, and the flow, stability, contribution to yield, and management costs of the multiple services delivered by these organisms. Research efforts and investments are particularly needed to reduce existing yield gaps by integrating context-appropriate bundles of ecosystem services into crop production systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Leveraging LSTM for rapid intensifications prediction of tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Yang, R.; Yang, C.; Yu, M.; Hu, F.; Jiang, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) usually cause severe damages and destructions. TC intensity forecasting helps people prepare for the extreme weather and could save lives and properties. Rapid Intensifications (RI) of TCs are the major error sources of TC intensity forecasting. A large number of factors, such as sea surface temperature and wind shear, affect the RI processes of TCs. Quite a lot of work have been done to identify the combination of conditions most favorable to RI. In this study, deep learning method is utilized to combine conditions for RI prediction of TCs. Experiments show that the long short-term memory (LSTM) network provides the ability to leverage past conditions to predict TC rapid intensifications.

  5. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A; Grace, Delia; Kock, Richard; Alonso, Silvia; Rushton, Jonathan; Said, Mohammed Y; McKeever, Declan; Mutua, Florence; Young, Jarrah; McDermott, John; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2013-05-21

    A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agriculture-environment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence.

  6. Heat and mass transfer intensification and shape optimization a multi-scale approach

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Is the heat and mass transfer intensification defined as a new paradigm of process engineering, or is it just a common and old idea, renamed and given the current taste? Where might intensification occur? How to achieve intensification? How the shape optimization of thermal and fluidic devices leads to intensified heat and mass transfers? To answer these questions, Heat & Mass Transfer Intensification and Shape Optimization: A Multi-scale Approach clarifies  the definition of the intensification by highlighting the potential role of the multi-scale structures, the specific interfacial area, the distribution of driving force, the modes of energy supply and the temporal aspects of processes.   A reflection on the methods of process intensification or heat and mass transfer enhancement in multi-scale structures is provided, including porous media, heat exchangers, fluid distributors, mixers and reactors. A multi-scale approach to achieve intensification and shape optimization is developed and clearly expla...

  7. Ocean barrier layers’ effect on tropical cyclone intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, Ping; Saravanan, R.; Leung, L. Ruby; Xu, Zhao; Li, Mingkui; Hsieh, Jen-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Improving a tropical cyclone’s forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone’s path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are “quasi-permanent” features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity. PMID:22891298

  8. Observed magnified runoff response to rainfall intensification under global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Lee, Jun-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Runoff response to rainfall intensification under global warming is crucial, but is poorly discussed due to the limited data length and human alteration. Historical rainfall and runoff records in pristine catchments in Taiwan were investigated through trend analysis and cross temperature difference analysis. Trend analysis showed that both rainfall and runoff in the 99.9-percentile have been significantly increasing in terms of frequency and intensity over the past four decades. Cross temperature difference analysis quantified that the rainfall and runoff extremes (including the 99.0–99.9-percentiles) may increase by 69.5% and 99.8%, respectively, under a future scenario of 1  ° C increase in temperature. This increase in intensity resembles the increase in intensity observed between 1971–1990 and 1991–2010. The amplified runoff response can be related to the limited catchment storage capacity being preoccupied by rainfall extremes. The quantified temperature effect on rainfall and runoff intensification can be a strong basis for designing scenarios, confirming and fusing GCMs’ results. In addition, the runoff amplification should be a warning for other regions with significant rainfall intensification. Appropriate strategies are indispensable and urgently needed to maintain and protect the development of societies. (paper)

  9. Ocean barrier layers' effect on tropical cyclone intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, Ping; Saravanan, R; Leung, L Ruby; Xu, Zhao; Li, Mingkui; Hsieh, Jen-Shan

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are "quasi-permanent" features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  10. Sustainable intensification of tropical agro-ecosystems: need and potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eAndres

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth, increasingly complex economies and novel industrial uses of agricultural products call for further intensification of agriculture, particularly in the tropics. How to achieve sustainable intensification of food production systems in tropical regions that are challenged by ongoing climate change, loss of natural resources and biodiversity is a matter of debate. Here we highlight the major knowledge gaps in agricultural research and policy that must be addressed to develop adequate governance and regulatory frameworks for sustainable agricultural intensification. They include quantification of the i value of (public/private goods generated by ecosystem services, ii costs to conserve the natural resources and biodiversity that maintain ecosystem services, and iii true costs of different types of agriculture (in environmental, social and health dimensions as well as iv required adaptations that will make alternative farming strategies feasible at a global scale. We discuss the synergies and potential of agro-ecology and organic agriculture to transform our food systems and highlight the importance of controlling demand for food through societal (behavioral and political (structural changes in agricultural value chains. Finally, we review the sustainability standards and participatory guarantee systems in developed and developing countries, respectively, and argue that exemplars from developed countries could be role models in adapting governance and regulatory frameworks for developing countries.

  11. Biodiversity at risk under future cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Laura; Romero-Muñoz, Alfredo; Polaina, Ester; Estes, Lyndon; Kreft, Holger; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Agriculture is the leading driver of biodiversity loss. However, its future impact on biodiversity remains unclear, especially because agricultural intensification is often neglected, and high path-dependency is assumed when forecasting agricultural development-although the past suggests that shock events leading to considerable agricultural change occur frequently. Here, we investigate the possible impacts on biodiversity of pathways of expansion and intensification. Our pathways are not built to reach equivalent production targets, and therefore they should not be directly compared; they instead highlight areas at risk of high biodiversity loss across the entire option space of possible agricultural change. Based on an extensive database of biodiversity responses to agriculture, we find 30% of species richness and 31% of species abundances potentially lost because of agricultural expansion across the Amazon and Afrotropics. Only 21% of high-risk expansion areas in the Afrotropics overlap with protected areas (compared with 43% of the Neotropics). Areas at risk of biodiversity loss from intensification are found in India, Eastern Europe and the Afromontane region (7% species richness, 13% abundance loss). Many high-risk regions are not adequately covered by conservation prioritization schemes, and have low national conservation spending and high agricultural growth. Considering rising agricultural demand, we highlight areas where timely land-use planning may proactively mitigate biodiversity loss.

  12. Sustainable intensification of agriculture for human prosperity and global sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockström, Johan; Williams, John; Daily, Gretchen; Noble, Andrew; Matthews, Nathanial; Gordon, Line; Wetterstrand, Hanna; DeClerck, Fabrice; Shah, Mihir; Steduto, Pasquale; de Fraiture, Charlotte; Hatibu, Nuhu; Unver, Olcay; Bird, Jeremy; Sibanda, Lindiwe; Smith, Jimmy

    2017-02-01

    There is an ongoing debate on what constitutes sustainable intensification of agriculture (SIA). In this paper, we propose that a paradigm for sustainable intensification can be defined and translated into an operational framework for agricultural development. We argue that this paradigm must now be defined-at all scales-in the context of rapidly rising global environmental changes in the Anthropocene, while focusing on eradicating poverty and hunger and contributing to human wellbeing. The criteria and approach we propose, for a paradigm shift towards sustainable intensification of agriculture, integrates the dual and interdependent goals of using sustainable practices to meet rising human needs while contributing to resilience and sustainability of landscapes, the biosphere, and the Earth system. Both of these, in turn, are required to sustain the future viability of agriculture. This paradigm shift aims at repositioning world agriculture from its current role as the world's single largest driver of global environmental change, to becoming a key contributor of a global transition to a sustainable world within a safe operating space on Earth.

  13. Intensification of tropical agriculture as seen by satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, G. L.; Michelson, H. C.; Spera, S. A.; Hadnott, B.

    2013-12-01

    We present case studies from Latin America and Africa on intensification of tropical agriculture. The Brazilian Amazon of the early 2000s experienced intensification and extensification. We use time series analysis of MODIS vegetation indices to track changes in cropping intensity and crop types over time. The state of Mato Grosso is Brazil's leading producer of soy, corn and cotton. Using 250 m MODIS EVI data and a new decision-tree algorithm tuned to phenological patterns characteristic of Mato Grosso's major natural vegetation and crop rotations, we mapped land-cover across the state over 11 growing seasons (2001-2011). Between 2000 and 2011, a majority of the cultivated land in Mato Grosso transitioned from the cultivation of one commercial crop per growing season (soy or cotton) to two commercial crops (a soy crop followed by a corn or cotton crop). Over our study period, the cultivated area of double cropped land in Mato Grosso steadily increased over 6-fold from .46 million hectares to 2.9 million hectares, 92% of which was in a soy-corn double cropping rotation. In the sub-Saharan country of Malawi, 70% of the land is dedicated to food production yet yields of the primary staple crop, maize, have stagnated around 1 ton ha-1 (developed nations' maize yields are 12-16 tons ha-1). Due to the limited land area, improving yields through intensification is a necessary objective of development. Poverty and food insecurity were widespread and persistent for smallholder farmers cultivating less than 1 hectare of land until the implementation of a government intervention, funded through foreign aid, subsidized allocations of fertilizer and improved seed to small farmers. Since implementation of the policy, the number of food insecure, or people in need of food aid, has decreased from 5 million to half a million people. We present indicators that levels of poverty have decreased since the subsidy. National yields have doubled. Applying modified methods from Brazil, we

  14. Simultaneous FPI and TMA Measurements of the Lower Thermospheric Wind in the Vicinity of the Poleward Expanding Aurora After Substorm Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Shin-ichiro; Kubota, Ken; Morinaga, Takatoshi; Tsuda, Takuo T.; Kurihara, Junichi; Larsen, Miguel F.; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Cai, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Lower thermospheric wind fluctuations in the vicinity of an auroral arc immediately before and after a substorm onset were examined by analyzing data from a ground-based green line Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI; optical wavelength of 557.7 nm) at Tromsø, Norway, and in situ measurements from a trimethyl aluminum (TMA) trail released from a sounding rocket launched during the Dynamics and Energetics of the Lower Thermosphere in Aurora 2 (DELTA-2) campaign on 26 January 2009. Soon after the rocket launch but before disappearance of the TMA trail, a substorm onset occurred. The DELTA-2 TMA experiment appears to be the first case in which the substorm onset occurred during the TMA wind measurement. It is known that energy dissipation induced by the ionospheric closure current is compacted at the poleward side of the discrete arc in the ionospheric morning cell. Both FPI and TMA measurements were made at the poleward side, but the FPI measured winds nearer to the poleward edge of the arc than the TMA by 110-130 km. The FPI winds at distance of 53-74 km relative to the arc edge showed clear fluctuations immediately after the substorm onset, but there was no obvious similar fluctuation in the TMA-measured winds. The difference in the response at the two locations suggests that energy dissipation sufficient to be detected as the FPI/TMA wind perturbations was confined to the area from the poleward edge of the arc to a relative distance shorter than 163-203 km but longer than 53-74 km in this event.

  15. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  16. Smallholder Farms and the Potential for Sustainable Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungai, Leah M; Snapp, Sieglinde; Messina, Joseph P; Chikowo, Regis; Smith, Alex; Anders, Erin; Richardson, Robert B; Li, Guiying

    2016-01-01

    The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa. This paper characterizes smallholder farming practices in Central Malawi, at Africa Research in Sustainable Intensification for the Next Generation (Africa RISING) project sites. We present findings from a survey of 324 farmers, located within four Africa RISING sites selected in a stratified random manner to represent (1) low agricultural potential (high evapotranspiration, variable rainfall), (2) medium agricultural potential (two sites), and (3) high agricultural potential (well-distributed rainfall). Soil fertility was low overall, and certain farming practices appeared to limit the sustainability of agricultural production. Nearly half of farmers did not value legume residues as a high nutrient value resource for soil amelioration, as legume residues were removed (17.9%) or burned (21.4%). Conversely, maize residues were rarely removed (4.5%) or burned (10.4%). We found that farmers do not allocate soil amendment resources to legume fields (zero instances of mineral fertilizer or manure application to legumes compared to 88 and 22% of maize systems, respectively). Policy makers in Malawi have led initiatives to intensify agricultural systems through subsidizing farmer access to mineral fertilizer as well as maize hybrid seed, and only rarely to improved legume seed. In this survey, farmers allocate mineral fertilizer to maize systems and not legume systems. There is urgent need to invest in education

  17. Smallholder Farms and the Potential for Sustainable Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungai, Leah M.; Snapp, Sieglinde; Messina, Joseph P.; Chikowo, Regis; Smith, Alex; Anders, Erin; Richardson, Robert B.; Li, Guiying

    2016-01-01

    The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa. This paper characterizes smallholder farming practices in Central Malawi, at Africa Research in Sustainable Intensification for the Next Generation (Africa RISING) project sites. We present findings from a survey of 324 farmers, located within four Africa RISING sites selected in a stratified random manner to represent (1) low agricultural potential (high evapotranspiration, variable rainfall), (2) medium agricultural potential (two sites), and (3) high agricultural potential (well-distributed rainfall). Soil fertility was low overall, and certain farming practices appeared to limit the sustainability of agricultural production. Nearly half of farmers did not value legume residues as a high nutrient value resource for soil amelioration, as legume residues were removed (17.9%) or burned (21.4%). Conversely, maize residues were rarely removed (4.5%) or burned (10.4%). We found that farmers do not allocate soil amendment resources to legume fields (zero instances of mineral fertilizer or manure application to legumes compared to 88 and 22% of maize systems, respectively). Policy makers in Malawi have led initiatives to intensify agricultural systems through subsidizing farmer access to mineral fertilizer as well as maize hybrid seed, and only rarely to improved legume seed. In this survey, farmers allocate mineral fertilizer to maize systems and not legume systems. There is urgent need to invest in education

  18. Smallholder Farms and the Potential for Sustainable Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M Mungai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa. This paper characterizes smallholder farming practices in Central Malawi, at Africa Research in Sustainable Intensification for the Next Generation (Africa RISING project sites. We present findings from a survey of 324 farmers, located within four Africa RISING sites selected in a stratified random manner to represent (1 low agricultural potential (high evapotranspiration, variable rainfall, (2 medium agricultural potential (two sites, and (3 high agricultural potential (well distributed rainfall. Soil fertility was low overall, and certain farming practices appeared to limit the sustainability of agricultural production. Nearly half of farmers did not value legume residues as a high nutrient value resource for soil amelioration, as legume residues were removed (17.9% or burned (21.4%. Conversely, maize residues were rarely removed (4.5% or burned (10.4%. We found that farmers do not allocate soil amendment resources to legume fields (zero instances of mineral fertilizer or manure application to legumes compared to 88% and 22% of maize systems, respectively. Policy makers in Malawi have led initiatives to intensify agricultural systems through subsidizing farmer access to mineral fertilizer as well as maize hybrid seed, and only rarely to improved legume seed. In this survey, farmers allocate mineral fertilizer to maize systems and not legume systems. There is urgent need to invest in

  19. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level....

  20. A test for a shift in the boundary of the geographical range of a species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solow, Andrew; Beet, Andrew; Roll, Uri; Stone, Lewi

    2014-02-01

    One predicted impact of climate change is a poleward shift in the boundaries of species ranges. Existing methods for identifying such a boundary shift based on changes in the observed pattern of occupancy within a grid of cells are sensitive to changes in the overall rate of sightings and their latitudinal distribution that are unconnected to a boundary shift. A formal test for a boundary shift is described that allows for such changes. The test is applied to detect northward shifts in the northern boundary of the Essex skipper (Thymelicus lineola) butterfly and the European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) in Great Britain. A shift is detected in the latter case but not in the former. Results from a simulation study are presented showing that the test performs well.

  1. Magnetospheric source region of discrete auroras inferred from their relationship with isotropy boundaries of energetic particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yahnin

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available According to observations, the discrete auroral arcs can sometimes be found, either deep inside the auroral oval or at the poleward border of the wide (so-called double auroral oval, which map to very different regions of the magnetotail. To find common physical conditions for the auroral-arc generation in these magnetotail regions, we study the spatial relationship between the diffuse and discrete auroras and the isotropic boundaries (IBs of the precipitating energetic particles which can be used to characterise locally the equatorial magnetic field in the tail. From comparison of ground observation of auroral forms with meridional profiles of particle flux measured simultaneously by the low-altitude NOAA satellites above the ground observation region, we found that (1 discrete auroral arcs are always situated polewards from (or very close to the IB of >30-keV electrons, whereas (2 the IB of the >30-keV protons is often seen inside the diffuse aurora. These relationships hold true for both quiet and active (substorm conditions in the premidnight-nightside (18-01-h MLT sector considered. In some events the auroral arcs occupy a wide latitudinal range. The most equatorial of these arcs was found at the poleward edge of the diffuse auroras (but anyway in the vicinity of the electron IB, the most poleward arcs were simultaneously observed on the closed field lines near the polar-cap boundary. These observations disagree with the notion that the discrete aurora originate exclusively in the near-Earth portion of plasma sheet or exclusively on the PSBL field lines. Result (1 may imply a fundamental feature of auroral-arc formation: they originate in the current-sheet regions having very curved and tailward-stretched magnetic field lines.

  2. An observational radiative constraint on hydrologic cycle intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Anthony M; Qu, Xin; Zelinka, Mark D; Hall, Alex

    2015-12-10

    Intensification of the hydrologic cycle is a key dimension of climate change, with substantial impacts on human and natural systems. A basic measure of hydrologic cycle intensification is the increase in global-mean precipitation per unit surface warming, which varies by a factor of three in current-generation climate models (about 1-3 per cent per kelvin). Part of the uncertainty may originate from atmosphere-radiation interactions. As the climate warms, increases in shortwave absorption from atmospheric moistening will suppress the precipitation increase. This occurs through a reduction of the latent heating increase required to maintain a balanced atmospheric energy budget. Using an ensemble of climate models, here we show that such models tend to underestimate the sensitivity of solar absorption to variations in atmospheric water vapour, leading to an underestimation in the shortwave absorption increase and an overestimation in the precipitation increase. This sensitivity also varies considerably among models due to differences in radiative transfer parameterizations, explaining a substantial portion of model spread in the precipitation response. Consequently, attaining accurate shortwave absorption responses through improvements to the radiative transfer schemes could reduce the spread in the predicted global precipitation increase per degree warming for the end of the twenty-first century by about 35 per cent, and reduce the estimated ensemble-mean increase in this quantity by almost 40 per cent.

  3. Intensification of the sherry-making process by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, M.; Goranov, N.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation of sherry wine material for intensification of the oxidative reactions in sherry-making process has been studied. The research has been done under laboratory conditions using the comparative method. The irradiation treatment was carried out at a installation 'Gamma 1300' of the Centre for Development and Application of Ionizing Radiation at doses of 1000, 2000 and 4000 Gy. Unirradiated samples as a control variant were analyzed also. The content of alcohol, organic acids (as acetic acid), esters (as ethyl-acetate), aldehydes (as acetaldehyde), acetals and the ratio aldehydes/acetals has been determined of the control and irradiated sherry distillates. The acetals content of the irradiated material was five times as high as that of the control samples. This parameter and the ratio aldehydes/acetals are the most typical for sherry wines. The organoleptic assessment has been done by degustation. The results obtained show that gamma irradiation of sherry wine materials within the range of 2000-4000 Gy contribute to the intensification of the oxidative reactions which accelerate the process of sherrization with formation of the specific taste and aroma

  4. Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilman, David; Balzer, Christian; Hill, Jason; Befort, Belinda L

    2011-12-13

    Global food demand is increasing rapidly, as are the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. Here, we project global demand for crop production in 2050 and evaluate the environmental impacts of alternative ways that this demand might be met. We find that per capita demand for crops, when measured as caloric or protein content of all crops combined, has been a similarly increasing function of per capita real income since 1960. This relationship forecasts a 100-110% increase in global crop demand from 2005 to 2050. Quantitative assessments show that the environmental impacts of meeting this demand depend on how global agriculture expands. If current trends of greater agricultural intensification in richer nations and greater land clearing (extensification) in poorer nations were to continue, ~1 billion ha of land would be cleared globally by 2050, with CO(2)-C equivalent greenhouse gas emissions reaching ~3 Gt y(-1) and N use ~250 Mt y(-1) by then. In contrast, if 2050 crop demand was met by moderate intensification focused on existing croplands of underyielding nations, adaptation and transfer of high-yielding technologies to these croplands, and global technological improvements, our analyses forecast land clearing of only ~0.2 billion ha, greenhouse gas emissions of ~1 Gt y(-1), and global N use of ~225 Mt y(-1). Efficient management practices could substantially lower nitrogen use. Attainment of high yields on existing croplands of underyielding nations is of great importance if global crop demand is to be met with minimal environmental impacts.

  5. The Impact of Dry Saharan Air on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The controversial role of the dry Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on tropical storm intensification in the Atlantic will be addressed. The SAL has been argued in previous studies to have potential positive influences on storm development, but most recent studies have argued for a strong suppressing influence on storm intensification as a result of dry air, high stability, increased vertical wind shear, and microphysical impacts of dust. Here, we focus on observations of Hurricane Helene (2006), which occurred during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities (NAMMA) experiment. Satellite and airborne observations, combined with global meteorological analyses depict the initial environment of Helene as being dominated by the SAL, although with minimal evidence that the SAL air actually penetrated to the core of the disturbance. Over the next several days, the SAL air quickly moved westward and was gradually replaced by a very dry, dust-free layer associated with subsidence. Despite the wrapping of this very dry air around the storm, Helene intensified steadily to a Category 3 hurricane suggesting that the dry air was unable to significantly slow storm intensification. Several uncertainties remain about the role of the SAL in Helene (and in tropical cyclones in general). To better address these uncertainties, NASA will be conducting a three year airborne campaign called the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The HS3 objectives are: To obtain critical measurements in the hurricane environment in order to identify the role of key factors such as large-scale wind systems (troughs, jet streams), Saharan air masses, African Easterly Waves and their embedded critical layers (that help to isolate tropical disturbances from hostile environments). To observe and understand the three-dimensional mesoscale and convective-scale internal structures of tropical disturbances and cyclones and their role in intensity change. The mission objectives will be achieved using

  6. influence du systeme de riziculture intensif (sri) sur les attaques des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence du système de riziculture intensif (SRI) sur les attaques des insectes dépredateurs. INFLUENCE DU SYSTEME DE ... Cette étude sur le Système de Riziculture Intensif (SRI) a été conduite au cours de la saison humide 2013 avec quatre champs ...... au Projet SRI/FCN pour le soutien financier. REFERENCES.

  7. Rapid intensification and the bimodal distribution of tropical cyclone intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K; Sobel, Adam H; Camargo, Suzana J

    2016-02-03

    The severity of a tropical cyclone (TC) is often summarized by its lifetime maximum intensity (LMI), and the climatological LMI distribution is a fundamental feature of the climate system. The distinctive bimodality of the LMI distribution means that major storms (LMI >96 kt) are not very rare compared with less intense storms. Rapid intensification (RI) is the dramatic strengthening of a TC in a short time, and is notoriously difficult to forecast or simulate. Here we show that the bimodality of the LMI distribution reflects two types of storms: those that undergo RI during their lifetime (RI storms) and those that do not (non-RI storms). The vast majority (79%) of major storms are RI storms. Few non-RI storms (6%) become major storms. While the importance of RI has been recognized in weather forecasting, our results demonstrate that RI also plays a crucial role in the TC climatology.

  8. A model-data based systems approach to process intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    . Their developments, however, are largely due to experiment based trial and error approaches and while they do not require validation, they can be time consuming and resource intensive. Also, one may ask, can a truly new intensified unit operation be obtained in this way? An alternative two-stage approach is to apply...... a model-based synthesis method to systematically generate and evaluate alternatives in the first stage and an experiment-model based validation in the second stage. In this way, the search for alternatives is done very quickly, reliably and systematically over a wide range, while resources are preserved...... for focused validation of only the promising candidates in the second-stage. This approach, however, would be limited to intensification based on “known” unit operations, unless the PI process synthesis/design is considered at a lower level of aggregation, namely the phenomena level. That is, the model-based...

  9. A model-data based systems approach to process intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    . Their developments, however, are largely due to experiment based trial and error approaches and while they do not require validation, they can be time consuming and resource intensive. Also, one may ask, can a truly new intensified unit operation be obtained in this way? An alternative two-stage approach is to apply...... for focused validation of only the promising candidates in the second-stage. This approach, however, would be limited to intensification based on “known” unit operations, unless the PI process synthesis/design is considered at a lower level of aggregation, namely the phenomena level. That is, the model......-based synthesis method must employ models at lower levels of aggregation and through combination rules for phenomena, generate (synthesize) new intensified unit operations. An efficient solution procedure for the synthesis problem is needed to tackle the potentially large number of options that would be obtained...

  10. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hern, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Evans, Lindsay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Miller, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Cooper, Marcia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energetic Components Realization Center; Torczynski, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  11. Bleeding boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristian Møller; Petersen, Michael Nebeling

    2018-01-01

    Hook-up apps such as Grindr and Scruff have become important sites for the negotiation of sex between men, in that they shape the ways intimacy cultures are practised and become visible (Mowlabocus, 2010; Race, 2014; Duguay et al., 2016). While such apps enable different intimacy cultures......, they also come paired with anxieties. In the epigraph the interview participant James1 expresses concerns about the how the hook-up app Scruff might restructure the boundaries of privacy and make him vulnerable to exposure. Such technological ambivalence is central to domestication theory, which focuses...

  12. Breaking Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . As a fundamental human experience, liminality transmits cultural practices, codes, rituals, and meanings in-between aggregate structures and uncertain outcomes. As a methodological tool it is well placed to overcome disciplinary boundaries, which often direct attention to specific structures or sectors of society....... Its capacity to provide explanatory accounts of seemingly unstructured situations provides an opportunity to link experience-based and culture-oriented approaches not only to contemporary problems but also to undertake comparisons across historical periods. From a perspective of liminality...

  13. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  14. Mechanisms of the intensification of the upwelling-favorable winds during El Niño 1997-1998 in the Peruvian upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Adolfo; Echevin, Vincent; Colas, François; Oerder, Vera; Tam, Jorge; Quispe-Ccalluari, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The physical processes driving the wind intensification in a coastal band of 100 km off Peru during the intense 1997-1998 El Niño (EN) event were studied using a regional atmospheric model. A simulation performed for the period 1994-2000 reproduced the coastal wind response to local sea surface temperature (SST) forcing and large scale atmospheric conditions. The model, evaluated with satellite data, represented well the intensity, seasonal and interannual variability of alongshore (i.e. NW-SE) winds. An alongshore momentum budget showed that the pressure gradient was the dominant force driving the surface wind acceleration. The pressure gradient tended to accelerate the coastal wind, while turbulent vertical mixing decelerated it. A quasi-linear relation between surface wind and pressure gradient anomalies was found. Alongshore pressure gradient anomalies were caused by a greater increase in near-surface air temperature off the northern coast than off the southern coast, associated with the inhomogeneous SST warming. Vertical profiles of wind, mixing coefficient, and momentum trends showed that the surface wind intensification was not caused by the increase of turbulence in the planetary boundary layer. Moreover, the temperature inversion in the vertical mitigated the development of pressure gradient due to air convection during part of the event. Sensitivity experiments allowed to isolate the respective impacts of the local SST forcing and large scale condition on the coastal wind intensification. It was primarily driven by the local SST forcing whereas large scale variability associated with the South Pacific Anticyclone modulated its effects. Examination of other EN events using reanalysis data confirmed that intensifications of alongshore wind off Peru were associated with SST alongshore gradient anomalies, as during the 1997-1998 event.

  15. The Methodological Aspects of Assessment of the Intensification of Machine-Building Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko Valentyna M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the research of theoretical-methodological aspects of assessment of the intensification of machine-building production. The current status of scientific researches on the given subject was analyzed. It is suggested to carry out quantitative assessment of production intensification on the basis of selection of production model and calculation of the integral indicator. The method of integral-model assessment of intensification of production (method of IMAIP has been developed, which includes three following stages: factor-modelling, assessing-calculating, and concluding-recommendative. It is proposed to consider two models of intensification of production: production as a process and production as a system. It has been noted that the determination of factors of production intensification depends on the chosen production model. The use of the method of IMAIP is demonstrated for the case where production is considered as a process. The partial and integral indicators of intensification of machine-building production as a process are described and formulas for their calculation are provided. Application of the method of IMAIP for assessment of the intensification of the machine-building industry sector for the period of 2010–2015 was analyzed.

  16. Frequency, predictors, and consequences of maintenance infliximab therapy intensification in ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernández-Salazar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infliximab (IFX therapy intensification in ulcerative colitis (UC is more common than established in pivotal studies. Objectives: To establish the frequency and form of intensification for UC in clinical practice, as well as predictors, and to compare outcomes between intensified and non-intensified treatment. Methods: A retrospective study of 10 hospitals and 144 patients with response to infliximab (IFX induction. Predictive variables for intensification were analyzed using a Cox regression analysis. Outcome, loss of response to IFX, and colectomy were compared between intensified and non-intensified therapy. Results: Follow-up time from induction to data collection: 38 months [interquartile range (IQR, 20-62]. Time on IFX therapy: 24 months (IQR, 10-44. In all, 37% of patients required intensification. Interval was shortened for 36 patients, dose was increased for 7, and 10 subjects received both. Concurrent thiopurine immunosuppressants (IMM and IFX initiation was an independent predictor of intensification [Hazard ratio, 0.034; p, 0.006; CI, 0.003-0.371]. In patients on intensified therapy IFX discontinuation for loss of response (30.4% vs. 10.2%; p, 0.002, steroid reintroduction (35% vs. 18%; p, 0.018, and colectomy (22% vs. 6.4%; p, 0.011 were more common. Of patients on intensification, 17% returned to receiving 5 mg/kg every 8 weeks. Conclusions: Intensification is common and occasionally reversible. IMM initiation at the time of induction with IFX predicts non-intensification. Intensification, while effective, is associated with poorer outcome.

  17. Assessment of work intensification by managers and psychological distressed and non-distressed employees: a multilevel comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Larsen, Anelia; Vinding, Anker Lund; Nielsen, Peter; Fonager, Kirsten; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Ryom, Pia; Omland, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Work intensification is a popular management strategy to increase productivity, but at the possible expense of employee mental stress. This study examines associations between ratings of work intensification and psychological distress, and the level of agreement between compared employee-rated and manager-rated work intensification. Multi-source survey data were collected from 3,064 employees and 573 company managers from the private sector in 2010. Multilevel regression models were used to compare different work intensification ratings across psychological distress strata. Distressed employees rated higher degree of total work intensification compared to non-distressed employees, and on three out of five sub ratings there were an increased prevalence of work intensification in the case group. In general, there was poor agreement between employee and company work intensification rating. Neither manager-rated work intensification nor employee/manager discrepancy in work intensification ratings was associated with psychological distress. Distressed employees had a higher total score of employee/manager agreed work intensification, and a higher prevalence of increased demands of labour productivity. This study demonstrates higher ratings of employee/manager agreed work intensification in distressed employees compared to non-distressed employees, challenging previous findings of reporting bias in distressed employees' assessment of work environment.

  18. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  19. Intensification Behavior of Mercury Ions on Gold Cyanide Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanidation is the main method used to extract gold from gold raw materials; however, a serious problem with this method is the low leaching rate. In order to improve gold leaching, the intensification behavior of mercury ions on gold cyanide leaching, for two types of materials, sulphide gold concentrate and oxide gold ore, was investigated. The results showed that mercury ions, with only a 10−5 M dosage, could significantly intensify leaching and gold recovery. The dissolution behavior of gold plate was also intensified by 10−5 M mercury ions. Microstructure analysis showed that mercury ions intensified the cyanidation corrosion of the gold surface, resulting in a loose structure, where a large number of deep ravines and raised particles were evident across the whole gold surface. The loose structure added contact surface between the gold and cyanide, and accelerated gold dissolution. Moreover, mercury ions obstructed the formation of insoluble products, such as AuCN, Au(OHCN, and Au(OHx, that lead to a passivation membrane on the gold surface, reducing contact between the gold and cyanide. These effects, brought about by mercury ions, change the structure and product of the gold surface during gold cyanidation and promote gold leaching.

  20. Global agricultural intensification during climate change: a role for genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abberton, Michael; Batley, Jacqueline; Bentley, Alison; Bryant, John; Cai, Hongwei; Cockram, James; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; Cseke, Leland J; Dempewolf, Hannes; De Pace, Ciro; Edwards, David; Gepts, Paul; Greenland, Andy; Hall, Anthony E; Henry, Robert; Hori, Kiyosumi; Howe, Glenn Thomas; Hughes, Stephen; Humphreys, Mike; Lightfoot, David; Marshall, Athole; Mayes, Sean; Nguyen, Henry T; Ogbonnaya, Francis C; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Paterson, Andrew H; Tuberosa, Roberto; Valliyodan, Babu; Varshney, Rajeev K; Yano, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture is now facing the 'perfect storm' of climate change, increasing costs of fertilizer and rising food demands from a larger and wealthier human population. These factors point to a global food deficit unless the efficiency and resilience of crop production is increased. The intensification of agriculture has focused on improving production under optimized conditions, with significant agronomic inputs. Furthermore, the intensive cultivation of a limited number of crops has drastically narrowed the number of plant species humans rely on. A new agricultural paradigm is required, reducing dependence on high inputs and increasing crop diversity, yield stability and environmental resilience. Genomics offers unprecedented opportunities to increase crop yield, quality and stability of production through advanced breeding strategies, enhancing the resilience of major crops to climate variability, and increasing the productivity and range of minor crops to diversify the food supply. Here we review the state of the art of genomic-assisted breeding for the most important staples that feed the world, and how to use and adapt such genomic tools to accelerate development of both major and minor crops with desired traits that enhance adaptation to, or mitigate the effects of climate change. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification.

  2. Long-term trends of typhoon-induced rainfall over Taiwan: in situ evidence of poleward shift of typhoons in western North Pacific in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ting-Yu; Oey, Leo; Huang, Shiming; Chou, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Tracks of tropical cyclones or typhoons in the western North Pacific have recently been shown to shift northward in the past several decades; the poleward shift has been attributed to the expansion of the tropics due to climate warming. Here we use 64-year, hourly rainfall observations around Taiwan, and take advantage of the unique terrain and geographic location of the island with respect to typhoon tracks, to show that since 1950 the typhoon-related rainfalls have been rising on the western side of the island, but decreasing on the eastern side. We show that these extraordinary rainfall patterns, despite the smallness of Taiwan, are indicative of a northward shift of typhoons related to the changes in the wind fields and surface warming over the Indian and Pacific tropical/subtropical regions.

  3. What Has Controlled the Poleward Migration of Annual Averaged Location of Tropical Cyclone Lifetime Maximum Intensity Over the Western North Pacific Since 1961?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinjie; Klotzbach, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    The long-term tendency of the average latitude at which tropical cyclones (TCs) reach their lifetime maximum intensity (LMI) over the western North Pacific (WNP) is investigated in this study. Despite the post-1961 significant poleward shift in the annual mean LMI latitude, the migration rate is nonuniform on decadal timescales, having an insignificant trend and a significant increasing trend before and after 1980, respectively. Interdecadal fluctuations of TC genesis latitude (φG) as well as increases in latitudinal distance between genesis position and LMI location (Δφ) are both responsible for the observed LMI latitude trends. The former is linked to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), which favors TCs forming in the northwestern (southeastern) quadrant of the WNP in negative (positive) IPO phases. The latter primarily results from the continuous warming of WNP sea surface temperature, which further increases the maximum potential intensity and extends the region favorable for TC development to higher latitudes.

  4. The effect of the low-level jet on the poleward water vapour transport in the central region of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berri, Guillermo J.; Inzunza, Juan B.

    The low-level jet (LLJ) in the central region of South America is studied. This LLJ is generated by the daily cycle of convergence and divergence east of the Andes Mountains. We use the 1973-1974 radiosonde and pilot balloon data set from the upper air weather stations, Salta and Resistencia, in northern Argentina to select 10 LLJ cases and another 10 NoLLJ cases (when the LLJ is not present). We use the University of Utah Mesoscale Model to simulate these situations in order to obtain a high-resolution low-level wind field. These model predictions are then used to calculate the meridional water vapour transport across a vertical cross-section, along 26°S in central South America. The results reveal that the LLJs are a very effective mechanism for the poleward water vapour transport.

  5. Satellite Observations of Stratospheric Gravity Waves Associated With the Intensification of Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Wu, Xue; Alexander, M. Joan

    2018-02-01

    Forecasting the intensity of tropical cyclones is a challenging problem. Rapid intensification is often preceded by the formation of "hot towers" near the eyewall. Driven by strong release of latent heat, hot towers are high-reaching tropical cumulonimbus clouds that penetrate the tropopause. Hot towers are a potentially important source of stratospheric gravity waves. Using 13.5 years (2002-2016) of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations of stratospheric gravity waves and tropical cyclone data from the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship, we found empirical evidence that stratospheric gravity wave activity is associated with the intensification of tropical cyclones. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship data showed that strong gravity wave events occurred about twice as often for tropical cyclone intensification compared to storm weakening. Observations of stratospheric gravity waves, which are not affected by obscuring tropospheric clouds, may become an important future indicator of storm intensification.

  6. Fishery intensification in small water bodies: a review for North America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moehl, John Frederic; Davies, William D

    1993-01-01

    .... Intensification is also achieved by enhancing water fertility through liming and fertilization. Case studies are presented representing contrasting climatic regions of North America while demonstrating similarities in management style...

  7. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I. -I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  8. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I-I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-05-18

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas.

  9. Process intensification by coupling the Joule effect with pervaporation and sweeping gas membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, S.; Méricq, J. P.; Belleville, M.P.; Hengl, N.; Benes, N. E.; Vankelecom, I.; Sanchez Marcano, Jose

    2018-01-01

    This work concerns the intensification of membrane processes by coupling the Joule effect with two membrane processes: pervaporation and sweeping gas membrane distillation. For this purpose, conducting metallic hollow fibers impregnated or coated with polydimethyl siloxane were simultaneously used

  10. Process Intensification in Crystallization: Submicron Particle Generation Using Alternative Energy Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Radacsi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Crystallization is one of the oldest separation and product formation techniques that continues to be in use today. Despite its long history, it only started to develop significantly in the past few decades. In this thesis, the application of Process Intensification in crystallization is investigated. Process Intensification is a set of often radically innovative principles in process and equipment design, which can bring significant benefits in terms of process and chain efficiency, capital ...

  11. Efficacy of treatment intensification with adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eng, Grith; Stoltenberg, Michael B; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    To summarize the empirical evidence regarding the effect of treatment intensification on clinical outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with one of the TNF-α-inhibitors, adalimumab, etanercept or infliximab.......To summarize the empirical evidence regarding the effect of treatment intensification on clinical outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with one of the TNF-α-inhibitors, adalimumab, etanercept or infliximab....

  12. Need for infliximab dose intensification in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxonera, Carlos; Olivares, David; Mendoza, Juan L; Díaz-Rubio, Manuel; Rey, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the need for infliximab dose intensification in two cohorts of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Single centre, uncontrolled, observational study. Consecutive patients with CD and UC who responded to infliximab induction doses were included. Data collected in a prospectively maintained database were retrospectively analysed. Differences in the rates of dose intensification per patient-month and the intensification-free survival time were compared. We also evaluated the interval between the first infliximab induction dose and the first infliximab escalated dose. The weight-adjusted infliximab administration costs were also calculated. RESULTS: Fifty nine patients with CD and 38 patients with UC were enrolled. The rate of intensification per patient-month was 3.9% for UC and 1.4% for CD (P = 0.005). The median time from baseline to intensification was significantly shorter in UC compared to CD [6.6 mo (IQR: 4.2-9.5 mo) vs 10.7 mo (IQR: 8.9-11.7 mo), P = 0.005]. In the survival analysis, the cumulative probability of avoiding infliximab dose intensification was significantly higher in CD (P = 0.002). In the multivariate analysis, disease (UC vs CD) was the only factor significantly associated with dose intensification. The infiximab administration costs during the first year were significantly higher for UC compared to CD (mean ± SD 234.9 ± 53.3 Euros/kg vs 212.3 ± 15.1 Euros/kg, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The rate of infliximab dose intensification per patient-month is significantly higher in UC patients. The infliximab administration costs are also significantly higher in patients with UC. PMID:25083091

  13. A space-time statistical climate model for hurricane intensification in the North Atlantic basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraza, Erik; Elsner, James B.; Jagger, Thomas H.

    2016-08-01

    Climate influences on hurricane intensification are investigated by averaging hourly intensification rates over the period 1975-2014 in 8° × 8° latitude-longitude grid cells. The statistical effects of hurricane intensity and sea-surface temperature (SST), along with the climatic effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), are quantified using a Bayesian hierarchical model fit to the averaged data. As expected, stronger hurricanes tend to have higher intensification rates, especially over the warmest waters. Of the three climate variables considered, the NAO has the largest effect on intensification rates after controlling for intensity and SST. The model shows an average increase in intensification rates of 0.18 [0.06, 0.31] m s-1 h-1 (95 % credible interval) for every 1 standard deviation decrease in the NAO index. Weak trade winds associated with the negative phase of the NAO might result in less vertical wind shear and thus higher mean intensification rates.

  14. Effect of board certification on antihypertensive treatment intensification in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, Alexander; Shubina, Maria; Chodos, Anna H; Einbinder, Jonathan S; Pendergrass, Merri L

    2008-02-05

    Regular recertification is mandatory to maintain board certification status in all specialties. However, the evidence that physicians' performance decreases with time since initial certification is limited. We therefore carried out a study to determine whether the frequency of antihypertensive treatment intensification for diabetic patients changes with time since their physicians' last board certification. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed treatment of 8127 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus treated by 301 internists at primary care practices affiliated with 2 large academic hospitals. Patient visits with documented blood pressure > or = 130/85 mm Hg between January 1, 2000, and August 31, 2005, were studied. The association between the number of years since the physician's last board certification and the probability of pharmacological antihypertensive treatment intensification at a given visit was analyzed. Frequency of treatment intensification decreased from 26.7% for physicians who were board certified the previous year to 6.9% for physicians who were board certified 31 years before the visit. Treatment intensification rate was 22.5% for physicians certified 10 years ago (Pboard certification, the probability of treatment intensification decreased by 21.3% (P=0.0097). Physician intensification of pharmacological therapy for blood pressure levels above the recommended treatment goals decreases with time since the last board certification. This finding supports the current policy of mandatory recertification.

  15. Intensification of constructed wetlands for land area reduction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Huma; Masih, Ilyas

    2017-05-01

    The large land area requirement of constructed wetlands (CWs) is a major limitation of its application especially in densely populated and mountainous areas. This review paper provides insights on different strategies applied for the reduction of land area including stack design and intensification of CWs with different aeration methods. The impacts of different aeration methods on the performance and land area reduction were extensively and critically evaluated for nine wetland systems under three aeration strategies such as tidal flow (TF), effluent recirculation (ER), and artificial aeration (AA) applied on three types of CWs including vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW), horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFCW), and hybrid constructed wetland (HCW). The area reduction and pollutant removal efficiency showed substantial variation among different types of CWs and aeration strategies. The ER-VFCW designated the smallest footprint of 1.1 ± 0.5 m 2 PE -1 (population equivalent) followed by TF-VFCW with the footprint of 2.1 ± 1.8 m 2 PE -1 , and the large footprint was of AA-HFCW (7.8 ± 4.7 m 2 PE -1 ). When footprint and removal efficiency both are the major indicators for the selection of wetland type, the best options for practical application could be TF-VFCW, ER-HCW, and AA-HCW. The data and results outlined in this review could be instructive for futures studies and practical applications of CWs for wastewater treatment, especially in land-limited regions.

  16. Environmental Implications of Maritime Vessel Intensification in Arctic Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T. C.; Banis, D.; Sheard, W.

    2016-12-01

    In 2016, the Arctic experienced some of the warmest monthly temperatures on record. Record high temperatures in the Arctic continue to cause rapid sea ice declines, opening new areas of ocean to commercial exploitation and transportation and causing significant reductions in critical sea ice habitats used by iconic species. Elevated maritime vessel traffic in the Arctic is projected to increase black carbon emissions, encourage the spread of invasive species, increase mammal strikes, intensify conflict with smaller subsistence boats, and heighten oil spill risks. The Arctic Council, an intergovernmental organization concerned with sustainable development and environmental protection, is working with member countries, indigenous participants and other groups on developing networks of marine protected areas within ecologically or biologically important areas. To help inform that process, we analyzed vessel traffic and marine protected area coverage occurring within ecologically or biologically significant areas in the circumpolar Arctic. Our preliminary findings suggest vessel traffic within ecologically or biologically significant areas were highest around Iceland, Norway, Russia and United States but differed by vessel type. The density of fishing vessels occurring within ecologically or biologically important areas were highest near Norway, Iceland, Faroe Islands, parts of Greenland and United States, whereas vessels carrying liquefied natural gas and oil were concentrated near Norway and Russia. The percentage of area covered by marine protected areas within ecologically or biologically significant areas was low, with the exception of places like Wrangel Island, Svalbard, and areas around Greenland. These findings are important because it illustrates ecologically or biologically significant areas in the Arctic are vulnerable to projected vessel traffic intensification and the level of protection afforded by marine protected areas is relatively low.

  17. LCA and emergy accounting of aquaculture systems: towards ecological intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfart, Aurélie; Prudhomme, Jehane; Blancheton, Jean-Paul; Aubin, Joël

    2013-05-30

    An integrated approach is required to optimise fish farming systems by maximising output while minimising their negative environmental impacts. We developed a holistic approach to assess the environmental performances by combining two methods based on energetic and physical flow analysis. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a normalised method that estimates resource use and potential impacts throughout a product's life cycle. Emergy Accounting (EA) refers the amount of energy directly or indirectly required by a product or a service. The combination of these two methods was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of three contrasting fish-farming systems: a farm producing salmon in a recirculating system (RSF), a semi-extensive polyculture pond (PF1) and an extensive polyculture pond (PF2). The RSF system, with a low feed-conversion ratio (FCR = 0.95), had lower environmental impacts per tonne of live fish produced than did the two pond farms, when the effects on climate change, acidification, total cumulative energy demand, land competition and water dependence were considered. However, RSF was clearly disconnected from the surrounding environment and depended highly on external resources (e.g. nutrients, energy). Ponds adequately incorporated renewable natural resources but had higher environmental impacts due to incomplete use of external inputs. This study highlighted key factors necessary for the successful ecological intensification of fish farming, i.e., minimise external inputs, lower the FCR, and increase the use of renewable resources from the surrounding environment. The combination of LCA and EA seems to be a practical approach to address the complexity of optimising biophysical efficiency in aquaculture systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Livestock disease threats associated with intensification of pastoral dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ij; Westwood, Ct; Playford, Mc

    2008-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the changes in the pasture-based dairy systems of New Zealand and Australia that may influence the health of cattle. There are relatively few available data that can be used to quantify the effects of increased intensification of milk production on the health of cattle. There is evidence that increased production increases the risk of mastitis and culling for udder health. Increased risks of mastitis with treatment with somatotropin support these findings; however, the risk of mastitis may decrease with increased milking frequency. Larger herds with greater stocking density should increase the risk for infectious disease, but evidence to support this contention is sparse. Very intensive grazing patterns associated with higher grass yields achieved using better cultivars and greater use of fertilisers favour nematode parasites. There is some evidence of anthelmintic resistance in both nematodes and liver fluke. Veterinarians will need to be aware of the potential for these to reduce the productivity of cattle. There have been benefits of improved nutrition on the efficiency of energy use for dairy production. Diseases such as bloat and ketosis appear to be of lower prevalence. It also appears that mineral nutrition of pasture-fed cattle is being better addressed, with gains in the control of milk fever, hypomagnesaemia and trace-element deficiencies. However, acidosis is a condition with a high point prevalence in pasture-based dairy systems where cows are fed supplements; one study in Australia found a point prevalence of approximately 11% of cows with acidosis. There is evidence from this study that the neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in pasture-based diets may need to be higher than 30% of the diet to maintain rumen stability. Laminitis and acidosis are different conditions with a similar pathogenesis, specifically highly fermentable diets. The prevalence of lameness was 28% in herds in Australia, suggesting that this condition

  19. Carbon emissions from agricultural expansion and intensification in the Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Matthias; Gasparri, Ignacio; Piquer-Rodríguez, María; Gavier Pizarro, Gregorio; Griffiths, Patrick; Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Carbon emissions from land-use changes in tropical dry forest systems are poorly understood, although they are likely globally significant. The South American Chaco has recently emerged as a hot spot of agricultural expansion and intensification, as cattle ranching and soybean cultivation expand into forests, and as soybean cultivation replaces grazing lands. Still, our knowledge of the rates and spatial patterns of these land-use changes and how they affected carbon emissions remains partial. We used the Landsat satellite image archive to reconstruct land-use change over the past 30 years and applied a carbon bookkeeping model to quantify how these changes affected carbon budgets. Between 1985 and 2013, more than 142 000 km 2 of the Chaco's forests, equaling 20% of all forest, was replaced by croplands (38.9%) or grazing lands (61.1%). Of those grazing lands that existed in 1985, about 40% were subsequently converted to cropland. These land-use changes resulted in substantial carbon emissions, totaling 824 Tg C between 1985 and 2013, and 46.2 Tg C for 2013 alone. The majority of these emissions came from forest-to-grazing-land conversions (68%), but post-deforestation land-use change triggered an additional 52.6 Tg C. Although tropical dry forests are less carbon-dense than moist tropical forests, carbon emissions from land-use change in the Chaco were similar in magnitude to those from other major tropical deforestation frontiers. Our study thus highlights the urgent need for an improved monitoring of the often overlooked tropical dry forests and savannas, and more broadly speaking the value of the Landsat image archive for quantifying carbon fluxes from land change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Association between Medication Adherence and Treatment Intensification with Blood Pressure Control in Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Stacie L.; Powers, J. David; Magid, David J.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Margolis, Karen L.; O'Connor, Patrick J; Schmittdiel, Julie; Ho, P. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Patients with resistant hypertension are at risk for poor outcomes. Medication adherence and intensification improve blood pressure control; however, little is known about these processes or their association with outcomes in resistant hypertension. This retrospective study included patients from 2002-2006 with incident hypertension from two health systems who developed resistant hypertension, or uncontrolled blood pressure despite adherence to ≥3 antihypertensive medications. Patterns of hypertension treatment, medication adherence (percentage of days covered) and treatment intensification (increase in medication class or dose) were described in the year after resistant hypertension identification. Then, the association between medication adherence and intensification with 1-year blood pressure control was assessed controlling for patient characteristics. Of the 3,550 patients with resistant hypertension, 49% were male and mean age 60. One year after resistance hypertension determination, fewer patients were taking diuretics (77.7% vs. 92.2%, pblood pressure control improved over 1-year (22% vs. 55%, p=blood pressure control (adjusted OR 1.18, 0.94-1.47). Treatment was intensified in 21.6% of visits with elevated blood pressure. Increasing treatment intensity was associated with 1-year blood pressure control (adjusted OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.58-1.71). In this cohort of patients with resistant hypertension, treatment intensification but not medication adherence was significantly associated with 1-year blood pressure control. These findings highlight the need to investigate why patients with uncontrolled blood pressure do not receive treatment intensification. PMID:22733464

  1. Adoption et intensification du Nouveau Riz pour l'Afrique en Centrafrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbétid-Bessane, E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoption and Intensification of New Rice for Africa in the Central African Republic. The objective of the study is to highlight the determinants of adoption and intensification of Nerica (new rice for Africa varieties in order to propose actions to increase sustainably rice production. To achieve this goal, the working method is based on surveys conducted with two passes with 150 rice farmers in the suburban area of Bangui where two varieties of Nerica (irrigated NL60 and rainfed N7 were disseminated. Descriptive analysis and econometric tools have been used for processing the data collected. The results show that the rate of adoption of the Nerica varieties is 33% after two years of introduction and it is determined by social and institutional variables. The level of intensification by improved seeds and chemical fertilizers is however still low and is determined, beside the institutional and social variables, by economic variables. The most decisive variables of rice intensification are agricultural income and access to credit. Thus, actions to implement should focus firstly on the level of intensification of those who have already adopted the inputs, and secondly on improving adoption rates of the different inputs. These actions will involve (i the capacity building of rice producers by literacy, agricultural training and extension, and (ii improving the business environment through access to credit and a better marketing organization.

  2. Late Miocene-Pliocene Asian monsoon intensification linked to Antarctic ice-sheet growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, H.; Roberts, A. P.; Dekkers, M. J.; Liu, X.; Rohling, E. J.; Shi, Z.; An, Z.; Zhao, X.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental conditions in one of Earth's most densely populated regions, East Asia, are dominated by the monsoon. While Quaternary monsoon variability is reasonably well understood, pre-Quaternary monsoon variability and dynamics remain enigmatic. In particular, little is known about potential relationships between northern hemispheric monsoon response and major Cenozoic changes in Antarctic ice cover. Here we document long-term East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensification through the Late Miocene-Pliocene (˜8.2 to 2.6 Ma), and attribute this to progressive Antarctic glaciation. Our new high-resolution magnetic records of long-term EASM intensification come from the Late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence on the Chinese Loess Plateau; we identify underlying mechanisms using a numerical climate-model simulation of EASM response to an idealized stepwise increase in Antarctic ice volume. We infer that progressive Antarctic glaciation caused intensification of the cross-equatorial pressure gradient between an atmospheric high-pressure cell over Australia and a low-pressure cell over mid-latitude East Asia, as well as intensification of the cross-equatorial sea-surface temperature (SST) gradient. These combined atmospheric and oceanic adjustments led to EASM intensification. Our findings offer a new and more global perspective on the controls behind long-term Asian monsoon evolution.

  3. A direct estimate of poleward volume, heat and fresh water flux at 59.5°N between Greenland and Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossby, Thomas; Reverdin, Gilles; Chafik, Leon; Søiland, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) in the North Atlantic plays a major role in the transport of heat from low latitudes to high. In this study we combine recent measurements of currents from the surface to >700 m from a shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler on the Nuka Arctica, a freighter in regular service between Greenland and Denmark with Argo profiles (to 2000 m) to estimate poleward volume, heat and freshwater flux at 59.5°N between Greenland and Scotland. For the period late 2012 to early 2016 the de-seasoned mean meridional overturning circulation reaches a 14.9±1.7 Sv maximum at the σθ = 27.55 kg m-3 isopycnal, which varies in depth from near the surface in the western Irminger Sea to 1000 m in Rockall Trough. The surface to bottom transport has a -0.44 Sv (southward) residual, which is not significantly different from zero. The total heat and fresh water fluxes across 59.5°N = 307 PW and 0.15 Sv, both with a 12% uncertainty principally due to uncertainties of the MOC. Comparing this ADCP dataset with an earlier one of comparable size from 1999-2002 (to 400 m depth only) shows strikingly similar transports in both west and east of the Reykjanes Ridge suggesting at least for these two periods 13 years apart very little difference in the strength of the MOC.

  4. A direct estimate of poleward volume, heat, and freshwater fluxes at 59.5°N between Greenland and Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossby, T.; Reverdin, Gilles; Chafik, Leon; Søiland, Henrik

    2017-07-01

    The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) in the North Atlantic plays a major role in the transport of heat from low to high latitudes. In this study, we combine recent measurements of currents from the surface to >700 m from a shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler with Argo profiles (to 2000 m) to estimate poleward volume, heat, and freshwater flux at 59.5°N between Greenland and Scotland. This is made possible thanks to the vessel Nuka Arctica that operates on a 3 week schedule between Greenland and Denmark. For the period late 2012 to early 2016, the deseasoned mean meridional overturning circulation reaches a 18.4 ± 3.4 Sv maximum at the σθ = 27.55 kg m-3 isopycnal, which varies in depth from near the surface in the western Irminger Sea to 1000 m in Rockall Trough. The total heat and freshwater fluxes across 59.5°N = 399 ± 74 TW and -0.20 ± 0.04 Sv, where the uncertainties are principally due to that of the MOC. Analysis of altimetric sea surface height variations along exactly the same route reveals a somewhat stronger geostrophic flow north during this period compared to the 23 year mean suggesting that for a long-term mean the above flux estimates should be reduced slightly to 17.4 Sv, 377 TW, and -0.19 Sv, respectively, with the same estimate uncertainties. The ADCP program is ongoing.

  5. Sustainable intensification of China's agroecosystems by conservation agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in China started about 8000 BCE with cultivation of millet and rice. Thus, China's modern agriculture is rooted in a long evolutionary history of agricultural practices. China's population of 211 million in 1700 increased to 295 million in 1800, 400 million in 1900, 1266 million in 2000, and is 1409 million in 2017. Thus, China has to feed 18.5% of the world population on merely 7% of the world's arable land and with even scarcer water resources. Yet, between 1950 and 2017, the grain production in China increased at a faster rate than that of the population. Total grain production (million ton or Tg was 113 in 1949, 305 in 1970, 462 in 2000, and 603 in 2015. The high agricultural productivity is attributed to high consumption of fertilizers (58.8 Tg in 2015, pesticides (1.81 Tg in 2014, and irrigation (65.7 Mha in 2014. However, the high production is also associated with the severe problems of soil degradation (erosion, water contamination and air pollution. It is estimated that ~40% of China's arable land is degraded to some degree. Thus, there is a strong need for a paradigm shift of sustaining high productivity while restoring quality of natural resources of soil, water and air. In this context, conversion to a system-based conservation agriculture (CA may be an important strategy of sustainable intensification of agro-ecosystems for advancing and sustaining high production while restoring soil health, purifying water and air and improving the environment. The CA has been practiced in China since 1990s and was adopted on ~8.0 Mha in 2015. The available literature shows that conversion to CA increases soil organic C (SOC concentration and stocks mostly in the surface layer while also producing an equivalent agronomic yield. Therefore, a widespread adoption of CA in China would necessitate a deeper understanding of its ecological underpinnings. To be effective, site-specific CA practices must reduce risks of soil erosion under

  6. Influens of an intensification on bioproductivity processes in pounds of aridic zones of Daghestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Ber

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Are carried out complex hydrobiological and hydrochemical researches of ponds of various categories of the Shirokol fish factory with a various degree of an intensification (feeding of a fish and fertilizer of ponds. At cultivation two year carp fishes in poly culture fish efficiency has reached 5,32 tonnes/hectares, on the average on ponds having made 1,93 tonnes/hectares. Optimum norms and frequency of entering of mineral nitric and phosphoric fertilizers, their parity is found out at entering into ponds. Influence of intensification on trophy condition of ponds and the most economic levels of an intensification is certain at cultivation of fish and commodity of fish a carp in poly culture with fishes.

  7. Adolescent gender-role identity and mental health: gender intensification revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priess, Heather A; Lindberg, Sara M; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    Gender intensification, an increased pressure for adolescents to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles, has been posited as an explanation for the emergence of the gender difference in depression. This longitudinal study assessed whether 410 individuals became more stereotypical in their gender-role identity across adolescence and whether such patterns predicted depressive symptoms. Girls reported higher femininity than boys at ages 11, 13, and 15, but girls and boys did not differ in masculinity. Contrary to prevailing views, there was not evidence of intensification in femininity or masculinity. Positive trajectories in masculinity for both girls and boys predicted fewer depressive symptoms, particularly at moderate levels of stress. Findings suggest a need to reconceptualize gender intensification in ways that characterize contemporary adolescence.

  8. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2008-01-15

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  9. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, D.V.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    2008-01-01

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  10. Impacts of SST Patterns on Rapid Intensification of Typhoon Megi (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, Sachie; Tsujino, Satoki; Aiki, Hidenori; Yoshioka, Mayumi K.; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Tsuboki, Kazuhisa; Takayabu, Izuru

    2017-12-01

    Typhoon Megi (2010), a very intense tropical cyclone with a minimum central pressure of 885 hPa, was characterized by especially rapid intensification. We investigated this intensification process by a simulation experiment using a high-resolution (0.02° × 0.02°) three-dimensional atmosphere-ocean coupled regional model. We also performed a sensitivity experiment with a time-fixed sea surface temperature (SST). The coupled model successfully simulated the minimum central pressure of Typhoon Megi, whereas the fixed SST experiment simulated an excessively low minimum central pressure of 839 hPa. The simulation results also showed a close relationship between the radial SST profiles and the rapid intensification process. Because the warm sea increased near-surface water vapor and hence the convective available potential energy, the high SST in the eye region facilitated tall and intense updrafts inside the radius of maximum wind speed and led to the start of rapid intensification. In contrast, high SST outside this radius induced local secondary updrafts that inhibited rapid intensification even if the mean SST in the core region exceeded 29.0°C. These secondary updrafts moved inward and eventually merged with the primary eyewall updrafts. Then the storm intensified rapidly when the high SST appeared in the eye region. Thus, the changes in the local SST pattern around the storm center strongly affected the rapid intensification process by modulating the radial structure of core convection. Our results also show that the use of a high-resolution three-dimensional atmosphere-ocean coupled model offers promise for improving intensity forecasts of tropical cyclones.

  11. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iheke, O.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  12. Edouard's (2014) Intensification: An Investigation of Precipitation and Thermodynamic Symmetrization Using a Cloud-Resolving Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvey, G., III; Zipser, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Literature over the past 10 years has provided conflicting views about the relative importance of precipitation symmetry and convective intensity for tropical cyclone intensification. While several modeling studies (Braun et al. 2006, Guimond et al. 2010, Molinari et al. 2013, Rogers et al. 2013, 2015) have favored intense deep convection, satellite-based composite studies, on the other hand, have offered a differing pathway towards tropical cyclone intensification emphasizing shallow to moderate precipitation (Zagrodnik and Jiang 2014, Tao and Jiang 2015, Alvey et al. 2015). This has left fundamental questions unanswered regarding the relationships between precipitation and TC intensity change: What are the dominant precipitation types, their spatial distributions, and the timing of these features with respect to intensification? And what causes precipitation to symmetrize and increase in the upshear quadrants? One potentially important process, the humidification of upshear quadrants, has been identified to occur nearly coincidental with increased precipitation symmetry prior to and during Edouard's (2014) intensification (Zawislak et al. 2016). While observations from the Global Hawk and P-3 provided important snapshots throughout the life cycle of Edouard (2014), numerical simulations complement and reveal, in more detail, the processes behind these relationships through filling an 48-hour airborne observational gap during a crucial period of intensification between 12-14 Sept. We use a high resolution, full physics ensemble of Edouard (2014) simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model - Advanced Research WRF (ARW; Skamarock et al., 2008). We deem the quantification of azimuthal variations — with a focus on the shear-relative quadrants — as particularly important, especially early in intensification when thermodynamic and precipitation distributions tend to be more asymmetric. Using a water vapor budget and trajectories we examine whether

  13. Intensification of heat and mass transfer by ultrasound: application to heat exchangers and membrane separation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondrexon, N; Cheze, L; Jin, Y; Legay, M; Tissot, Q; Hengl, N; Baup, S; Boldo, P; Pignon, F; Talansier, E

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims to illustrate the interest of ultrasound technology as an efficient technique for both heat and mass transfer intensification. It is demonstrated that the use of ultrasound results in an increase of heat exchanger performances and in a possible fouling monitoring in heat exchangers. Mass transfer intensification was observed in the case of cross-flow ultrafiltration. It is shown that the enhancement of the membrane separation process strongly depends on the physico-chemical properties of the filtered suspensions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Superiority of centralized procurement and its technical and economic analysis for nuclear power intensification construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng

    2010-01-01

    The intensified management is the basic orientation for modernized enterprise group to improve efficiency and benefit. For most industrial enterprises, in the implementation of intensification management process, the centralized procurement is one of most efficient paths. At present most of the international's and domestic outstanding enterprises are studying and positively using this approach. This article indicated that the centralized procurement mode is inevitable during intensification construction process based on the theoretical analysis of the advantage of centralized procurement and the economic analysis of typical cases. (author)

  15. Failing to Yield? Ploughs, conservation agriculture and the problem of agricultural intensification: An example from the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudron, F.; Andersson, J.A.; Corbeels, M.; Giller, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural intensification, or increasing yield, has been a persistent theme in policy interventions in African smallholder agriculture. This article focuses on two hegemonic policy models of such intensification: (1) the ‘Alvord model’ of plough-based, integrated crop-livestock farming promoted

  16. Magnetospheric boundary dynamics: DE 1 and DE 2 observations near the magnetopause and cusp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, N.C.; Burke, W.J. (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (USA)); Aggson, T.L. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA)); Basinska, E.M. (Regis College, Weston, MA (USA)); Craven, P. (Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (USA)); Peterson, W.K. (Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab., CA (USA)); Sugiura, M. (Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab., CA (USA) Tokai Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Weimer, D.R. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))

    1991-03-01

    A broad spectrum of particle and field measurements was taken near local noon by the Dynamics Explorer satellites during the magnetic storm of September 6, 1982. While at apogee, DE 1 sampled the magnetospheric boundary layer at mid southern latitudes and, due to the passage of an intense solar wind burst, briefly penetrated into the magnetosheath. In the boundary layer and the adjacent magnetosheath the plasma flow was directed toward dawn. Variance and de Hoffman-Teller analyses of electric and magnetic field data during the magnetopause crossing showed the magnetopause structure to be that of a rotational discontinuity or an intermediate shock with a substantial normal magnetic field component. This is consistent with an open magnetosphere model in which significant magnetic merging occurs at the local time of the spacecraft. The orbit of DE 2 carried it through the morning sector of the low-altitude, southern cusp. The measurements show a well-defined, cusp current system occurring on open magnetic field lines. At both cusp and subcusp latitudes the electric field was equatorward indicating a strongly eastward plasma flow. The boundary between these two regions was marked by the onset of magnetosheath precipitation and an electric field structure containing both poleward and equatorward spikes. The poleward spike has associated field-aligned currents which are closed by Pedersen currents and, from force balance considerations, is interpreted as the signature of a magnetic merging event at the magnetopause. The equatorward spike has the characteristics of a down-coming and reflected Alfven wave packet of finite dimensions. The high-altitude measurements suggest that the dayside boundary layer is made up of closed magnetic flux tubes, a large fraction of which drift to the magnetopause where merging with the IMF occurs.

  17. The Response of Western Boundary Currents to Intensifying Global Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, L. M.; Elipot, S.

    2016-02-01

    Western boundary currents, such as the Agulhas Current, are the most intense meridional flows in the ocean, carrying heat away from the tropics and towards the poles. There is evidence that these current systems are shifting and/or intensifying under anthropogenic climate change, potentially exacerbating warming and extreme weather events in the mid-latitudes. We use new ocean measurements to show that since the early 1990s the Agulhas Current has not strengthened, despite an increase in sea surface temperature indicative of intensification. Rather, the current has been widening, which we attribute to increased eddy activity. Recent analyses of the Kuroshio and East Australia Current hint at similar trends. These results suggest that increased energy input by the winds may be increasing the instability of boundary currents, rather than intensifying their mean flow, with potential impacts on ocean mixing, ventilation, and shelf interactions. Sustained measurements are needed to properly understand the role of these current systems in future climate change.

  18. Intensification of the beef-cow herd | Harwin | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (1974) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Intensification of the beef-cow herd. G.O. Harwin ...

  19. Process Intensification in Crystallization : Submicron Particle Generation Using Alternative Energy Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radacsi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Crystallization is one of the oldest separation and product formation techniques that continues to be in use today. Despite its long history, it only started to develop significantly in the past few decades. In this thesis, the application of Process Intensification in crystallization is

  20. The Role of Mid-Level Vortex in the Intensification and Weakening of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7

    2017-03-12

    Mar 12, 2017 ... Though the growth of RV for the depression initiates from mid-troposphere,. 44 rapid dissipation of midlevel vortex destabilized the system. It is found that the formation midlevel. 45 vortex in the genesis phase is significantly important for the intensification of the storm. 46. Keywords: Tropical Cyclone ...

  1. Sustainable intensification of smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia : what roles can scattered trees play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sida, Tesfaye Shiferaw

    2018-01-01

    Scattered trees dominate smallholder agricultural landscapes in Ethiopia, as in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). While the integration of scattered trees with crops could provide a viable pathway for sustainable intensification of these farming systems, they also lead to trade- offs.

  2. Nested achetypes of vulnerability in African drylands: where lies potential for sustainable Agricultural intensification?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietz, D.; Ordonez, J.C.; Kok, M.T.J.; Janssen, P.; Hilderink, Henk B.M.; Tittonell, P.A.; Dijk, van J.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Food production is key to achieving food security in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa. Since agricultural productivity is limited, however, due to inherent agro-ecological constraints and land degradation, sustainable agricultural intensification has been widely discussed as an opportunity for

  3. On-farm impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Evidence and knowledge gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.D.; Glover, D.B.A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being promoted worldwide, but relatively little is yet known about its impacts at farm level. This article reviews available evidence on the impact of SRI practices in terms of yield and productivity. Adoption of SRI practices necessarily changes the mix

  4. Linking land-use intensification, plant communities, and ecosystem processes in lowland Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreno Rocabado, I.G.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use intensification (LUI) is one of the main global drivers of biodiversity loss with negative impact on ecosystem processes and the services that societies derive from the ecosystems. The effect of LUI on ecosystem processes can be direct through changes in environmental conditions and

  5. A systematic synthesis and design methodology to achieve process intensification in (bio) chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Román-Martinez, Alicia; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing processes or create new process options which are needed in order to produce products using more sustainable methods. PI creates an enormous number of process options. In order to manage the complexity of options in which a feasib...

  6. Intensification scenarios in south-western Niger: Implications for revisiting fertilizer policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, La R.; Keulen, van H.; Hiernaux, P.; Szonyi, J.; Schipper, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    In semi-arid south-western Niger, external fertilizer inputs are a complement of livestock-mediated nutrient transfers for maintaining soil fertility. This paper discusses scenarios of intensification for different farm household types in an area representative of the wetter parts of semi-arid

  7. The compatibility of agricultural intensification in a global hotspot of smallholder agrobiodiversity (Bolivia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerer, Karl S

    2013-02-19

    Integrating the conservation of biodiversity by smallholder farmers with agricultural intensification is increasingly recognized as a leading priority of sustainability and food security amid global environmental and socioeconomic change. An international research project investigated the smallholder agrobiodiversity of maize (corn) in a global hotspot (Bolivia) undergoing significant intensification. Peach-based intensification was pronounced (300-400%) and prolonged (2000-2010) in study areas. Intensification and maize agrobiodiversity were found to co-occur within smallholder landscapes. Interactions of these field systems did not trigger land-change tipping points leading to landrace extirpation. By 2010 maize landraces in the study areas still demonstrated high levels of taxonomic and ecological biodiversity and contributed significantly to this crop's agrobiodiversity at national (31%) and hemispheric (3%) scales. Social and ecological resilience and in situ conservation of the maize agrobiodiversity by Bolivian smallholders was enabled through robust linkages to off-farm migration; resource access and asset capabilities among both traditional and nontraditional growers; landrace agroecology and food uses; and innovative knowledge and skills. The smallholders' resilience resulting from these linkages was integral to the conditional success of the in situ conservation of maize agrobiodiversity. Environment-development interactions both enabled smallholders' agrobiodiversity resilience and influenced the limits and vulnerability of agrobiodiversity. Scientific policy recommendations regarding land-use planning and sustainability analysis are targeted to specific Río+20 priorities for agrobiodiversity.

  8. Linguistic Intensification and Its Role in Interlingual Translation of Speech Acts between English and Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Ali Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to answer two questions: first, how far do intensifiers in English have the capability to fulfill linguistic intensification in order to achieve the communicative action between the speaker and the listener? Second, to what extent do linguistic characteristics of intensifiers influence translation of locutions of linguistic…

  9. Diagnosis for ecological intensification of maize-based smallholder farming systems in the Costa Chica, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Sanchez, D.; Kleine Koerkamp-Rabelista, J.; Navarro-Garza, H.; Lantinga, E.A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Kropff, M.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced utilization of ecological processes for food and feed production as part of the notion of ecological intensification starts from location-specific knowledge of production constraints. A diagnostic systems approach which combined social-economic and production ecological methods at farm and

  10. Linking land-use intensification, plant communities, and ecosystem processes in lowland Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreno Rocabado, I.G.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use intensification (LUI) is one of the main global drivers of biodiversity loss with negative impact on ecosystem processes and the services that societies derive from the ecosystems. The effect of LUI on ecosystem processes can be direct through changes in environmental conditions and

  11. Phenomena-based Process Synthesis and Design to achieve Process Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing processes, necessary to achieve a more sustainable production. PI can be achieved at different levels. That is, the unit operations, functional and/or phenomena level. The highest impact is expected by looking at processes...

  12. Efficient process intensification of fine chemical production: a new classification tool for flow chemistry technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.S.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Graaff, M.P. de; Bassett, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals industry needs to innovate to beat international competition and resolve environmental issues. Process intensification by flow chemistry is the most promising route for this change, as it can reduce raw material and energy consumption, waste production, lead

  13. Species’ traits influence ground beetle responses to farm and landscape level agricultural intensification in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winqvist, C.; Bengtsson, J.; Öckinger, E.; Aavik, T.; Berendse, F.; Clement, L.W.; Geiger, F.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural intensification may result in important shifts in insect community composition and function, but this remains poorly explored. Studying how groups of species with shared traits respond to local and landscape scale land-use management can reveal mechanisms behind such observed impacts.

  14. A Simple Experiment for Teaching Process Intensification by Static Mixing in Chemical Reaction Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz-Rodríguez, Sergio; Herrera-Soberanis, Natali; Rodríguez-Novelo, Miguel; Guillén-Francisc, Juana; Rocha-Uribe, José

    2016-01-01

    An experiment for teaching mixing intensification in reaction engineering is described. For this, a simple tubular reactor was constructed; helical static mixer elements were fabricated from stainless steel strips and inserted into the reactor. With and without the internals, the equipment operates as a static mixer reactor or a laminar flow…

  15. Nuances and nuisances: crop production intensification options for smallholder farming systems of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinamhodzi, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Soil fertility decline and erratic rainfall are major constraints to crop productivity on smallholder farms in southern Africa. Crop production intensification along with efficient use of chemical fertiliser is required to produce more food per unit area of land, while rebuilding soil fertility. The

  16. Environmental impact of milk production across an intensification gradient in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegebriel, Daniel; Udo, Henk; Viets, Theo; Harst, van der Eugenie; Potting, José

    2017-01-01

    This paper quantifies environmental performances of milk production systems differing in degree of intensification in the Mekelle milkshed area, Ethiopia. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to estimate Land Use (LU), Fossil Energy Use (FEU) and Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the

  17. The role of mid-level vortex in the intensification and weakening of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Govindan Kutty

    2017-10-06

    Oct 6, 2017 ... Having said this, the accumulation and organization of. PV is substantially different for Helen, Hudhud and the depression. Unlike Helen, cyclone Hudhud exhibits a stronger mid-level vortex and organized. PV structure, which indicates the significance of a strong mid-level vortex in the intensification of an ...

  18. Soil biota community structure and abundance under agricultural intensification and extensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma-Blaauw, M.B.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Bloem, J.; Faber, J.H.; Brussaard, L.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of agricultural intensification and extensification on soil biota communities is useful in order to preserve and restore biological diversity in agricultural soils and enhance the role of soil biota in agroecosystem functioning. Over four consecutive years, we investigated

  19. Process Intensification Tools in the Small‐Scale Pharmaceutical Manufacturing of Small Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical process industry is paying significant attention to the intensification of processes with the main aim of achieving increased productivity, improved economic status, and enhanced sustainability. The pharmaceutical industry is moving in the same direction and, therefore, dozens......‐scale pharmaceutical manufacturing of so‐called small molecules. The focus is on microwave radiation, microreactors, ultrasounds, and meso‐scale tubular reactors....

  20. Agricultural intensification and biodiversity partitioning in European landscapes comparing plants, carabids, and birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flohre, A.; Fischer, C.; Aavik, T.; Bengtson, J.; Berendse, F.; Geiger, F.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on biodiversity are often assessed on the plot scale, although processes determining diversity also operate on larger spatial scales. Here, we analyzed the diversity of vascular plants, carabid beetles, and birds in agricultural landscapes in cereal crop

  1. Adoptability of sustainable intensification technologies in dryland smallholder farming systems of West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, L.S.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of CGIAR Research Program (CRP) 1.1: Dryland Systems, the compilation of a review of options, constraints and potential for agricultural intensification at a number of specific sites in West African dryland areas has been requested, using an integrated systems approach. CRP 1.1

  2. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  3. HUD GIS Boundary Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...

  4. State Agency Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  5. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  6. Environmentalists without Boundaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2009-03-16

    Mar 16, 2009 ... Environmentalists without Boundaries. Setting Boundaries is a popular strategy in child development programs. But as children mature into young adults, it dawns on many that certain boundaries must be crossed to explore rich opportunities outside the safe closet of their teachers or parents' watchful eyes.

  7. Nested archetypes of vulnerability in African drylands: where lies potential for sustainable agricultural intensification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietz, D.; Ordoñez, J. C.; Kok, M. T. J.; Janssen, P.; Hilderink, H. B. M.; Tittonell, P.; Van Dijk, H.

    2017-09-01

    Food production is key to achieving food security in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa. Since agricultural productivity is limited, however, due to inherent agro-ecological constraints and land degradation, sustainable agricultural intensification has been widely discussed as an opportunity for improving food security and reducing vulnerability. Yet vulnerability determinants are distributed heterogeneously in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa and sustainable intensification cannot be achieved everywhere in cost-effective and efficient ways. To better understand the heterogeneity of farming systems’ vulnerability in order to support decision making at regional scales, we present archetypes, i.e. socio-ecological patterns, of farming systems’ vulnerability in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa and reveal their nestedness. We quantitatively indicated the most relevant farming systems’ properties at a sub-national resolution. These factors included water availability, agro-ecological potential, erosion sensitivity, population pressure, urbanisation, remoteness, governance, income and undernourishment. Cluster analysis revealed eight broad archetypes of vulnerability across all drylands of sub-Saharan Africa. The broad archetype representing better governance and highest remoteness in extremely dry and resource-constrained regions encompassed the largest area share (19%), mainly indicated in western Africa. Moreover, six nested archetypes were identified within those regions with better agropotential and prevalent agricultural livelihoods. Among these patterns, the nested archetype depicting regions with highest erosion sensitivity, severe undernourishment and lower agropotential represented the largest population (30%) and area (28%) share, mainly found in the Sahel region. The nested archetype indicating medium undernourishment, better governance and lowest erosion sensitivity showed particular potential for sustainable agricultural intensification, mainly in

  8. Modelling farmers’ decisions on adoption and intensification of improved cowpea seeds in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Issoufou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Niger, global change leads farmers increasingly to intensify their agricultural production. That is one of the reason improved seeds have been diffused among farmers since decades. The study uses Logit and Tobit software for modeling farmers’ decision on adoption and intensification of improved cowpea seeds. The sample consisted of 612 agricultural households selected by random sampling without replacement in 16 villages. Data was collected in 2015 to 2016 through individual survey and focus group. The results show that the rate of improved cowpea seed adoption is 39.7% after three years of introduction. The accessibility of village, age and availability, accessibility of seeds determine at the same time decisions of adoption and intensification of improved cowpea seeds. The probability of improved seeds adoption is determined by education, access to agricultural extension and adaptability, productivity of seeds. Crops Risk perception and preference, precocity of seeds only affect the intensification probability. The analysis of marginal effects shows that adoption probability increases for accessibility of village, education, access to agricultural extension and adaptability, availability and productivity of improved seeds. On the other hand, the probability decreases for age and the availability of seed. Looking at also the marginal effects on seed intensification, it was observed that the probability increases for accessibility of village, perception of production risk and preference, availability and precocity of improved seeds. However, this probability decreases for age and seeds accessibility. These determinants of adoption and intensification are essential for improved seeds dissemination action to enhance the rate of adoption, intensity of seeds use, impact and sustainability for producers.

  9. Probabilistic drought intensification forecasts using temporal patterns of satellite-derived drought indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sumin; Im, Jungho; Park, Seonyeong

    2016-04-01

    A drought occurs when the condition of below-average precipitation in a region continues, resulting in prolonged water deficiency. A drought can last for weeks, months or even years, so can have a great influence on various ecosystems including human society. In order to effectively reduce agricultural and economic damage caused by droughts, drought monitoring and forecasts are crucial. Drought forecast research is typically conducted using in situ observations (or derived indices such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)) and physical models. Recently, satellite remote sensing has been used for short term drought forecasts in combination with physical models. In this research, drought intensification was predicted using satellite-derived drought indices such as Normalized Difference Drought Index (NDDI), Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI), and Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) generated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products over the Korean Peninsula. Time series of each drought index at the 8 day interval was investigated to identify drought intensification patterns. Drought condition at the previous time step (i.e., 8 days before) and change in drought conditions between two previous time steps (e.g., between 16 days and 8 days before the time step to forecast) Results show that among three drought indices, SDCI provided the best performance to predict drought intensification compared to NDDI and NMDI through qualitative assessment. When quantitatively compared with SPI, SDCI showed a potential to be used for forecasting short term drought intensification. Finally this research provided a SDCI-based equation to predict short term drought intensification optimized over the Korean Peninsula.

  10. Winners and losers of national and global efforts to reconcile agricultural intensification and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Lukas; Meyer, Carsten; Scherber, Christoph; Kreft, Holger; Tscharntke, Teja

    2018-05-01

    Closing yield gaps within existing croplands, and thereby avoiding further habitat conversions, is a prominently and controversially discussed strategy to meet the rising demand for agricultural products, while minimizing biodiversity impacts. The agricultural intensification associated with such a strategy poses additional threats to biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. The uneven spatial distribution of both yield gaps and biodiversity provides opportunities for reconciling agricultural intensification and biodiversity conservation through spatially optimized intensification. Here, we integrate distribution and habitat information for almost 20,000 vertebrate species with land-cover and land-use datasets. We estimate that projected agricultural intensification between 2000 and 2040 would reduce the global biodiversity value of agricultural lands by 11%, relative to 2000. Contrasting these projections with spatial land-use optimization scenarios reveals that 88% of projected biodiversity loss could be avoided through globally coordinated land-use planning, implying huge efficiency gains through international cooperation. However, global-scale optimization also implies a highly uneven distribution of costs and benefits, resulting in distinct "winners and losers" in terms of national economic development, food security, food sovereignty or conservation. Given conflicting national interests and lacking effective governance mechanisms to guarantee equitable compensation of losers, multinational land-use optimization seems politically unlikely. In turn, 61% of projected biodiversity loss could be avoided through nationally focused optimization, and 33% through optimization within just 10 countries. Targeted efforts to improve the capacity for integrated land-use planning for sustainable intensification especially in these countries, including the strengthening of institutions that can arbitrate subnational land-use conflicts, may offer an effective, yet

  11. How can farming intensification affect the environmental impact of milk production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, L; Sandrucci, A; Zucali, M; Guerci, M; Tamburini, A

    2014-07-01

    The intensification process of the livestock sector has been characterized in recent decades by increasing output of product per hectare, increasing stocking rate, including more concentrated feed in the diet, and improving the genetic merit of the breeds. In dairy farming, the effects of intensification on the environmental impact of milk production are not completely clarified. The aim of the current study was to assess the environmental impacts of dairy production by a life cycle approach and to identify relations between farming intensity and environmental performances expressed on milk and land units. A group of 28 dairy farms located in northern Italy was involved in the study; data collected during personal interviews of farmers were analyzed to estimate emissions (global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication potentials) and nonrenewable source consumption (energy and land use). The environmental impacts of milk production obtained from the life cycle assessment were similar to those of other recent studies and showed high variability among the farms. From a cluster analysis, 3 groups of farms were identified, characterized by different levels of production intensity. Clusters of farms showed similar environmental performances on product basis, despite important differences in terms of intensification level, management, and structural characteristics. Our study pointed out that, from a product perspective, the most environmentally friendly way to produce milk is not clearly identifiable. However, the principal component analysis showed that some characteristics related to farming intensification, such as milk production per cow, dairy efficiency, and stocking density, were negatively related to the impacts per kilogram of product, suggesting a role of these factors in the mitigation strategy of environmental burden of milk production on a global scale. Considering the environmental burden on a local perspective, the impacts per hectare were

  12. The evolution of agricultural intensification and environmental degradation in the UK: a data-driven systems dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong McKay, David I.; Dearing, John A.; Dyke, James G.; Poppy, Guy; Firbank, Les

    2016-04-01

    The world's population continues to grow rapidly, yet the current demand for food is already resulting in environmental degradation in many regions. As a result, an emerging challenge of the 21st century is how agriculture can simultaneously undergo sustainable intensification and be made more resilient to accelerating climate change. Key to this challenge is: a) finding the "safe and just operating space" for the global agri-environment system that both provides sufficient food for humanity and avoids crossing dangerous planetary boundaries, and b) downscaling this framework from a planetary to a regional scale in order to better inform decision making and incorporate regional dynamics within the planetary boundaries framework. Regional safe operating spaces can be defined and explored using a combination of metrics that indicate the changing status of ecosystem services (both provisioning and regulating), statistical techniques that reveal early warning signals and breakpoints, and dynamical system models of the regional agri-environment system. Initial attempts to apply this methodology have been made in developing countries (e.g. China [Dearing et al., 2012, 2014; Zhang et al., 2015]), but have not yet been attempted in more developed countries, for example the UK. In this study we assess the changes in ecosystem services in two contrasting agricultural regions in the UK, arable-dominated East England and pastoral-dominated South-West England, since the middle of the 20th Century. We identify and establish proxies and indices of various provisioning and regulating services in these two regions and analyse how these have changed over this time. We find that significant degradation of regulating services occurred in Eastern England in the early 1980s, reflecting a period of rapid intensification and escalating fertiliser usage, but that regulating services have begun to recover since 2000 mainly as a result of fertiliser usage decoupling from increasing wheat

  13. Validation of measured poleward TEC gradient using multi-station GPS with Artificial Neural Network based TEC model in low latitude region for developing predictive capability of ionospheric scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, D.; Paul, A.

    2017-12-01

    The equatorial ionosphere shows sharp diurnal and latitudinal Total Electron Content (TEC) variations over a major part of the day. Equatorial ionosphere also exhibits intense post-sunset ionospheric irregularities. Accurate prediction of TEC in these low latitudes is not possible from standard ionospheric models. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based Vertical TEC (VTEC) model has been designed using TEC data in low latitude Indian longitude sector for accurate prediction of VTEC. GPS TEC data from the stations Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic, magnetic dip 32°), Baharampore (24.09°N, 88.25°E geographic, magnetic dip 35°) and Siliguri (26.72°N, 88.39°E geographic; magnetic dip 40°) are used as training dataset for the duration of January 2007-September 2011. Poleward VTEC gradients from northern EIA crest to region beyond EIA crest have been calculated from measured VTEC and compared with that obtained from ANN based VTEC model. TEC data from Calcutta and Siliguri are used to compute VTEC gradients during April 2013 and August-September 2013. It has been observed that poleward VTEC gradient computed from ANN based TEC model has shown good correlation with measured values during vernal and autumnal equinoxes of high solar activity periods of 2013. Possible correlation between measured poleward TEC gradients and post-sunset scintillations (S4 ≥ 0.4) from northern crest of EIA has been observed in this paper. From the observation, a suitable threshold poleward VTEC gradient has been proposed for possible occurrence of post-sunset scintillations at northern crest of EIA along 88°E longitude. Poleward VTEC gradients obtained from ANN based VTEC model are used to forecast possible ionospheric scintillation after post-sunset period using the threshold value. It has been observed that these predicted VTEC gradients obtained from ANN based VTEC model can forecast post-sunset L-band scintillation with an accuracy of 67% to 82% in this dynamic low latitude

  14. Technology for Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries...... between competencies within the organisation; and boundaries between various physical locations of work, in particular between what is done in the office and what is done on site. Maintaining and changing boundaries are the processes through which a particular community sustains its identity and practice...... on the one hand, and where it is confronted with the identity and practices on the other.The organisation being studied employs a multitude of IT systems that support and maintain these boundaries in a particular manner that are in many ways inappropriate to the current needs of the organisation...

  15. Outcome after a dose "de-intensification" strategy with anti-TNF drugs in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, María; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; García-Planella, Esther; Domènech, Eugeni; Bermejo, Fernando; Calvet, Xavier; Martín Arranz, María Dolores; Monfort, David; Gisbert, Javier P

    2016-04-01

    Dose "intensification" is a recommended strategy to recover therapeutic benefit in Crohn's disease (CD) patients who have lost initial response to anti-TNF therapy. Once patients have achieved remission, dose "de-intensification" can be used for cost and safety reasons. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term durability of remission after stepping down anti-TNF therapy. The secondary aim was to identify predictive factors associated with loss of response after "de-intensification" and to evaluate the effectiveness of a second "re-intensification" in patients who lost response after the treatment was stepped down. We evaluated CD patients who received at least one standard anti-TNF dosage after achieving remission with "intensified" anti-TNF therapy. Twenty-four patients were included. The treatment was "intensified" because of partial response in 11 patients, loss of response in 10, and primary lack of response in 3. Eight of the 24 patients had lost response after a median follow-up of only 7 months after "de-intensification" of the anti-TNF therapy. The anti-TNF drug was "intensified" again in all 8 patients. Three patients did not respond to the new "intensification", two had partial response and three achieved remission. On univariate analysis, no predictive factors were identified for loss of response after treatment "de-intensification". After only 7 months of follow-up, one-third of the CD patients who received "de-intensification" therapy lost response; of these, two-thirds did not achieve response after subsequent "re-intensification". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  16. Eco-efficiency of intensification scenarios for milk production in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basset-Mens, Claudine; Ledgard, Stewart; Boyes, Mark [AgResearch Limited, Ruakura Research Centre, East Street, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-04-15

    New Zealand (NZ) dairy farms used to be the lowest input and most efficient dairy farms of the world. However, intensification of the traditional pasture-based system has occurred over the last decade and has not always been accompanied by increased efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to produce an updated reference of the eco-efficiency of NZ dairy farm systems and to analyse the implications of intensification on their eco-efficiency. Results for an average NZ dairy farm system were compared with those for three dairy farmlet systems representing a wide range in intensification practices. A low input system (LI) (no N fertiliser, no brought-in feed supplement, stocking rate of 2.3 cows/ha) was compared with an N-fertilised farm system (NF) (170 kg fertiliser-N/ha/year, 3 cows/ha) representing a first level of intensification and with an N-fertilised and maize silage supplemented system (NFMS) (170 kg fertiliser-N/ha/year, 13 t DM maize silage/ha/year, 5.2 cows/ha), representing a possible future intensification option. Their eco-efficiency in terms of milk production and land use was compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. NZ dairy farm systems rely on favourable temperate climate conditions and long-term perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture, to achieve eco-efficient milk production and land use compared to European systems. However, intensification of NZ dairy farms was shown to be detrimental to their eco-efficiency in terms both of milk production and land use functions and could greatly reduce their advantage compared to European systems. The eco-efficiency of LI was very high whatever the functional unit which is remarkable from an LCA perspective. NF and NFMS had a similar eco-efficiency except for energy use which corresponded to the most critical hot spot of NFMS. All studied NZ systems presented some areas for improvement where some new technologies available for dairy farms might play a promising role in the future. Finally, it

  17. Characteristics of merging at the magnetopause inferred from dayside 557.7-nm all-sky images: IMF drivers of poleward moving auroral forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We combine in situ measurements from Cluster with high-resolution 557.7 nm all-sky images from South Pole to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of merging on the dayside magnetopause. Variations of 557.7 nm emissions were observed at a 6 s cadence at South Pole on 29 April 2003 while significant changes in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF clock angle were reaching the magnetopause. Electrons energized at merging sites are the probable sources for 557.7 nm cusp emissions. At the same time Cluster was crossing the pre-noon cusp in the Northern Hemisphere. The combined observations confirm results of a previous study that merging events can occur at multiple sites simultaneously and vary asynchronously on time scales of 10 s to 3 min (Maynard et al., 2004. The intensity of the emissions and the merging rate appear to vary with changes in the IMF clock angle, IMF BX and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. Most poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs reflect responses to changes in interplanetary medium rather than to local processes. The changes in magnetopause position required by increases in dynamic pressure are mediated by merging and result in the generation of PMAFs. Small (15–20% variations in dynamic pressure of the solar wind are sufficient to launch PMAFs. Changes in IMF BX create magnetic flux compressions and rarefactions in the solar wind. Increases (decreases in IMF BX strengthens |B| near northern (southern hemisphere merging sites thereby enhancing merging rates and triggering PMAFs. When correlating responses in the two hemispheres, the presence of significant IMF BX also requires that different lag-times be applied to ACE measurements acquired ~0.1 AU upstream of Earth. Cluster observations set lag times for merging at Northern Hemisphere sites; post-noon optical emissions set times of Southern Hemisphere merging. All-sky images and magnetohydrodynamic simulations indicate that merging occurs in multiple

  18. Intensification of Convective Heat Transfer in Heating Device of Mobile Heating System with BH-Heat Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Directions pertaining to intensification of convective heat transfer in a soft heating device have been experimentally investigated  in the paper and the most efficient one has been selected that is creation of artificial roughness on the device surface. The considered heating device for a heat supply system of a mobile object has been made of soft polymer material (polyvinyl chloride. Following  evaluation results of  heat exchange intensification a criteria equation has been obtained for calculation of external heat transfer with due account of heat transfer intensification.

  19. A study of the relationship between interplanetary parameters and large displacements of the nightside polar cap boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, M.; Freeman, M.P.; Southwood, D.J.; Waldock, J.A.; Singer, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    On July 14, 1982 the Sweden and Britain Radar-Aurora Experiment (SABRE) observed the ionospheric flow reversal boundary at ∼ 0400 MLT to move equatorward across the radar field of view and then later to return poleward. The polar cap appeared to be considerably inflated at this time. Concurrent observations by ISEE-3 at the L1 libration point of the solar wind speed and density, and of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) indicated that the solar wind conditions were unusual throughout the interval under consideration. A mapping of the solar wind parameters from the L1 point to the subsolar magnetopause and thence to the SABRE local time sector indicates that the equatorward motion of the polar cap boundary was controlled by a southward turning of the IMF. The inference of a concomitant increase in open magnetic flux is supported by a comparison of the magnetopause location observed by ISEE-1 on an inbound pass in the 2,100 MLT sector with a magnetopause model based upon the solar wind measurements made by ISEE-3. Some 20 minutes after the expansion of the polar cap boundary was first seen by SABRE, there was a rapid contraction of the boundary, the casue of which was independent of the INF and solar wind parameters, and which had a poleward velocity component in excess of 1,900 m s -1 . the boundary as it moved across the radar field of view was highly structured and oriented at a large angle to the ionospheric footprints of the magnetic L shells. Observations in the premidnight sector by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) magnetometer array indicate that the polar cap contraction is caused by substorm draining of the polar cap flux and occurs without a clearly associated trigger in the interplanetary medium. The response time in the early morning local time sector to the substorm onset switch is approximately 20 minutes, equivalent to an ionospheric azimuthal phase velocity of some 5 km s -1

  20. Characterizations of boundary pluripolar hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djire, I.K.; Wiegerinck, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present some basic properties of the so-called boundary relative extremal function and discuss boundary pluripolar sets and boundary pluripolar hulls. We show that for B-regular domains the boundary pluripolar hull is always trivial on the boundary of the domain and present a “boundary version”

  1. The exterior cusp and its boundary with the magnetosheath: Cluster multi-event analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lavraud

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on the observation of three high-altitude cusp crossings by the Cluster spacecraft under steady northward IMF conditions. The focus of this study is on the exterior cusp and its boundaries. At the poleward edge of the cusp, large downward jets are present; they are characterized by a dawn-dusk component of the convection velocity opposite to the IMF By direction and a gradual evolution (velocity filter effect corresponding to an injection site located at the high-latitude magnetopause tailward of the cusp, with subsequent sunward convection. As one moves from the poleward edge into the exterior cusp proper, the plasma gradually becomes stagnant as the result of the mirroring and scattering of the aforementioned plasma flows. The existence of such a stagnant region (Stagnant Exterior Cusp: SEC is found in all events studied here even when the IMF By is large and the clock angle is ~90°. The SEC-magnetosheath boundary appears as a spatial structure that has a normal component of the magnetic field pointing inward, in accordance with a probable connection between the region and the magnetosheath (with northward field. This boundary generally has a deHoffmann-Teller velocity that is slow and oriented sunward and downward, compatible with a discontinuity propagating from a location near the high-latitude magnetopause. Although the tangential stress balance is not always satisfied, the SEC-magnetosheath boundary is possibly a rotational discontinuity. Just outside this boundary, there exists a clear sub-Alfvénic plasma depletion layer (PDL. These results are all consistent with the existence of a nearly steady reconnection site at the high-latitude magnetopause tailward of the cusp. We suggest that the stability of the external discontinuity (and of the whole region is maintained by the presence of the sub-Alfvénic PDL. However, examination of the electron data shows the presence of heated electrons propagating parallel to the magnetic

  2. The exterior cusp and its boundary with the magnetosheath: Cluster multi-event analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lavraud

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on the observation of three high-altitude cusp crossings by the Cluster spacecraft under steady northward IMF conditions. The focus of this study is on the exterior cusp and its boundaries. At the poleward edge of the cusp, large downward jets are present; they are characterized by a dawn-dusk component of the convection velocity opposite to the IMF By direction and a gradual evolution (velocity filter effect corresponding to an injection site located at the high-latitude magnetopause tailward of the cusp, with subsequent sunward convection. As one moves from the poleward edge into the exterior cusp proper, the plasma gradually becomes stagnant as the result of the mirroring and scattering of the aforementioned plasma flows. The existence of such a stagnant region (Stagnant Exterior Cusp: SEC is found in all events studied here even when the IMF By is large and the clock angle is ~90°. The SEC-magnetosheath boundary appears as a spatial structure that has a normal component of the magnetic field pointing inward, in accordance with a probable connection between the region and the magnetosheath (with northward field. This boundary generally has a deHoffmann-Teller velocity that is slow and oriented sunward and downward, compatible with a discontinuity propagating from a location near the high-latitude magnetopause. Although the tangential stress balance is not always satisfied, the SEC-magnetosheath boundary is possibly a rotational discontinuity. Just outside this boundary, there exists a clear sub-Alfvénic plasma depletion layer (PDL. These results are all consistent with the existence of a nearly steady reconnection site at the high-latitude magnetopause tailward of the cusp. We suggest that the stability of the external discontinuity (and of the whole region is maintained by the presence of the sub-Alfvénic PDL. However, examination of the electron data shows the presence of heated electrons

  3. An accurate method for calculation of stress intensification factors in elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillagou, P.; Carbonnier, J.L.; Berton, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of stress intensification factors in elbows is essential for global elastic calculations of a pipe line. Moreover, sound elastic basis are required for any plastic calculations. The currently used ASME values appear to be too conservative for combined loading configurations involving simultaneous torsion, in-plane and out-of-plane bending. This paper presents an approach to the calculation of ovalization, flexibility and stress intensification factors in an elbow and the adjacent straight portions. The proposed method is compared with shell and beam-type finite element calculations in the range of elbows currently used in French LMFBR loops, and is shown to provide results similar to shell-type finite element analysis for every combined loading configuration. (orig.)

  4. Non-linear intensification of Sahel rainfall as a possible dynamic response to future warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Jacob; Levermann, Anders

    2017-07-01

    Projections of the response of Sahel rainfall to future global warming diverge significantly. Meanwhile, paleoclimatic records suggest that Sahel rainfall is capable of abrupt transitions in response to gradual forcing. Here we present climate modeling evidence for the possibility of an abrupt intensification of Sahel rainfall under future climate change. Analyzing 30 coupled global climate model simulations, we identify seven models where central Sahel rainfall increases by 40 to 300 % over the 21st century, owing to a northward expansion of the West African monsoon domain. Rainfall in these models is non-linearly related to sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Atlantic and Mediterranean moisture source regions, intensifying abruptly beyond a certain SST warming level. We argue that this behavior is consistent with a self-amplifying dynamic-thermodynamical feedback, implying that the gradual increase in oceanic moisture availability under warming could trigger a sudden intensification of monsoon rainfall far inland of today's core monsoon region.

  5. Spatial and temporal dynamics of shifting cultivation in the middle-Amazonas river: Expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovac, Catarina Conte; Dutrieux, Loïc Paul; Siti, Latifah; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Bongers, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Shifting cultivation is the main land-use system transforming landscapes in riverine Amazonia. Increased concentration of the human population around villages and increasing market integration during the last decades may be causing agricultural intensification. Studies have shown that agricultural intensification, i.e. higher number of swidden-fallow cycles and shorter fallow periods, reduces crop productivity of swiddens and the regrowth capacity of fallows, undermining the resilience of the shifting cultivation system as a whole. We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics of shifting cultivation in Brazilian Amazonia to test the hypotheses that (i) agriculture has become more intensive over time, and (ii) patterns of land-use intensity are related to land accessibility and human population density. We applied a breakpoint-detection algorithm to Landsat time-series spanning three decades (1984-2015) and retrieved the temporal dynamics of shifting cultivation fields, which go through alternating phases of crop production (swidden) and secondary forest regrowth (fallow). We found that fallow-period length has decreased from 6.4 to 5.1 years on average, and that expansion over old-growth forest has slowed down over time. Shorter fallow periods and higher frequency of slash and burn cycles are practiced closer to residences and around larger villages. Our results indicate that shifting cultivation in riverine Amazonia has gone through a process of agricultural intensification in the past three decades. The resulting landscape is predominantly covered by young secondary forests (≤ 12 yrs old), and 20% of it have gone through intensive use. Reversing this trend and avoiding the negative consequences of agricultural intensification requires land use planning that accounts for the constraints of land use in riverine areas.

  6. Intensification of hot extremes in the United States in the next three decades (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Ashfaq, M.

    2010-12-01

    Governments are currently considering policies that will limit greenhouse gas concentrations, including negotiation of an international treaty to replace the expiring Kyoto Protocol. Existing mitigation targets have arisen primarily from political negotiations, and the ability of such policies to avoid dangerous impacts is still uncertain. One important source of climate change impact is extreme heat, which can cause substantial damage, including to human health, agricultural systems, food security, and energy and water supply and delivery. Because the atmospheric conditions that cause hot extremes can result from both large- and fine-scale climate processes, we quantify the risk of extreme heat in the United States using a high-resolution, transient, multi-decadal, ensemble climate model experiment, along with a large suite of global climate model experiments. We find that substantial intensification of hot extremes could occur within the next 3 decades, below the 2 degrees C global warming target currently being considered by policy makers. This intensification of hot extremes includes substantial increases in the occurrence of the hottest season and longest heat wave of the second half of the 20th century. We find that the intensification is associated with a shift towards more anticyclonic atmospheric circulation during the warm season, along with warm-season drying over much of the U.S. Further, the sign of soil-moisture change and coupling with temperature and precipitation is robust across the climate model ensembles. The possibility that intensification of hot extremes could result from relatively small increases in greenhouse gas concentrations suggests that constraining global warming to 2 degrees C may not be sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change.

  7. Short Communication: Lack of Effect of Maraviroc Intensification on Blood and Gut Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiraboschi, Juan; Ray, Shuvra; Patel, Kemal; Pace, Matt; Phalora, Prabhjeet; Robinson, Nicola; Hopkins, Emily; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Wang, Yanzhong; Davies, Olubanke; Mant, Christine; Cason, John; Kaye, Steve; Sanderson, Jeremy; Fidler, Sarah; Klenerman, Paul; Frater, John; Fox, Julie

    2017-02-01

    We show that intensification of treatment with maraviroc in patients chronically infected with HIV-1 receiving successful long-term antiretroviral therapy was not associated with improvements in HIV-related morbidity, HIV reservoir, microbial translocation, immune activation, or immune exhaustion in either gut or peripheral blood. The measurement of reservoir in both gut and blood longitudinally contributes to a paucity of data in the area.

  8. Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

    2007-03-20

    Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by approximately 75% and species richness of forest-using species by approximately 60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by approximately 40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends.

  9. Land-use intensification impact on phosphorus fractions in highly weathered tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranguit, Deejay; Guillaume, Thomas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Deforestation and land-use intensification in tropics have increased over the past decades, driven by the demand for agricultural products. Despite the fact that phosphorus (P) is one of the main limiting nutrients for agricultural productivity in the tropics, the effect of land-use intensification on P availability remains unclear. The objective was to assess the impacts of land-use intensification on soil inorganic and organic P fractions of different availability (Hedley sequential fractionation) and P stocks in highly weathered tropical soils. We compared the P availability under extensive land-use (rubber agroforest) and intensive land-use with moderate fertilization (rubber monoculture plantations) or high fertilization (oil palm monoculture plantations) in Indonesia. The phosphorus stock was dominated by inorganic forms (60 to 85%) in all land-use types. Fertilizer application increased easily-available inorganic P (i.e., H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi) in intensive rubber and oil palm plantations compared to agroforest. However, the easily-available organic P (NaHCO3-extractable Po) was reduced by half under oil palm and rubber. The decrease of moderately available and non-available P by land-use intensification means that fertilization maintains only short-term soil fertility that is not sustainable in the long run due to the depletion of P reserves. The mechanisms of this P reserve depletion are: soil erosion (here assessed by C/P ratio), mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and export of P with yield products. Easily-available P fractions (i.e., H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi and Po) and total organic P were strongly positively correlated with carbon content suggesting that SOM plays a critical role in maintaining P availability. Therefore, the ecologically based management is necessary in mitigating SOM losses to increase the sustainability of agricultural production in P limited highly weathered tropical soils.

  10. Agricultural intensification and biodiversity partitioning in European landscapes comparing plants, carabids, and birds

    OpenAIRE

    Flohre, Andreas; Fischer, Christina; Aavik, Tsipe; Bengtsson, Jan; Berendse, Frank; Bommarco, Riccardo; Ceryngier, Piotr; Clement, Lars W.; Dennis, Christopher; Eggers, Sönke; Emmerson, Mark Charles; Geiger, Flavia; Guerrero, Irene; Hawro, Violetta; Inchausti, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Ecological Applications 21. 5 (2011): 1772-1781 copyright by the Ecological Society of America Effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on biodiversity are often assessed on the plot scale, although processes determining diversity also operate on larger spatial scales. Here, we analyzed the diversity of vascular plants, carabid beetles, and birds in agricultural landscapes in cereal crop fields at the field (n=1350), farm (n=270), and European-region (n= 9) scale. We partitioned divers...

  11. The Intensification of Work in Spain (2007-2011: Teamwork and Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teamwork

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyse the relationship between the intensification of work and organizational flexibility. Specifically, we focus on teamwork, considered as an emblematic organizational strategy of flexible and efficient organizations. The relationship between teamwork, intensity of work and stress is examined using data from Spain's National Survey on Working Conditions. Based on the results, we propose that analysis of the intensity of work be incorporated into social dialogue and the prevention of occupational risks.

  12. Mental illness and intensification of diabetes medications: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Frayne, Susan M; Holmes, Tyson H; Berg, Eric; Goldstein, Mary K; Berlowitz, Dan R; Miller, Donald R; Pogach, Leonard M; Laungani, Kaajal J; Lee, Tina T; Moos, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health condition (MHC) comorbidity is associated with lower intensity care in multiple clinical scenarios. However, little is known about the effect of MHC upon clinicians? decisions about intensifying antiglycemic medications in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control. We examined whether delay in intensification of antiglycemic medications in response to an elevated Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value is longer for patients with MHC than for those without MHC, and whether an...

  13. Agricultural intensification exacerbates spillover effects on soil biogeochemistry in adjacent forest remnants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael K Didham

    Full Text Available Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could 'spare' further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables, and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone

  14. Effects of land use intensification on fish assemblages in Mediterranean climate streams

    OpenAIRE

    Matono, Paula; Sousa, Dárcio; Ilheu, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Southern Portugal is experiencing a rapid change in land use due to the spread of intensive farming systems, namely olive production systems, which can cause strong negative environmental impacts and affect the ecological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to identify the main environmental disturbances related with olive grove intensification on Mediterranean climate streams in southern Portugal, and to evaluate their effects on fish assemblage structure and integrity. Twenty ...

  15. Online Chats to Assess Stakeholder Perceptions of Meat Chicken Intensification and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Tiffani J; Rohlf, Vanessa I; Coleman, Grahame J; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2016-10-27

    Evidence suggests that there is variation in support for specific chicken farming practices amongst stakeholder groups, and this should be explored in more detail to understand the nature of these differences and work towards convergence. Online focus groups were used to assess attitudes to animal welfare in meat chicken farming in this pilot study. Across six online chats, 25 participants (general public, n = 8; animal advocacy group, n = 11, meat chicken industry, n = 3; research or veterinary practice who had experience with poultry but no declared industry affiliation, n = 3) discussed meat chicken intensification and welfare. Of those, 21 participants completed pre- and post-chat surveys gauging perceptions and objective knowledge about meat chicken management. Main reasons for intensification support were perceptions of improved bird health, and perceptions that it is a cost-effective, sustainable farming system. Reasons for opposition included perceptions that a large number of birds kept are in close proximity and have limited ability to perform natural behaviours. Misunderstandings about current practices were clarified in chats which contained industry representation. Participants agreed on the need for enforceable standards and industry transparency. Industry-affiliated members rated welfare of meat chickens higher, and gave lower ratings for the importance of natural living, than other stakeholder groups (both p = 0.001). On average, while objective knowledge of intensification increased after chat participation (p = 0.03), general welfare ratings and support for intensification did not change over time, counter to assertions that lack of knowledge results in lack of support for some practices.

  16. Online Chats to Assess Stakeholder Perceptions of Meat Chicken Intensification and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffani J. Howell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that there is variation in support for specific chicken farming practices amongst stakeholder groups, and this should be explored in more detail to understand the nature of these differences and work towards convergence. Online focus groups were used to assess attitudes to animal welfare in meat chicken farming in this pilot study. Across six online chats, 25 participants (general public, n = 8; animal advocacy group, n = 11, meat chicken industry, n = 3; research or veterinary practice who had experience with poultry but no declared industry affiliation, n = 3 discussed meat chicken intensification and welfare. Of those, 21 participants completed pre- and post-chat surveys gauging perceptions and objective knowledge about meat chicken management. Main reasons for intensification support were perceptions of improved bird health, and perceptions that it is a cost-effective, sustainable farming system. Reasons for opposition included perceptions that a large number of birds kept are in close proximity and have limited ability to perform natural behaviours. Misunderstandings about current practices were clarified in chats which contained industry representation. Participants agreed on the need for enforceable standards and industry transparency. Industry-affiliated members rated welfare of meat chickens higher, and gave lower ratings for the importance of natural living, than other stakeholder groups (both p = 0.001. On average, while objective knowledge of intensification increased after chat participation (p = 0.03, general welfare ratings and support for intensification did not change over time, counter to assertions that lack of knowledge results in lack of support for some practices.

  17. Autonomous Electrothermal Facility for Oil Recovery Intensification Fed by Wind Driven Power Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Aleksey A.; Dobush, Vasiliy S.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the structure of autonomous facility fed by wind driven power unit for intensification of viscous and heavy crude oil recovery by means of heat impact on productive strata. Computer based service simulation of this facility was performed. Operational energy characteristics were obtained for various operational modes of facility. The optimal resistance of heating element of the downhole heater was determined for maximum operating efficiency of wind power unit.

  18. Process intensification on membrane-based process for blackcurrant juice concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud Villy

    Juice concentrate production is a field where process intensification and novel concentration processes need to be implemented. The paper presents a systematic approach for process synthesis based on membrane processes for the concentration of blackcurrant juice, exemplified by the aroma recovery...... using combinations of vacuum membrane distillation and traditional distillation. Furthermore, the paper further suggests a novel method for the combination of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and membrane distillation for the concentration of the dearomatized juice....

  19. Analysis of the Arctic system for freshwater cycle intensification: Observations and expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, M.A.; Steele, M.; Holland, M.M.; Adam, J.C.; Cherry, J.E.; Francis, J.A.; Groisman, P.Y.; Hinzman, L.D.; Huntington, T.G.; Kane, D.L.; Kimball, J.S.; Kwok, R.; Lammers, R.B.; Lee, C.M.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; McDonald, K.C.; Podest, E.; Pundsack, J.W.; Rudels, B.; Serreze, Mark C.; Shiklomanov, A.; Skagseth, O.; Troy, T.J.; Vorosmarty, C.J.; Wensnahan, M.; Wood, E.F.; Woodgate, R.; Yang, D.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, T.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrologic cycle intensification is an expected manifestation of a warming climate. Although positive trends in several global average quantities have been reported, no previous studies have documented broad intensification across elements of the Arctic freshwater cycle (FWC). In this study, the authors examine the character and quantitative significance of changes in annual precipitation, evapotranspiration, and river discharge across the terrestrial pan-Arctic over the past several decades from observations and a suite of coupled general circulation models (GCMs). Trends in freshwater flux and storage derived from observations across the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas are also described. With few exceptions, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and river discharge fluxes from observations and the GCMs exhibit positive trends. Significant positive trends above the 90% confidence level, however, are not present for all of the observations. Greater confidence in the GCM trends arises through lower interannual variability relative to trend magnitude. Put another way, intrinsic variability in the observations tends to limit confidence in trend robustness. Ocean fluxes are less certain, primarily because of the lack of long-term observations. Where available, salinity and volume flux data suggest some decrease in saltwater inflow to the Barents Sea (i.e., a decrease in freshwater outflow) in recent decades. A decline in freshwater storage across the central Arctic Ocean and suggestions that large-scale circulation plays a dominant role in freshwater trends raise questions as to whether Arctic Ocean freshwater flows are intensifying. Although oceanic fluxes of freshwater are highly variable and consistent trends are difficult to verify, the other components of the Arctic FWC do show consistent positive trends over recent decades. The broad-scale increases provide evidence that the Arctic FWC is experiencing intensification. Efforts that aim to develop an adequate

  20. Process intensification on membrane-based process for blackcurrant juice concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud Villy

    using combinations of vacuum membrane distillation and traditional distillation. Furthermore, the paper further suggests a novel method for the combination of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and membrane distillation for the concentration of the dearomatized juice.......Juice concentrate production is a field where process intensification and novel concentration processes need to be implemented. The paper presents a systematic approach for process synthesis based on membrane processes for the concentration of blackcurrant juice, exemplified by the aroma recovery...

  1. Agricultural Intensification as a Mechanism of Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, P.; Calvin, K. V.; le Page, Y.; Patel, P.; West, T. O.; Wise, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The research, policy, and NGO communities have devoted significant attention to the potential for agricultural intensification, or closure of "yield gaps," to alleviate future global hunger, poverty, climate change impacts, and other threats. However, because the research to this point has focused on biophysically attainable yields—assuming optimal choices under ideal conditions—the presently available work has not yet addressed the likely responses of the agricultural sector to real-world conditions in the future. This study investigates endogenous agricultural intensification in response to global climate change impacts—that is, intensification independent of policies or other exogenous interventions to promote yield gap closure. The framework for the analysis is a set of scenarios to 2100 in the GCAM global integrated assessment model, enhanced to include endogenous irrigation, fertilizer application, and yields, in each of 283 land use regions, with maximum yields based on the 95th percentile of attainable yields in a recent global assessment. We assess three levels of agricultural climate impacts, using recent global gridded crop model datasets: none, low (LPJmL), and high (Pegasus). Applying formulations for decomposition of climate change impacts response developed in prior AgMIP work, we find that at the global level, availability of high-yielding technologies mitigates price shocks and shifts the agricultural sector's climate response modestly towards intensification, away from cropland expansion and reduced production. At the regional level, the behavior is more complex; nevertheless, availability of high-yielding production technologies enhances the inter-regional shifts in agricultural production that are induced by climate change, complemented by commensurate changes in trade patterns. The results highlight the importance of policies to facilitate yield gap closure and inter-regional trade as mechanisms for adapting to climate change

  2. Improvement of Soil Biology Characteristics at Paddy Field by System of Rice Intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Widyatmani Sih Dewi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method in improving the biological properties of paddy soil. The indicators of improvement were measured by the number of earthworm feces (cast), and the population of some microbial and nutrient content in the cast. The experiments were performed by comparing the three methods, namely: (1) SRI, (2) semi-conventional, and (3) conventional, using Randomized Completely Block Design. Each treatment was repeated nine tim...

  3. Spatial and Temporal Potato Intensification Drives Insecticide Resistance in the Specialist Herbivore, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S Huseth

    Full Text Available Landscape-scale intensification of individual crops and pesticide use that is associated with this intensification is an emerging, environmental problem that is expected to have unequal effects on pests with different lifecycles, host ranges, and dispersal abilities. We investigate if intensification of a single crop in an agroecosystem has a direct effect on insecticide resistance in a specialist insect herbivore. Using a major potato pest, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, we measured imidacloprid (neonicotinoid resistance in populations across a spatiotemporal crop production gradient where potato production has increased in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA. We found that concurrent estimates of area and temporal frequency of potato production better described patterns of imidacloprid resistance among L. decemlineata populations than general measures of agricultural production (% cropland, landscape diversity. This study defines the effects individual crop rotation patterns can have on specialist herbivore insecticide resistance in an agroecosystem context, and how impacts of intensive production can be estimated with general estimates of insecticide use. Our results provide empirical evidence that variation in the intensity of neonicotinoid-treated potato in an agricultural landscape can have unequal impacts on L. decemlineata insecticide insensitivity, a process that can lead to resistance and locally intensive insecticide use. Our study provides a novel approach applicable in other agricultural systems to estimate impacts of crop rotation, increased pesticide dependence, insecticide resistance, and external costs of pest management practices on ecosystem health.

  4. Matrix intensification alters avian functional group composition in adjacent rainforest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining.

  5. Does land-use intensification decrease plant phylogenetic diversity in local grasslands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Eugen; Prati, Daniel; Durka, Walter; Michalski, Stefan; Fischer, Markus; Schmitt, Barbara; Blaser, Stefan; Brändle, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity (PD) has been successfully used as a complement to classical measures of biological diversity such as species richness or functional diversity. By considering the phylogenetic history of species, PD broadly summarizes the trait space within a community. This covers amongst others complex physiological or biochemical traits that are often not considered in estimates of functional diversity, but may be important for the understanding of community assembly and the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functions. In this study we analyzed the relationship between PD of plant communities and land-use intensification in 150 local grassland plots in three regions in Germany. Specifically we asked whether PD decreases with land-use intensification and if so, whether the relationship is robust across different regions. Overall, we found that species richness decreased along land-use gradients the results however differed for common and rare species assemblages. PD only weakly decreased with increasing land-use intensity. The strength of the relationship thereby varied among regions and PD metrics used. From our results we suggest that there is no general relationship between PD and land-use intensification probably due to lack of phylogenetic conservatism in land-use sensitive traits. Nevertheless, we suggest that depending on specific regional idiosyncrasies the consideration of PD as a complement to other measures of diversity can be useful.

  6. Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassman, K G

    1999-05-25

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets, and four major cropping systems in which these cereals are grown represent the foundation of human food supply. Yield per unit time and land has increased markedly during the past 30 years in these systems, a result of intensified crop management involving improved germplasm, greater inputs of fertilizer, production of two or more crops per year on the same piece of land, and irrigation. Meeting future food demand while minimizing expansion of cultivated area primarily will depend on continued intensification of these same four systems. The manner in which further intensification is achieved, however, will differ markedly from the past because the exploitable gap between average farm yields and genetic yield potential is closing. At present, the rate of increase in yield potential is much less than the expected increase in demand. Hence, average farm yields must reach 70-80% of the yield potential ceiling within 30 years in each of these major cereal systems. Achieving consistent production at these high levels without causing environmental damage requires improvements in soil quality and precise management of all production factors in time and space. The scope of the scientific challenge related to these objectives is discussed. It is concluded that major scientific breakthroughs must occur in basic plant physiology, ecophysiology, agroecology, and soil science to achieve the ecological intensification that is needed to meet the expected increase in food demand.

  7. Penampilan Reproduksi Induk Babi Landrace yang Dipelihara Secara Intensif di Kabupaten Badung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Octarina Purba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui penampilan reproduksi induk babi landrace yang dipelihara secara intensif di Kabupaten Badung. Penelitian ini bersifat deksriptif dengan melakukan wawancara dan mengamati secara langsung di peternakan babi intensif di kecamatan Abiansemal, Petang dan Mengwi Kabupaten Badung, tentang penampilan reproduksi yang meliputi  lama kebuntingan, litter size, umur sapih, dan berat sapih. Pengamatan dan pencatatan kinerja reproduksi dilakukan pada 106 ekor induk babi landrace yang dibagi empat kelompok yaitu kelompok induk babi yang pertama kali melahirkan, kedua kali melahirkan, ketiga kali melahirkan, dan keempat kali melahirkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lama kebuntingan induk babi tidak berbeda nyata (p>0.05, namun relatif konstan dengan kisaran 114 hari atau 3 bulan 3 minggu 3 hari. Adanya perbedaan litter size pada kelahiran pertama dengan  kedua mungkin disebabkan karena adanya perbedaan kualitas induk yang dipelihara, namun pada kelahiran berikutnya litter size cenderung meningkat. Umur sapih yang dilakukan peternak babi intensif di Kabupaten Badung tidak berbeda nyata (p>0.05, dengan kisaran 4 minggu dengan berat  sapih mencapai standar. Simpulan dari penelitian ini yaitu lama kebuntingan induk babi, umur sapih dan berat sapih tidak berbeda nyata (p>0.05, namun litter size pada kelahiran pertama dan kedua berbeda dimana pada kelahiran berikutnya litter size cenderung meningkat.

  8. Evaluating strategies for sustainable intensification of U.S. agriculture through the Long-Term Agroecosystem Research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable intensification is an emerging model for agriculture designed to reconcile accelerating global demand for agricultural products with long-term environmental stewardship. Defined here as increasing agricultural production while maintaining or improving environmental quality, sustainable i...

  9. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  10. Treatment intensification has no effect on the HIV-1 central nervous system infection in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Aylin; Verhofstede, Chris; D'Avolio, Antonio; Watson, Victoria; Hagberg, Lars; Fuchs, Dietmar; Svennerholm, Bo; Gisslén, Magnus

    2010-12-15

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) significantly reduces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-1 RNA levels and residual viremia is less frequently found in CSF than in blood. However, persistent intrathecal immunoactivation is common, even after several years of ART. To investigate whether low-level CSF viremia and residual immunoactivation within the central nervous system (CNS) derive from ongoing local viral replication, we conducted a study of treatment intensification in patients on effective ART. Ten patients on ART with plasma HIV RNA 18 months were included. Intensification was given for in total 8 weeks: 4 weeks with maraviroc or lopinavir/ritonavir (good CNS penetration), and 4 weeks with enfuvirtide (poor CNS penetration). Lumbar punctures were performed 4 weeks before, at intensification commencement, at switchover after 4 weeks, at the conclusion of, and 4 weeks after the intensification period. No significant changes in HIV RNA, neopterin, β2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin G index, albumin ratio, and CD4(+) T-cell count were observed, either in CSF or blood, neither before, during, nor after the intensification periods. ART intensification did not reduce residual CSF HIV RNA levels or intrathecal immunoactivation in patients on ART. These findings do not support an ongoing viral replication in CNS.

  11. The Rapid Intensification of Typhoon Soudelor (2015) Explored through Next-Generation Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, E.; Braun, S. A.; Zhang, F.

    2017-12-01

    The dynamics that govern the intensification of tropical cyclones (TC) are dominated by rapidly evolving moist convective processes in the inner-core region. Remotely sensed satellite observations are typically available but in the past have lacked the necessary resolution to sufficiently examine TC intensification processes. However, as a result of the recent launch of next-generation high-resolution satellites (JMA's Himawari-8 and NOAA/NASA's GOES-16), the spatial and temporal frequency of remotely-sensed observations of TCs have increased significantly. This study utilizes brightness temperatures observed by the Advanced Himawari Imager to examine the structure of Typhoon Soudelor (2015) throughout its rapid intensification (RI) from a tropical storm to a super typhoon. Wavenumber decompositions are performed on brightness temperature fields that correspond to channels sensitive to upper-, mid-, and lower-level water vapor, and IR longwave radiation, to study wave features associated with the inner-core region. A scale-separation is also performed to assess the degree to which the intensification processes are dominated by phenomenon of various wavelengths. Higher-order wavenumbers reveal asymmetric features that propagate outwards from the storm on short time scales ( 1-2 h). The identification of these waves and their contribution to intensification is ongoing. A deterministic forecast of Typhoon Soudelor performed using a convection-permitting WRF simulation coupled to an Ensemble Kalman Filter that assimilates brightness temperatures, accurately captures the TCs RI event. The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) is used to produce simulated brightness temperature fields for the applicable channels. The model demonstrates the ability to reproduce the observed brightness temperatures in great detail, including smaller-scale features such as primary rainbands and the eye; however, a uniform warm bias is present. It is hypothesized that this likely results

  12. Evaluating strategies for sustainable intensification of US agriculture through the Long-Term Agroecosystem Research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegal, S.; Bestelmeyer, B. T.; Archer, D. W.; Augustine, D. J.; Boughton, E. H.; Boughton, R. K.; Cavigelli, M. A.; Clark, P. E.; Derner, J. D.; Duncan, E. W.; Hapeman, C. J.; Harmel, R. D.; Heilman, P.; Holly, M. A.; Huggins, D. R.; King, K.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Liebig, M. A.; Locke, M. A.; McCarty, G. W.; Millar, N.; Mirsky, S. B.; Moorman, T. B.; Pierson, F. B.; Rigby, J. R.; Robertson, G. P.; Steiner, J. L.; Strickland, T. C.; Swain, H. M.; Wienhold, B. J.; Wulfhorst, J. D.; Yost, M. A.; Walthall, C. L.

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable intensification is an emerging model for agriculture designed to reconcile accelerating global demand for agricultural products with long-term environmental stewardship. Defined here as increasing agricultural production while maintaining or improving environmental quality, sustainable intensification hinges upon decision-making by agricultural producers, consumers, and policy-makers. The Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network was established to inform these decisions. Here we introduce the LTAR Common Experiment, through which scientists and partnering producers in US croplands, rangelands, and pasturelands are conducting 21 independent but coordinated experiments. Each local effort compares the outcomes of a predominant, conventional production system in the region (‘business as usual’) with a system hypothesized to advance sustainable intensification (‘aspirational’). Following the logic of a conceptual model of interactions between agriculture, economics, society, and the environment, we identified commonalities among the 21 experiments in terms of (a) concerns about business-as-usual production, (b) ‘aspirational outcomes’ motivating research into alternatives, (c) strategies for achieving the outcomes, (d) practices that support the strategies, and (e) relationships between practice outreach and adoption. Network-wide, concerns about business as usual include the costs of inputs, opportunities lost to uniform management approaches, and vulnerability to accelerating environmental changes. Motivated by environmental, economic, and societal outcomes, scientists and partnering producers are investigating 15 practices in aspirational treatments to sustainably intensify agriculture, from crop diversification to ecological restoration. Collectively, the aspirational treatments reveal four general strategies for sustainable intensification: (1) reducing reliance on inputs through ecological intensification, (2) diversifying management

  13. KAJIAN INPUT ENERGI PADA BUDIDAYA PADI METODE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION Studies on Energy Input in System of Rice Intensification Method of Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Purwantana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available System of Rice Intensification (SRI is a rice cultivation method that intensively control and manage macro and micro nutrients as well as irrigation. This paper quantifies and compares the energy uses of SRI and conventional rice cultiva- tion systems. The study was conducted at some SRI’s experimental plots in the districts of Sleman, Kulonprogo, and Bantul, the province of Yogyakarta. The calculation of the energy was based on the farmers’ work schedule, the time required for each operation, the number of laborers, machines, tools, fuel, and all materials and inputs used. The result shows that SRI method consumed 35% less energy to conventional rice cultivation. Energy inputs from seed, water, fertilizer and pesticide were significantly reduces. However, there was higher input of human energy due to compost- ing, land preparation and weeding operations. The specific energy of SRI method was 1.96 MJ ha-1 lower than conven- tional method of 4.43 MJ ha-1. In the SRI method, 56.2 % of energy consumed was classified as direct energy and 43.8% was indirect energy. The SRI method used 61.9 % of renewable energy and 38.1 % of non-renewable energy. The working efficiency in composting and weeding operations should be improved in perspective of machine and tools to reduce the use of human energy. ABSTRAK System of Rice Intensification (SRI, merupakan suatu metode budidaya padi secara intensif dengan pengendalian unsur-unsur hara makro dan mikro disertai pengendalian dan pengaturan kebutuhan air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis penggunaan energi dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan penghematan energi pada budidaya padi SRI. Pe- nelitian dilakukan di Kabupaten Sleman, Kulonprogo, dan Bantul, Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Pengamatan dilakukan pada plot-plot percobaan budidaya padi SRI dengan melakukan audit seluruh input energi selama proses budidaya dan dikomparasikan dengan input energi pada budidaya padi cara konvensional. Hasil

  14. Development of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.

    1980-01-01

    Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

  15. Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  16. Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  17. Beyond the Boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Whether celebratory or critical, STS research on science-industry relations has focused on the blurring of boundaries and hybridization of codes and practices. However, the vocabulary of boundary and hybrid tends to reify science and industry as separate in the attempt to map their relation...... as the negotiation of a preexisting science-industry boundary. Rather, viability is obtained through a strategy of "circumventing" the science-industry food chain and "sequestering" biotech components within the research center. Symbiosis allows academic scientists to do biology while at the same time demonstrating...

  18. Under pressure: Climate change, upwelling and eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol eGarcía-Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The IPCC AR5 provided an overview of the likely effects of climate change on Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS, stimulating increased interest in research examining the issue. We use these recent studies to develop a new synthesis describing climate change impacts on EBUS. We find that model and observational data suggest coastal upwelling-favorable winds in poleward portions of EBUS have intensified and will continue to do so in the future. Although evidence is weak in data that are presently available, future projections show that this pattern might be driven by changes in the positioning of the oceanic high-pressure systems rather than by deepening of the continental low-pressure systems, as previously proposed. There is low confidence regarding the future effects of climate change on coastal temperatures and biogeochemistry due to uncertainty in the countervailing responses to increasing upwelling and coastal warming, the latter of which could increase thermal stratification and render upwelling less effective in lifting nutrient-rich deep waters into the photic zone. Although predictions of ecosystem responses are uncertain, EBUS experience considerable natural variability and may be inherently resilient. However, multi-trophic level, end-to-end (i.e., winds to whales studies are needed to resolve the resilience of EBUS to climate change, especially their response to long-term trends or extremes that exceed pre-industrial ranges.

  19. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...

  20. Allegheny County Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the Allegheny County boundary. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  1. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  2. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  3. Site Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  4. Relationships, not boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Gene; Freedman, Jill

    2002-01-01

    The authors find it more useful to pay attention to relationships than to boundaries. By focusing attention on bounded, individual psychological issues, the metaphor of boundaries can distract helping professionals from thinking about inequities of power. It oversimplifies a complex issue, inviting us to ignore discourses around gender, race, class, culture, and the like that support injustice, abuse, and exploitation. Making boundaries a central metaphor for ethical practice can keep us from critically examining the effects of distance, withdrawal, and non-participation. The authors describe how it is possible to examine the practical, moral, and ethical effects of our participation in relationships by focusing on just relationships rather than on boundaries. They give illustrations and clinical examples of relationally-focused ethical practices that derive from a narrative approach to therapy.

  5. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  6. HUC 8 Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  7. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  8. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  9. Attraction, with Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Avik; Krishnan, Chethan

    2012-01-01

    We study the basin of attraction of static extremal black holes, in the concrete setting of the STU model. By finding a connection to a decoupled Toda-like system and solving it exactly, we find a simple way to characterize the attraction basin via competing behaviors of certain parameters. The boundaries of attraction arise in the various limits where these parameters degenerate to zero. We find that these boundaries are generalizations of the recently introduced (extremal) subtracted geomet...

  10. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    complexion transitions occur often in doped titanates, such as BaTiO3 and SrTiO3, and have been utilized to tailor microstructural develop- ment [275,276...Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 Despite decades of research, efforts to identify grain boundary complexion transitions in pure metals via...evidence suggesting grain boundary complexion transitions in pure metals has existed for decades. For example, researchers have reported anomalies and

  11. Sensitivity of Physiological and Psychological Markers to Training Load Intensification in Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the sensitivity of; performance in the countermovement vertical Jump (CMJ; the Recovery and Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport; the Total Quality Recovery Scale (TQR and the creatine kinase (CK to the deliberate intensification of volleyball training loads. For this purpose 8 athletes underwent a training period (FP of 11 days of deliberate training load (TL intensification followed by a second period (SP of 14 days of reduction of loads (IT group. A further 8 athletes continued training with normal TL (NT group. Both groups were tested before the FP (baseline, after the FP and after the SP. The TL evaluated using the session rating of perceived exertion method (session-RPE was higher after the FP compared to the SP, and higher in the IT group, compared to the NT group. The CMJ did not change in either group (p > 0.05. In the IT group, the RESTQ-Sport was altered after the FP compared to both the baseline and the SP (p < 0.05, while no change was observed in the NT group. In the IT group, the CK increased and the TQR decreased after the FP compared to both the baseline and after the SP and were higher and lower, respectively, than the NT group (p < 0.05. The results suggest that performance in the CMJ is not a sensitive variable to the fatigue caused by intensification of training loads during a pre-competitive period in volleyball, whereas CK, TQR and RESTQ-Sport were shown to be sensitive measures.

  12. Nursing in Times of Neoliberal Change: An Ethnographic Study of Nurses’ Experiences of Work Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Selberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Through an ethnographic study of nurses’ experiences of work intensification, this article shows how nurses respond to and act upon neoliberal transformations of work. The article identifies and explores those transformations considered by the informants, nurses working in public sector hospital wards, as central to changing conditions of work and experiences of work intensifications. It further analyzes nurses’ responses toward these transformations and locates these responses within a particular form of femininity evolving from rationalities of care, nurses’ conditions within the organization, and classed and gendered experiences of care work. The article illustrates that in times of neoliberal change and public sector resource depletion, nurses respond to women’s traditional caring responsibilities as well as to professional commitments and cover for the organization. Maintaining the level of frontline service is contingent on increased exploitation and performance control of ward nurses, and their ability and willingness to sacrifice their own time and health for the sake of their patients. The article argues that in the case of ward nurses in the Swedish public sector, work intensification is a multilayered process propelled by three intersecting forces: austerity ideology linked to the neoliberal transformation of the welfare state and public sector retrenchment; explicit care rationalities impelled by aspirations of the nursing profession to establish, render visible, and expand the nursing field both in relation to the medical profession and in relation to so-called unskilled care work performed by assistant nurses and auxiliaries; and the progressive aspect of New Public Management, which challenges the power and authority of the professions and contributes to strengthening the positions of clients and patients.

  13. Urban Intensification and Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa: Impacts on Urban Agriculture and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzokwe, V. N. E. N.; Muchelo, R. O.; Odeh, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), urban intensification and expansion are increasing at alarming rates due to rapid population growth and rural-to-urban migration. This has led to the premise that the proportion of SSA urban residents most vulnerable to food insecurity is the highest in the world. Using a focused survey and multi-temporal (decadal) land use/cover classification of Landsat images, we explored the effect of urban intensification and expansion on urban agriculture and food security, focusing on a megacity and a regional center in Uganda: Kampala and Mbarara, respectively. We found that food insecurity arose due to a number of reasons, among which are: i) expansion and intensification of of urban settlements into previously productive agricultural lands in urban and peri-urban areas; ii) loss of predominantly young (rural agricultural) adult labor force to urban centers, leading to decline in rural food production; iii) lack of proper urban planning incorporating green and agricultural development leading to low productive market garden systems. We discussed these outcomes in light of existing studies which estimated that urban agriculture alone supports over 800 million people globally and accounts for 15-20% of world food supply. In spite of this relatively low contribution by urban/peri-urban agriculture, it probably accounts for higher proportion of food supply to urban poor in SSA and thus are most vulnerable to the loss of urban and peri-urban agricultural land. Further recommendations require policy makers and urban planners to team up to design a suitable framework for sustainable urban planning and development.

  14. International trade, and land use intensification and spatial reorganization explain Costa Rica’s forest transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadin, I.; Meyfroidt, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    While tropical deforestation remains widespread, some countries experienced a forest transition—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Costa Rica had one of the highest deforestation rates in the 1980s and is now considered as a model of environmental sustainability, despite being a major producer of bananas and pineapples. We tested three land use processes that are thought to facilitate forest transitions. First, forest transitions may be accompanied by land use displacement through international trade of land-based products, which may undermine the global-scale environmental benefits of national forest protection. Second, reforestation is often associated with land use intensification in agriculture and forestry, allowing for land sparing. Third, this intensification may partly result from a geographical redistribution of land use at the sub-national scale to better match land use with land suitability. These hypotheses were verified for Costa Rica’s forest transition. We also tested whether forest increased mainly in regions with a low ecological value and agriculture expanded in regions with a high ecological value. Intensification and land use redistribution accounted for 76% of land spared during the forest transition, with 32% of this spared area corresponding to net reforestation. Decreasing meat exports led to a contraction of pastures, freeing an area equivalent to 80% of the reforested area. The forest transition in Costa Rica was environmentally beneficial at the global scale, with the reforested area over 1989-2013 corresponding to 130% of the land use displaced abroad through imports of agricultural products. However, expansion of export-oriented cropland caused deforestation in the most ecologically valuable regions of Costa Rica. Moreover, wood extraction from forest plantations increased to produce the pallets needed to export fruits. This highlights the importance of a multi-scale analysis when evaluating causes and impacts of

  15. Spatial modeling of HIV cryptic viremia and 2-LTR formation during raltegravir intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, E Fabian; Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2014-03-21

    Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) can suppress plasma HIV below the limit of detection in normal assays. Recently reported results suggest that viral replication may continue in some patients, despite undetectable levels in the blood. It has been suggested that the appearance of the circularized episomal HIV DNA artifact 2-LTR following treatment intensification with the integrase inhibitor raltegravir is a marker of ongoing viral replication. Other work has suggested that lymphoid organs may be a site of reduced antiviral penetration and increased viral production. In this study we model the hypothesis that this ongoing replication occurs in lymphoid follicle sanctuary sites and investigate the patterns of 2-LTR formation expected after raltegravir application. Experimental data is used to estimate the reaction and diffusion parameters in the model, and Monte-Carlo simulations are used to explore model behavior subject to variation in these rates. The results suggest that conditions for the formation of an observed transient peak in 2-LTR formation following raltegravir intensification include a sanctuary site diameter larger than 0.2mm, a viral basic reproductive ratio within the site larger than 1, and a total volume of active sanctuary sites above 20mL. Significant levels of uncontrolled replication can occur in the sanctuary sites without measurable changes in the plasma viral load. By contrast, subcritical replication (where the basic reproductive ratio of the virus is less than 1 in all sites) always results in monotonic increases of measured 2-LTR following raltegravir intensification, occurring at levels below the limit of detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of mid-level vortex in the intensification and weakening of tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Govindan; Gohil, Kanishk

    2017-10-01

    The present study examines the dynamics of mid-tropospheric vortex during cyclogenesis and quantifies the importance of such vortex developments in the intensification of tropical cyclone. The genesis of tropical cyclones are investigated based on two most widely accepted theories that explain the mechanism of cyclone formation namely `top-down' and `bottom-up' dynamics. The Weather Research and Forecast model is employed to generate high resolution dataset required for analysis. The development of the mid-level vortex was analyzed with regard to the evolution of potential vorticity (PV), relative vorticity (RV) and vertical wind shear. Two tropical cyclones which include the developing cyclone, Hudhud and the non-developing cyclone, Helen are considered. Further, Hudhud and Helen, is compared to a deep depression formed over Bay of Bengal to highlight the significance of the mid-level vortex in the genesis of a tropical cyclone. Major results obtained are as follows: stronger positive PV anomalies are noticed over upper and lower levels of troposphere near the storm center for Hudhud as compared to Helen and the depression; Constructive interference in upper and lower level positive PV anomaly maxima resulted in the intensification of Hudhud. For Hudhud, the evolution of RV follows `top-down' dynamics, in which the growth starts from the middle troposphere and then progresses downwards. As for Helen, RV growth seems to follow `bottom-up' mechanism initiating growth from the lower troposphere. Though, the growth of RV for the depression initiates from mid-troposphere, rapid dissipation of mid-level vortex destabilizes the system. It is found that the formation mid-level vortex in the genesis phase is significantly important for the intensification of the storm.

  17. Boundary Migration in Rutile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliss, S.R.; Ravishankar, N.; Farrer, J.K.; Carter, C.B.

    2003-08-01

    TiO{sub 2} is a vital material in several technologies including, photocatalysis, gas sensing, biomaterials and optical coatings. Among the several crystal structures of this oxide, rutile has the highest density and microhardness, the highest index of refraction and the highest temperature stability. The processing of dense polycrystalline materials often includes the addition of a liquid-forming phase at higher temperatures. This technique is known as liquid-phase sintering and has been studied extensively. Rutile boundaries containing an amorphous phase have been used to study boundary migration and grain-boundary grooving. Visible-light (VLM), scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in addition to electron-backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and a focused-ion beam (FIB) tool were used to characterize boundary migration in rutile. EBSD analysis was carried out on a Philips XL30 FEG SEM equipped with a DigiView 1612 high-resolution, high-speed CCD camera. A 2.5 cm sample-to-camera distance was used and {approx}70{sup o} sample tilt. A Philips CM30 operated at 300 kV was used for TEM characterization and an FEI DB235 was used for FIB work. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) has been used to deposit thin films ({approx}100 nm thick) of silica glass on single-crystals of rutile. The film/substrate assembly is then fabricated into bicrystals of known boundary-plane orientation by hot pressing. Bicrystals were fabricated with boundary planes of nominal surface orientation of (001) and (110). After diffusion bonding a surface perpendicular to the interface is cut and polished. Bicrystals are then heat treated in air at 1650 C for varying lengths of time. Figure 1 is a VLM image of a rutile bicrystal which as been heat treated for 4 hours. During this heat treatment migration of the boundary initiates at parallel grooves contained in the crystal on the right-hand side. EBSD analysis shows that this parallel set of grooves is due to the presence of 3{sup

  18. Intensification of Shifting Cultivation in Tanzania: Degree, Drivers and Effects on Vegetation and Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilawe, Charles Joseph

    of policies that create opportunities and advantages to farmers. The opportunities or advantages can be created through improvement of infrastructure-roads, access to agricultural inputs, credits, irrigation systems, modern farming equipment, secured market, protection of the individual rights to land...... and resources and provision of reliable agricultural extension service and information system....... and intensive short fallow systems. They also adopted intensive land preparation methods that involved deep cultivation and burying of vegetation. Intensification in upland was driven by adoption and enforcement of land tenure policies which restrict shifting cultivation whereas in the lowlands, it was driven...

  19. Quantitative analysis of autoradiographic image intensification using Thiourea-S35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, B. S.; Odell, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Photographic images enhanced by the method of Thiourea-S35 autoradiography are evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and Wiener spectrum analysis using digitized images. It is determined that the original signal-to-noise ratio is not degraded by the intensification process which allows an increase in the practical working DQE as a function of density. These results apply at all spatial frequencies that were tested. The advantage given by autoradiography is the ability to produce usable images from emulsions originally exposed to the low densities corresponding to maximum DQE and movement of faint image densities above the level of the threshold for detection.

  20. Post-process intensification of photographic silver images, using radioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A method of post-process intensification of silver images on a developed and fixed photographic film or plate is described, comprising the steps of (a) converting silver of the developed film or plate to a radioactive compound by contracting the film or plate with an aqueous alkaline solution of an organo-S 35 compound which reacts selectively with silver in a photographic film or plate; (b) placing the film or plate treated in step (a) in direct contact with a receiver film which is sensitive to beta radiation whereby the receiver film is exposed by radiation from the radioactive compound; and (c) developing and fixing the resulting intensified receiver film. (author)

  1. Phenomena-based Process Synthesis and Design to achieve Process Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Gani, Rafiqul; Woodley, John

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve processes incorporating process intensification and to allow them to go beyond pre-defined unit operations, the process has to be viewed at a lower level of aggregation, namely the phenomena scale. In this contribution, an approach for aggregating processes through phenomena...... building blocks in a systematic methodology is presented. First, all potential phenomena are identified, and then synthesized to phenomena-based flowsheets which are then screened against pre-defined constraints before the most promising options are identified, optimized and verified at the unit operation...

  2. Effect of rosuvastatin intensification therapy on blood lipid metabolism, adipocytokines and plaque stability after PCI in ACS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Quan Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of rosuvastatin intensification therapy on blood lipid metabolism, adipocytokines and plaque stability after PCI in ACS patients. Methods: ACS patients who received PCI in the hospital between July 2015 and January 2017were reviewed and divided into the routine dose group (n=60 who received rosuvastatin routine dose therapy after PCI and the intensification therapy group (n=46 who received rosuvastatin intensification therapy after PCI. The differences in blood lipid metabolism, adipocytokines and plaque stability were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before PCI, the differences in blood lipid metabolism, adipocytokines and plaque stability were not statistically significant between the two groups. 1 month after PCI, lipid metabolism indexes HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in peripheral blood of intensification therapy group were higher than those of routine dose group while LDL-C and ApoB levels were lower than those of routine dose group; adipocytokines APN and Leptin levels in serum were higher than those of routine dose group while Resistin level was lower than that of routine dose group; plaque stability- related indexes ICAM-1, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 levels were lower than those of routine dose group. Conclusion: Rosuvastatin intensification therapy after PCI could effectively regulate the lipid metabolism and increase the plaque stability in ACS patients.

  3. New Ultrasonic Controller and Characterization System for Low Temperature Drying Process Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, R. R.; Blanco, A.; Acosta, V. M.; Riera, E.; Martínez, I.; Pinto, A.

    Process intensification constitutes a high interesting and promising industrial area. It aims to modify conventional processes or develop new technologies in order to reduce energy needs, increase yields and improve product quality. It has been demonstrated by this research group (CSIC) that power ultrasound have a great potential in food drying processes. The effects associated with the application of power ultrasound can enhance heat and mass transfer and may constitute a way for process intensification. The objective of this work has been the design and development of a new ultrasonic system for the power characterization of piezoelectric plate-transducers, as excitation, monitoring, analysis, control and characterization of their nonlinear response. For this purpose, the system proposes a new, efficient and economic approach that separates the effect of different parameters of the process like excitation, medium and transducer parameters and variables (voltage, current, frequency, impedance, vibration velocity, acoustic pressure and temperature) by observing the electrical, mechanical, acoustical and thermal behavior, and controlling the vibrational state.

  4. Sustainable intensification in agriculture as a factor of achieving food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ending hunger, achieving food security and promoting sustainable development are at the top of the list of United Nations sustainable global development priorities after 2015. In addition to many positive effects, efforts of mankind regarding the reduction of rural poverty realized through the Green Revolution have had many negative effects, primarily related to natural resources. Irreversible devastation of land, air and water quality deterioration and jeopardizing biodiversity have been recognized as key elements of unsustainability of existing agricultural development concept. Consequently, there is a need for the adoption of a new concept of agricultural development, which will lie between intensive conventional and organic farming. The concept which has already been applied in some regions of the world and whose basic goal is to find a way to increase production with a negligible negative impact on the environment is sustainable agricultural intensification. The aim of this paper is to look at both positive and negative aspects of biotechnology development so far and point out the place and role the sustainable intensification concept should have in relation to conservation of natural resources and achievement of food security.

  5. Food security as a function of Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The challenge to eradicate hunger and establish food security across all its four pillars (availability, accessibility, health and safety, and continuity is ongoing. The actual situation in global food production leads most of the attention to improving accessibility and safety of food, particularly to vulnerable populations. However, in view of the growth in demand, which includes changes in preferences for example towards food of animal origin, availability and continuity will play larger roles in future. Food production needs to increase over the coming decades at challenging rates, while facing problems of degradation and reduced availability of natural resources for production such as soil and water, and facing increasing challenges from climate change. The actual trends in yield development suggest that a simple gradual improvement of production within the existing concepts will not provide a sustainable or feasible solution, and that more fundamental changes in the agricultural production paradigm are required to face these future challenges. The Sustainable Intensification represents such a change in paradigm in which high production levels are combined with sustainability. The concept of sustainable intensification, the rationale for it and its functional elements, represented by Conservation Agriculture, are presented in this paper.

  6. Using the Viability Theory to Assess the Flexibility of Forest Managers Under Ecological Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Bonté, Bruno; Cordonnier, Thomas; de Morogues, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Greater demand for wood material has converged with greater demand for biodiversity conservation to make balancing forest ecosystem services a key societal issue. Forest managers, owners, or policymakers need new approaches and methods to evaluate their ability to adapt to this dual objective. We analyze the ability of forest owners to define sustainable forest management options based on viability theory and a new flexibility index. This new indicator gauges the adaptive capacity of forest owners based on the number of sustainable actions available to them at a given time. Here we study a public forest owner who regulates harvest intensity and frequency in order to meet demand for timber wood at forest scale and to meet a biodiversity recommendation via a minimum permanently maintained volume of deadwood per hectare at stand scale. Dynamical systems theory was used to model uneven-aged forest dynamics—including deadwood dynamics—and the dynamics of timber wood demand and tree removals. Uneven-aged silver fir forest management in the "Quatre Montagnes region" (Vercors, France) is used as an illustrative example. The results explain situations where a joint increase in wood production and deadwood retention does not reduce the flexibility index more than increasing either one dimension alone, thus opening up ecological intensification options. To conclude, we discuss the value of the new flexibility index for addressing environmental management and ecological intensification issues.

  7. Insulin initiation and intensification in patients with T2DM for the primary care physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jeff UngerCatalina Research Institute, Chino, CA, USAAbstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is characterized by both insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. All patients with the disease require treatment to achieve and maintain the target glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C level of 6.5%–7%. Pharmacological management of T2DM typically begins with the introduction of oral medications, and the majority of patients require exogenous insulin therapy at some point in time. Primary care physicians play an essential role in the management of T2DM since they often initiate insulin therapy and intensify regimens over time as needed. Although insulin therapy is prescribed on an individualized basis, treatment usually begins with basal insulin added to a background therapy of oral agents. Prandial insulin injections may be added if glycemic targets are not achieved. Treatments may be intensified over time using patient-friendly titration algorithms. The goal of insulin intensification within the primary care setting is to minimize patients' exposure to chronic hyperglycemia and weight gain, and reduce patients' risk of hypoglycemia, while achieving individualized fasting, postprandial, and A1C targets. Simplified treatment protocols and insulin delivery devices allow physicians to become efficient prescribers of insulin intensification within the primary care arena.Keywords: diabetes, basal, bolus, regimens, insulin analogs, structured glucose testing

  8. Increasing crop production in Russia and Ukraine—regional and global impacts from intensification and recultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppermann, Andre; Balkovič, Juraj; Bundle, Sophie-Charlotte; Di Fulvio, Fulvio; Havlik, Petr; Leclère, David; Lesiv, Myroslava; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2018-02-01

    Russia and Ukraine are countries with relatively large untapped agricultural potentials, both in terms of abandoned agricultural land and substantial yield gaps. Here we present a comprehensive assessment of Russian and Ukrainian crop production potentials and we analyze possible impacts of their future utilization, on a regional as well as global scale. To this end, the total amount of available abandoned land and potential yields in Russia and Ukraine are estimated and explicitly implemented in an economic agricultural sector model. We find that cereal (barley, corn, and wheat) production in Russia and Ukraine could increase by up to 64% in 2030 to 267 million tons, compared to a baseline scenario. Oilseeds (rapeseed, soybean, and sunflower) production could increase by 84% to 50 million tons, respectively. In comparison to the baseline, common net exports of Ukraine and Russia could increase by up to 86.3 million tons of cereals and 18.9 million tons of oilseeds in 2030, representing 4% and 3.6% of the global production of these crops, respectively. Furthermore, we find that production potentials due to intensification are ten times larger than potentials due to recultivation of abandoned land. Consequently, we also find stronger impacts from intensification at the global scale. A utilization of crop production potentials in Russia and Ukraine could globally save up to 21 million hectares of cropland and reduce average global crop prices by more than 3%.

  9. Role of dose intensification for salvage radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eBeck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For primary radiation therapy of prostate cancer dose intensification is established as standard of care. Less is known on the role of dose intensification in the post-prostatectomy setting for salvage radiation therapy. Thus, we aimed to identify and summarize the existing literature. In retrospective analyses dose intensified salvage radiation therapy showed a superior biochemical control compared to standard dose salvage radiation with favorable acute and late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity rates, especially when modern radiation techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy were applied. We identified one randomized phase III trial addressing the potential benefits of dose intensified salvage radiation therapy (SAKK 09/10. Recently, acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities and early quality of life data of this trial were reported and no significant difference in acute toxicities between both treatment arms were found; however, a significant worsening of genitourinary quality of life was noted in the dose intensified treatment arm. Whereas dose intensified salvage radiation therapy appears to be feasible and well tolerated, the improved biochemical control rates using dose intensified radiation therapy as suggested by retrospective analyses have yet to be validated by prospective trials.

  10. Influence of management and environment on Australian wheat: information for sustainable intensification and closing yield gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, B A; King, D; Zhao, G

    2014-01-01

    In the future, agriculture will need to produce more, from less land, more sustainably. But currently, in many places, actual crop yields are below those attainable. We quantified the ability for agricultural management to increase wheat yields across 179 Mha of potentially arable land in Australia. Using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), we simulated the impact on wheat yield of 225 fertilization and residue management scenarios at a high spatial, temporal, and agronomic resolution from 1900 to 2010. The influence of management and environmental variables on wheat yield was then assessed using Spearman’s non-parametric correlation test with bootstrapping. While residue management showed little correlation, fertilization strongly increased wheat yield up to around 100 kg N ha −1  yr −1 . However, this effect was highly dependent on the key environment variables of rainfall, temperature, and soil water holding capacity. The influence of fertilization on yield was stronger in cooler, wetter climates, and in soils with greater water holding capacity. We conclude that the effectiveness of management intensification to increase wheat yield is highly dependent upon local climate and soil conditions. We provide context-specific information on the yield benefits of fertilization to support adaptive agronomic decision-making and contribute to the closure of yield gaps. We also suggest that future assessments consider the economic and environmental sustainability of management intensification for closing yield gaps. (paper)

  11. Signatures of the midnight open-closed magnetic field line boundary during balanced dayside and nightside reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic conditions were moderately disturbed (Kp = 2 during magnetic midnight on 10 December 1999, when the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar, observed a persistent, sharp latitudinal decrease (~ 90 km in spectral width near - 69°L. The line-of-sight Doppler velocity also rapidly declined across this spectral width boundary (SWB. The region poleward of the SWB was characterized by high spectral widths (>200 m/s, and the start of bursty equatorward and eastward flows (>500 m/s, which rapidly expanded equatorward. The relationships between familiar ionospheric and magnetospheric regions were inferred by comparing TIGER data with spectrograms calculated from precipitating particles measured on board the Defence Meteorology Satellite Program (DMSP F14 satellite. The high spectral width scatter is often observed, and on this evening it was associated with irregularities forming on the open (but soon to be reconnected field lines threading the polar cap ionosphere to the southern tail lobe. The region equatorward of the SWB was characterized by very low spectral widths (<50 m/s and generally slower, more zonal flows (<300 m/s. This kind of scatter is more transient, and was associated with irregularities residing on the closed field lines threading the discrete and diffuse auroral oval to the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL and central plasma sheet (CPS. Hence, the SWB was a reasonable proxy for the open-closed field line boundary, and the equatorward limit of the region, with low spectral width, was probably aligned with the poleward wall of the main ionospheric trough. The SWB was observed to contract poleward and expand equatorward on time scales of ~10 min, much as would be expected during balanced dayside and nightside reconnection. Total electron content (TEC measurements made at Macquarie Island (- 65°

  12. Signatures of the midnight open-closed magnetic field line boundary during balanced dayside and nightside reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic conditions were moderately disturbed (Kp = 2 during magnetic midnight on 10 December 1999, when the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar, observed a persistent, sharp latitudinal decrease (~ 90 km in spectral width near - 69°L. The line-of-sight Doppler velocity also rapidly declined across this spectral width boundary (SWB. The region poleward of the SWB was characterized by high spectral widths (>200 m/s, and the start of bursty equatorward and eastward flows (>500 m/s, which rapidly expanded equatorward. The relationships between familiar ionospheric and magnetospheric regions were inferred by comparing TIGER data with spectrograms calculated from precipitating particles measured on board the Defence Meteorology Satellite Program (DMSP F14 satellite. The high spectral width scatter is often observed, and on this evening it was associated with irregularities forming on the open (but soon to be reconnected field lines threading the polar cap ionosphere to the southern tail lobe. The region equatorward of the SWB was characterized by very low spectral widths (<50 m/s and generally slower, more zonal flows (<300 m/s. This kind of scatter is more transient, and was associated with irregularities residing on the closed field lines threading the discrete and diffuse auroral oval to the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL and central plasma sheet (CPS. Hence, the SWB was a reasonable proxy for the open-closed field line boundary, and the equatorward limit of the region, with low spectral width, was probably aligned with the poleward wall of the main ionospheric trough. The SWB was observed to contract poleward and expand equatorward on time scales of ~10 min, much as would be expected during balanced dayside and nightside reconnection. Total electron content (TEC measurements made at Macquarie Island (- 65°L and Hobart (- 54°L, and the ionograms recorded at the same stations

  13. Reconstructing Land Use History from Landsat Time-Series. Case study of Swidden Agriculture Intensification in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, L.; Jakovac, C. C.; Siti, L. H.; Kooistra, L.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a method to reconstruct land use history from Landsat images time-series. The method uses a breakpoint detection framework derived from the econometrics field and applicable to time-series regression models. The BFAST framework is used for defining the time-series regression models which may contain trend and phenology, hence appropriately modelling vegetation intra and inter-annual dynamics. All available Landsat data are used, and the time-series are partitioned into segments delimited by breakpoints. Segments can be associated to land use regimes, while the breakpoints then correspond to shifts in regimes. To further characterize these shifts, we classified the unlabelled breakpoints returned by the algorithm into their corresponding processes. We used a Random Forest classifier, trained from a set of visually interpreted time-series profiles to infer the processes and assign labels to the breakpoints. The whole approach was applied to quantifying the number of cultivation cycles in a swidden agriculture system in Brazil. Number and frequency of cultivation cycles is of particular ecological relevance in these systems since they largely affect the capacity of the forest to regenerate after abandonment. We applied the method to a Landsat time-series of Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) spanning the 1984-2015 period and derived from it the number of cultivation cycles during that period at the individual field scale level. Agricultural fields boundaries used to apply the method were derived using a multi-temporal segmentation. We validated the number of cultivation cycles predicted against in-situ information collected from farmers interviews, resulting in a Normalized RMSE of 0.25. Overall the method performed well, producing maps with coherent patterns. We identified various sources of error in the approach, including low data availability in the 90s and sub-object mixture of land uses. We conclude that the method holds great promise for

  14. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  15. Beyond the Boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    as the negotiation of a preexisting science-industry boundary. Rather, viability is obtained through a strategy of circumventing the science-industry food chain and sequestering biotech components within the research center. Symbiosis allows academic scientists to do biology while at the same time demonstrating......Whether celebratory or critical, STS research on science-industry relations has focused on the blurring of boundaries and hybridization of codes and practices. However, the vocabulary of boundary and hybrid tends to reify science and industry as separate in the attempt to map their relation....... Drawing on interviews with the head of a research center in plant biology, this article argues that biology and biotech are symbionts. In order to be viable and productive, symbiosis needs to be carefully managed and given room for divergence within mutual dependence. This process does not take place...

  16. Agricultural Intensification in the Brazilian Agricultural-Forest Frontier: Land Use Responses to Development and Conservation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, R.; Koh, I.; le Polain de Waroux, Y.; Lambin, E.; Kastens, J.; Brown, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural expansion, extensive cattle ranching, and deforestation remain pressing challenges for sustainable development and climate mitigation throughout South America. In response to these challenges, national and local governments, as well as private and non-governmental actors have developed new forest conservation governance mechanisms. The objective of this study is to better understand how conservation policies interact with supply chain development to influence land use. In particular, we endeavor to understand the timing and spatial patterns of crop and cattle intensification, an understudied phenomenon that is critical to understanding the future of agricultural-forest frontiers and the impacts of conservation policies. We focus on Mato Grosso, the largest soy and cattle producing state in Brazil, which spans the Cerrado and Amazon biomes and has experienced higher levels of deforestation for agricultural expansion than any other state globally over the last decade. Using a newly created spatially explicit data set of land use intensity, supply chain development, and forest policy, we find that agricultural intensification is occurring rapidly in the region, but is only partially driven by changes in conservation policies. The intensification of cattle production is the result of improvements in deforestation monitoring, penalties, and enforcement, and increased land scarcity. Crop intensification, in contrast, preceded increases in conservation restrictions, and is associated with the positive spillovers resulting from agribusiness agglomeration and development. These results suggest that intensification is not a foregone conclusion of increasing forest conservation restrictions, but is highly dependent on wider development processes. A combined effort to direct agribusiness development away from forest regions via tax credits and subsidized credit, when applied in concert with stringent conservation requirements, could help promote intensification

  17. The boundary is mixed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Eugenio; Haggard, Hal M.; Rovelli, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    We show that in Oeckl's boundary formalism the boundary vectors that do not have a tensor form represent, in a precise sense, statistical states. Therefore the formalism incorporates quantum statistical mechanics naturally. We formulate general-covariant quantum statistical mechanics in this language. We illustrate the formalism by showing how it accounts for the Unruh effect. We observe that the distinction between pure and mixed states weakens in the general covariant context, suggesting that local gravitational processes are naturally statistical without a sharp quantal versus probabilistic distinction.

  18. Minnesota County Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  19. Dual boundary spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning: wh...

  20. Boundaries of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries of space exploration are being pushed back constantly, but the realm of the partially understood and the totally unknown is as great as ever. Among other things this book deals with astronomical instruments and their application, recent discoveries in the solar system, stellar evolution, the exploding starts, the galaxies, quasars, pulsars, the possibilities of extraterrestrial life and relativity.

  1. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  2. Transport, boundary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, F.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the contributions presented at the 18 th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in the field of transport and boundary physics will be summarised with reference to the following distinct issues: H-mode physics, Internal Transport Barrier formation, transport studies, Radiative Improved modes and impurity seeding, divertor and He exhaust, new configurations. (author)

  3. Effects of Land Use Intensification on Fish Assemblages in Mediterranean Climate Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matono, P.; Sousa, D.; Ilhéu, M.

    2013-11-01

    Southern Portugal is experiencing a rapid change in land use due to the spread of intensive farming systems, namely olive production systems, which can cause strong negative environmental impacts and affect the ecological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to identify the main environmental disturbances related with olive grove intensification on Mediterranean-climate streams in southern Portugal, and to evaluate their effects on fish assemblage structure and integrity. Twenty-six stream sites within the direct influence of traditional, intensive, and hyper-intensive olive groves were sampled. Human-induced disturbances were analyzed along the olive grove intensity gradient. The integrity of fish assemblages was evaluated by comparison with an independent set of least disturbed reference sites, considering metrics and guilds, based on multivariate analyses. Along the gradient of olive grove intensification, the study observed overall increases in human disturbance variables and physicochemical parameters, especially organic/nutrient enrichment, sediment load, and riparian degradation. Animal load measured the impact of livestock production. This variable showed an opposite pattern, since traditional olive groves are often combined with high livestock production and are used as grazing pasture by the cattle, unlike more intensive olive groves. Stream sites influenced by olive groves were dominated by non-native and tolerant fish species, while reference sites presented higher fish richness, density and were mainly occupied by native and intolerant species. Fish assemblage structure in olive grove sites was significantly different from the reference set, although significant differences between olive grove types were not observed. Bray-Curtis similarities between olive grove sites and references showed a decreasing trend in fish assemblage integrity along the olive grove intensification gradient. Olive production, even in traditional groves, led to

  4. APLIKASI SILVIKULTUR INTENSIF UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN PENGAYAAN PADA LAHAN REKLAMASI TAMBANG BATUBARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusanto Nugroho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduksi jenis unggulan local untuk pengayaan tanaman di lahan reklamasi tambang batubara sebagai terobosan untuk meningkatkan keragaman tanaman dan nilai fungsi lahan reklamasi. silvikultur intensif digunakan untuk memberikan ruang tumbuh yang optimal untuk tanaman introduksi tumbuh secara optimal.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pertumbuhan tanaman introduksi dengan aplikasi silvikultur intensif terhadap 6 jenis pohon unggulan local yang meliputi  durian, karet, sawo, mangga, petai dan cempedak pada lahan reklamasi dengan tanaman reklamasi jenis Acacia auriculiformis yang berumur 1 tahun. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode rancangan blok lengkap dengan 6 perlakuan dan ulangan sebanyak 3 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi silvikultur intensif memberikan persen hidup tanaman introduksi mencapai 83,33 % pada umur 1,5 tahun di lapangan. Persen hidup tertinggi dicapai oleh jenis mangga, karet  dan petai  dengan persen hidup diatas  80% dan persen hidup dibawah 80 % ialah jenis durian dan cempedak. Jenis mangga dan karet menunjukkan pertumbuhan tinggi dan diameter terbaik dibandingkan dengan jenis tanaman lainnya. Adaptasi dan daya tahan jenis mangga dan karet pada lahan pasca tambang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan keempat jenis unggulan lainnya. Local species superior trees introductions for enrichment plants at coal mine reclamation land as a breakthrough to increase diversity of crops and reclamation land function value. Intensive silviculture used to provide optimal growing space for plants that grow optimally introduction. This study aimed to analyze the growth of plants introduced by the application of intensive silviculture of 6 local species superior trees that durian, rubber, sapodilla, mango, petai/pete and cempedak on reclamation land by the reclamation plant species of Acacia auriculiformis the age of 1 year. The research method using a complete block design with 6 treatments and repetition as much as

  5. ANALISIS KAWASAN POTENSIAL UNTUK TAMBAK SUPER-INTENSIF DI PESISIR KABUPATEN BARRU PROVINSI SULAWESI SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnawi Hasnawi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tambak teknologi super-intensif tidak memerlukan lahan budidaya yang luas, produksi yang tinggi dimungkinkan dengan padat tebar tinggi dan input teknologi. Keberhasilan teknologi ini sangat ditentukan oleh lokasi budidaya yang tepat, infrastruktur yang memadai dan memenuhi standar, dilengkapi instalasi pengolahan air limbah (IPAL, serta dukungan faktor sosial yang menjadi penentu penerapan dan keberlanjutannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan lokasi potensial pengembangan tambak super-intensif di kawasan pesisir Kabupaten Barru Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Pada tahap awal, kawasan pesisir yang potensial diidentifikasi melalui analisis elevasi lahan dari citra satelit Aster GDEM dan penggunaan lahan dari data Google Earth. Selanjutnya faktor sosial berupa potensi konflik dengan penggunaan lahan saat ini menjadi data awal yang dikumpulkan sebelum dilakukan pengukuran variabel lain. Variabel yang diobservasi langsung antara lain; elevasi lahan, tekstur tanah, ketersediaan infrastruktur pendukung, pasang surut, penggunaan lahan saat ini, dan kualitas perairan dilakukan di sekitar lokasi potensial terpilih. Analisis data dilakukan dengan mengaplikasikan sistem informasi geografis (SIG. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lokasi potensial dijumpai di Desa Pancana Kecamatan Tanete Rilau dengan luas kawasan sekitar 17,5 ha. Variabel yang diidentifikasi menjadi pembatas utama untuk pengembangan tambak super-intensif di kawasan tersebut adalah elevasi lahan dan keberadaan potensi konflik dengan penggunaan lahan saat ini. A super-intensive pond technology does not require extensive land cultivation, however the high production is expected from its ability to increase stocking density particularly for vannamei species. The success of this technology is highly depend upon proper site selection, availability of supporting infrastructure, the availability of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP, and supporting of social factor determining the implementation

  6. Individualized Therapy Is a Long-Term Cost-Effective Method Compared to Dose Intensification in Crohn's Disease Patients Failing Infliximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Brynskov, Jørn; Thomsen, Ole Ø

    2015-01-01

    or by infliximab intensification. However, the sum of healthcare costs related to Crohn's disease was substantially lower (31 %) for patients randomized to algorithm-based interventions than infliximab intensification in the intention-to-treat population: $11,940 versus $17,236; p = 0.005. For per...

  7. A statistical comparison of SuperDARN spectral width boundaries and DMSP particle precipitation boundaries in the morning sector ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chisham

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining reliable proxies for the ionospheric signature of the open-closed field line boundary (OCB is crucial for making accurate ionospheric measurements of many magnetospheric processes (e.g. magnetic reconnection. This study compares the latitudes of Spectral Width Boundaries (SWBs, identified in the morning sector ionosphere using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN, with Particle Precipitation Boundaries (PPBs determined using the low-altitude Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP spacecraft, in order to determine whether the SWB represents a good proxy for the ionospheric projection of the OCB. The latitudes of SWBs and PPBs were identified using automated algorithms applied to 5 years (1997-2001 of data measured in the 00:00-12:00 Magnetic Local Time (MLT range. A latitudinal difference was measured between each PPB and the nearest SWB within a ±10min Universal Time (UT window and within a ±1h MLT window. The results show that the SWB represents a good proxy for the OCB close to midnight (~00:00-02:00 MLT and noon (~08:00-12:00 MLT, but is located some distance (~2°-4° equatorward of the OCB across much of the morning sector ionosphere (~02:00-08:00 MLT. On the basis of this and other studies we deduce that the SWB is correlated with the poleward boundary of auroral emissions in the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield ``Long" (LBHL UV emission range and hence, that spectral width is inversely correlated with the energy flux of precipitating electrons. We further conclude that the combination of two factors may explain the spatial distribution of spectral width values in the polar ionospheres. The small-scale structure of the convection electric field leads to an enhancement in spectral width in regions close to the OCB, whereas increases in ionospheric conductivity (relating to the level of incident electron energy flux lead to a reduction in spectral width in regions just equatorward of the OCB.

  8. Design of transplanting mechanism for system of rice intensification (SRI) transplanter in Kedah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, M. S.; Manan, M. S. Abdul; Khalil, A. N. M.; MdNaim, M. K.; Ahmad, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    There is a demand to develop transplanter specifically for system of rice intensification (SRI) cultivation in Malaysia. This SRI transplanter is different from conventional transplanter as it is required special requirements for transplanting. The work focused on transplanting mechanism design which can be later attached to SRI transplanter. The mechanical design was established using linkage mechanism, having a wheel that act as timing wheel that will control the distance between transplanted seedlings. The linkage mechanism also control the opening of the flapper that allow the seedling together with its nursery soil to be dropped, and control the stopper to prevent next seedling from sliding down the tray. The use of simple mechanism will have low cost for fabrication. The design was analysed using motion analysis software. Results show the design is perfectly good and can be fabricated without any problem. The animation successfully shows the perfect movement of the mechanism and transplanting process.

  9. A look into hurricane Maria rapid intensification using Meteo-France's Arome-Antilles model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, R.; Faure, G.; Dupont, T.; Chauvin, F.

    2017-12-01

    Category 5 Hurricane Maria created a string of humanitarian crises. It caused billions of dollars of damage over the Caribbean but is also one of the worst natural disaster in Dominica.The hurricane took approximately 29 hours to strengthen from a tropical storm to a major category 5 hurricane. Here we present real-time forecasts of high resolution (2.5 km) Arome-Antilles regional model forced by real-time ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System. The model was able to relatively represent well the rapid intensification of the hurricane whether it was in timing or in location of the eye and strength of its eye wall.We will present an outline of results.

  10. Enhanced Yields in Organic Arable Crop Production by Eco-Functional Intensification using Intercropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Bedoussac, Laurent; Carlsson, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Organic agriculture (OA) faces challenges to enhance food production per unit area and simultaneously reduce the environmental and climate impacts, e.g. nitrate leaching per unit land and green-houses gases (GHG) emissions per kg product. Eco-functional intensification (EFI) is suggested as a means...... as an efficient tool for weed management, enhanced product quality (i.e. grain protein concentration of the intercropped cereal). We discuss how ICs contribute to efficient use of soil N sources and minimized losses of N by leaching via “ecological precision farming”. It is concluded, that crop diversification...... in space by intercropping, fitted into the organic crop rotation, has a strong potential to increase yield and hereby reduce the global environmental effects performance such as GHG per kg organic grain. Finally, we discuss likely barriers for increased use of intercropping in organic farming and suggest...

  11. A computer-aided software-tool for sustainable process synthesis-intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Babi, Deenesh K.; Bottlaender, Jack

    2017-01-01

    operations as well as reported hybrid/intensified unit operations is large and can be difficult to manually navigate in order to determine the best process flowsheet for the production of a desired chemical product. Therefore, it is beneficial to utilize computer-aided methods and tools to enumerate, analyze...... and determine within the design space, the more sustainable processes. In this paper, an integrated computer-aided software-tool that searches the design space for hybrid/intensified more sustainable process options is presented. Embedded within the software architecture are process synthesis...... and intensification methods that operate at multiple scales, namely, unit operation, task and phenomena. First a base case process flowsheet (if it is not already available) is generated through process synthesis considering only known unit operations. The generated or supplied base case is then analyzed in order...

  12. Size, Composition, and Evolution of HIV DNA Populations during Early Antiretroviral Therapy and Intensification with Maraviroc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillon, Antoine; Gianella, Sara; Lada, Steven M; Perez-Santiago, Josué; Jordan, Parris; Ignacio, Caroline; Karris, Maile; Richman, Douglas D; Mehta, Sanjay R; Little, Susan J; Wertheim, Joel O; Smith, Davey M

    2018-02-01

    Residual viremia is common during antiretroviral therapy (ART) and could be caused by ongoing low-level virus replication or by release of viral particles from infected cells. ART intensification should impact ongoing viral propagation but not virion release. Eighteen acutely infected men were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial and monitored for a median of 107 weeks. Participants started ART with ( n = 9) or without ( n = 9) intensification with maraviroc (MVC) within 90 days of infection. Levels of HIV DNA and cell-free RNA were quantified by droplet digital PCR. Deep sequencing of C2-V3 env , gag , and pol (454 Roche) was performed on longitudinally collected plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples while on ART. Sequence data were analyzed for evidence of evolution by (i) molecular diversity analysis, (ii) nonparametric test for panmixia, and (iii) tip date randomization within a Bayesian framework. There was a longitudinal decay of HIV DNA after initiation of ART with no difference between MVC intensification groups (-0.08 ± 0.01 versus -0.09 ± 0.01 log 10 copies/week in MVC + versus MVC - groups; P = 0.62). All participants had low-level residual viremia (median, 2.8 RNA copies/ml). Across participants, medians of 56 (interquartile range [IQR], 36 to 74), 29 (IQR, 25 to 35), and 40 (IQR, 31 to 54) haplotypes were generated for env , gag , and pol regions, respectively. There was no clear evidence of viral evolution during ART and no difference in viral diversity or population structure from individuals with or without MVC intensification. Further efforts focusing on elucidating the mechanism(s) of viral persistence in various compartments using recent sequencing technologies are still needed, and potential low-level viral replication should always be considered in cure strategies. IMPORTANCE Residual viremia is common among HIV-infected people on ART. It remains controversial if this viremia is a consequence of propagating

  13. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, Prima Astuti; Abdullah; Hadiyanto, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form

  14. Achieving More Sustainable Designs through a Process Synthesis-Intensification Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    More sustainable process designs refer to design alternatives that correspond to lowervalues of a set of targeted performance criteria. In this paper, a multi-level frameworkfor process synthesis-intensification that leads to more sustainable process designs ispresented. At the highest level...... of aggregation, process flowsheets are synthesized interms of a sequence of unit operations that correspond to acceptable values for a set oftargeted performance criteria. This defines the upper-bound of the performance criteriaand the design is called the base-case design. At the next lower level, tasks...... representingunit operations are identified and analysedin terms of means-ends to find moreflowsheet alternatives that improve the base-case design and correspond to lower valuesof the set of targeted performance criteria. Atthe lowest level, phenomena employed toperform the specific tasks areidentified...

  15. Climate Analogues Suggest Limited Potential for Intensification of Production on Current Croplands Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; Mueller, C.; Elliott, J.; Deryng, D.; Folberth, C.; Olin, S.; Schmid, E.; Arneth, A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change could pose a major challenge to efforts towards strongly increase food production over the coming decades. However, model simulations of future climate-impacts on crop yields differ substantially in the magnitude and even direction of the projected change. Combining observations of current maximum-attainable yield with climate analogues, we provide a complementary method of assessing the effect of climate change on crop yields. Strong reductions in attainable yields of major cereal crops are found across a large fraction of current cropland by 2050. These areas are vulnerable to climate change and have greatly reduced opportunity for agricultural intensification. However, the total land area, including regions not currently used for crops, climatically suitable for high attainable yields of maize, wheat and rice is similar by 2050 to the present-day. Large shifts in land-use patterns and crop choice will likely be necessary to sustain production growth rates and keep pace with demand.

  16. Intensification of the amethyst color by irradiation; Intensificacao da cor de ametista por irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorski, Maria Silvia [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Brazil is great natural quartz producer. Amethyst, variety of the violet color is very appreciated in the world and since the Antiquity it is said to have many supernatural powers. Is the most highly valued stone in the quartz group and the graduation of the color is responsible for the commercial value that varies of US$ 0.5 to US$ 25.0 for carat. As carried through studies the violet color is related with the amount of Fe{sup 4+} distributed in the crystal . The present work consists of the induction and intensification of the violet color by rays gamma of sources of Co-60 in quartz samples of diverse origins. It was used analyses by fluorescence for X-rays in samples of amethyst and citrine for the evaluation of the the iron and aluminium for the induction of the violet color. (author)

  17. Climate change intensification of horizontal water vapor transport in CMIP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, David A.; Ralph, F. Martin; Waliser, Duane E.; Gershunov, Alexander; Dettinger, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    Global warming of the Earth's atmosphere is hypothesized to lead to an intensification of the global water cycle. To determine associated hydrological changes, most previous research has used precipitation. This study, however, investigates projected changes to global atmospheric water vapor transport (integrated vapor transport (IVT)), the key link between water source and sink regions. Using 22 global circulation models from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, we evaluate, globally, the mean, standard deviation, and the 95th percentiles of IVT from the historical simulations (1979-2005) and two emissions scenarios (2073-2099). Considering the more extreme emissions, multimodel mean IVT increases by 30-40% in the North Pacific and North Atlantic storm tracks and in the equatorial Pacific Ocean trade winds. An acceleration of the high-latitude IVT is also shown. Analysis of low-altitude moisture and winds suggests that these changes are mainly due to higher atmospheric water vapor content.

  18. μ-structured devices as tools for screening process intensification in biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodla, Vijaya Krishna; Woodley, John

    in productivity is evaluated through process metrics. A case study demonstrates the applicability of using a micro-scale packed bed column for screening synthetic resins for in-situ product removal. CFD simulations were performed to guide the design of a packed column for efficient operation. Further case studies......Biocatalytic processes have been emerging as potential replacements of traditional chemical synthesis in many industrial relevant production processes. However the implementation of new biocatalytic processes can be a very challenging procedure which requires both biocatalyst and process screening...... and characterization for economic evaluation before scale-up. Microstructured devices have been used as screening tools that allow paradigm changes in process development by shortening process development times through modularity and intensification. Customized reactor designs and process configurations by integrating...

  19. A process synthesis-intensification framework for the development of sustainable membrane-based operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Lutze, Philip; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    is synthesized through the sequencing of unit operations and subsequently analyzed for identifying process hot-spots using economic, life cycle and sustainability metrics. These hot-spots are limitations/bottlenecks associated with tasks that may be targeted for overall process improvement. At the second level......In this paper a multi-level, multi-scale framework for process synthesis-intensification that aims to make the process more sustainable than a base-case, which may represent a new process or an existing process, is presented. At the first level (operation-scale) a conceptual base case design...... larger-scale. Those alternatives that are able to address the identified hot-spots therefore give innovative and more sustainable process designs that otherwise could not be found from the larger-scales. In this paper, membrane-based operations identified through this framework are highlighted in terms...

  20. Assessing attainable intensification of global pasture systems at the 5 min x 5 min scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J. J.; Lynd, L. R.; Allee, A.; Campbell, E. E.; Herrero, M.; Jaiswal, D.; Mueller, N. D.; Lamparelli, R.; Soares, J.

    2017-12-01

    Two-thirds of the world's agricultural land consist of pastures grazed by livestock. We use a recently published global dataset with information on feed consumption, animal stocks and productivity to analyze the intensification potential of pasture (grazing only) based production of meat and milk. Here we show that global output from pastures occupied by livestock circa 2000 could increase more than five-fold by simply raising their performance to the maximum achieved, climate-adjusted levels observed globally. The largest increases are in South America and sub Saharan Africa, where pasture systems are also more economically important. Furthermore, 40% of the land classified as pasture in the year 2000 had no animals on it. While pastureland currently contributes only a small fraction of total meat and milk production globally, such increases potentially offer an important new degree of freedom in addressing the challenge of sustainable stewardship of the earth's land resources.

  1. Screens of intensification: on DIY concert videos of Lady Gaga and the use of media interfaces as tools of experience intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Stage

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of user-generated videos from a particular event: the Lady Gaga concert in Denmark on October 20, 2010. Within the theoretical framework of a media practice perspective, theories of a media cultural movement from sign to signal, and an affective understanding of the experience of liveness, I argue that the DIY videos do not only attest to the documentation or representation of the concert event, but rather show an urge to feel it, connect to it, and relate to others by sharing it. In that way media and screens can be understood as technologies that under certain circumstances enable intensified relations between bodies, spaces, and significant others. The experiential intensification of the event is established by using media to (1 visually enrich the real-time experience, (2 turn the collective receiver into an individualized and creative real-time auteur, and (3 deterritorialize the real-time experience by sharing it on social media platforms. Furthermore, I discuss two ways of analyzing “the signal” in my material: one focusing on the relation between body, event, and mobile media technology and the other on the formal features of the videos themselves. This distinction is nevertheless purely analytical given that the formal traces of the signal (the sensory turbulence of the videos are so closely related to the spatially affected camera-body. The body in the space, the camera, and the audiovisual surface is in other words affecting each other, as the signaletic force of the concert-event affects all the three.

  2. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  3. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  4. Indicators of agricultural intensity and intensification: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irune Ruiz-Martinez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, research has dealt with agricultural intensification (AI as a solution to ensure global food security. Recently, sustainable intensification (SI has increasingly been used to describe those agricultural and farming systems that ensure adequate ecosystem service provision. Studies differ in terms of the application scales and methodologies, thus we aim to summarize the main findings from the literature on how AI and SI are assessed, from the farm to global levels. Our literature review is based on 7865 papers selected from the Web of Science database and analysed using CorText software. A further selection of 105 relevant papers was used for an in-depth full-text analysis on: i farming systems studied; ii related ecosystem services; iii indicators of intensity; and iv temporal and spatial scales of analysis. Through this two-step analysis we were able to highlight three main research gaps in the AI research indicators. Firstly, the farming systems analysed for assessing AI are often quite simplified or monoculture- oriented, and they do not take the diversity and complex organisation of farming systems into account. Secondly, these studies mainly focus on northern countries or developing countries, whereas there is a gap of knowledge in Mediterranean areas, which are the areas with a high complexity of farming systems and diversity in ecosystem services. Finally, AI is mostly assessed through nitrogen inputs and economic yield, which are used the most both at very local and global levels. Intermediate regional or local levels, which are relevant for policy implementation and local planning, are often neglected.

  5. Biodiversity conservation, ecosystem functioning, and economic incentives under cocoa agroforestry intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisseleua, D H B; Missoup, A D; Vidal, S

    2009-10-01

    World chocolate demand is expected to more than double by 2050. Decisions about how to meet this challenge will have profound effects on tropical rainforests and wild species in cocoa-producing countries. Cocoa, "the chocolate tree," is traditionally produced under a diverse and dense canopy of shade trees that provide habitat for a high diversity of organisms. The current trend to reduce or eliminate shade cover raises concerns about the potential loss of biodiversity. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the ecological consequences and economic trade-offs under different management options in cocoa plantations. Here we describe the relationships between ant ecology (species richness, community composition, and abundance) and vegetation structure, ecosystem functions, and economic profitability under different land-use management systems in 17 traditional cocoa forest gardens in southern Cameroon. We calculated an index of profitability, based on the net annual income per hectare. We found significant differences associated with the different land-use management systems for species richness and abundance of ants and species richness and density of trees. Ant species richness was significantly higher in floristically and structurally diverse, low-intensity, old cocoa systems than in intensive young systems. Ant species richness was significantly related to tree species richness and density. We found no clear relationship between profitability and biodiversity. Nevertheless, we suggest that improving the income and livelihood of smallholder cocoa farmers will require economic incentives to discourage further intensification and ecologically detrimental loss of shade cover. Certification programs for shade-grown cocoa may provide socioeconomic incentives to slow intensification.

  6. Contribution of insect pollinators to crop yield and quality varies with agricultural intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Bartomeus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Up to 75% of crop species benefit at least to some degree from animal pollination for fruit or seed set and yield. However, basic information on the level of pollinator dependence and pollinator contribution to yield is lacking for many crops. Even less is known about how insect pollination affects crop quality. Given that habitat loss and agricultural intensification are known to decrease pollinator richness and abundance, there is a need to assess the consequences for different components of crop production.Methods. We used pollination exclusion on flowers or inflorescences on a whole plant basis to assess the contribution of insect pollination to crop yield and quality in four flowering crops (spring oilseed rape, field bean, strawberry, and buckwheat located in four regions of Europe. For each crop, we recorded abundance and species richness of flower visiting insects in ten fields located along a gradient from simple to heterogeneous landscapes.Results. Insect pollination enhanced average crop yield between 18 and 71% depending on the crop. Yield quality was also enhanced in most crops. For instance, oilseed rape had higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents when adequately pollinated, the proportion of empty seeds decreased in buckwheat, and strawberries’ commercial grade improved; however, we did not find higher nitrogen content in open pollinated field beans. Complex landscapes had a higher overall species richness of wild pollinators across crops, but visitation rates were only higher in complex landscapes for some crops. On the contrary, the overall yield was consistently enhanced by higher visitation rates, but not by higher pollinator richness.Discussion. For the four crops in this study, there is clear benefit delivered by pollinators on yield quantity and/or quality, but it is not maximized under current agricultural intensification. Honeybees, the most abundant pollinator, might partially compensate the loss of wild

  7. Effects of agricultural intensification in the tropics on soil carbon losses and soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forest conversion to agricultural land leads to strong decrease of soil organic carbon (SOC). Nonetheless, the impacts of SOC losses on soil fertility remain unclear. We quantified SOC losses in forest, oil palm plantations, extensive rubber plantations and rubber monocultures on Sumatra Island (Indonesia). Furthermore, we assessed the response of biological (basal respiration, microbial biomass, acid phosphatase) and chemical fertility indicators (light fraction of OM, DOC, total N, available P) to SOC losses. We used a new approach based on (non-)linear regressions between SOC losses and the indicators, normalized to natural ecosystem values, to assess the sensitivity or resistance of fertility indicators to SOC losses. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and intensive rubber plantations were strongly reduced: up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber (41%). The negative impact of land-use changes on all measured indicators increased in the following sequence: extensive rubber oil palm. Basal respiration, microbial biomass and nutrients were comparatively resistant to SOC losses, whereas the light fraction of OM was lost faster than the SOC. The resistance of the microbial activity to SOC losses is an indication that microbial-mediated soil functions sustain SOC losses. However, responses of basal respiration and microbial biomass to SOC losses were non-linear. Below 2.7% C content, the relationship was reversed. The basal respiration decreased faster than the SOC, resulting in a stronger drop of microbial activity under oil palm compared to rubber, despite small difference in C content. We conclude that the new approach allows a quantitative assessment of the sensitivity and threshold of various soil functions to land-use changes and consequently, can be used to assess their resistance to agricultural intensification. Therefore, this method is appropriate to evaluate the environmental impacts associated

  8. Major shifts in Amazon wildlife populations from recent intensification of floods and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodmer, Richard; Mayor, Pedro; Antunez, Miguel; Chota, Kimberlyn; Fang, Tula; Puertas, Pablo; Pittet, Marlini; Kirkland, Maire; Walkey, Mike; Rios, Claudia; Perez-Peña, Pedro; Henderson, Peter; Bodmer, William; Bicerra, Andy; Zegarra, Joseph; Docherty, Emma

    2018-04-01

    In the western Amazon Basin, recent intensification of river-level cycles has increased flooding during the wet seasons and decreased precipitation during the dry season. Greater than normal floods occurred in 2009 and in all years from 2011 to 2015 during high-water seasons, and a drought occurred during the 2010 low-water season. During these years, we surveyed populations of terrestrial, arboreal, and aquatic wildlife in a seasonally flooded Amazonian forest in the Loreto region of Peru (99,780 km 2 ) to study the effects of intensification of natural climatic fluctuations on wildlife populations and in turn effects on resource use by local people. Shifts in fish and terrestrial mammal populations occurred during consecutive years of high floods and the drought of 2010. As floods intensified, terrestrial mammal populations decreased by 95%. Fish, waterfowl, and otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) abundances increased during years of intensive floods, whereas river dolphin and caiman populations had stable abundances. Arboreal species, including, macaws, game birds, primates, felids, and other arboreal mammals had stable populations and were not affected directly by high floods. The drought of 2010 had the opposite effect: fish, waterfowl, and dolphin populations decreased, and populations of terrestrial and arboreal species remained stable. Ungulates and large rodents are important sources of food and income for local people, and large declines in these animals has shifted resource use of people living in the flooded forests away from hunting to a greater reliance on fish. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  10. How smallholder farmers in Uttarakhand reworked the system of rice intensification: innovations from sociotechnical interactions in fields and villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, D.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is presented in Asia and other parts of the world as an alternative ‘agro-ecological’ and ‘farm-based’ innovation in rice production. SRI calls for modifications in crop-management practices without relying on external inputs, which makes it different from

  11. Does Raising the Bar Level the Playing Field?: Mathematics Curricular Intensification and Inequality in American High Schools, 1982-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domina, Thurston; Saldana, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, American high school students' course taking has rapidly intensified. Between 1982 and 2004, for example, the proportion of high school graduates who earned credit in precalculus or calculus more than tripled. In this article, the authors investigate the consequences of mathematics curricular intensification for social…

  12. Intensification pathways for beef and dairy cattle production systems : Impacts on GHG emissions, land occupation and land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, Sarah J.; Lauwerijssen, Rachel B.G.; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Valin, Hugo; Faaij, Andre P.C.; Wicke, Birka

    2017-01-01

    Cattle production is characterized by high land requirements, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the resulting land use change (LUC) and cradle to farm gate processes. Intensification of cattle production systems is considered an important strategy for mitigating anthropogenic GHG

  13. How smallholder farmers in Uttarakhand reworked the system of rice intensification: innovations from sociotechnical interactions in fields and villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, D.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is presented in Asia and other parts of the world as an alternative ‘agro-ecological’ and ‘farm-based’ innovation in rice production. SRI calls for modifications in crop-management practices without relying on external inputs, which

  14. What's behind the Name? The Intensification of Co-Branding in Elite US Colleges of Business and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research that draws attention to the intensification of co-branding within elite US graduate colleges of business and education. A robust set of descriptive data collected and analyzed according to a content analysis strategy is used to develop an initial understanding of the trend of naming of colleges and academic units in…

  15. Intensification of family relations? Changes in the choice of marriage witnesses in the Netherlands, 1830-1950

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bras, H.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether and why a process of intensification of family relations took place during the long nineteenth century by investigating Dutch marriage couples’ selection of witnesses. The results show that during the period 1830-1950, lateral kin (siblings, siblings-in-law and

  16. Possibilities for near-term bioenergy production and GHG-mitigation through sustainable intensification of agriculture and forestry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren; Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    To mitigate climate change it is necessary to further increase the deployment of renewable energy, including bioenergy. This analysis shows how this can be achieved in Danish agriculture and forestry before 2020. The key is a sustainable intensification and we show through three scenarios how...

  17. Sustainable intensification of U.S. agriculture: Aspirations and barriers in the regional agroecosystems of the LTAR network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustainable intensification of agriculture in the United States will require major shifts in producer decision-making, markets, and public policies. The Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is working to better understand how these shifts may be accomplished. Through a common experime...

  18. Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS): A Study of Stakeholders and Their Relations in System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchiradipta, Bhattacharjee; Raj, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper identifies the stakeholders of System of Rice Intensification (SRI), their roles and actions and the supporting and enabling environment of innovation in the state as the elements of the Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) in SRI in Tripura state of India and studies the relationship matrix among the stakeholders.…

  19. Can intensification reduce emission intensity of biofuel through optimized fertilizer use? Theory and the case of oil palm in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van Meine; Khasanah, Nimatul; Dewi, Sonya

    2017-01-01

    Closing yield gaps through higher fertilizer use increases direct greenhouse gas emissions but shares the burden over a larger production volume. Net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprints per unit product under agricultural intensification vary depending on the context, scale and accounting method.

  20. Adaptive Sentence Boundary Disambiguation

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, David D.; Hearst, Marti A.

    1994-01-01

    Labeling of sentence boundaries is a necessary prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks, including part-of-speech tagging and sentence alignment. End-of-sentence punctuation marks are ambiguous; to disambiguate them most systems use brittle, special-purpose regular expression grammars and exception rules. As an alternative, we have developed an efficient, trainable algorithm that uses a lexicon with part-of-speech probabilities and a feed-forward neural network. After training ...

  1. Boundary-layer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  2. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  3. A simple and self-consistent geostrophic-force-balance model of the thermohaline circulation with boundary mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Callies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple model of the thermohaline circulation (THC is formulated, with the objective to represent explicitly the geostrophic force balance of the basinwide THC. The model comprises advective-diffusive density balances in two meridional-vertical planes located at the eastern and the western walls of a hemispheric sector basin. Boundary mixing constrains vertical motion to lateral boundary layers along these walls. Interior, along-boundary, and zonally integrated meridional flows are in thermal-wind balance. Rossby waves and the absence of interior mixing render isopycnals zonally flat except near the western boundary, constraining meridional flow to the western boundary layer. The model is forced by a prescribed meridional surface density profile.

    This two-plane model reproduces both steady-state density and steady-state THC structures of a primitive-equation model. The solution shows narrow deep sinking at the eastern high latitudes, distributed upwelling at both boundaries, and a western boundary current with poleward surface and equatorward deep flow. The overturning strength has a 2/3-power-law dependence on vertical diffusivity and a 1/3-power-law dependence on the imposed meridional surface density difference. Convective mixing plays an essential role in the two-plane model, ensuring that deep sinking is located at high latitudes. This role of convective mixing is consistent with that in three-dimensional models and marks a sharp contrast with previous two-dimensional models.

    Overall, the two-plane model reproduces crucial features of the THC as simulated in simple-geometry three-dimensional models. At the same time, the model self-consistently makes quantitative a conceptual picture of the three-dimensional THC that hitherto has been expressed either purely qualitatively or not self-consistently.

  4. Boundaries and Boundary Marks - Substantive Cultural Heritage of Extensive Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhaeusl, P.; Koenig, H.; Mansberger, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Austrian Society for surveying and Geoinformation (ASG) has proposed to submit "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" for the UNESCO World Heritage title. It was time that boundaries, borders and limits of all types as well as ownership rights would find the proper attention in the global public. Landmarks symbolize the real property and the associated rights and obligations, in a figurative sense, the property generally and all legal limits. A democratic state of law is impossible at today's population density without a functioning land administration system with surveying and jurisdiction. As monumental World Heritage representatives of the geodetic artwork "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" are specifically proposed: remaining monuments of the original cadastral geodetic network, the first pan-Austrian surveying headquarters in Vienna, and a specific selection of outstanding boundary monuments. Landmarks are monuments to the boundaries which separate rights and obligations, but also connect the neighbors peacefully after written agreement. "And cursed be he who does not respect the boundaries" you wrote already 3000 years ago. Boundaries and Boundary Marks are a real thing; they all belong to the tangible or material heritage of human history. In this context also the intangible heritage is discussed. This refers to oral tradition and expressions, performing arts; social practices, rituals and festive events; as well as to knowledge and practices handling nature and the universe. "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" do not belong to it, but clearly to the material cultural world heritage. "Boundary and Boundary Marks" is proposed to be listed according to the criteria (ii),(iv),(vi).

  5. Anisotropy across Superplume Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottaar, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Sdiff data sets are presented for paths that run parallel to the African and the Pacific superplume boundaries. Objective clustering of waveforms illustrates sharp changes across these boundaries. The African plume shows a sharp offset in travel times in the SHdiff phase, while a more gradual offset towards slower arrivals is seen in the case of the Pacific superplume. Additionally, Pdiff phases display no offset around the African plume and a weak one around the Pacific plume. Here we focus mainly on another striking feature observed in both cases: outside of the superplume the Sdiff particle motion is strongly elliptical, but becomes linear within the superplume (first noticed by To et al. 2005 in the African superplume case). For the African plume we argue that these observations of delayed SV at large distances (~120 degrees) are indicative of the occurrence of azimuthal anisotropy. The SV arrivals have similar polarity as SH, opposite from what their radiation pattern predicts. Azimuthal anisotropy causes SH energy to be converted to SV (Maupin, 1994), explaining the travel time, polarity and amplitude. Forward modeling through different isotropic and anisotropic models supports this statement, although there are trade-offs between direction and magnitude of azimuthal anisotropy. The strong elliptical particle motions are also observed outside the Pacific plume, but at shorter distances (95-105 degrees). Elliptical motions can occur in the absence of anisotropy when strong velocity deviations or layering occurs close to the CMB, which, based on velocity profiles with depth in global tomographic models would be more likely within the superplume rather than on the fast side. The elliptical particle motions here can be modelled with a simple transverse isotropic model with VSH>VSV, but azimuthal anisotropy cannot be ruled out. The complexities within the Pacific superplume, including strong amplitude drop and existence of a post-cursor, are likely caused by an

  6. Paleocene/Eocene boundary changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation: A Southern Hemisphere record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovan, Steven A.; Rea, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 215 provides an expanded section across the Paleocene/Eocene boundary, the most complete mid-latitude sequence from a Southern Hemisphere location in the Indo-Pacific area. The events of this transition occurred during a span of about 1.2 m.y. Oxygen isotope values derived from benthic foraminiferal calcite decrease by about 1.0‰, a decrease most likely related to warming of deep ocean waters. Turnovers of benthic foraminifera accompany δ18O changes and culminate in the predominant extinction event at the end of the Paleocene Epoch. Carbon isotope ratios also shift dramatically toward lighter values near the end of the Paleocene, beginning about 0.45 m.y. after oxygen isotope values start to change. The intensity of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation as recorded by grain sizes of eolian particles shows a large and rapid reduction beginning another 0.45 m.y. later. A significant reduction of zonal wind strength at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary, until now observed only at Northern Hemisphere locations, appears to have been a global phenomenon related to decreased latitudinal thermal gradients occasioned by more effective poleward heat transport via the deep ocean.

  7. Putting to Rest WISHE-ful Misconceptions for Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-27

    diabatic heating rate, a local updraft buoyancy, or corresponding azimuthal averages of these quantities assuming the presence of a population of...aloft. Also, the vertical mass flux out of the boundary layer alone does not determine the diabatic heating rate within deep convection, or the radial...tend to be drawn inward by the diabatically driven system-scale secondary circulation above the frictional boundary layer and they tend to be sheared

  8. Variability of tropical cyclone rapid intensification in the North Atlantic and its relationship with climate variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Xidong; Weisberg, Robert H.; Black, Michael L.

    2017-12-01

    The paper uses observational data from 1950 to 2014 to investigate rapid intensification (RI) variability of tropical cyclones (TCs) in the North Atlantic and its relationships with large-scale climate variations. RI is defined as a TC intensity increase of at least 15.4 m/s (30 knots) in 24 h. The seasonal RI distribution follows the seasonal TC distribution, with the highest number in September. Although an RI event can occur anywhere over the tropical North Atlantic (TNA), there are three regions of maximum RI occurrence: (1) the western TNA of 12°N-18°N and 60°W-45°W, (2) the Gulf of Mexico and the western Caribbean Sea, and (3) the open ocean southeast and east of Florida. RI events also show a minimum value in the eastern Caribbean Sea north of South America—a place called a hurricane graveyard due to atmospheric divergence and subsidence. On longer time scales, RI displays both interannual and multidecadal variability, but RI does not show a long-term trend due to global warming. The top three climate indices showing high correlations with RI are the June-November ENSO and Atlantic warm pool indices, and the January-March North Atlantic oscillation index. It is found that variabilities of vertical wind shear and TC heat potential are important for TC RI in the hurricane main development region, whereas relative humidity at 500 hPa is the main factor responsible for TC RI in the eastern TNA. However, the large-scale oceanic and atmospheric variables analyzed in this study do not show an important role in TC RI in the Gulf of Mexico and the open ocean southeast and east of Florida. This suggests that other factors such as small-scale changes of oceanic and atmospheric variables or TC internal processes may be responsible for TC RI in these two regions. Additionally, the analyses indicate that large-scale atmospheric and oceanic variables are not critical to TC genesis and formation; however, once a tropical depression forms, large-scale climate

  9. On determining the noon polar cap boundary from SuperDARN HF radar backscatter characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pinnock

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that ionospheric HF radar backscatter in the noon sector can be used to locate the footprint of the magnetospheric cusp particle precipitation. This has enabled the radar data to be used as a proxy for the location of the polar cap boundary, and hence measure the flow of plasma across it to derive the reconnection electric field in the ionosphere. This work used only single radar data sets with a field of view limited to ~2 h of local time. In this case study using four of the SuperDARN radars, we examine the boundary determined over 6 h of magnetic local time around the noon sector and its relationship to the convection pattern. The variation with longitude of the latitude of the radar scatter with cusp characteristics shows a bay-like feature. It is shown that this feature is shaped by the variation with longitude of the poleward flow component of the ionospheric plasma and may be understood in terms of cusp ion time-of-flight effects. Using this interpretation, we derive the time-of-flight of the cusp ions and find that it is consistent with approximately 1 keV ions injected from a subsolar reconnection site. A method for deriving a more accurate estimate of the location of the open-closed field line boundary from HF radar data is described.

    Key words: Ionosphere (ionosphere–magnetosphere interactions; plasma convection · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers

  10. Shared care and boundaries:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science and techno......Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science...... and technology studies. Findings – The paper shows how a version of “the responsible patient” emerges from the project which is different from the version envisioned by the project organisation. The emerging one is concerned with the boundary between primary and secondary sector care, and not with the boundary...... of responsibilities entailed in shared care projects. Rather than seeking to connect all actors in an unbounded space, shared care might instead suggest a space for patients and professionals to experiment with new roles and responsibilities. Practical implications – When designing coordination tools for health care...

  11. Collaboration in Healthcare Through Boundary Work and Boundary Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2015-01-01

    . In highly specialized, knowledge-intensive organizations such as healthcare organizations, organizational, professional, and disciplinary boundaries mark the formal structure and division of work. Collaboration and coordination across these boundaries are essential to minimizing gaps in patient care......, but also may be challenging to achieve in practice. By drawing on data from an ethnographic study of two hospital wards, this article investigates practices of cross-disciplinary and professional collaboration and adds to our knowledge of how this kind of boundary work is produced in context. Moreover......, it adds to existing boundary literature by exploring the fast-paced, situational, micro-interactions in which boundaries are drawn, maintained, and dissolved. These mundane, brief exchanges are essential to the practice of collaboration through boundary work. I consider the implications of these findings...

  12. Electric Field Observations of Plasma Convection, Shear, Alfven Waves, and other Phenomena Observed on Sounding Rockets in the Cusp and Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14,2002, a NASA Black Brant X sounding rocket was launched equatorward from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen (79 N) into the dayside cusp and subsequently cut across the open/closed field line boundary, reaching an apogee of771 km. The launch occurred during Bz negative conditions with strong By negative that was changing during the flight. SuperDarn (CUTLASS) radar and subsequent model patterns reveal a strong westward/poleward convection, indicating that the rocket traversed a rotational reversal in the afternoon merging cell. The payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particle, suprathermal electron and ion, and thermal plasma data. We provide an overview of the main observations and focus on the DC electric field results, comparing the measured E x B plasma drifts in detail with the CUTLASS radar observations of plasma drifts gathered simultaneously in the same volume. The in situ DC electric fields reveal steady poleward flows within the cusp with strong shears at the interface of the closed/open field lines and within the boundary layer. We use the observations to discuss ionospheric signatures of the open/closed character of the cusp/low latitude boundary layer as a function of the IMF. The electric field and plasma density data also reveal the presence of very strong plasma irregularities with a large range of scales (10 m to 10 km) that exist within the open field line cusp region yet disappear when the payload was equatorward of the cusp on closed field lines. These intense low frequency wave observations are consistent with strong scintillations observed on the ground at Ny Alesund during the flight. We present detailed wave characteristics and discuss them in terms of Alfven waves and static irregularities that pervade the cusp region at all altitudes.

  13. Synoptic-Scale Precursors to Tropical Cyclone Rapid Intensification in the Atlantic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria Grimes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting rapid intensification (hereafter referred to as RI of tropical cyclones in the Atlantic Basin is still a challenge due to a limited understanding of the meteorological processes that are necessary for predicting RI. To address this challenge, this study considered large-scale processes as RI indicators within tropical cyclone environments. The large-scale processes were identified by formulating composite map types of RI and non-RI storms using NASA MERRA data from 1979 to 2009. The composite fields were formulated by a blended RPCA and cluster analysis approach, yielding multiple map types of RI’s and non-RI’s. Additionally, statistical differences in the large-scale processes were identified by formulating permutation tests, based on the composite output, revealing variables that were statistically significantly distinct between RI and non-RI storms. These variables were used as input in two prediction schemes: logistic regression and support vector machine classification. Ultimately, the approach identified midlevel vorticity, pressure vertical velocity, 200–850 hPa vertical shear, low-level potential temperature, and specific humidity as the most significant in diagnosing RI, yielding modest skill in identifying RI storms.

  14. Looming Scarcity of Phosphate Rock and Intensification of Soil Phosphorus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe C. Baveye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have claimed that world reserves of rock phosphate were getting depleted at an alarming rate, putting us on the path to scarcity of that essential resource within the next few decades. Others have claimed that such alarmist forecasts were frequent in the past and have always been proven unfounded, making it likely that the same will be true in the future. Both viewpoints are directly relevant to the level of funding devoted to research on the use of phosphate fertilizers. In this short essay, it is argued that information about future reserves of P or any other resource are impossible to predict, and therefore that the threat of a possible depletion of P reserves should not be used as a key motivation for an intensification of research on soil P. However, there are other, more compelling reasons, both geopolitical and environmental, to urgently step up our collective efforts to devise agricultural practices that make better use of P than is the case at the moment.

  15. Increased Spatial Variability and Intensification of Extreme Monsoon Rainfall due to Urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Supantha; Ghosh, Subimal; Mathew, Micky; Devanand, Anjana; Karmakar, Subhankar; Niyogi, Dev

    2018-03-02

    While satellite data provides a strong robust signature of urban feedback on extreme precipitation; urbanization signal is often not so prominent with station level data. To investigate this, we select the case study of Mumbai, India and perform a high resolution (1 km) numerical study with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for eight extreme rainfall days during 2014-2015. The WRF model is coupled with two different urban schemes, the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (WRF-SUCM), Multi-Layer Urban Canopy Model (WRF-MUCM). The differences between the WRF-MUCM and WRF-SUCM indicate the importance of the structure and characteristics of urban canopy on modifications in precipitation. The WRF-MUCM simulations resemble the observed distributed rainfall. WRF-MUCM also produces intensified rainfall as compared to the WRF-SUCM and WRF-NoUCM (without UCM). The intensification in rainfall is however prominent at few pockets of urban regions, that is seen in increased spatial variability. We find that the correlation of precipitation across stations within the city falls below statistical significance at a distance greater than 10 km. Urban signature on extreme precipitation will be reflected on station rainfall only when the stations are located inside the urban pockets having intensified precipitation, which needs to be considered in future analysis.

  16. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Pretty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4–$19 (€3–15 per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM’s impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3, combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9 compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30% crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move.

  17. Holocene Atlantic Freshwater Redistribution and the Intensification of the South American Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, R.; Oppo, D.; Zheng, W.; Liu, Z.; Keigwin, L.; Schmidt, G.; Carlson, A.; Legrande, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Atlantic-to-Pacific water vapor transport across Central America has been postulated to play an important role in the overturning circulation of the Atlantic Ocean (Schmittner et al., 2000). Paleoceanographic data suggest that the δ18Osw, and presumably salinity, of western Pacific surface waters has decreased over the course of the Holocene (Stott et al., 2004), and modeling work suggests a number of inter-related mechanisms - changes in water vapor transport in and out of the Pacific, weakening of the East Asian monsoon, and changes in surface ocean circulation (Schmidt et al., 2007; Oppo et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether the increase in water vapor transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific that occurred as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) migrated southward resulted in an increase in Atlantic salinities; in essence we test whether the Pacific Ocean freshened at the expense of the Atlantic Ocean freshwater budget. Our results from the North Atlantic confirm the previously documented southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and results from the South Atlantic provide paleoceanographic evidence suggesting a Holocene intensification of the South American monsoon.

  18. Moist Thermodynamics of Tropical Cyclone Formation and Intensification in High-Resolution Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, A. A.; Camargo, S. J.; Sobel, A. H.; Kim, D.; Moon, Y.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Murakami, H.; Reed, K. A.; Vecchi, G. A.; Wehner, M. F.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, climate models have improved such that high-resolution simulations are able to reproduce the climatology of tropical cyclone activity with some fidelity and show some skill in seasonal forecasting. However, biases remain in many models, motivating a better understanding of what factors control the representation of tropical cyclone activity in climate models. We explore tropical cyclogenesis and intensification processes in six high-resolution climate models from NOAA/GFDL, NCAR, and NASA, including both coupled and uncoupled configurations. Our analysis framework focuses on how convection, moisture, clouds and related processes are coupled and employs budgets of column moist static energy and the spatial variance of column moist static energy. The latter allows us to quantify the different feedback processes responsible for the amplification of moist static energy anomalies associated with the organization of convection and cyclogenesis, including surface flux feedbacks and cloud-radiative feedbacks. We track the formation and evolution of tropical cyclones in the climate model simulations and apply our analysis along the individual tracks and composited over many tropical cyclones. We use two methods of compositing: a composite over all TC track points in a given intensity range, and a composite relative to the time of lifetime maximum intensity for each storm (at the same stage in the TC life cycle).

  19. Land use intensification alters ecosystem multifunctionality via loss of biodiversity and changes to functional composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Eric; Manning, Pete; Alt, Fabian; Binkenstein, Julia; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Böhm, Stefan; Grassein, Fabrice; Hölzel, Norbert; Klaus, Valentin H; Kleinebecker, Till; Morris, E Kathryn; Oelmann, Yvonne; Prati, Daniel; Renner, Swen C; Rillig, Matthias C; Schaefer, Martin; Schloter, Michael; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Solly, Emily; Sorkau, Elisabeth; Steckel, Juliane; Steffen-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stempfhuber, Barbara; Tschapka, Marco; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Fischer, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Global change, especially land-use intensification, affects human well-being by impacting the delivery of multiple ecosystem services (multifunctionality). However, whether biodiversity loss is a major component of global change effects on multifunctionality in real-world ecosystems, as in experimental ones, remains unclear. Therefore, we assessed biodiversity, functional composition and 14 ecosystem services on 150 agricultural grasslands differing in land-use intensity. We also introduce five multifunctionality measures in which ecosystem services were weighted according to realistic land-use objectives. We found that indirect land-use effects, i.e. those mediated by biodiversity loss and by changes to functional composition, were as strong as direct effects on average. Their strength varied with land-use objectives and regional context. Biodiversity loss explained indirect effects in a region of intermediate productivity and was most damaging when land-use objectives favoured supporting and cultural services. In contrast, functional composition shifts, towards fast-growing plant species, strongly increased provisioning services in more inherently unproductive grasslands. © 2015 The Authors Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  20. Hurricane intensification along United States coast suppressed during active hurricane periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossin, James P.

    2017-01-01

    The North Atlantic ocean/atmosphere environment exhibits pronounced interdecadal variability that is known to strongly modulate Atlantic hurricane activity. Variability in sea surface temperature (SST) is correlated with hurricane variability through its relationship with the genesis and thermodynamic potential intensity of hurricanes. Another key factor that governs the genesis and intensity of hurricanes is ambient environmental vertical wind shear (VWS). Warmer SSTs generally correlate with more frequent genesis and greater potential intensity, while VWS inhibits genesis and prevents any hurricanes that do form from reaching their potential intensity. When averaged over the main hurricane-development region in the Atlantic, SST and VWS co-vary inversely, so that the two factors act in concert to either enhance or inhibit basin-wide hurricane activity. Here I show, however, that conditions conducive to greater basin-wide Atlantic hurricane activity occur together with conditions for more probable weakening of hurricanes near the United States coast. Thus, the VWS and SST form a protective barrier along the United States coast during periods of heightened basin-wide hurricane activity. Conversely, during the most-recent period of basin-wide quiescence, hurricanes (and particularly major hurricanes) near the United States coast, although substantially less frequent, exhibited much greater variability in their rate of intensification, and were much more likely to intensify rapidly. Such heightened variability poses greater challenges to operational forecasting and, consequently, greater coastal risk during hurricane events.

  1. Will intensification of beef production deliver conservation outcomes in the Brazilian Amazon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Merry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of beef production has become a conservation target based on the idea of land sparing and the assumption that in order to contain deforestation and meet increasing beef demand we must increase productivity. There is also increasing attention and conservation credit being given to supply chain management in beef production. Based on a historical comparison between the US, a fully intensive system, and Brazil, one moving in that direction, we suggest that cattle ranching will intensify as a result of conservation investments (reductions in capital and land subsidies rather than intensifying in order to produce conservation results. If the comparison holds, the new intensive system, however, will continue to require large natural resource inputs, government subsidies, and be plagued by social and conservation problems. It will also be held in thrall by a few large processing companies, which exert undue influence over both producers and consumers. Therefore, we suggest that closer attention be paid to attribution in the claim of conservation outcomes from intensive beef production.

  2. Gold Leaching Characteristics and Intensification of a High S and As-Bearing Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-bin; Liu, Xiao-liang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Qian; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yan

    Some high sulfur and arsenic-bearing gold concentrate has a gold leaching rate less than 80% by oxidation roasting-pickling-cyanidation process. The characteristics and intensification of gold leaching were studied systemically. By combining chemical composition and phase analysis, the low gold leaching rate was found to lie in the capsulation of gold by iron-containing phases including iron oxides, arsenopyrite and pyrite. 96.66% of gold in the industrial leaching residue was capsulated and 95.88% of the capsulated turned out to be in the iron-containing phases. The results of laboratory pickling-cyanidation experiments on the calcine and industrial leaching residue presented further demonstration for the fact that gold capsulated in the iron-containing phases was hard to be leached. However, the gold cyanide leaching rate of calcine could be raised over 95% by a reduction roasting-pickling pretreatment which played such a significant role in exposing the capsulated gold that gold leaching was intensified remarkably.

  3. `I am an Intensive Guy': The Possibility and Conditions of Reconciliation Through the Ecological Intensification Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levain, Alix; Vertès, Françoise; Ruiz, Laurent; Delaby, Luc; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Barbier, Marc

    2015-11-01

    The need for better conciliation between food production and environmental protection calls for new conceptual approaches in agronomy. Ecological intensification (EI) is one of the most encouraging and successful conceptual frameworks for designing more sustainable agricultural systems, though relying upon semantic ambivalences and epistemic tensions. This article discusses abilities and limits of the EI framework in the context of strong social and environmental pressure for agricultural transition. The purpose is thus to put EI at stake in the light of the results of an interdisciplinary and participatory research project that explicitly adopted EI goals in livestock semi-industrialized farming systems. Is it possible to maintain livestock production systems that are simultaneously productive, sustainable, and viable and have low nitrate emissions in vulnerable coastal areas? If so, how do local stakeholders use these approaches? The main steps of the innovation process are described. The effects of political and social dynamics on the continuity of the transition process are analyzed, with a reflexive approach. This experiment invites one to consider that making EI operational in a context of socio-technical transition toward agroecology represents system innovation, requiring on-going dialogue, reflexivity, and long-term involvement by researchers.

  4. 'I am an Intensive Guy': The Possibility and Conditions of Reconciliation Through the Ecological Intensification Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levain, Alix; Vertès, Françoise; Ruiz, Laurent; Delaby, Luc; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Barbier, Marc

    2015-11-01

    The need for better conciliation between food production and environmental protection calls for new conceptual approaches in agronomy. Ecological intensification (EI) is one of the most encouraging and successful conceptual frameworks for designing more sustainable agricultural systems, though relying upon semantic ambivalences and epistemic tensions. This article discusses abilities and limits of the EI framework in the context of strong social and environmental pressure for agricultural transition. The purpose is thus to put EI at stake in the light of the results of an interdisciplinary and participatory research project that explicitly adopted EI goals in livestock semi-industrialized farming systems. Is it possible to maintain livestock production systems that are simultaneously productive, sustainable, and viable and have low nitrate emissions in vulnerable coastal areas? If so, how do local stakeholders use these approaches? The main steps of the innovation process are described. The effects of political and social dynamics on the continuity of the transition process are analyzed, with a reflexive approach. This experiment invites one to consider that making EI operational in a context of socio-technical transition toward agroecology represents system innovation, requiring on-going dialogue, reflexivity, and long-term involvement by researchers.

  5. Intensification of the Process of Flame Combustion of a Pulverized Coal Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    Consideration is given to a method of mechanoactivation intensification of the flame combustion of a pulverized coal fuel through the formation of a stressed state for the microstructure of its particles; the method is based on the use of the regularities of their external (diffusion) and internal (relaxation) kinetics. A study has been made of mechanoactivation nonequilibrium processes that occur in fuel particles during the induced relaxation of their stressed state with a resumed mobility of the microstructure of the particles and intensify diffusion-controlled chemical reactions in them under the assumption that the time of these reactions is much shorter than the times of mechanical action on a particle and of stress relaxation in it. The influence of the diffusion and relaxation factors on the burnup time of a fuel particle and on the flame distance has been analyzed. Ranges of variation in the parameters of flame combustion have been singled out in which the flame distance is determined by the mechanisms of combustion of the fuel and of mixing of combustion products.

  6. Revisiting Dosing Regimen Using Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Mathematical Modeling: Densification and Intensification of Combination Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meille, Christophe; Barbolosi, Dominique; Ciccolini, Joseph; Freyer, Gilles; Iliadis, Athanassios

    2016-08-01

    Controlling effects of drugs administered in combination is particularly challenging with a densified regimen because of life-threatening hematological toxicities. We have developed a mathematical model to optimize drug dosing regimens and to redesign the dose intensification-dose escalation process, using densified cycles of combined anticancer drugs. A generic mathematical model was developed to describe the main components of the real process, including pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy pharmacodynamics, and non-hematological toxicity risk. This model allowed for computing the distribution of the total drug amount of each drug in combination, for each escalation dose level, in order to minimize the average tumor mass for each cycle. This was achieved while complying with absolute neutrophil count clinical constraints and without exceeding a fixed risk of non-hematological dose-limiting toxicity. The innovative part of this work was the development of densifying and intensifying designs in a unified procedure. This model enabled us to determine the appropriate regimen in a pilot phase I/II study in metastatic breast patients for a 2-week-cycle treatment of docetaxel plus epirubicin doublet, and to propose a new dose-ranging process. In addition to the present application, this method can be further used to achieve optimization of any combination therapy, thus improving the efficacy versus toxicity balance of such a regimen.

  7. Mechanization of Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders: Issues and Options for Sustainable Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Sims

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA is an increasingly adopted production system to meet the goals of sustainable crop production intensification in feeding a growing world population whilst conserving natural resources. Mechanization (especially power units, seeders, rippers and sprayers is a key input for CA and smallholder farmers often have difficulties in making the necessary investments. Donors may be able to provide mechanization inputs in the short term, but this is not a sustainable solution as a machinery input supply chain needs to be built up to continue availability after external interventions cease. Local manufacture should be supported, as was the case in Brazil, but this is a slow development process, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. A more immediate solution is to equip and train CA service provision entrepreneurs. With the right equipment, selected for the needs of their local clientele, and the right technical and business management training, such entrepreneurs can make a livelihood by supplying high quality CA and other mechanization services on a fully costed basis. Elements of the required training, based on extensive field experience, are provided. To catalyse the growth of CA providers’ business, the market can be stimulated for an initial period by issuing e-vouchers for services and inputs.

  8. The effects of gallic/ferulic/caffeic acids on colour intensification and anthocyanin stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Bing-Jun; Liu, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Cai, Jian-Xiong; Jing, Pu

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism by which copigments stabilize colour, by protecting anthocyanin chromophores from nucleophilic attack, seems well accepted. This study was to determine effects of gallic/ferulic/caffeic acids on colour intensification and anthocyanin stability. Molecular dynamics simulations were applied to explore molecular interactions. Phenolic acids intensified the colour by 19%∼27%. Colour fading during heating followed first-order reactions with half-lives of 3.66, 9.64, 3.50, and 3.39h, whereas anthocyanin degradation, determined by the pH differential method (or HPLC-PDA), followed second-order reactions with half-lives of 3.29 (3.40), 3.43 (3.39), 2.29 (0.39), and 2.72 (0.32)h alone or with gallic/ferulic/caffeic acids, respectively, suggesting that anthocyanin degradation was faster than the colour fading. The strongest protection of gallic acids might be attributed to the shortest distance (4.37Å) of its aromatic ring to the anthocyanin (AC) panel. Hyperchromic effects induced by phenolic acids were pronounced and they obscured the accelerated anthocyanin degradation due to self-association interruption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Innovating at the margins: the System of Rice Intensification in India and transformative social innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambu C. Prasad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available I explore transformative social innovation in agriculture through a particular case of agroecological innovation, the System of Rice Intensification (SRI in India. Insights from social innovation theory that emphasize the roles of social movements and the reengagement of vulnerable populations in societal transformation can help reinstate the missing "social" dimension in current discourses on innovation in India. India has a rich and vibrant tradition of social innovation wherein vulnerable communities have engaged in collective experimentation. This is often missed in official or formal accounts. Social innovations such as SRI can help recreate these possibilities for change from outside the mainstream due to newer opportunities that networks present in the twenty-first century. I show how local and international networks led by Civil Society Organizations have reinterpreted and reconstructed game-changing macrotrends in agriculture. This has enabled the articulation and translation of an alternative paradigm for sustainable transitions within agriculture from outside formal research channels. These social innovations, however, encounter stiff opposition from established actors in agricultural research systems. Newer heterogeneous networks, as witnessed in SRI, provide opportunities for researchers within hierarchical research systems to explore, experiment, and create newer norms of engagement with Civil Society Organizations and farmers. I emphasize valuing and embedding diversity of practices and institutions at an early stage to enable systems to be more resilient and adaptable in sustainable transitions.

  10. Spatial stabilization and intensification of moistening and drying rate patterns under future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Yann; Joussaume, Sylvie; Bony, Sandrine; Braconnot, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Precipitation projections are usually presented as the change in precipitation between a fixed current baseline and a particular time in the future. However, upcoming generations will be affected in a way probably more related to the moving trend in precipitation patterns, i.e. to the rate and the persistence of regional precipitation changes from one generation to the next, than to changes relative to a fixed current baseline. In this perspective, we propose an alternative characterization of the future precipitation changes predicted by general circulation models, focusing on the precipitation difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. We show that in a business-as-usual emission pathway, the moistening and drying rates increase by 30-40 %, both over land and ocean. As we move further over the twenty-first century, more regions exhibit a significant rate of precipitation change, while the patterns become geographically stationary and the trends persistent. The stabilization of the geographical rate patterns that occurs despite the acceleration of global warming can be physically explained: it results from the increasing contribution of thermodynamic processes compared to dynamic processes in the control of precipitation change. We show that such an evolution is already noticeable over the last decades, and that it could be reversed if strong mitigation policies were quickly implemented. The combination of intensification and increasing persistence of precipitation rate patterns may affect the way human societies and natural ecosystems adapt to climate change, especially in the Mediterranean basin, in Central America, in South Asia and in the Arctic.

  11. Microstructure devices for process intensification: Influence of manufacturing tolerances and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandner, Juergen J.

    2013-01-01

    Process intensification by miniaturization is a common task for several fields of technology. Starting from manufacturing of electronic devices, miniaturization with the accompanying opportunities and problems gained also interest in chemistry and chemical process engineering. While the integration of enhanced functions, e.g. integrated sensors and actuators, is still under consideration, miniaturization itself has been realized in all material classes, namely metals, ceramics and polymers. First devices have been manufactured by scaling down macro-scale devices. However, manufacturing tolerances, material properties and design show much larger influence to the process than in macro scale. Many of the devices generated alike the macro ones work properly, but possibly could be optimized to a certain extend by adjusting the design and manufacturing tolerances to the special demands of miniaturization. Thus, some considerations on the design and production of devices for micro process engineering should be made to provide devices which show reproducible and controllable process behavior. The aim of the following publication is to show the importance of considerations in manufacturing tolerances and dimensions as well as design of microstructures to avoid negative influences and optimize the process characteristics of miniaturized devices. Some examples will be shown to explain the considerations presented here

  12. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Large-scale response of the Adriatic thermohaline circulation to African monsoon intensification during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Asioli, Alessandra; Minisini, Daniel; Maselli, Vittorio; Della Valle, Giacomo; Gamberi, Fabiano; Montagna, Paolo; Langone, Leonardo; Cattaneo, Antonio; Trincardi, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Historical investigations represent an extraordinary benchmark against which the Mediterranean response towards climate changes can be evaluated. Here, we explore the stagnation of the water column in the Adriatic basin during the sapropel S1 event (ca. 7-10 ky BP, early-mid Holocene). Our high-resolution (decadal-centennial) analysis aims to reconstruct the oceanographic regime under which the weak ventilation developed. Our multifaceted dataset based on integrated ecological, organic and inorganic parameters revealed that the weakening of the Northern Adriatic Deep Water hampered the deep-water ventilation resulting in oxygen-poor bottom waters. The emerging picture suggests a chain of events in which the intensification of monsoon precipitation over North Africa (i.e., enhanced Nile river discharge) followed by the weakening of the Levantine Intermediate Water ultimately suppressed the Northern Adriatic Deep Water formation which, consequently, hampered the ventilation of the southern Adriatic and the formation of the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water. Our results highlight the implicit interdependence among the major eastern Mediterranean water masses whose climate-induced destabilization exerted first-order control over oxygen concentration, benthic life and marine geochemistry.

  14. Evaluating Water Use for Agricultural Intensification in Southern Amazonia Using the Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Lathuillière

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed a Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment (WFSA in the Xingu Basin of Mato Grosso (XBMT, Brazil, with the objectives of (1 tracking blue (as surface water and green water (as soil moisture regenerated by precipitation consumption in recent years (2000, 2014; and (2 evaluating agricultural intensification options for future years (2030, 2050 considering the effects of deforestation and climate change on water availability in the basin. The agricultural sector was the largest consumer of water in the basin despite there being almost no irrigation of cropland or pastures. In addition to water use by crops and pasture grass, water consumption attributed to cattle production included evaporation from roughly 9463 ha of small farm reservoirs used to provide drinking water for cattle in 2014. The WFSA showed that while blue and green water consumptive uses were within sustainable limits in 2014, deforestation, cattle confinement, and the use of irrigation to increase cropping frequency could drive water use to unsustainable levels in the future. While land management policies and practices should strive for protection of the remaining natural vegetation, increased agricultural production will require reservoir and irrigation water management to reduce the potential threat of blue water scarcity in the dry season. In addition to providing general guidance for future water allocation decisions in the basin, our study offers an interpretation of blue and green water scarcities with changes in land use and climate in a rapidly evolving agricultural frontier.

  15. An integrated approach to monitoring ecosystem services and agriculture: implications for sustainable agricultural intensification in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Melissa F; Bonham, Curan A; Dempewolf, Jan; Arakwiye, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining the long-term sustainability of human and natural systems across agricultural landscapes requires an integrated, systematic monitoring system that can track crop productivity and the impacts of agricultural intensification on natural resources. This study presents the design and practical implementation of a monitoring framework that combines satellite observations with ground-based biophysical measurements and household surveys to provide metrics on ecosystem services and agricultural production at multiple spatial scales, reaching from individual households and plots owned by smallholder farmers to 100-km 2 landscapes. We developed a set of protocols for monitoring and analyzing ecological and agricultural household parameters within two 10 × 10-km landscapes in Rwanda, including soil fertility, crop yield, water availability, and fuelwood sustainability. Initial results suggest providing households that rely on rainfall for crop irrigation with timely climate information and improved technical inputs pre-harvest could help increase crop productivity in the short term. The value of the monitoring system is discussed as an effective tool for establishing a baseline of ecosystem services and agriculture before further change in land use and climate, identifying limitations in crop production and soil fertility, and evaluating food security, economic development, and environmental sustainability goals set forth by the Rwandan government.

  16. Improvement of Soil Biology Characteristics at Paddy Field by System of Rice Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyatmani Sih Dewi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test the System of Rice Intensification (SRI method in improving the biological properties of paddy soil. The indicators of improvement were measured by the number of earthworm feces (cast, and the population of some microbial and nutrient content in the cast. The experiments were performed by comparing the three methods, namely: (1 SRI, (2 semi-conventional, and (3 conventional, using Randomized Completely Block Design. Each treatment was repeated nine times. The experiments were performed in the paddy fields belonging to farmers in Sukoharjo, Central Java. The result showed that the SRI (application of 1 tons ha-1 of vermicompost + 50% of inorganic fertilizer dosage tends to increase the number of earthworms cast. It is an indicator of earthworm activity in soil. Earthworms cast contains more phosphate solubilizing bacteria (12.98 x 1010cfu and N content (1.23% compared to its surrounding soil. There is a close functional relation between earthworms cast with total tiller number. SRI method is better than the other two methods to improve the biological characteristics of paddy soil that has the potential to maintain the sustainability of soil productivity.

  17. Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Avery S; Mosnier, Aline; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Schmid, Erwin; O'Hare, Michael; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-20

    This study examines whether policies to encourage cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sparing land from deforestation. We use an economic model of global land use to investigate, from 2010 to 2030, the global agricultural outcomes, land use changes, and GHG abatement resulting from two potential Brazilian policies: a tax on cattle from conventional pasture and a subsidy for cattle from semi-intensive pasture. We find that under either policy, Brazil could achieve considerable sparing of forests and abatement of GHGs, in line with its national policy targets. The land spared, particularly under the tax, is far less than proportional to the productivity increased. However, the tax, despite prompting less adoption of semi-intensive ranching, delivers slightly more forest sparing and GHG abatement than the subsidy. This difference is explained by increased deforestation associated with increased beef consumption under the subsidy and reduced deforestation associated with reduced beef consumption under the tax. Complementary policies to directly limit deforestation could help limit these effects. GHG abatement from either the tax or subsidy appears inexpensive but, over time, the tax would become cheaper than the subsidy. A revenue-neutral combination of the policies could be an element of a sustainable development strategy for Brazil and other emerging economies seeking to balance agricultural development and forest protection.

  18. Efficacy of telbivudine with conditional tenofovir intensification in patients with chronic hepatitis B: results from the 2-year roadmap strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piratvisuth, Teerha; Komolmit, Piyawat; Chan, Henry LY; Tanwandee, Tawesak; Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Wattana; Pessoa, Mário G; Fassio, Eduardo; Ono, Suzane K; Bessone, Fernando; Daruich, Jorge; Zeuzem, Stefan; Manns, Michael; Uddin, Alkaz; Dong, Yuhong; Trylesinski, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Background: A 2-year roadmap study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tenofovir intensification at Week 24 in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) receiving telbivudine. Scope: A prospective multicenter study was conducted in treatment-naive patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB. All patients received telbivudine (600 mg/day) until Week 24. Thereafter, patients with detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (≥300 copies/mL) were administered tenofovir (300 mg/day) plus telbivudine, and patients with undetectable HBV DNA continued telbivudine monotherapy until Week 104. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with undetectable HBV DNA (<300 copies/mL) at Weeks 52 and 104. Findings: A total of 105 patients were enrolled in the trial, of which 100 were eligible for efficacy analysis. Undetectable HBV DNA levels were observed at Week 24 in 55 patients who continued on with telbivudine monotherapy. The remaining 45 patients with detectable HBV DNA received tenofovir add-on therapy. With monotherapy, 100% (55/55) and 94.5% (52/55) of patients achieved HBV DNA <300 copies/mL at Weeks 52 and 104, respectively; the corresponding values for patients with add-on therapy were 84.4% (38/45) and 93.3% (42/45). Overall, undetectable HBV DNA (<300 copies/mL) was found in 93% (93/100) and 94% (94/100) of patients at Weeks 52 and 104, respectively. HBeAg seroconversion rate was 44.4% (44/99) at Week 104 for the overall patient population. One patient in the monotherapy group and six in the intensification group demonstrated HBsAg clearance at Week 104. HBsAg seroconversion was observed in four patients at Week 104, all belonged to the tenofovir intensification group. Eight patients sustained HBsAg loss during a posttreatment follow-up period of 16 weeks. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization was constant in the telbivudine monotherapy group, whereas a progressive improvement was observed in the tenofovir intensification group

  19. The dynamical interactions of Amazon deforestation, intensification of cattle ranching and technology adoption: insights from a socio-ecological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hansen, Finn; Heitzig, Jobst; Donges, Jonathan F.; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Kurths, Jürgen; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2017-04-01

    Deforestation in the tropics - with vast consequences for the ecosystem and climate - is mainly driven by subsequent land use, which is not only determined by environmental and economic constraints but also influenced by the use of different production technologies. Inefficient production technologies can lead to excessive use of land, especially in areas where land is easily available and accessible. Here, the adoption of new technologies could help to use already converted land more intensively and ease pressures on ecologically valuable areas. In this study, we take the Brazilian Amazon as a prominent example region to explore the interplay of land-use decisions with environmental and economic dynamics in the process of land-use intensification and frontier expansion. Expansion of pasture land for cattle ranching to satisfy increasing domestic and international demands is one of the important drivers for deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Pasture run-down and following land abandonment further drive the expansion of deforestation frontiers into pristine forests. Therefore, intensification of livestock production, especially better pasture management, could potentially reduce deforestation. However, a number of reasons including the large spatial extent of the region make the process of comparing the effectiveness of different management techniques, technologies and policies in the region difficult. Therefore, the effectiveness and possible outcomes of policies to foster intensification are highly debated in the literature. Some authors deny that intensification policies are a viable option to spare forests as long as they are not a scarce resource [1] while others insist that intensification has an effect if only supported by the right policies [2]. In this presentation, we introduce a concise agent-based model to study conditions under which intensification can reduce deforestation and explore the trade-offs between intensified and extensive land uses

  20. Does the recent intensification of nationalistic and xenophobic attitudes in Eastern European countries adversely affect public mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Różyk-Myrta, Alicja; Wolińska, Agnieszka

    2016-10-24

    The authors postulate that the recent intensification of the nationalist and xenophobic attitude in Poland and other Eastern European countries is detrimental to public mental health. The xenophobic attitude is accompanied by a higher incidence of anxiety and depression, disputes due to the polarization of opinions, a sense of embarrassment and a sense of contradictions with so-called Christian values, unfavorable demographic predictions and reduced life satisfaction. The authors attempt to describe the sequence of adverse events that led to the intensification of xenophobia and characterize the current state of public mental health in European countries. They formulate and propose possible actions which could counteract the consequences of that transformation. The actions which may be undertaken to counteract the deterioration of public mental health can be based on the recommendations of so-called 'positive psychology' and 'positive psychiatry' as well as the principles of strengthening local social capital.

  1. An Integrated, Multi-Stage, Multi-Scale Framework for Achieving Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification-Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    -intensification-control, that is, the efficient use of raw materials (feedstock), the use of sustainable technologies and the design (and control) of processes that directly impact and improves sustainability/LCA factors. The unit operations concept, which has been sufficient until now, is one of the most used for performing......The chemical and biochemical industry needs major reductions in energy consumption, waste generation, etc., in order to remain competitive through the design and operation of more sustainable chemical and biochemical processes. These required reductions can be addressed through process synthesis...... process synthesis (and intensification) because it allows the association of tasks (functions) with the processing route to be followed. At the unit operations scale (Jaksland et al., 1995) and task scale (Siirola, 1996) alternatives are limited to existing (well-known) unit operations and therefore, may...

  2. Challenging the Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2004-01-01

    to explore in the study and teaching of foreign languages. Not only may linguistics and literature be employed to shed light on each other, the insights gained may furthermore prove useful in a broader context in our foreign language studies. The article begins with a brief introduction to literary...... linguistics in general and to Hallidayan linguistics in particular. The theoretical framework thus laid out, it is exemplified how Halliday's theory of language may be employed in the analysis of literature. The article concludes by considering the possible status of literary linguistics in a broader......To many people, challenging the boundaries between the traditional disciplines in foreign language studies means doing cultural studies. The aim of this article is to pull in a different direction by suggesting how the interface between linguistics and literature may be another fertile field...

  3. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...... within the cluster, in the form of cumulative ‘institutional rounds’ – the correction or disruption of existing institutions or the creation of new ones; and (iii) this process leads to a broader inclusion of local actors in the original cluster configuration. The paper challenges the prevalent argument...

  4. Penggunaan Skor Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction Harian sebagai Prediktor Mortalitas Anak yang Dirawat di Unit Perawatan Intensif Anak

    OpenAIRE

    Hendra Salim; Suparyatha I B; Budi-Hartawan I Nym

    2016-01-01

    Latar belakang. Penggunaan sistem skoring Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) sebagai prediktor mortalitas anak yang dirawat di Unit Perawatan Intensif Anak (UPIA) di Indonesia masih belum banyak diteliti. Tujuan. Mengetahui hubungan skor PELOD harian dalam memprediksi mortalitas anak yang dirawat di UPIA. Metode. Penelitian observasional analitik terhadap 49 anak yang dirawat di UPIA bulan Maret-Juli 2012. Skor PELOD harian dinilai selama satu minggu pertama perawatan dan diba...

  5. Patient-reported racial/ethnic healthcare provider discrimination and medication intensification in the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Courtney R; Karter, Andrew J; Young, Bessie A; Spigner, Clarence; Grembowski, David; Schillinger, Dean; Adler, Nancy

    2011-10-01

    Racial/ethnic minority patients are more likely to report experiences with discrimination in the healthcare setting, potentially leading to reduced access to appropriate care; however, few studies evaluate reports of discrimination with objectively measured quality of care indicators. To evaluate whether patient-reported racial/ethnic discrimination by healthcare providers was associated with evidence of poorer quality care measured by medication intensification. Baseline data from the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE), a random, race-stratified sample from the Kaiser Permanente Diabetes Registry from 2005-2006, including both survey and medical record data. Self-reported healthcare provider discrimination (from survey data) and medication intensification (from electronic prescription records) for poorly controlled diabetes patients (A1c ≥9.0%; systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ≥130 mg/dl). Of 10,409 eligible patients, 21% had hyperglycemia, 14% had hyperlipidemia, and 32% had hypertension. Of those with hyperglycemia, 59% had their medications intensified, along with 40% with hyperlipidemia, 33% with hypertension, and 47% in poor control of any risk factor. In adjusted log-binomial GEE models, discrimination was not associated with medication intensification [RR = 0.96 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.24) for hyperglycemia, RR = 1.23 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.63) for hyperlipidemia, RR = 1.06 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.61) for hypertension, and RR = 1.08 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.33) for the composite cohort]. We found no evidence that patient-reported healthcare discrimination was associated with less medication intensification. While not associated with this technical aspect of care, discrimination could still be associated with other aspects of care (e.g., patient-centeredness, communication).

  6. Impact de l'urbanisation sur l'intensification des systèmes de production horticoles au Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    Temple, Ludovic; Minkoua Nzie, Jules René; Marquis, Sophie; Dury, Sandrine

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Impact of urbanization on the intensification of horticulture production systems in Cameroon. The urbanization of sub-Saharan African cities has resulted in an increase in food demand for horticultural productions (market gardening, plantains, yams...) and a modification of access conditions to productive resources (land, job, capital, inputs...). The extensive slash and burn production systems, which characterize food crop farming, are reaching the limit of their capa...

  7. The changing landscape of agriculture in Ghana: Drivers of farm mechanization and its impacts on cropland expansion and intensification:

    OpenAIRE

    Houssou, Nazaire; Chapoto, Antony

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses whether the recent public and private efforts to improve farmers’ access to mechanical power in Ghana have had the intended effects on the country’s agricultural sector. Using panel survey data, this paper analyses the drivers of farm mechanization and its net impacts on cropland expansion and farming system intensification in northern Ghana. Several factors explain the use and use intensity of agricultural mechanization, including landholding size, total labor and fer...

  8. Intensification of delignification and subsequent hydrolysis for the fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Ray, Pearl; Gogate, Parag R

    2018-01-01

    The present work deals with intensification of delignification and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of sustainable biomass such as groundnut shells, coconut coir and pistachio shells using ultrasound assisted approach so as to develop an economical approach for obtaining bioethanol. Process intensification, in the current context, is referred to as any improvements giving enhanced rates possibly with lower energy and chemical as well as enzyme requirement for delignification and hydrolysis respectively. Conventional processing for both delignification and enzymatic hydrolysis has also been investigated for establishing the degree of intensification. The obtained results for delignification of biomass established that for conventional alkaline treatment, the extent of delignification for the case of groundnut shells, coconut coir and pistachio shells were 41.8, 45.9 and 38% which increased to 71.1, 89.5 and 78.9% respectively giving almost 80-100% increase for the ultrasound assisted approach. Under optimized conditions, the conventional approach resulted in reducing sugar yields as 10.2, 12.1 and 8.1g/L for groundnut shells, coconut coir and pistachio shells respectively whereas for the case of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis, the obtained yields were 21.3, 23.9 and 18.4g/L in same order of biomass. The material samples were characterized by several characterization techniques for establishing the morphological changes obtained due to the use of ultrasound which were found to be favorable for enhanced delignification and hydrolysis for the ultrasound assisted approach. Overall, the results of this work establish the process intensification benefits due to the application of ultrasound for different sustainable biomass with mechanistic understanding based on the morphological analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hypertension treatment intensification: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Sommet, Agnès; Bourrel, Robert; Oustric, Stéphane; Pathak, Atul; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2012-11-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to antagonize the effects of antihypertensive drugs, and these associations can lead to an increase in arterial blood pressure. However, the impact of NSAIDs on hypertension treatment management in large-scale populations remains poorly evaluated. We examined whether the introduction of NSAID into the treatment regimen would induce an intensification of hypertension treatment (defined as the introduction of a new antihypertensive drug). We conducted a cohort study involving 5,710 hypertensive subjects included in the French health insurance system database who had been treated and stabilized with their antihypertensive therapy and not exposed to any NSAID between 1 April 2005 and 1 April 2006. The maximum follow-up duration was 4 years. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for hypertension treatment intensification were 1.34 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.71] for NSAIDs in general, 1.79 (95 % CI 1.15-2.78) for diclofenac and 2.02 (95 % CI:1.09-3.77) for piroxicam. There were significant interactions between NSAIDs and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs; HR 4.09, 95 % CI 2.02-8.27) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs; HR 3.62, 95 % CI 1.80-7.31), but not with other antihypertensive drugs. Exposure to NSAIDs leads to an intensification of hypertension treatment, especially in patients treated with ACEIs or ARBs. Renin-angiotensin system blockers should be avoided whenever NSAIDs are prescribed.

  10. Driving Roles of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Thermal Anomalies in Intensification and Persistence of the Arctic Superstorm in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Fu, Yunfei; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-10-01

    Intense synoptic-scale storms have been more frequently observed over the Arctic during recent years. Specifically, a superstorm hit the Arctic Ocean in August 2012 and preceded a new record low Arctic sea ice extent. In this study, the major physical processes responsible for the storm's intensification and persistence are explored through a series of numerical modeling experiments with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. It is found that thermal anomalies in troposphere as well as lower stratosphere jointly lead to the development of this superstorm. Thermal contrast between the unusually warm Siberia and the relatively cold Arctic Ocean results in strong troposphere baroclinicity and upper level jet, which contribute to the storm intensification initially. On the other hand, Tropopause Polar Vortex (TPV) associated with the thermal anomaly in lower stratosphere further intensifies the upper level jet and accordingly contributes to a drastic intensification of the storm. Stacking with the enhanced surface low, TPV intensifies further, which sustains the storm to linger over the Arctic Ocean for an extended period.

  11. Estimation of tropical cyclone heat potential in the Bay of Bengal and its role in the genesis and intensification of storms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Murthy, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    In the present study, cyclone heat potential (CHP) in the Bay of Bengal has been estimated for different seasons using Levitus climatology. A good association was noticed between CHP and the efficiency of intensification (i.e the ratio between...

  12. Grain boundary melting in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, E. S.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wilen, L. A.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an optical scattering study of grain boundary premelting in water ice. Ubiquitous long ranged attractive polarization forces act to suppress grain boundary melting whereas repulsive forces originating in screened Coulomb interactions and classical colligative effects enhance it. The liquid enhancing effects can be manipulated by adding dopant ions to the system. For all measured grain boundaries this leads to increasing premelted film thickness with increasing electrolyte concentr...

  13. Conformal boundaries of warped products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2006-01-01

    In this note we prove a result on how to determine the conformal boundary of a type of warped product of two length spaces in terms of the individual conformal boundaries. In the situation, that we treat, the warping and conformal distortion functions are functions of distance to a base point....... The result is applied to produce examples of CAT(0)-spaces, where the conformal and ideal boundaries differ in interesting ways....

  14. Boundary Spanners in Global Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Romani, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    managers’ boundary-spanning activities and a context-sensitive understanding of their boundary work. The study applies Bourdieu’s concept of capital (economic, cultural, social, and symbolic) not only in its analysis of the two powerful partners but also in its discussion of the boundary......-spanning activities that are reported. The analysis demonstrates the coexistence of transactive and transformative modes of collaboration in the studied case. It reveals both the importance of partner status and the impact of that status on the forms of boundary-spanning activities in which the partners engage...

  15. Analysis of turbulent boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati

  16. Boundary-Layer & health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, V.

    2010-09-01

    It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate

  17. Broadening not strengthening of the Agulhas Current since the early 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Lisa M.; Elipot, Shane

    2016-12-01

    Western boundary currents—such as the Agulhas Current in the Indian Ocean—carry heat poleward, moderating Earth’s climate and fuelling the mid-latitude storm tracks. They could exacerbate or mitigate warming and extreme weather events in the future, depending on their response to anthropogenic climate change. Climate models show an ongoing poleward expansion and intensification of the global wind systems, most robustly in the Southern Hemisphere, and linear dynamical theory suggests that western boundary currents will intensify and shift poleward as a result. Observational evidence of such changes comes from accelerated warming and air-sea heat flux rates within all western boundary currents, which are two or three times faster than global mean rates. Here we show that, despite these expectations, the Agulhas Current has not intensified since the early 1990s. Instead, we find that it has broadened as a result of more eddy activity. Recent analyses of other western boundary currents—the Kuroshio and East Australia currents—hint at similar trends. These results indicate that intensifying winds may be increasing the eddy kinetic energy of boundary currents, rather than their mean flow. This could act to decrease poleward heat transport and increase cross-frontal exchange of nutrients and pollutants between the coastal ocean and the deep ocean. Sustained in situ measurements are needed to properly understand the role of these current systems in a changing climate.

  18. Selecting native perennial plants for ecological intensification in Mediterranean greenhouse horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, E; González, M; Paredes, D; Campos, M; Benítez, E

    2017-12-04

    Natural control by predators and parasitoids provides an important and often unnoticed ecosystem service to agricultural landscapes by reducing pest populations in crops. The current model of horticultural intensification in south-eastern Spain produces high yields but has also resulted in a landscape almost completely covered by plastic. Promoting natural areas among greenhouses could enhance biodiversity, by being beneficial insects, and reduce pest pressure outdoors. The first step is to ascertain how pests and their natural enemies (NEs) use Mediterranean vegetation for selecting the best plants for pest suppression outdoors. The abundance of the two major horticultural pests, the tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, together with their NEs, were assayed in 22 flowering perennial plants, which were newly planted in an experimental field surrounded by greenhouses. Eight plant species were identified as the most critical species for sustaining pest populations outdoors. A set of five plant species supported a medium level of pests, and another set of ten plant species supported the lowest level of both pests. Tobacco whitefly occurred in a few plants species, whereas western flower thrips occurred on almost all the plant species studied, and was favoured by the presence of flowers in perennial plants. The results suggest that plant diversity may provide relatively few acceptable host plants for tobacco whitefly than for western flower thrips. NEs were generally collected in plants that also supported abundance of pests, indicating that host/prey availability, more than food resources from flowers, was a stronger predictor of NE abundance in perennial plants. Field trials using the plants with the lowest host acceptance by pests are needed in order to ascertain whether pest abundance outdoors is reduced.

  19. Agricultural intensification and biodiversity partitioning in European landscapes comparing plants, carabids, and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohre, Andreas; Fischer, Christina; Aavik, Tsipe; Bengtsson, Jan; Berendse, Frank; Bommarco, Riccardo; Ceryngier, Piotr; Clement, Lars W; Dennis, Christopher; Eggers, Sönke; Emmerson, Mark; Geiger, Flavia; Guerrero, Irene; Hawro, Violetta; Inchausti, Pablo; Liira, Jaan; Morales, Manuel B; Oñate, Juan J; Pärt, Tomas; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Winqvist, Camilla; Thies, Carsten; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-07-01

    Effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on biodiversity are often assessed on the plot scale, although processes determining diversity also operate on larger spatial scales. Here, we analyzed the diversity of vascular plants, carabid beetles, and birds in agricultural landscapes in cereal crop fields at the field (n = 1350), farm (n = 270), and European-region (n = 9) scale. We partitioned diversity into its additive components alpha, beta, and gamma, and assessed the relative contribution of beta diversity to total species richness at each spatial scale. AI was determined using pesticide and fertilizer inputs, as well as tillage operations and categorized into low, medium, and high levels. As AI was not significantly related to landscape complexity, we could disentangle potential AI effects on local vs. landscape community homogenization. AI negatively affected the species richness of plants and birds, but not carabid beetles, at all spatial scales. Hence, local AI was closely correlated to beta diversity on larger scales up to the farm and region level, and thereby was an indicator of farm- and region-wide biodiversity losses. At the scale of farms (12.83-20.52%) and regions (68.34-80.18%), beta diversity accounted for the major part of the total species richness for all three taxa, indicating great dissimilarity in environmental conditions on larger spatial scales. For plants, relative importance of alpha diversity decreased with AI, while relative importance of beta diversity on the farm scale increased with AI for carabids and birds. Hence, and in contrast to our expectations, AI does not necessarily homogenize local communities, presumably due to the heterogeneity of farming practices. In conclusion, a more detailed understanding of AI effects on diversity patterns of various taxa and at multiple spatial scales would contribute to more efficient agri-environmental schemes in agroecosystems.

  20. Ecological Intensification Through Pesticide Reduction: Weed Control, Weed Biodiversity and Sustainability in Arable Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Gaba, Sabrina; Cordeau, Stéphane; Lechenet, Martin; Mézière, Delphine; Colbach, Nathalie

    2015-11-01

    Amongst the biodiversity components of agriculture, weeds are an interesting model for exploring management options relying on the principle of ecological intensification in arable farming. Weeds can cause severe crop yield losses, contribute to farmland functional biodiversity and are strongly associated with the generic issue of pesticide use. In this paper, we address the impacts of herbicide reduction following a causal framework starting with herbicide reduction and triggering changes in (i) the management options required to control weeds, (ii) the weed communities and functions they provide and (iii) the overall performance and sustainability of the implemented land management options. The three components of this framework were analysed in a multidisciplinary project that was conducted on 55 experimental and farmer's fields that included conventional, integrated and organic cropping systems. Our results indicate that the reduction of herbicide use is not antagonistic with crop production, provided that alternative practices are put into place. Herbicide reduction and associated land management modified the composition of in-field weed communities and thus the functions of weeds related to biodiversity and production. Through a long-term simulation of weed communities based on alternative (?) cropping systems, some specific management pathways were identified that delivered high biodiversity gains and limited the negative impacts of weeds on crop production. Finally, the multi-criteria assessment of the environmental, economic and societal sustainability of the 55 systems suggests that integrated weed management systems fared better than their conventional and organic counterparts. These outcomes suggest that sustainable management could possibly be achieved through changes in weed management, along a pathway starting with herbicide reduction.

  1. Prodigious Effects of Concentration Intensification on Nanoparticle Synthesis: A High-Quality, Scalable Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Williamson, Curtis B.

    2015-12-23

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Realizing the promise of nanoparticle-based technologies demands more efficient, robust synthesis methods (i.e., process intensification) that consistently produce large quantities of high-quality nanoparticles (NPs). We explored NP synthesis via the heat-up method in a regime of previously unexplored high concentrations near the solubility limit of the precursors. We discovered that in this highly concentrated and viscous regime the NP synthesis parameters are less sensitive to experimental variability and thereby provide a robust, scalable, and size-focusing NP synthesis. Specifically, we synthesize high-quality metal sulfide NPs (<7% relative standard deviation for Cu2-xS and CdS), and demonstrate a 10-1000-fold increase in Cu2-xS NP production (>200 g) relative to the current field of large-scale (0.1-5 g yields) and laboratory-scale (<0.1 g) efforts. Compared to conventional synthesis methods (hot injection with dilute precursor concentration) characterized by rapid growth and low yield, our highly concentrated NP system supplies remarkably controlled growth rates and a 10-fold increase in NP volumetric production capacity (86 g/L). The controlled growth, high yield, and robust nature of highly concentrated solutions can facilitate large-scale nanomanufacturing of NPs by relaxing the synthesis requirements to achieve monodisperse products. Mechanistically, our investigation of the thermal and rheological properties and growth rates reveals that this high concentration regime has reduced mass diffusion (a 5-fold increase in solution viscosity), is stable to thermal perturbations (64% increase in heat capacity), and is resistant to Ostwald ripening.

  2. Intensification and isolation: psychosocial work environment changes in Spain 2005-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzet, M; Navarro, A; Llorens, C; Moncada, S

    2015-07-01

    Work organization in Spain has traditionally been based on a high proportion of passive work. Changes in the labour market in Europe and the economic crisis that began in 2008 may have had an impact on the pace of work in Spain. To estimate the prevalence of exposure to high-strain work and passive work in 2010 compared with 2005 and to analyse the distribution by gender, age and occupation of workers exposed to high strain and iso-strain in 2010 compared with 2005. Two representative samples of the Spanish working population were compared. Unweighted and weighted prevalences in 2010 were calculated and compared with those in 2005. In the 2010 sample of 5110 workers, 29% (95% CI 27.8; 30.7) were exposed to high strain (of whom 83% had low social support). There was an increase of 6% (95% CI 3.8; 7.1) in high strain, and of 7% (95% CI 5.2; 8.3) to iso-strain, compared with 2005 (n = 7612). In 2010, as in 2005, the proportion of manual workers exposed to strain and iso-strain was more than double the corresponding proportion in non-manual workers. There has been an intensification of work, reduction in social support and a notable increase in exposure to high strain and iso-strain. The class inequalities reflect the segmentation of the Spanish labour market. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Social-environmental trade-offs for Systems of Rice Intensification in S. India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathorne-Hardy, A.; Reddy, D. N.; Motkuri, V.; Harriss-White, B.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems will only be sustainable if social and economic considerations are included in their design. Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI) has been proposed as more sustainable form of rice production due to reported higher yields and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However there is a research gap concerning the wider social and economic implications of SRI. We developed a model to simultaneously analyse social, economic and environmental sustainability indicators (GHG emissions, ground water use, fossil/ non-fossil energy use, costs, profits, gender, employment quality and employment quantity) to compare SRI to conventional flooded rice production systems. Data was based on farmer-recall questionnaires in Andhra Pradesh, India. Data was collected per hectare and per kg of paddy. SRI substantially increased yields (157% of control), reduced ground-water requirements (64% ha-1, 42% kg-1, of control) and reduced GHG emissions (72% ha-1, 42% kg-1, of control). Costs were substantially lower for SRI systems, on both a hectare and a per kg basis. The high yields and lower costs resulted in a doubling of profits per hectare. However, these benefits are accrued to the farmer potentially at the expense of landless labourers. The role of agricultural employment in developing countries is a controversial issue, but in India, whose substantial economic growth has been largely jobless, agriculture retains a key role in reducing under- and un- employment. SRI labour demand was lower (70% of control ha-1). Simultaneously the ratio of male to female employment increased, from 67% female labour in control to 50% SRI. Thus trade-offs may exist between environmental, economic and social aspects of SRI. Understanding sustainability from a broad perspective facilitates better policy creation.

  4. HUBUNGAN ANTARA KADAR ALBUMIN DAN MORTALITAS PASIEN DI UNIT PERAWATAN INTENSIF ANAK RSUP SANGLAH DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Indradjaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hipoalbuminemia berhubungan dengan luaran yang buruk pada pasien dewasa yang sakit berat namun hubungan ini pada pasien anak hingga saat ini belum jelas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan kadar albumin serum dengan mortalitas pasien anak yang di rawat di Unit Perawatan Intensif Anak (UPIA RSUP Sanglah Denpasar. Dengan desain kohort prospektif dilakukan penelitian di divisi Pediatri Gawat Darurat Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana RSUP Sanglah dari periode Mei hingga Juli 2012. Pasien dikelompokan berdasarkan kadar albumin awal menjadi tiga kelompok, kelompok I dengan kadar albumin <2,5g/dl, kelompok II e”2,52,9g/dl dan  kelompok III >3g/dl. Data dianalisis dengan uji Kai-kuadrat dan analisis multivariat (regresi logistik dengan tingkat kemaknaan á=0,05 (IK 95%. Dari 60 pasien, 20 pasien (33,3% mengalami hipoalbuminemia dengan kadar albumin < 3 g/dl pada awal perawatan, terdapat 10 pasien(16,7% pada kelompok I, sepuluh pasien (16,7% terdapat pada kelompok II, dan kelompok III sebanyak 40 pasien (66,7%.  Mortalitas pada kelompok I dibandingkan kadar albumin normal menunjukkanperbedaan bermakna {RR 12,00 (IK95% 3,96 sampai 36,33, P<0,0001}, begitu juga untuk kelompok II bila dibandingkan dengan kelompok kadar albumin normal {RR 9,33 (IK 95% 2,92 sampai 29,81,P<0,0001}. Disimpulkan bahwa semakin rendah kadar albumin serum semakin tinggi angka mortalitas di UPIA RSUP Sanglah. [MEDICINA.2014;45:13-18].

  5. Intensification of separation of extraction emulsions in systems with tributyl phosphate in ultrasonic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khavskij, N.N.; Kagerman'yan, V.S.; Kanevskij, I.N.; Kim, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles have been studied determining the separation of extraction emulsions appearing in the course of the aqueous and ammonia reextraction of molybdenum from tributylphosphate (TBP) in the ultrasonic field. Piezoelectric radiators with a frequency of 0.8 to 1,0 MHz are used as ultrasonic generators. The organic extract contains 7 g/1 Mo within the hydrosolvate complex. Acceleration of the separation process has been established to take place in the ultrasound region 0.25 to 1.25 W/cm 2 for the aqueous and ammonia systems. The optimal conditions for the separation process exist within 0.5 to 0.65 W/cm 2 , they being 18 minutes for the aqueous and 16 minutes for the ammonia emulsion. It is demonstrated that as a result of the superposition of the ultrasound over the emulsions being formed by TBP with water and ammonia, the separation of the aqueous emulsions increases by a factor of 5 to 6 and of the ammonia emulsions - by a factor of 50 to 80. It is advisable that the ultrasound emulsion treatment for 5 to 10 minutes be coupled with a subsequent settling. As this takes place, the total period of the phase separation will be 18 to 20 minutes. The separation rate increases with temperature. The maximum emulsion separation acceleration is observed within 25 to 30 deg C. The possibility has been revealed to realize the process of the ultrasound intensification of the emulsion separation process by using small-sized extraction equipment

  6. Comparative landscape genetics of two frugivorous bats in a biological corridor undergoing agricultural intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Katherine A; Waits, Lisette P; Finegan, Bryan

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural intensification in tropical landscapes poses a new threat to the ability of biological corridors to maintain functional connectivity for native species. We use a landscape genetics approach to evaluate impacts of expanding pineapple plantations on two widespread and abundant frugivorous bats in a biological corridor in Costa Rica. We hypothesize that the larger, more mobile Artibeus jamaicensis will be less impacted by pineapple than the smaller Carollia castanea. In 2012 and 2013, we sampled 735 bats in 26 remnant forest patches surrounded by different proportions of forest, pasture, crops and pineapple. We used 10 microsatellite loci for A. jamaicensis and 16 microsatellite loci for C. castanea to estimate genetic diversity and gene flow. Canonical correspondence analyses indicate that land cover type surrounding patches has no impact on genetic diversity of A. jamaicensis. However, for C. castanea, both percentage forest and pineapple surrounding patches explained a significant proportion of the variation in genetic diversity. Least-cost transect analyses (LCTA) and pairwise G″st suggest that for A. jamaicensis, pineapple is more permeable to gene flow than expected, while as expected, forest is the most permeable land cover for gene flow of C. castanea. For both species, LCTA indicate that development may play a role in inhibiting gene flow. The current study answers the call for landscape genetic research focused on tropical and agricultural landscapes, highlights the value of comparative landscape genetics in biological corridor design and management and is one of the few studies of biological corridors in any ecosystem to implement a genetic approach to test corridor efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. GEOSPATIAL APPROACH FOR DELINEATING EXTRAPOLATION DOMAINS FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Muthoni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable intensification (SI is a viable pathway to increase agricultural production and improve ecosystem health. Scaling SI technologies in locations with similar biophysical conditions enhance adoption. This paper employs novel extrapolation detection (ExeDet algorithm and gridded bioclimatic layers to delineate extrapolation domains for improved maize variety (SC719 and inorganic fertilizers (YaraMila-CEREAL® and YaraBela-Sulfan® in Tanzania. Suitability was based on grain yields recorded in on-farm trials. The ExeDet algorithm generated three maps: (1 the dissimilarity between bioclimatic conditions in the reference trial sites and the target extrapolation domain (Novelty type-1, (2 the magnitude of novel correlations between covariates in extrapolation domain (Novelty type-2 and (3 the most limiting covariate. The novelty type1 and 2 maps were intersected and reclassified into five suitability classes. These classes were cross-tabulated to generate extrapolation suitability index (ESI for the candidate technology package. An impact based spatial targeting index (IBSTI was used to identify areas within the zones earmarked as suitable using ESI where the potential impacts for out scaling interventions can be maximized. Application of ESI and IBSTI is expected to guide extension and development agencies to prioritize scaling intervention based on both biophysical suitability and potential impact of particular technology package. Annual precipitation was most limiting factor in largest area of the extrapolation domain. Identification of the spatial distribution of the limiting factor is useful for recommending remedial measures to address the limiting factor that hinder a technology to achieve its full potential. The method outlined in this paper is replicable to other technologies that require extrapolation provided that representative reference trial data and appropriate biophysical grids are available.

  8. Ecological Intensification Through Pesticide Reduction: Weed Control, Weed Biodiversity and Sustainability in Arable Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Gaba, Sabrina; Cordeau, Stéphane; Lechenet, Martin; Mézière, Delphine; Colbach, Nathalie

    2015-11-01

    Amongst the biodiversity components of agriculture, weeds are an interesting model for exploring management options relying on the principle of ecological intensification in arable farming. Weeds can cause severe crop yield losses, contribute to farmland functional biodiversity and are strongly associated with the generic issue of pesticide use. In this paper, we address the impacts of herbicide reduction following a causal framework starting with herbicide reduction and triggering changes in (i) the management options required to control weeds, (ii) the weed communities and functions they provide and (iii) the overall performance and sustainability of the implemented land management options. The three components of this framework were analysed in a multidisciplinary project that was conducted on 55 experimental and farmer's fields that included conventional, integrated and organic cropping systems. Our results indicate that the reduction of herbicide use is not antagonistic with crop production, provided that alternative practices are put into place. Herbicide reduction and associated land management modified the composition of in-field weed communities and thus the functions of weeds related to biodiversity and production. Through a long-term simulation of weed communities based on alternative (?) cropping systems, some specific management pathways were identified that delivered high biodiversity gains and limited the negative impacts of weeds on crop production. Finally, the multi-criteria assessment of the environmental, economic and societal sustainability of the 55 systems suggests that integrated weed management systems fared better than their conventional and organic counterparts. These outcomes suggest that sustainable management could possibly be achieved through changes in weed management, along a pathway starting with herbicide reduction.

  9. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension. 1. Introduction. Plate boundaries are the zones where most earth dynamics are focussed. The complexity of tectonic boundaries draws attention to them as the largest earthquakes are felt in these areas and they elicit the natural hazard of ...

  10. Nucleation of small angle boundaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal stresses induced by the strain gradients in an array of lattice cells delineated by low-angle dislocation boundaries are partially relieved by the creation of new low-angle boundaries. This is shown to be a first-order transition...

  11. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension. 1. Introduction. Plate boundaries ...

  12. Boundary dynamics in dilaton gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.R.; Mukherji, S.

    1994-06-01

    We study the dynamics of the boundary in two dimensional dilaton gravity coupled to N massless scalars. We rederive the boundary conditions of [1] and [3] in a way which makes the requirement of reparametrization invariance and the role of conformal anomaly explicit. We then study the semiclassical behaviour of the boundary in the N=24 theory in the presence of an incoming matter wave with a constant energy flux spread over a finite interval. There is a critical value of the matter energy density below which the boundary is stable and all the matter is reflected back. For energy densities greater than this critical value there is a similar behaviour for small values of the total energy thrown in. However, when the total energy exceeds another critical value the boundary exhibits a runaway behaviour and the spacetime develops in singularities and horizons. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  13. Boundary Drawing in Clinical Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    The aim of this paper is to show how health care professionals temporarily dissolve and redraw boundaries in their everyday work, in order to coordinate clinical work and facilitate collaboration in patient pathways. Boundaries are social constructions that help us make sense of our complex, social...... world. In health care, formal boundaries are important distinctions that separate health care practitioners into medical specialties, professions and organizational departments. But clinical work also relies on the ability of health care practitioners to collaborate around patients in formal...... arrangements or emergent, temporary teams. Focusing on the cognitive and social boundaries we draw to establish identity and connection (to a profession, team or person) the paper shows how health care professionals can use inter-personal relationships to temporarily dismiss formal boundaries. By redrawing...

  14. Scaling and Intensification of Extreme Precipitation in High-Resolution Climate Change Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Lüthi, Daniel; Schär, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Climate change projections of extreme precipitation are of great interest due to hydrological impacts such as droughts, floods, erosion, landslides and debris flows. Despite the trend towards dryer conditions over Europe, many climate simulations project increases of heavy precipitation events, while some theoretical studies have raised the possibility of dramatic increases in hourly events (by up to 14% per degree warming). However, conventional climate models are not suited to assess short-term heavy events due to the need to parameterize deep convection. High-resolution climate models with kilometer-scale grid spacing at which parameterization of convection can be switched off, significantly improve the simulation of heavy precipitation and can alter the climate change signal (e.g., Ban et al., 2015). Here we present decade-long high-resolution climate change simulations at horizontal resolution of 2.2 km over Europe on a computational domain with 1536x1536x60 grid points. These simulations have become feasible with a new version of the COSMO model that runs entirely on Graphics Processing Units. We compare a present-day climate simulation, driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis (Leutwyler at al., 2016), with a Pseudo-Global Warming (PGW) simulation The PGW simulation is driven by the slowly evolving mean seasonal cycle of the climate changes (derived from the CMIP5 model), superimposed on the ERA-Interim reanalysis. With this approach, the resulting changes are due to large scale warming of the atmosphere and due to slow-varying circulation changes. We will present the differences in climate change signal between conventional and high-resolution climate models, and discuss the thermodynamic effects on intensification of extreme precipitation. Ban N., J. Schmidli and C. Schär, 2015: Heavy precipitation in a changing climate: Does short-term summer precipitation increase faster? Geophys. Res. Lett., 42 (4), 1165-1172 Leutwyler, D., D. Lüthi, N. Ban, O. Fuhrer and C

  15. Process intensification for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds: Supercritical reactive extraction process parameters study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigation of supercritical reactive extraction process for biodiesel production. ► Focus is given on optimizing methyl esters yield for Jatropha curcas L. seeds. ► Influence of process parameters to the reaction are discussed thoroughly. ► Comparison between the novel reaction with conventional process are studied. ► High methyl esters yield can be obtained without pre-extraction and catalyst. -- Abstract: In a bid to increase the cost competitiveness of biodiesel production against mineral diesel, process intensification has been studied for numerous biodiesel processing technologies. Subsequently, reactive extraction or in situ transesterification is actively being explored in which the solid oil-bearing seeds are used as the reactant directly with short-chain alcohol. This eliminates separate oil extraction process and combines both extraction and transesterification in a single unit. Supercritical reactive extraction takes one step further by substituting the role of catalyst with supercritical conditions to achieve higher yield and shorter processing time. In this work, supercritical reactive extraction with methanol was carried out in a high-pressure batch reactor to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from Jatropha curcas L. seeds. Material and process parameters including space loading, solvent to seed ratio, co-solvent (n-hexane) to seed ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and mixing intensity were varied one at a time and optimized based on two responses i.e. extraction efficiency, M extract and FAME yield, F y . The optimum responses for supercritical reactive extraction obtained were 104.17% w/w and 99.67% w/w (relative to 100% lipid extraction with n-hexane) for M extract and F y respectively under the following conditions: 54.0 ml/g space loading, 5.0 ml/g methanol to seeds ratio, 300 °C, 9.5 MPa (Mega Pascal), 30 min reaction time and without n-hexane as co-solvent or any agitation source. This proved that

  16. Near-term Intensification of the Hydrological Cycle in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, M.; Rastogi, D.; Mei, R.; Kao, S. C.; Naz, B. S.; Gangrade, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present state-of-the-art near-term projections of hydrological changes over the continental U.S. from a hierarchical high-resolution regional modeling framework. We dynamically downscale 11 Global Climate Models (CCSM4, ACCESS1-0, NorESM1-M, MRI-CGCM3, GFDL-ESM2M, FGOALS-g2, bcc-csm1-1, MIROC5, MPI-ESM-MR, IPSL-ESM-MR, CMCC-CM5) from the 5th phase of Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project at 4-km horizontal grid spacing using a modeling framework that consists of a regional climate model (RegCM4) and a hydrological model (VIC). All model integrations span 41 years in the historic period (1965-2005) and 41 years in the near-term future period (2010-2050) under RCP 8.5. The RegCM4 domain covers the continental U.S. and parts of Canada and Mexico at 18-km horizontal grid spacing whereas the VIC domain covers only the continental U.S. at 4-km horizontal grid spacing. Should the emissions continue to rise throughout the next four decades of the 21st century, our results suggest that every region within the continental U.S. will be at least 2°C warmer before the mid-21st century, leading to the likely intensification of the regional hydrological cycle and the acceleration of the observed trends in the cold, warm and wet extremes. We also find an overall increase (decrease) in the inflows to the flood-controlling (hydroelectric) reservoirs across the United States, raising the likelihood of flooding events and significant impacts on the federal hydroelectric power generation. However, certain water-stressed regions such as California will be further constrained by extreme dry and wet conditions; these regions are incapable of storing rising quantities of runoff and wet years will not necessarily equate to an increase in water supply availability. Overall, these changes in the regional hydro-meteorology can have substantial impacts on the natural and human systems across the U.S.

  17. Abrupt shifts in ecosystem function and intensification of global biogeochemical cycle driven by hydroclimatic extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuanlong; Huete, Alfredo; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Zhang, Yongguang; Xie, Zunyi; Giovannini, Leandro; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2016-04-01

    measurements of carbon and water fluxes from eddy-covariance towers and field sampling of aboveground net primary productivity from long-term ecological networks to verify the patterns observed by top-down approaches. Our results demonstrate the intensification of hydroclimatic extremes due to global warming is exerting important impacts on ecosystem function, which further have significant implications on global biogeochemical cycles as well as local ecosystem processes.

  18. The Rapid Intensification of Hurricane Karl (2010): New Remote Sensing Observations of Convective Bursts from the Global Hawk Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Stephen R.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Reasor, Paul; Didlake, Anthony C., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of rapidly intensifying Hurricane Karl (2010) is examined from a suite of remote sensing observations during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field experiment. The novelties of this study are in the analysis of data from the airborne Doppler radar HIWRAP and the new Global Hawk airborne platform that allows long endurance sampling of hurricanes. Supporting data from the HAMSR microwave sounder coincident with HIWRAP and coordinated flights with the NOAA WP-3D aircraft help to provide a comprehensive understanding of the storm. The focus of the analysis is on documenting and understanding the structure, evolution and role of small scale, deep convective forcing in the storm intensification process. Deep convective bursts are sporadically initiated in the downshear quadrants of the storm and rotate into the upshear quadrants for a period of 12 h during the rapid intensification. The aircraft data analysis indicates that the bursts are being formed and maintained through a combination of two main processes: (1) convergence generated from counter-rotating mesovortex circulations and the larger vortex-scale flow and (2) the turbulent (scales of 25 km) transport of anomalously warm, buoyant air from the eye to the eyewall at low levels. The turbulent mixing across the eyewall interface and forced convective descent adjacent to the bursts assists in carving out the eye of Karl, which leads to an asymmetric enhancement of the warm core. The mesovortices play a key role in the evolution of the features described above.The Global Hawk aircraft allowed an examination of the vortex response and axisymmetrization period in addition to the burst pulsing phase. A pronounced axisymmetric development of the vortex is observed following the pulsing phase that includes a sloped eyewall structure and formation of a clear, wide eye.

  19. How Does Gender Affect Sustainable Intensification of Cereal Production in the West African Sahel? Evidence from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, Veronique; Smale, Melinda; Haider, Hamza

    2017-04-01

    Better understanding of gender differences in the adoption of agricultural intensification strategies is crucial for designing effective policies to close the gender gap while sustainably enhancing farm productivity. We examine gender differences in adoption rates, likelihood and determinants of adopting strategy sets that enhance yields, protect crops, and restore soils in the West African Sahel, based on analysis of cereal production in Burkina Faso. Applying a multivariate probit model to a nationally representative household panel, we exploit the individual plot as unit of analysis and control for plot manager characteristics along with other covariates. Reflecting the socio-cultural context of farming combined with the economic attributes of inputs, we find that female managers of individual cereal fields are less likely than their male counterparts to adopt yield-enhancing and soil-restoring strategies, although no differential is apparent for yield-protecting strategies. More broadly, gender-disaggregated regressions demonstrate that adoption determinants differ by gender. Plot manager characteristics, including age, marital status, and access to credit or extension services do influence adoption decisions. Furthermore, household resources influence the probability of adopting intensification strategy sets differently by gender of the plot manager. Variables expressing the availability of household labor strongly influence the adoption of soil-restoring strategies by female plot managers. By contrast, household resources such as extent of livestock owned, value of non-farm income, and area planted to cotton affect the adoption choices of male plot managers. Rectifying the male bias in extension services along with improving access to credit, income, and equipment to female plot managers could contribute to sustainable agricultural intensification.

  20. Crop intensification, land use, and on-farm energy-use efficiency during the worldwide spread of the green revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Pedro; Fernández, Roberto J

    2018-03-06

    We analyzed crop production, physical inputs, and land use at the country level to assess technological changes behind the threefold increase in global crop production from 1961 to 2014. We translated machinery, fuel, and fertilizer to embedded energy units that, when summed up, provided a measure of agricultural intensification (human subsidy per hectare) for crops in the 58 countries responsible for 95% of global production. Worldwide, there was a 137% increase in input use per hectare, reaching 13 EJ, or 2.6% of the world's primary energy supply, versus only a 10% increase in land use. Intensification was marked in Asia and Latin America, where input-use levels reached those that North America and Europe had in the earlier years of the period; the increase was more accentuated, irrespective of continent, for the 12 countries with mostly irrigated production. Half of the countries (28/58), mainly developed ones, had an average subsidy >5 GJ/ha/y (with fertilizers accounting for 27% in 1961 and 45% in 2014), with most of them (23/28) using about the same area or less than in 1961 (net land sparing of 31 Mha). Most of the remaining countries (24/30 with inputs <5 GJ/ha/y), mainly developing ones, increased their cropped area (net land extensification of 135 Mha). Overall, energy-use efficiency (crop output/inputs) followed a U-shaped trajectory starting at about 3 and finishing close to 4. The prospects of a more sustainable intensification are discussed, and the inadequacy of the land-sparing model expectation of protecting wilderness via intensified agriculture is highlighted.

  1. Is the State of the Air-Sea Interface a Factor in Rapid Intensification and Rapid Decline of Tropical Cyclones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Alexander V.; Lukas, Roger; Donelan, Mark A.; Haus, Brian K.; Ginis, Isaac

    2017-12-01

    Tropical storm intensity prediction remains a challenge in tropical meteorology. Some tropical storms undergo dramatic rapid intensification and rapid decline. Hurricane researchers have considered particular ambient environmental conditions including the ocean thermal and salinity structure and internal vortex dynamics (e.g., eyewall replacement cycle, hot towers) as factors creating favorable conditions for rapid intensification. At this point, however, it is not exactly known to what extent the state of the sea surface controls tropical cyclone dynamics. Theoretical considerations, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations suggest that the air-sea interface under tropical cyclones is subject to the Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability. Ejection of large quantities of spray particles due to this instability can produce a two-phase environment, which can attenuate gravity-capillary waves and alter the air-sea coupling. The unified parameterization of waveform and two-phase drag based on the physics of the air-sea interface shows the increase of the aerodynamic drag coefficient Cd with wind speed up to hurricane force (U10≈35 m s-1). Remarkably, there is a local Cd minimum—"an aerodynamic drag well"—at around U10≈60 m s-1. The negative slope of the Cd dependence on wind-speed between approximately 35 and 60 m s-1 favors rapid storm intensification. In contrast, the positive slope of Cd wind-speed dependence above 60 m s-1 is favorable for a rapid storm decline of the most powerful storms. In fact, the storms that intensify to Category 5 usually rapidly weaken afterward.

  2. Bequest of the Norseman—The Potential for Agricultural Intensification and Expansion in Southern Greenland under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatrina Caviezel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of summer temperatures and a prolonged growing season increase the potential for agricultural land use for subarctic agriculture. Nevertheless, land use at borderline ecotones is influenced by more factors than temperature and the length of the growing season, for example soil quality, as the increasing lengths of dry periods during vegetation season can diminish land use potential. Hence, this study focuses on the quality of the soil resource as possible limiting factor for land use intensification in southern Greenland. Physical and chemical soil properties of cultivated grasslands, reference sites and semi-natural birch and grassland sites were examined to develop a soil quality index and to identify the suitability of soils for a sustainable intensification and expansion of the agriculture. The study revealed that soils in the study area are generally characterized by a low effective cation exchange capacity (CECeff (3.7 ± 5.0 meq 100 g−1, low pH CaCl2 (4.6 ± 0.4 and low clay and silt content (3.0 ± 1.0% and 38.2 ± 4.7%, respectively. Due to the high amount of coarse fraction (59.1 ± 5.8% and the low amount of soil nutrients, an increasing threat of dry spells for soils and yield could be identified. Further, future land use intensification and expansion bears a high risk for concomitant effects, namely further soil acidification, nutrient leaching and soil degradation processes. However, results of the soil quality index also indicate that sites which were already used by the Norseman (980s–1450 show the best suitability for agricultural use. Thus, these areas offer a possibility to expand agricultural land use in southern Greenland.

  3. Effects of hypoxia and ocean acidification on the upper thermal niche boundaries of coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Rasmus; Johansen, Jacob L; Rummer, Jodie L; Esbaugh, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    Rising ocean temperatures are predicted to cause a poleward shift in the distribution of marine fishes occupying the extent of latitudes tolerable within their thermal range boundaries. A prevailing theory suggests that the upper thermal limits of fishes are constrained by hypoxia and ocean acidification. However, some eurythermal fish species do not conform to this theory, and maintain their upper thermal limits in hypoxia. Here we determine if the same is true for stenothermal species. In three coral reef fish species we tested the effect of hypoxia on upper thermal limits, measured as critical thermal maximum (CT max ). In one of these species we also quantified the effect of hypoxia on oxygen supply capacity, measured as aerobic scope (AS). In this species we also tested the effect of elevated CO 2 (simulated ocean acidification) on the hypoxia sensitivity of CT max We found that CT max was unaffected by progressive hypoxia down to approximately 35 mmHg, despite a substantial hypoxia-induced reduction in AS. Below approximately 35 mmHg, CT max declined sharply with water oxygen tension ( P w O 2 ). Furthermore, the hypoxia sensitivity of CT max was unaffected by elevated CO 2 Our findings show that moderate hypoxia and ocean acidification do not constrain the upper thermal limits of these tropical, stenothermal fishes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Maraviroc Intensification of cART in Patients with Suboptimal Immunological Recovery: A 48-Week, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F L van Lelyveld

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory effects of the CCR5-antagonist maraviroc might be beneficial in patients with a suboptimal immunological response, but results of different cART (combination antiretroviral therapy intensification studies are conflicting. Therefore, we performed a 48-week placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of maraviroc intensification on CD4+ T-cell counts and immune activation in these patients.Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.Major inclusion criteria were 1. CD4+ T-cell count <350 cells/μL while at least two years on cART or CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL while at least one year on cART, and 2. viral suppression for at least the previous 6 months. HIV-infected patients were randomized to add maraviroc (41 patients or placebo (44 patients to their cART regimen for 48 weeks. Changes in CD4+ T-cell counts (primary endpoint and other immunological parameters were modeled using linear mixed effects models.No significant differences for the modelled increase in CD4+ T-cell count (placebo 15.3 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% confidence interval (CI [1.0, 29.5] versus maraviroc arm 22.9 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% CI [7.4, 38.5] p = 0.51 or alterations in the expression of markers for T-cell activation, proliferation and microbial translocation were found between the arms. However, maraviroc intensification did increase the percentage of CCR5 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and the plasma levels of the CCR5 ligand MIP-1β. In contrast, the percentage of ex-vivo apoptotic CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells decreased in the maraviroc arm.Maraviroc intensification of cART did not increase CD4+ T-cell restoration or decrease immune activation as compared to placebo. However, ex-vivo T-cell apoptosis was decreased in the maraviroc arm.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00875368.

  5. The new capitalist philanthropy and the intensification of the teacher’s work: reflections on corporate volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vieira Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes research results obtained by the authors on the new formats of capitalist philanthropy through volunteering work. It highlights, especially,teaching practices developed in companies with “social responsibility”, consolidating a new modality of teacher’s work. From speeches of company managers and volunteer teachers, the analyses contextualize the paradoxes, contradictions, and ambiguities found in volunteering activities, catching the processes of work intensification observed in the set of devices provided by the capitalist administration, which focus on the subjective dimensions of the worker and the objective dimensions of capital accumulation.

  6. Grain boundary melting in ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E. S.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wettlaufer, J. S.; Wilen, L. A.

    2013-03-01

    We describe an optical scattering study of grain boundary premelting in water ice. Ubiquitous long ranged attractive polarization forces act to suppress grain boundary melting whereas repulsive forces originating in screened Coulomb interactions and classical colligative effects enhance it. The liquid enhancing effects can be manipulated by adding dopant ions to the system. For all measured grain boundaries this leads to increasing premelted film thickness with increasing electrolyte concentration. Although we understand that the interfacial surface charge densities qs and solute concentrations can potentially dominate the film thickness, we cannot directly measure them within a given grain boundary. Therefore, as a framework for interpreting the data we consider two appropriate qs dependent limits; one is dominated by the colligative effect and other is dominated by electrostatic interactions.

  7. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  8. County Boundaries with Shorelines (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — County boundaries with shorelines cut in (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and...

  9. State Highway District Boundaries - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents the NM Department of Transportation District boundaries as legislatively defined (i.e. these are not maintenance defined districts).

  10. HUC 8-11 Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  11. Analytic invariants of boundary links

    OpenAIRE

    Garoufalidis, Stavros; Levine, Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Using basic topology and linear algebra, we define a plethora of invariants of boundary links whose values are power series with noncommuting variables. These turn out to be useful and elementary reformulations of an invariant originally defined by M. Farber.

  12. The laminar boundary layer equations

    CERN Document Server

    Curle, N

    2017-01-01

    Thorough introduction to boundary layer problems offers an ordered, logical presentation accessible to undergraduates. The text's careful expositions of the limitations and accuracy of various methods will also benefit professionals. 1962 edition.

  13. Allegheny County Zip Code Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the zip code boundaries that lie within Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  14. Recognition of boundary feedback systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A system that has been the object of intense research is outlined. In view of that and recent progress of the theory of pseudodifferential boundary operator calculus, the author describes some features that could prove to be interesting in connection with the problems of boundary feedback...... stabilizability. It is shown that it is possible to use the calculus to consider more general feedback systems in a variational setup....

  15. Fuzzy Boundary and Fuzzy Semiboundary

    OpenAIRE

    M. Athar; B. Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    We present several properties of fuzzy boundary and fuzzy semiboundary which have been supported by examples. Properties of fuzzy semi-interior, fuzzy semiclosure, fuzzy boundary, and fuzzy semiboundary have been obtained in product-related spaces. We give necessary conditions for fuzzy continuous (resp., fuzzy semicontinuous, fuzzy irresolute) functions. Moreover, fuzzy continuous (resp., fuzzy semicontinuous, fuzzy irresolute) functions have been characterized via fuzzy-derived (resp., fuzz...

  16. On the elastic stiffness of grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongyi; Hack, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The elastic softening of grain boundaries is evaluated from the starting point of grain boundary energy. Several examples are given to illustrate the relationship between boundary energy and the extent of softening. In general, a high grain boundary energy is associated with a large excess atomic volume in the boundary region. The consequent reduction in grain boundary stiffness can represent a significant fraction of that observed in bulk crystals. (orig.)

  17. Upwelling systems in eastern boundary currents have been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    favourable winds during storms in winter. The winter winds drive a poleward ..... This pattern is believed to be an artifact of the Geosat sampling, which consists of lines that cross the coast in the centre of those two cells (at approximately 44.5 and ...

  18. Food supply and bioenergy production within the global cropland planetary boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R C; Engström, K; Olin, S; Alexander, P; Arneth, A; Rounsevell, M D A

    2018-01-01

    Supplying food for the anticipated global population of over 9 billion in 2050 under changing climate conditions is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Agricultural expansion and intensification contributes to global environmental change and risks the long-term sustainability of the planet. It has been proposed that no more than 15% of the global ice-free land surface should be converted to cropland. Bioenergy production for land-based climate mitigation places additional pressure on limited land resources. Here we test normative targets of food supply and bioenergy production within the cropland planetary boundary using a global land-use model. The results suggest supplying the global population with adequate food is possible without cropland expansion exceeding the planetary boundary. Yet this requires an increase in food production, especially in developing countries, as well as a decrease in global crop yield gaps. However, under current assumptions of future food requirements, it was not possible to also produce significant amounts of first generation bioenergy without cropland expansion. These results suggest that meeting food and bioenergy demands within the planetary boundaries would need a shift away from current trends, for example, requiring major change in the demand-side of the food system or advancing biotechnologies.

  19. Weakening density dependence from climate change and agricultural intensification triggers pest outbreaks: a 37-year observation of cotton bollworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Fang; Hui, Cang; Ge, Saiying; Men, Xin-Yuan; Zhao, Zi-Hua; Shi, Pei-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Li, Bai-Lian

    2014-09-01

    Understanding drivers of population fluctuation, especially for agricultural pests, is central to the provision of agro-ecosystem services. Here, we examine the role of endogenous density dependence and exogenous factors of climate and human activity in regulating the 37-year population dynamics of an important agricultural insect pest, the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), in North China from 1975 to 2011. Quantitative time-series analysis provided strong evidence explaining long-term population dynamics of the cotton bollworm and its driving factors. Rising temperature and declining rainfall exacerbated the effect of agricultural intensification on continuously weakening the negative density dependence in regulating the population dynamics of cotton bollworms. Consequently, ongoing climate change and agricultural intensification unleashed the tightly regulated pest population and triggered the regional outbreak of H. armigera in 1992. Although the negative density dependence can effectively regulate the population change rate to fluctuate around zero at stable equilibrium levels before and after outbreak in the 1992, the population equilibrium jumped to a higher density level with apparently larger amplitudes after the outbreak. The results highlight the possibility for exogenous factors to induce pest outbreaks and alter the population regulating mechanism of negative density dependence and, thus, the stable equilibrium of the pest population, often to a higher level, posing considerable risks to the provision of agro-ecosystem services and regional food security. Efficient and timely measures of pest management in the era of Anthropocene should target the strengthening and revival of weakening density dependence caused by climate change and human activities.

  20. Utilization of organic fertilizer to increase paddy growth and productivity using System of Rice Intensification (SRI method in saline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V . O . Subardja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity has negative effect on soil biodiversity as well as microbial activities. Hence, rice growth also effected by salinity. Application of organic fertilizer and adoption of System of Rice Intensification (SRI cultivation might improve the (biological soil properties and increase rice yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different rice cultivation methods namely conventional rice cultivation method and System of Rice Intensification (SRI rice cultivation method and two kinds organic fertilizer on improvement of soil biological properties and rice yield. In this study, a split plot experimental design was applied where rice cultivation method (conventional and SRI was the main plot and two kinds of organic fertilizer (market waste and rice straw was the sub plot. The treatments had four replicates. The results showed that SRI cultivation with market waste organic fertilizer could increase soil biological properties (population of microbe, fungi and soil respiration. The same treatment also increased rice growth and production. Combination of SRI and market waste organic fertilizer yielded the highest rice production (7.21 t/ha.

  1. Pesticide acute toxicity is a better correlate of U.S. grassland bird declines than agricultural intensification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mineau

    Full Text Available Common agricultural birds are in decline, both in Europe and in North America. Evidence from Europe suggests that agricultural intensification and, for some species, the indirect effects of pesticides mediated through a loss of insect food resource is in part responsible. On a state-by-state basis for the conterminous Unites States (U.S., we looked at several agronomic variables to predict the number of grassland species increasing or declining according to breeding bird surveys conducted between 1980 and 2003. Best predictors of species declines were the lethal risk from insecticide use modeled from pesticide impact studies, followed by the loss of cropped pasture. Loss of permanent pasture or simple measures of agricultural intensification such as the proportion of land under crop or the proportion of farmland treated with herbicides did not explain bird declines as well. Because the proportion of farmland treated with insecticides, and more particularly the lethal risk to birds from the use of current insecticides feature so prominently in the best models, this suggests that, in the U.S. at least, pesticide toxicity to birds should be considered as an important factor in grassland bird declines.

  2. Effect of maraviroc intensification on HIV-1-specific T cell immunity in recently HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Llibre, Josep M; Bravo, Isabel; Escrig, Roser; Mothe, Beatriz; Puig, Jordi; Puertas, Maria C; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Blanco, Julia; Manzardo, Christian; Miro, Jose M; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Pozniak, Anton L; Gatell, Jose M; Clotet, Bonaventura; Brander, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The effect of maraviroc on the maintenance and the function of HIV-1-specific T cell responses remains unknown. Subjects recently infected with HIV-1 were randomized to receive anti-retroviral treatment with or without maraviroc intensification for 48 weeks, and were monitored up to week 60. PBMC and in vitro-expanded T cells were tested for responses to the entire HIV proteome by ELISpot analyses. Intracellular cytokine staining assays were conducted to monitor the (poly)-functionality of HIV-1-specific T cells. Analyses were performed at baseline and week 24 after treatment start, and at week 60 (3 months after maraviroc discontinuation). Maraviroc intensification was associated with a slower decay of virus-specific T cell responses over time compared to the non-intensified regimen in both direct ex-vivo as well as in in-vitro expanded cells. The effector function profiles of virus-specific CD8⁺ T cells were indistinguishable between the two arms and did not change over time between the groups. Maraviroc did not negatively impact any of the measured parameters, but was rather associated with a prolonged maintenance of HIV-1-specific T cell responses. Maraviroc, in addition to its original effect as viral entry inhibitor, may provide an additional benefit on the maintenance of virus-specific T cells which may be especially important for future viral eradication strategies.

  3. The dynamics and relationships of precipitation, temperature and convection boundaries in the dayside auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A continuous band of high ion temperature, which persisted for about 8h and zigzagged north-south across more than five degrees in latitude in the dayside (07:00-15:00MLT auroral ionosphere, was observed by the EISCAT VHF radar on 23 November 1999. Latitudinal gradients in the temperature of the F-region electron and ion gases (Te and Ti, respectively have been compared with concurrent observations of particle precipitation and field-perpendicular convection by DMSP satellites, in order to reveal a physical explanation for the persistent band of high Ti, and to test the potential role of Ti and Te gradients as possible markers for the open-closed field line boundary. The north/south movement of the equatorward Ti boundary was found to be consistent with the contraction/expansion of the polar cap due to an unbalanced dayside and nightside reconnection. Sporadic intensifications in Ti, recurring on ~10-min time scales, indicate that frictional heating was modulated by time-varying reconnection, and the band of high Ti was located on open flux. However, the equatorward Ti boundary was not found to be a close proxy of the open-closed boundary. The closest definable proxy of the open-closed boundary is the magnetosheath electron edge observed by DMSP. Although Te appears to be sensitive to magnetosheath electron fluxes, it is not found to be a suitable parameter for routine tracking of the open-closed boundary, as it involves case dependent analysis of the thermal balance. Finally, we have documented a region of newly-opened sunward convecting flux. This region is situated between the convection reversal boundary and the magnetosheath electron edge defining the open-closed boundary. This is consistent with a delay of several minutes between the arrival of the first (super-Alfvénic magnetosheath electrons and the response in the ionospheric

  4. The dynamics and relationships of precipitation, temperature and convection boundaries in the dayside auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A continuous band of high ion temperature, which persisted for about 8h and zigzagged north-south across more than five degrees in latitude in the dayside (07:00-15:00MLT auroral ionosphere, was observed by the EISCAT VHF radar on 23 November 1999. Latitudinal gradients in the temperature of the F-region electron and ion gases (Te and Ti, respectively have been compared with concurrent observations of particle precipitation and field-perpendicular convection by DMSP satellites, in order to reveal a physical explanation for the persistent band of high Ti, and to test the potential role of Ti and Te gradients as possible markers for the open-closed field line boundary. The north/south movement of the equatorward Ti boundary was found to be consistent with the contraction/expansion of the polar cap due to an unbalanced dayside and nightside reconnection. Sporadic intensifications in Ti, recurring on ~10-min time scales, indicate that frictional heating was modulated by time-varying reconnection, and the band of high Ti was located on open flux. However, the equatorward Ti boundary was not found to be a close proxy of the open-closed boundary. The closest definable proxy of the open-closed boundary is the magnetosheath electron edge observed by DMSP. Although Te appears to be sensitive to magnetosheath electron fluxes, it is not found to be a suitable parameter for routine tracking of the open-closed boundary, as it involves case dependent analysis of the thermal balance. Finally, we have documented a region of newly-opened sunward convecting flux. This region is situated between the convection reversal boundary and the magnetosheath electron edge defining the open-closed boundary. This is consistent with a delay of several minutes between the arrival of the first (super-Alfvénic magnetosheath electrons and the response in the ionospheric convection, conveyed to the ionosphere by the interior Alfvén wave. It represents a candidate footprint of the

  5. Solution of moving boundary problems with implicit boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyano, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm that solves numerically a model for studying one dimensional moving boundary problems, with implicit boundary condition, is described. Landau's transformation is used, in order to work with a fixed number of nodes at each instant. Then, it is necessary to deal with a parabolic partial differential equation, whose diffusive and convective terms have variable coefficients. The partial differential equation is implicitly discretized, using Laasonen's scheme, always stable, instead of employing Crank-Nicholson sheme, as it has been done by Ferris and Hill. Fixed time and space steps (Δt, Δξ) are used, and the iteration is made with variable positions of the interface, i.e. varying δs until a boundary condition is satisfied. The model has the same features of the oxygen diffusion in absorbing tissue. It would be capable of estimating time variant radiation treatments of cancerous tumors. (Author) [es

  6. The boundary-scan handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Kenneth P

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at electronics industry professionals, this 4th edition of the Boundary Scan Handbook describes recent changes to the IEEE1149.1 Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture. This updated edition features new chapters on the possible effects of the changes on the work of the practicing test engineers and the new 1149.8.1 standard. Anyone needing to understand the basics of boundary scan and its practical industrial implementation will need this book. Provides an overview of the recent changes to the 1149.1 standard and the effect of the changes on the work of test engineers;   Explains the new IEEE 1149.8.1 subsidiary standard and applications;   Describes the latest updates on the supplementary IEEE testing standards. In particular, addresses: IEEE Std 1149.1                      Digital Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.4                      Analog Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.6                      Advanced I/O Testing IEEE Std 1149.8.1           �...

  7. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the system of rice intensification (SRI) under a rain-fed lowland rice ecosystem in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ly, Proyuth; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Bruun, Thilde Bech

    2013-01-01

    The present field study investigated the effects of the system of rice intensification (SRI) on greenhouse gas emissions and rice yield, in the first field trial of its kind in Cambodia. The study was a 2 × 4 factorial design, including SRI and conventional management practices (CMP) with the fol......The present field study investigated the effects of the system of rice intensification (SRI) on greenhouse gas emissions and rice yield, in the first field trial of its kind in Cambodia. The study was a 2 × 4 factorial design, including SRI and conventional management practices (CMP...

  8. Initiation and intensification of antihyperglycemic therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Update of Russian Association of Endocrinologists expert consensus document (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanovich Dedov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current update of the consensus algorithm of initiation and intensification of the antihyperglicemic therapy in treatment of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (2015 is based on the preliminary document issued by the Russian Association of the Endocrinologists in 2011.The update was needed due to new data on the safety of the traditional therapeutic options, availability of the new class of the antidiabetic medications, and necessity to add chapter about initiation and intensification of the insulin therapy.The patient-centered approach remains the absolute priority at any stage of diabetes care as it ensures the efficacy and safety of antihyperglycaemic treatment.

  9. Distributed Tuning of Boundary Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, Ben; Elaluf-Calderwood, Silvia; Sørensen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    The digital age has seen the rise of service systems involving highly distributed, heterogeneous, and resource-integrating actors whose relationships are governed by shared institutional logics, standards, and digital technology. The cocreation of service within these service systems takes place...... in the context of a paradoxical tension between the logic of generative and democratic innovations and the logic of infrastructural control. Boundary resources play a critical role in managing the tension as a firm that owns the infrastructure can secure its control over the service system while independent...... firms can participate in the service system. In this study, we explore the evolution of boundary resources. Drawing on Pickering’s (1993) and Barrett et al.’s (2012) conceptualizations of tuning, the paper seeks to forward our understanding of how heterogeneous actors engage in the tuning of boundary...

  10. Asymptotic analysis and boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cousteix, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a new method of asymptotic analysis of boundary-layer problems, the Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM). The first part is devoted to a general comprehensive presentation of the tools of asymptotic analysis. It gives the keys to understand a boundary-layer problem and explains the methods to construct an approximation. The second part is devoted to SCEM and its applications in fluid mechanics, including external and internal flows. The advantages of SCEM are discussed in comparison with the standard Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. In particular, for the first time, the theory of Interactive Boundary Layer is fully justified. With its chapter summaries, detailed derivations of results, discussed examples and fully worked out problems and solutions, the book is self-contained. It is written on a mathematical level accessible to graduate and post-graduate students of engineering and physics with a good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Researchers and practitioners will estee...

  11. Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    This final report was concerned with the ideas that: (1) magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system together; and (2) global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding its internal linking mechanisms and those with the solar wind. The research project involved simultaneous research on the global-, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers, which included the bow shock, the magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical, and simulation projects were performed on these subjects, as well as comparisons of theoretical results with observational data. Other related activity included in the research included: (1) prediction of geomagnetic activity; (2) global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations; (3) Alfven resonance heating; and (4) Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. In the appendixes are list of personnel involved, list of papers published; and reprints or photocopies of papers produced for this report.

  12. Boundary Spanners as supports of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners.......Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners....

  13. Boundary Value Problems and Approximate Solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we discuss about some basic things of boundary value problems. Secondly, we study boundary conditions involving derivatives and obtain finite difference approximations of partial derivatives of boundary value problems. The last section is devoted to determine an approximate solution for boundary value ...

  14. Boundary Transgressions: An Issue In Psychotherapeutic Encounter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boundary transgressions tend to be conceptualized on a continuum ranging from boundary crossings to boundary violations. Boundary crossings (e.g. accepting an inexpensive holiday gift from a client, unintentionally encountering a client in public, or attending a client's special event) are described in the literature as ...

  15. Second-Order Boundary Value Problem with Integral Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto JuanJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear alternative of the Leray Schauder type and the Banach contraction principle are used to investigate the existence of solutions for second-order differential equations with integral boundary conditions. The compactness of solutions set is also investigated.

  16. Boundary effect in electrorheological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X L; Yang, F; Xuan, S H; Zong, L H; Zhu, W; Jiang, W Q

    2011-12-01

    The effect of the boundary friction coefficient on the rheological properties of the electrorheological (ER) fluids in quasistatic and dynamic states is investigated by computer simulation. The relation between the shear stress and the boundary friction coefficient in quasistatic and dynamic states is discussed qualitatively and quantitatively, and the trend matches the previously reported experimental results well. The flow curves of ER fluids, under different friction coefficients, are calculated, and it is found that the friction coefficient affects the flow curves. In two dimensions, the transitions in structure corresponding to the shear stress variations are presented to understand the mechanism of ER fluids.

  17. Boundaries, work and the rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    summarize ways of doing that. From an understanding of the groups and communities involved, rather than from an understanding of the “places” of home and work, or from pre-perceived qualities of the two, can we understand the boundary drawing and how it is supported through collaborative technologies......This position paper takes its starting point in the definitions of work, and of boundaries often found in CSCW and HCI literature. By looking back at the case of parental leave planning and on my writings from the past 10 years, I discuss how these definitions need to be reconsidered, and I...

  18. Prediction of dislocation boundary characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    orientation of the grain [1]. For selected boundaries it has been experimentally verified that the boundaries consist of fairly regular networks of dislocations, which come from the active slip systems [2]. The networks have been analyzed within the framework of Low-Energy-Dislocation-Structures (LEDS......, such as the dislocation content and misorientation. The prediction is based on the expected active slip systems and assumptions of mutual stress screening. In general, networks of dislocations with three linearly independent Burgers vectors fulfilling the criterion of mutual stress screening may form on any plane...

  19. Intensification and deepening of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone in response to increase in Indian monsoon wind intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachkar, Zouhair; Lévy, Marina; Smith, Shafer

    2018-01-01

    The decline in oxygen supply to the ocean associated with global warming is expected to expand oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). This global trend can be attenuated or amplified by regional processes. In the Arabian Sea, the world's thickest OMZ is highly vulnerable to changes in the Indian monsoon wind. Evidence from paleo-records and future climate projections indicates strong variations of the Indian monsoon wind intensity over climatic timescales. Yet, the response of the OMZ to these wind changes remains poorly understood and its amplitude and timescale unexplored. Here, we investigate the impacts of perturbations in Indian monsoon wind intensity (from -50 to +50 %) on the size and intensity of the Arabian Sea OMZ, and examine the biogeochemical and ecological implications of these changes. To this end, we conducted a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the Arabian Sea using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a nitrogen-based nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model that includes a representation of the O2 cycle. We show that the Arabian Sea productivity increases and its OMZ expands and deepens in response to monsoon wind intensification. These responses are dominated by the perturbation of the summer monsoon wind, whereas the changes in the winter monsoon wind play a secondary role. While the productivity responds quickly and nearly linearly to wind increase (i.e., on a timescale of years), the OMZ response is much slower (i.e., a timescale of decades). Our analysis reveals that the OMZ expansion at depth is driven by increased oxygen biological consumption, whereas its surface weakening is induced by increased ventilation. The enhanced ventilation favors episodic intrusions of oxic waters in the lower epipelagic zone (100-200 m) of the western and central Arabian Sea, leading to intermittent expansions of marine habitats and a more frequent alternation of hypoxic and oxic conditions there. The increased

  20. Intensification and deepening of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone in response to increase in Indian monsoon wind intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lachkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The decline in oxygen supply to the ocean associated with global warming is expected to expand oxygen minimum zones (OMZs. This global trend can be attenuated or amplified by regional processes. In the Arabian Sea, the world's thickest OMZ is highly vulnerable to changes in the Indian monsoon wind. Evidence from paleo-records and future climate projections indicates strong variations of the Indian monsoon wind intensity over climatic timescales. Yet, the response of the OMZ to these wind changes remains poorly understood and its amplitude and timescale unexplored. Here, we investigate the impacts of perturbations in Indian monsoon wind intensity (from −50 to +50 % on the size and intensity of the Arabian Sea OMZ, and examine the biogeochemical and ecological implications of these changes. To this end, we conducted a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the Arabian Sea using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS coupled to a nitrogen-based nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton–detritus (NPZD ecosystem model that includes a representation of the O2 cycle. We show that the Arabian Sea productivity increases and its OMZ expands and deepens in response to monsoon wind intensification. These responses are dominated by the perturbation of the summer monsoon wind, whereas the changes in the winter monsoon wind play a secondary role. While the productivity responds quickly and nearly linearly to wind increase (i.e., on a timescale of years, the OMZ response is much slower (i.e., a timescale of decades. Our analysis reveals that the OMZ expansion at depth is driven by increased oxygen biological consumption, whereas its surface weakening is induced by increased ventilation. The enhanced ventilation favors episodic intrusions of oxic waters in the lower epipelagic zone (100–200 m of the western and central Arabian Sea, leading to intermittent expansions of marine habitats and a more frequent alternation of hypoxic and oxic conditions there

  1. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields

  2. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields, and

  3. Dynamics of Coronal Hole Boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginson, A. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Wyper, P. F.

    2017-01-01

    Remote and in situ observations strongly imply that the slow solar wind consists of plasma from the hot, closed-field corona that is released onto open magnetic field lines. The Separatrix Web theory for the slow wind proposes that photospheric motions at the scale of supergranules are responsible for generating dynamics at coronal-hole boundaries, which result in the closed plasma release. We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to determine the effect of photospheric flows on the open and closed magnetic flux of a model corona with a dipole magnetic field and an isothermal solar wind. A rotational surface motion is used to approximate photospheric supergranular driving and is applied at the boundary between the coronal hole and helmet streamer. The resulting dynamics consist primarily of prolific and efficient interchange reconnection between open and closed flux. The magnetic flux near the coronal-hole boundary experiences multiple interchange events, with some flux interchanging over 50 times in one day. Additionally, we find that the interchange reconnection occurs all along the coronal-hole boundary and even produces a lasting change in magnetic-field connectivity in regions that were not driven by the applied motions. Our results show that these dynamics should be ubiquitous in the Sun and heliosphere. We discuss the implications of our simulations for understanding the observed properties of the slow solar wind, with particular focus on the global-scale consequences of interchange reconnection.

  4. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  5. Current Sinkhole Boundaries in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset is a polygon coverage of the sinkhole boundaries as determined by using LiDAR data. The polygons relate to the point coverage using the KPolyID field in...

  6. BRIDGES ACROSS AFRICA'S INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The empirical data for this paper is drawn from the ethnic minorities divided along and astride the Cross River borderlands with southern Cameroon. Scholars who have studied the Nigeria Cameroon Boundary tend to lay more emphasis on the state centric perspective that continues to operate largely within the framework ...

  7. Editorial: Environmentalists without Boundaries | Ogunseitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 3 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Environmentalists without Boundaries.

  8. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... tested using the coherence of time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension.

  9. Blurred Boundaries or Conflicting Epistemologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Nina Grønlykke

    2017-01-01

    of departure in anthropological fieldwork with information activists and journalists in Egypt, I show that information activists and journalists often had very similar practices and goals, which at times made the boundaries very blurry. Yet I argue that there was a significant distinction between...

  10. Twentieth Century Regional Climate Change During the Summer in the Central United States Attributed to Agricultural Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Ross E.; Douglas, Hunter C.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2018-02-01

    Both land use changes and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have significantly modified regional climate over the last century. In the central United States, for example, observational data indicate that rainfall increased, surface air temperature decreased, and surface humidity increased during the summer over the course of the twentieth century concurrently with increases in both agricultural production and global GHG emissions. However, the relative contributions of each of these forcings to the observed regional changes remain unclear. Results of both regional climate model simulations and observational analyses suggest that much of the observed rainfall increase—as well as the decrease in temperature and increase in humidity—is attributable to agricultural intensification in the central United States, with natural variability and GHG emissions playing secondary roles. Thus, we conclude that twentieth century land use changes contributed more to forcing observed regional climate change during the summer in the central United States than increasing GHG emissions.

  11. Sugar beet hybrids of new generation and their role in the process of intensification of the branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. В. Роїк

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet hybrids are considered as a factor of intensification of the beet-sugar branch. At the modern stage of development of agriculture under condition of reduction of sugar beet sown area, shortage of material - technical resources which influence the formation of productivity of sugar beet as a crop of intensive type, hybrids must have a high genetically conditioned biological potential of productive ability, resistance to pests and diseases, abiotic stress factors, must have broad adaptive abilities. Analysis of the modern sugar beet hybrids included bately in the state Register of plant varieties of Ukraine is presented. Transfer of the branch to the intensive way of development is possible only under conditions of a complex approach to solving this problem.

  12. Ultrasound intensification suppresses the need of methanol excess during the biodiesel production with Lipozyme TL-IM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Botelho, Claudia; Ribeiro, Artur; Castro, Rita; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Gogate, Parag R; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of biodiesel from sunflower oil and methanol based on transesterification using the immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL-IM) has been investigated under silent conditions and under an ultrasound field. Ultrasound assisted process led to reduced processing time and requirement of lower enzyme dosage. We found for the first time that oil to methanol ratio of 1:3 was favored for the ultrasound assisted enzymatic process which is lower than that observed for the case of conventional stirring based approach (ratio of 1.4). Our results indicate that intensification provided by ultrasound suppresses the need of the excess of the methanol reactant during the enzymatic biodiesel production. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic biodiesel production is therefore a faster and a cleaner processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High-Resolution Biogeochemical Simulation Identifies Practical Opportunities for Bioenergy Landscape Intensification Across Diverse US Agricultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J.; Adler, P. R.; Evans, S.; Paustian, K.; Marx, E.; Easter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The sustainability of biofuel expansion is strongly dependent on the environmental footprint of feedstock production, including both direct impacts within feedstock-producing areas and potential leakage effects due to disruption of existing food, feed, or fiber production. Assessing and minimizing these impacts requires novel methods compared to traditional supply chain lifecycle assessment. When properly validated and applied at appropriate spatial resolutions, biogeochemical process models are useful for simulating how the productivity and soil greenhouse gas fluxes of cultivating both conventional crops and advanced feedstock crops respond across gradients of land quality and management intensity. In this work we use the DayCent model to assess the biogeochemical impacts of agricultural residue collection, establishment of perennial grasses on marginal cropland or conservation easements, and intensification of existing cropping at high spatial resolution across several real-world case study landscapes in diverse US agricultural regions. We integrate the resulting estimates of productivity, soil carbon changes, and nitrous oxide emissions with crop production budgets and lifecycle inventories, and perform a basic optimization to generate landscape cost/GHG frontiers and determine the most practical opportunities for low-impact feedstock provisioning. The optimization is constrained to assess the minimum combined impacts of residue collection, land use change, and intensification of existing agriculture necessary for the landscape to supply a commercial-scale biorefinery while maintaining exiting food, feed, and fiber production levels. These techniques can be used to assess how different feedstock provisioning strategies perform on both economic and environmental criteria, and sensitivity of performance to environmental and land use factors. The included figure shows an example feedstock cost-GHG mitigation tradeoff frontier for a commercial-scale cellulosic

  14. Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Timber Production in Mixed Uneven-Aged Mountain Forests: Identification of Ecological Intensification Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Valentine; Cordonnier, Thomas; Courbaud, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Mixed uneven-aged forests are considered favorable to the provision of multiple ecosystem services and to the conciliation of timber production and biodiversity conservation. However, some forest managers now plan to increase the intensity of thinning and harvesting operations in these forests. Retention measures or gap creation are considered to compensate potential negative impacts on biodiversity. Our objectives were to assess the effect of these management practices on timber production and biodiversity conservation and identify potential compensating effects between these practices, using the concept of ecological intensification as a framework. We performed a simulation study coupling Samsara2, a simulation model designed for spruce-fir uneven-aged mountain forests, an uneven-aged silviculture algorithm, and biodiversity models. We analyzed the effect of parameters related to uneven-aged management practices on timber production, biodiversity, and sustainability indicators. Our study confirmed that the indicators responded differently to management practices, leading to trade-offs situations. Increasing management intensity had negative impacts on several biodiversity indicators, which could be partly compensated by the positive effect of retention measures targeting large trees, non-dominant species, and deadwood. The impact of gap creation was more mitigated, with a positive effect on the diversity of tree sizes and deadwood but a negative impact on the spruce-fir mixing balance and on the diversity of the understory layer. Through the analysis of compensating effects, we finally revealed the existence of possible ecological intensification pathways, i.e., the possibility to increase management intensity while maintaining biodiversity through the promotion of nature-based management principles (gap creation and retention measures).

  15. Neoadjuvant treatment intensification or adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma rectum: The optimum treatment approach remains unresolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, S.; Benson, R.; Haresh, K.P.; Rath, G.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rectal carcinoma [RC] is often managed with preoperative radiotherapy or radio chemotherapy followed by total meso rectal excision (TME). Efforts are being made to improve outcome by intensifying the preoperative treatment. However, the optimum therapy remains unclear. There is ongoing controversy regarding the optimum radiation dose, chemotherapy regimen and schedule. In addition there exists growing disagreement regarding the role of adjuvant chemotherapy after neoadjuvant radiation or chemo radiation. Methodology: We reviewed the recent land mark trials to find a road map in the management of locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Results: Preoperative short course radiotherapy has long been proven to improve local disease con- trol. The initial trials with long course chemoradiotherapy, comparing short course radiotherapy have shown to increase local control and pathological complete response rates. Since then treatment intensification of this neoadjuvant schedule has been tried by many researchers. But initial results of these treatment intensification trials, show no significant benefit and are associated with increased toxicity. There is an unmet need to stratify patients depending on risk to assign them to long course chemoradiotherapy or short course radiotherapy. Current evidence does not support the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who were treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy. Conclusion: Preoperative radiotherapy appears to improve disease control with favorable toxicity profile and there is very little to choose between long course chemoradiotherapy and short course radiotherapy. However, long course chemoradiotherapy may be beneficial for patients with high risk features like positive circumferential resection margin [CRM] and extramural spread of >5 mm. There is no role for adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who were treated preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy

  16. Weakening density dependence from climate change and agricultural intensification triggers pest outbreaks: a 37-year observation of cotton bollworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Fang; Hui, Cang; Ge, Saiying; Men, Xin-Yuan; Zhao, Zi-Hua; Shi, Pei-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Li, Bai-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding drivers of population fluctuation, especially for agricultural pests, is central to the provision of agro-ecosystem services. Here, we examine the role of endogenous density dependence and exogenous factors of climate and human activity in regulating the 37-year population dynamics of an important agricultural insect pest, the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), in North China from 1975 to 2011. Quantitative time-series analysis provided strong evidence explaining long-term population dynamics of the cotton bollworm and its driving factors. Rising temperature and declining rainfall exacerbated the effect of agricultural intensification on continuously weakening the negative density dependence in regulating the population dynamics of cotton bollworms. Consequently, ongoing climate change and agricultural intensification unleashed the tightly regulated pest population and triggered the regional outbreak of H. armigera in 1992. Although the negative density dependence can effectively regulate the population change rate to fluctuate around zero at stable equilibrium levels before and after outbreak in the 1992, the population equilibrium jumped to a higher density level with apparently larger amplitudes after the outbreak. The results highlight the possibility for exogenous factors to induce pest outbreaks and alter the population regulating mechanism of negative density dependence and, thus, the stable equilibrium of the pest population, often to a higher level, posing considerable risks to the provision of agro-ecosystem services and regional food security. Efficient and timely measures of pest management in the era of Anthropocene should target the strengthening and revival of weakening density dependence caused by climate change and human activities. PMID:25535553

  17. Agricultural sustainable intensification improved nitrogen use efficiency and maintained high crop yield during 1980-2014 in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Bol, Roland; Rahn, Clive; Xiao, Guangmin; Meng, Fanqiao; Wu, Wenliang

    2017-10-15

    Global population increase will require rapid increase of food production from existing agricultural land by 2050, which will inevitably mean the increase of agricultural productivity. Due to agricultural sustainable intensification since the 1990s, crop production in Huantai County of northern China has risen to 15tha -1 yr -1 for the annual wheat-maize rotation system. We examined the temporal dynamics of nitrogen (N) budget, N losses, and N use efficiency (NUE) during the 35years (1980-2014) in Huantai. The results revealed that atmospheric N deposition increased 220% while reactive N losses decreased by 21.5% from 1980s to 2010s. During 1980-2002, annual N partial factor productivity (PFP N ), apparent NUE and N recovery efficiency (RE N ) increased from 20.3 to 40.7kggrainkg -1 N fert , from 36.5% to 71.0%, and from 32.4% to 57.7%, respectively; meanwhile, reactive N losses intensity, land use intensity and N use intensity decreased by 69.8%, 53.4%, 50.0%, respectively, but without further significant changes after 2002. Overall increases in NUE and decreases in N losses were largely due to the introduction of optimized fertilization practice, mechanization and increased incorporation of crop straw in Huantai. Straw incorporation was also significant in soil N stock accrual and fertility improvement. By 2030, northern China may reach the lowest end of PFP N values in developed countries (>45kggrainkg -1 N fert ). These agricultural sustainable intensification practices will be critical in maintaining high grain yields and associated decreases in environmental pollution, although water use efficiency in the region still needs to be improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Intensification agricole en région sahélo-soudanienne. 2. Productivité et risques économiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Dieng

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of farming in the Sahelian-Sudanese region. 2. Productivity and economic risks.his second part concerns the analysis of land productivity and labour results within a traditional farming system and two improved systems experimented on a site in the center-west part of the Senegalese groundnut basin. Intensified farming systems associate farming and livestock and use motorized or draft cultivation (oxen as means of mechanization. Results show that intensification systematically increases crop yields and gives rise to larger amounts of by-products fitting well for use as animal feed. Furthermore, yields stabilize with soil fertility improvement. The economic risk linked to intensification strongly depends on the climatic context. A 400 mm annual rainfall appears as a threshold to insure a net increase of land and labour productivity, justifying an intensification operation that combines plowing, liming material, organic and minerai fertilizer applications. In the climatic risk zone like that where the experimentation took place, the diversification of farming activity increases and stabilizes income. Therefore, productions as cassava or bissap and the integration of a perennial forage crop offer interesting development perspectives. The constraints limiting the adoption of intensified and diversified farming systems are linked to market conditions, time-labour feasibility, soil fertility management and institutional context. To minimize the risks, tactical adjustments are also analyzed.

  19. Successful Therapy Reduction and Intensification for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Based on Minimal Residual Disease Monitoring : Study ALL10 From the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Rob; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester; Van der Velden, Vincent; Fiocco, Marta; van den Berg, Henk; Bont, de Evelien; Egeler, R. Maarten; Hoogerbrugge, Peter; Kaspers, Gertjan; Van der Schoot, Ellen; De Haas, Valerie; Van Dongen, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) improved greatly by intensifying chemotherapy for all patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD) levels during the first months predict outcome and may select patients for therapy reduction or intensification. Methods Patients 1 to 18

  20. Investigation of the differences between deepening and intensification for 500-hpa cyclones in central and East Mediterranean region during warm season of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Spanos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The maximum deepening rate per cyclone track is determined by the maximum height drop at the center of the cyclone (500-hPa low on the basis of all the 6-h successive steps in its life cycle. The geopotential height gradient is calculated over the entire low area and the calculation continued with the variation of the gradient in the successive steps. The maximum intensification rate per cyclone is then determined as the maximum increase of the gradient in the life cycle. Maximum deepening rate for the 500-hPa cyclones in the area does not exceed, on average, 12 gpm/6 h. Maximum intensification which is 1.4 gpm/100 Km*6 h on average, occurs in the early stages of the cyclone's life cycle. This on the average happens approximately 9 h after the first time the low is detected. At the gulf of Genoa and the Adriatic Sea, cyclones usually show the maximum intensification after the maximum deepening. At Turkey's cyclogenesis area, however, this order is reversed. The spatial distributions of maximum intensification in the three sub-periods, indicate that it mainly occurs over Seas during late warm periods and over land during early and middle warm periods. Such a behavior underlines the role of low-level instability in cyclone development.

  1. LivestockPlus — The sustainable intensification of forage-based agricultural systems to improve livelihoods and ecosystem services in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As global demand for livestock products (such as meat, milk and eggs is expected to double by 2050, necessary increases to future production must be reconciled with negative environmental impacts that livestock cause. This paper describes the LivestockPlus concept and demonstrates how the sowing of improved forages can lead to the sustainable intensification of mixed crop-forage-livestock-tree systems in the tropics by producing multiple social, economic and environmental benefits. Sustainable intensification not only improves the productivity of tropical forage-based systems but also reduces the ecological footprint of livestock production and generates a diversity of ecosystem services (ES such as improved soil quality and reduced erosion, sedimentation and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Integrating improved grass and legume forages into mixed production systems (crop-livestock, tree-livestock, crop-tree-livestock can restore degraded lands and enhance system resilience to drought and waterlogging associated with climate change. When properly managed tropical forages accumulate large amounts of carbon in soil, fix atmospheric nitrogen (legumes, inhibit nitrification in soil and reduce nitrous oxide emissions (grasses, and reduce GHG emissions per unit livestock product. The LivestockPlus concept is defined as the sustainable intensification of forage-based systems, which is based on 3 interrelated intensification processes: genetic intensification - the development and use of superior grass and legume cultivars for increased livestock productivity; ecological intensification - the development and application of improved farm and natural resource management practices; and socio-economic intensification - the improvement of local and national institutions and policies, which enable refinements of technologies and support their enduring use. Increases in livestock productivity will require coordinated efforts to develop supportive government, non

  2. PEMBELAJARAN KETERAMPILAN MEMBACA INTENSIF PARAGRAF DENGAN MODEL PENGEMBANGAN KONSEP MELALUI AKTIVITAS BAHASA (PKMAB DAN MODEL PENDAHULUAN, PENGANALISISAN, PENGULANGAN (P3 PADA SISWA SMP DILIHAT DARI KARAKTERSOSIAL DAN MANDIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurriyah -

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan penelitian adalah seberapa besar peningkatan keterampilan membaca intensif paragraf peserta didik yang berkarakter Sosialdan Mandiriyang diperlakukan dengan model pembelajaran PKMABdanP3di SMP. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menentukan besaran hasil peningkatan keterampilan membaca intensif paragraf pada peserta didik yang berkarakter Sosialdan Mandiriyang diperlakukan dengan model pembelajaran PKMABdanP3di SMP.Penelitian menggunakan metode eksperimen dengan populasi keterampilan membaca intensif paragrafpeserta didik SMP di wilayah Tegal dan Brebes.Sampel penelitianadalah keterampilan membaca intensif paragrafpeserta didik Kelas VII SMP Warureja dan Brebes. Pengumpulan data kuantitatif dilaksanakan melalui tes keterampilan membaca intensif paragraf, dianalisismenggunakanbefore-after dant-Tes Dua Sampel Independen. Pengumpulan data kualitatif menggunakan panduan observasi, dokumentasi, dan angketskala sikap untuk mengungkap karakter peserta didik.Hasil penelitian membuktikan bahwa model PKMAB lebih efektif meningkatkan kemampuan membaca intensif paragraf pada peserta didik, terutama yang berkarakter Sosial. Sedangkan model P3 lebih efektif meningkatkan kemampuan membaca intensif paragraf pada peserta didik, terutama yang berkarakter Mandiri. The problem in this research is the comparison of intensive paragraph reading skill in the socializer children and in the children whose characters are director who are treated using PKMAB and P3 in Junior High School.The method used in this study was an experiment with quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques.The study sample is the intensive paragraph penganalisisaning skill on the students of grade VII of SMPN 1 Warureja and SMPN 5 Brebes. Quantitative data collection was carried out through intensive paragraph penganalisisaning test and analyzed by using before-after and t-Test for Two Independent Samples to know the level of intensive paragraph penganalisisaning skill on the learner

  3. Grain Boundary Engineering of Electrodeposited Thin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein

    Grain boundary engineering aims for a deliberate manipulation of the grain boundary characteristics to improve the properties of polycrystalline materials. Despite the emergence of some successful industrial applications, the mechanism(s) by which the boundary specific properties can be improved...... to engineer new materials. In this study, one of the most widely used electrolytes for electrodeposition is chosen for the synthesis of nickel films and based on thorough characterization of the boundaries the potentials in grain boundary engineering are outlined. The internal structure of the nickel films...... of the favorable boundaries that break the network of general grain boundaries. Successful dedicated synthesis of a textured nickel film fulfilling the requirements of grain boundary engineered materials, suggests improved boundary specific properties. However, the textured nickel film shows fairly low...

  4. Different plasma markers of inflammation are influenced by immune recovery and cART composition or intensification in treated HIV infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Massanella

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection increases plasma levels of inflammatory markers. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART does not restore inflammatory markers to normal levels. Since intensification of cART with raltegravir reduced CD8 T-cell activation in the Discor-Ral and IntegRal studies, we have evaluated the effect of raltegravir intensification on several soluble inflammation markers in these studies.Longitudinal plasma samples (0-48 weeks from the IntegRal (n = 67, 22 control and 45 intensified individuals and the Discor-Ral studies (44 individuals with CD4 T-cell counts<350 cells/µl, 14 control and 30 intensified were assayed for 25 markers. Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, Spearman test and linear mixed models were used for analysis.At baseline, different inflammatory markers were strongly associated with HCV co-infection, lower CD4 counts and with cART regimens (being higher in PI-treated individuals, but poorly correlated with detection of markers of residual viral replication. Although raltegravir intensification reduced inflammation in individuals with lower CD4 T-cell counts, no effect of intensification was observed on plasma markers of inflammation in a global analysis. An association was found, however, between reductions in immune activation and plasma levels of the coagulation marker D-dimer, which exclusively decreased in intensified patients on protease inhibitor (PI-based cART regimens (P = 0.040.The inflammatory profile in treated HIV-infected individuals showed a complex association with HCV co-infection, the levels of CD4 T cells and the cART regimen. Raltegravir intensification specifically reduced D-dimer levels in PI-treated patients, highlighting the link between cART composition and residual viral replication; however, raltegravir had little effect on other inflammatory markers.

  5. Pressure effect on grain boundary diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, E.S.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on grain boundary diffusion and grain boundary migration in metallic materials is theoretically investigated. The model is suggested that permits describing changes in activation energy of grain boundary self-diffusion and diffusion permeability of grain boundaries under hydrostatic pressure. The model is based on the ideas about island-type structure of grain boundaries as well as linear relationship of variations in grain boundary free volume to hydrostatic pressure value. Comparison of theoretical data with experimental ones for a number of metals and alloys (α-Zr, Sn-Ge, Cu-In with Co, In, Al as diffusing elements) shows a qualitative agreement

  6. Decision boundary feature extraction for neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new feature extraction method for neural networks. The method is based on the recently published decision boundary feature extraction algorithm. It has been shown that all the necessary features for classification can be extracted from the decision boundary. To apply the decision boundary feature extraction method, we first define the decision boundary in neural networks. Next, we propose a procedure for extracting all the necessary features for classification from the decision boundary. The proposed algorithm preserves the characteristics of neural networks, which can define arbitrary decision boundary. Experiments show promising results.

  7. Plasma boundary phenomena in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, P.C.

    1989-06-01

    The focus of this review is on processes occurring at the edge, and on the connection between boundary plasma - the scrape-off layer (SOL) and the radiating layer - and central plasma processes. Techniques used for edge diagnosis are reviewed and basic experimental information (n e and T e ) is summarized. Simple models of the SOL are summarized, and the most important effects of the boundary plasma - the influence on the fuel particles, impurities, and energy - on tokamak operation dealt with. Methods of manipulating and controlling edge conditions in tokamaks and the experimental data base for the edge during auxiliary heating of tokamaks are reviewed. Fluctuations and asymmetries at the edge are also covered. (9 tabs., 134 figs., 879 refs.)

  8. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S; Chamorro-Posada, P

    2007-01-01

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts

  9. Information dynamics of boundary perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragness, Haley; Hansen, Niels Christian; Vuust, Peter

    -paced listening to chord sequences in a lab setting (the musical dwell-time effect). However, the origin of the musical dwell-time effect is still unknown. Recent work has demonstrated that musicians and non-musicians are sensitive to entropy in musical sequences, experiencing high-entropy contexts as more...... entropy (as estimated by the Information Dynamics of Music Model, IDyOM, trained on a large corpus of hymns and folksongs). Data collection is ongoing. The main analysis will examine whether longer dwelling is associated with boundary status or entropy. Results from this study will extend recent work...... on predictive uncertainty to the timing domain, as well as potentially answer key questions relating to boundary perception in musical listening....

  10. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Abu-Saifan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While individuals may be publicly recognized as social entrepreneurs for their contributions to improve the welfare of communities, the field of social entrepreneurship continues to struggle to gain academic legitimacy. Social entrepreneurship is a term in search of a good definition. The current use of the term seems vague and limitless; it needs boundaries to demarcate its function. The lack of a common definition hinders research and raises questions about which social or profit-making activities fall within the spectrum of social entrepreneurship. To become an important stream in the entrepreneurship literature, social entrepreneurship needs to be properly defined and it requires a theoretical framework that links it to the theory of entrepreneurship. This article builds on the literature to define social entrepreneurship, discusses the boundaries of socially-oriented entrepreneurial activities, and positions the social entrepreneur in the spectrum of entrepreneurship.

  11. Phase Transitions and Free Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-31

    V PHASE TRANSITIONS AND FREE BOUNDARIES FINAL REPORT AD -A243 412 DECO 3 1991 WILLARD MILLER, JR. U October 31, 1991 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH N0014-91...Einstein- University of Michigan Yang/Mills equations Abstract: The only static solution to the vacuum Einstein equations is the celebrated Schwarzschild ...equations to Maxwell’s equations, the only static solution is the Reissner- Nordstr6m metric which is again singular at the origin. Finally, for any gauge

  12. Sensitivity to volcanic field boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Melody; Bebbington, Mark; Cronin, Shane; Lindsay, Jan; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic hazard analyses are desirable where there is potential for future volcanic activity to affect a proximal population. This is frequently the case for volcanic fields (regions of distributed volcanism) where low eruption rates, fertile soil, and attractive landscapes draw populations to live close by. Forecasting future activity in volcanic fields almost invariably uses spatial or spatio-temporal point processes with model selection and development based on exploratory analyses of previous eruption data. For identifiability reasons, spatio-temporal processes, and practically also spatial processes, the definition of a spatial region is required to which volcanism is confined. However, due to the complex and predominantly unknown sub-surface processes driving volcanic eruptions, definition of a region based solely on geological information is currently impossible. Thus, the current approach is to fit a shape to the known previous eruption sites. The class of boundary shape is an unavoidable subjective decision taken by the forecaster that is often overlooked during subsequent analysis of results. This study shows the substantial effect that this choice may have on even the simplest exploratory methods for hazard forecasting, illustrated using four commonly used exploratory statistical methods and two very different regions: the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand, and Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For Harrat Rahat, sensitivity of results to boundary definition is substantial. For the Auckland Volcanic Field, the range of options resulted in similar shapes, nevertheless, some of the statistical tests still showed substantial variation in results. This work highlights the fact that when carrying out any hazard analysis on volcanic fields, it is vital to specify how the volcanic field boundary has been defined, assess the sensitivity of boundary choice, and to carry these assumptions and related uncertainties through to estimates of future activity and

  13. Applied thermodynamics: Grain boundary segregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Zheng, L.; Hofmann, S.; Šob, Mojmír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2014), s. 1462-1484 ISSN 1099-4300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311; GA ČR GAP108/12/0144; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : interfacial segregation * Gibbs energy of segregation * enthalpy * entropy * volume * grain boundaries * iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2014

  14. Working across Boundaries in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    The paper addresses how insights from the social shaping tradition and political process theory may contribute to an understanding of design as staging of sociotechnical relations and processes cutting across boundaries of diverse organisational, political and knowledge domains. This idea is purs...... organisational practices. One implication of this approach includes an attention towards what (and how) ar-eas may be rendered open to negotiation and transformation in technological design, implementation, and change processes....

  15. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  16. Event boundaries and memory improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Thompson, Alexis N; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-03-01

    The structure of events can influence later memory for information that is embedded in them, with evidence indicating that event boundaries can both impair and enhance memory. The current study explored whether the presence of event boundaries during encoding can structure information to improve memory. In Experiment 1, memory for a list of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated by having participants walk through a doorway, or not, halfway through the word list. In Experiment 2, memory for lists of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated using computer windows. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, event structure was manipulated by having event shifts described in narrative texts. The consistent finding across all of these methods and materials was that memory was better when the information was distributed across two events rather than combined into a single event. Moreover, Experiment 4 demonstrated that increasing the number of event boundaries from one to two increased the memory benefit. These results are interpreted in the context of the Event Horizon Model of event cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrability and boundary conditions of supersymmetric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Ruihong; Liang Hong

    1996-01-01

    By studying the solutions of the reflection equations, we find out a series of integrable supersymmetric systems with different boundary conditions. The Hamiltonian contains four free parameters which describe the contribution of the boundary terms

  18. Cal State Park Boundaries 2011/2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a GIS version of California State Park (CSP) operational boundaries and does not represent official property boundary determinations. This GIS version is...

  19. Grain boundaries in Ni3Al. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.; Sass, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the dislocation structure of small angle tilt and twist boundaries in ordered Ni 3 Al, with and without boron, investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation with Burgers vectors that correspond to anti-phase boundary (APB)-coupled superpartials were found in small angle twist boundaries in both boron-free and boron-doped Ni 3 Al, and a small angle tilt boundary in boron-doped Ni 3 Al. The boundary structures are in agreement with theoretical models proposed by Marcinkowski and co-workers. The APB energy determined from the dissociation of the grain boundary dislocations was lower than values reported for isolated APBs in Ni 3 Al. For small angle twist boundaries the presence of boron reduced the APB energy at the interface until it approached zero. This is consistent with the structure of these boundaries containing small regions of increased compositional disorder in the first atomic plane next to the interface

  20. Practical boundary surveying legal and technical principles

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This guide to boundary surveying provides landowners, land surveyors, students and others with the necessary foundation to understand boundary surveying techniques and the common legal issues that govern boundary establishment.  Boundary surveying is sometimes mistakenly considered a strictly technical discipline with simple and straightforward technical solutions.  In reality, boundary establishment is often a difficult and complex matter, requiring years of experience and a thorough understanding of boundary law.  This book helps readers to understand the challenges often encountered by boundary surveyors and some of the available solutions. Using only simple and logically explained mathematics, the principles and practice of boundary surveying are demystified for those without prior experience, and the focused coverage of pivotal issues such as easements and setting lot corners will aid even licensed practitioners in untangling thorny cases. Practical advice on using both basic and advanced instruments ...