WorldWideScience

Sample records for pole-equator temperature differences

  1. See laser testing at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Anatolievich Novikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main problem for laser SEE testing at different temperatures is to determine correlation between laser pulse energy and LET. In the first approximation, LET values with the same laser pulse energy and different temperatures are directly proportional to the absorption coefficient of laser light in a semiconductor. Use of tabulated values could lead to errors and absorption coefficient should be determined for each sensitive volume of device under test (DUT. Temperature dependence of absorption coefficient could be determined using ionization response of DUT in power supply circuit under local laser irradiation. Using this approach a satisfactory correlation of ion and laser SEE test result was observed.

  2. Urban-Rural Temperature Differences in Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent N. Ojeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hourly air temperature differences between City hall (urban and Okoafo (rural in Lagos, Nigeria, were calculated using one year of meteorological observations, from June 2014 to May 2015. The two sites considered for this work were carefully selected to represent their climate zones. The city core, City hall, is within the Local Climate Zone (LCZ 2 (Compact midrise while the rural location, Okoafo, falls within LCZ B (Scattered Trees in the south-western part on the outskirt of the city. This study is one of very few to investigate urban temperature conditions in Lagos, the largest city in Africa and one of the most rapidly urbanizing megacities in the world; findings show that maximum nocturnal UHI magnitudes in Lagos can exceed 7 °C during the dry season, and during the rainy season, wet soils in the rural environment supersede regional wind speed as the dominant control over UHI magnitude.

  3. Temperature requirement of different isolates of Colletotrichum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Arauz LF, Wang A, Duran JA, Monterrey M (1994). Causes of post harvest losses of mango at the wholesale market level in Costa Rica. Agronomia Costarricense, 18(1): 47-51. Banik AK, Kaiser SAKM, Dhua RS (1988). Influence of temperature and humidity on the growth and development of Colletotrichum.

  4. Radically Different Kinetics at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Ian

    2014-06-01

    The use of the CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme, or Reaction Kinetics in Uniform Supersonic Flow) technique coupled with pulsed laser photochemical kinetics methods has shown that reactions involving radicals can be very rapid at temperatures down to 10 K or below. The results have had a major impact in astrochemistry and planetology, as well as proving an exacting test for theory. The technique has also been applied to the formation of transient complexes of interest both in atmospheric chemistry and combustion. Until now, all of the chemical reactions studied in this way have taken place on attractive potential energy surfaces with no overall barrier to reaction. The F + H2 {→} HF + H reaction does possess a substantial energetic barrier ({\\cong} 800 K), and might therefore be expected to slow to a negligible rate at very low temperatures. In fact, this H-atom abstraction reaction does take place efficiently at low temperatures due entirely to tunneling. I will report direct experimental measurements of the rate of this reaction down to a temperature of 11 K, in remarkable agreement with state-of-the-art quantum reactive scattering calculations by François Lique (Université du Havre) and Millard Alexander (University of Maryland). It is thought that long chain cyanopolyyne molecules H(C2)nCN may play an important role in the formation of the orange haze layer in Titan's atmosphere. The longest carbon chain molecule observed in interstellar space, HC11N, is also a member of this series. I will present new results, obtained in collaboration with Jean-Claude Guillemin (Ecole de Chimie de Rennes) and Stephen Klippenstein (Argonne National Labs), on reactions of C2H, CN and C3N radicals (using a new LIF scheme by Hoshina and Endo which contribute to the low temperature formation of (cyano)polyynes. H. Sabbah, L. Biennier, I. R. Sims, Y. Georgievskii, S. J. Klippenstein, I. W. M. Smith, Science 317, 102 (2007). S. D. Le Picard, M

  5. Finite difference program for calculating hydride bed wall temperature profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A QuickBASIC finite difference program was written for calculating one dimensional temperature profiles in up to two media with flat, cylindrical, or spherical geometries. The development of the program was motivated by the need to calculate maximum temperature differences across the walls of the Tritium metal hydrides beds for thermal fatigue analysis. The purpose of this report is to document the equations and the computer program used to calculate transient wall temperatures in stainless steel hydride vessels. The development of the computer code was motivated by the need to calculate maximum temperature differences across the walls of the hydrides beds in the Tritium Facility for thermal fatigue analysis

  6. Seasonal differences in human responses to increasing temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitazawa, Sachie; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in late summer and winter with 80 young and elderly Danish subjects exposed for 3.5 hours in a climate chamber to the temperature increasing from 24°C to 35.2°C at a rate of 3.7K/h. Psychological and physiological measurements were performed during exposure and subjects...... assessed comfort and acute health symptoms. Thermal sensation increased with increasing chamber temperature and did not differ during late summer and winter exposures. Skin temperature increased with increasing temperature and was slightly but significantly higher in the late summer in the first half...... of exposure. Core temperature started to increase, when the chamber temperature reached about 28oC, earlier in winter than in the late summer. Thermal environment was assessed to be slightly less acceptable in winter only until chamber temperature reached about 28oC; acceptability systematically decreased...

  7. Determination of Rheological Parameters of Polyvinylchloride at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chepurnenko A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the method of determining the relaxation constants of the material included in the nonlinear equation of Maxwell-Gurevich. We performed the processing of relaxation curves of recycled polyvinylchloride (PVC at different temperatures and investigated the effect of temperature on the value of the relaxation parameters. For each parameter, we have chosen empirical formula describing its dependence on temperature.

  8. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS: DAYSIDE–NIGHTSIDE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komacek, Thaddeus D.; Showman, Adam P., E-mail: tkomacek@lpl.arizona.edu [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    The full-phase infrared light curves of low-eccentricity hot Jupiters show a trend of increasing dayside-to-nightside brightness temperature difference with increasing equilibrium temperature. Here, we present a three-dimensional model that explains this relationship, in order to provide insight into the processes that control heat redistribution in tidally locked planetary atmospheres. This three-dimensional model combines predictive analytic theory for the atmospheric circulation and dayside–nightside temperature differences over a range of equilibrium temperatures, atmospheric compositions, and potential frictional drag strengths with numerical solutions of the circulation that verify this analytic theory. The theory shows that the longitudinal propagation of waves mediates dayside–nightside temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres, analogous to the wave adjustment mechanism that regulates the thermal structure in Earth’s tropics. These waves can be damped in hot Jupiter atmospheres by either radiative cooling or potential frictional drag. This frictional drag would likely be caused by Lorentz forces in a partially ionized atmosphere threaded by a background magnetic field, and would increase in strength with increasing temperature. Additionally, the amplitude of radiative heating and cooling increases with increasing temperature, and hence both radiative heating/cooling and frictional drag damp waves more efficiently with increasing equilibrium temperature. Radiative heating and cooling play the largest role in controlling dayside–nightside temperature differences in both our analytic theory and numerical simulations, with frictional drag only being important if it is stronger than the Coriolis force. As a result, dayside–nightside temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres increase with increasing stellar irradiation and decrease with increasing pressure.

  9. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS: DAYSIDE–NIGHTSIDE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komacek, Thaddeus D.; Showman, Adam P.

    2016-01-01

    The full-phase infrared light curves of low-eccentricity hot Jupiters show a trend of increasing dayside-to-nightside brightness temperature difference with increasing equilibrium temperature. Here, we present a three-dimensional model that explains this relationship, in order to provide insight into the processes that control heat redistribution in tidally locked planetary atmospheres. This three-dimensional model combines predictive analytic theory for the atmospheric circulation and dayside–nightside temperature differences over a range of equilibrium temperatures, atmospheric compositions, and potential frictional drag strengths with numerical solutions of the circulation that verify this analytic theory. The theory shows that the longitudinal propagation of waves mediates dayside–nightside temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres, analogous to the wave adjustment mechanism that regulates the thermal structure in Earth’s tropics. These waves can be damped in hot Jupiter atmospheres by either radiative cooling or potential frictional drag. This frictional drag would likely be caused by Lorentz forces in a partially ionized atmosphere threaded by a background magnetic field, and would increase in strength with increasing temperature. Additionally, the amplitude of radiative heating and cooling increases with increasing temperature, and hence both radiative heating/cooling and frictional drag damp waves more efficiently with increasing equilibrium temperature. Radiative heating and cooling play the largest role in controlling dayside–nightside temperature differences in both our analytic theory and numerical simulations, with frictional drag only being important if it is stronger than the Coriolis force. As a result, dayside–nightside temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres increase with increasing stellar irradiation and decrease with increasing pressure

  10. Temperature-amplitude coupling for stable biological rhythms at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Gen; Fujioka, Atsuko; Koinuma, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Shigeyoshi, Yasufumi

    2017-06-01

    Most biological processes accelerate with temperature, for example cell division. In contrast, the circadian rhythm period is robust to temperature fluctuation, termed temperature compensation. Temperature compensation is peculiar because a system-level property (i.e., the circadian period) is stable under varying temperature while individual components of the system (i.e., biochemical reactions) are usually temperature-sensitive. To understand the mechanism for period stability, we measured the time series of circadian clock transcripts in cultured C6 glioma cells. The amplitudes of Cry1 and Dbp circadian expression increased significantly with temperature. In contrast, other clock transcripts demonstrated no significant change in amplitude. To understand these experimental results, we analyzed mathematical models with different network topologies. It was found that the geometric mean amplitude of gene expression must increase to maintain a stable period with increasing temperatures and reaction speeds for all models studied. To investigate the generality of this temperature-amplitude coupling mechanism for period stability, we revisited data on the yeast metabolic cycle (YMC) period, which is also stable under temperature variation. We confirmed that the YMC amplitude increased at higher temperatures, suggesting temperature-amplitude coupling as a common mechanism shared by circadian and 4 h-metabolic rhythms.

  11. Computational analysis of frp composite under different temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekar, P.; Manigandan, S.

    2017-05-01

    Composite material strength depends on the stiffness of fiber and the resin which is used for reinforcement. The strength of the laminate can be increased by applying good manufacturing practices. The strength is directly depending on the property of resin. The property of the any compound subjected to changed when they exposed to the temperature. This paper investigates the strength of laminate when they subjected to different temperature gradient of resin while manufacturing. The resin is preheated before adding hardener with them. These types of laminate reinforced with resin at different levels of temperature 20c, 40c, and 60c. These different temperature resin are used for reinforcement and the specimen tested. The comparative results are made to find how the stiffness of laminate changes with respect to the thermal property of resin. The results are helpful to obtain high strength laminate.

  12. Assessment of broiler surface temperature variation when exposed to different air temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of the air temperature variation on the mean surface temperature (MST of 7- to 35-day-old broiler chickens using infrared thermometry to estimate MST, and to study surface temperature variation of the wings, head, legs, back and comb as affected by air temperature and broiler age. One hundred Cobb® broilers were used in the experiment. Starting on day 7, 10 birds were weekly selected at random, housed in an environmental chamber and reared under three distinct temperatures (18, 25 and 32 ºC to record their thermal profile using an infrared thermal camera. The recorded images were processed to estimate MST by selecting the whole area of the bird within the picture and comparing it with the values obtained using selected equations in literature, and to record the surface temperatures of the body parts. The MST estimated by infrared images were not statistically different (p > 0.05 from the values obtained by the equations. MST values significantly increased (p < 0.05 when the air temperature increased, but were not affected by bird age. However, age influenced the difference between MST and air temperature, which was highest on day 14. The technique of infrared thermal image analysis was useful to estimate the mean surface temperature of broiler chickens.

  13. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The odour of the sausages was evaluated by a quantitative descriptive...... tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that salami odour was more pronounced in sausages fermented at low temperature than in sausages fermented at high temperature and added nitrite, glucose and P. pentosaceus. High temperature sausages had a more sour...

  14. Metabolic responses of Eucalyptus species to different temperature regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokochinski, Joao Benhur; Mazzafera, Paulo; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Mumm, Roland; Vos, de Ric Cornelis Hendricus; Hall, Robert David

    2018-01-01

    Species and hybrids of Eucalyptus are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. They are cultivated across a wide range of latitudes and therefore environmental conditions. In this context, comprehensive metabolomics approaches have been used to assess how different temperature regimes may

  15. Effects of Different Temperatures for Drying Cervical Mucus Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different room temperatures for drying cervical mucus on crystallisation of fern-tree patterns was determined using cervical mucus smears from 60 women undergoing investigation for infertility at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Cervical mucus smears were dried in the oven at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35C ...

  16. TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION MONITORING AND ANALYSES AT DIFFERENT HEATING CONTROL PRINCIPLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Rode, Carsten; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2010-01-01

    under different control strategies of the heating system (Pseudo Random Binary Sequence signal controlling all the heaters (PRBS) or thermostatic control of the heaters (THERM)). A comparison of the measured temperatures within the room, for the five series of experiments, shows a better correlation...

  17. Effect of electric field (at different temperatures) on germination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds were exposed to electric field from zero to 1300 V for 15 min at three different temperatures (13, 16 and 19°C). It was found that the exposure of chickpea seeds to the electric field caused a change in water uptake capacity (and its coefficient) as compared to control. A new theoretical model ...

  18. Temperature dependencies of Henry's law constants for different plant sesquiterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-11-01

    Sesquiterpenes are plant-produced hydrocarbons with important ecological functions in plant-to-plant and plant-to-insect communication, but due to their high reactivity they can also play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. So far, there is little information of gas/liquid phase partition coefficients (Henry's law constants) and their temperature dependencies for sesquiterpenes, but this information is needed for quantitative simulation of the release of sesquiterpenes from plants and modeling atmospheric reactions in different phases. In this study, we estimated Henry's law constants (Hpc) and their temperature responses for 12 key plant sesquiterpenes with varying structure (aliphatic, mono-, bi- and tricyclic sesquiterpenes). At 25 °C, Henry's law constants varied 1.4-fold among different sesquiterpenes, and the values were within the range previously observed for monocyclic monoterpenes. Hpc of sesquiterpenes exhibited a high rate of increase, on average ca. 1.5-fold with a 10 °C increase in temperature (Q10). The values of Q10 varied 1.2-fold among different sesquiterpenes. Overall, these data demonstrate moderately high variation in Hpc values and Hpc temperature responses among different sesquiterpenes. We argue that these variations can importantly alter the emission kinetics of sesquiterpenes from plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Different Hatcher Temperatures on Hatching Traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selcuk

    development of the different organs and body structures of the embryo in time, and because of this, also the final result of the hatching process, both in quantity and quality (Meijerhof, 1999). The optimum temperature for successful hatch of eggs in a forced draft incubator is between 37 and 38 °C (Lundy, 1969). Variations in.

  20. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted ...

  1. [Comparison of different methods of temperature measurment in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Momcilo; Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Berenji, Karolina

    2008-01-01

    The consequences of failing to notice fever in children can be serious. On the other hand, false positive reading can result in unnecesery investigation or diagnostic approach. The aim of this study was to compare different ways of body temperature measurement. This prospective study was carried out on Pediatric Department of General Hospital in Subotica during 10 months (March-December 2006). In 263 children aged 1 month to 18 years of age, the body temperature was obtained from 4 measurement sites: tactile assesment, forehead and ear by electronic thermometer, rectal temperature in small children (up to 2 years of age) or axillar temperature in older children by mercury thermometer. Tympanic thermometry was considered as a standard for fever detection. The sensitivity of rectal temperature to detect fever is 46.67%, while specificity is 92.19%. The sensitivity of fever detection by electronic thermometry on the forehead is lower according to rectal thermometry - 36.08%, while specificity is 95.18%. The lowest values ofsensitivity are recorded in axillar thermometry (35.82%), specificity is 90.20%. The correlation coefficient is higher between tympanic and rectal temperature measurement (r=0.5076, pchildren and tympanic thermometry in children over 2 years of age.

  2. Temperature dependent kinematic viscosity of different types of engine oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Severa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to measure how the viscosity of engine oil changes with temperature. Six different commercially distributed engine oils (primarily intended for motorcycle engines of 10W–40 viscosity grade have been evaluated. Four of the oils were of synthetic type, two of semi–synthetic type. All oils have been assumed to be Newtonian fluids, thus flow curves have not been determined. Oils have been cooled to below zero temperatures and under controlled temperature regulation, kinematic viscosity (mm2 / s have been measured in the range of −5 °C and +115 °C. Anton Paar digital viscometer with concentric cylinders geometry has been used. In accordance with expected behavior, kinematic viscosity of all oils was decreasing with increasing temperature. Viscosity was found to be independent on oil’s density. Temperature dependence has been modeled using se­ve­ral mathematical models – Vogel equation, Arrhenius equation, polynomial, and Gaussian equation. The best match between experimental and computed data has been achieved for Gaussian equation (R2 = 0.9993. Knowledge of viscosity behavior of an engine oil as a function of its temperature is of great importance, especially when considering running efficiency and performance of combustion engines. Proposed models can be used for description and prediction of rheological behavior of engine oils.

  3. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, C.; Waade, Charlotte

    1997-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six-factor fractional design. The amounts of individual amino acids were measured and the effects...... was significantly affected by the different factors. High fermentation temperature and nitrite content increased the amount, while high contents of salt, nitrate, glucose and P. pentosaceus lowered the amount of free amino acids. In general, temperature and nitrate had the greatest influence. It was shown...

  4. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 °C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and histopathology scores. These data may also have implications on human pancreas procurement as use of an

  5. Clay facial masks: physicochemical stability at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zague, Vivian; de Almeida Silva, Diego; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2007-01-01

    Clay facial masks--formulations that contain a high percentage of solids dispersed in a liquid vehicle--have become of special interest due to specific properties presented by clays, such as particle size, cooling index, high adsorption capacity, and plasticity. Although most of the physicochemical properties of clay dispersions have been studied, specific aspects concerning the physicochemical stability of clay mask products remain unclear. This work aimed at investigating the accelerated physicochemical stability of clay mask formulations stored at different temperatures. Formulations were subjected to centrifuge testing and to thermal treatment for 15 days, during which temperature was varied from -5.0 degrees to 45.0 degrees C. The apparent viscosity and visual aspect (homogeneity) of all formulations were affected by temperature variation, whereas color, odor, and pH value remained unaltered. These results, besides the estimation of physicochemical stability under aging, can be useful in determining the best storage conditions for clay-based formulations.

  6. LED Curing Lights and Temperature Changes in Different Tooth Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Armellin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess thermal changes on tooth tissues during light exposure using two different LED curing units. The hypothesis was that no temperature increase could be detected within the dental pulp during polymerization irrespective of the use of a composite resin or a light-curing unit. Methods. Caries-free human first molars were selected, pulp residues were removed after root resection, and four calibrated type-J thermocouples were positioned. Two LED lamps were tested; temperature measurements were made on intact teeth and on the same tooth during curing of composite restorations. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson’s χ2. After ANOVA, the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed. Results. Polymerization data analysis showed that in the pulp chamber temperature increase was higher than that without resin. Starlight PRO, in the same condition of Valo lamp, showed a lower temperature increase in pre- and intrapolymerization. A control group (without composite resin was evaluated. Significance. Temperature increase during resin curing is a function of the rate of polymerization, due to the exothermic polymerization reaction, the energy from the light unit, and time of exposure.

  7. Performance of fuel system at different diesel temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyong; Li, Xiaolu; Sun, Zai

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the findings about performance of the fuel system of a diesel engine at different diesel temperature obtained through simulation and experiment. It can be seen from these findings that at the same rotational speed of fuel pump, the initial pressure in the fuel pipe remain unchanged as the fuel temperature increases, the peak pressure at the side of fuel pipe near the injector delays, and its largest value of pressure decreases. Meanwhile, at the same temperature, as the rotational speed increases, the initial pressure of fuel pipe is also essentially the same, the arrival of its peaks delays, and its largest value of pressure increases. The maximum fuel pressure at the side of fuel pipe near the injector has an increase of 28.9 %, 22.3%, and 13.9% respectively than the previous ones according to its conditions. At the same rotational speed, as the temperature increases, the injection quantity through the nozzle orifice decreases. At the same temperature, as the rotational speed increases, the injection quantity through the nozzle orifice increases. These experimental results are consistent with simulation results.

  8. Performance of NiTi endodontic instrument under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamleh, Ahmed; Yahata, Yoshio; Ebihara, Arata; Atmeh, Amre R; Bakhsh, Turki; Suda, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test nickel titanium (NiTi) instrument performance under different surrounding temperatures. Twenty-four superelastic NiTi instruments with a conical shape comprising a 0.30-mm-diameter tip and 0.06 taper were equally divided into 3 groups according to the temperature employed. Using a specially designed cyclic fatigue testing apparatus, each instrument was deflected to give a curvature 10 mm in radius and a 30° angle. This position was kept as the instrument was immersed in a continuous flow of water under a temperature of 10, 37, or 50 °C for 20 s to calculate the deflecting load (DL). In the same position, the instrument was then allowed to rotate at 300 rpm to fracture, and the working time was converted to the number of cycles to fracture (NCF). The statistical significance was set at p = 0.05. The mean DL (in N) and NCF (in cycles) of the groups at 10, 37, and 50 °C were 10.16 ± 1.36 and 135.50 ± 31.48, 13.50 ± 0.92 and 89.20 ± 16.44, and 14.70 ± 1.21 and 65.50 ± 15.90, respectively. The group at 10 °C had significantly the lowest DL that favorably resulted in the highest NCF. Within the limitations of this study, the surrounding temperature influences the cyclic fatigue resistance and DL of the superelastic NiTi instruments. Lower temperatures are found to favorably decrease the DL and extend the lifetime of the superelastic NiTi instrument. Further NiTi instrument failure studies should be performed under simulated body temperature.

  9. Unravelling Diurnal Asymmetry of Surface Temperature in Different Climate Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnarasi, R; Dhanya, C T; Chakravorty, Aniket; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2017-08-04

    Understanding the evolution of Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR), which has contradicting global and regional trends, is crucial because it influences environmental and human health. Here, we analyse the regional evolution of DTR trend over different climatic zones in India using a non-stationary approach known as the Multidimensional Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (MEEMD) method, to explore the generalized influence of regional climate on DTR, if any. We report a 0.36 °C increase in overall mean of DTR till 1980, however, the rate has declined since then. Further, arid deserts and warm-temperate grasslands exhibit negative DTR trends, while the west coast and sub-tropical forest in the north-east show positive trends. This transition predominantly begins with a 0.5 °C increase from the west coast and spreads with an increase of 0.25 °C per decade. These changes are more pronounced during winter and post-monsoon, especially in the arid desert and warm-temperate grasslands, the DTR decreased up to 2 °C, where the rate of increase in minimum temperature is higher than the maximum temperature. We conclude that both maximum and minimum temperature increase in response to the global climate change, however, their rates of increase are highly local and depend on the underlying climatic zone.

  10. Effect of different alkaline solutions on crystalline structure of cellulose at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshk, Sherif M A S

    2015-01-22

    Effect of alkaline solutions such as 10% NaOH, NaOH/urea and NaOH/ethylene glycol solutions on crystalline structure of different cellulosic fibers (cotton linter and filter paper) was investigated at room temperature and -4°C. The highest dissolution of cotton linter and filter paper was observed in NaOH/ethylene glycol at both temperatures. X-ray patterns of treated cotton linter with different alkaline solutions at low temperature showed only two diffractions at 2θ=12.5° and 21.0°, which belonged to the crystalline structure of cellulose II. CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectra showed the doublet peaks at 89.2 ppm and 88.3 ppm representing C4 resonance for cellulose I at room temperature, Whereas, at low temperature the doublet peaks were observed at 89.2 ppm and 87.8 ppm representing C4 resonance for cellulose II. Degree of polymerization of cellulose plays an important role in cellulose dissolution in different alkaline solutions and temperatures, where, a low temperature gives high dissolutions percentage with change in crystalline structure from cellulose I to cellulose II forms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis graphene layer at different waste cooking palm oil temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaiah, M.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.; khusaimi, Z.; Azhan, H.; Asli, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Graphene is one of the most recent carbon nanomaterials that has attracted attention because of its superior properties. The formation of the graphene on the Ni surface appears due to segregation and precipitation of a high amount of carbon from the source material during the cooling process. The growth of graphene at different waste cooking palm oil (WCPO) temperatures using double thermal chemical vapour deposition method (DTCVD) was investigated. The samples were prepared at various vaporization temperatures of WCPO is range from 250 °C to 450 °C by increment 50 °C and the temperature of Ni substrate constant at 900 °C. The structural of the graphene were characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy, UV-Visible and Raman's spectroscopy. FESEM images at optimum temperature (350 °C) display hexagonal shapes since the graphene layers were formed after precipitation of the carbon. It the meantime, UV-Visible spectra shows the sharp peak at 250 nm whereupon the highest of reflectivity value. This peak is an indication the presence of the graphene layers on Ni substrate. The position and half width 2D peak of the Raman spectra were subjected to detail analyses in order to determine the quantity and quality of the graphene layer. At the temperature 350°C, the Raman's spectroscopy result shown the multilayer of the graphene based on I2D/IG ratio is approximately constant (equal to˜0.43).

  12. A microbearing gas flow with different walls´ temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićev Snežana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution for the non-isothermal two-dimensional compressible gas flow in a slider microbearing with different temperatures of walls is presented in this paper. The slip flow is defined by the continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy continuum equations, along with the velocity slip and the temperature jump first order boundary conditions. Knudsen number is in the range of 10-3-10-1, which corresponds to the slip flow. The ratio between the exit microbearing height and the microbearing length is taken to be a small parameter. Moreover, it is assumed that the microbearing cross section varies slowly, which implies that all physical quantities vary slowly in x-direction. The model solution is treated by developing a perturbation scheme. The first approximation corresponds to the continuum flow conditions, while the second one involves the influence of rarefaction effect. The analytical solutions of the pressure, velocity and temperature for moderately high Reynolds numbers are presented here. For these flow conditions the inertia, convection, dissipation and rate at which work is done in compressing the element of fluid are also presented in the second approximation.

  13. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The numbers of surviving Staphylococcus xylosus, lactic acid bacteria......, pH, free fatty acids and residual amounts of nitrite and nitrate were measured. The effects of temperature and different ingredients on the chemical and bacterial data were tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that numbers of surviving Staphylococcus...... of glucose and Pediococcus pentosaceus. On the other hand pH was increased by addition of nitrate. The pH-lowering effect of glucose was small when temperature was low. The residual levels of nitrite and nitrate were increased by addition of nitrate, but then increased and decreased, respectively...

  14. Performance of layers submitted to different forced-molting methods and different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sgavioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the performance and egg quality of laying hens, in their second laying cycle submitted to different forced-molting methods and three environmental temperatures. Six hundred layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 15 treatments with five replicates of eight birds each, according to 5x3 factorial arrangement (molting methods vs. temperatures. The following forced-molting methods were applied: 90%, 70%, 50% dietary alfalfa inclusion, addition of 2,800 ppm zinc, and feed fasting. Temperatures were: 20 ºC, 27 ºC and 35 ºC. At the end of each period of the second laying cycle, bird performance and egg quality were evaluated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by orthogonal and polynomial contrasts. The highest alfalfa inclusion level (90% alfalfa and 10% basal diet proved to be efficient as compared to the other methods, independently of temperature.

  15. Germination of corn seeds with different levels of vigor in response to differents temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Gasparetto Sbrussi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of maize seeds with different levels of vigor at different germination temperature. To this was used six seed lots of hybrid corn Balu-580 with similar germination potential, but different level of vigor. After the initial characterization of the lots, the effects of temperature were determined by first counting and the germination test conducted on paper substrate germitest, at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, 37 and 40 °C. The data obtained in the initial characterization of the lots were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test (p < 0,05. In the study of the effect of adverse conditions of temperature on first counting and germination was carried out the analysis of variance following a completely randomized design, factorial scheme 6 X 9. Low temperatures slowed the germination of seeds, especially those of low vigor, and there was no germination at 16 ° C. Lots of smaller effect were also more susceptible to high temperatures, with higher percentages of abnormal seedlings and ungerminated seeds.

  16. Trends and differences of the temperature effect on mismatch in different CMOS technology nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andricciola, P.; Andricciola, P.; Tuinhout, H.; Wils, N.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical drain-current differences between pairs of supposedly identical transistors, usually known as matching, represent a crucial aspect of analog and mixed-signal circuits. Although matching has been a subject of study for more than two decades, how the temperature affects it is still

  17. MTF measurement of IR optics in different temperature ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Alexander; Duncker, Hannes; Dumitrescu, Eugen

    2017-10-01

    Infrared (IR) optical systems are at the core of many military, civilian and manufacturing applications and perform mission critical functions. To reliably fulfill the demanding requirements imposed on today's high performance IR optics, highly accurate, reproducible and fast lens testing is of crucial importance. Testing the optical performance within different temperature ranges becomes key in many military applications. Due to highly complex IR-Applications in the fields of aerospace, military and automotive industries, MTF Measurement under realistic environmental conditions become more and more relevant. A Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) test bench with an integrated thermal chamber allows measuring several sample sizes in a temperature range from -40 °C to +120°C. To reach reliable measurement results under these difficult conditions, a specially developed temperature stable design including an insulating vacuum are used. The main function of this instrument is the measurement of the MTF both on- and off-axis at up to +/-70° field angle, as well as measurement of effective focal length, flange focal length and distortion. The vertical configuration of the system guarantees a small overall footprint. By integrating a high-resolution IR camera with focal plane array (FPA) in the detection unit, time consuming measurement procedures such as scanning slit with liquid nitrogen cooled detectors can be avoided. The specified absolute accuracy of +/- 3% MTF is validated using internationally traceable reference optics. Together with a complete and intuitive software solution, this makes the instrument a turn-key device for today's state-of- the-art optical testing.

  18. Quality of Cultured Wader Pari During Storage at Different Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Islamei Pratiwi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rasbora lateristriata is one Indonesian freshwater fish consumed by society as a source of animal protein. Like fish in general, rasbora is considered as perishable food, so it is necessary to apply a proper storage technique, one of which is cold storage. The purpose of this study was to determine the proper storage temperature of the rasbora in the storage of freezer, chiller and ice. The raw materials used was rasbora in size of 2 grams/fish. The Wader was caught then pondered (2,1 kg. Rasbora was split into three different storages those were freezer (-20°C, chiller (4°C, and ice (10°C. The study design used a completely randomized design with storage temperature factors and the duration of storage with three treatments and three replications. Observations were made on days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 include TPC test, TVB, pH and organoleptic. The results showed that treatment of freezer, chiller, and ice storage were able to inhibit decay until the 40th day, 13th day, and day 2, repectivelly. Thus, the freezer storage (-20° C provides more effective in inhibiting decay by TPC, TVB, pH and organoleptic.

  19. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  20. Seedling characters at different temperatures in pearl millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of six temperatures ranging from 20 to 45°C on the germination and seedling length of six grain pearl millet genotypes (KS, AM, HG, EC, ZZ and D) was determined. There was significant variation in germination and seedling length across temperatures and among genotypes. As a result, significant temperature ...

  1. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiulin; Kang, Hao; Qin, Li; Xiong, Jijun; Zhou, Zhaoying; Zhang, Wendong; Luo, Tao; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic) technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C) with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  2. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  3. Relating rainfall characteristics to cloud top temperatures at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Cornelia; Belušić, Danijel; Taylor, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Extreme rainfall from mesoscale convective systems (MCS) poses a threat to lives and livelihoods of the West African population through increasingly frequent devastating flooding and loss of crops. However, despite the significant impact of such extreme events, the dominant processes favouring their occurrence are still under debate. In the data-sparse West African region, rainfall radar data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) gives invaluable information on the distribution and frequency of extreme rainfall. The TRMM 2A25 product provides a 15-year dataset of snapshots of surface rainfall from 2-4 overpasses per day. Whilst this sampling captures the overall rainfall characteristics, it is neither long nor frequent enough to diagnose changes in MCS properties, which may be linked to the trend towards rainfall intensification in the region. On the other hand, Meteosat geostationary satellites provide long-term sub-hourly records of cloud top temperatures, raising the possibility of combining these with the high-quality rainfall data from TRMM. In this study, we relate TRMM 2A25 rainfall to Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) cloud top temperatures, which are available from 2004 at 15 minutes intervals, to get a more detailed picture of the structure of intense rainfall within the life cycle of MCS. We find TRMM rainfall intensities within an MCS to be strongly coupled with MSG cloud top temperatures: the probability for extreme rainfall increases from power spectra at scales between 15 and 200km. From these, cloud sub-structures are identified as circular areas of respective scale with local power maxima in their centre. These areas are then mapped onto coinciding TRMM rainfall, allowing us to assign rainfall fields to sub-cloud features of different scales. We find a higher probability for extreme rainfall for cloud features above a scale of 30km, with features 100km contributing most to the number of extreme rainfall pixels. Over the average diurnal

  4. The angular distributions of sputtered indium atoms at different temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiping; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Pan Jisheng

    1993-01-01

    The effect of temperature and surface topography on the angular distribution of indium atoms was studied under bombardment by 2T KeV Ar + ions at normal incidence. Experiments were carried out on two samples, A and B, at 25 o C and 70 o C respectively. The function Y(θ) = a cosθ + b cos n θ, where θ is the sputtering angle, was found to fit the experimental data. The term (a cos θ) corresponds to the cosine distribution predicted by random collision cascade theory, and the term (b cos n θ) is dependent on factors such as the surface topography. For sample A, a∼b, whereas for sample B a< b. The surface of A consisted of flat and pebble like regions of almost equal area while the surface of B was more cratered. An explanation of the fitting values of a,b and n is given in terms of the shielding effects of the different structures. (UK)

  5. Effect of different storage temperatures on bacterial spoilage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the bacterial organisms associated with Oreochromis niloticus spoilage at two storage temperatures (6 and 20°C) and also assessed the ability of the individual bacterial isolates to cause spoilage at the two storage temperatures. Bacteriological analysis revealed the association of five bacteria ...

  6. Effects of different hatcher temperatures on hatching traits of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The temperatures were set in the cabinets at 36.1, 37.2, 38.3 and 39.4 °C from 17 d of incubation until hatch. Hatching time, hatchability, age of mortality and the incidence of embryo malpositions were recorded as percentage of fertile eggs. The highest mean embryonic heat production or eggshell surface temperature ...

  7. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... Soil temperature is one of the important variables in spatial prediction of soil energy balance in a solar greenhouse. ... temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse conditions with tomato crop ... pertains to the soil itself (thermal properties, moisture content, type of soil, ...

  8. Seasonal differences in human responses to increasing temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitazawa, Sachie; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    to be sleepier. Heart rate slightly increased during exposure, and SpO2 and ETCO2 began to decrease while core temperature started to increase. Performance of Tsai-partington test and addition test improved during exposures due to learning though lesser in winter. Results show negative effects of the temperature......Experiments were conducted in late summer and winter with 80 young and elderly Danish subjects exposed for 3.5 hours in a climate chamber to the temperature increasing from 24°C to 35.2°C at a rate of 3.7K/h. Psychological and physiological measurements were performed during exposure and subjects...... with increasing temperature. Difficulty to concentrate increased with increased temperature and the self-estimated ability to perform work decreased; subjects reported being sleepier. Severity of headache and difficulty to concentrate was in winter slightly but systematically higher, subjects reporting also...

  9. Caesium diffusion through cement paste cured at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.K.; Ray, A.

    1999-01-01

    Cs + diffusivity through ordinary Portland cement (OPC) samples was investigated using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Secondary Ion Mass-Spectrometry (SIMS). Intrinsic diffusivities were calculated using modified diffusion equations. The intrinsic diffusivities of Cs + through OPC and cemented clinoptilolite samples cured at 25 deg C, 60 deg C and 150 deg C were compared. As expected, Cs + diffusivity was found to increase with increasing cure temperature of OPC. Cs + diffusivity through cemented clinoptilolite also varied with cure temperature. The addition of clinoptilolite to OPC reduced Cs + diffusivity through the sample, and this effect was more pronounced at greater cure temperatures

  10. Oxygen consumption in Mediterranean octocorals under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Previati, M.; Scinto, A.; Cerrano, C.; Osinga, R.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem resilience to climate anomalies is related to the physiological plasticity of organisms. To characterize the physiological response of some common Mediterranean gorgonians to fluctuations in temperature, four species (Paramuricea clavata, Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolinii and

  11. Features of laser diodes' radiation in different temperature intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova S. V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the literature there is practically no information on the change in the characteristics of the emission spectrum of industrial semiconductor laser diodes in a wide range of temperatures, including cryogenic temperatures. Nevertheless, this information is decisive when choosing specific laser diodes for industrial devices. An experimental study of features of the emission spectra of laser semiconductor diodes in the temperature range 50–300 K has been conducted. The material used in the laser diodes' manufacture is a compound based on the solid quaternary AlGaInP solution. The radiation spectrum has been investigated using a monochromator MDR-23 with a CCD detector installed. The study has proved that the temperature of the laser diode operation determines the nature of the radiation spectrum, in particular the predominance of stimulated or induced radiation has taken place, the range of wavelengths of radiation changes as well. It is believed that in the temperature range from 50 to 300 K in the volume of the laser diode material some processes are realized, as a result of which the value of the forbidden band width changes, it decreases by approximately 4.2–4.5 % from the value corresponding to the temperature of 50 K. The calculation of the value of the temperature coefficient of the change in the forbidden band width has shown that in the temperature range from 50 to 300 K the meaning of βvaries in absolute value by 2–3 times. A new experimental method for determining ionization energies of exciton levels has been proposed. It is of practical use for monitoring the electro-physical parameters of semiconductor materials used in the manufacture of industrial semiconductor lasers. The advantage of the proposed method is the ability to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about the exciton spectrum of the laser diode material directly in the region of the p–n-junction where the laser radiation is formed

  12. Temperature Dependence Viscosity and Density of Different Biodiesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to assess the effect of rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME concentration in diesel fuel on its viscosity and density behaviour. The density and dynamic viscosity were observed at various mixing ratios of RME and diesel fuel. All measurements were performed at constant temperature of 40 °C. Increasing ratio of RME in diesel fuel was reflected in increased density value and dynamic viscosity of the blend. In case of pure RME, pure diesel fuel, and a blend of both (B30, temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was examined. Temperature range in the experiment was −10 °C to 80 °C. Considerable temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was found and demonstrated for all three samples. This finding is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and reference data. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was modeled using a polynomial 3rd polynomial degree. Correlation coefficients R −0.796, −0.948, and −0.974 between measured and calculated values were found. Temperature dependence of density was modeled using a 2nd polynomial degree. Correlation coefficients R −0.994, −0.979, and −0.976 between measured and calculated values were acquired. The proposed models can be used for flow behaviour prediction of RME, diesel fuel, and their blends.

  13. Temperature Effect on Power Drop of Different Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Talib Hahsim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar module operating temperature is the second major factor affects the performance of solar photovoltaic panels after the amount of solar radiation. This paper presents a performance comparison of mono-crystalline Silicon (mc-Si, poly-crystalline Silicon (pc-Si, amorphous Silicon (a-Si and Cupper Indium Gallium di-selenide (CIGS photovoltaic technologies under Climate Conditions of Baghdad city. Temperature influence on the solar modules electric output parameters was investigated experimentally and their temperature coefficients was calculated. These temperature coefficients are important for all systems design and sizing. The experimental results revealed that the pc-Si module showed a decrease in open circuit voltage by -0.0912V/ºC while mc-Si and a-Si had nearly -0.07V/ºC and the CIGS has -0.0123V/ºC. The results showed a slightly increase in short circuit current with temperature increasing about 0.3mA/ºC ,4.4mA/ºC and 0.9mA/ºC for mc-Si , pc-Si and both a-Si and CIGS. The mc-Si had the largest drop in output power about -0.1353W/ºC while -0.0915, -0.0114 and -0.0276 W/ºC for pc-Si, a-Si and CIGS respectively. The amorphous silicon is the more suitable module for high operation temperature but it has the lowest conversion efficiency between the tested modules.

  14. Presence and significance of temperature gradients among different ovarian tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Ronald Henry Fraser; Einer-Jensen, Niels; Greve, Torben

    2006-01-01

    also be involved. Temperature gradients would be maintained locally by counter-current heat exchange mechanisms and, in this context, the microvasculature and lymphatic flow of individual follicles were found to be appropriate. Observations on the temperature of preovulatory follicles appear relevant......, and cow, and generally fell in the range of 1.3-1.7 degrees C: follicles were always cooler than stroma. Measurements were made principally by means of a thermo-sensing camera at midventral laparotomy, but also using microelectrodes or thermistor probes sited in the follicular antrum of rabbits and pigs...

  15. Stability of soybean aphid resistance in soybean across different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is the most important insect pest posing a threat to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., grain production in the United States. Soybean cultivars with resistance are currently being deployed to aid in management of the pest. Temperature has been reported to ...

  16. Seedling characters at different temperatures in pearl millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TESSY

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... This flexibility of germination, resulting in an aptitude to germinate in a relatively spread out thermal ... capacity remained good in the temperature interval ranging between 20 and 30°C. In the same ... capacity of Sorghum was 60% and was null at 45°C. So, millet seems to be more resistant to extreme tem-.

  17. Structural properties of gold clusters at different temperatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahladisa, MA

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of gold clusters consisting of aggregates of from 13 to 147 atoms was studied using the Sutton-Chen type many-body potential in molecular dynamics simulations. The properties of these clusters at temperatures from 10 K to 1000 K were...

  18. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in a solar greenhouse. The objective of this study was to find a simple method to estimate the hysteresis of soil temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse conditions with tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The results show that the soil moisture had no significant effects on ...

  19. The sublethal effects of zinc at different water temperatures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in Na+ and K levels in the plasma of O. mossambicus can be attributed to a combination of stimulation of Na-K ATPase activity, reduced membrane permeability in the gill tissue and leakage from cells into the blood, respectively. Keywords: sublethal stress; zinc; temperature; haematology; osmoregulation; ...

  20. Different patterns of transcriptomic response to high temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyploidy is an important evolutionary force in plants and may have significant impact on plant breeding. In this study, expression changes between diploid and tetraploid Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. under control and high temperature conditions were investigated by sequence-related amplified polymorphism ...

  1. Differences between true mean temperatures and means calculated with four different approaches: a case study from three Croatian stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Ognjen; Željković, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Different countries use varied methods for daily mean temperature calculation. None of them assesses precisely the true daily mean temperature, which is defined as the integral of continuous temperature measurements in a day. Of special scientific as well as practical importance is to find out how temperatures calculated by different methods and approaches deviate from the true daily mean temperature. Five mean daily temperatures were calculated (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4) using five different equations. The mean of 24-h temperature observations during the calendar day is accepted to represent the true, daily mean T0. The differences Δ i between T0 and four other mean daily temperatures T1, T2, T3, and T4 were calculated and analysed. In the paper, analyses were done with hourly data measured in a period from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2014 (149,016 h, 192 months and 16 years) at three Croatian meteorological stations. The stations are situated in distinct climatological areas: Zagreb Grič in a mild climate, Zavižan in the cold mountain region and Dubrovnik in the hot Mediterranean. Influence of fog on the temperature is analysed. Special attention is given to analyses of extreme (maximum and minimum) daily differences occurred at three analysed stations. Selection of the fixed local hours, which is in use for calculation of mean daily temperature, plays a crucial role in diminishing of bias from the true daily temperature.

  2. Western Arctic Temperature Sensitivity Varies under Different Mean States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, W.; Russell, J. M.; Morrill, C.; Longo, W. M.; Giblin, A. E.; Holland-Stergar, P.; Hu, A.; Huang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere on earth. Predictions of future change, however, are hindered by uncertainty in the mechanisms that underpin Arctic amplification. Data from Beringia (Alaska and Eastern Siberia) are particularly inconclusive with regards to both glacial-interglacial climate change as well as the presence or absence of abrupt climate change events such as the Younger Dryas. Here we investigate temperature change in Beringia from the last glacial maximum (LGM) to present using a unique 30 kyr lacustrine record of leaf wax hydrogen isotope ratios (δDwax) from Northern Alaska. We evaluate our results in the context of PMIP3 climate simulations as well as sensitivity tests of the effects of sea level and Bering Strait closure on Arctic Alaskan climate. The amplitude of LGM cooling in Alaska (-3.2 °C relative to pre-industrial) is smaller than other parts of North America and areas proximal to LGM ice sheets, but similar to Arctic Asia and Europe. This suggests that the local feedbacks (vegetation, etc.) had limited impacts on regional temperatures during the last ice-age, and suggests most of the Arctic exhibited similar responses to global climate boundary conditions. Deglacial warming was superimposed by a series of rapid warming events that encompass most of the temperature increase. These events are largely synchronous with abrupt events in the North Atlantic, but are amplified, muted, or even reversed in comparison depending on the mean climate state. For example, we observe warming during Heinrich 1 and during the submergence of the Bering Land Bridge, which are associated with cooling in the North Atlantic. Climate modeling suggests that opening of the Bering Strait controlled the amplitude and sign of millennial-scale temperature changes across the glacial termination.

  3. Specific heat of apple at different moisture contents and temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Mykhailyk, Viacheslav; Lebovka, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses results of experimental investigations of the specific heat, $C$, of apple in a wide interval of moisture contents ($W=0-0.9$) and temperatures ($T = 283-363$ K). The obtained data reveal the important role of the bound water in determination of $C(W,T)$ behaviour. The additive model for description of $C(W)$ dependence in the moisture range of $0.1

  4. Fracture Toughness of Ceramics Fired at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter SIN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The fracture toughness test was performed at room temperature on sets of 5 ceramic samples made from material for high voltage insulators (kaolin 36 wt. %, Al2O3 30 wt. %, clay 12 wt. % and feldspar 22 wt. % fired at temperatures 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1250, 1300, 1400, 1500 °C at heating and cooling rate of 5 °C/min. The precrack was made to each sample by indentation under the loads 10 N – 200 N, the dwell time was 45 s and the loading rate was 10 N/s. Results of the fracture toughness tests were in accordance with changes of structure of the samples after the partial firings. Fracture toughness from 20 °C to 500 °C is almost constant and it varies between 0.1 MPa·m0.5and 0.2 MPa·m0.5. Dehydroxylation (420 °C – 600 °C does not influence the value of fracture toughness. At temperature interval where we assume sintering (700 °C – 1250 °C we observe exponential dependence of fracture toughness up to 1.5 MPa·m0.5. From comparison of the fracture toughness, Young’s modulus and flexural strength follows a correlation and proporcionality of these mechanical properties.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1349

  5. Quality of Cultured Wader Pari During Storage at Different Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Almira Islamei Pratiwi; Amir Husni; Siti Ari Budhiyanti; Bambang Retno Aji

    2017-01-01

    Rasbora lateristriata is one Indonesian freshwater fish consumed by society as a source of animal protein. Like fish in general, rasbora is considered as perishable food, so it is necessary to apply a proper storage technique, one of which is cold storage. The purpose of this study was to determine the proper storage temperature of the rasbora in the storage of freezer, chiller and ice. The raw materials used was rasbora in size of 2 grams/fish. The Wader was caught then pondered (2,1 kg). Ra...

  6. Temperature Dependence Viscosity and Density of Different Biodiesel Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtěch Kumbár; Antonín Skřivánek

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to assess the effect of rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) concentration in diesel fuel on its viscosity and density behaviour. The density and dynamic viscosity were observed at various mixing ratios of RME and diesel fuel. All measurements were performed at constant temperature of 40 °C. Increasing ratio of RME in diesel fuel was reflected in increased density value and dynamic viscosity of the blend. In case of pure RME, pure diesel fuel, and a blend of both (B3...

  7. Solubility of salicylic acid in pure alcohols at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Junhyuk; Jang, Sunghyun; Cho, Hye Kyoung; Shin, Moon Sam; Kim, Hwayong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solubility data of salicylic acid in pure alkanols were measured. ► The experimental data were correlated with NRTL, UNIQUAC and Wilson models. ► The data are fit well with all three models for the six pure alcohols studied. ► Adjustable interaction parameters were suggested. - Abstract: This work focused on the experimental measurements and the numerical calculations of the solubility of salicylic acid in various alcohols. The solubility of salicylic acid in pure alcohols was determined using a (solid + liquid) equilibrium measurement apparatus at temperatures ranging from (278.15 to 318.15) K. Also, the melting temperature and fusion enthalpy of salicylic acid were determined by a differential scanning calorimeter (TA instrument Q100). The experimental results were correlated with the equation for solubility of a solid in a liquid with the nonrandom two liquid (NRTL), universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) and Wilson models for liquid phase activity coefficients to validate the quality of the data taken. Adjustable interaction parameters were also provided. The experimental data fit appropriately with all three models for the pure alcohols studied.

  8. Design of stirling engine operating at low temperature difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlák Josef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many sources of free energy available in the form of heat that is often simply wasted. The aim of this paper is to design and build a low temperature differential Stirling engine that would be powered exclusively from heat sources such as waste hot water or focused solar rays. A prototype is limited to a low temperature differential modification because of a choice of ABSplus plastic as a construction material for its key parts. The paper is divided into two parts. The first part covers a brief history of Stirling engine and its applications nowadays. Moreover, it describes basic principles of its operation that are supplemented by thermodynamic relations. Furthermore, an analysis of applied Fused Deposition Modelling has been done since the parts with more complex geometry had been manufactured using this additive technology. The second (experimental part covers 4 essential steps of a rapid prototyping method - Computer Aided Design of the 3D model of Stirling engine using parametric modeller Autodesk Inventor, production of its components using 3D printer uPrint, assembly and final testing. Special attention was devoted to last two steps of the process since the surfaces of the printed parts were sandpapered and sprayed. Parts, where an ABS plus plastic would have impeded the correct function, had been manufactured from aluminium and brass by cutting operations. Remaining parts had been bought in a hardware store as it would be uneconomical and unreasonable to manufacture them. Last two chapters of the paper describe final testing, mention the problems that appeared during its production and propose new approaches that could be used in the future to improve the project.

  9. Single layer porous gold films grown at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Renyun; Hummelgard, Magnus; Olin, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Large area porous gold films can be used in several areas including electrochemical electrodes, as an essential component in sensors, or as a conducting material in electronics. Here, we report on evaporation induced crystal growth of large area porous gold films at 20, 40 and 60 deg. C. The gold films were grown on liquid surface at 20 deg. C, while the films were grown on the wall of beakers when temperature increased to 40 and 60 deg. C. The porous gold films consisted of a dense network of gold nanowires as characterized by TEM and SEM. TEM diffraction results indicated that higher temperature formed larger crystallites of gold wires. An in situ TEM imaging of the coalescence of gold nanoparticles mimicked the process of the growth of these porous films, and a plotting of the coalescence time and the neck radius showed a diffusion process. The densities of these gold films were also characterized by transmittance, and the results showed film grown at 20 deg. C had the highest density, while the film grown at 60 deg. C had the lowest consistent with SEM and TEM characterization. Electrical measurements of these gold films showed that the most conductive films were the ones grown at 40 deg. C. The conductivities of the gold films were related to the amount of contamination, density and the diameter of the gold nanowires in the films. In addition, a gold film/gold nanoparticle hybrid was made, which showed a 10% decrease in transmittance during hybridization, pointing to applications as chemical and biological sensors.

  10. temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Polt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In-situ X-ray diffraction was applied to isotactic polypropylene with a high volume fraction of α-phase (α-iPP while it has been compressed at temperatures below and above its glass transition temperature Tg. The diffraction patterns were evaluated by the Multi-reflection X-ray Profile Analysis (MXPA method, revealing microstructural parameters such as the density of dislocations and the size of coherently scattering domains (CSD-size. A significant difference in the development of the dislocation density was found compared to compression at temperatures above Tg, pointing at a different plastic deformation mechanism at these temperatures. Based on the individual evolutions of the dislocation density and CSD-size observed as a function of compressive strain, suggestions for the deformation mechanisms occurring below and above Tg are made.

  11. Investigations on the fracture toughness of austempered ductile irons austenitized at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P. Prasad; Putatunda, Susil K

    2003-05-25

    Ductile cast iron was austenitized at four different temperatures and subsequently austempered at six different temperatures. Plane strain fracture toughness was evaluated under all the heat treatment conditions and correlated with the microstructural features such as the austenite content and the carbon content of the austenite. Fracture mechanism was studied by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the optimum austempering temperature for maximum fracture toughness decreased with increasing austenitizing temperature. This could be interpreted in terms of the microstructural features. A study of the fracture mechanism revealed that good fracture toughness is unlikely to be obtained when austempering temperature is less than half of the austenitizing temperature on the absolute scale.

  12. Differences between near-surface equivalent temperature and temperature trends for the Eastern United States. Equivalent temperature as an alternative measure of heat content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, C.A.; Pielke, R.A.; Gallo, K.P.

    2006-01-01

    There is currently much attention being given to the observed increase in near-surface air temperatures during the last century. The proper investigation of heating trends, however, requires that we include surface heat content to monitor this aspect of the climate system. Changes in heat content of the Earth's climate are not fully described by temperature alone. Moist enthalpy or, alternatively, equivalent temperature, is more sensitive to surface vegetation properties than is air temperature and therefore more accurately depicts surface heating trends. The microclimates evident at many surface observation sites highlight the influence of land surface characteristics on local surface heating trends. Temperature and equivalent temperature trend differences from 1982-1997 are examined for surface sites in the Eastern U.S. Overall trend differences at the surface indicate equivalent temperature trends are relatively warmer than temperature trends in the Eastern U.S. Seasonally, equivalent temperature trends are relatively warmer than temperature trends in winter and are relatively cooler in the fall. These patterns, however, vary widely from site to site, so local microclimate is very important. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of different extenders and storage temperature on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maintaining a successful pig artificial insemination programme depends on a number of factors, including evaluation of semen characteristics. This study compared the efficacy of different extenders on the sperm motility of Kolbroek semen during short term storage at 4 °C and 25 °C. Semen was collected from Kolbroek ...

  14. Electrolysis test of different composite membranes at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    were covered with tantalum to protect the stainless steel. The felts were covered either once or twice to obtain different thicknesses of the tantalum. Experiments with PTFE treated felt was also preformed to examine if wet-proofing the anode GDL would improve the overall performance of the cell...

  15. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    fermented under modern production conditions (high temperature, addition of glucose, nitrite, Pediococcus pentosaceus) in contrast to 'old-fashioned' sausages (added nitrate and fermented at low temperature) are likely to contain higher amounts of volatile acids, but lower levels of ethyl esters, certain...

  16. Comparison of Conductor-Temperature Calculations Based on Different Radial-Position-Temperature Detections for High-Voltage Power Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the calculation of the conductor temperature is related to the temperature sensor position in high-voltage power cables and four thermal circuits—based on the temperatures of insulation shield, the center of waterproof compound, the aluminum sheath, and the jacket surface are established to calculate the conductor temperature. To examine the effectiveness of conductor temperature calculations, simulation models based on flow characteristics of the air gap between the waterproof compound and the aluminum are built up, and thermocouples are placed at the four radial positions in a 110 kV cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE insulated power cable to measure the temperatures of four positions. In measurements, six cases of current heating test under three laying environments, such as duct, water, and backfilled soil were carried out. Both errors of the conductor temperature calculation and the simulation based on the temperature of insulation shield were significantly smaller than others under all laying environments. It is the uncertainty of the thermal resistivity, together with the difference of the initial temperature of each radial position by the solar radiation, which led to the above results. The thermal capacitance of the air has little impact on errors. The thermal resistance of the air gap is the largest error source. Compromising the temperature-estimation accuracy and the insulation-damage risk, the waterproof compound is the recommended sensor position to improve the accuracy of conductor-temperature calculation. When the thermal resistances were calculated correctly, the aluminum sheath is also the recommended sensor position besides the waterproof compound.

  17. Different Thermodynamic Signatures for DNA Minor Groove Binding with Changes in Salt Concentration and Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuo; Kumar, Arvind; Aston, Karl; Nguyen, Binh; Bashkin, James K.; Boykin, David W.; Wilson, W. David

    2013-01-01

    The effects of salt concentration and temperature on the thermodynamics of DNA minor groove binding have quite different signatures: binding enthalpy is salt concentration independent but temperature dependent. Conversely, binding free energy is salt dependent but essentially temperature independent through enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  18. An experimental study of thermal comfort at different combinations of air and mean radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    It is often discussed if a person prefers a low air temperature (ta) and a high mean radiant temperature (tr), vice-versa or it does not matter as long as the operative temperature is acceptable. One of the hypotheses is that it does not matter for thermal comfort but for perceived air quality......, a lower air temperature is preferred. This paper presents an experimental study with 30 human subjects exposed to three different combinations of air- and mean radiant temperature with an operative temperature around 23 °C. The subjects gave subjective evaluations of thermal comfort and perceived air...... quality during the experiments. The PMV-index gave a good estimation of thermal sensation vote (TSV) when the air and mean radiant temperature were the same. In the environment with different air- and mean radiant temperatures, a thermal comfort evaluation shows an error up to 1 scale unit on the 7-point...

  19. Compressive mechanical of high strength concrete (HSC) after different high temperature history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongfu; Liu, Yuchen; Gao, Haijing; Han, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The compression strength test of high strength concrete under different high-temperature conditions was carried out by universal testing machine. The friction surface of the pressure bearing surface of the specimen was composed of three layers of plastic film and glycerol. The high temperature working conditions were the combination of different heating temperature and different constant temperature time. The characteristics of failure modes and the developments of cracks were observed; the residual compressive strength and stress-strain curves were measured; the effect of different temperature and heating time on the strength and deformation of high strength concrete under uniaxial compression were analyzed; the failure criterion formula of the high strength concrete after high temperature under uniaxial compression was established. The formula of the residual compressive strength of high strength concrete under the influence of heating temperature and constant temperature time was put forward. The relationship between the residual elastic modulus and the peak strain and residual compressive strength of high strength concrete and different high temperature conditions is established. The quantitative relationship that the residual compressive strength decreases the residual elastic modulus decreases and the peak strain increases with the increase of heating temperature and the constant temperature time was given, which provides a reference for the detection and evaluation of high strength concrete structures after fire.

  20. Viability of microencapsulated probiotic lactobacilli during storage at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähne, Julia; Bonaparte, Christine; Kühne, Michael; Klein, Günter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop technological and microbiological basics for the use of microencapsulated probiotics in meat products. Probiotic Lactobacillus (L.) reuteri, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei and L. gasseri strains were chosen for potential use in meat products. The effects of spices and NaCI on the microbiological stability were investigated in pilot studies. Lyophilised samples were stored for 6 months withoud additives. Microencapsulation was done with water-soluble and water-insoluble coatings. Samples were stored at 2 degrees C and 20 degrees C for six months in gelatine solutions: without additives, with 5% NaCI, with 10% cloves and with 10% black pepper. Spices and salt exhibited a strong inhibitive effect on the bacterial counts of the tested strains. During storage the lyophilised probiotic strains were stable at 2 degrees C and at 20 degrees C. Protective effects of the microencapsulation however were heterogenous. Although at the beginning protective effects against the antimicrobial activity of cloves were shown for L. rhamnosus, none of the tested coatings were able to protect durably. L. paracasei proved to be very stable in general. The use of probiotic lactobacilli strains in meat products seems possible as protective effects of the microencapsulation were recognised. However, these effects must be tested for each specific application, e.g. strain/additive combination, due to individual strain differences.

  1. Differences in oral temperature and body shape in two populations with different propensities for obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Weyer, C; Bogardus, C

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature is a function of heat production and heat dissipation. Substantial interindividual variability has been reported in healthy humans. We hypothesized that Pima Indians, a population with a high prevalence of abdominal obesity, may have a lower surface area relative to volume, that ...

  2. Effects of Different Environment Temperatures on Some Motor Characteristics and Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Ergün; Yüksek, Selami; Asma, Bülent; Arslanoglu, Erkal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was determine the effects of different environment temperatures on motor characteristics and muscle strength. 15 athletes participated to study. Flexibility, vertical jump, hand grip-leg strength, 30m sprint, 20-meter shuttle run and coordination-agility tests were measured in five different environment temperatures. (22°C,…

  3. Temperature rise produced by different light-curing units through dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, A Rüya; Müftü, Ali; Kugel, Gerard

    2007-11-01

    This study investigated the temperature rise caused by different light curing units and the temperature increase in dentin of different thicknesses. Dentin discs of 1.0 and 2.0 mm thicknesses were prepared from extracted human mandibular molars. Temperatures were recorded directly at the surface of the light guide tip, under dentin discs with different thicknesses, and through a sandwich composed of 2 mm thick cured composite and dentin using a K-type thermocouple. The curing units used were two quartz-tungsten-halogen lights (Spectrum and Elipar Trilight-ET) and a light-emitting diode (LED). The highest temperature rise was observed under a Mylar strip using ET standard mode. Under 1 and 2 mm thick dentin barriers, the lowest temperature rise was measured for the LED curing light. Significant differences in temperature rise existed among all curing units except between the Spectrum and ET exponential modes under a 1 mm thick dentin barrier with cured composite. Temperature rises were insignificant between the Spectrum and ET exponential modes and between two modes of Trilight when the same experimental setup was used under a 2 mm thick dentin barrier. For all curing units, temperature elevation through 2 mm of dentin was less than for 1 mm of dentin thickness. The ET standard mode produced the highest and the LED produced the lowest temperature rise for all tested conditions. The thickness of dentin and light-curing unit might affect temperature transmission.

  4. The Varying Effects of Uniaxial Compressive Stress on the Bainitic Transformation under Different Austenitization Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal simulation experiments under different austenitization temperatures and different stress states were conducted. High-temperature laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM, thermal dilatometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used to quantitatively investigate the effects of the uniaxial compressive stress on bainitic transformation at 330 °C following different austenitization temperatures. The transformation plasticity was also analyzed. It was found that the promotion degree of stress on bainitic transformation increases with the austenitization temperature due to larger prior austenite grain size as well as stronger promoting effect of mechanical driving force on selected variant growth at higher austenitization temperatures. The grain size and the yield strength of prior austenite are other important factors which influence the promotion degree of stress on bainitic transformation, besides the mechanical driving force provided by the stress. Moreover, the transformation plasticity increases with the austenitization temperature.

  5. Clinical review: Brain-body temperature differences in adults with severe traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Surrogate or 'proxy' measures of brain temperature are used in the routine management of patients with brain damage. The prevailing view is that the brain is 'hotter' than the body. The polarity and magnitude of temperature differences between brain and body, however, remains unclear after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The focus of this systematic review is on the adult patient admitted to intensive/neurocritical care with a diagnosis of severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 8). The review considered studies that measured brain temperature and core body temperature. Articles published in English from the years 1980 to 2012 were searched in databases, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid SP, Mednar and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database. For the review, publications of randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, before and after studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and descriptive studies were considered for inclusion. Of 2,391 records identified via the search strategies, 37 were retrieved for detailed examination (including two via hand searching). Fifteen were reviewed and assessed for methodological quality. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review providing 15 brain-core body temperature comparisons. The direction of mean brain-body temperature differences was positive (brain higher than body temperature) and negative (brain lower than body temperature). Hypothermia is associated with large brain-body temperature differences. Brain temperature cannot be predicted reliably from core body temperature. Concurrent monitoring of brain and body temperature is recommended in patients where risk of temperature-related neuronal damage is a cause for clinical concern and when deliberate induction of below-normal body temperature is instituted. PMID:23680353

  6. Differences induced by incubation temperature, versus androgen manipulation, in male leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Crews, David

    2012-08-20

    A fundamental tenet of sexual selection is that in sexually dimorphic traits, there is variation within a sex. In leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, embryonic temperature contributes both to sex determination and polymorphisms within each sex. In this study we report that males from different incubation temperatures, one hitherto untested, exhibit significant differences in behavior even when castrated. Further, treatment with dihydrotestosterone increases scent marking, a territorial behavior. This supports previous results indicating that temperature has a direct organizing action on brain and sociosexual behavior independent of gonadal hormones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement research on magnetic properties of electrical sheet steel under different temperature, harmonic and dc bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The iron core of large power transformer is mainly composed of electrical sheet steel, which is easily affected by temperature, harmonic, and DC bias. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the magnetic properties of electrical sheet steel under different temperature, harmonic and DC Bias. This paper presents the experiment measurement system for the 30ZH120 electrical steel sheet. The B-H magnetization curve, permeability, and loss curve under different temperature, different harmonic, and different DC bias are given, respectively. The simulation of transformer is carried out by using measuring result under DC bias. The presented research provides a reference for optimizing the design of power transformer.

  8. Temperature field downstream of an heated bundle mock-up results for different power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, J.P.; Buravand, Y.

    1982-10-01

    The aim of these peculiar experiments performed on the ML4 loop in ISPRA is to evaluate the characteristics of the temperature field over a length of 20 to 30 dias downstream of a rod bundle for different temperatures profiles at the bundle outlet. The final purpose of this work will be to establish either directly or through models whether it is possible or not to detect subassembly failures using suitable of the subassembly outlet temperature signal. 15 hours of digital and analog recording were taped for five different power distributions in the bundle. The total power dissipation remained constant during the whole run. Two flow rates and seven axial location were investigated. It is shown that the different temperature profiles produce slight differences in the variance and skewness of the temperature signal measured along the axis of the pipe over 20 dias

  9. Differences of the changes in soil temperature of cold and mid-temperate zones, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wu, Zhengfang; He, Hongshi; Du, Haibo; Wang, Lei; Guo, Xiangyu; Zhao, Weihong

    2017-10-01

    Rapid changes in soil temperature are unequivocal under global change, especially in mid-high latitudes. Studies on the relationships between soil temperature and climate system are lacking at regional climatic scale. Here, changes in shallow soil temperature (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm), both in the cold temperate zone (CTZ) and the mid-temperate zone (MTZ) in Northeast China, were compared and analyzed using daily data from growing seasons (May to September) from 1964 to 2011. The influences of air temperature and precipitation on soil temperature were analyzed. The results showed that for nearly half a century, the increasing trend of surface soil temperature in the CTZ was lower than that in the MTZ, with + 0.17 and + 0.54 °C/decade, respectively. Air temperature increased faster for the MTZ than the CTZ. Precipitation increased in the CTZ but decreased in the MTZ. Since 1996, the temperature increase and precipitation decrease were more obvious in the MTZ. In summary, given the complex effects of temperature and precipitation, the response of soil temperature was more significant in the MTZ than in the CTZ. These results emphasize the importance of independently researching soil temperature of different climate zones. Susceptibility of soil temperature to global warming will advance our understanding on utilization of climatic resources in the development of agricultural production.

  10. Impacts of exhalation flow on the microenvironment around the human body under different room temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Gharari, Noradin; Azari, Mansour Rezazade; Ashrafi, Khosro

    2018-04-01

    Exhalation flow and room temperature can have a considerable effect on the microenvironment in the vicinity of human body. In this study, impacts of exhalation flow and room temperature on the microenvironment around a human body were investigated using a numerical simulation. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamic program was applied to study thermal plume around a sitting human body at different room temperatures of a calm indoor room by considering the exhalation flow. The simulation was supported by some experimental measurements. Six different room temperatures (18 to 28 °C) with two nose exhalation modes (exhalation and non-exhalation) were investigated. Overhead and breathing zone velocities and temperatures were simulated in different scenarios. This study finds out that the exhalation through the nose has a significant impact on both quantitative and qualitative features of the human microenvironment in different room temperatures. At a given temperature, the exhalation through the nose can change the location and size of maximum velocity at the top of the head. In the breathing zone, the effect of exhalation through the nose on velocity and temperature distribution was pronounced for the point close to mouth. Also, the exhalation through the nose strongly influences the thermal boundary layer on the breathing zone while it only minimally influences the convective boundary layer on the breathing zone. Overall results demonstrate that it is important to take the exhalation flow into consideration in all areas, especially at a quiescent flow condition with low temperature.

  11. Phenotypic plasticity in photosynthetic temperature acclimation among crop species with different cold tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Noguchi, Ko; Hikosaka, Kouki; Terashima, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    While interspecific variation in the temperature response of photosynthesis is well documented, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unknown. Moreover, mechanisms related to species-dependent differences in photosynthetic temperature acclimation are unclear. We compared photosynthetic temperature acclimation in 11 crop species differing in their cold tolerance, which were grown at 15 degrees C or 30 degrees C. Cold-tolerant species exhibited a large decrease in optimum temperature for the photosynthetic rate at 360 microL L(-1) CO(2) concentration [Opt (A(360))] when growth temperature decreased from 30 degrees C to 15 degrees C, whereas cold-sensitive species were less plastic in Opt (A(360)). Analysis using the C(3) photosynthesis model shows that the limiting step of A(360) at the optimum temperature differed between cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive species; ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation rate was limiting in cold-tolerant species, while ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate regeneration rate was limiting in cold-sensitive species. Alterations in parameters related to photosynthetic temperature acclimation, including the limiting step of A(360), leaf nitrogen, and Rubisco contents, were more plastic to growth temperature in cold-tolerant species than in cold-sensitive species. These plastic alterations contributed to the noted growth temperature-dependent changes in Opt (A(360)) in cold-tolerant species. Consequently, cold-tolerant species were able to maintain high A(360) at 15 degrees C or 30 degrees C, whereas cold-sensitive species were not. We conclude that differences in the plasticity of photosynthetic parameters with respect to growth temperature were responsible for the noted interspecific differences in photosynthetic temperature acclimation between cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive species.

  12. Comparison of temperature change among different adhesive resin cement during polymerization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Alkurt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the intra-pulpal temperature changes in adhesive resin cements during polymerization. Materials and Methods: Dentin surface was prepared with extracted human mandibular third molars. Adhesive resin cements (Panavia F 2.0, Panavia SA, and RelyX U200 were applied to the dentin surface and polymerized under IPS e.max Press restoration. K-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulpal chamber to measure temperature change (n = 7. The temperature data were recorded (0.0001 sensible and stored on a computer every 0.1 second for sixteen minutes. Differences between the baseline temperature and temperatures of various time points (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 minute were determined and mean temperature changes were calculated. At various time intervals, the differences in temperature values among the adhesive resin cements were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey honestly test (α = 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found among the time points and resin cements (P < 0.05. Temperature values of the Pan SA group were significantly higher than Pan F and RelyX (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Result of the study on self-adhesive and self-etch adhesive resin cements exhibited a safety intra-pulpal temperature change.

  13. Eclosion rate, development and survivorship of Aedes albopictus (Skuse)(Diptera: Culicidae) under different water temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Laura C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Animal (PPGBA). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Souza, Jose R.B. de; Albuquerque, Cleide M.R. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Animal (PPGBA). Dept. de Zoologia

    2007-11-15

    In tropical areas, where vector insects populations are particularly numerous, temperature usually range between 25 de C and 35 deg C. Considering the importance of such temperature variation in determining mosquitoes population dynamics, in this work the developmental, eclosion and survival rates of the immature stages of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were compared under constant 25, 30 and 35 deg C (using acclimatized chambers) and environmental (25 deg C to 29 deg C) temperatures. The hatching rate was considered as total number of larvae recovered after 24h. The development period as well as larval and pupal survival rate were evaluated daily. Eclosion rate was significantly higher under environmental temperature than under the studied constant temperatures, suggesting that temperature variation may be an eclosion-stimulating factor. The mean eclosion time increased with the temperature, ranging from 2.8 h (25 deg C) to 5.2 h (35 deg C). The larval period was greatly variable inside each group, although it did not differ significantly amongst groups (11.0 +- 4.19 days), with individuals showing longer larval stages in water at 35 deg C (12.0 +- 4.95 days) and environmental temperature (13.6 +- 5.98 days). Oppositely, survival was strongly affected by the higher temperature, where only one individual lived through to adult phase. The results suggest that population of Ae. albopictus from Recife may be adapting to increasing of environmental temperatures and that the limiting temperature to larval development is around 35 deg C. (author)

  14. Comparison Of Different Noble Metal Catalysts For The Low Temperature Catalytic Partial Oxidation Of Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, S.; Truong, T.-B.; Vogel, F.

    2005-03-01

    The generation of synthesis gas at low temperatures can contribute to a more economic production of clean transportation fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids) from natural gas. In this report, the performance of different noble metal catalysts in a low temperature catalytic partial oxidation process is presented. (author)

  15. Effect of different temperature regimes on the chlorophyll a concentration in four species of Antarctic macroalgae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    from beneath the sea-ice from the coast of the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica were cultured under different temperature regimes (- 4, -1.8, +4, +12, +20°C). The algae were cultured at each of these temperatures and Chlorophyll a concentrations of the algae...

  16. Statistical modeling of urban air temperature distributions under different synoptic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Breitner, Susanne; Cyrys, Josef; Hald, Cornelius; Hartz, Uwe; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Richter, Katja; Schneider, Alexandra; Wolf, Kathrin

    2015-04-01

    Within urban areas air temperature may vary distinctly between different locations. These intra-urban air temperature variations partly reach magnitudes that are relevant with respect to human thermal comfort. Therefore and furthermore taking into account potential interrelations with other health related environmental factors (e.g. air quality) it is important to estimate spatial patterns of intra-urban air temperature distributions that may be incorporated into urban planning processes. In this contribution we present an approach to estimate spatial temperature distributions in the urban area of Augsburg (Germany) by means of statistical modeling. At 36 locations in the urban area of Augsburg air temperatures are measured with high temporal resolution (4 min.) since December 2012. These 36 locations represent different typical urban land use characteristics in terms of varying percentage coverages of different land cover categories (e.g. impervious, built-up, vegetated). Percentage coverages of these land cover categories have been extracted from different sources (Open Street Map, European Urban Atlas, Urban Morphological Zones) for regular grids of varying size (50, 100, 200 meter horizonal resolution) for the urban area of Augsburg. It is well known from numerous studies that land use characteristics have a distinct influence on air temperature and as well other climatic variables at a certain location. Therefore air temperatures at the 36 locations are modeled utilizing land use characteristics (percentage coverages of land cover categories) as predictor variables in Stepwise Multiple Regression models and in Random Forest based model approaches. After model evaluation via cross-validation appropriate statistical models are applied to gridded land use data to derive spatial urban air temperature distributions. Varying models are tested and applied for different seasons and times of the day and also for different synoptic conditions (e.g. clear and calm

  17. Response of water temperatures and stratification to changing climate in three lakes with different morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Madeline R.; Wu, Chin H.

    2017-12-01

    Water temperatures and stratification are important drivers for ecological and water quality processes within lake systems, and changes in these with increases in air temperature and changes to wind speeds may have significant ecological consequences. To properly manage these systems under changing climate, it is important to understand the effects of increasing air temperatures and wind speed changes in lakes of different depths and surface areas. In this study, we simulate three lakes that vary in depth and surface area to elucidate the effects of the observed increasing air temperatures and decreasing wind speeds on lake thermal variables (water temperature, stratification dates, strength of stratification, and surface heat fluxes) over a century (1911-2014). For all three lakes, simulations showed that epilimnetic temperatures increased, hypolimnetic temperatures decreased, the length of the stratified season increased due to earlier stratification onset and later fall overturn, stability increased, and longwave and sensible heat fluxes at the surface increased. Overall, lake depth influences the presence of stratification, Schmidt stability, and differences in surface heat flux, while lake surface area influences differences in hypolimnion temperature, hypolimnetic heating, variability of Schmidt stability, and stratification onset and fall overturn dates. Larger surface area lakes have greater wind mixing due to increased surface momentum. Climate perturbations indicate that our larger study lakes have more variability in temperature and stratification variables than the smaller lakes, and this variability increases with larger wind speeds. For all study lakes, Pearson correlations and climate perturbation scenarios indicate that wind speed has a large effect on temperature and stratification variables, sometimes greater than changes in air temperature, and wind can act to either amplify or mitigate the effect of warmer air temperatures on lake thermal

  18. Ascertaining the potential effects of temperature on growth, survival and feeding of different juvenile clown fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Rao Methari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the physiological and ecological responses of marine ornamental fishes to the change of water temperature with its potential effects on the growth, survival and feeding in clown fish. Methods: Three different sea anemone fish (Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion akallopisos were reared in confinement at water temperatures of 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 °C using thermostat and they were maintained up to the marketable size, and growth, survival and feeding were evaluated during the experimental period. Results: The results illustrated that water temperature influenced the physiological performance of juveniles of three different sea anemone fish significantly. The growth and survival rates of juveniles of three different clown fish significantly increased with the increase of water temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C (P<0.05. Water temperature also influenced the feeding of three different clown fish significantly with feed conversion ratio increased from (0.071±0.020, (0.075±0.030 and (0.079±0.028 to (0.057±0.040, (0.047±0.030 and (0.045±0.028 for Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii and Amphiprion akallopisos respectively with increase of water temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C (P<0.05. Specific growth rates (P<0.05 increased significantly with increase of water temperature and positively correlated with the feed conversion ratio, indicating that growth rates are significantly increased with increase of temperature. Conclusions: This study deliberately reveals that the physiological response of juveniles of clown fish as the change of water temperature and substantiated that water temperature influenced juvenile growth, survival and feeding significantly. This study also put forward that the reduced growth, survival and feeding of juveniles at lower temperature which have ecological impacts on clown fish juveniles in settlement and population replacement in the wild.

  19. Interspecific Difference in Seed Germination of the Genus Avena, at Various Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Yukiyoshi; Tachibana, Shoji; 小川, 幸持; 橘, 昌司

    1997-01-01

    Germination of seeds in different diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid Avena species as affecbed by temperatures of 18°, 24° and 30℃ was examined. Most species of seeds stored for 5 to 6 months after harvesting showed the decrease in seed germination percentage as the temperature increased.The poor germination of seeds at 30℃ was attributed to secondary dormancy induced by exposing to a high temperature. The seeds became capable of germinating at the same temperature after having stored for 10 ...

  20. Defect engineering in Czochralski silicon by electron irradiation at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, J. L.; Murin, L. I.; Hallberg, T.; Markevich, V. P.; Svensson, B. G.; Kleverman, M.; Hermansson, J.

    2002-01-01

    Infrared absorption studies of defect formation in Czochralski silicon irradiated with fast electrons in a wide range of temperatures (80-900 K) have been performed. The samples with different contents of oxygen ( 16O, 18O) and carbon ( 12C, 13C) isotopes were investigated. The main defect reactions are found to depend strongly on irradiation temperature and dose, as well as on impurity content and pre-history of the samples. Some new radiation-induced defects are revealed after irradiation at elevated temperatures as well as after a two-step (hot + room-temperature (RT)) irradiation.

  1. Defect engineering in Czochralski silicon by electron irradiation at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, J.L. E-mail: lennart.lindstrom@ftf.lth.se; Murin, L.I.; Hallberg, T.; Markevich, V.P.; Svensson, B.G.; Kleverman, M.; Hermansson, J

    2002-01-01

    Infrared absorption studies of defect formation in Czochralski silicon irradiated with fast electrons in a wide range of temperatures (80-900 K) have been performed. The samples with different contents of oxygen ({sup 16}O,{sup 18}O) and carbon ({sup 12}C,{sup 13}C) isotopes were investigated. The main defect reactions are found to depend strongly on irradiation temperature and dose, as well as on impurity content and pre-history of the samples. Some new radiation-induced defects are revealed after irradiation at elevated temperatures as well as after a two-step (hot + room-temperature (RT)) irradiation.

  2. PARAMETRICAL IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIAL-DIFFERENCE HEAT TRANSFER MODEL DURING LIDAR TEMPERATURE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Klyukvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the parametrical identification method of differential-difference heat transfer models during determining of lidar temperature condition. The problem is solved for enclosure external flange that is the most thermally influenced device part. During researches carried out in a climatic chamber, discrepancy of the both flange temperature and mounted on it sensor temperature is detected. The need of measuring system thermal inertia compensation for the purpose of error decrease is proved. The algorithm for transient flange temperature determining by forward heat transfer problem solution is formed. The inverse procedure is carried out for the purpose of discrepancy minimizing between true object temperature and measured temperature. Computational experiments are carried out for calculating lidar enclosure flange temperature field under known external heat transfer conditions with the use of special computer program and experimental data. The experiment results enable to conclude about the value of error emerging because of temperature measuring system thermal inertia. We show application feasibility for proposed method of parametrical identification of differential-difference heat transfer model in object for error decrease during the device temperature monitoring and control.

  3. Different mechanisms at different temperatures for the ring-opening polymerization of lactide catalyzed by binuclear magnesium and zinc alkoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yangyang; Cui, Yaqin; Xiong, Jiao; Dai, Zhongran; Tang, Ning; Wu, Jincai

    2015-10-07

    Two binuclear magnesium and zinc alkoxides supported by a bis-salalen type dinucleating heptadentate Schiff base ligand were synthesized and fully characterized. The two complexes are efficient initiators for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactide, affording polymers with narrow polydispersities and desirable molecular weights. Interestingly, the mechanisms for the ROP of lactide are different at different temperatures. At a high temperature of 130 °C, a coordination-insertion mechanism is reasonable for the bulk melt polymerization of lactide. At a low temperature, the alkoxide cannot initiate the ROP reaction; however, upon the addition of external benzyl alcohol into the system, the ROP of lactide can smoothly proceed via an "activated monomer" mechanism. In addition, these complexes display slight stereo-selectivity for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide, affording partially isotactic polylactide in toluene with a Pm value of 0.59.

  4. Thermal equilibrium and temperature differences among body regions in European plethodontid salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Enrico; Manenti, Raoul; Canciani, Giancarlo; Scarì, Giorgio; Pennati, Roberta; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Information on species thermal physiology is extremely important to understand species responses to environmental heterogeneity and changes. Thermography is an emerging technology that allows high resolution and accurate measurement of body temperature, but until now it has not been used to study thermal physiology of amphibians in the wild. Hydromantes terrestrial salamanders are strongly depending on ambient temperature for their activity and gas exchanges, but information on their body temperature is extremely limited. In this study we tested if Hydromantes salamanders are thermoconform, we assessed whether there are temperature differences among body regions, and evaluated the time required to reach the thermal equilibrium. During summers of 2014 and 2015 we analysed 56 salamanders (Hydromantes ambrosii and Hydromantes italicus) using infrared thermocamera. We photographed salamanders at the moment in which we found them and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 15min after having kept them in the hands. Body temperature was equal to air temperature; salamanders attained the equilibrium with air temperature in about 8min, the time required to reach equilibrium was longer in individuals with large body size. We detected small temperature differences between body parts, the head being slightly warmer than the body and the tail (mean difference: 0.05°C). These salamanders quickly reach the equilibrium with the environment, thus microhabitat measurement allows obtaining accurate information on their tolerance limits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of microbial activity on penetrometer resistance and elastic modulus of soil at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, W.; Mu?oz?Romero, V.; Ren, T.; Ashton, R. W.; Morin, M.; Clark, I. M.; Powlson, D. S.; Whalley, W. R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary We explore the effect of microbial activity stimulated by root exudates on the penetrometer resistance of soil and its elastic modulus. This is important because it is a measure of the mechanical strength of soil and it correlates closely with the rate of elongation of roots. A sandy soil was incubated with a synthetic root exudate at different temperatures, for different lengths of time and with selective suppression of either fungi or bacteria. The shape of the temperature response ...

  6. High- and Low-Temperature Deformation Behavior of Different Orientation Hot-Rolled Annealed Zircaloy-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yingying; Gen, Qingfeng; Jiang, Hongwei; Shan, Debin; Guo, Bin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the hot-rolled annealed Zircaloy-4 samples with different orientation were subjected to uniaxial compression with a strain rate of 0.001 s-1 to obtain the stress-strain curves of different initial orientation samples at different temperatures. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscope (TEM) technique were used to analyze the microstructures and textures of compressed samples. The mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of rolling directions (RD), transverse directions (TD) and normal directions (ND) were investigated under the conditions of - 150 °C low temperature, room temperature and 200 °C high temperature (simulated lunar temperature environment). The results show that the strength of Zircaloy-4 decreases with the increase in deformation temperature, and the strength in three orientations is ND > TD > RD. The deformation mechanism of hot-rolled annealed Zircaloy-4 with different orientation is different. In RD, 10\\bar{1}0 prismatic slip has the highest Schmid factor (SF), so it is most easy to activate the slip, followed by TD orientation, and ND orientation is the most difficult to activate. The deformed grains abide slip→twinning→slip rule, and the different orientation Zircaloy-4 deformation mechanisms mainly are the twinning coordinated with the slip.format with 600 dpi resolution." ->

  7. Apoptotic responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) after exposure with microcystin-LR under different ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Liang, Hualei; Zhou, Wenshan; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2013-08-01

    Microcystins (MCs) can cause evident hepatic apoptosis. In vitro studies indicated that uptake of MC by isolated hepatocytes was dramatically reduced as ambient temperature dropped, and some studies presented a hypothesis that differences in core body temperatures in animals result in diverse uptake of MC, as well as different toxic effects. Thus far, however, few in vivo studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of temperature on MC-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in fish, a typical poikilotherm. In the present study, zebrafish were treated with MC-LR, an MC metabolite, at three water temperatures (12, 22 and 32 °C), and evident differences in apoptotic profiles were observed. Damage to liver ultrastructures revealed temperature-dependent early-stage patterns of apoptosis. Flow-cytometric analysis indicated that hepatocyte apoptotic rates varied with a temperature-dependent effect. The transcription levels of some apoptosis-related genes were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and significantly elevated gene expressions of P53, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 were found in the 12 and 32 °C groups. Results of the present study indicate that different ambient temperatures can lead to various toxic effects of MCs on hepatic apoptosis in fish. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Intrapulpal temperature changes during curing of different bulk-fill restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, Elif; Atalayin, Cigdem; Karacolak, Gamze; Sari, Tugrul; Turkun, L Sebnem

    2017-09-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intrapulpal temperature changes during the curing of different bulk-fill restorative materials. Ten mandibular molar teeth were selected and occlusal surfaces were removed to obtain a standard 0.5 mm occlusal dentin thickness. Five bulk-fill restorative materials and a conventional resin composite (control) were applied. The intrapulpal temperature changes during the curing of these materials were determined by a device simulating pulpal blood microcirculation. The difference between the initial and maximum temperature values (Δt), was recorded. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (prestoratives exhibited the highest Δt values. Equia Forte showed the lowest Δt values among all the groups (prestorative materials causes significantly different temperature changes in the pulp chamber according to curing type. Therefore, clinicians should be considered when using these materials.

  9. Effect of Different Storage Periods and Temperatures on the Hatchability of Broiler Breeder Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud*, M. Z. U. Khan1, Saima1 and M. A. Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and humidity have been the two most common variables used to manipulate the storage environment of hatching eggs. To ascertain the effects of different egg storage periods and temperatures on hatchability; 400 eggs were obtained from a broiler breeder flock of 32 weeks of age on a single day collection basis. These eggs were randomly divided into 5 equal groups of 80 eggs each. After collection these were cleaned, fumigated and stored on four temperatures viz 4oC, 16oC, room temperature (25oC and ambient temperature (29oC. Each group was further subdivided into 4 replicates having 20 eggs each. Eggs of Group A (control were set in incubator with temperature of 37.5oC and relative humidity 60% after the storage of one day. Eggs of rest of the four groups were set in the incubator after the storage of 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Subsequently, these were shifted to hatchers on 18th day where the temperature and humidity were maintained at 36.5oC and 75%, respectively. The data on hatchability and dead-in-shell embryos for various groups were recorded. The results revealed that as the storage period increased at different temperatures, the hatchability decreased significantly (P<0.01. Similarly, as the storage time increased, the percentage of dead-in-shell embryos increased (P<0.01.

  10. T-mixer operating with water at different temperatures: Simulation and stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siconolfi, L.; Camarri, S.; Salvetti, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the transition from the vortex to the engulfment regime in a T-mixer when the two entering flows have different viscosity. In particular we consider as working fluid water entering the two inlet channels of the mixer at two different temperatures. Contrary to the isothermal case, at low Reynolds numbers the vortex regime shows only a single reflectional symmetry, due to the nonhomogeneous distribution of the viscosity. Increasing the Reynolds number, a symmetry-breaking bifurcation drives the system to a new steady flow configuration, usually called the engulfment regime, similar to what it is possible to observe in an isothermal case. This flow regime is associated with an increase of the mixing between the two inlet streams. It is shown by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and by stability analysis that the engulfment regime is promoted by the temperature difference. Starting from the DNSs, the resulting flow fields are analyzed in detail considering different temperature jumps between the two inlet boundaries. Furthermore, dedicated linear stability analyses are carried out to investigate the instability mechanism associated with the occurrence of the engulfment regime. In particular, similarly to the case without temperature differences, the onset of engulfment is driven by the momentum equation, and the temperature field does not lead to any additional instability mechanism. However, the existence of a temperature field leads to quantitative changes of the stability characteristics and of the resulting flow fields via a variation of the viscosity coefficient.

  11. Impact of container material on the development of Aedes aegypti larvae at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Singh, R K; Pande, Veena; Dhiman, R C

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue generally breeds in intradomestic and peridomestic containers made up of different materials, i.e. plastic, iron, rubber, earthen material etc. The material of container is likely to affect the temperature of water in container with variation in environmental temperature. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of different container materials on larval development of Ae. aegypti at different temperatures. Newly hatched I instar larvae (2-4 h old) were used in the study and experiments were conducted using three different containers made up of plastic, iron and earthen material. Three replicates for each type of container at 22, 26, 30, 34, 38, 40, and 42°C were placed in environmental chamber for the development of larvae. At temperatures >22°C, 50% pupation was completed in earthen pot within 4.3±0.6 to 6.3±0.6 days followed by plastic containers (5±0 to 8±0 days) and iron containers (6±0 to 9±0 days). Developmental time for 50% pupation in the three containers differed significantly (p containers (p containers resulted in significant variations in the developmental period of larvae. More than 35°C temperature of water was found inimical for pupal development. The results revealed the variation in temperature of water in different types of containers depending on the material of container, affecting duration of larval development. As the larval development was faster in earthen pot as compared to plastic and iron containers, community should be discouraged for storing the water in earthen pots. However, in view of containers of different materials used by the community in different temperature zones in the country, further studies are required for devising area-specific preventive measures for Aedes breeding.

  12. Temperature differences during sleep between fullterm and preterm neonates at matched post-conceptional ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Mark S; Steppe, Doris A; Salerno, Dawn G; Beggarly, Marquita E; Banks, David L

    2003-01-01

    Altered physiologic behaviors during sleep have been described for healthy preterm neonates at post-conceptional fullterm ages. These differences may reflect brain dysmaturity as a result of conditions of prematurity. The present study examines if differences in state-specific temperature changes exist in a healthy preterm cohort as another expression of brain dysmaturity. Rectal and skin temperatures during sleep state transitions are reported in 59 asymptomatic post-conceptional age term infants, comparing 25 full term and 34 preterm infants. Three-hour 24-channel electroencephalogram (EEG)-sleep studies were recorded for each child. One of 4 sleep states were assigned for each of 7339 min, based on both cerebral and non-cerebral measures. For each study, average rectal and skin temperatures for each sleep state were calculated. Repeated measures MANOVA were performed using 4 explanatory variables, average skin and rectal temperatures and variance of rectal and skin temperatures, comparing preterm/fullterm status and 4 sleep states. Rectal temperature differences between neonatal cohorts during specific sleep states were noted: F=8.58, Pmeasure of brain function during sleep in preterm infants affecting temperature regulation. This altered physiologic behavior reflects adaptation of the infant's brain function to conditions of prematurity which may contribute to vulnerabilities at older ages.

  13. Effects of high ambient temperature on ambulance dispatches in different age groups in Fukuoka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuya; Ueda, Kayo; Seposo, Xerxes; Yasukochi, Shusuke; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Ono, Masaji; Honda, Akiko; Takano, Hirohisa

    2018-01-01

    The elderly population has been the primary target of intervention to prevent heat-related illnesses. According to the literature, the highest risks have been observed among the elderly in the temperature-mortality relationship. However, findings regarding the temperature-morbidity relationship are inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the association of temperature with ambulance dispatches due to acute illnesses, stratified by age group. Specifically, we explored the optimum temperature, at which the relative health risks were found to be the lowest, and quantified the health risk associated with higher temperatures among different age groups. We used the data for ambulance dispatches in Fukuoka, Japan, during May and September from 2005 to 2012. The data were grouped according to age in 20-year increments. We explored the pattern of the association of ambulance dispatches with temperature using a smoothing spline curve to identify the optimum temperature for each age group. Then, we applied a distributed lag nonlinear model to estimate the risks of the 85th-95th percentile temperature relative to the overall optimum temperature, for each age group. The relative risk of ambulance dispatches at the 85th and 95th percentile temperature for all ages was 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.12] and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.16), respectively. In comparison, among age groups, the optimum temperature was observed as 25.0°C, 23.2°C, and 25.3°C for those aged 0-19, 60-79, and ≥80, respectively. The optimum temperature could not be determined for those aged 20-39 and 40-59. The relative risks of high temperature tended to be higher for those aged 20-39 and 40-59 than those for other age groups. We did not find any definite difference in the effect of high temperature on ambulance dispatches for different age groups. However, more measures should be taken for younger and middle-aged people to avoid heat-related illnesses.

  14. Effect of Static Soaking Under Different Temperatures on the Lime Stabilized Gypseous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Zubaydi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns with the effect of long-term soaking on the unconfined compressive strength, loss in weight and gypsum dissolution of gypseous soil stabilized with (4% lime, take into account the following variables: initial water content, water temperature, soaking duration. The results reveals that, the unconfined compressive strength was dropped, and the reduction in values was different according to the initial water content and water temperature, so that the reduction of the unconfined compressive strength of samples soaked in water at low temperatures (50 and 250 C was greater than those soaked in water temperatures  at (490 and 600 C. The results obtained shows that the increase in soaking period decreases the percentage amount of gypsum and loss in weight for all water temperatures and soaking durations.

  15. Optoelectronic properties of CuPc thin films deposited at different substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Pirriera, M; Puigdollers, J; Voz, C; Alcubilla, R [Micro and Nanotechnology Group. Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Stella, M; Bertomeu, J [Dep. Fisica Aplicada i Optica. Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-21

    Structural and optical characterization of copper phthalocyanine thin film thermally deposited at different substrate temperatures was the aim of this work. The morphology of the films shows strong dependence on temperature, as can be observed by atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, specifically in the grain size and features of the grains. The increase in the crystal phase with substrate temperature is shown by x-ray diffractometry. Optical absorption coefficient measured by photothermal deflection spectroscopy and optical transmittance reveal a weak dependence on the substrate temperature. Besides, the electro-optical response measured by the external quantum efficiency of Schottky ITO/CuPc/Al diodes shows an optimized response for samples deposited at a substrate temperature of 60 deg. C, in correspondence to the I-V diode characteristics.

  16. [Insulation characteristics of transport containers for organ cultured donor corneas under different ambient temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, J; Meltendorf, C

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of different transport containers to maintain an inside temperature between +10 and +40 degrees C, which is supposed to be safe for organ cultured donor corneas in dextran containing culture media, for a period of 24 hours at ambient temperatures of -10, 0, +10 and +50 degrees C. 3 containers were tested: 1. Styrofoam box with 2.5 cm thick walls (Graft-tec, AL.CHI.MI.A., Padova, Italy). 2. Thermos jug 0.5 litre (Primus, Solna, Sweden), a double walled metal jug. 3. ThempShell-22 degrees (VWR International, Darmstadt, Germany), a box of gel filled plastic elements. The containers were exposed to -10, 0, +10 and +50 degrees C for 24 hours each. A continuous temperature recording of the ambient and internal environments was performed using electronic thermometers (Mini Intelligent Logger, Escort). The inside temperature of the styrofoam box reached the outside temperature level after 80 - 230 min for all tested settings. The Thermos jug reached the outside temperature approximately after 5 hours. In contrast, the inside temperature of the TempShell-22 degrees CC was at -10 degrees C outside temperature 21 degrees C after 6 hours, 19 degrees C after 12 hours and 12 degrees C after 24 hours. At an ambient temperature of 0 and +10 degrees C the inside temperature of the TempShell-22 degrees C was 19.2 and 17.8 degrees C respectively after 24 hours. An ambient temperature of + 50 degrees C led to an inside temperature of the TempShell-22 degrees C of 30.5 degrees C after 6, 38.3 degrees C after 12 hours and 47.0 degrees C after 24 hours. A standard Styrofoam box with 2.5 cm thick walls and the tested thermos jug are not suitable to assure a safe temperature range. The TempShell-22 degrees C assures a safe temperature range for low ambient temperatures (-10 to +10 degrees C) for at least 24 hours and for an ambient temperature of +50 degrees C for at least 10 hours. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  17. Comparison of the Argon Triple-Point Temperature in Small Cells of Different Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, B.; Kowal, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.

    2017-06-01

    The argon triple point (T_{90} = 83.8058 \\hbox {K}) is a fixed point of the International Temperature Scale of Preston-Thomas (Metrologia 27:3, 1990). Cells for realization of the fixed point have been manufactured by several European metrology institutes (Pavese in Metrologia 14:93, 1978; Pavese et al. in Temperature, part 1, American Institute of Physics, College Park, 2003; Hermier et al. in Temperature, part 1, American Institute of Physics, College Park, 2003; Pavese and Beciet in Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurement, Springer, New York, 2013). The Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research has in its disposal a few argon cells of various constructions used for calibration of capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometers (CSPRT) that were produced within 40 years. These cells differ in terms of mechanical design and thermal properties, as well as source of gas filling the cell. This paper presents data on differences between temperature values obtained during the realization of the triple point of argon in these cells. For determination of the temperature, a heat-pulse method was applied (Pavese and Beciet in Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurement, Springer, New York, 2013). The comparisons were performed using three CSPRTs. The temperatures difference was determined in relation to a reference function W(T)=R(T_{90})/R(271.16\\hbox {K}) in order to avoid an impact of CSPRT resistance drift between measurements in the argon cells. Melting curves and uncertainty budgets of the measurements are given in the paper. A construction of measuring apparatus is also presented in this paper.

  18. Effect of soil temperature on root resistance: implications for different trees under Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tejera, Omar; López-Bernal, Álvaro; Villalobos, Francisco J; Orgaz, Francisco; Testi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    The effect of temperature on radial root hydraulic specific resistance (Rp) is a known phenomenon; however, the impact ofRpvariations expected from soil temperature changes over the tree root system is unknown. The present article analyses the relations hip ofRpwith temperature in olive 'Picual' and a hybrid rootstock, GF677, at five different temperatures, showing that a variation of 3- and 4.5-folds exists for olive 'Picual' and GF677 in the range from 10 to 20 °C. The functions obtained were scaled up to show the theoretical changes of total radial root system resistance in a common tree orchard in a Mediterranean climate at a daily and seasonal scale, using recorded soil temperature values: a difference between summer and winter of 3.5-fold for olive 'Picual' and 9-fold for GF677 was observed. Nevertheless,Rpchanges are not only related to temperature, as cavitation or circadian rhythms in aquaporin expression may also play a role. The results obtained from an experiment with the two cultivars submitted to constant pressure and temperature during several hours exhibited a variation inRp, but this was of lower magnitude than that observed due to temperature changes. Finally, a comparison ofRpat 25 °C between GF677 and GN15 (another rootstock obtained from the same parental as GF677) showed significant differences. According to our results, diurnal and seasonal changes inRpdue to temperature variations are of significant importance, and it would therefore be advisable to assess them explicitly into soil-plant-atmosphere continuum models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Accurate thermodynamic relations of the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different shapes and pure theoretical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jinhua; Fu, Qingshan; Xue, Yongqiang, E-mail: xyqlw@126.com; Cui, Zixiang

    2017-05-01

    Based on the surface pre-melting model, accurate thermodynamic relations of the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different shapes (tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, nanowire) were derived. The theoretically calculated melting temperatures are in relative good agreements with experimental, molecular dynamic simulation and other theoretical results for nanometer Au, Ag, Al, In and Pb. It is found that the particle size and shape have notable effects on the melting temperature of nanocrystals, and the smaller the particle size, the greater the effect of shape. Furthermore, at the same equivalent radius, the more the shape deviates from sphere, the lower the melting temperature is. The value of melting temperature depression of cylindrical nanowire is just half of that of spherical nanoparticle with an identical radius. The theoretical relations enable one to quantitatively describe the influence regularities of size and shape on the melting temperature and to provide an effective way to predict and interpret the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different sizes and shapes. - Highlights: • Accurate relations of T{sub m} of nanocrystals with various shapes are derived. • Calculated T{sub m} agree with literature results for nano Au, Ag, Al, In and Pb. • ΔT{sub m} (nanowire) = 0.5ΔT{sub m} (spherical nanocrystal). • The relations apply to predict and interpret the melting behaviors of nanocrystals.

  20. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles by hydrothermal method at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiuyan; Chen, Haiyan

    2017-06-01

    In this work, Co3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method at different temperatures. The synthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The Co3O4 nanoparticles prepared at the hydrothermal temperature of 140 °C and at the annealing temperature of 350 °C have a shorter crystal spacing distance associated to the (220) crystal planes, larger BET surface area and more bivalent cobalt on the surface than these of Co3O4 nanoparticles prepared at higher hydrothermal temperature or higher annealing temperature. The supercapacitor performances of synthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles were analysed by cyclic voltammograms (CVs), Galvano static charge/discharge (GCD) and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte solution. The Co3O4 nanoparticles produced at lower temperatures exhibit good pseudo capacitance behaviour. Also, owning to the low hydrothermal temperature and the annealing temperature of Co3O4 nanoparticles, they can be relatively low cost in favour of a promising candidate for electrochemical supercapacitors.

  1. Electrical behavior of amide functionalized graphene oxide and graphene oxide films annealed at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Sumita; Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: kumarmukesh@gmail.com; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Sumit

    2015-06-30

    Films of graphene oxide (GO) and amide functionalized graphene oxides (AGOs) were deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) by spin coating and were thermally annealed at different temperatures. Sheet resistance of GO and AGOs films was measured using four probe resistivity method. GO an insulator at room temperature, exhibits decrease in sheet resistance with increase in annealing temperature. However, AGOs' low sheet resistance (250.43 Ω) at room temperature further decreases to 39.26 Ω after annealing at 800 °C. It was observed that the sheet resistance of GO was more than AGOs up to 700 °C, but effect was reversed after annealing at higher temperature. At higher annealing temperatures the oxygen functionality reduces in GO and sheet resistance decreases. Sheet resistance was found to be annealing time dependent. Longer duration of annealing at a particular temperature results in decrease of sheet resistance. - Highlights: • Amide functionalized graphene oxides (AGOs) were synthesized at room temperature (RT). • AGO films have low sheet resistance at RT as compared to graphene oxide (GO). • Fast decrease in the sheet resistance of GO with annealing as compared to AGOs • AGOs were found to be highly dispersible in polar solvents.

  2. Life Table and Population Parameters of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) at different Constant Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Desani, Beatriz M.; Fereres, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Age-specific life tables of the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), feeding on lettuce were determined at different constant temperatures under controlled conditions. Our results showed that the proportion of alates increased with increasing temperatures, remaining below 7% at 16°C and increasing to 40–57% at a temperature above 20°C. The longest developmental time of apterous aphids was obtained at 8°C (31.5 d), and the shortest was at 26°C (6.2 d), whereas the developmental time o...

  3. Research for the influence on PRHR HX performance with different inlet temperature and flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Bin; Jing Jianping; An Jieru; Bi Jinsheng; Li Yuanshan; Zhuang Shaoxin

    2014-01-01

    To study the residual heat removal capacity of PRHR HX, numerical simulation is demonstrated using FLUENT. Meanwhile to research the trends of PRHR HX residual heat removal capacity, different operating modes have been simulated with parameters deviated from design value. Finally it's found that when the coolant inlet temperature is higher than design valve the residual heat removal capacity is better and the higher the temperature is the lower the coolant outlet temperature can be obtained. And meanwhile the faster the coolant flows the better the residual heat in the core can be removed. (authors)

  4. Dimensional and ice content changes of hardened concrete at different freezing and thawing temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Samples of concrete at different water-to-cement ratios and air contents subjected to freeze/thaw cycles with the lowest temperature at about -80 degrees C are investigated. By adopting a novel technique, a scanning calorimeter is used to obtain data from which the ice contents at different freeze...

  5. Low temperature methane oxidation on differently supported 2 nm Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Guido; Gontard, Lionel Cervera; Quaade, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Low temperature CH4 oxidation was studied on 2 nm gold nanoparticles supported on various metaloxides. The differences in reaction rates for the different systems suggest that the support material has an effect on the activity. From TEM analysis, we found that the gold particles were stable in size...

  6. Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Yonghyan Kim; Venkatramana D. Krishna; Montserrat Torremorell; Sagar M. Goyal; Maxim C.-J. Cheeran

    2018-01-01

    Indirect transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) ensues when susceptible animals contact PEDV-contaminated fomite materials. Although the survival of PEDV under various pHs and temperatures has been studied, virus stability on different fomite surfaces under varying temperature conditions has not been explored. Hence, we evaluated the survival of PEDV on inanimate objects routinely used on swine farms such as styrofoam, rubber, plastic, coveralls, and other equipment. The titer...

  7. Ascertaining the potential effects of temperature on growth, survival and feeding of different juvenile clown fish

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwas Rao Methari; Thipramalai Thankappan Ajith Kumar; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq; Chinna Raja; Sheik Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the physiological and ecological responses of marine ornamental fishes to the change of water temperature with its potential effects on the growth, survival and feeding in clown fish. Methods: Three different sea anemone fish (Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion akallopisos) were reared in confinement at water temperatures of 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 °C using thermostat and they were maintained up to the marketable size, and growth, surv...

  8. Detection and analysis of anomalies in the brightness temperature difference field using MSG rapid scan data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťástka, J.; Radová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 123, SI (2013), s. 354-359 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0905 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : brightness temperature difference (BTD) * BTD anomaly * cloud-top brightness temperature (BT) * convective storm * MSG Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 2.421, year: 2013 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809512001548

  9. Effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secilmis, Asli; Bulbul, Mehmet; Sari, Tugrul; Usumez, Aslihan

    2013-01-01

    The neodymium/yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd/YAG) laser has been suggested to repair broken prostheses in the mouth. This study investigated the effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding. Three intact human maxillary molars were prepared for full-veneer crown. For each tooth, dentin thicknesses in mesiobuccal cusp was 2, 3, or 4 mm. Twenty dies were duplicated from each of the prepared teeth. For metal copings with 0.5-mm thickness, wax patterns were prepared with dip wax technique directly onto each of dies. All patterns were sprued and invested. The castings were made using a nickel-chromium alloy (Nicromed Premium, Neodontics). A hole with 0.5-mm diameter was prepared on the mesiobuccal cusp of each crown. The Nd/YAG laser (9.85 W; 1 Hz repetition rate; fluence, 1.230 J/cm(2); Fidelis Plus 3, Fotona) was used for welding with or without air cooling (n = 10). The temperature rise was measured in pulpal chamber with a J-type thermocouple wire that was connected to a data logger. Differences between start and highest temperature reading were taken, and temperature rise values were compared using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference tests (α = .05). Pulpal temperature rise varied significantly depending on the dentin thickness and air cooling (p cooling group induced significantly the highest temperature increases. There were no significant differences between 2- and 3-mm dentin thicknesses groups (p > 0.05); however, pulpal temperature rise was the lowest for 4-mm dentin thickness group (p cooling was used in 2-mm dentin thickness group. Laser welding on base metal castings with Nd/YAG laser can be applied with air cooling to avoid temperature rises known to adversely affect pulpal health when dentin thickness is 2 or 3 mm.

  10. Studies on the temperature distribution of steel plates with different paints under solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Binbin; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaodun

    2014-01-01

    Thermal effects on steel structures exposed to solar radiation are significant and complicated. Furthermore, the solar radiation absorption coefficient of steel surface with different paintings is the main factor affecting the non-uniform temperature of spatial structures under solar radiation. In this paper, nearly two hundreds steel specimens with different paintings were designed and measured to obtain their solar radiation absorption coefficients using spectrophotometer. Based on the test results, the effect of surface color, painting type, painting thickness on the solar radiation absorption coefficient was analyzed. The actual temperatures under solar radiation for all specimens were also measured in summer not only to verify the absorption coefficient but also provide insight for the temperature distribution of steel structures with different paintings. A numerical simulation and simplified formula were also conducted and verified by test, in order to study the temperature distribution of steel plates with different paints under solar radiation. The results have given an important reference in the future research of thermal effect of steel structures exposed to solar radiation. - Highlights: • Solar radiation absorptions for steel with different paintings were measured. • The temperatures of all specimens under solar radiation were measured. • The effect of color, thickness and painting type on solar absorption was analyzed. • A numerical analysis was conducted and verified by test data. • A simplified formula was deduced and verified by test data

  11. Viscoelasticity and texture of spreadable cheeses with different fat contents at refrigeration and room temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarri, S; Carbonell, I; Costell, E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of the 2 common consumption temperatures, refrigeration temperature (10°C) and room temperature (22°C), on the viscoelasticity, mechanical properties, and perceived texture of commercial cream cheeses was studied. Two samples with different fat contents, regular and low fat, from each of 4 selected commercial brands were analyzed. The selection criteria were based on identification of brands with different percentages of fat content reduction between the regular- and low-fat samples (35, 50, 84, and 98.5%). The fat content of regular-fat samples ranged from 19.8 to 26.0% (wt/wt), and that of low-fat samples ranged from 0.3 to 13.0% (wt/wt). Viscoelasticity was measured in a controlled-stress rheometer using parallel-plate geometry, and the mechanical characteristics of samples were measured using the spreadability test. Differences in the intensity of thickness, creaminess, and roughness between the regular- and low-fat samples of each commercial brand were evaluated at each of the selected temperatures by using the paired comparisons test. At 10°C, all samples showed higher viscoelastic modulus values, firmness, and stickiness, and lower spreadability than when they were measured at 22°C. Differences in viscoelasticity and mechanical properties between each pair of samples of the same brand were greater at 10°C than at 22°C because of the influence not only of fat content but also of fat state. Ingestion temperature did not modify the sensory differences detected between each pair of samples in terms of creaminess and roughness, but it did modify the differences detected in thickness. The joint consideration of sample composition, fat state, and product behavior during oral processing could explain the differences detected in thickness perceived because of measurement temperatures. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Difference in thermodynamics between two types of esophageal temperature probes: Insights from an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Carola; Atoui, Moustapha; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Trivedi, Chintan; Bai, Rong; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Burkhardt, J David; Gallinghouse, G Joseph; Hranitzky, Patrick M; Horton, Rodney P; Sanchez, Javier E; Di Biase, Luigi; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya R; Natale, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Luminal esophageal temperature monitoring is performed with a variety of temperature probes, but little is known about the relationship between the structure of a given probe and its thermodynamic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in thermodynamics between a 9Fr standard esophageal probe and an 18Fr esophageal stethoscope. In the experimental setting, each probe was submerged in a constant temperature water bath maintained at 42°C; in the patient setting, we monitored the temperature with both probes at the same time. The time constant of the stethoscope was higher than that of the probe (33.5 vs 8.3 s). Compared to the probe, the mean temperature measured by the stethoscope at 10 seconds was significantly lower (22.5°C ± 0.4°C vs 33.5°C ± 0.3°C, P<.0001), whereas the time to reach the peak temperature was significantly longer (132.6 ± 5.9 s vs 38.8 ± 1.0 s, P<.0001). Even in the ablation cases we observed that when the esophageal probe reached a peak temperature of 39.6°C ± 0.3°C, the esophageal stethoscope still displayed a temperature of 37.3°C ± 0.2°C (a mean of 2.39°C ± 0.3°C lower, P<.0001), showing a <0.5°C increase in temperature half of the times. The 18Fr esophageal stethoscope has a significantly slower time response compared to the 9Fr esophageal probe. In the clinical setting, this might result in a considerable underestimation of the luminal esophageal temperature with potentially fatal consequences. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analytical investigation of a nanosatellite panel surface temperatures for different altitudes and panel combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulut, Murat; Sozbir, Nedim

    2015-01-01

    The thermal control of future nanosatellite will be challenging due to dedicated panel surface area for radiation. The thermal control concept is to keep the payload within allowable temperature ranges. In order to predict the temperature for a nanosatellite in orbit, a basic thermal model of the nanosatellite was designed and analyzed. A thermal control system of the nanosatellite at an altitude 600 km with an inclination of 98° is presented. A thermal analysis of the nanosatellite was also performed with different altitudes from 500 km to 2000 km. A thermal control analysis of CubeSat's passive thermal control system was conducted. A temperature distribution of the solutions was computed. All electronic equipment and structural parts were within allowable temperatures, except the batteries. The batteries were out of their allowed range of temperatures in the cold case condition. The results of the study showed that the panel surface temperature results for different altitudes and panel combination are highly sensitive by the chosen surface coating of the nanosatellite. - Highlights: • Dimensions of 10 cm × 10 cm × 10 cm and a weight of 1 kg of CubeSat were used. • Initial and detailed thermal analysis were performed. • Initial thermal analysis with different altitude from 500 km to 2000 km was performed. • The surface temperatures of nanosatellite were not affected by the altitude of the nanosatellite. • All electronic equipment and structural part were within allowable temperature range except the batteries

  14. Influence on Heat Transfer Coefficient of Heat Exchanger by Velocity and Heat Transfer Temperature Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed to insufficient heat transfer of heat exchanger, research the influence on the heat transfer coefficient impacted by velocity and heat transfer temperature difference of tube heat exchanger. According to the different heat transfer temperature difference and gas velocity,the experimental data were divided into group. Using the control variable method,the above two factors were analyzed separately. K一△T and k一:fitting curve were clone to obtain empirical function. The entire heat exchanger is as the study object,using numerical simulation methods,porous media,k一£model,second order upwind mode,and pressure一velocity coupling with SIMPLE algorithm,the entire heat exchanger temperature field and the heat transfer coefficient distribution were given. Finally the trend of the heat transfer coefficient effected by the above two factors was gotten.

  15. Rheological characterization of novel physically crosslinked terpolymeric hydrogels at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malana, Muhammad Aslam; Zohra, Rubab; Khan, Muhammad Saleem

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of this research work is to reveal the detailed and extensive rheological characterization of terpolymeric hydrogel formulations using a variety of monomers having different concentrations of acrylic acid and applying a range of temperatures. The hydrogels with the different concentrations of acrylic acid were prepared in the absence of air using three different monomers, by free radical polymerization, gradually increasing the temperature up to polymerization point, using ethyl alcohol as solvent. Different shear measurements were performed to study rheological properties, temperature dependence, and yield strength of acrylic acid pharmaceutical hydrogels. Various models were applied to analyze the rheological behavior of the gels. The acrylic acid pharmaceutical gels having physical cross links in the gel networks, exhibit remarkable temperature dependence especially with relatively higher concentration of acrylic acid at greater shear rate. Flow curves plotted at various temperatures indicate that these gels exhibit a reasonable pseudoplastic behavior. All these hydrogels require appropriate yield strength to break their network structures. The gel samples exhibit the best fit to the Modified Bingham model, which can explain the overall flow behavior of these topical gels. The rheological analysis indicates that these gels may be used as topical gels for targeted and controlled drug delivery at a specific site.

  16. Implant Surface Temperature Changes during Er:YAG Laser Irradiation with Different Cooling Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzavi, Abbas; Shahabi, Sima; Fekrazad, Reza; Behruzi, Roohollah; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2014-03-01

    Peri-implantitis is one of the most common reasons for implant failure. Decontamination of infected implant surfaces can be achieved effectively by laser irradiation; although the associated thermal rise may cause irreversible bone damage and lead to implant loss. Temperature increments of over 10ºC during laser application may suffice for irreversible bone damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increment of implant surface during Er:YAG laser irradiation with different cooling systems. Three implants were placed in a resected block of sheep mandible and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 3 different cooling systems namely water and air spray, air spray alone and no water or air spray. Temperature changes of the implant surface were monitored during laser irradiation with a K-type thermocouple at the apical area of the fixture. In all 3 groups, the maximum temperature rise was lower than 10°C. Temperature changes were significantly different with different cooling systems used (Plaser with and without refrigeration. Thus, Er:YAG laser irradiation can be a safe method for treatment of periimplantitis.

  17. Implant Surface Temperature Changes during Er:YAG Laser Irradiation with Different Cooling Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Monzavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is one of the most common reasons for implant failure. Decontamination of infected implant surfaces can be achieved effectively by laser irradiation; although the associated thermal rise may cause irreversible bone damage and lead to implant loss. Temperature increments of over 10ºC during laser application may suffice for irreversible bone damage.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increment of implant surface during Er:YAG laser irradiation with different cooling systems.Three implants were placed in a resected block of sheep mandible and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 3 different cooling systems namely water and air spray, air spray alone and no water or air spray. Temperature changes of the implant surface were monitored during laser irradiation with a K-type thermocouple at the apical area of the fixture.In all 3 groups, the maximum temperature rise was lower than 10°C. Temperature changes were significantly different with different cooling systems used (P<0.001.Based on the results, no thermal damage was observed during implant surface decontamination by Er:YAG laser with and without refrigeration. Thus, Er:YAG laser irradiation can be a safe method for treatment of periimplantitis.

  18. The effect of using different regions of interest on local and mean skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniar, Nirav; Bach, Aaron J E; Stewart, Ian B; Costello, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic nature of tissue temperature and the subcutaneous properties, such as blood flow, fatness, and metabolic rate, leads to variation in local skin temperature. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using multiple regions of interest when calculating weighted mean skin temperature from four local sites. Twenty-six healthy males completed a single trial in a thermonetural laboratory (mean ± SD): 24.0 (1.2)°C; 56 (8%) relative humidity; International Standards using digital infrared thermography. A 50 mm × 50 mm, defined by strips of aluminium tape, created six unique regions of interest, top left quadrant, top right quadrant, bottom left quadrant, bottom right quadrant, centre quadrant and the entire region of interest, at each of the local sites. The largest potential error in weighted mean skin temperature was calculated using a combination of a) the coolest and b) the warmest regions of interest at each of the local sites. Significant differences between the six regions interest were observed at the neck (Plimits of agreement for these differences was 0.2-0.5 °C. Although we observed differences in local and mean skin temperature based on the region of interest employed, these differences were minimal and are not considered physiologically meaningful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The consistency of individual differences in behaviour: temperature effects on antipredator behaviour in garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie; Russell

    1999-02-01

    Differences among individuals are necessary for natural selection to occur. The extent and expression of these differences can limit the power of selection to cause evolutionary change. When individuals inconsistently express a trait, selection is less powerful. Labile traits such as behaviour are most likely to be inconsistent in their expression, because of the substantial role of environmental factors in their immediate expression. Previous work has focused on the consistency, or repeatability, of individual behaviour across different environments or within a single environment; little is known about how repeatability within an environment changes across environments. To address this issue, we examined the consistency of antipredator behaviour in juvenile garter snakes in different thermal environments. A group of 59 laboratory-born garter snakes Thamnophis ordinoides, was repeatedly assayed for sprint speed, distance crawled, and number of reversals performed during flight and antipredator display. Antipredator display showed very little variation and could not be analysed. Each individual was tested three times at each of three temperatures chosen to span the range of temperatures that snakes encounter in the field (15, 22.5, 30 degrees C). Temperature had substantial effects on the average expression of each behaviour; snakes crawled more slowly, for shorter distances, and performed fewer reversals at cooler temperatures. Individuals showed significant consistency in their behaviour, and this consistency of expression was not affected by temperature. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  20. SURVIVAL CAPACITY OF Arcobacter butzleri INOCULATED IN POULTRY MEAT AT TWO DIFFERENT REFRIGERATION TEMPERATURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badilla-Ramírez, Yanán; Fallas-Padilla, Karolina L; Fernández-Jaramillo, Heriberto; Arias-Echandi, María Laura

    2016-01-01

    Arcobacter spp. are emerging enteropathogens and potential zoonotic agents that can be transmitted by food and water, being considered a public health risk. The high isolation rate of these bacteria from poultry products suggests that it may be a major source of human infections. One hallmark for differentiating the genus Arcobacter from Campylobacter includes their growing capacity at low temperatures (15-30 °C) under aerobic conditions. However, little is known about the population density variation of these bacteria at different refrigeration temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the survival behavior of two different Arcobacter butzleri concentrations (10(4) CFU/mL and 10(7) CFU/mL) inoculated on chicken legs and held at two different refrigeration temperatures (4 and 10 °C) throughout storage time. Results have shown that A. butzleri had growing capacity both at 4 and 10 °C. No statistical difference between the survival trends was found for both bacterial concentrations and temperatures tested. This study shows that A. butzleri is a robust species with regard to storage temperature, and represents a potential health risk for poultry meat consumers.

  1. Infusion pasteurization of skim milk: Effects of different time-temperature combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Hougaard, A.B.; Hammershøj, M.; Ipsen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Infusion pasteurization technology was used in different time-temperature combinations for heat treatment of skim milk and compared to untreated skim milk and a standard pasteurization treatment. Aerobic count of microorganisms and activity of alkaline phosphatase showed that all infusion-pasteurized samples had received proper pasteurization. There were no difference in the size of casein micelles, but differences were seen in activity of the enzyme xanthine oxidase. The results indicate pos...

  2. Feasibility of Carbonaceous Nanomaterial-Assisted Photocatalysts Calcined at Different Temperatures for Indoor Air Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Kuen Jo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of multiwall carbon nanotube-assisted TiO2 (MWNT-TiO2 nanocomposites calcined at different temperatures to assess their potential indoor air applications. It was confirmed that the composites calcined at low temperatures (300 and 400°C contained TiO2 nanoparticles bound intimately to the MWNT networks. Meanwhile, almost no MWNTs were observed when the calcination temperature was increased to 500 and 600°C. The MWNT-TiO2 composites calcined at low temperatures showed higher photocatalytic decomposition efficiencies for aromatic hydrocarbons at indoor concentrations than those calcined at high temperatures. The mean efficiencies for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene (BTEX by the composite calcined at 300°C were 32, 70, 79, and 79%, respectively, whereas they were 33, 71, 78, and 78% for the composite calcined at 400°C, respectively. In contrast, the efficiencies decreased to close to zero when the calcination temperature was increased to 600°C. Moreover, the MWNT-TiO2 exhibited superior photocatalytic performance for the decomposition efficiencies compared to TiO2 under conventional UV-lamp irradiations. Consequently, these carbonaceous nanomaterial-assisted photocatalysts can be applied effectively to indoor air applications depending upon the calcination temperature.

  3. Spectroscopy research on the Guizhou Xingyi gangue of different calcined temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, B.; Sun, Y.; Xie, C. [Guizhou University, Guiyang (China). School of Science

    2008-09-15

    The major components, the decomposition mechanisms and the optimum calcination temperature of gangue at different temperatures were studied by XRF, XRD and FTIR. XRF shows that the primary chemical constituents of gangue are SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and so on. Moreover, the ignition loss is relatively high. XRD shows that the main mineral components of gangue are kaolinite, mica, spathic iron, iron pyrites, rutile, bischofite, quartz and calcite. XRD and FTIR at different calcination temperatures show that kaolinite and mica take part in a dehydration reaction as the temperatures increases. The amounts of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}are increased, so the activity of gangue increases. At temperatures above 800{sup o}C, SiO{sub 2} reacts with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to produce andalusite, so the activity of the gangue decreases. Based on the experimental results, the optimum calcination temperature of the gangue from Guizhou Xingyi is 700 {sup o}C. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effects of Wax Coating on the Moisture Loss of Cucumbers at Different Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wax coating on moisture loss of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L., cv. Jinglv were investigated at different temperatures. Cucumbers were treated with 10% (volume : volume wax and then stored at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C and 55% relative humidity. The changes in the mass of samples were recorded every 6 h. Results showed that wax coating along with low temperature was very effective in preventing moisture loss of cucumbers during simulated distribution. After 48 h storage, moisture loss in wax treated cucumbers at 15°C was 45% lower than the control at 30°C. Furthermore, a kinetic model was developed to study the influence of temperature on moisture loss based on the Arrhenius law. The model successfully described changes in cucumber moisture loss at different temperatures during storage. The shelf life of cucumber was also predicted using the kinetic model. A synergistic effect was found between wax coating and storage temperature on cucumber shelf life. Wax coating combined with low storage temperature was an effective method to extend the shelf life of cucumber fruit.

  5. Thermal fluctuations of haemoglobin from different species: adaptation to temperature via conformational dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, A. M.; Garvey, C. J.; Bocahut, A.; Sacquin-Mora, S.; Digel, I.; Schneider, G. J.; Natali, F.; Artmann, G. M.; Zaccai, G.

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic stability, configurational motions and internal forces of haemoglobin (Hb) of three endotherms (platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus; domestic chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus and human, Homo sapiens) and an ectotherm (salt water crocodile, Crocodylus porosus) were investigated using circular dichroism, incoherent elastic neutron scattering and coarse-grained Brownian dynamics simulations. The experimental results from Hb solutions revealed a direct correlation between protein resilience, melting temperature and average body temperature of the different species on the 0.1 ns time scale. Molecular forces appeared to be adapted to permit conformational fluctuations with a root mean square displacement close to 1.2 Å at the corresponding average body temperature of the endotherms. Strong forces within crocodile Hb maintain the amplitudes of motion within a narrow limit over the entire temperature range in which the animal lives. In fully hydrated powder samples of human and chicken, Hb mean square displacements and effective force constants on the 1 ns time scale showed no differences over the whole temperature range from 10 to 300 K, in contrast to the solution case. A complementary result of the study, therefore, is that one hydration layer is not sufficient to activate all conformational fluctuations of Hb in the pico- to nanosecond time scale which might be relevant for biological function. Coarse-grained Brownian dynamics simulations permitted to explore residue-specific effects. They indicated that temperature sensing of human and chicken Hb occurs mainly at residues lining internal cavities in the β-subunits. PMID:22696485

  6. Phycocyanin stability in microcapsules processed by spray drying method using different inlet temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamayati, L.; Dewi, EN; Kurniasih, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    Phycocyanin is natural blue colorant which easily damages by heat. The inlet temperature of spray dryer is an important parameter representing the feature of the microcapsules.The aim of this study was to investigate the phycocyanin stability of microcapsules made from Spirulina sp with maltodextrin and κ-Carrageenan as the coating material, processed by spray drying method in different inlet temperature. Microcapsules were processed in three various inlet temperaturei.e. 90°C, 110°C, and 130°C, respectively. The results indicated that phycocyanin microcapsule with 90°C of inlet temperature produced the highest moisture content, phycocyanin concentration and encapsulation efficiency of 3,5%, 1,729% and 29,623%, respectively. On the other hand, the highest encapsulation yield was produced by 130°C of theinlet temperature of 29,48% and not significantly different with 110°C. The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that phycocyanin microcapsules with 110°C of inlet temperature produced the most rounded shape. To sum up, 110°C was the best inlet temperature to phycocyanin microencapsulation by the spray dryer.

  7. Microstructure, optical characterization and light induced degradation in a-Si:H deposited at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minani, E.; Sigcau, Z.; Adgebite, O.; Ramukosi, F.L.; Ntsoane, T.P.; Harindintwari, S.; Knoesen, D.; Comrie, C.M.; Britton, D.T.; Haerting, M.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of a series of hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers deposited on glass substrates at different temperature have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction techniques and optical spectroscopy. The radial distribution function of the as-deposited samples showed an increase in the bond angle and a decrease in the radial distance indicating a relaxation of the amorphous network with increasing the deposition temperature. Light induced degradation was studied using a simulated daylight spectrum. The changes in hydrogen bonding configuration, associated with the light soaking at different stages of illumination, was monitored via the transmission bands of the vibrational wag and stretch modes of the IR spectrum

  8. Analysis of simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using different combinations of FBG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashik T., J.; Kachare, Nitin; Kalyani bai, K.; Kumar, D. Sriram

    2017-06-01

    The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) can be used for measuring temperature and or strain. In this paper analysis of different combinations of FBG is made. Certain parameters of FBG are considered such as Bandwidth, Side lobes, Peak power, and Sensitivity. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain is made using two combinations of FBG. The setup is simulated using two software. Optigrating 4.2.2 is used for designing different types of gratings such as Uniform, Apodized, Tilted and Superstructure. After designing, these files are exported to Optisystem 12 to simulate the spectrum and to observe the parameters.

  9. Ultra-low Temperature Curable Conductive Silver Adhesive with different Resin Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingli; Wang, Likun; Liao, Qingwei; Yan, Chao; Li, Xing; Qin, Lei

    2018-03-01

    The ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive with curing temperature less than 100 °C needed urgently for the surface conductive treatment of piezoelectric composite material due to the low thermal resistance of composite material and low adhesion strength of adhesive. An ultra-low temperature curable conductive adhesive with high adhesion strength was obtained for the applications of piezoelectric composite material. The microstructure, conductive properties and adhesive properties with different resin matrix were investigated. The conductive adhesive with AG-80 as the resin matrix has the shorter curing time (20min), lower curing temperature (90°C) and higher adhesion strength (7.6MPa). The resistivity of AG-80 sample has the lower value (2.13 × 10-4Ω·cm) than the 618 sample (4.44 × 10-4Ω·cm).

  10. Differences in temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption among lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Pedersen, N. L.

    2005-01-01

    the exponential increase of oxygen consumption rate between 4 and 20 °C averaged 0.121 °C-1 (Q10 of 3.35) in 70 measurements and showed no significant variations between seasons and stream sites or correlations with ambient temperature and organic content. 5. Oxygen consumption rate was enhanced downstream......1. Temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption were measured over a year at 13 sites in four lowlands streams within the same region in North Zealand, Denmark with the objectives of determining: (i) spatial and seasonal differences between open streams, forest streams and streams...... with or without lakes, (ii) factors influencing the temperature dependence of oxygen consumption rate, (iii) consequences of higher temperature and organic content in lake outlets on oxygen consumption rate, and (iv) possible consequences of forecasted global warming on degradation of organic matter. 2. High...

  11. Scrotal temperatures do not differ among young boys wearing disposable or reusable diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, G L; Grove, M J; Bates, N T; Wagman, L M; Leyden, J J

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of specific, commonly used diaper types on scrotal temperatures in normal healthy, young boys. These included both modern disposable and reusable diapers as well as various types of protective outer coverings that are in common use in both North America and Europe Scrotal and skin surface temperatures were continuously monitored in healthy, young males using a computerized data-logging system based on temperature probes specifically designed for paediatric studies. These systems could be used either tethered to the PC or made completely portable depending upon the age and activity of the child being measured. Based on our results from several pilot studies, it became clear that the best way to determine if disposable and reusable diapers differ with regard to their impact on scrotal temperatures is to run these comparisons under controlled laboratory conditions where "diaper type" was the primary variable. A 2-h time period was chosen to ensure that sufficient time had elapsed for thermal equilibrium to be established under the diapers. We also felt it necessary to study the impact of urination and simulated this condition over the last 15 min using standardized methods. In addition to the skin surface temperatures, we also measured the temperature of the tympanic membrane using an infrared thermometer as an estimate of "core" temperature for each individual at various times during the session. In this study, we have clearly shown that scrotal temperatures are the same whether the child is wearing disposable or reusable cloth diapers with a protective cover. The only situation in which scrotal temperatures were found to be lower is when the cloth diaper is used alone without a protective cover but this is not representative of how these products are actually used. We also found that on average scrotal temperatures are significantly lower than core for each diaper type. Occasionally, we did see individuals in which the maximal

  12. Effect of microbial activity on penetrometer resistance and elastic modulus of soil at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W; Muñoz-Romero, V; Ren, T; Ashton, R W; Morin, M; Clark, I M; Powlson, D S; Whalley, W R

    2017-07-01

    We explore the effect of microbial activity stimulated by root exudates on the penetrometer resistance of soil and its elastic modulus. This is important because it is a measure of the mechanical strength of soil and it correlates closely with the rate of elongation of roots. A sandy soil was incubated with a synthetic root exudate at different temperatures, for different lengths of time and with selective suppression of either fungi or bacteria. The shape of the temperature response of penetrometer resistance in soil incubated with synthetic exudate was typical of a poikilothermic temperature response. Both penetrometer resistance and small strain shear modulus had maximum values between 25 and 30°C. At temperatures of 20°C and less, there was little effect of incubation with synthetic root exudate on the small strain shear modulus, although penetrometer resistance did increase with temperature over this range (4-20°C). This suggests that in this temperature range the increase in penetrometer resistance was related to a greater resistance to plastic deformation. At higher temperatures (> 25°C) penetrometer resistance decreased. Analysis of the DNA sequence data showed that at 25°C the number of Streptomyces (Gram-positive bacteria) increased, but selective suppression of either fungi or bacteria suggested that fungi have the greater role with respect to penetrometer resistance. Effect of microbial activity stimulated by synthetic root exudates on the mechanical properties.We compared penetrometer measurements and estimates of elastic modulus with microbial community.Penetrometer resistance of soil showed a poikilothermic temperature response.Penetrometer resistance might be affected more by fungi than bacteria.

  13. Utilising temperature differences as constraints for estimating parameters in a simple climate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodman, Roger W; Karoly, David J; Enting, Ian G

    2010-01-01

    Simple climate models can be used to estimate the global temperature response to increasing greenhouse gases. Changes in the energy balance of the global climate system are represented by equations that necessitate the use of uncertain parameters. The values of these parameters can be estimated from historical observations, model testing, and tuning to more complex models. Efforts have been made at estimating the possible ranges for these parameters. This study continues this process, but demonstrates two new constraints. Previous studies have shown that land-ocean temperature differences are only weakly correlated with global mean temperature for natural internal climate variations. Hence, these temperature differences provide additional information that can be used to help constrain model parameters. In addition, an ocean heat content ratio can also provide a further constraint. A pulse response technique was used to identify relative parameter sensitivity which confirmed the importance of climate sensitivity and ocean vertical diffusivity, but the land-ocean warming ratio and the land-ocean heat exchange coefficient were also found to be important. Experiments demonstrate the utility of the land-ocean temperature difference and ocean heat content ratio for setting parameter values. This work is based on investigations with MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change) as the simple climate model.

  14. Temperature rise during polymerization of different cavity liners and composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ozcan; Turel, Verda; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the thermal insulating properties of different light curing cavity liners and composite resins during light emitting diode (LED) curing. Sixty-four dentin discs, 1 mm thick and 8 mm in diameter, were prepared. Specimens were divided into four groups. Calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2), resin-modified glass ionomer cement, flowable composite and adhesive systems were applied to dentin discs according to the manufacturers' instructions. The rise in temperature during polymerization with a LED curing unit (LCU) was measured using a K-type thermocouple connected to a data logger. Subsequently, all specimens were randomly divided into one of two groups. A silorane-based composite resin and a methacrylate-based composite resin were applied to the specimens. Temperature rise during polymerization of composite resins with LCU were then measured again. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey analyses. There were significant differences in temperature rise among the liners, adhesives, and composite resins (P < 0.05). Silorane-based composite resin exhibited significantly greater temperature rises than methacrylate-based resin (P < 0.05). The smallest temperature rises were observed in Ca(OH)2 specimens. Thermal insulating properties of different restorative materials are important factors in pulp health. Bonding agents alone are not sufficient to protect pulp from thermal stimuli throughout curing.

  15. Swimming performance and thermal resistance of juvenile and adult newts acclimated to different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Lu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal acclimatory adjustments of locomotor performance and thermal tolerance occur commonly in ectothermic animals. However, few studies have investigated ontogenetic differences in these acclimatory responses, and thus, their causes remain unclear. In this study, juvenile and adult Chinese fire-bellied newts (Cynops orientalis were acclimated to one of two temperatures (16 or 24 °C for 4 weeks to examine ontogenetic differences in acclimation effect on burst swimming speed, and critical thermal minimum (CTMin and maximum (CTMax. Swimming performance was thermally acclimated in both juvenile and adult C. orientalis. Adult newts had greater absolute swimming speeds than juveniles, which may simply result from their larger sizes. Cold acclimation enhanced low-temperature resistance, and warm acclimation enhanced high-temperature resistance in both juveniles and adults. Despite no ontogenetic difference in CTMin, adult newts had greater CTMax and acclimation response ratio than juveniles, indicating their greater abilities to withstand extreme high temperatures and manage rapid temperature shifts. Ontogenetic change in the thermal acclimatory responses of newts may be related to changes in the thermal environment they experience.

  16. Single-sided natural ventilation driven by wind pressure and temperature difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    Even though opening a window for ventilation of a room seems very simple, the flow that occurs in this situation is rather complicated. The amount of air going through the window opening will depend on the wind speed near the building, the temperatures inside and outside the room, the wind direct...... on the ratio between the forces and the wind direction. This change is also found in the velocity profiles measured in the opening, which might change from wind dominated to temperature dominated under the same wind direction but with increasing temperature difference.......Even though opening a window for ventilation of a room seems very simple, the flow that occurs in this situation is rather complicated. The amount of air going through the window opening will depend on the wind speed near the building, the temperatures inside and outside the room, the wind......-scale wind tunnel experiments have been made with the aim of making a new expression for calculation of the airflow rate in single-sided natural ventilation. During the wind tunnel experiments it was found that the dominating driving force differs between wind speed and temperature difference depending...

  17. [The Influence of Different Ionic Concentration in Cell Physiological Solution on Temperature Measurement by Near Infrared].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Chen, Xiong; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Meng-jun; Wang, Jin-hai; Li, Gang; Cui, Jun

    2015-10-01

    It is important to real-timely monitor and control the temperature of cell physiological solution in patch clamp experiments, which can eliminate the uncertainty due to temperature and improve the measurement accuracy. This paper studies the influence of different ions at different concentrations in the physiological solution on precision of a temperature model by using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics method. Firstly, we prepared twelve sample solutions respectively with the solutes of CaCl2, KCl and NaCl at four kinds of concentrations, and collected the spectra of different solutions at the setting temperature range 20-40 degrees C, the range of the spectra is 9 615-5 714 cm(-1). Then we divided the spectra of each solution at different temperatures into two parts (a training set and a prediction set) by three methods. Interval partial least squares method was used to select an effective wavelength range and develop calibration models between the spectra in the selected range and temperature velues. The experimental results show that RMSEP of CaCl2 solution with 0.25 g x mL(-1) is maximum, the result of the three tests are 0.386 3, 0.303 7 and 0.337 2 degrees C, RMSEP of NaCl with 0.005 g x mL(-1) solution is minimum, the result of the three tests are 0.220 8, 0.155 3 and 0.145 2 degrees C. The experimental results indicate that Ca2+ has the greatest influence on the accuracy of the temperature model of the cell physiological solution, then K+, and Na+ has the least influence. And with the ionic concentration increasing, the model accuracy decreases. Therefore; when we build the temperature model of cell physiological solution, it is necessary to change the proportion of the three kinds of main ions in cell physiological solution reasonably in order to correct the effects of different ionic concentrations in physiological solution and improve the accuracy of temperature measurements by near infrared spectroscopy.

  18. Drop Hammer Tests with Three Oleo Strut Models and Three Different Shock Strut Oils at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, M

    1954-01-01

    Drop hammer tests with different shock strut models and shock strut oils were performed at temperatures ranging to -40 C. The various shock strut models do not differ essentially regarding their springing and damping properties at low temperatures; however, the influence of the different shock strut oils on the springing properties at low temperatures varies greatly.

  19. Thermodynamic properties of betulinic acid in THF + water mixed solvents at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wei [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheng, Yong [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Skyherb Ingredients, Anji 313300 (China); Shao, Yundong [Skyherb Ingredients, Anji 313300 (China); Yan, Weidong, E-mail: yanweidong@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-12-20

    Highlights: • The solubilities of betulinic acid in the THF + water were determined at different temperatures. • The highest solubility value is obtained in the pure THF. • The thermodynamic properties of the solution process and the crystal habit of betulinic acid were discussed. - Abstract: The solubilities of betulinic acid in binary solvent mixtures of THF + water in the temperature range of (278.2–318.2) K were determined by an analytical method. The solubility of betulinic acid in a binary solvent mixture increased with the increase of molar fraction of THF and the temperature. The solubilities data were correlated with a semi-empirical equation. The calculated solubilities showed good agreement with the experimental data. According to the Van’t Hoff equation and the Gibbs equation, the thermodynamic properties for the solution process including Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy were obtained. The crystal habit of betulinic acid changes in morphology at different solvent mixtures was observed using SEM.

  20. Nitrogen release from differently aged Raphanus sativus L. nitrate catch crops during mineralization at autumn temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    pool at both temperatures. The N mineralization and nitrification potential at these low soil temperatures suggest that a considerable fraction of the N captured by nitrate catch crops may be remineralized, nitrified and thus available for plant uptake but also for loss by leaching and denitrification.......In temperate climates with surplus precipitation and low temperatures during autumn and winter, nitrate catch crops have become crucial in reducing nitrate leaching losses. Preferably, the N retained by the catch crop should remain in the soil and become available to the next main crop. Fodder...... radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) has emerged as a promising nitrate catch crop in cereal cropping, although the course of remineralization of residue N following termination of this frost-sensitive crucifer remains obscured. We incubated radish residues of different age (different planting and harvest dates...

  1. Mineralization of hormones in breeder and broiler litters at different water potentials and temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Sarah N J; Hartel, Peter G

    2006-01-01

    When poultry litter is landspread, steroidal hormones present in the litter may reach surface waters, where they may have undesirable biological effects. In a laboratory study, we determined the mineralization of [4-14C]-labeled 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and testosterone in breeder litter at three different water potentials (-56, -24, and -12 MPa) and temperatures (25, 35, and 45 degrees C), and in broiler litter at two different water potentials (-24 and -12 MPa) and temperatures (25 and 35 degrees C). Mineralization was similar in both litters and generally increased with increasing water content and decreasing temperature. After 23 wk at -24 MPa, an average of 27, 11, and litter was mineralized to 14CO2 at 25, 35, and 45 degrees C, respectively. In contrast, mineralization of the radiolabeled estradiol and estrone was mineralized. The minimal mineralization suggests that the litters may still be potential sources of hormones to surface and subsurface waters.

  2. Influence of Different Temperature Sensors on Measuring Energy Efficiency and Heating-Up Time of Hobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beges, G.; Drnovsek, J.; Ogorevc, J.; Bojkovski, J.

    2015-03-01

    Measuring performance, mainly temperature dependence, for electric cooking ranges, hobs, ovens, and grills for household use is essential for producers as low power consumption of appliances represents a powerful selling point and also in terms of ecodesign requirements. It is also important from a consumer perspective, as these appliances are responsible for the significant share of households' electricity bills. The aim of the paper was to highlight and clearly define possible ambiguities and weaknesses of standardized procedures for measuring hob performance. Differences between measurement/test results of testing laboratories are possible due to lack of detailed information in the standard, and it is difficult to obtain technical accessories required in the standard. An energy consumption comparison of three different hobs is presented (standard iron electrical hob, radiant-glass ceramic, and induction hob). Various temperature sensors (different types of thermocouples and a platinum resistance thermometer) and technical accessories (e.g., different cookware) were used to research differences or influences on final result of hobs' energy efficiency. Results show that temperature measurements with different sensors have an influence on the time difference in critical points for determination of hob energy efficiency.

  3. Mechanical properties and porosity of dental glass-ceramics hot-pressed at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Castiglia Gonzaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate biaxial-flexural-strength (σf, Vickers hardness (HV, fracture toughness (K Ic, Young's modulus (E, Poisson's ratio (ν and porosity (P of two commercial glass-ceramics, Empress (E1 and Empress 2 (E2, as a function of the hot-pressing temperature. Ten disks were hot-pressed at 1065, 1070, 1075 and 1080 °C for E1; and at 910, 915, 920 and 925 °C for E2. The porosity was measured by an image analyzer software and s f was determined using the piston-on-three-balls method. K Ic and HV were determined by an indentation method. Elastic constants were determined by the pulse-echo method. For E1 samples treated at different temperatures, there were no statistical differences among the values of all evaluated properties. For E2 samples treated at different temperatures, there were no statistical differences among the values of σf, E, and ν, however HV and K Ic were significantly higher for 910 and 915 °C, respectively. Regarding P, the mean value obtained for E2 for 925 °C was significantly higher compared to other temperatures.

  4. Material properties and glass transition temperatures of different thermoplastic starches after extrusion processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Léon P.B.M.; Karman, Andre P.; Graaf, Robbert A. de

    Four different starch sources, namely waxy maize, wheat, potato and pea starch were extruded with the plasticizer glycerol, the latter in concentrations of 15, 20 and 25% (w/w). The glass transition temperatures of the resulting thermoplastic products were measured by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal

  5. Compositional and Mechanical Properties of Peanuts Roasted to Equivalent Colors using Different Time/Temperature Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations,...

  6. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses during Aquatic Exercise in Water at Different Temperatures in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Matten, Sonia; Sieverdes, John C.; Zaccaria, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses during upper-body aquatic exercises in older adults with different pool temperatures. Method: Eleven older men (aged 65 years and older) underwent 2 identical aquatic exercise sessions that consisted of 3 upper-body exercises using progressive intensities (30, 35, and 40…

  7. Temperature dependencies of Henry’s law constants for different plant sesquiterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ülo

    2018-01-01

    Sesquiterpenes are plant-produced hydrocarbons with important ecological functions in plant-to-plant and plant-to-insect communication, but due to their high reactivity they can also play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. So far, there is little information of gas/liquid phase partition coefficients (Henry’s law constants) and their temperature dependencies for sesquiterpenes, but this information is needed for quantitative simulation of the release of sesquiterpenes from plants and modeling atmospheric reactions in different phases. In this study, we estimated Henry’s law constants (Hpc) and their temperature responses for 12 key plant sesquiterpenes with varying structure (aliphatic, mono-, bi- and tricyclic sesquiterpenes). At 25 °C, Henry’s law constants varied 1.4-fold among different sesquiterpenes, and the values were within the range previously observed for monocyclic monoterpenes. Hpc of sesquiterpenes exhibited a high rate of increase, on average ca. 1.5-fold with a 10 °C increase in temperature (Q10). The values of Q10 varied 1.2-fold among different sesquiterpenes. Overall, these data demonstrate moderately high variation in Hpc values and Hpc temperature responses among different sesquiterpenes. We argue that these variations can importantly alter the emission kinetics of sesquiterpenes from plants. PMID:26291755

  8. Soil organic carbon quality in forested mineral wetlands at different mean annual temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

    2009-01-01

    Forested mineral soil wetlands (FMSW) store large stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), but little is known on: (i) whether the quality of SOC stored in these soils (proportion of active versus more resistant SOC compounds) differs from SOC in upland soils; (ii) how the quality of SOC in FMSW varies with mean annual temperature (MAT); and (iii) whether SOC decomposition...

  9. Sex Differences in Behavioral Outcomes Following Temperature Modulation During Induced Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Smith

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain can cause various degrees of tissue damage, as well as subsequent cognitive/behavioral deficits such as motor, learning/memory, and auditory impairments. These outcomes frequently result from cardiovascular and/or respiratory events observed in premature infants. Data suggests that there is a sex difference in HI outcome, with males being more adversely affected relative to comparably injured females. Brain/body temperature may play a role in modulating the severity of an HI insult, with hypothermia during an insult yielding more favorable anatomical and behavioral outcomes. The current study utilized a postnatal day (P 7 rodent model of HI injury to assess the effect of temperature modulation during injury in each sex. We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats. We assessed all subjects on rota-rod, auditory discrimination, and spatial/non-spatial maze tasks. Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks. However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks. Our data suggest that temperature reduction protects both sexes from the deleterious effects of HI injury, but task and sex specific patterns of relative efficacy are seen.

  10. ANALYSING THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LAND COVER TYPES ON LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE USING SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Şekertekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST via remote sensing images is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and it also helps us to understand the behavior of urban heat islands. There are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image acquired on 28.08.2011. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Moreover, high resolution Geoeye-1 and Worldview-2 images acquired on 29.08.2011 and 12.07.2013 respectively were used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of the analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperatures than the city center and arid land., LST values change about 10 ºC in the city center because of different surface properties such as reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region (ÇATES and ZETES Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature due to the land cover structure.

  11. Comparison of different statistical modelling approaches for deriving spatial air temperature patterns in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Annette; Beck, Christoph; Breitner, Susanne; Cyrys, Josef; Geruschkat, Uta; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Kühlbach, Benjamin; Kusch, Thomas; Richter, Katja; Schneider, Alexandra; Umminger, Robin; Wolf, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Frequently spatial variations of air temperature of considerable magnitude occur within urban areas. They correspond to varying land use/land cover characteristics and vary with season, time of day and synoptic conditions. These temperature differences have an impact on human health and comfort directly by inducing thermal stress as well as indirectly by means of affecting air quality. Therefore, knowledge of the spatial patterns of air temperature in cities and the factors causing them is of great importance, e.g. for urban planners. A multitude of studies have shown statistical modelling to be a suitable tool for generating spatial air temperature patterns. This contribution presents a comparison of different statistical modelling approaches for deriving spatial air temperature patterns in the urban environment of Augsburg, Southern Germany. In Augsburg there exists a measurement network for air temperature and humidity currently comprising 48 stations in the city and its rural surroundings (corporately operated by the Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health and the Institute of Geography, University of Augsburg). Using different datasets for land surface characteristics (Open Street Map, Urban Atlas) area percentages of different types of land cover were calculated for quadratic buffer zones of different size (25, 50, 100, 250, 500 m) around the stations as well for source regions of advective air flow and used as predictors together with additional variables such as sky view factor, ground level and distance from the city centre. Multiple Linear Regression and Random Forest models for different situations taking into account season, time of day and weather condition were applied utilizing selected subsets of these predictors in order to model spatial distributions of mean hourly and daily air temperature deviations from a rural reference station. Furthermore, the different model setups were

  12. The Influence of Different Acupuncture Manipulations on the Skin Temperature of an Acupoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to observe the influence of sham and different verum acupuncture manipulations on skin temperature of the stimulated acupoint in healthy volunteers. Thirty-seven healthy volunteers with a mean age of 25.4 ± 2.2 years were enrolled in the study. All volunteers had experienced acupuncture before. They received sham acupuncture and two different kinds of verum acupuncture stimulation (lifting-thrusting and twisting-rotating on Zusanli (ST36. The skin temperature of ST36 was measured before acupuncture, after needle insertion, after needle manipulation, immediately after removal of the needle, and as further control 5 minutes after removal of the needle using a FLIR i7 infrared thermal camera. During the measurement, the needling sensations of volunteers were enquired and recorded. During the sham acupuncture stimulation, the skin temperature of ST36 decreased in the first 5 minutes, when the point was exposed, and then increased gradually. During verum acupuncture stimulations, the skin temperature increased continually and then decreased in the last phase. The increase in temperature caused by lifting-thrusting stimulation was significantly higher than that of twisting-rotating manipulation, which may be related to the stimulation intensity.

  13. Electrical properties of Mg doped ZnO nanostructure annealed at different temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, R., E-mail: ruziana12@gmail.com; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com; Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z., E-mail: Zurai142@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this work, ZincOxide (ZnO) nanostructures doped with Mg were successfully grown on the glass substrate. Magnesium (Mg) metal element was added in the ZnO host which acts as a doping agent. Different temperature in range of 250°C to 500°C was used in order to investigate the effect of annealing temperature of ZnO thin films. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to investigate the physical characteristic of ZnO thin films. FESEM results have revealed that ZnO nanorods were grown vertically aligned. The structural properties were determined by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. XRD results showed Mg doped ZnO thin have highest crystalinnity at 500°C annealing temperature. The electrical properties were investigating by using Current-Voltage (I-V) measurement. I-V measurement showed the electrical properties were varied at different annealing temperature. The annealing temperature at 500°C has the highest electrical conductance properties.

  14. Electrical properties of Mg doped ZnO nanostructure annealed at different temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.; Mamat, M. H.; Rusop, M.; Ismail, A. S.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, ZincOxide (ZnO) nanostructures doped with Mg were successfully grown on the glass substrate. Magnesium (Mg) metal element was added in the ZnO host which acts as a doping agent. Different temperature in range of 250°C to 500°C was used in order to investigate the effect of annealing temperature of ZnO thin films. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to investigate the physical characteristic of ZnO thin films. FESEM results have revealed that ZnO nanorods were grown vertically aligned. The structural properties were determined by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. XRD results showed Mg doped ZnO thin have highest crystalinnity at 500°C annealing temperature. The electrical properties were investigating by using Current-Voltage (I-V) measurement. I-V measurement showed the electrical properties were varied at different annealing temperature. The annealing temperature at 500°C has the highest electrical conductance properties.

  15. Effect of different light curing units on Knoop hardness and temperature of resin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiraldo Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the influence of quartz tungsten halogen and plasma arc curing (PAC lights on Knoop hardness and change in polymerization temperature of resin composite. Materials and Methods: Filtek Z250 and Esthet X composites were used in the shade A3. The temperature increase was registered with Type-k thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46. A self-cured polymerized acrylic resin base was built in order to guide the thermocouple and to support the dentin disk of 1.0 mm thickness obtained from bovine tooth. On the acrylic resin base, elastomer mold of 2.0 mm was adapted. The temperature increase was measured after composite light curing. After 24 h, the specimens were submitted to Knoop hardness test (HMV-2000, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey′s test (a = 0.05. Results: For both composites, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the top surface hardness; however, PAC promoted statistically lower (P < 0.05 Knoop hardness number values in the bottom. The mean temperature increase showed no significant statistical differences (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The standardized radiant exposure showed no influence on the temperature increase of the composite, however, showed significant effect on hardness values.

  16. Conservation of Campomanesia adamantium (CAMB. O. berg seeds in different packaging and at varied temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at evaluating the effects of different packaging and varied storage temperatures on the germination potential of seeds of Campomanesia adamantium Camb. O. Berg. The seeds were packaged in glass, aluminum foil and plastic containers, or maintained inside intact fruits at 5, 10 and 15 ºC during 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. After these periods the seeds were sown in Germitest® germination paper and maintained in incubation chambers at 25 ºC under constant white light for 42 days. Seed moisture contents were evaluated both before and after storage, as well as germination percentages, germination speed index, root and aerial portion of seedlings lengths, and total dry weights. All possible combinations of packing materials, temperatures and storage times were tested, with four repetitions of 25 seeds for each treatment. C. adamantium seeds showed initial water contents of 31.5%. Glass and aluminum packaging were efficient at maintaining the water content of the seeds, and provided greater germination speed index than the other packaging materials. Germination percentages, seedlings lengths and dry weights did not vary among the different temperatures tested. C. adamantium seeds can be stored for up to 21 days at temperatures between 5 and 15 ºC without altering their physiological quality. In terms of cost-benefit efficiencies, these seeds can be stored without significant damage for 21 days while still inside the fruits at temperatures of 5, 10 or 15 ºC.

  17. Grey water treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, Tarek; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of grey water in two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and temperatures, was investigated. The first reactor (UASB-A) was operated at ambient temperature (14-25 degrees C) and HRT of 20, 12 and 8 h, while the second reactor (UASB-30) was operated at controlled temperature of 30 degrees C and HRT of 16, 10 and 6 h. The two reactors were fed with grey water from 'Flintenbreite' settlement in Luebeck, Germany. When the grey water was treated in the UASB reactor at 30 degrees C, total chemical oxygen demand (CODt) removal of 52-64% was achieved at HRT between 6 and 16 h, while at lower temperature lower removal (31-41%) was obtained at HRT between 8 and 20 h. Total nitrogen and phosphorous removal in the UASB reactors were limited (22-36 and 10-24%, respectively) at all operational conditions. The results showed that at increasing temperature or decreasing HRT of the reactors, maximum specific methanogenic activity of the sludge in the reactors improved. As the UASB reactor showed a significantly higher COD removal (31-64%) than the septic tank (11-14%) even at low temperature, it is recommended to use UASB reactor instead of septic tank (the most common system) for grey water pre-treatment. Based on the achieved results and due to high peak flow factor, a HRT between 8 and 12 h can be considered the suitable HRT for the UASB reactor treating grey water at temperature 20-30 degrees C, while a HRT of 12-24 h can be applied at temperature lower than 20 degrees C.

  18. Lipid content and fatty acid profile during lake whitefish embryonic development at different incubation temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Casey A; Doyle, Liam; Eme, John; Manzon, Richard G; Somers, Christopher M; Boreham, Douglas R; Wilson, Joanna Y

    2017-01-01

    Lipids serve as energy sources, structural components, and signaling molecules during fish embryonic development, and utilization of lipids may vary with temperature. Embryonic energy utilization under different temperatures is an important area of research in light of the changing global climate. Therefore, we examined percent lipid content and fatty acid profiles of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) throughout embryonic development at three incubation temperatures. We sampled fertilized eggs and embryos at gastrulation, eyed and fin flutter stages following chronic incubation at temperatures of 1.8, 4.9 and 8.0°C. Hatchlings were also sampled following incubation at temperatures of 3.3, 4.9 and 8.0°C. Fertilized eggs had an initial high percentage of dry mass composed of lipid (percent lipid content; ~29%) consisting of ~20% saturated fatty acids (SFA), ~32% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), ~44% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and 4% unidentified. The most abundant fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1, 18:1(n-9c), 20:4(n-6), 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3). This lipid profile matches that of other cold-water fish species. Percent lipid content increased during embryonic development, suggesting protein or other yolk components were preferentially used for energy. Total percentage of MUFA decreased during development, which indicated MUFA were the primary lipid catabolized for energy during embryonic development. Total percentage of PUFA increased during development, driven largely by an increase in 22:6(n-3). Temperature did not influence percent lipid content or percent MUFA at any development stage, and had inconsistent effects on percent SFA and percent PUFA during development. Thus, lake whitefish embryos appear to be highly adapted to low temperatures, and do not alter lipids in response to temperature within their natural incubation conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Root temperature and energy consumption at different cable depths in electrically heated substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Fernandez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A finite element method-based model of a substrate heated by an electric heating cable buried in a thermal isolated container was experimentally validated with root mean square error values of root zone temperature ranging 0.25 to 0.62 ºC. The two-dimensional transient model allowed variations in the physical properties of the substrate with temperature, water content and depth. The operation of nine configurations of a heating cable buried in sand at different depths (50 to 450 mm, at 50 mm intervals at 200 mm spacing was simulated and assessed. The validated model was used to perform 24-h simulations applying boundary conditions, and substrate moisture content was experimentally obtained at a mean substrate surface temperature of 13.98 ºC. Such simulations reproduced the operation of the heating system by setting a reference temperature of 20 ºC at the control point in the root zone. Burying the heating cable in the surface layers of the substrate caused large temperature gradients and high heat losses through the substrate surface. Accordingly, average temperature in the root zone increased with heating cable depth, up to the 200 mm depth. For greater depths, temperature in the root zone was constant. The ON/OFF control was most effective with the heating cable buried in the root zone and at control point temperatures of 20 ± 1 ºC. Burying the heating cable in the surface layers required higher energy consumption, up to 28 % at 50 mm. The most efficient heating cable depth was 350 mm, with a daily energy consumption of 6750 kJ m-2.

  20. Design of an experimental set up for convective drying: experimental studies at different drying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, V. P. Chandra; Talukdar, Prabal

    2013-01-01

    An experimental setup is designed to investigate the convective drying of moist object experimentally. All the design data, components of setup, materials and specifications are presented. Transient moisture content of a rectangular shaped potato slice (4 × 2 × 2 cm) is measured at different air temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C with an air velocity of 2 m/s. Two different drying rate periods are observed. Results are compared with available results from literature.

  1. Effects of increasing temperatures on physiological changes in pigs at different relative humidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, T T T; Aarnink, A J A; Verstegen, M W A; Gerrits, W J J; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; Canh, T T

    2005-06-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) and high ambient temperature (T) on physiological responses and animal performance were studied using 12 groups (10 gilts per group) in pens inside respiration chambers. The microclimate in the chamber was programmed so that T remained constant within a day. Each day, the T was increased by 2 degrees C from low (16 degrees C) to high (32 degrees C). Relative humidity was kept constant at 50, 65, or 80%. The pigs' average initial BW was 61.7 kg (58.0 to 65.5 kg), and their average ending BW was 70.2 kg (65.9 to 74.7 kg). Respiration rate (RR), evaporative water (EW), rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (ST), voluntary feed intake (VFI), water-to-feed ratio (rW:F), heat production (HP), and ADG were analyzed. The animals had free access to feed and water. We determined the T above which certain animal variables started to change: the so-called inflection point temperature (IPt) or "upper critical temperature." The first indicator of reaction, RR, was in the range from 21.3 to 23.4 degrees C. Rectal temperature was a delayed indicator of heat stress tolerance, with IPt values ranging from 24.6 to 27.1 degrees C. For both these indicators the IPt was least at 80% RH (P stress in growing pigs; however, the combination of high T and high RH lowered the ADG in pigs. The upper critical temperature can be considered to be the IPt above which VFI decreased and RT then increased. Temperatures of the magnitude of both these IPt are regularly measured in commercial pig houses. We conclude that the upper critical temperatures for 60-kg, group-housed pigs fed ad libitum are between 21.3 and 22.4 degrees C for RR, between 22.9 and 25.5 degrees C for HP and VFI, and between 24.6 and 27.1 degrees C for RT. It is clear that different physiological and productive measurements of group-housed, growing-finishing pigs have different critical temperatures.

  2. Feasibility of active solar water heating systems with evacuated tube collector at different operational water temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarrón, Fernando R.; Porras-Prieto, Carlos Javier; García, José Luis; Benavente, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the feasibility of an active solar water-heating system. • Profitability decreases as the required water temperature increases. • The number of collectors that maximizes profitability depends on the required temperature. • Investment in a properly sized system generates savings between 23% and 15%. • Fuel consumption can be reduced by 70%. - Abstract: With rapid advancements in society, higher water temperatures are needed in a number of applications. The demand for hot water presents a great variability with water required at different temperatures. In this study, the design, installation, and evaluation of a solar water heating system with evacuated tube collector and active circulation has been carried out. The main objective is to analyze how the required tank water temperature affects the useful energy that the system is capable of delivering, and consequently its profitability. The results show how the energy that is collected and delivered to the tank decreases with increasing the required temperature due to a lower performance of the collector and losses in the pipes. The annual system efficiency reaches average values of 66%, 64%, 61%, 56%, and 55% for required temperatures of 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C. As a result, profitability decreases as temperature increases. The useful energy, and therefore the profitability, will decrease if the demand is not distributed throughout the day or focused on the end of the day. The system’s profitability was determined in two cases: considering maximum profitability of the system, assuming 100% utilization of useful energy (scenario 1); assuming a particular demand, considering that on many days all the useful energy the system can supply is not used (scenario 2). The analysis shows that through proper sizing of the system, optimizing the number of solar collectors, the investment in the solar system can be profitable with similar profitability values in the two

  3. Behavior of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus in ultrahigh-temperature, pasteurized, and raw cow's milk under different temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Serraino, Andrea; Pasquali, Frederique; De Cesare, Alessandra; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Rosmini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The growth and survival of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus in milk were investigated at different storage temperatures. Three strains of each Arcobacter species were inoculated into ultrahigh-temperature (UHT), pasteurized, and raw cow's milk and stored at 4, 10, and 20°C for 6 days. The survival of Arcobacter spp. during storage was evaluated by a culture method. Results clearly showed that A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus remained viable in milk when stored at 4°C and 10°C for a period of 6 days. When UHT and pasteurized milk were stored at 20°C, the A. butzleri count increased, with a longer lag-phase in pasteurized milk, whereas the A. cryaerophilus count increased in the first 48 h and then rapidly decreased to below the detection limit on the sixth storage day. When raw milk was stored at 20°C, the A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus counts decreased from the first day of storage and no viable bacteria were recovered on the last day of storage. Generally, A. butzleri displayed a significantly better growth and survival capacity than A. cryaerophilus in milk. The present study is the first to assess the survival and/or growth of A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus in milk. The evidence suggests that in case of primary contamination of milk or secondary contamination due to postprocessing contamination, milk can act as a potential source of Arcobacter infection in humans and could have public health implications, especially for raw milk consumption.

  4. Study of flue-gas temperature difference in supercritical once-through boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanchang; Li, Bing; Song, Ang

    2018-02-01

    The 600 MW coal-fired once-through Boilers with opposed firing at a power plant are found to experience marked temperature variation and even overtemperature on the wall of the heating surface as a result of flue-gas temperature (FGT) variation in the boiler. In this study, operational adjustments were made to the pulverizing, combustion, and secondary air box systems in these boilers, in order to solve problems in internal combustion. The adjustments were found to reduce FGT difference and optimize the boiler’ combustion conditions. The results of this study can provide a reference for optimization of coal-fired boiler of the same type in similar conditions.

  5. Bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature for different broiler chicken strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Tavares Nascimento

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate ideal bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature for broiler chicken strains during the rearing period and to evaluate the influence of time of exposure on bird physiological variables under different thermal stress conditions. The research was conducted in a climatic chamber during the six weeks of the rearing period, with Avian and Cobb strains exposed to two climatic conditions (comfort and stress, in three distinct times of exposure, in three conditions (before going to the chamber; at the end of exposure time; 30 minutes after the end of exposure, in four treatments: comfort with 60 minutes of exposure; stress with 30 minutes of exposure; stress with 60 minutes of exposure; stress with 90 minutes of exposure. Bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature were elaborated for both strains, for each one of the weeks of the rearing period. Strains differed, regardless of treatments and conditions adopted in the research on the third, fifth and sixth weeks of life in relation to the cloacal temperature. The Cobb strain is more tolerant to thermal stress in comparison with the Avian. There was difference for both variables between comfort and stress, but time of exposure to stress did not influence the physiological response of birds, except for cloacal temperature on the second week of life.

  6. Shelf-life of almond pastry cookies with different types of packaging and levels of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, F V; De Luca, S; Piscopo, A; Santisi, V; Poiana, M

    2010-06-01

    Almond pastries are typical cookies of the south of Italy. Introduction of new packaging for this kind of cookies requires shelf-life assessments. This study, related to different types of packaging under various storage conditions of time and temperature, identifies critical parameters, as color and texture, to track during storage studies and to extend the shelf-life. The cookies were packed in three different ways and stored at two different temperatures. The pastries were separately stored: (1) in polyvinylchloride film; (2) in aluminum foil (ALL); (3) with modified atmosphere (MAP) in plastic vessels sealed into a polyamide/ polyethylene film; and (4) in vessels without any polymeric film. The storage temperatures were 20 and 30 °C. Evolution of texture, water activity, dry matter and color was assessed. Texture was evaluated by a texture analyzer with a puncturing test. Indices for hardening were the area under the curve (N × mm) up to 10 mm of distance, and the maximum force (N) corresponding to the crust fracture. The best results were obtained with ALL packaging and MAP condition, and above all, in all the trials a temperature of 30 °C reduced the crust hardness.

  7. EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE HYPERTHERMIA AT TWO DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES (434 AND 2450 MHZ ON HUMAN MUSCLE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat therapy is commonly used to treat injured muscles, and recently, hyperthermia which has been used in oncology was introduced as a modality for use in sports medicine. The important physiological response which produces most of the beneficial effects of hyperthermia is increased blood flow (Sekins et al., 1984. Effective clinical response occurs when the temperature reaches 41 to 45 °C (Lehmann and de Lateur, 1982, increasing blood flow up to 15 times (Song, 1984. Sekins et al., 1984 reported that to produce observable variations in blood perfusion, temperature must rise above 41.5 °C as fast as possible. While there are several heating modalities, studies have shown that electromagnetic waves are more effective than other thermal modalities for treating injured muscles at depth of 1-4cm (Giombini et al., 2007. However, because of lack of research-based evidence of the microwave hyperthermia treatment, clinical and research studies need to be completed to confirm the therapeutic effectiveness of hyperthermia. We recently reported that hyperthermia treatment with a 434-MHz microwave and direct- contact applicator increased and maintained the muscle temperature locally by 6.3-11.4°C without causing muscle damage (Ichinoseki-Sekine et al., 2007. This system has also been found to be a highly innovative and reliable modality for treating acute muscle injuries (Giombini et al., 2001. However, most of the hyperthermia systems commonly used in clinical situations is equipped with a 2450-MHz microwave generator and a non-contact applicator. The possibility exists that the muscle temperature is influenced by the frequency and applicator style. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the changes in human muscle temperature induced by two different types of microwave hyperthermia systems. Our results could assist to solve the lack of research-based evidence for the clinical effectiveness of hyperthermia treatment. In this study two different

  8. Differences in the H-mode pedestal width of temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P A; Wolfrum, E; Günter, S; Kurzan, B; Lackner, K; Zohm, H; Groebner, R J; Osborne, T H; Ferron, J R; Snyder, P B; Beurskens, M N A; Dunne, M G

    2012-01-01

    A pedestal database was built using data from type-I ELMy H-modes of ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D and JET. ELM synchronized pedestal data were analysed with the two-line method. The two-line method is a bilinear fit which shows better reproducibility of pedestal parameters than a modified hyperbolic tangent fit. This was tested with simulated and experimental data. The influence of the equilibrium reconstruction on pedestal parameters was investigated with sophisticated reconstructions from CLISTE and EFIT including edge kinetic profiles. No systematic deviation between the codes could be observed. The flux coordinate system is influenced by machine size, poloidal field and plasma shape. This will change the representation of the width in different coordinates, in particular, the two normalized coordinates Ψ N and r/a show a very different dependence on the plasma shape. The scalings derived for the pedestal width, Δ, of all machines suggest a different scaling for the electron temperature and the electron density. Both cases show similar dependence with machine size, poloidal magnetic field and pedestal electron temperature and density. The influence of ion temperature and toroidal magnetic field is different on each of Δ T e and Δ n e . In dimensionless form the density pedestal width in Ψ N scales with ρ 0.6 i* , the temperature pedestal width with β p,ped 0.5 . Both widths also show a strong correlation with the plasma shape. The shape dependence originates from the coordinate transformation and is not visible in real space. The presented scalings predict that in ITER the temperature pedestal will be appreciably wider than the density pedestal. (paper)

  9. Discriminating among different tea leaves using an operating temperature-modulated tin oxide gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastkhadiv, Ali; Jenabi, Amin; Souri, Asma

    2016-03-01

    We report distinguishing different types of tea leaves from each other based on their aroma using a thermal shock-induced generic tin oxide gas sensor. The sensor used in this work consists of a microheater and a tin oxide pellet, both connected to outside circuitry with noble metal contacts. The heater is powered with a series of narrow high magnitude voltage impulses of predetermined thermal impacts adjusted to produce step-like temperature rises of different magnitudes on the gas sensitive pellet. The sensor is exposed to aromas collected from various types of tea leaves at different concentrations. Within 4.5 s, nine 500 ms-wide voltage pulses, each as high as 9.3 V in magnitude, are applied to the microheater. Each pulse causes a step-like temperature jump on the pellet temperature. The transient responses recorded for different tea leaves look different even after amplitude normalization. The sensor profiles are recorded, digitized, and compared with the database of previous experiences. A heuristically defined high dimensional feature vector is automatically generated for each analyte. Classifications are graphically achieved in a 3-D feature space after applying principle component analysis for dimension reduction.

  10. Study on the spoilage potential ofPseudomonas fluorescenson salmon stored at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Cheng, Ying; Qian, Yun-Fang

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial kinetics and quality indexes [sensory quality, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid value, biogenic amine, and amino acids] were analyzed on salmon inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens during storage under different temperatures (30, 10, and 4 °C). The bacterial kinetics revealed that P. fluorescens showed a steady growth at low temperatures (10 and 4 °C). The TVB-N yield factors of the sample stored at 4 °C indicated that each bacterial cell of P. fluorescens displayed greater spoilage activity at low temperatures. A remarkable correlation was found between the production of biogenic amines and bacterial counts. The results also highlighted that P. fluorescens cultured at 4 °C had higher demand for amino acids.

  11. Temperature dependence of luminescence for different surface flaws in high purity silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, J.; Grua, P.; Neauport, J.; Fargin, E.; Jubera, V.; Talaga, D.; Del Guerzo, A.; Raffy, G.; Jouannigot, S.

    2013-01-01

    In situ temperature dependence of the Photoluminescence under 325 nm irradiation is used to investigate defect populations existing in different surface flaws in high purity fused silica. Five photoluminescence bands peaking at 1.9, 2.1, 2.3, 2.63 and 3.11 eV have been detected in the spectral area ranging from 1.6 up to 3.6 eV. The Gaussian deconvolution of spectra allows dividing the five luminescence bands in two categories. The former corresponds to bands showing a significant intensity enhancement while temperature decreases; the latter corresponds to bands remaining insensitive to the temperature evolution. Such a behavior brings new information on defects involved in laser damage mechanism at 351 nm in nanosecond regime. (authors)

  12. Barium strontium titanate (BST) thin film analysis on different layer and annealing temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Y. C.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) thin film has been prepared by using sol-gel method. The samples are prepared with 2 different deposition layers (1 layer and 4 layer) and annealing temperature (600°C and 800°C) with Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 solution. Physical and electrical characterization of all the samples is done. The results showed that the grain size and surface roughness of the samples increased as the deposition layer and annealing temperature increased. In addition, the dielectric constant of the samples also increased as the deposition layer and annealing temperature increased. Thus, the physical and electrical characteristics of the thin films are related one to another.

  13. Confinement properties of JET plasmas with different temperature and density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, M.L.; Balet, B.; Bhatnagar, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The confinement properties of plasmas with substantially different temperature and density profiles have been analysed. The effects of fast particles and energy pedestals on the overall confinement of plasma energy in limiter (L-mode) and X-point (L- and H-modes) discharges heated by NBI or ICRF or both are determined. The importance of the bootstrap current when such energy pedestals are formed is noted. Using sets of consistent experimental data, including ion temperature profile measurements, the local transport properties are compared in the L- and H-phases of a single null X-point medium density NBI heated discharge, the ''enhanced'' confinement phase of a limiter high density pellet-fuelled and ICRF heated discharge, the hot-ion phase of a double null X-point low density NBI heated discharge and the hot-ion and H-phases of a double null X-point low density high temperature NBI heated discharge. (author)

  14. Effect of temperature on different stages of Romanomermis iyengari, a mermithid nematode parasite of mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Paily

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature (20 degrees-35 degrees C on different stages of Romanomermis iyengari was studied. In embryonic development, the single-cell stage eggs developed into mature eggs in 4.5-6.5 days at 25-35 degrees C but, required 9.5 days at 20 degrees C. Complete hatching occurred in 7 and 9 days after egg-laying at 35 and 30 degrees C, respectively. At 25 and 20 degrees C, 85-96 of the eggs did not hatch even by 30th day. Loss of infectivity and death of the preparasites occurred faster at higher temperatures. The 50 survival durations of preparasites at 20 and 35 degrees C were 105.8 and 10.6 hr respectively. They retained 50 infectivity up to 69.7 and 30.3 hr. The duration of the parasitic phase increased as temperature decreased. Low temperature favoured production of a higher proportion of females which were also larger in size. The maximum time taken for the juveniles to become adults was 14 days at 20 degrees C and the minimum was 9 days at 35 degrees C. Oviposition began earlier at higher temperature than at lower temperature. However, its fecundic period was shorter at 20 degrees C than at 35 degrees C indicating enhanced rate of oviposition at 20 degrees C. Fecundity was adversely affected at 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C. It is shown that the temperature range of 25 degrees-30 degrees C favours optimum development of R. iyengari.

  15. Modelling survival of Salmonella Enteritidis during storage of yoghurt at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Derya; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Kadir Halkman, A

    2018-04-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of Salmonella Enteritidis during the storage of yoghurt at different temperatures (4, 12, 20, and 25 °C), and to develop mathematical models to predict the behaviour of this bacterium as a function of storage temperature. Results indicated that Salmonella was able to survive longer during storage when temperature was low (e.g. 304 h at 4 °C, 60 h at 25 °C). The Geeraerd model with log-decrease and tailing was selected as the most suitable model to describe survival. To evaluate the effect of storage temperature on kinetic parameters such as death rate (k max ) secondary models were developed. The k max was maximum at 25 °C and minimum at 4 °C with k max  = 0.28 and 0.039 h -1 , respectively. The residual population (N res ) ranged 0.5 and 1.8 log CFU/g but there was no temperature dependency of this parameter. A probabilistic example was conduced based on the developed model to assess the exposure to Salmonella by consumption of traditional Turkish yoghurt. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In - situ temperature measurement to determine the machining behavior of different tool coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, T.; Engering, G.; Lahres, M.; Pecher, U.; Damm, S.; Doerr, J.; Huehsam, A.

    2001-01-01

    A research project for the development of dry lubricant coatings for the cutting tools of different machining operations demanded the generation of certain experimental techniques to attain knowledge about the coatings behavior. The solution developed compares the coatings by observing their temperature behavior during the machining process. A method of in-situ temperature measurement during turning formed the basis of this solution. The method of measurement was further modified for other operations. In addition to the thermographic recording during dry turning, solutions for dry threading, dry drilling and dry milling were also developed. The experimental set-ups were generated were generated in collaboration with several project partners. For each machining operation investigated, a specific device was developed, which made the in-situ temperature measurement possible using the high resolution thermographic camera. The results were such, that it became possible to attain knowledge about the coating's in-process temperature behavior for each of the processes investigated. Furthermore the individual coatings are compared among themselves and with uncoated tools. The combination of the temperature and wear measurement yields the possibility for optimization and further development of suitable self-lubricant coated tools for dry machining applications. (author)

  17. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C) were evaluated during storage period of 21 days. Peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), radical scavenging activity (RSA) and free fatty acids (FFA) of ghee samples were analyzed during the study. PV, TBA and FFA of ghee samples increased significantly while radical scavenging activity (RSA) of ghee samples decreased significantly at accelerated temperature (T3) as compared to the temperatures at T1 and T2. Effect of storage temperature on development of peroxides and TBA of ghee samples was significantly higher than the effect of treatment and storage period while treatment had more significant effect on the change in FFA and RSA as compared to storage temperature and storage period. Ghee incorporated with orange peel extract (OPE) showed stronger activity in quenching DPPH radicals and least development of PV, TBA and FFA than ghee incorporated with BHA and control. The study revealed that orange peel could be a good natural source of antioxidants which can be used in fat rich food products like ghee to retard oxidative deterioration.

  18. Assessing the processing quality of different potato cultivars during storage at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, A.; Randhawa, M.A.; Butt, M.S.; Asghar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Processing industry needs continuous supply of tubers for fries/chips preparation throughout the year. Storage is obligatory to meet the increasing demand of population. Objective of this study was to evaluate the processing and quality characteristics of different potato cultivars (Lady Rosetta, Sante, Hermes, Crozo, Kuroda and Asterix) during storage with 75-80 percent relative humidity for the period of 160 days at various temperatures (3 degree C, 7 degree C, 11 degree C). Quality parameters such as specific gravity, sprouting, weight loss, dry matter, starch content, ascorbic acid, sugar content and invertase enzyme activity were determined to estimate the processing potential of each cultivar. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with amino (NH2) column and Refractive Index Detector (RID) was used for the identification and quantification of sugars. The findings of the present work showed that temperature significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the processing quality throughout the storage. Low temperature (3 degree C) storage caused cold induced sweetening (CIS) due to increased invertase activity whereas, high temperature resulted in sprouting and weight loss of the tubers. Overall processing acceptability for all the cultivars with good frying color was obtained at an intermediate storage temperature of 7 degree C in the order of Lady Rosetta > Hermes > Crozo > Sante > Asterix > Kuroda. (author)

  19. Germination of Archontophoenix cunninghamiana (Australian king palm seeds based on different temperatures and substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petterson Baptista da Luz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Archontophoenix cunninghamiana or Australian King Palm, is a very popular ornamental palm in Brazil. Although A. cunninghamiana is propagated by seeds, few studies have reported on seed germination of this species. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different temperatures and substrates on the germination of A. cunninghamiana seeds. To carry out the temperature experiment, constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30 or 35 °C and alternating temperatures of 20/30 °C or 25/35 °C were used with four replications of 25 seeds each. For the substrate experiment, sand, vermiculite, and sphagnum moss were used with 7 replicates of 25 seeds per treatment in a completely randomized design. All temperatures, except 35 °C, favored the germination of A. cunninghamiana seeds (60%. Vermiculite was determined to be best suited for the germination of A. cunninghamiana seeds. Overall, the germination of A. cunninghamiana seeds is slow and uneven, in turn allowing for a longer period of germination.

  20. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Dan; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Rongfu

    2015-01-01

    The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C) quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm), microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm), and mineral fractions (MF, temperature and aggregate size significantly affected on SOM decomposition, with notable interactive effects (Psoil and soil aggregates increased with increasing incubation temperature in the following order: MA>MF>bulk soil >MI(P soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea) for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol-1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (Psoil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  1. Constitutive Behavior and Deep Drawability of Three Aluminum Alloys Under Different Temperatures and Deformation Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Sudhy S.; Prasad, K. Sajun; Basak, Shamik; Panda, Sushanta Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, uniaxial tensile tests were carried out to evaluate the stress-strain response of AA2014, AA5052 and AA6082 aluminum alloys at four temperatures: 303, 423, 523 and 623 K, and three strain rates: 0.0022, 0.022 and 0.22 s-1. It was found that the Cowper-Symonds model was not a robust constitutive model, and it failed to predict the flow behavior, particularly the thermal softening at higher temperatures. Subsequently, a comparative study was made on the capability of Johnson-Cook (JC), modified Zerilli-Armstrong (m-ZA), modified Arrhenius (m-ARR) and artificial neural network (ANN) for modeling the constitutive behavior of all the three aluminum alloys under the mentioned strain rates and temperatures. Also, the improvement in formability of the materials was evaluated at an elevated temperature of 623 K in terms of cup height and maximum safe strains by conducting cylindrical cup deep drawing experiments under two different punch speeds of 4 and 400 mm/min. The cup heights increased during warm deep drawing due to thermal softening and increase in failure strains. Also, a small reduction in cup height was observed when the punch speed increased from 4 to 400 mm/min at 623 K. Hence, it was suggested to use high-speed deformation at elevated temperature to reduce both punch load and cycle time during the deep drawing process.

  2. Fabrication and properties of YBa2Cu3O7- x ceramics at different sintering temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayoonphokkharat, Poom; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda; Watcharapasorn, Anucha

    2013-07-01

    The influence of sintering temperatures on the fabrication of YBCO ceramics under normal air atmosphere was investigated in this study. YBCO ceramics were prepared by mixing starting compounds of Y2O3, BaCO3 and CuO powders, which were calcined at 850°C for 12 h. The powder was pelletized and sintered at different temperatures, from 930°C-1050°C, for 12 h. Phase identification was carried out by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS) was used to study microstructure and chemical composition. In addition, density, Vickers hardness properties, the change of resistance and dielectric properties with temperature above T c were investigated. It was found that, at 950°C-1000°C, high-purity YBCO ceramic could be obtained. Outside this temperature range, either impurity phases were present or melting occurred. SEM images showed that grain size, which ranged from 1.5-2.5 µm, and hardness were related to density and liquid phase present in the sample. Furthermore, the sintering temperature affected oxygen content which, in turn, determined the conductive or semi-conductive behavior observed by electrical property measurement.

  3. Effect of four different reflective barriers on black-globe temperatures in calf hutches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, T. H.; Haberman, J. A.; Binion, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    Polyethylene hutches are a popular method of housing dairy calves from 0 to 60 or more days of age, although these hutches get hot when in full sun. This study characterized the relative differences in the ability of four different types of radiant barriers to reduce black-globe temperature within these hutches. Treatments included three different types of covers (two types of laminates (Cadpak P and Cadpak ESD) and an aluminized 3.0-mil white low-density polyethylene (LDPE)) and a reflective paint (LO/MIT-1). The reflective covers were 1.8 × 3 m finished size, and covered the top and sides of the hutch down to 0.15 m above the ground, leaving the front and back exposed. The LO/MIT-1 paint covered the entire sides and roof of the hutch. Two 24-h trials 1 week apart were conducted during relatively hot and clear days in early August. Black-globe temperatures were recorded in duplicate and averaged at 20-min intervals using blackened table tennis balls mounted 0.3 m above the floor in the center of each hutch. Ambient temperature (shade) during the hottest 2-h period for both trials averaged 39.9 °C while the uncovered control averaged 41.1 °C, and LO/MIT-1 averaged 39.9 °C; both of which were significantly higher ( P < 0.01) than the Cadpak P (38.9 °C), Cadpak ESD (38.6 °C), and aluminized LDPE (38.7 °C). During periods of high solar radiation, the hutches with covers had lowest black-globe temperatures followed by hutches painted with reflective paint, while control hutches had the highest temperature.

  4. Thermal comfort index and infrared temperatures for lambs subjected to different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago do Prado Paim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an abundance of thermal indices with different input parameters and applicabilities. Infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating the response of animals to the environment and differentiating between genetic groups. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate superficial body temperatures of lambs from three genetic groups under different environmental conditions, correlating these with thermal comfort indices. Forty lambs (18 males and 22 females from three genetic groups (Santa Inês, Ile de France × Santa Inês and Dorper × Santa Inês were exposed to three climatic conditions: open air, housed and artificial heating. Infrared thermal images were taken weekly at 6h, 12h and 21h at the neck, front flank, rear flank, rump, nose, skull, trunk and eye. Four thermal comfort indices were calculated using environmental measurements including black globe temperature, air humidity and wind speed. Artificial warming, provided by infrared lamps and wind protection, conserved and increased the superficial body temperature of the lambs, thus providing lower daily thermal ranges. Artificial warming did not influence daily weight gain or mortality. Skin temperatures increased along with increases in climatic indices. Again, infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating thermal stress conditions and differentiating environments. However, the use of thermal imaging for understanding animal responses to environmental conditions requires further study.

  5. Preparation and properties of low cement castable sintered at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Martinović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The low cement high alumina castable (LCC studied in this paper was synthesised, cured and then treated at different sintering temperatures. Since any inhomogeneity introduced during the castable preparation can remain inside the material degrading its properties and therefore the quality during service life, particular attention was given to the processing procedure in order to produce the material with the optimum characteristics. Composition of the castable regarding particle size distribution was adjusted according to the Andreassen’s packing model. The samples were sintered at 1100, 1300 and 1600°C for three hours. Influence of the different sintering temperatures on the castable properties is discussed. Compressive and flexural strengths were determined by destructive testing method, while the water immersion method was used for determination of the bulk density and the water absorption. Changes of elastic properties and microstructure (porosity were observed by the non-destructive testing methods, ultrasonic measurements and image analysis. Based on the results, it can be concluded that sintering temperature has strong influence on the properties of the LCC. Exceptionally good properties were obtained for the sample sintered at 1600°C, but it should be highlighted that the samples treated at 1100 and 1300°C were provided with good properties, too. This should not be neglected because of the energy saving importance, in cases where the material sintered at lower temperature satisfies the application requirements.

  6. Preliminary data on growth and enzymatic abilities of soil fungus Humicolopsis cephalosporioides at different incubation temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elíades, Lorena Alejandra; Cabello, Marta N; Pancotto, Verónica; Moretto, Alicia; Rago, María Melisa; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2015-01-01

    Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp & Endl.) Krasser, known as "lenga" is the most important timber wood species in southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). Humicolopsis cephalosporioides Cabral & Marchand is a soil fungus associated with Nothofagus pumilio forests, which has outstanding cellulolytic activity. However, there is no information about the ability of this fungus to use organic substrates other than cellulose, and its ability to produce different enzyme systems, as well as its response to temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the role of H. cephalosporioides in degradation processes in N. pumilio forests in detail by evaluating the in vitro ability of four isolates of this fungus to grow and produce different lytic enzyme systems, and their response to incubation temperature. The ability of the fungi to grow and produce enzyme systems was estimated by inoculating them on agar media with specific substrates, and the cultures were incubated at three temperatures. A differential behavior of each strain in levels of growth and enzyme activity was found according to the medium type and/or incubation temperature. A intra-specific variability was found in H. cephalosporioides. Likewise a possible link between the saprotrophic role of this fungus in N. pumilio forests and the degradation of organic matter under stress conditions, such as those from frosty environments, was also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Analyzing the Impact of Ambient Temperature Indicators on Transformer Life in Different Regions of Chinese Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cui-fen; Gao, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis is applied to quantitatively analyze the impact of different ambient temperature characteristics on the transformer life at different locations of Chinese mainland. 200 typical locations in Chinese mainland are selected for the study. They are specially divided into six regions so that the subsequent analysis can be done in a regional context. For each region, the local historical ambient temperature and load data are provided as inputs variables of the life consumption model in IEEE Std. C57.91-1995 to estimate the transformer life at every location. Five ambient temperature indicators related to the transformer life are involved into the partial least squares regression to describe their impact on the transformer life. According to a contribution measurement criterion of partial least squares regression, three indicators are conclusively found to be the most important factors influencing the transformer life, and an explicit expression is provided to describe the relationship between the indicators and the transformer life for every region. The analysis result is applicable to the area where the temperature characteristics are similar to Chinese mainland, and the expressions obtained can be applied to the other locations that are not included in this paper if these three indicators are known. PMID:23843729

  8. Kinetics of color development in glucose/Amino Acid model systems at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Echavarría

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of temperature on the color development of melanoidins formed from a single combination of glucose with amino acid. The selected amino acid, commonly found in apple juice and highly reactive in the Maillard reaction, were asparagine (Asn, aspartic acid (Asp and glutamic acid (Glu. For this, the color development was evaluated by measuring browning at 420 nm and color measurements by spectrophotometry and colorimetry methods. The effect of temperature on the color intensity, the absorption of melanoidins were also measured at different wavelengths (280, 325, 405. The value of melanoidins formed from all model systems was located on a dominant wavelength of 325 nm, the ultra violet zone of the diagram. A first-order kinetic model was applied to L* and the evolution of color difference ΔE*. In addition, a*, b* values, significantly differences were found in the glucose/aspartic acid model system in the brown-red zone. Therefore, the color development of the melanoidins was influenced by the type of amino acid and temperature, and it is thought that the a* and b* values can be used to explain the differences among the amino acid in the color development of melanoidins.

  9. Research on operating characteristics of direct-return chilled water system controlled by variable temperature difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xue-feng; Liu, Jin-ping; Lu, Ji-dong; Liu, Lei; Zou, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Terminal load distribution and pipe network structure are the key factors that affect the energy-saving potential of central air-conditioning chilled water systems, nonlinear thermodynamic performance of an air-conditioning system with large inertia will mainly exert influence on the stability and reliability of energy-saving operation control. Unreasonable variable flow control strategy can neither achieve an ideal energy-saving effect nor meet the air-conditioning comfortableness requirements. With a direct-return chilled water system as study object, this paper built a hydraulic calculation model of pipe network topology, bypass loop hydraulic calculation model, AHU thermodynamic model, and water pump variable frequency operation model. Operating frequency of a water pump for different flow ratio, pump power, temperature difference of pipe network supply and return water, pressure difference of pipe network supply and return water, bypass control valve characteristics, system adjustability coefficient, and pipe network resistance characteristics of a chilled water system are studied under the condition of given supply water temperature, and pipe network’s AHU node thermal and humid load. And energy consumption characteristics of constant temperature difference control and variable temperature difference control are also analyzed with comparison. The results can provide theoretical guidance for the stable and reliable energy-saving operation of a chilled water system. -- Highlights: ► AHU thermodynamic model has been built to solve the heat/humidity balance problem. ► Hydraulic calculation models of direct-return pipe network topology has been built. ► Bypass loop has been considered to the analysis for variable flow operation. ► The universal problems for variable flow operation have been analyzed theoretically. ► Energy-saving operation strategies have been researched.

  10. Nonlinear relationship between extreme temperature and mortality in different temperature zones: A systematic study of 122 communities across the mainland of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenzhi; Zhang, Zhao; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhang, Lingyan; Yin, Peng; Ye, Wan; Chen, Yi

    2017-05-15

    Numerous previous studies have reported that human health risk is extremely sensitive to temperature. Very few studies, however, have characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in different temperature zones due to the previous conclusions deduced from a regional or administrative division. A research covers different temperature zones was indispensable to have a comprehensive understanding of regional ambient temperature effect on public health. Based on the mortality dataset and meteorological variables of 122 communities in China from 2007 to 2012, a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was utilized to estimate the temperature effect on non-accidental mortality at the community level. Then, a meta-regression analysis was applied to pool the estimates of community-specific effects in various latitude-effected temperature zones. At the community level, the mean value of relative extreme cold risk (1.63) of all 122 communities was higher than that of extreme high temperature (1.15). At regional level, we found temperature-mortality relationship (e.g., U- or J-shaped) varied in different temperature zones. Meanwhile, the minimum-mortality temperature of each zone was near the 75th percentile of local mean temperature except the north subtropics (50th percentiles). Lag effect was also obvious, especially for cold effect. An interesting M-shaped curve for the relationship between cold risk and temperature was detected, while an inverted "U" shaped with a right tail for the heat effect. Such different responses might be attributed to the difference in social-economic status of temperature zones. The temperature-mortality relationship showed a distinct spatial heterogeneity along temperature zones across the Chinese mainland. Different characteristics of mortality responding to cold and heat stress highlighted the fact that, apart from the circumstance of temperature, the social-economic condition was also linked with health risk. Our findings

  11. Modeling Temperature Development of Li-Ion Battery Packs in Hybrid Refuse Truck Operating at Different Ambient Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures.......This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures....

  12. Hardness evolution of AZ80 magnesium alloy processed by HPT at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad A. Alsubaie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Discs of an extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy were processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT using 6.0 GPa up to 10 turns at different temperatures (296 K and 473 K. The disc surfaces and cross-sectional planes were examined before and after processing using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Vickers microhardness (Hv. The microhardness results at the surface show differences in the strength of the material as a function of distance from the disc centres up to saturation, as well as a function of distance from the bottom to the surface in the cross-sectional plane. This study analyses the effect of processing temperature on the evolution of microhardness in the AZ80 magnesium alloy processed by high-pressure torsion. Keywords: Hardness, High-pressure torsion, Magnesium alloy, Severe plastic deformation

  13. Instationary pressure, pressure difference, and temperature curves in a full-pressure containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfeld, G.

    1975-05-01

    The time dependent short-term pressure, temperature and pressure difference-time histories following a loss-of-coolant accident at the primary system in full pressure containments of water cooled nuclear power reactors, which are important for the design of such containments are treated. Therefore pressure, temperature and pressure difference-time histories calculated by the mathematical model and computer code ZOCO VI have been compared with the experiment C1 of the German research program RS 50 'Druckverteilung im Containment'. This comparison showed a partly good agreement between theory and experiemt and gave a first insight into the simulation of the physical phenomena occurring during this short-term behaviour. (orig.) [de

  14. Modelling of Railway Track Temperature Regime with Real Heat-Technical Values for Different Climatic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodás, Stanislav; Pultznerová, Alžbeta

    2017-12-01

    High quality of railway track construction is a major priority. One of the quality elements is the resistance to load of railway formation with individual structural layers caused by negative temperatures during the critical freezing period of winter. Numerical modelling allows obtaining more control outputs at different climatic loads. The presented paper shows the load of railway track model with different variants of climate and shows the importance in the designing of the non-transport load under negative temperatures, i.e. observation of transition of the zero isotherm through the layers of railway subgrade. If the subgrade layers of the railway formation are built with high quality and durability then the axis of the track will keep its geometric spatial position during the long-time operation.

  15. Surface induces different crystal structures in a room temperature switchable spin crossover compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Denis; Liscio, Fabiola; Demitri, Nicola; Schäfer, Bernhard; Borgatti, Francesco; Torelli, Piero; Gobaut, Benoit; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giorgio; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Gazzano, Massimo; Milita, Silvia; Bergenti, Ilaria; Ruani, Giampiero; Šalitroš, Ivan; Ruben, Mario; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-07

    We investigated the influence of surfaces in the formation of different crystal structures of a spin crossover compound, namely [Fe(L)2] (LH: (2-(pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine), which is a neutral compound thermally switchable around room temperature. We observed that the surface induces the formation of two different crystal structures, which exhibit opposite spin transitions, i.e. on heating them up to the transition temperature, one polymorph switches from high spin to low spin and the second polymorph switches irreversibly from low spin to high spin. We attributed this inversion to the presence of water molecules H-bonded to the complex tetrazolyl moieties in the crystals. Thin deposits were investigated by means of polarized optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy; moreover the analysis of the Raman spectra and the interpretation of spin inversion were supported by DFT calculations.

  16. Analysis of Anodes of Microbial Fuel Cells When Carbon Brushes Are Preheated at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The anode electrode is one of the most important components in all microbial electrochemical technologies (METs. Anode materials pretreatment and modification have been shown to be an effective method of improving anode performance. According to mass loss analysis during carbon fiber heating, five temperatures (300, 450, 500, 600, and 750 °C were selected as the pre-heating temperatures of carbon fiber brush anodes. Microbial fuel cell (MFC reactors built up with these pre-heated carbon brush anodes performed with different power densities and Coulombic efficiencies (CEs. Two kinds of measuring methods for power density were applied, and the numerical values of maximum power densities diverged greatly. Reactors with 450 °C anodes, using both methods, had the highest power densities, and the highest CEs were found using 500 °C anode reactors. The surface elements of heat-treated carbon fibers were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, and C, O, and N were the main constituents of the carbon fiber. There were four forms of N1s at the surface of the polyacrylonitrile (PAN-based carbon fiber, and their concentrations were different at different temperature samples. The microbial community of the anode surface was analyzed, and microbial species on anodes from every sample were similar. The differences in anode performance may be caused by mass loss and by the surface elements. For carbon brush anodes used in MFCs or other BESs, 450–500 °C preheating was the most suitable temperature range in terms of the power densities and CEs.

  17. Effect of Different Tree canopies on the Brightness Temperature of Snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S.; De Roo, R. D.; Brucker, L.

    2017-12-01

    Snow stores the water we drink and is essential to grow food that we eat. But changes in snow quantities such as snow water equivalent (SWE) are underway and have serious consequences. So, effective management of the freshwater reservoir requires to monitor frequently (weekly or better) the spatial distribution of SWE and snowpack wetness. Both microwave radar and radiometer systems have long been considered as relevant remote sensing tools in retrieving globally snow physical parameters of interest thanks to their all-weather operation capability. However, their observations are sensitive to the presence of tree canopies, which in turns impacts SWE estimation. To address this long-lasting challenge, we parked a truck-mounted microwave radiometer system for an entire winter in a rare area where it exists different tree types in the different cardinal directions. We used dual-polarization microwave radiometers at three different frequencies (1.4, 19, and 37 GHz), mounted on a boom truck to observe continuously the snowpack surrounding the truck. Observations were recorded at different incidence angles. These measurements have been collected in Grand Mesa National Forest, Colorado as part of the NASA SnowEx 2016-17. In this presentation, the effect of Engelmann Spruce and Aspen trees on the measured brightness temperature of snow is discussed. It is shown that Engelmann Spruce trees increases the brightness temperature of the snowpack more than Aspen trees do. Moreover, the elevation angular dependence of the measured brightness temperatures of snowpack with and without tree canopies is investigated in the context of SWE retrievals. A time-lapse camera was monitoring a snow post installed in the sensors' field of view to characterize the brightness temperature change as snow depth evolved. Also, our study takes advantage of the snowpit measurements that were collected near the radiometers' field of view.

  18. Nutritional Potential and Functionality of Whey Powder Influenced by Different Processing Temperature and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zarmina Gillani; Nuzhat Huma; Aysha Sameen; Mulazim Hussain Bukhari

    2017-01-01

    Whey is an excellent food ingredient owing to its high nutritive value and its functional properties. However, composition of whey varies depending on composition of milk, processing conditions, processing method, and its whey protein content. The aim of this study was to prepare a whey powder from raw whey and to determine the influence of different processing temperatures (160 and 180 °C) on the physicochemical, functional properties during storage of 180 days and on whey protein denaturati...

  19. Difference in ocular surface temperature by infrared thermography in phakic and pseudophakic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sniegowski M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Matthew Sniegowski, Michael Erlanger, Raul Velez-Montoya, Jeffrey L Olson Ophthalmology Department, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Aurora, CO, USA Purpose: To assess the change in ocular surface temperature between healthy phakic and pseudophakic patients.Methods: We included patients with no history of ocular disease other than cataract. Patients were divided into three groups: clear lens, cataract, and pseudophakic. All patients had two ocular surface digital thermal scans. An average of five surface points was used as the mean ocular surface temperature. Results were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance and a Tukey’s least significance difference test. The patients were further divided into phakic and pseudophakic groups. Correlation coefficients between several variables were done in order to assess dependencies.Results: Fifty-six eyes (28 cataracts, 12 clear lenses, 16 pseudophakic were enrolled. The mean ocular surface temperature in the cataract group was 34.14°C±1.51°C; clear lens: 34.43°C±2.27°C; and pseudophakic: 34.97°C±1.57°C. There were no statistical differences among the study groups (P=0.3. There was a nonsignificant negative correlation trend between age and surface temperature in the phakic group. The trend inverted in the pseudophakic group but without statistical significance.Conclusion: Although cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation seem to induce a mild increase in ocular surface temperature, the effect is not clear and not significant. Keywords: digital thermal scans, intraocular lens implantation, cataract extraction

  20. Plio-Pleistocene Sea Surface Temperature Variability As Measured by Different Proxies - A Cautionary Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K. T.; Woodard, S. C.; Castañeda, I. S.; deMenocal, P. B.; Peterson, L.; Rosenthal, Y.; Bochner, L.; Gorbey, D. B.; Mauriello, H.

    2016-12-01

    Conflicting interpretations from the application of different sea surface temperature (SST) proxies seeking to characterize past climate conditions of the same region have given rise to a number of controversies about key elements of Pliocene climate. Thus, a detailed look at whether or not different temperature proxies yield consistent results is warranted. Here, we examine Pliocene climate variability at the orbital scale reporting new alkenone-derived SST estimates from ODP Site 1088 (South Atlantic) and ODP Site 846 (Eastern Equatorial Pacific). Using these novel datasets and previously published records from a variety of different sites in a variety of localities, we further examine the consistency of Plio-Pleistocene SST variability and orbital signatures from faunal, Mg/Ca, and TEX86 SST records relative to Uk'37 SST records. We find that many companion SST records produce very similar mean trends and standard deviations as well as absolute temperature estimates that are generally within error of each other. Our analysis also suggests that many companion records, with a few notable exceptions, capture the same dominant Milankovitch periodicities and produce phase estimates relative to benthic oxygen isotope estimates that are within error of each other. However, marked structural differences occur between different proxy records on glacial-interglacial timescales in Uk'37 versus Mg/Ca comparisons and some Uk'37 versus TEX86 comparisons. Therefore, the temperature estimates of individual glacial-interglacial cycles may vary significantly when a specific time slice is explored. Our preliminary investigation suggests that whether or not climate records derived from different paleothermometers yield consistent results depends on the timescale being explored and the study site, which reflects key factors such as seasonality, ecology, and diagenetic regime. Additional work that explores the underlying causes of the differences observed among proxies and uses a

  1. Effect of different sintering temperature on fly ash based geopolymer artificial aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Alida; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Tahir, Muhammad Faheem Mohd

    2017-04-01

    This research was conducted to study the mechanical and morphology of fly ash based geopolymer as artificial aggregate at different sintering temperature. The raw material that are used is fly ash, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, geopolymer artificial aggregate, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), coarse aggregate and fine aggregate. The research starts with the preparation of geopolymer artificial aggregate. Then, geopolymer artificial aggregate will be sintered at six difference temperature that is 400°C, 500°C, 600°C, 700°C, 800°C and 900°C to known at which temperature the geopolymer artificial aggregate will become a lightweight aggregate. In order to characterize the geopolymer artificial aggregate the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) was done. The testing and analyses involve for the artificial aggregate is aggregate impact test, specific gravity test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After that the process will proceed to produce concrete with two type of different aggregate that is course aggregate and geopolymer artificial aggregate. The testing for concrete is compressive strength test, water absorption test and density test. The result obtained will be compared and analyse.

  2. Etching characteristics of a CR-39 track detector at room temperature in different etching solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dajko, G.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to discover how the etching characteristics of CR-39 detectors change with varying conditions of the etching process. Measurements were made at room temperature in pure NaOH and KOH solutions; in different alcoholic KOH solutions (PEW solution, i.e. potassium hydroxide, ethyl alcohol, water); and in NaOH and KOH solutions containing different additives. The bulk etching rate of the detector (V B ) and the V (= V T /V B ) function, i.e. track to bulk etch rates ratio, for 6.1 MeV α-particles, were measured systematically. (author)

  3. A comparison of three different types of temperature measurement in HITU fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, J.; Jenderka, K.-V.; Seifert, F.; Klepsch, T.; Martin, E.; Shaw, A.; Durando, G.; Guglielmone, C.; Girard, F.

    2012-10-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of the temperature elevation caused by high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) in a tissue-mimicking material (TMM) has been determined with magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry, infrared (IR) thermometry and a thermal test object with an integrated thin-film thermocouple at three different National Metrological Institutes (PTB/Germany, NPL/UK, INRIM/Italy). Results obtained from the different types of measurement are compared and some general aspects of the methods are discussed, particularly with regard to their suitability for the in vitro characterization of transducers for treatment planning.

  4. Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonghyan; Krishna, Venkatramana D; Torremorell, Montserrat; Goyal, Sagar M; Cheeran, Maxim C-J

    2018-02-13

    Indirect transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) ensues when susceptible animals contact PEDV-contaminated fomite materials. Although the survival of PEDV under various pHs and temperatures has been studied, virus stability on different fomite surfaces under varying temperature conditions has not been explored. Hence, we evaluated the survival of PEDV on inanimate objects routinely used on swine farms such as styrofoam, rubber, plastic, coveralls, and other equipment. The titer of infectious PEDV at 4 °C decreased by only 1 to 2 log during the first 5 days, and the virus was recoverable for up to 15 days on Styrofoam, aluminum, Tyvek ® coverall, cloth, and plastic. However, viral titers decreased precipitously when stored at room temperature; no virus was detectable after one day on all materials tested. A more sensitive immunoplaque assay was able to detect virus from Styrofoam, metal, and plastic at 20 days post application, representing a 3-log loss of input virus on fomite materials. Recovery of infectious PEDV from Tyvek ® coverall and rubber was above detection limit at 20 days. Our findings indicate that the type of fomite material and temperatures impact PEDV stability, which is important in understanding the nuances of indirect transmission and epidemiology of PEDV.

  5. Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghyan Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indirect transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV ensues when susceptible animals contact PEDV-contaminated fomite materials. Although the survival of PEDV under various pHs and temperatures has been studied, virus stability on different fomite surfaces under varying temperature conditions has not been explored. Hence, we evaluated the survival of PEDV on inanimate objects routinely used on swine farms such as styrofoam, rubber, plastic, coveralls, and other equipment. The titer of infectious PEDV at 4 °C decreased by only 1 to 2 log during the first 5 days, and the virus was recoverable for up to 15 days on Styrofoam, aluminum, Tyvek® coverall, cloth, and plastic. However, viral titers decreased precipitously when stored at room temperature; no virus was detectable after one day on all materials tested. A more sensitive immunoplaque assay was able to detect virus from Styrofoam, metal, and plastic at 20 days post application, representing a 3-log loss of input virus on fomite materials. Recovery of infectious PEDV from Tyvek® coverall and rubber was above detection limit at 20 days. Our findings indicate that the type of fomite material and temperatures impact PEDV stability, which is important in understanding the nuances of indirect transmission and epidemiology of PEDV.

  6. The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin-Hua; Xu, Ren-Kou; Zhang, Hong

    2011-02-01

    The forms of alkalis of the biochars produced from the straws of canola, corn, soybean and peanut at different temperatures (300, 500 and 700°C) were studied by means of oxygen-limited pyrolysis. The alkalinity and pH of the biochars increased with increased pyrolysis temperature. The X-ray diffraction spectra and the content of carbonates of the biochars suggested that carbonates were the major alkaline components in the biochars generated at the high temperature; they were also responsible for the strong buffer plateau-regions on the acid-base titration curves at 500 and 700°C. The data of FTIR-PAS and zeta potentials indicated that the functional groups such as -COO(-) (-COOH) and -O(-) (-OH) contained by the biochars contributed greatly to the alkalinity of the biochar samples tested, especially for those generated at the lower temperature. These functional groups were also responsible for the negative charges of the biochars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of different light curing units on Knoop hardness and temperature of resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Consani, Simonides; Xediek Consani, Rafael Leonardo; Mendes, Wilson Batista; Lympius, Thais; Coelho Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of quartz tungsten halogen and plasma arc curing (PAC) lights on Knoop hardness and change in polymerization temperature of resin composite. Filtek Z250 and Esthet X composites were used in the shade A3. The temperature increase was registered with Type-k thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46). A self-cured polymerized acrylic resin base was built in order to guide the thermocouple and to support the dentin disk of 1.0 mm thickness obtained from bovine tooth. On the acrylic resin base, elastomer mold of 2.0 mm was adapted. The temperature increase was measured after composite light curing. After 24 h, the specimens were submitted to Knoop hardness test (HMV-2000, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan). Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). For both composites, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the top surface hardness; however, PAC promoted statistically lower (P 0.05). The standardized radiant exposure showed no influence on the temperature increase of the composite, however, showed significant effect on hardness values.

  8. Acetate metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at different temperatures during lychee wine fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-hui Shang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 2137 involved in lychee wine production was used to investigate acetate metabolism at different temperatures during lychee wine fermentation. Fermentation tests were conducted using lychee juice supplemented with acetic acid. The ability of yeast cells to metabolize acetic acid was stronger at 20 °C than at 25 °C or 30 °C. The addition of acetic acid suppressed the yeast cell growth at the tested temperatures. The viability was higher and the reactive oxygen species concentration was lower at 20 °C than at 30 °C; this result indicated that acid stress adaptation protects S. cerevisiae from acetic-acid-mediated programmed cell death. The acetic acid enhanced the thermal death of yeast at high temperatures. The fermentation temperature modified the metabolism of the yeasts and the activity of related enzymes during deacidification, because less acetaldehyde, less glycerol, more ethanol, more succinic acid and more malic acid were produced, with higher level of acetyl–CoA synthetase and isocitrate lyase activity, at 20 °C.

  9. Effects of elevated temperatures on different restorative materials: An aid to forensic identification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Chetan A; Ghige, Suvarna K; Gosavi, Suchitra R; Hazarey, Vinay K

    2015-01-01

    Heat-induced alterations to dental and restorative materials can be of great interest to forensic dentistry. Knowing the specific optical behavior of dental materials can be of high importance as recognition of changes induced by high temperatures can lead to the determination of material which was used in a dental restoration, facilitating identification of burned human remains. To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures (200°C-400°C-600°C-800°C-1000°C) on unrestored teeth and different restorative materials macroscopically and then examine them under a stereomicroscope for the purpose of identification. The study was conducted on 375 extracted teeth which were divided into five groups of 75 teeth each as follows: group 1- unrestored teeth, group 2- teeth restored with all-ceramic crowns, Group 3- with class I silver amalgam filling, group 4- with class I composite restoration, and group 5- with class I glass ionomer cement restoration. Unrestored and restored teeth display a series of specific macroscopic & stereomicroscopic structural changes for each range of temperature. Dental tissues and restorative materials undergo a series of changes which correlate well with the various temperatures to which they were exposed. These changes are a consequence of the nature of the materials and their physicochemical characteristics.

  10. Relationships between the addition rates of cellulase or glucose and silage fermentation at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Kawamoto, Hidenori; Cai, Yi-Min

    2010-06-01

    The influence of the application rates of cellulase preparation and glucose on silage fermentation at different temperatures was studied with the straw of naked barley (Hordeum vulgare L. emand Lam) and guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.). Addition rate of cellulase and glucose, temperature and their interaction had significant effects on pH value, lactic acid content, butyric acid content and propionic acid content of naked barley straw silage and significant effects on all the parameters of guineagrass silage (P 0.05). Under all the temperatures, the pH values of barley straw and guineagrass silages were reduced by cellulase and glucose addition even at the lowest rate (P butyric acid production varied with their application rates and silage storage temperature. The addition rate of restricting butyric acid fermentation was lower at 20 degrees C than that at 30 degrees C, and it was the lowest at 40 degrees C where cellulase and glucose addition restricted butyric acid fermentation even at 0.1 g/kg and 10 g/kg, respectively, when compared to the control. While the addition rate was lower than the above level, cellulase and glucose addition also promoted butyric acid fermentation.

  11. Temperature dependence of viscoelasticity of crystalline cellulose with different molecular weights added to silicone elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Naoto; Nakajima, Shinya; Kameda, Takao; Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    Silicone elastomers ( polydimethylsiloxane _ PDMS) are widely used in the field of imprint lithography and microcontactprinting (μCP). When performing microcontactprinting, the mechanical properties of the PCMS as a base material have a great influence on the performance of the device. Cellulose nanofibers having features of high strength, high elasticity and low coefficient of linear expansion have attracted attention in recent years due to their characteristics. Therefore, three types of crystalline cellulose having different molecular weights were added to PDMS to prepare a composite material, and dynamic viscoelasticity was measured using a rheometer. The PDMS with the highest molecular weight crystalline cellulose added exhibited smaller storage modulus than PDMS with other molecular weight added in all temperature ranges. Furthermore, when comparing PDMS to which crystalline cellulose was added and PDMS which is not added, the storage modulus of PDMS to which cellulose was added in the low temperature region was higher than that of PDMS to which it was not added, but it was reversed in the high temperature region It was a result. When used in a low temperature range (less than 150 ° C.), it can be said that cellulose can function as a reinforcing material for PDMS.

  12. Comparison of different methods of estimating the mean radiant temperature in outdoor thermal comfort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E L; Minella, F O; Matzarakis, A

    2014-10-01

    Correlations between outdoor thermal indices and the calculated or measured mean radiant temperature T(mrt) are in general of high importance because of the combined effect on human energy balance in outdoor spaces. The most accurate way to determine T(mrt) is by means of integral radiation measurements, i.e. measuring the short- and long-wave radiation from six directions using pyranometers and pyrgeometers, an expensive and not always an easily available procedure. Some studies use globe thermometers combined with air temperature and wind speed sensors. An alternative way to determine T(mrt) is based on output from the RayMan model from measured data of incoming global radiation and morphological features of the monitoring site in particular sky view factor (SVF) data. The purpose of this paper is to compare different methods to assess the mean radiant temperature T(mrt) in terms of differences to a reference condition (T(mrt) calculated from field measurements) and to resulting outdoor comfort levels expressed as PET and UTCI values. The T(mrt) obtained from field measurements is a combination of air temperature, wind speed and globe temperature data according to the forced ventilation formula of ISO 7726 for data collected in Glasgow, UK. Four different methods were used in the RayMan model for T(mrt) calculations: input data consisting exclusively of data measured at urban sites; urban data excluding solar radiation, estimated SVF data and solar radiation data measured at a rural site; urban data excluding solar radiation with SVF data for each site; urban data excluding solar radiation and including solar radiation at the rural site taking no account of SVF information. Results show that all methods overestimate T(mrt) when compared to ISO calculations. Correlations were found to be significant for the first method and lower for the other three. Results in terms of comfort (PET, UTCI) suggest that reasonable estimates could be made based on global radiation

  13. Comparison of different methods of estimating the mean radiant temperature in outdoor thermal comfort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E. L.; Minella, F. O.; Matzarakis, A.

    2014-10-01

    Correlations between outdoor thermal indices and the calculated or measured mean radiant temperature Tmrt are in general of high importance because of the combined effect on human energy balance in outdoor spaces. The most accurate way to determine Tmrt is by means of integral radiation measurements, i.e. measuring the short- and long-wave radiation from six directions using pyranometers and pyrgeometers, an expensive and not always an easily available procedure. Some studies use globe thermometers combined with air temperature and wind speed sensors. An alternative way to determine Tmrt is based on output from the RayMan model from measured data of incoming global radiation and morphological features of the monitoring site in particular sky view factor (SVF) data. The purpose of this paper is to compare different methods to assess the mean radiant temperature Tmrt in terms of differences to a reference condition (Tmrt calculated from field measurements) and to resulting outdoor comfort levels expressed as PET and UTCI values. The Tmrt obtained from field measurements is a combination of air temperature, wind speed and globe temperature data according to the forced ventilation formula of ISO 7726 for data collected in Glasgow, UK. Four different methods were used in the RayMan model for Tmrt calculations: input data consisting exclusively of data measured at urban sites; urban data excluding solar radiation, estimated SVF data and solar radiation data measured at a rural site; urban data excluding solar radiation with SVF data for each site; urban data excluding solar radiation and including solar radiation at the rural site taking no account of SVF information. Results show that all methods overestimate Tmrt when compared to ISO calculations. Correlations were found to be significant for the first method and lower for the other three. Results in terms of comfort (PET, UTCI) suggest that reasonable estimates could be made based on global radiation data measured at

  14. Changes in setting time of alginate impression material with different water temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decky J. Indrani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies showed that setting process of alginates can be influenced by temperature. Purpose: To determine the changes in setting time due to differences in water temperature and to determine the correlation between water temperature and the setting time. Methods: Seven groups of dough alginate were prepared by mixing alginate powder and water, each using a temperature between 13° C–28° C with a interval of 2.5° C. A sample mold (Θ = 30 mm, t = 16 mm was placed on a flat plate and filled with doug alginate. Immediately the flat end of a polished acrylic rod was placed in contact with the surface of dough alginate. Setting time of alginat was measured from the starting of the mix to the time when the alginate does not adhere to the end of the rod. Setting time alginate data were analyzed using one way ANOVA, LSD and Pearson. Results: Setting time of alginate with water temperature between 13° C–28° C were 87 to 119.4 seconds and were significantly different (p < 0.01. The setting time between group were also significantly different (p<0.01. There was an inverse correlation between water temperature and the setting time (r = -0.968. Conclusion: Water temperature between 13° C–28°C with a difference of 2.5° C produced significant differences in alginate setting time; the lower the water temperature being used the longer the setting time was produced.Latar belakang: Penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa proses pengerasan alginat dapat dipengaruhi oleh suhu. Tujuan: Mengetahui perubahan waktu pengerasan alginat akibat perbedaan suhu air serta mengetahui hubungan antara suhu air dan waktu pengerasan. Metode: Tujuh kelompok adonan alginat yang dipersiapkan dengan mencampur bubuk alginat dan air, masingmasing menggunakan suhu antara 13°C–28° C dengan interval 2,5° C. Pengukuran waktu pengerasan alginat dilakukan sesuai dengan spesifikasi ADA no.18. Sebuah cetakan sampel terbuat dari pralon berbentuk

  15. Physiological performance of sesame seeds under the water stress at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Silva de Medeiros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. shows great economic potential because it can be explored by the national as well as the international market. It can be grown in the second season when it is subject to less favorable weather conditions such as drought during the sowing and emergence. Given this the objective was to evaluate the effect of water stress induced by polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG 6000 at different temperatures in order to asses the physiological quality of sesame seeds. In this work, were used PEG 6000 with different osmotic potentials (0.0 control and (-0.2, –0.4, –0.6, –0.8, –1.0 –1,2 and –1.4 MPa at temperatures of 25, 30 and 35 °C. For determine the effect of the treatments it was evaluated seed germination and vigor (first count and length of the primary root and shoot, in a completely randomized, with four replications. The sesame seeds are affected by water stress, with significant reductions in germination and vigor. A temperature of 30 °C favored the germination performance in less restrictive water potentials.

  16. Improvement of skin optical clearing efficacy by topical treatment of glycerol at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Zijian; Liu Caihua; Tao Wei; Zhu Dan, E-mail: dawnzh@mail.hust.edu.cn [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2011-01-01

    In the past decades, laser has been widely used in clinical diagnosis and cosmetic therapy. However, there is limitation for further usage in deeper tissue for high scattering property. Skin optical clearing technique, by introducing optical clearing agents (OCAs) into tissue, will have a potential impact on optical diagnosis and therapy. In this work, anhydrous glycerol at different temperatures of 4, 25, 32 and 45 deg. C were applied respectively to in vitro porcine skin, and reflectance and transmittance spectra were then measured dynamically using a spectrometry combined with integrating sphere system. Further, reduced scattering coefficient and penetration depth were obtained. Results showed that, glycerol at different temperatures could induce the reduced scattering coefficient of in vitro skin to decrease and the penetration depth to increase. 4 and 25 deg. C glycerol had similar effect, decreasing the scattering by 48.2% and 49.7%, and increasing penetration depth by 37.9% and 39.5%, respectively. However, 32 and 45 deg. C glycerol treatment could decrease scattering by 61.6% and 76.6%, and increase penetration depth by 53.3% and 84.1%, respectively. In conclusion, glycerol at higher temperature can induce greater and faster skin optical clearing efficacy.

  17. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from green pepper in different culture media, temperatures, and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Alexandre Furtado Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of anthracnose in green pepper involves the use of resistant varieties and/or fungicides. The selection of varieties and efficient products demands great amounts of conidia as inoculum. It is thus necessary to optimize the production of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia in the laboratory, establishing the best conditions for fungus development. The present study aimed at determining the most favorable culture media, temperature, and light conditions for the production of fungus inoculum. The fungus was isolated from green pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L. and transferred to four culture media (PDA, oat, filtered pepper extract, and autoclaved pepper extract, under different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35ºC and light conditions (24h dark, and 24h light. Colony growth was evaluated after 7 and 12 days of incubation. No differences were found between the culture media. However, the greatest number of conidia was obtained from colonies grown in oat medium at 25ºC. Temperatures of 20 and 25ºC were the most favorable for colony growth and sporulation. Higher sporulation was obtained under incubation in constant light. Cultivation of C. gloeosporioides in oat medium, at 25ºC, and constant light is recommended.

  18. Shearing single crystal magnesium in the close-packed basal plane at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming; Li, Lili; Zhao, Guangming

    2018-05-01

    Shear behaviors of single crystal magnesium (Mg) in close-packed (0001) basal plane along the [ 1 bar 2 1 bar 0 ], [ 1 2 bar 10 ], [ 10 1 bar 0 ] and [ 1 bar 010 ] directions were studied using molecular dynamics simulations via EAM potential. The results show that both shear stress-strain curves along the four directions and the motion path of free atoms during shearing behave periodic characteristics. It reveals that the periodic shear displacement is inherently related to the crystallographic orientation in single crystal Mg. Moreover, different temperatures in a range from 10 to 750 K were considered, demonstrating that shear modulus decreases with increasing temperatures. The results agree well with the MTS model. It is manifested that the modulus is independent with the shear direction and the size of the atomic model. This work also demonstrates that the classical description of shear modulus is still effective at the nanoscale.

  19. ORGANIC ACIDS PRODUCTION OF RICE STRAW FERMENTED WITH SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROORGANISM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to examine the organic acids production of rice straw fermentedwith some types of microorganisms at different temperatures. The experiment was designed as SplitPlot-Completely Randomized Design. The main plot was temperatures treatments (25, 35, 45°C and thesub plot were microorganisms (Control, Control+Mollases, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus coagulant, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger. The highest lactic acid productionswas in B. coagulans treatment at 35°C (53.79 g/kg DM. The highest acetic acid productions was in L.fermentum at 35°C (13.20 g/kg DM, while the highest propionic acid productions were in Controltreatment at 35°C (0.37 g/kg DM.

  20. ORGANIC ACIDS PRODUCTION OF RICE STRAW FERMENTED WITH SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROORGANISM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surahmanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to examine the organic acids production of rice straw fermented with some types of microorganisms at different temperatures. The experiment was designed as Split Plot-Completely Randomized Design. The main plot was temperatures treatments (25, 35, 45°C and the sub plot were microorganisms (Control, Control+Mollases, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulant, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger. The highest lactic acid productions was in B. coagulans treatment at 35°C (53.79 g/kg DM. The highest acetic acid productions was in L. fermentum at 35°C (13.20 g/kg DM, while the highest propionic acid productions were in Control treatment at 35°C (0.37 g/kg DM.

  1. Effect of Temperature and Vibration on Electrical Connectors with Different Number of Contact Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented the results from three related analysis performed by adopting the failure models, which provided an explanation of performance influencing factors caused by different number of contact cores, for the purpose of measuring the temperature change and deformation value, which were the factors causing contact failure. The failures were localized in contact parts of the connectors. Performed investigations included thermal analysis, modal analysis, harmonic response analysis and contact failure analysis. From the results of these simulations, related temperature and vibration analysis nephograms were got respectively. And the correctness of results of thermal analysis was verified by Fourier law. The research results of this paper provide a reference for thermal analysis and vibration analysis of electrical connectors, which is important for ensuring the reliability and safety of electrical connectors.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Nanoindentation of Cu/Au Thin Films at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qibin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods, deposition method and ideal modeling based on lattice constant, are used to prepare three modulation periods’ (1.8 nm Cu/3.6 nm Au, 2.7 nm Cu/2.7 nm Au, and 3.6 nm Cu/1.8 nm Au thin films for nanoindentation at different temperatures. The results show that the temperature will weaken the hardness of thin films. The deposition method and the formation of coherent interface will result in a lot of defects in thin films. These defects can reduce the residual stress in the thin films which is caused by the external force. The proposed system will provide potential benefits in designing the microstructures for thin films.

  3. The effect of cooling to different subzero temperatures on dog sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantar-Rodriguez, A; Medrano, A

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of cooling to different subzero temperatures around ice formation (-5°C) on dog sperm cryosurvival and plasma membrane fluidity. Semen was centrifuged, and sperm were resuspended in a Tris-egg yolk medium (3% glycerol). Diluted sperm were cooled from 22 to 5°C, and then, a Tris-egg yolk medium containing 7% glycerol was added (final concentration of 5% glycerol and 200 × 10 6  cells/ml). Sperm were packaged in 0.5-ml plastic straws, and equilibration was done 16 hr at 5°C before freezing. I. Straws (n = 47) at 5°C were exposed to nitrogen vapours to determine the freezing point. II. Other straws (from different ejaculates) processed as mentioned, were further cooled to -3, -5 or -7°C and immediately rewarmed in a water bath at 37°C. Motility, plasma membrane functionality and acrosome integrity were assessed. III. Other straws (from different ejaculates) processed as mentioned were further cooled to -3 or -5°C, frozen over nitrogen vapours and stored in liquid nitrogen for one month. Straws were thawed in a water bath at 38°C for 30 s. Motility, plasma membrane functionality, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, capacitation status and plasma membrane fluidity were assessed. Ice nucleation temperature was -14.3 ± 2.05°C (mean ± SD); cooling to +5, -3, -5 and -7°C, without freezing, produces no differences on sperm quality between target temperatures; cooling to +5, -3, and -5°C produced no differences on sperm survival and plasma membrane fluidity after freeze-thawing. In conclusion, cooling of dog spermatozoa to different subzero temperatures did not improve sperm cryosurvival and had no effect on plasma membrane fluidity after thawing. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Investigation on molecular interactions of antibiotics in alcohols using volumetric and acoustic studies at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseem, Bushra; Iftikhar, Madeeha

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Antibiotics in different alcohols are used to study their interactions in solutions. • Density and sound velocity for antibiotic solutions are measured at different temperatures. • Apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility are used to calculate partial molar quantities. • Acoustical parameters are calculated and discussed in terms of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions. - Abstract: The density and sound velocity for pure alcohols (methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol and n-butanol) and molal solutions of nitroimidazoles (metronidazole (MNZ) and dimetridazole (DMZ) have been measured at different temperatures (293.15–313.15 K). Different volumetric and acoustical parameters like apparent molar volume (V ϕ ), partial molar volume (VЛљ ϕ ), apparent molar isentropic compressibility (K ϕ ), partial molar isentropic compressibility (KЛљ ϕ ), hydration number (n H ), acoustic impedance (Z) and intermolecular free length (L f ) of antibiotic solutions were calculated from the experimental values of density and sound velocity. The derived values have been used to explore the solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions. The V ϕ values are positive and K ϕ values are negative in both antibiotics, indicative of strong solute–solvent interactions and closely packed structure of antibiotics in alcohols. The decreasing trend of L f with increasing antibiotic concentration shows the presence of strong intermolecular interactions in solutions.

  5. Stability of Capsaicinoids and Antioxidants in Dry Hot Peppers under Different Packaging and Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qumer Iqbal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the quality and storage life of perishable fruits and vegetables is a major challenge for the food industry. In this study, the effects of different temperatures, packaging materials and storage time on the stability of capsaicinoids and antioxidants, such as total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolic compounds, were studied in three commercially cultivated hot pepper hybrids, namely Sky Red, Maha and Wonder King. For this purpose, dry whole pods were packed in jute bags and low-density polyethylene bags (LDPE, stored for five months under controlled conditions at 20, 25 or 30 ○C and analyzed on Day 0 and at 50-day intervals until Day 150. The three hot pepper hybrids differed significantly with respect to their capsaicinoids and antioxidant concentrations, but the results indicated that with the increase in storage temperature and time, a gradual and steady decrease in these levels was equally observed for all hybrids. Overall, mean concentrations after five months were significantly reduced by 22.6% for ascorbic acid, 19.0% for phenolic compounds, 17% for carotenoids and 12.7% for capsaicinoids. The trends of capsaicinoids and antioxidants evolution were decreasing gradually during storage until Day 150, this effect being more pronounced at higher temperature. Furthermore, the disappearance rates of capsaicinoids and antioxidants were higher in peppers packed in jute bags than in those wrapped with LDPE. In conclusion, despite the sensitivity of capsaicinoids and antioxidants to oxygen, light and moisture, the packaging in natural jute or synthetic LDPE plastic bags, as well as the storage at ambient temperature preserved between 77.4% and 87.3% of the initial amounts of these health- and nutrition-promoting compounds during five months’ storage.

  6. High count-rate study of two TES x-ray microcalorimeters with different transition temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Jun; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Chervenak, James A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Wassell, Edward J.

    2017-10-01

    We have developed transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays with high count-rate capability and high energy resolution to carry out x-ray imaging spectroscopy observations of various astronomical sources and the Sun. We have studied the dependence of the energy resolution and throughput (fraction of processed pulses) on the count rate for such microcalorimeters with two different transition temperatures (T c). Devices with both transition temperatures were fabricated within a single microcalorimeter array directly on top of a solid substrate where the thermal conductance of the microcalorimeter is dependent upon the thermal boundary resistance between the TES sensor and the dielectric substrate beneath. Because the thermal boundary resistance is highly temperature dependent, the two types of device with different T cs had very different thermal decay times, approximately one order of magnitude different. In our earlier report, we achieved energy resolutions of 1.6 and 2.3 eV at 6 keV from lower and higher T c devices, respectively, using a standard analysis method based on optimal filtering in the low flux limit. We have now measured the same devices at elevated x-ray fluxes ranging from 50 Hz to 1000 Hz per pixel. In the high flux limit, however, the standard optimal filtering scheme nearly breaks down because of x-ray pile-up. To achieve the highest possible energy resolution for a fixed throughput, we have developed an analysis scheme based on the so-called event grade method. Using the new analysis scheme, we achieved 5.0 eV FWHM with 96% throughput for 6 keV x-rays of 1025 Hz per pixel with the higher T c (faster) device, and 5.8 eV FWHM with 97% throughput with the lower T c (slower) device at 722 Hz.

  7. Combined effects of the herbicide terbuthylazine and temperature on different flagellates from the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Emanuela; Mazzotti, Matilde; Guerrini, Franca; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2013-03-15

    The triazinic herbicide terbuthylazine (TBA) is becoming an emergent contaminant in Italian rivers and in coastal and groundwater. A preliminary analysis of the sensitivity of marine flagellates to TBA was performed by monitoring the photosynthetic efficiency of nine species (belonging to the Dinophyceae or Raphidophyceae class) isolated from the Adriatic Sea. Different sensitivity levels for each flagellate were observed and the most sensitive microalgae, based on PSII inhibition, were: Gonyaulax spinifera>Fibrocapsa japonica>Lingulodinium polyedrum while the most resistant were two species belonging to the Prorocentrum genus. Then the response of two microalgae to drivers, such as temperature and terbuthylazine, applied in combination was also investigated. Two potentially toxic flagellates, Prorocentrum minimum and G. spinifera, were exposed, under different temperature conditions (15, 20 and 25°C), to TBA concentrations that did not completely affect PSII. For both flagellates, effects of TBA on algal growth, measured through cell density and carbon analysis, as well as on the photosynthetic activity are reported. All parameters analyzed showed a negative effect of TBA from the exponential phase. TBA effect on algal growth was significantly enhanced at the optimal temperature conditions (20 and 25°C), while no difference between control and herbicide treatments were detected for G. spinifera grown at 15°C, which represented a stress condition for this species. The maximum inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency was found at 20°C for both organisms. Both flagellates increased cell carbon and nitrogen content in herbicide treatments compared to the control, except G. spinifera grown at 15°C. Chlorophyll-a production was increased only in G. spinifera exposed to 5 μg L(-1) of TBA and the effect was enhanced with the increase of temperature. Herbicide-induced variations in cellular components determined changes in cellular carbon:nitrogen (C:N) and

  8. [Low-temperature responses of enzyme activities related to fiber development of two cotton (Gossvpium hirsutum L.) cultivars with different temperature-sensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hong-mei; Zhou, Zhi-guo; Zheng, Mi; Wang, You-hua

    2009-09-01

    Taking two cotton cultivars with difterent temperature-sensitivity during tneir liner strength formation as test materials, a field experiment of different sowing dates was conducted in Nanjing of Jiangsu Province in 2006 and 2007 to study the effects of low temperature on the activities and gene expression of the enzymes related to fiber development. The low temperature induced by late sowing (with the mean daily minimum temperature being 21.1, 20.5, and 18.1 degrees C during fiber development period) had definite effects on the enzyme activities, and accordingly, the fiber strength formation. Low temperature increased the invertase and beta-1, 3-glucanase activities, decreased the sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities, prolonged the time with higher gene expression level of Expansin and sucrose synthase, and delayed the expression peak and decreased the gene expression quantity of beta-1,3-glucanase. There existed significant differences in the low-temperature responses of related enzymes activities between the two cultivars, with the change ranges of the enzyme activities being larger for temperature-sensitive cultivar Sumian 15 than for temperature-insensitive cultivar Kemian 1, which could be the main reasons leading to the different temnerature-sensitivitv of the two cotton cultivars during their fiber strength formation.

  9. Land Surface Temperature Differences within Local Climate Zones, Based on Two Central European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Geletič

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main factors influencing the spatiotemporal variability of urban climate are quite widely recognized, including, for example, the thermal properties of materials used for surfaces and buildings, the mass, height and layout of the buildings themselves and patterns of land use. However, the roles played by particular factors vary from city to city with respect to differences in geographical location, overall size, number of inhabitants and more. In urban climatology, the concept of “local climate zones” (LCZs has emerged over the past decade to address this heterogeneity. In this contribution, a new GIS-based method is used for LCZ delimitation in Prague and Brno, the two largest cities in the Czech Republic, while land surface temperatures (LSTs derived from LANDSAT and ASTER satellite data are employed for exploring the extent to which LCZ classes discriminate with respect to LSTs. It has been suggested that correctly-delineated LCZs should demonstrate the features typical of LST variability, and thus, typical surface temperatures should differ significantly among most LCZs. Zones representing heavy industry (LCZ 10, dense low-rise buildings (LCZ 3 and compact mid-rise buildings (LCZ 2 were identified as the warmest in both cities, while bodies of water (LCZ G and densely-forested areas (LCZ A made up the coolest zones. ANOVA and subsequent multiple comparison tests demonstrated that significant temperature differences between the various LCZs prevail. The results of testing were similar for both study areas (89.3% and 91.7% significant LST differences for Brno and Prague, respectively. LSTs computed from LANDSAT differentiated better between LCZs, compared with ASTER. LCZ 8 (large low-rise buildings, LCZ 10 (heavy industry and LCZ D (low plants are well-differentiated zones in terms of their surface temperatures. In contrast, LCZ 2 (compact mid-rise, LCZ 4 (open high-rise and LCZ 9 (sparsely built-up are less distinguishable in both

  10. Evolutionary force in confamiliar marine vertebrates of different temperature realms: adaptive trends in zoarcid fish transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windisch Heidrun Sigrid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of temperature-induced adaptation on the basis of genomic sequence data were mainly done in extremophiles. Although the general hypothesis of an increased molecular flexibility in the cold is widely accepted, the results of thermal adaptation are still difficult to detect at proteomic down to the genomic sequence level. Approaches towards a more detailed picture emerge with the advent of new sequencing technologies. Only small changes in primary protein structure have been shown to modify kinetic and thermal properties of enzymes, but likewise for interspecies comparisons a high genetic identity is still essential to specify common principles. The present study uses comprehensive transcriptomic sequence information to uncover general patterns of thermal adaptation on the RNA as well as protein primary structure. Results By comparing orthologous sequences of two closely related zoarcid fish inhabiting different latitudinal zones (Antarctica: Pachycara brachycephalum, temperate zone: Zoarces viviparus we were able to detect significant differences in the codon usage. In the cold-adapted species a lower GC content in the wobble position prevailed for preserved amino acids. We were able to estimate 40-60% coverage of the functions represented within the two compared zoarcid cDNA-libraries on the basis of a reference genome of the phylogenetically closely related fish Gasterosteus aculeatus. A distinct pattern of amino acid substitutions could be identified for the non-synonymous codon exchanges, with a remarkable surplus of serine and reduction of glutamic acid and asparagine for the Antarctic species. Conclusion Based on the differences between orthologous sequences from confamiliar species, distinguished mainly by the temperature regimes of their habitats, we hypothesize that temperature leaves a signature on the composition of biological macromolecules (RNA, proteins with implications for the transcription and

  11. Structuring of nanomodified concrete cured in different temperature and humidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues on the influence of the curing conditions on the formation of structure and properties of the concrete with nanomodifiers. Mechanochemically activated waste generated by the production of mineral fertilizers was used as nanomodified additives. It was established that providing favorable conditions for the initial structuring of concrete was the purpose of erecting structures made of concrete mix with said nanomodified additives in different temperature and humidity environments. It is provided that different types of production waste gaining the properties of efficient additives for binders, concrete mixes and compositions made on their basis as the result of the corresponding processing will be used as mineral fillers. Production waste is generally characterized by a heterogeneous composition and structure, by impurity content and by low chemical activity. Thus, one of the methods for increasing the efficiency of the waste is mechanical, chemical or physical activation. As the result of such activation, nanosizeparticles appear, and additional defects of mineral lattices are generated, which leads to accelerating the elementary interaction of the surface layer particles. Data on the research of macro- and microstructure of concrete and composites with nanomodifiers cured in different temperature and humidity conditions is given in the table.

  12. Effect of Different Denture Base Materials and Changed Mouth Temperature on Dimensional Stability of Complete Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Khalid A. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Type of materials used in fabrication of denture base has an effect on dimension during denture base material processing and other factors related to clinical use. Objective. The study aims were to assess the dimensional stability including thermal changes of three different denture base materials. Methods. Ninety patients were selected to construct complete dentures with different denture base materials. They were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, patients with cobalt chrome metallic base; group 2, patients with heat curing acrylic resin fabricated by injection moulding technique; and group 3, patients with denture bases fabricated by conventional heat curing acrylic resin. The dimensional changes were assessed using digital caliper. Results. After the twelfth month, injection moulding acrylic resin had significantly the highest dimensional change followed by the conventional heat curing acrylic resin. There were no significant differences in the dimensions between the three types of denture base materials at normal mouth temperature, while, after hot tea drinking at 45°C, the dimensional change was significantly the highest in cobalt chrome metallic denture base group. Conclusion. Cobalt chrome metallic denture base has stable dimension compared to denture bases fabricated of acrylic resin but it was more affected by altered mouth temperature. The study was registered in the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN) registry with study ID (ISRCTN94238244). PMID:27143970

  13. Effect of Different Denture Base Materials and Changed Mouth Temperature on Dimensional Stability of Complete Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A. O. Arafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Type of materials used in fabrication of denture base has an effect on dimension during denture base material processing and other factors related to clinical use. Objective. The study aims were to assess the dimensional stability including thermal changes of three different denture base materials. Methods. Ninety patients were selected to construct complete dentures with different denture base materials. They were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, patients with cobalt chrome metallic base; group 2, patients with heat curing acrylic resin fabricated by injection moulding technique; and group 3, patients with denture bases fabricated by conventional heat curing acrylic resin. The dimensional changes were assessed using digital caliper. Results. After the twelfth month, injection moulding acrylic resin had significantly the highest dimensional change followed by the conventional heat curing acrylic resin. There were no significant differences in the dimensions between the three types of denture base materials at normal mouth temperature, while, after hot tea drinking at 45°C, the dimensional change was significantly the highest in cobalt chrome metallic denture base group. Conclusion. Cobalt chrome metallic denture base has stable dimension compared to denture bases fabricated of acrylic resin but it was more affected by altered mouth temperature. The study was registered in the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN registry with study ID (ISRCTN94238244.

  14. Plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in response to different salinities and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the blood plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of the perch Perca fluviatilis at different salinities (0, 10 and 15) and temperatures (5, 10 and 20° C). Blood plasma osmolality increased with salinity at all temperatures. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased...... with salinity at 10 and 20° C. Maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope was lowest at salinity of 15 at 5° C, yet at 20° C, they were lowest at a salinity of 0. A cost of osmoregulation (SMR at a salinity of 0 and 15 compared with SMR at a salinity of 10) could only be detected at a salinity of 15 at 20...... of osmoregulation (28%) at a salinity of 15 at 20° C indicates that the cost of osmoregulation in P. fluviatilis increases with temperature under hyperosmotic conditions and a power analysis showed that the cost of osmoregulation could be lower than 12·5% under other environmental conditions. The effect of salinity...

  15. Seed viability of Dimorphandra gardneriana subject to water stress in different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Matias Ursulino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The forest species Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. is widely used for various pharmacological products, yet few basic studies have been undertaken to understand their ecological and physiological attributes under stress conditions. The goal of this research was to evaluate the seed germination and vigor when subjected to different osmotic potentials and temperatures. Water restriction was simulated with polyethylene glycol 6000 solution (PEG 6000 with osmotic potentials of 0; -0,2; -0,4; -0,6; -0,8, and -1,0MPa at temperatures of 20, 25, 30, and 35°C. The effect of the treatment was determined by the germination and vigor (germination speed index, length and phytomass of dry shoot and roots of the seeds, in an entirely random design with four repetitions. From-0, 4MPa it occurs a drastic reduction in germination and vigor of seeds although these factors were less affected at temperature of 25°C up to -0, 2MPa.

  16. Toxic effects of juvenile sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria by ammonia exposure at different water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Park, Hee-Ju; Hwang, In-Ki; Han, Jae-Min; Kim, Do-Hyung; Oh, Chul Woong; Lee, Jung-Sick; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2017-09-01

    Juvenile sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria (mean length 17.1±2.4cm, and mean weight 75.6±5.7g) were used to evaluate toxic effects on antioxidant systems, immune responses, and stress indicators by ammonia exposure (0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.25mg/L) at different water temperature (12 and 17°C) in 1 and 2 months. In antioxidant responses, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased by ammonia exposure, whereas glutathione (GSH) was decreased. In immune responses, lysozyme and phagocytosis activity were significantly increased by ammonia exposure. In stress indicators, plasma glucose, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70), and cortisol were significantly increased. At high water temperature (17°C), alterations by ammonia exposure were more distinctly. The results of this study indicated that ammonia exposure can induce toxic effects in the sablefish, and high water temperature can affect the ammonia exposure toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-temperature deuteron irradiation of differently reacted Nb3Sn superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, P.; Seibt, E.

    1978-01-01

    Irradiation measurements with 50 MeV deuterons at 18 K and subsequent annealing measurements were performed on Nb 3 Sn single and multifilamentary superconductors at the Helium-Bath Irradiation Facility of the Karlsruhe Cyclotron. The critical current densities jsub(c) of Nb 3 Sn bronze-reacted wire samples at various reaction temperatures (Tsub(R)=650,700,750,800 and 850 0 C) with equal layer thickness were measured for integral deuteron fluxes up to PHIsub(t)=0.7x10 18 cm -2 . After a decrease in jsub(c) of 85% at maximum dose a relatively small annealing effect (4 to 10%) was observed at ambient temperatures. The maximum value of the normalized critical current density, jsub(c)/jsub(c0), at PHIsub(t)approximately=10 17 cm -2 increases with increasing reaction temperature. The difference in volume pinning forces before and after irradiation increases less than linear (approximately√PHIsub(t)) with the irradiation dose. An almost linear dependence between the inverse grain diameter (dsub(K) -1 )) and volume pinning force is obtained both before and after irradiation. (Auth.)

  18. Isolation and Screening of Thermo-Stable Cellulase Enzyme Fungal Producer at Different Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Ashiqin Jamroo; Noor Azrimi Umor; Kamsani

    2015-01-01

    Thermo stable cellulase from fungi has high potential for industrial application. In this study, wild -type of fungal were isolate from different sources such as hot spring water, sea water, soft wood, rice straw and cow dung. The isolates were characterized by cultural and morphological observation. Based on morphological characteristics, the genera of all fungal cultures were identified namely Aspergillus fumigatus. The screening for thermo stable cellulase were done using 2 % carboxymethyl cellulose and congo red as an indicator at temperature 30, 37, 45 and 50 degree Celsius respectively. Out of 26 fungal isolates, only eight isolates were selected for further screening and showed the abilities to secrete cellulases by forming distinct halo zones on selective agar plate. The maximum halo zone ranging from 32 mm to 35 mm were obtained after 72 hour incubation at 50 degree Celsius by H2, SW1 and C1 isolates. As contrary other isolates showed halo zone range from 22 mm to 29 mm at same temperature. All the isolates showed the abilities to secrete cellulase enzyme at other temperature but lower when compared to 50 degree Celsius referred to the halo zone obtained. The SW1 isolates showed highest cellulolytic index which was 2.93 measured at 37 degree Celsius and 2.67 at 50 degree Celsius respectively. (author)

  19. INTRAMUSCULAR TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE MID-POINT AND PERIPHERAL EFFECTIVE RADIATING AREA WITH ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michale G. Miller

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine whether uniform intramuscular heating is achieved throughout a treatment area 2 times the transducer head at both 1 and 3 MHz. Seven male and three female subjects (Age: 23.6 ± 1.0 yrs, Weight: 83.8 ± 23.2 kg, Site Skinfold: 13.9 ± 7.3 mm underwent two ultrasound treatments (1 and 3 MHz in the triceps surae muscle group. Thermocouples were inserted at the midpoint and periphery of the treatment area. Ten minute baseline temperatures were recorded followed by a ten minute ultrasound treatment. Two (site X 10 (time repeated measures ANOVAs were separately used to determine significance for 1 and 3 MHz treatments. Post-hoc testing was performed using the Bonferroni adjustment. A significant site-by-time interaction was observed for both the 1 and 3 MHz treatments. From baseline to the end of the treatment, temperature increased approximately 2.62°C and 1.58°C for the midpoint and periphery of the 1 MHz treatment and 5.88°C and 3.64°C for the 3 MHz treatment. The differences in temperature suggest that uniform heating does not occur throughout the treatment area

  20. Quench-in of different high T complexities of glassformers for leisurely study at lower temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angell, C. A.; Yue, Yuanzheng; Wang, L. M.

    Quenching-in of different high T complexities of glassformers for leisurely study at lower temperatures We describe a series of experiments on glass-forming liquids that are motivated by a common idea. The idea is that of trapping in a high enthalpy, high entropy, and state of the system by quenc...... Wang, John R. D. Copley, Steve Borick and Stefano Mossa. J. Phys. Cond Matt 15, S1051-S1068 (2003) 2. M. C. Wilding, P. F. McMillan, Polyamorphic transitions in yttria-alumina liquids, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 293, 357 (2001)....

  1. Hawking radiation temperatures in non-stationary Kerr black holes with different tortoise coordinate transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, X.G. [Southwest Jiaotong University, Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanchong (China); Jiang, Q.Q. [China West Normal University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanchong (China); Wei, L.F. [Southwest Jiaotong University, Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, Chengdu (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-04-15

    We apply the Damour-Ruffini-Sannan method to study the Hawking radiations of scalar and Dirac particles in non-stationary Kerr black holes under different tortoise coordinate transformations. We found that all the relevant Hawking radiation spectra show still the blackbody ones, while the Hawking temperatures are strongly related to the used tortoise coordinate transformations. The properties of these dependences are discussed analytically and numerically. Our results imply that proper selections of tortoise coordinate transformations should be important in the studies of Hawking radiations and the correct selection would be given by the experimental observations in the future. (orig.)

  2. Microculture model studies on the effect of various gas atmospheres on microbial growth at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, T; Jarmund, T

    1983-08-01

    A microculture technique, employing 96-well tissue culture plates in plastic bags, was used to test the effect of different gas atmospheres (vacuum, air, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) on the growth of Escherichia coli, Bacillus macerans, Salmonella typhimurium. Candida albicans, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas/Acinetobacter/moraxella-group, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Yersinia enterocolitica at 2, 6, and 20 degrees C. In general, carbon dioxide was the most effective inhibitor. The inhibition increased with decreasing temperature. Only the combination of carbon dioxide and 2 degrees C provided complete inhibition of Broch. thermosphacta and Y. enterocolitica.

  3. Effect of temperature on different stages of Romanomermis iyengari, a mermithid nematode parasite of mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Paily,K. P.; Balaraman,K.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of temperature (20 degrees-35 degrees C) on different stages of Romanomermis iyengari was studied. In embryonic development, the single-cell stage eggs developed into mature eggs in 4.5-6.5 days at 25-35 degrees C but, required 9.5 days at 20 degrees C. Complete hatching occurred in 7 and 9 days after egg-laying at 35 and 30 degrees C, respectively. At 25 and 20 degrees C, 85-96 of the eggs did not hatch even by 30th day. Loss of infectivity and death of the preparasites occurred f...

  4. Water and vapor permeability at different temperatures of poly (3-Hydroxybutyrate dense membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz H. Poley

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are polymers produced from renewable resources with biodegradability and biocompatibility, being therefore attractive for medical and pharmaceutical purposes. Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB is the most important polymer of this family by considering the biotechnology process of its synthesis. In the present study, dense films of PHB were prepared by casting from chloroform solutions (1% m/m. Permeability studies with water, methanol, ethanol and n-propanol were performed using the gravimetric method at different temperatures (from 50 ºC to 65 ºC. Results provide new data on permeability coefficients of PHB membranes.

  5. Hawking radiation temperatures in non-stationary Kerr black holes with different tortoise coordinate transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, X. G.; Jiang, Q. Q.; Wei, L. F.

    2012-04-01

    We apply the Damour-Ruffini-Sannan method to study the Hawking radiations of scalar and Dirac particles in non-stationary Kerr black holes under different tortoise coordinate transformations. We found that all the relevant Hawking radiation spectra show still the blackbody ones, while the Hawking temperatures are strongly related to the used tortoise coordinate transformations. The properties of these dependences are discussed analytically and numerically. Our results imply that proper selections of tortoise coordinate transformations should be important in the studies of Hawking radiations and the correct selection would be given by the experimental observations in the future.

  6. Passivation behaviour of Alloy 31 (UNS N08031) in polluted phosphoric acid at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    ESCRIVÁ CERDÁN, CLARA; Blasco Tamarit, María Encarnación; García García, Dionisio Miguel; García Antón, José; Guenbour, A.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of temperature (20–80 °C) and chloride concentration (0.06–0.42 wt.% KCl) on the electrochemical behaviour of the UNS N08031 was studied in 40 wt.% polluted phosphoric acid solution. Passivation behaviour was investigated by using potentiostatic tests at different potentials. From the linear regions of the log i vs. log t transients, the parameter n was obtained. The results showed that the applied potential hardly affects on the passivation rate n. However, n values decreas...

  7. Electrical resistance of CNT-PEEK composites under compression at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electrically conductive polymers reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs have generated a great deal of scientific and industrial interest in the last few years. Advanced thermoplastic composites made of three different weight percentages (8%, 9%, and 10% of multiwalled CNTs and polyether ether ketone (PEEK were prepared by shear mixing process. The temperature- and pressure-dependent electrical resistance of these CNT-PEEK composites have been studied and presented in this paper. It has been found that electrical resistance decreases significantly with the application of heat and pressure.

  8. Experimentally Investigating the Effect of Temperature Differences in the Particle Deposition Process on Solar Photovoltaic (PV Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experimental investigation of the dust particle deposition process on solar photovoltaic (PV modules with different surface temperatures by a heating plate to illustrate the effect of the temperature difference (thermophoresis between the module surface and the surrounding air on the dust accumulation process under different operating temperatures. In general, if the temperature of PV modules is increased, the energy conversion efficiency of the modules is decreased. However, in this study, it is firstly found that higher PV module surface temperature differences result in a higher energy output compared with those modules with lower temperature differences because of a reduced accumulation of dust particles. The measured deposition densities of dust particles were found to range from 0.54 g/m2 to 0.85 g/m2 under the range of experimental conditions and the output power ratios were found to increase from 0.861 to 0.965 with the increase in the temperature difference from 0 to 50 °C. The PV module with a higher temperature difference experiences a lower dust density because of the effect of the thermophoresis force arising from the temperature gradient between the module surface and its surrounding air. In addition, dust particles have a significant impact on the short circuit current, as well as the output power. However, the influence of particles on open circuit voltage can be negligible.

  9. Correlation between RNA Degradation Patterns of Rat's Brain and Early PMI at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y H; Li, Z H; Tuo, Y; Liu, L; Li, K; Bian, J; Ma, J L; Chen, L

    2016-06-01

    To explore the correlation between early postmortem interval (PMI) and eight RNA markers of rat's brain at different temperatures. Total 222 SD rats were randomly divided into control group (PMI=0 h) and four experimental groups. And the rats in the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and respectively kept at 5 ℃, 15 ℃, 25 ℃ and 35 ℃ in a controlled environment chamber. The RNA was extracted from brain tissues, which was taken at 9 time points from 1 h to 24 h postmortem. The expression levels of eight markers, β-actin, GAPDH, RPS29, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b, were detected using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, respectively. Proper internal reference was selected by geNorm software. Regression analysis of normalized RNA markers was performed by SPSS software. Mathematical model for PMI estimation was established using R software. Another 6 SD rats with known PMI were used to verify the mathematical model. 5S rRNA, miR-9 and miR-125b were suitable as internal reference markers for their stable expression. Both β-actin and GAPDH had well time-dependent degradation patterns and degraded continually with prolongation of PMI in 24 h postmortem. The mathematical model of the variation of ΔCt values with PMI and temperature was set up by R software and the model could be used for PMI estimation. The average error rates of model validation using β-actin and GAPDH were 14.1% and 22.2%, respectively. The expression levels of β-actin and GAPDH are well correlated with PMI and environmental temperature. The mathematical model established in present study can provide references for estimating early PMI under various temperature conditions. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  10. Individual differences in temperature perception: evidence of common processing of sensation intensity of warmth and cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Akirav, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The longstanding question of whether temperature is sensed via separate sensory systems for warmth and cold was investigated by measuring individual differences in perception of nonpainful heating and cooling. Sixty-two subjects gave separate ratings of the intensity of thermal sensations (warmth, cold) and nociceptive sensations (burning/stinging/pricking) produced by cooling (29 degrees C) or heating (37 degrees C) local regions of the forearm. Stimuli were delivered via a 4 x 4 array of 8 mm x 8 mm Peltier thermoelectric modules that enabled test temperatures to be presented sequentially to individual modules or simultaneously to the full array. Stimulation of the full array showed that perception of warmth and cold were highly correlated (Pearson r = 0.83, p sensations produced by the two temperatures were also correlated, but to a lesser degree (r = 0.44), and the associations between nociceptive and thermal sensations (r = 0.35 and 0.22 for 37 and 29 degrees C, respectively) were not significant after correction for multiple statistical tests. Intensity ratings for individual modules indicated that the number of responsive sites out of 16 was a poor predictor of temperature sensations but a significant predictor of nociceptive sensations. The very high correlation between ratings of thermal sensations conflicts with the classical view that warmth and cold are mediated by separate thermal modalities and implies that warm-sensitive and cold-sensitive spinothalamic pathways converge and undergo joint modulation in the central nervous system. Integration of thermal stimulation from the skin and body core within the thermoregulatory system is suggested as the possible source of this convergence.

  11. Effects of high temperature stress at different development stages on soybean isoflavone and tocopherol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennupati, Pratyusha; Seguin, Philippe; Liu, Wucheng

    2011-12-28

    Soybean contains a range of compounds with putative health benefits including isoflavones and tocopherols. A study was conducted to determine the effects on these compounds of high temperature stress imposed at specific development stages [i.e., none, pre-emergence, vegetative, early reproductive (R1-4), late-reproductive (R5-8), or all stages]. Two cultivars (AC Proteina and OAC Champion) were grown in growth chambers set at contrasting temperatures [i.e., stress conditions of 33/25 °C (day/night temperature) and control conditions of 23/15 °C] in order to generate these treatments. Isoflavone and tocopherol concentrations in mature seeds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. In both cultivars isoflavone response was greatest when stress occurred during the R5-8 stages and during all development stages, these treatments reducing total isoflavone concentration by an average of 85% compared to the control. Stress imposed at other stages also affected isoflavone concentration although the response was smaller. For example, stress during the vegetative stages reduced total isoflavones by 33% in OAC Champion. Stress imposed pre-emergence had an opposite effect increasing daidzein concentration by 24% in AC Proteina. Tocopherol concentrations were affected the most when stress was imposed during all stages of development, followed by stress restricted to stages R5-8; response to stress during other stages was limited. The specific response of tocopherols differed, α-tocopherol being increased by high temperature by as much as 752%, the reverse being observed for δ-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol. The present study demonstrates that while isoflavone and tocopherol concentrations in soybeans are affected the most by stress occurring during seed formation, concentrations can also be affected by stress occurring at other stages including stages as early as pre-emergence.

  12. Experimental Analysis of Temperature Differences During Implant Site Preparation: Continuous Drilling Technique Versus Intermittent Drilling Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Adolfo; Sivolella, Stefano; Stocco, Elena; Favero, Vittorio; Stellini, Edoardo

    2018-02-01

    Implant site preparation through drilling procedures may cause bone thermonecrosis. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate, using a thermal probe, overheating at implant sites during osteotomies through 2 different drilling methods (continuous drilling technique versus intermittent drilling technique) using irrigation at different temperatures. Five implant sites 13 mm in length were performed on 16 blocks (fresh bovine ribs), for a total of 80 implant sites. The PT-100 thermal probe was positioned 5 mm from each site. Two physiological refrigerant solutions were used: one at 23.7°C and one at 6.0°C. Four experimental groups were considered: group A (continuous drilling with physiological solution at 23.7°C), group B (intermittent drilling with physiological solution at 23.7°C), group C (continuous drilling with physiological solution at 6.0°C), and group D (intermittent drilling with physiological solution at 6.0°C). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test (2-tailed) was used to compare groups. While there was no difference between group A and group B (W = 86; P = .45), statistically significant differences were observed between experimental groups A and C (W = 0; P =.0001), B and D (W = 45; P =.0005), and C and D (W = 41; P = .003). Implant site preparation did not affect the overheating of the bone. Statistically significant differences were found with the refrigerant solutions. Using both irrigating solutions, bone temperature did not exceed 47°C.

  13. Effect of antagonistic fungi against Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum on stubble of different cereals and at different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Naggar, M.; Haas, de B.H.; Köhl, J.

    2003-01-01

    Bioassays were carried out with antagonists to suppress sporulation by F. culmorum and F. graminearum on cereal debris. A differential effect was found for temperatures on the effect of antagonistic fungal isolates. Isolates 10 and 11 were more effective at low temperature of 5 °C, while isolate 2

  14. Influence of different maceration time and temperatures on total phenols, colour and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-12-01

    Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15  and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation.

  15. Differences between young adults and elderly in thermal comfort, productivity and thermal physiology in response to a moderate temperature drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, Lisje; Lichtenbelt, Wouter van Marken; Loomans, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    , and productivity of eight young adults (age 22–25 year) and eight older subjects (age 67–73 year) was investigated. They were exposed to two different conditions: S1-a control condition; constant temperature of 21.5C; duration: 8 h; and S2-a transient condition; temperature range: 17–25C, duration: 8 h...... of the elderly was related to air temperature only, while TS of the younger adults also was related to skin temperature. During the constant temperature session, the elderly preferred a higher temperature in comparison with the young adults.......Results from naturally ventilated buildings show that allowing the indoor temperature to drift does not necessarily result in thermal discomfort and may allow for a reduction in energy use. However, for stationary conditions, several studies indicate that the thermal neutral temperature and optimum...

  16. Physical, Mineralogical, and Micromorphological Properities of Expansive Soil Treated at Different Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different characterizations were carried out on unheated expansive soil and samples heated at different temperature. The samples are taken from the western outskirts of Nanning of Guangxi Province, China. In the present paper, the mineral and chemical composition and several essential physical parameters of unheated expansive soil are indicated by XRD and EDX analysis. Moreover, the structural transition and change of mechanical properties of samples heated in the range of room temperature to 140°C are proved by TG-DTA and SEM observation. The mean particle diameter, density, hydraulic behaviors, and bond strength also have been investigated. The results indicate that, along with the loss of free water, physical absorbed water, and chemically bound water, the microstructure experiences some obvious change. In addition, the particle size and density both will increase rapidly before 100°C and undertake a slow growth or decline when higher than 100°C. The hydraulic behaviors and strength performance of unheated samples and the one heated at 100°C are given out as well. All these researches play fundamental role in the pollution prevention, modification, and engineering application of expansive soil.

  17. Comparative analysis of selected exhaled breath biomarkers obtained with two different temperature-controlled devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brüning Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a suitable and non-invasive method for evaluation of airway inflammation. Several studies indicate that the composition of the condensate and the recovery of biomarkers are affected by physical characteristics of the condensing device and collecting circumstances. Additionally, there is an apparent influence of the condensing temperature, and often the level of detection of the assay is a limiting factor. The ECoScreen2 device is a new, partly single-use disposable system designed for studying different lung compartments. Methods EBC samples were collected from 16 healthy non-smokers by using the two commercially available devices ECoScreen2 and ECoScreen at a controlled temperature of -20°C. EBC volume, pH, NOx, LTB4, PGE2, 8-isoprostane and cys-LTs were determined. Results EBC collected with ECoScreen2 was less acidic compared to ECoScreen. ECoScreen2 was superior concerning condensate volume and detection of biomarkers, as more samples were above the detection limit (LTB4 and PGE2 or showed higher concentrations (8-isoprostane. However, NOx was detected only in EBC sampled by ECoScreen. Conclusion ECoScreen2 in combination with mediator specific enzyme immunoassays may be suitable for measurement of different biomarkers. Using this equipment, patterns of markers can be assessed that are likely to reflect the complex pathophysiological processes in inflammatory respiratory disease.

  18. Aggregation behaviour of amphiphilic drug and bile salt mixtures at different compositions and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rub, Malik Abdul; Sheikh, Mohmad Shafi; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Azum, Naved; Khan, Anish; Khan, Aftab Aslam Parwaz; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Kabir-ud-Din

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Aggregation behavior of promethazine hydrochloride-bile salt mixtures has been investigated. • The negative β values indicate attractive interactions between the components. • For PMT/PMT-bile salt systems, ΔH m ∘ values change from negative to positive with temperature. • The ΔS m ∘ values are positive, their magnitude being more at T = 298.15 K and above. • The results have applicability in drug delivery. -- Abstract: The micellization and adsorption behaviour of the amphiphilic drug promethazine hydrochloride (PMT – a phenothiazine) and bile salts mixtures were analyzed at different compositions in pure and mixed states in aqueous solutions. By using regular solution theory (RST) and Rosen’s model different physicochemical properties such as critical micellar concentration (cmc), micellar composition, surface excess concentration (Γ max ), minimum area per molecule (A min ), interaction parameters (β m , β σ ), energetic parameters of micellization as well as other micellar and surface properties have been determined. The values of interaction parameters (β) and activity coefficients f 1 and f 2 (for both, in mixed monolayer as well as in mixed micelles) indicate the synergistic behaviour. The thermodynamic parameters propose release of water from the hydrophobic portion of the drug at higher temperatures

  19. Crude oil degradation by bacterial consortia under four different redox and temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shunzi; Li, Xia; Chen, Jianfa; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-02-01

    There is emerging interest in the anaerobic degradation of crude oil. However, there is limited knowledge about the geochemical effects and microbiological activities for it. A mixture of anaerobic sludge and the production water from an oil well was used as an inoculum to construct four consortia, which were incubated under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions at either mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures. Significant degradation of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons and the changing quantities of some marker compounds, such as pristane, phytane, hopane and norhopane, and their relative quantities, suggested the activity of microorganisms in the consortia. Notably, the redox conditions and temperature strongly affected the diversity and structure of the enriched microbial communities and the oil degradation. Although some specific biomarker showed larger change under methanogenic condition, the degradation efficiencies for total aromatic and saturated hydrocarbon were higher under sulfate-reducing condition. After the 540-day incubation, bacteria of unknown classifications were dominant in the thermophilic methanogenic consortia, whereas Clostridium dominated the mesophilic methanogenic consortia. With the exception of the dominant phylotypes that were shared with the methanogenic consortia, the sulfate-reducing consortia were predominantly composed of Thermotogae, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaeta, and Synergistetes phyla. In conclusion, results in this study demonstrated that the different groups of degraders were responsible for degradation in the four constructed crude oil degrading consortia and consequently led to the existence of different amount of marker compounds under these distinct conditions. There might be distinct metabolic mechanism for degrading crude oil under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions.

  20. Charging conditions research to increase the initial projected velocity at different initial charge temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, Aleksandr; Burkin, Viktor; Kasimov, Vladimir; Samorokova, Nina; Zykova, Angelica; Diachkovskii, Alexei

    2017-11-01

    The problems of the defense industry occupy the most important place in the constantly developing modern world. The daily development of defense technology does not stop, nor do studies on internal ballistics. The scientists of the whole world are faced with the task of managing the main characteristics of a ballistic experiment. The main characteristics of the ballistic experiment are the maximum pressure in the combustion chamber Pmax and the projected velocity at the time of barrel leaving UM. During the work the combustion law of the new high-energy fuel was determined in a ballistic experiment for different initial temperatures. This combustion law was used for a parametric study of depending Pmax and UM from a powder charge mass and a traveling charge was carried out. The optimal conditions for loading were obtained for improving the initial velocity at pressures up to 600 MPa for different initial temperatures. In this paper, one of the most promising schemes of throwing is considered, as well as a method for increasing the muzzle velocity of a projected element to 3317 m/s.

  1. DNA comet assay to identify different freezing temperatures of irradiated liver chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Renato C.; Mozeika, Michel A.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Marchioni, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The cold chain is a succession of steps which maintain the food at low temperature. The thawed food never be frozen again and the best solution being to consume it quickly to avoid the microorganism growth which causes decay and nutrients damage. One of most important point is that freezing process, unlike irradiation, do not destroy microorganisms, only inactive them as long as they remain in a frozen state. The Comet Assay is an original test used to detect irradiated foods that's recognize the DNA damage and can then be used to control the overall degradation of the food and in a certain extend to evaluate the damage caused by irradiation, different forms of freeze and storage time on liver chicken cells. Different freezing temperatures were used, deep freeze -196 deg C and slow freeze -10 deg C. Samples were irradiated in a 60 Co irradiator with 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy radiation doses. Fast freezing technique induces a low percent of DNA degradation comparing to slow freezing technique. This procedure could be a good choose to chicken freezing processing. (author)

  2. The Elastic Constants Measurement of Metal Alloy by Using Ultrasonic Nondestructive Method at Different Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryi Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonic nondestructive method is introduced into the elastic constants measurement of metal material. The extraction principle of Poisson’s ratio, elastic modulus, and shear modulus is deduced from the ultrasonic propagating equations with two kinds of vibration model of the elastic medium named ultrasonic longitudinal wave and transverse wave, respectively. The ultrasonic propagating velocity is measured by using the digital correlation technique between the ultrasonic original signal and the echo signal from the bottom surface, and then the elastic constants of the metal material are calculated. The feasibility of the correlation algorithm is verified by a simulation procedure. Finally, in order to obtain the stability of the elastic properties of different metal materials in a variable engineering application environment, the elastic constants of two kinds of metal materials in different temperature environment are measured by the proposed ultrasonic method.

  3. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  4. QUALITY OF MINIMALLY PROCESSED YAM (Dioscorea sp. STORED AT TWO DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANO DO NASCIMENTO SIMÕES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the physical, chemical and bio chemical alterations in minimally processed yam stored at two different temperatures, as well a s the incidence of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas . The experimental design was completely randomised in a 2x8 factorial design, with two storage temperature s (5 and 10°C and eight storage times (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 1 0, 12 and 14 days. Experiments were in triplicate. Yam was selected, peeled and cut into slices of approximate ly 3 cm thickness. The slices were rinsed with wate r, sanitised and then drained in kitchen strainers. Ap proximately 300 g of the processed product were pac ked in nylon multilayers 15 μ m thick, 15 cm wide and 20 cm long. The packs were sealed, weighed and kept at 5 and 10 ± 2°C for 14 days. Fresh weight loss, baking tim e, enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidases, perox idases and catalases, total soluble phenol content, and an tioxidant capacity were evaluated, as well as visua l analysis and incidence of Pseudomonas sp. Means of temperatures were compared by Tukey ́s test at 5% significance. Yam storage at 5°C reduced weight loss and kept vis ual quality for longer; it also reduced cooking tim e and the activity of the enzymes polyphenol oxidase and pero xidase. In contrast, it promoted higher content of total soluble phenols, as well as a higher catalase activ ity and antioxidant capacity. During the storage ti me, there was no incidence of Pseudomonas sp. Minimally processed yam stored at 10°C may be sold for up to six days, and yam stored at 5ºC for up to 14 days.

  5. Synthesis colloidal Kyllinga brevifolia-mediated silver nanoparticles at different temperature for methylene blue removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Norain; Sarijo, Siti Halimah; Aziz, Azizan; Lockman, Zainovia

    2017-09-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are well known of having wide applications in various fields such as, catalysis, electronics, energy, chemistry and medicine due to its unique physico-chemical properties. In this study, nanocatalyst Kyllinga brevifolia-mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by reduction of silver nitrate using aqueous extract of Kyllinga brevifolia at different temperature. The formations of AgNPs were monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results reveal that the AgNPs well dispersed with average particle size are 22.34 and 6.73 nm for synthesized at room temperature and cold temperature respectively. The biomolecules present in the Kyllinga brevifolia aqueous extract responsible for the formation of AgNPs were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Our AgNPs performed excellent catalytic activity in degradation of methylene blue (MB) dyes via electron relay effect. MB is toxic to ecological system and also has carcinogenic properties. The AgNPs nanocatalysts synthesized in this study are highly dispersed, quasi-spherical and due to their size in nanoscale, they have shown effectiveness for degradation of MB dyes. More importantly, our AgNPs were prepared using biomolecules as capping and reducing agent, which make our product "greener" than available AgNPs that are commonly prepared using hydrazine and borohydride; which are harmful substances to human and environment. Not only the AgNPs can act as nanocatalyst for degradation of MB, they can also be expected to degrade other types of toxic dyes used in textiles industry.

  6. Assessment of brain temperatures during different phases of the menstrual cycle using diffusion-weighted imaging thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Taro; Shimono, Taro; Sai, Asari; Sakai, Koji; Yamamoto, Akira; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Miki, Yukio

    2016-04-01

    To investigate changes in brain temperature according to the menstrual cycle in women using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) thermometry and to clarify relationships between brain and body temperatures. In 20 healthy female volunteers (21.3-38.8 years), DWI of the brain was performed during the follicular and luteal phases to calculate the brain temperature. During DWI, body temperatures were also measured. Group comparisons of each temperature between the two phases were performed using the paired t test. Correlations between brain and body temperatures were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test. Mean diffusion-based brain temperature was 36.24 °C (follicular) and 36.96 °C (luteal), showing a significant difference (P < 0.0001). Significant differences were also seen for each body temperature between the two phases. Correlation coefficients between diffusion-based brain and each body temperature were r = 0.2441 (P = 0.1291), -0.0332 (0.8387), and -0.0462 (0.7769), respectively. In women of childbearing age, brain and body temperatures appear significantly higher in the luteal than in the follicular phase. However, brain and body temperatures show no significant correlations.

  7. Stability of serum, plasma and urine osmolality in different storage conditions: Relevance of temperature and centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda-Vives, Macià; Morell-Garcia, Daniel; Rubio-Alaejos, Ana; Valiña, Laura; Robles, Juan; Bauça, Josep Miquel

    2017-09-01

    Osmolality reflects the concentration of all dissolved particles in a body fluid, and its measurement is routinely performed in clinical laboratories for the differential diagnosis of disorders related with the hydrolytic balance regulation, the renal function and in small-molecule poisonings. The aim of the study was to assess the stability of serum, plasma and urine osmolality through time and under different common storage conditions, including delayed centrifugation. Blood and urine samples were collected, and classified into different groups according to several preanalytical variables: serum or plasma lithium-heparin tubes; spun or unspun; stored at room temperature (RT), at 4°C or frozen at -21°C. Aliquots from each group were assayed over time, for up to 14days. Statistical differences were based on three different international performance criteria. Whole blood stability was higher in the presence of anticoagulant. Serum osmolality was stable for 2days at RT and 8days at 4°C, while plasma was less stable when refrigerated. Urine stability was 5days at RT, 4days at 4°C and >14days when frozen. Osmolality may be of great interest for the management of several conditions, such as in case of a delay in the clinical suspicion, or in case of problems in sample collection or processing. The ability to obtain reliable results for samples kept up to 14days also offers the possibility to retrospectively assess baseline values for patients which may require it. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Response of fish to different simulated rates of water temperature increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1992-08-01

    We initiated this study to define the limits of effluent-temperature rate increases during reactor restart, which will help minimize fish kills. We constructed an apparatus for exposing fish to various temperature-increase regimens and conducted two experiments based on information from system tests and scoping runs. In the rate experiment, we acclimated the fish to 20{degree}C, and then raised the temperature to 40{degree}C at varying rates. Because scoping runs and literature suggested that acclimation temperature may affect temperature-related mortality, we conducted an acclimation experiment. We acclimated the fish to various temperatures, then raised the temperatures to 39--40{degree}C at a rate of 2{degree}C every 12 hours. Based on the analysis of the data, we recommend temperature-increase rates during reactor restart of 2.5{degree}C every nine hours if ambient water temperatures are over 20{degree}C. If water temperatures are at or below 20{degree}C, we recommend temperature-increase rates of 2.5{degree}C every 12 hours. No regulation of temperature is required after effluent temperatures reach 40{degree}C. We recommend further studies, including expanded testing with the simulation system and behavioral and bioenergetic investigations that may further refine acceptable rates of effluent-temperature increases.

  9. Characterisation of the spoilage bacterial microbiota in oyster gills during storage at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huibin; Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Meiying; Chen, Shaojun; Chen, Tuanwei

    2013-12-01

    The spoilage bacterial community in oyster gill was investigated during storage at 4, 10 and 20 °C. Aerobic plate counts and pH values were determined. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from oyster gill and bulk cells of plate count media. The major bacterial species during fresh or different temperatures storage were determined by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The initial aerobic plate count in oyster gill reached 6.70 log CFU g(-1). PCR-DGGE fingerprinting analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region revealed that most of the strains in fresh oyster gill belonged to the genera Lactococcus and Enterobacter. The major spoilage bacteria at a storage temperature of 20 °C were Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, an uncultured bacterium, Cytophaga fermentans, Lactococcus lactis, Pseudoalteromonas sp., Enterococcus mundtii, Clostridium difficile and an uncultured Fusobacteria; those at 10 °C were Lactococcus spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Weissella confusa and C. difficile; those at 4 °C were Lactococcus, Weissella, Enterobacter and Aeromonas. The other minor species were L. curvatus, Pseudomonas sp. and E. mundtii. Lactococcus spp. was the most common main spoilage bacteria in oyster gill during chilled storage. PCR-DGGE revealed the complexity of the bacterial microbiota and the major bacteria species in oyster gill for fresh and storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effects of helium and deuterium irradiation on SPS sintered W–Ta composites at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, R., E-mail: rmateus@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, M. [ITN, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Lopes, J. [ITN, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); ISEL, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Rocha, J.; Catarino, N.; Franco, N. [ITN, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Livramento, V. [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2013-11-15

    Energetic He{sup +} and D{sup +} ions were implanted into different W–Ta composites in order to investigate their stability under helium and deuterium irradiation. The results were compared with morphological and chemical modifications arising from exposure of pure W and Ta. Special attention was given to tantalum hydride (Ta{sub 2}H) formation due to its implications for tritium inventory. Three W–Ta composites with 10 and 20 at.% Ta were prepared from elemental W powder and Ta fibre or powder through low-energy ball milling in argon atmosphere. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used as the consolidation process in the temperature range from 1473 to 1873 K. The results obtained from pure elemental samples and composites are similar. However, Ta{sub 2}H is easily formed in pure Ta by using a pre-implantation stage of He{sup +}, whereas in W–Ta composites the same reaction is clearly reduced, and it can be inhibited by controlling the sintering temperature.

  11. Germination of Croton urucurana L. seeds exposed to different storage temperatures and pre-germinative treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Mussury, Rosilda M; Lima, Andréa A

    2012-03-01

    The present work evaluated the germinability and vigor of Croton urucurana seeds. 1) Seeds were sorted by color (caramel, gray and black) and were subjected to seven different pre-germination treatments followed by incubation at 20ºC, 25°C or 20/30°C. 2) Seeds were stored in cold chambers or at room temperature for up to 300 days and were subsequently incubated at 20/30ºC in a germination chamber or under greenhouse conditions. Only gray seeds showed significant germination rates. The highest first count percentages of total germination and the highest germination speed indices were observed in control seeds and in those which were treated with water or 200 mg.L(-1) gibberellic acid for 12 hours. Seeds stored under refrigeration showed the highest values for all of the characteristics examined, as well as less electrical conductivity of the imbibing solution. Seedlings were more vigorous when seeds were stored for 300 days in a cold chamber. The seedlings production can be increased by incubating the seeds at alternating temperatures (20/30°C). The seeds do not need pre-germination treatments.

  12. Mineral Phase and Physical Properties of Red Mud Calcined at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-sheng Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different characterizations were carried out on red mud uncalcined and samples calcined in the range of 100°C–1400°C. In the present paper, the phase composition and structural transition of red mud heated from room temperature are indicated by XRD, TG-DTA, and SEM techniques. The mean particle diameter, density, and bond strength of these samples also have been investigated. The results indicate the decomposition of gibbsite into Al2O3 and H2O between 300°C and 550°C and calcite into CaO and CO2 in the interval of 600–800°C. Tricalcium aluminate and gehlenite are formed in the range of 800–900°C. Combined with the SEM images, the results of physical property testing show that the particle size and the strength each has a continuous rise during the heat treatment from 150°C to 1350°C. But the value of density will undergo a little drop before 450°C and then increases to a higher value at the temperature of 1200°C. These obtained results provide an important base for the further studies of comprehensive utilization of red mud.

  13. Characterisation of silica derived from rice husk (Muar, Johor, Malaysia) decomposition at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, M. A.; Ismail, N. A. A.; Rizamarhaiza, M.; W. M. Hasif. A. A., K.; Taib, H.

    2016-07-01

    Rice husk was thermally decomposed to yield powder composed of silica (SiO2). Temperatures of 700°C and 1000°C were chosen as the decomposition temperatures. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Florescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analyses were conducted on a synthetic silica powder (SS-SiO2) and the rice husk ash as for the comparative characterisation study. XRD analyses clearly indicated that the decomposed rice husk yielded silica of different nature which are Crystalline Rice Husk Silica (C-RHSiO2) and Amorphous Rice Husk Silica (A-RHSiO2). Moreover, it was found that SS-SiO2 was of Quartz phase, C-RHSiO2 was of Trydimite and Cristobalite. Through XRF detection, the highest SiO2 purity was detected in SS-SiO2 followed by C-RHSiO2 and A-RHSiO2 with purity percentages of 99.60%, 82.30% and 86.30% respectively. FTIR results clearly indicated silica (SiO2) bonding 1056, 1064, 1047, 777, 790 and 798 cm-1) increased as the crystallinity silica increased. The Cristobalite phase was detected in C-RH SiO2 at the wavelength of 620 cm-1. Morphological features as observed by FESEM analyses confirmed that, SS-SiO2 and C-RH SiO2 showed prominent coarse granular morphology.

  14. Study of Volcanic Activity at Different Time Scales Using Hypertemporal Land Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, Efthymia; Hecker, Christoph; van der Werff, Harald; van der Meijde, Mark

    2017-10-01

    We apply a method for detecting subtle spatiotemporal signal fluctuations to monitor volcanic activity. Whereas midwave infrared data are commonly used for volcanic hot spot detection, our approach utilizes hypertemporal longwave infrared-based land surface temperature (LST) data. Using LST data of the second-generation European Meteorological Satellites, we study (a) a paroxysmal, 1 day long eruption of Mount Etna (Italy); (b) a prolonged, 6 month period of effusive and lateral lava flows of the Nyamuragira volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo); and (c) intermittent activity in the permanent lava lake of Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of Congo) over a period of 2 years (2011-2012). We compare our analysis with published ground-based observations and satellite-based alert systems; results agree on the periods of increased volcanic activity and quiescence. We further apply our analysis on mid-infrared and long-infrared brightness temperatures and compare the results. We conclude that our study enables the use of LST data for monitoring volcanic dynamics at different time scales, can complement existing methodologies, and allows for use of long time series from older sensors that do not provide midwave infrared data.

  15. Reliability and Analysis of Changes in Bite Marks at Different Time Intervals and Temperature Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Khare Sinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess time-dependent changes in the morphology of bitemarks and to investigate the utility of matching bitemarks on both perishable and non-perishable objects with the passage of time at different temperatures. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted at Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Gwalior, India. 20 volunteers were asked to bite 6 items each. These included perishable and nonperishable items. Perishable items were apple, banana and Burfi, (a milk-based popular sweet confectionary while non-perishable items included wax, clay, and rubber. Photographs were taken with a digital camera at 0-hours and 24-hours after biting these objects at temperature ranges of 24 ºC to 28 ºC and 36 ºC to 40 ºC, respectively. Life-size photographs of these bitten objects were printed on transparent overlays and compared to hand drawn transparencies prepared from suspect dentition using an X-ray viewer. The comparison of all the 960 transparencies was done by two researchers, independently. Results: All objects gave a positive identification of the biter on matching just after biting. After24-hours, all items also showed positive matching except banana and apples. Conclusion: This proposed method is simple, reliable and less technique sensitive. It narrows down the subjectivity of interpretation. It highlights that due to decomposition changes occur in perishable food items and more so in apples and bananas, making bitemarks less reliable evidence.

  16. Caseinomacropeptide index in UHT whole milk stored under different conditions of temperature and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N.B.C. Villanoeva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Caseinomacropeptide (CMP index is a method used to detect adulteration of milk by addition of cheese whey, since CMP is a glycopeptide characteristic produced during cheesemaking, and soluble in the whey phase. The objective of this work was to evaluate the caseinomacropeptide index of UHT milk stored under different temperatures. Six batches of recently processed UHT milk were collected and stored under three temperatures (21ºC, 6ºC, and -12ºC and analyzed by HPLC in the day of the milk collection (day 0 and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of storage. The experiment was run as a randomized block design with a 3x5 factorial arrangement, and the Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK method was used as the post-hoc test (p = 0.05. There was a progressive increase of the CMP index during the storage period of 120 days, and this indicates the possibility of false positive results if the CMP index is used as an adulteration test for long term stored UHT milk. The validity of the CMP index as an adulteration indicator is only possible soon after packaging, and sample freezing is the only alternative when immediate analysis is not possible. The method was found to be precise, with robust CV of 1.9% even with high CMP levels.

  17. Characterisation of YAG:Ce powders thermal treated at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, G.; Ohara, S.; Mancic, L.; Milosevic, O.

    2004-11-01

    Submicronic, spherical, polycrystalline YAG:Ce powders with luminescence properties were synthesised through aerosol processing route from the corresponding nitrates solution. Additional heat treatment was performed in the temperature range from 1000 to 1200 °C in order to increase the crystallinity of the obtained cubic garnet phase. SEM examination and subsequent morphological analysis allowed studying the surface properties and particle size distributions. An Image Processor was used to measure particle surface roughness. Quantitative SEM/EDS analysis indicated the synthesised materials present high purity and compositional homogeneity. TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) showed a high crystallinity of the samples. XRD patterns of the powders were recorded in the region of 2θ = 10°-80°. The evolution of crystallite size was performed measuring of the broadening of a particular peak using the Scherrer equation. It was found that the crystallite size and bulk particles size vary with the applied temperature. The observed changes in function of the different thermal treatments were correlated with the photoluminescence (PL) properties of these materials.

  18. Effects of the generator and evaporator temperature differences on a double absorption heat transformer—Different control strategies on utilizing heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hanzhi; Li, Huashan; Bu, Xianbiao; Wang, Lingbao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of the GETD on the DAHT system performance are analyzed. • Three different configurations are compared in detail. • Suggestions on the heat source control strategies are given. - Abstract: The combination of the absorption heat transformer with renewable energy systems, like solar thermal systems, is raising more and more concern. In those combined systems the strategies on utilizing heat sources can affect system thermodynamic performance significantly. Therefore, this study presents a detailed analysis on the effect of the heat source temperature and different heat source flow patterns on the performance of a double absorption heat transformer (DAHT). A detailed comparative study is carried out to clarify the impact of the generator and evaporator temperature differences (GETD) on the coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficient (ECOP), exergy destruction rates in the individual components and heat transfer areas needed for each component. The results show that the generator, condenser and absorber-evaporator are responsible for most of the exergy destruction rate in the DAHT system; the parallel-flow configuration (the generator temperature is equal to the evaporator temperature) performs better under the high gross temperature lift conditions; in the case of the counter-flow configuration (the generator temperature is relatively higher), better performance can be obtained in both the COP and ECOP under the proper heat source temperature (85 and 95 °C); the fair-flow configuration (higher temperature in the evaporator) is not recommended in this paper due to no advantages found in either thermodynamic performance or system size.

  19. Evolution of Diurnal Asymmetry of Surface Temperature over Different Climatic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, V.; C T, D.; Chakravorty, A.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2016-12-01

    The increase in drought, flood, diseases, crop failure etc. in the recent past has created an alarm amongst the researchers. One of the main reasons behind the intensification of these environmental hazards is the recent revelation of climate change, which is generally attributed to the human induced global warming, represented by an increase in global mean temperature. However, in order to formulate policies to mitigate and prevent the threats due to global warming, its key driving factors should be analysed at high spatial and temporal resolution. Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR) is one of the indicators of global warming. The study of the evolution of the DTR is crucial, since it affects agriculture, health, ecosystems, transport, etc. Recent studies reveal that diurnal asymmetry has decreased globally, whereas a few regional studies report a contradictory pattern and attributed them to localized feedback processes. However, an evident conclusion cannot be made using the linear trend approaches employed in the past studies and the evolution of diurnal asymmetry should be investigated using non-linear trend approach for better perception. Hence, the regional evolution of DTR trend has been analysed using the spatially-temporally Multidimensional Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (MEEMD) method over India and observed a positive trend in over-all mean of DTR, while its rate of increase has declined in the recent decades. Further, the grids showing negative trend in DTR is observed in arid deserts and warm-temperate grasslands and positive trend over the west coast and sub-tropical forest in the North-East. This transition predominantly began from the west coast and is stretched with an increase in magnitude. These changes are more pronounced during winter and post-monsoon seasons, especially in the arid desert and warm-temperate grasslands, where the rate of increase in minimum temperature is higher than that of the maximum temperature. These analyses suggest

  20. The effects of temperature and strain rate on the dynamic flow behaviour of different steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.-S.; Liu, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    A compressive type split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized to compare the impact plastic behaviour of three steels with different levels of carbon content. S15C low carbon steel, S50C medium alloy heat treatable steel (abbreviated hereafter to medium carbon steel) and SKS93 tool steel with a high carbon and low alloy content (abbreviated hereafter to high carbon steel) are tested under strain rates ranging from 1.1 x 10 3 s -1 to 5.5 x 10 3 s -1 and temperatures ranging from 25 to 800 deg. C. The effects of the carbon content, strain rate and temperature on the mechanical responses of the three steels are evaluated. The microstructures of the impacted specimens are studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). It is found that an increased carbon content enhances the dynamic flow resistance of the three steels. Additionally, the flow stress increases with strain and strain rate in every case. A thermal softening effect is identified in the plastic behaviour of the three steels. The activation energy, ΔG * , varies as a function of the strain rate and temperature, but is apparently insensitive to the carbon content level. The present study identifies maximum ΔG * values of 58 kJ/mol for the S15C low carbon steel, 54.9 kJ/mol for the S50C medium carbon steel, and 56.4 kJ/mol for the SKS93 high carbon steel. A Zerilli-Armstrong BCC constitutive model with appropriate coefficients is applied to describe the high strain rate plastic behaviours of the S15C, S50C and SKS93 steels. The errors between the calculated stress and the measured stress are found to be less than 5%. The microstructural observations reveal that the dislocation density and the degree of dislocation tangling increase with increasing strain rate in all three steels. Additionally, the TEM observations indicate that a higher strain rate reduces the size of the dislocation cells. The annihilation of dislocations occurs more readily at elevated temperatures. The square root of the dislocation

  1. Chemical and microbiological analysis of red wines during storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Overall, chemical and microbiological analyses are very important for the quality of wine during and after winemaking process. One of the most important factors during wine storage is the temperature of storage. During storage of red wines in tanks, barrique barrels or glass bottles underway many physical, chemical and biochemical changes, which have significant influence for the stabilize of taste, scent, colour and general character of wine. The aim of our study we used two different wines, specifically Cabernet Sauvignon and Blaufränkisch and chemically and microbiologically analysed these wines during storage at different temperatures. These wines were bottled in 2011 and 2013. We stored these samples at different temperatures. The first four samples were stored at 6-8°C in refrigerator, and the next four were stored at 20-25°C in room temperature. We had together eight wine samples. We had determined in all wine samples sequentially the free and total sulphur dioxide content, ethyl-alcohol content, extract, sugars, total and volatile acids. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 6-8°C had content 12,14% ethyl-alcohol, 2.3% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,444 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.6 g.L-1 extract, 8 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 20-25°C had content 12,05% ethyl-alcohol, 2.4% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,456 g.L-1 volatile acids, 27.4 g.L-1extract, 6 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2.The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 6-8°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 20-25°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1 extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2.These results were collected from one measuring, but we had results from three measuring

  2. Numerical analysis of jet impingement heat transfer at high jet Reynolds number and large temperature difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    Jet impingement heat transfer from a round gas jet to a flat wall was investigated numerically for a ratio of 2 between the jet inlet to wall distance and the jet inlet diameter. The influence of turbulence intensity at the jet inlet and choice of turbulence model on the wall heat transfer...... was investigated at a jet Reynolds number of 1.66 × 105 and a temperature difference between jet inlet and wall of 1600 K. The focus was on the convective heat transfer contribution as thermal radiation was not included in the investigation. A considerable influence of the turbulence intensity at the jet inlet...... to about 100% were observed. Furthermore, the variation in stagnation point heat transfer was examined for jet Reynolds numbers in the range from 1.10 × 105 to 6.64 × 105. Based on the investigations, a correlation is suggested between the stagnation point Nusselt number, the jet Reynolds number...

  3. Effect of cooling to different sub-zero temperatures on boar sperm cryosurvival

    OpenAIRE

    Angelica Garcia-Olivares; Cesar Garzon-Perez; Oscar Gutierrez-Perez; Alfredo Medrano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare different cooling temperatures before ice formation on pig sperm quality, before and after cryopreservation. Methods: Semen diluted in BF5 was cooled from 23 °C to 5 °C (1% glycerol, 200 × 106 cells/mL). Sperm were packaged in plastic straws, and maintained at +5 °C per 16 h. 1. Freezing point of diluted spermatozoa was determined by exposing straws to nitrogen vapors. 2. Straws (at +5 °C) were further cooled to −3 °C, −5 °C, and −7 °C, and rewarmed. 3. Straws (at +5 ...

  4. Shear strain determination of the polymer polydimethysiloxane (PMDS) using digital image correlation in different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, G. N.; Nunes, L. C. S.; dos Santos, P. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a digital image correlation (DIC) method is used in order to analyze the adhesive shear modulus of poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) submitted to different loads and temperatures. This is an optical-numerical full-field surface displacement measurement method. It is based on a comparison between two images of a specimen coated by a random speckled pattern in the undeformed and in the deformed states. A single lap joint testing is performed. This is a standard test specimen for characterizing adhesive properties and it is considered the simplest form of adhesive joints. For the single lap joint specimen, steel adherends are bonded using a flexible rubber elastic polymer (PDMS), which is a commercially available silicone elastic rubber

  5. Biot Critical Frequency Applied as Common Friction Factor for Chalk with Different Pore Fluids and Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has lead to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. Water has a significant softening effect on elastic...... and we propose that the fluid effect on mechanical properties of highly porous chalk may be the result of liquid‐solid friction. Applying a different strain or stress rate is influencing the rock strength and needs to be included. The resulting function is shown to relate to the material dependent...... and rate independent b-factor used when describing the time dependent mechanical properties of soft rock or soils. As a consequence it is then possible to further characterize the material constant from the porosity and permeability of the rock as well as from pore fluid density and viscosity which...

  6. Comparison of electromechanical properties and lattice distortions of different cuprate high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C.; Grether, A; Rikel, M O; Hudspeth, J; Sugano, M; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L

    2016-01-01

    The electromechanical properties of different cuprate high-temperature superconductors, notably two ReBCO tapes, a reinforced and a nonreinforced Bi-2223 tape, and a Bi-2212 wire, have been studied. The axial tensile stress and strain, as well as the transverse compressive stress limits at which an irreversible critical current degradation occurs, are compared. The experimental setup has been integrated in a high-energy synchrotron beamline, and the self-field critical current and lattice parameter changes as a function of tensile stress and strain of a reinforced Bi-2223 tape have been measured simultaneously. Initially, the Bi-2223 filaments exhibit nearly linear elastic behavior up to the strain at which an irreversible degradation is observed. At 77 K, an axial Bi-2223 filament precompression of 0.09% in the composite tape and a Bi-2223 Poisson ratio ν = 0.21 have been determined.

  7. Properties of CdTe nanocrystalline thin films grown on different substrates by low temperature sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huimin; Guo Fuqiang; Zhang Baohua

    2009-01-01

    CdTe nanocrystalline thin films have been prepared on glass, Si and Al 2 O 3 substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at liquid nitrogen temperature. The crystal structure and morphology of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The XRD examinations revealed that CdTe films on glass and Si had a better crystal quality and higher preferential orientation along the (111) plane than the Al 2 O 3 . FESEM observations revealed a continuous and dense morphology of CdTe films on glass and Si substrates. Optical properties of nanocrystalline CdTe films deposited on glass substrates for different deposited times were studied.

  8. ESTABLISHING EMPIRICAL RELATION TO PREDICT TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OF VORTEX TUBE USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRABAKARAN J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vortex tube is a device that produces cold and hot air simultaneously from the source of compressed air. In this work an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of three controllable input variables namely diameter of the orifices, diameter of the nozzles and inlet pressure over the temperature difference in the cold side as output using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Experiments are conducted using central composite design with three factors at three levels. The influence of vital parameters and interaction among these are investigated using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The proposed mathematical model in this study has proven to fit and in line with experimental values with a 95% confidence interval. It is found that the inlet pressure and diameter of nozzle are significant factors that affect the performance of vortex tube.

  9. Relationship between carbon microstructure, adsorption energy and hydrogen adsorption capacity at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagiello, J.; Thommes, M.

    2005-01-01

    Various microporous materials such as activated carbons, nano-tubes, synthetic micro-porous carbons as well as metal organic framework materials are being considered for hydrogen storage applications by means of physical adsorption. To develop materials of practical significance for hydrogen storage it is important to understand the relationships between pore sizes, adsorption energies and adsorption capacities. The pore size distribution (PSD) characterization is traditionally obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at 77 K. However, a portion of the pores accessible to H 2 may not be accessible to N 2 at this temperature. Therefore, it was recently proposed to use the DFT analysis of H 2 adsorption isotherms to characterize pore structure of materials considered for hydrogen storage applications [1]. In present work, adsorption isotherms of H 2 and N 2 at cryogenic temperatures are used for the characterization of carbon materials. Adsorption measurements were performed with Autosorb 1 MP [Quantachrome Instruments, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA]. As an example, Fig 1 compares PSDs calculated for the activated carbon sample (F400, Calgon Carbon) using combined H 2 and N 2 data, and using N 2 isotherm only. The nitrogen derived PSD does not include certain amount of micro-pores which are accessible to H 2 but not to N 2 molecules. Obviously, the difference in the calculated PSDs by the two methods will depend on the actual content of small micro-pores in a given sample. Carbon adsorption properties can also be characterized by the isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, related to the adsorption energy and dependent on the carbon pore/surface structure. Fig 2 shows Qst data calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation from H 2 isotherms measured at 77 K and 87 K for the carbon molecular sieve CMS 5A (Takeda), oxidized single wall nano-tubes (SWNT) [2], and graphitized carbon black (Supelco). The Qst values decrease with increasing pore

  10. Acute Exercise-Associated Skin Surface Temperature Changes after Resistance Training with Different Exercise Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weigert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed, that changes in muscular metabolic-associated heat production and blood circulation during and after muscular work affect skin temperature (T but the results are inconsistent and the effect of exercise intensity is unclear. Objective: This study investigated the intensity-dependent reaction of T on resistance training. Methods: Ten male students participated. After acclimatization (15 min, the participants completed 3x10 repetitions of unilateral biceps curl with 30, 50 or 70% of their one-repetition-maximum (1RM in a randomized order. Skin temperature of the loaded and unloaded biceps was measured at rest (Trest, immediately following set 1, 2 and 3 (TS1,TS2,TS3 and 30 minutes post exercise (T1 - T30 with an infrared camera. Results: Two-way ANOVA detected a significant effect of the measuring time point on T (Trest to T30 of the loaded arm for 30% (Eta²=0.85, 50% (Eta²=0.88 and 70% 1RM (Eta²=0.85 and of the unloaded arm only for 30% 1RM (Eta²=0.41 (p0.05. The T values at the different measuring time points (Trest - T30 did not differ between the intensities at any time point. The loaded arm showed a mean maximum T rise to Trest of 1.8°C and on average, maximum T was reached approximately 5 minutes after the third set.  Conclusion: This study indicate a rise of T, which could be independent of the exercise intensity. Infrared thermography seems to be applicable to identify the primary used functional muscles in resistance training but this method seems not suitable to differentiate between exercise intensity from 30 to 70% 1RM.

  11. Low-temperature micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy on laser-doped silicon with different surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Joon; Franklin, Evan; Fell, Andreas; Ernst, Marco; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Macdonald, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Low-temperature micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy (μ-PLS) is applied to investigate shallow layers of laser-processed silicon for solar cell applications. Micron-scale measurement (with spatial resolution down to 1 μm) enables investigation of the fundamental impact of laser processing on the electronic properties of silicon as a function of position within the laser-processed region, and in particular at specific positions such as at the boundary/edge of processed and unprocessed regions. Low-temperature μ-PLS enables qualitative analysis of laser-processed regions by identifying PLS signals corresponding to both laser-induced doping and laser-induced damage. We show that the position of particular luminescence peaks can be attributed to band-gap narrowing corresponding to different levels of subsurface laser doping, which is achieved via multiple 248 nm nanosecond excimer laser pulses with fluences in the range 1.5-4 J/cm2 and using commercially available boron-rich spin-on-dopant precursor films. We demonstrate that characteristic defect PL spectra can be observed subsequent to laser doping, providing evidence of laser-induced crystal damage. The impact of laser parameters such as fluence and number of repeat pulses on laser-induced damage is also analyzed by observing the relative level of defect PL spectra and absolute luminescence intensity. Luminescence owing to laser-induced damage is observed to be considerably larger at the boundaries of laser-doped regions than at the centers, highlighting the significant role of the edges of laser-doped region on laser doping quality. Furthermore, by comparing the damage signal observed after laser processing of two different substrate surface conditions (chemically-mechanically polished and tetramethylammonium hydroxide etched), we show that wafer preparation can be an important factor impacting the quality of laser-processed silicon and solar cells.

  12. Mechanisms of heat inactivation in Salmonella serotype Typhimurium as affected by low water activity at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljarallah, K M; Adams, M R

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effect of reduced water activity (a(w)) on thermal inactivation of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium at different temperatures and its mechanism. D-value determinations at a range of different temperatures showed that heating at reduced a(w) (0.94, produced by addition of glucose or sodium chloride to nutrient broth) was protective at temperatures above 53-55 degrees C but sensitizing below this temperature. Using selective enumeration media to determine injury, it was shown that at lower heating temperatures cells survived at high a(w) with cytoplasmic injury whereas at low a(w) these cells were killed. At higher temperatures ribosome degradation was a more important cause of death and was inhibited by low a(w) heating media thereby providing greater heat resistance. The observed change in behaviour reflects the different reactions responsible for thermal death at different temperatures and their different response to reduced a(w). This work qualifies the previous assumption that reduced a(w) is protective and suggests that the efficacy of low temperature pasteurization regimes may be increased by reduced a(w).

  13. Evaluation of evapotranspiration on paddy rice using non-weighting lysimeters under the different air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D.; Ryu, J. H.; Cho, J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimation of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc), as a representative of crop water needs, is important for not only high crop productivity, but also improving irrigation water management. In farm lands crop coefficient (Kc), the ratio of ETc to potential ET, is often used to simply estiamte ETc. However, the traits of Kc under the global warming condition will different with current one because plant transpiration and surface evaporaiton will be changed by the alternative crop growth and evaporative energy. In this study, Non-Weighting Lysimeter (NWL) was used to directly estimate ETc under the warmed condition, particularly for paddy riace which has one of lower water use efficiency. The different air t emperature (Ta) conditions for the NWL were provided by Temperature Gradient Chamber (TGC), which was formed gradually warmed conditions. The water body evporation and paddy rice evapotransipiration in the NWL were at the two places of ambient Ta (AT) and AT+3° in the TGC. In addition, we installed Infra-Red thermometer (IRT) to understand the surface energy balance. The result was shown that the different partitioning of evaporation and transpiration of paddy rice at the AT+3°, comparing at AT. Further, the water use efficiency, the ratio of yield to total ET, was also decreased in the warmed condition. These experiments for paddy rice ET in the warmed conditions during growth period will be useful to understand the effect of global warming on the hydrological cycle and manamge the irrigation schedule for more efficient water use.

  14. Calibration of the physiological equivalent temperature index for three different climatic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E.; Rossi, F.; Drach, P.

    2017-07-01

    In human biometeorology, the integration of several microclimatic variables as a combined index facilitates the understanding of how users perceive thermal environments. Indices, such as the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index, translate the combined effects of meteorological variables on humans in terms of thermal stress or comfort and serve as important aids to climate-responsive urban and regional planning as well as heat stress and thermal comfort analyses. However, there is a need for adjusting proposed comfort/stress ranges of a given index when using it in different climatic contexts. The purpose of this study is to present a preliminary calibration procedure for the PET index for three different climatic regions: Curitiba, Brazil, a subtropical location; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a tropical city; and Glasgow, UK, a high-latitude location. Field studies have been carried out by the authors according to a similar protocol and using similar equipment, yielding actual thermal sensation votes and microclimate data, post-processed as PET data. The calibration procedure uses exclusively thermal sensation data as reported by pedestrians during outdoor comfort campaigns and concurrent microclimatic data recorded during the interviews. PET comfort/stress classes differ among the three locations and, in general, are less restrictive as in the original ranges proposed by the index developers.

  15. Nanodiamond infiltration into porous silicon through etching of solid carbon produced at different graphitization temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, C. R. B., E-mail: claudia_rbm@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, Centro de Ciencias do Sistema Terrestre-CCST, Centro de Ciencias do Sistema Terrestre-CCST (Brazil); Baldan, M. R.; Beloto, A. F.; Ferreira, N. G. [CTE/INPE, Centro de Tecnologias Espaciais (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) was grown on the porous silicon (PS) substrate using Reticulated Vitreous Carbon (RVC) as an additional solid carbon source. RVC was produced at different heat treatment temperatures of 1300, 1500, and 2000 Degree-Sign C, resulting in samples with different turbostratic carbon organizations. The PS substrate was produced by an electrochemical method. NCD film was obtained by the chemical vapor infiltration/deposition process where a RVC piece was positioned just below the PS substrate. The PS and NCD samples were characterized by Field Emission Gun-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM). NCD films presented faceted nanograins with uniform surface texture covering all the pores resulting in an apparent micro honeycomb structure. Raman's spectra showed the D and G bands, as well as, the typical two shoulders at 1,150 and 1,490 cm{sup -1} attributed to NCD. X-ray diffraction analyses showed the predominant (111) diamond orientation as well as the (220) and (311) peaks. The structural organization and the heteroatom presence on the RVC surface, analyzed from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, showed their significant influence on the NCD growth process. The hydrogen etching released, from RVC surface, associated to carbon and/or oxygen/nitrogen amounts led to different contributions for NCD growth.

  16. Compatibility of different stainless steels in molten Pb-Bi eutectic at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, K.; Kain, Vivekanand; Laik, A.; Sharma, B.P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Debnath, A.K.

    2005-10-01

    Advanced nuclear reactors and the accelerator driven subcritical (ADS) system require the structural materials to be in contact with the molten metals/lead-bismuth eutectic at 400 degC and higher temperatures. One of the primary concerns in using the molten lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) as a coolant in the primary circuit of these systems is the degradation of structural materials in contact with LBE. An experimental setup has been fabricated to expose the materials in the molten LBE at high temperatures in stagnant condition under inert atmosphere. Samples from five different stainless steels (types 304L, 316L, 403, duplex SS SAF 2205 and super austenitic SS 2RK65) were exposed in this setup at 450 degC for 200h and at 500 degC for 600 and 2100 h under argon atmosphere. A different setup was prepared in which type 316L SS tube in the as-welded condition was exposed in molten LBE at 500 degC for 1200 h in rotating condition. All the samples showed formation of oxide on their surfaces. The thickness and compositional profiles of these oxides analyzed by EPMA confirmed formation of a double layer oxide on type 316L SS. The oxide thickness was highest on SS 403, while it was lowest on 304L and 316L SS. SEM results showed dissolution of materials at the surface in Sandvik 2RK65 and preferential dissolution of austenite phase in duplex SS. None of the stainless steels, except the duplex and the super austenitic stainless steels, showed any localized or selective corrosion. The composition of LBE before and after the exposure tests was analyzed by XRF technique. The result showed presence of Fe, Cr and Ni in the used LBE but these elements were not present in the virgin Pb-Ei alloy. This showed that the corrosion of stainless steels in LBE at temperatures upto 500 degC is due to oxidation and dissolution of alloying elements through the oxide on stainless steels. (author)

  17. Effect of Different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth and Physiology of Maize at Ambient and Low Temperature Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the growth and lipid peroxidation, soluble sugar, proline contents, and antioxidant enzymes activities of Zea mays L. was studied in pot culture subjected to two temperature regimes. Maize plants were grown in pots filled with a mixture of sandy and black soil for 5 weeks, and then half of the plants were exposed to low temperature for 1 week while the rest of the plants were grown under ambient temperature and severed as control. Different AMF resulted in different root colonization and low temperature significantly decreased AM colonization. Low temperature remarkably decreased plant height and total dry weight but increased root dry weight and root-shoot ratio. The AM plants had higher proline content compared with the non-AM plants. The maize plants inoculated with Glomus etunicatum and G. intraradices had higher malondialdehyde and soluble sugar contents under low temperature condition. The activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase of AM inoculated maize were higher than those of non-AM ones. Low temperature noticeably decreased the activities of CAT. The results suggest that low temperature adversely affects maize physiology and AM symbiosis can improve maize seedlings tolerance to low temperature stress.

  18. Differential Temporal Evolution Patterns in Brain Temperature in Different Ischemic Tissues in a Monkey Model of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain temperature is elevated in acute ischemic stroke, especially in the ischemic penumbra (IP. We attempted to investigate the dynamic evolution of brain temperature in different ischemic regions in a monkey model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. The brain temperature of different ischemic regions was measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS, and the evolution processes of brain temperature were compared among different ischemic regions. We found that the normal (baseline brain temperature of the monkey brain was 37.16°C. In the artery occlusion stage, the mean brain temperature of ischemic tissue was 1.16°C higher than the baseline; however, this increase was region dependent, with 1.72°C in the IP, 1.08°C in the infarct core, and 0.62°C in the oligemic region. After recanalization, the brain temperature of the infarct core showed a pattern of an initial decrease accompanied by a subsequent increase. However, the brain temperature of the IP and oligemic region showed a monotonously and slowly decreased pattern. Our study suggests that in vivo measurement of brain temperature could help to identify whether ischemic tissue survives.

  19. Temperature effects on solute diffusion and adsorption in differently compacted kaolin clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mon, Ei Ei; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Kawamoto, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Effects of soil temperature on the solute diffusion process in soils are important since subsurface temperature variation affects solute transport such as a fertilizer movement, leaching of salt, and pollutant movement to groundwater aquifers. However, the temperature dependency on the solute dif...

  20. Investigations of different doping concentration of phosphorus and boron into silicon substrate on the variable temperature Raman characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Ding, Kai; Liu, Jian; Gao, Junxuan; Zhang, Weifeng

    2018-01-01

    Different doped silicon substrates have different device applications and have been used to fabricate solar panels and large scale integrated circuits. The thermal transport in silicon substrates are dominated by lattice vibrations, doping type, and doping concentration. In this paper, a variable-temperature Raman spectroscopic system is applied to record the frequency and linewidth changes of the silicon peak at 520 cm-1 in five chips of silicon substrate with different doping concentration of phosphorus and boron at the 83K to 1473K temperature range. The doping has better heat sensitive to temperature on the frequency shift over the low temperature range from 83K to 300K but on FWHM in high temperature range from 300K to 1473K. The results will be helpful for fundamental study and practical applications of silicon substrates.

  1. Study on temperature field airborne remote sensing survey along shore nuclear power station in different tide status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Chunli; Li Mingsong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Power Station needs to let large quantity of cooling water to the near sea area when it is running. Whether the cooling water has effect to surrounding environment and the running of Nuclear Power Station needs further research. Temperature Drainage Mathematic Model and Physical Analogue Model need to acquire the distribution characteristic of near Station sea surface temperature field in different seasons and different tide status. Airborne Remote Sending Technique has a advantage in gaining high resolution sea surface temperature in different tide status, and any other manual method with discrete point survey can not reach it. After a successful implementation of airborne remote sensing survey to gain the near-shore temperature drainage information in Qinshan Nuclear Power Station, it provides the reference methods and ideas for temperature drainage remote sensing survey of Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  2. Thermal sensation and the skin sensation test: regional differences and their effects on the issue of reliability of temperature ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, G I; Aigbogun, O S

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses the differences in temperature sensitivity of skin areas. The subjects were required to associate the water content of test-tubes with the different heat sensations. The side of the test-tube was placed on the skin area and the temperature was matched with the subject's response. Analyses were limited to the warmth and cold sensations as generalizations can be made from these in terms of differences in the skin areas in heat perception. In the face, the temperature associated with warmth was significantly lower than in the forearm and the leg. This trend was different between the three areas in terms of the cold temperatures. The intra-individual difference suggests that results of skin sensation tests should be interpreted with some caution. Copyright © 1988 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding Differences in Upper Stratospheric Ozone Response to Changes in Chlorine and Temperature as Computed Using CCMVal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L. D.

    2012-01-01

    Projections of future ozone levels are made using models that couple a general circulation model with a representation of atmospheric photochemical processes, allowing interactions among photochemical processes, radiation, and dynamics. Such models are known as chemistry and climate models (CCMs). Although developed from common principles and subject to the same boundary conditions, simulated ozone time series vary for projections of changes in ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases. In the upper stratosphere photochemical processes control ozone level, and ozone increases as ODSs decrease and temperature decreases due to greenhouse gas increase. Simulations agree broadly but there are quantitative differences in the sensitivity of ozone to chlorine and to temperature. We obtain insight into these differences in sensitivity by examining the relationship between the upper stratosphere annual cycle of ozone and temperature as produced by a suite of models. All simulations conform to expectation in that ozone is less sensitive to temperature when chlorine levels are highest because chlorine catalyzed loss is nearly independent of temperature. Differences in sensitivity are traced to differences in simulated temperature, ozone and reactive nitrogen when chlorine levels are close to background. This work shows that differences in the importance of specific processes underlie differences in simulated sensitivity of ozone to composition change. This suggests a) the multi-model mean is not a best estimate of the sensitivity of upper ozone to changes in ODSs and temperature; b) the spread of values is not an appropriate measure of uncertainty.

  4. Differences in the physiological responses to temperature among stonechats from three populations reared in a common environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, B. Irene

    The physiological response to variation in air temperature (T-a) can provide insights into how animals are adapted to different environments. I measured metabolic rate, total evaporative water loss (TEWL) and body temperature (T-b) as a function of T. in stonechats from equatorial Kenya, temperate

  5. Moisture and temperature controls on nitrification differ among ammonia oxidizer communities from three alpine soil habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brooke B.; Baron, Jill S.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is altering the timing and magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes in many high elevation ecosystems. The consequent changes in alpine nitrification rates have the potential to influence ecosystem scale responses. In order to better understand how changing temperature and moisture conditions may influence ammonia oxidizers and nitrification activity, we conducted laboratory incubations on soils collected in a Colorado watershed from three alpine habitats (glacial outwash, talus, and meadow). We found that bacteria, not archaea, dominated all ammonia oxidizer communities. Nitrification increased with moisture in all soils and under all temperature treatments. However, temperature was not correlated with nitrification rates in all soils. Site-specific temperature trends suggest the development of generalist ammonia oxidizer communities in soils with greater in situ temperature fluctuations and specialists in soils with more steady temperature regimes. Rapidly increasing temperatures and changing soil moisture conditions could explain recent observations of increased nitrate production in some alpine soils.

  6. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A.; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J.; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Cerling, Thure E.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Eiler, John M.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ~6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  7. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-12-13

    To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Observational cohort study. Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (-0.021°C for every decade, Ptemperature (eg, hypothyroidism: -0.013°C, P=0.01) or higher temperature (eg, cancer: 0.020, Ptemperature variation. Despite this, unexplained temperature variation was a significant predictor of subsequent mortality: controlling for all measured factors, an increase of 0.149°C (1 SD of individual temperature in the data) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Individuals' baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. Participants 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Main outcome measures Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. Results In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (–0.021°C for every decade, Ptemperature (eg, hypothyroidism: –0.013°C, P=0.01) or higher temperature (eg, cancer: 0.020, Pbody mass index: 0.002 per m/kg2, Ptemperature variation. Despite this, unexplained temperature variation was a significant predictor of subsequent mortality: controlling for all measured factors, an increase of 0.149°C (1 SD of individual temperature in the data) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Conclusions Individuals’ baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. PMID:29237616

  9. Utilization Efficiency of Yolk Egg on Maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare Embryos and Larvae in Different Incubation Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the efficiency of yolk egg utilization in embryos and larvae, hatching rate, incubation time to hatch, and growth rate of maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare larvae incubated at room remperature, 27oC, and 30oC.  Results of study showed that yolk egg utilization efficiency of embryos and larvae incubated at 30oC was 73.70% and 0,18%, respectively, and no different with that of room and 27oC incubation temperatures.  Hatching rate of eggs incubated at 30oC (84.75% was also same with that of other treatments.  However, incubation time to hatch (27.41 hours was shorter than that of other treatments.  The growth rate by length of larvae (2.16% and survival rate (75.28% incubated at 30oC was also higher compared with that of other treatments.  Thus, in general, optimum temperature for egg hatching and larval rearing of maanvis was 30oC. Keywords: maanvis, Pterophyllum scalare, egg yolk, larvae, embryo, temperature   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efisiensi pemanfaatan kuning telur pada embrio dan larva, derajat penetasan, lama inkubasi telur hingga menetas, dan laju pertumbuhan serta kelangsungan hidup larva ikan maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare yang diinkubasi pada suhu ruang, 27oC dan 30oC.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai efisiensi pemanfaatan kuning telur bila diinkubasi pada suhu 30oCsebesar 73,70% pada fase embrio dan 0,18% pada fase larva, dan tidak berbeda dengan suhu ruang dan 27oC.  Demikian juga dengan derajat penetasan telur  (84,75% tidak berbeda dengan perlakuan lainnya.  Sementara itu, lama inkubasi telur hingga menetas (27,41 jam lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan suhu inkubasi perlakuan lainnya. Demikian juga dengan laju pertumbuhan panjang (2,16% dan kelangsungan hidup larva (75,28% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya. Dengan demikian, secara umum suhu optimal untuk penetasan dan pemeliharaan larva ikan maanvis adalah 30°C. Kata kunci: ikan maanvis

  10. Urban Imperviousness Effects on Summer Surface Temperatures Nearby Residential Buildings in Different Urban Zones of Parma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Morabito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and unplanned urban growth is responsible for the continuous conversion of green or generally natural spaces into artificial surfaces. The high degree of imperviousness modifies the urban microclimate and no studies have quantified its influence on the surface temperature (ST nearby residential building. This topic represents the aim of this study carried out during summer in different urban zones (densely urbanized or park/rural areas of Parma (Northern Italy. Daytime and nighttime ASTER images, the local urban cartography and the Italian imperviousness databases were used. A reproducible/replicable framework was implemented named “Building Thermal Functional Area” (BTFA useful to lead building-proxy thermal analyses by using remote sensing data. For each residential building (n = 8898, the BTFA was assessed and the correspondent ASTER-LST value (ST_BTFA and the imperviousness density were calculated. Both daytime and nighttime ST_BTFA significantly (p < 0.001 increased when high levels of imperviousness density surrounded the residential buildings. These relationships were mostly consistent during daytime and in densely urbanized areas. ST_BTFA differences between urban and park/rural areas were higher during nighttime (above 1 °C than daytime (about 0.5 °C. These results could help to identify “urban thermal Hot-Spots” that would benefit most from mitigation actions.

  11. Solution behaviour and sweetness response of D-Mannitol at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Muhammad Asghar; Rashad, Muhammad; Khosa, Muhammad Kaleem; Bhatti, Ijaz A; Zia, Khalid Mahmood

    2014-06-15

    The solution properties of d-Mannitol (DM) were studied to explore sweetness response and molecular interactions in aqueous solutions at different temperatures. The density (ρ) and ultrasonic velocity (μ) were measured at 20-45°C using density sound velocity metre (DSA 5000M). The results obtained were used to compute apparent and partial molar volume, apparent specific volumes, partial molar expansibility, apparent molar isentropic compressibility and compressibility hydration number. The partial molar volume (ΦV°) indicates hydrophilic interactions dominating in aqueous solution of DM. The quality of taste has been determined from apparent specific volumes (ASV) data at 20-45°C and 0.04-0.89 mol kg(-1).The apparent molar isentropic compressibility (ΦK(s)) and hydration number (nH) conferred pre-dominance of solute-solvent interactions, whereas partial molar expansibility (ΦE°) and related standards predicted structure making behaviour of DM. This study may provide new insights in elucidation of mechanistic differences between sweeteners and their mode of interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High temperature grain shrinkage under different pre-strains: a phase-field-crystal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi; Wang, Song; Chen, Zheng; Xi, Wen; Zhang, Ting-Hui

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we use the phase-field-crystal method to study high temperature grain shrinkage. A circular grain embedded in a symmetric tilt planar grain boundary (GB) is constructed as the simulation system. Misorientation angle of the circular GB has influence on the specific evolution process. Difference between low and high misorientation angle systems is explored. In low misorientation angle system, grain shrinkage is first enabled by dislocation migration. Then dislocation rearrangement process in trijunction areas triggers the further shrinkage of inner grain. The free energy density (FED) curve has a rising stage during the overall decline process. For high misorientation angle system, dissociation and recombination reaction of dislocations is the primary way to shrink inner grain. The FED curve monotonically declines. Additionally, we apply pre-strain to simulation system. The influence of pre-strain on grain shrinkage in low and high misorientation angle systems is also investigated. When pre-strain is relatively small, the evolution process has no difference with unstrained situation, but grain shrinkage is impeded. Further increasing pre-strain, dislocations are emitted from circular GB. Grain shrinkage is accelerated and the inner grain eventually disappears prior to the grain disappearance in unstrained system. There exists a critical pre-strain to control the emission of dislocations.

  13. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Petroleum oil removal by immobilized bacterial cells on polyurethane foam under different temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrello, Mauricio J; Juárez Tomás, María S; Raimondo, Enzo E; Vullo, Diana L; Ferrero, Marcela A

    2017-09-15

    In this work, a mixed biofilm composed by Pseudomonas monteilii P26 and Gordonia sp. H19 was formed using polyurethane foam (PUF) as immobilization support, for crude oil removal from artificial sea water. Fresh immobilized cells and immobilized cells that were stored at 4°C for two months before use were assessed. The oil removal assays were carried out at microcosm scale at 4, 15 and 30°C. A viability loss of P. monteilii P26 was observed after the storage. The highest removal value (75%) was obtained at 30°C after 7days using fresh immobilized cells on PUF. Enhanced oil bioremoval was obtained at 4°C and 15°C with the previously stored immobilized cells compared to the fresh immobilized cells. Crude oil sorption on the different systems was responsible for the removal of 22-33% oil at the different temperatures. In conclusion, an economic tool for petroleum bioremediation is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Correlation between five RNA markers of rat's skin and PMI at different temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Lü, Ye-hui; Ma, Jian-long; Ma, Kai-jun; Chen, Long

    2014-08-01

    To explore the correlation between postmortem interval (PMI) and five RNA markers of rat's skin--β-actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA(18S rRNA), 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA), and microRNA-203 (miR-203), at different temperatures. Eighteen SD rats were randomly divided into three environmental temperature groups: 4 °C, 15 °C and 35 °C, respectively. Skin samples were taken at 11 time points from 0 h to 120 h post-mortem. The total RNA was extracted from the skin samples and the five RNA levels were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Proper internal reference was selected by geNorm software. Regression analysis of the RNA markers was conducted by GraphPad software. 5S rRNA and miR-203 were most suitable internal references. A good linear relationship between PMI and RNA levels (β-actin and GAPDH) was observed in two groups (4 °C and 15 °C), whereas the S type curve relationship between the expression levels of the two markers (β-actin and GAPDH) and PMI was observed in the 35 °C group. The partial linear relationship between 18S rRNA and PMI was observed in the groups (15 °C and 35 °C). Skin could be a suitable material for extracting RNA. The RNA expression levels of β-actin and GAPDH correlate well with PMI, and these RNA markers of skin tissue could be additional indice for the estimation of PMI.

  16. Effect of different ions on the anodic behaviour of alloy 800 chloride solutions at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafont, C.J.; Alvarez, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of alloy 800 in sodium bicarbonate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions were studied in the temperature range from 100 degrees C to 280 degrees C by means of electrochemical techniques. The effect of phosphate or bicarbonate additions on the pitting susceptibility and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride solutions was also examined. Experiments were performed in the following solutions: 0.1M NaHCO 3 , at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C, 280 degrees C; 0.06M NaH 2 PO 4 + 0.04M Na 2 HPO 4 , at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 280 degrees C, and 0.1M NaCl with different additions of bicarbonate ion (0.02M, 0.05M and 0.1M) and phosphate ion (0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M) at 100 degrees C and 280 degrees C. The anodic polarization curves of alloy 800 in deaerated 0.1M NaHCO 3 and 0.06M NaH 2 PO 4 + 0.04M Na 2 HPO 4 solutions exhibited a similar shape at all the tested temperatures. No localized or generalized corrosion was detected on the metallic surface after polarization. The results obtained in chloride plus bicarbonate and chloride plus phosphate mixtures showed that the pitting potential of alloy 800 in chloride solutions was increased by the presence of bicarbonate or phosphate ions. In those solutions where the inhibitor concentration in the mixture is equal or higher than the chloride concentration , the behaviour of the alloy is similar to the one observed in the absence of chlorides. Changes in pitting morphology were found in phosphate containing solutions, while the pits found in bicarbonate containing solutions were similar to those formed in pure chloride solutions. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  17. Effects of Electrolyte Beverage on Preventing Dehydration among Workers in Different Environmental Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermita Isfandiary Ibrahim Ilyas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives Water and electrolyte balance is important to maintain cognitive and physical performance, especially in hot environment. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two different type of fluid intake at the workplace in preventing dehydration among male workers working in a hot and conveniently cool environment. Methods and Study Design This randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trial study was performed in two appointed factories in West-Java in January-February 2012. Seventy-eight healthy male subjects, age 25-45 years were selected and they were grouped based on their working environmental temperature, i.e. hot and conveniently cool environment. The subjects were randomly allocated in two intervention phases by using crossover approach, to have non-electrolyte beverage (plain water and electrolyte drink in the workplace for 2 days, respectively. Hydration and electrolyte biomarkers were collected from blood and urine samples at before and after the intervention. Results and Conclusions: At baseline, subjects of the hot environment workplace had higher daily working hours, hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood viscosity, and blood sodium concentration as compared to those of conveniently cool environment (P<0.05. After the intervention, for the subjects in hot environment alone, there were significantly lower value of blood viscosity, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, but significantly higher value for blood sodium, USG (urine specific gravity, pH, urinary sodium, urinary potassium and urinary chloride (P<0.05, among subjects having the electrolyte drink as compared to the plain water. In conclusion, this study confirmed that consumption of electrolyte beverage during working in hot environment temperature could help improve hydration status and electrolyte concentration.

  18. Characterisation of silica derived from rice husk (Muar, Johor, Malaysia) decomposition at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmi, M. A.; Ismail, N. A. A.; Rizamarhaiza, M.; Hasif, W. M. K. A. A.; Taib, H., E-mail: hariati@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    Rice husk was thermally decomposed to yield powder composed of silica (SiO{sub 2}). Temperatures of 700°C and 1000°C were chosen as the decomposition temperatures. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Florescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analyses were conducted on a synthetic silica powder (SS-SiO{sub 2}) and the rice husk ash as for the comparative characterisation study. XRD analyses clearly indicated that the decomposed rice husk yielded silica of different nature which are Crystalline Rice Husk Silica (C-RHSiO{sub 2}) and Amorphous Rice Husk Silica (A-RHSiO{sub 2}). Moreover, it was found that SS-SiO{sub 2} was of Quartz phase, C-RHSiO{sub 2} was of Trydimite and Cristobalite. Through XRF detection, the highest SiO{sub 2} purity was detected in SS-SiO{sub 2} followed by C-RHSiO{sub 2} and A-RHSiO{sub 2} with purity percentages of 99.60%, 82.30% and 86.30% respectively. FTIR results clearly indicated silica (SiO{sub 2}) bonding 1056, 1064, 1047, 777, 790 and 798 cm{sup −1}) increased as the crystallinity silica increased. The Cristobalite phase was detected in C-RH SiO{sub 2} at the wavelength of 620 cm{sup −1}. Morphological features as observed by FESEM analyses confirmed that, SS-SiO{sub 2} and C-RH SiO{sub 2} showed prominent coarse granular morphology.

  19. Five Year Mean Bottom to Surface Temperature Differences in the Northern Gulf of Mexico for 2005 through 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images were created by combining the estimates of the mean bottom to surface temperature differences to produce seasonal representations for winter, spring,...

  20. El Nino-Southern Oscillation, rainfall, temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index fluctuations in the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogutu, J. O.; Piepho, H. -P.; Dublin, H. T.; Bhola, N.; Reid, R. S.

    Understanding long-term climatic variability is basic to wise management and conservation of biodiversity. We analysed temporal variations in the local rainfall, temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the hemispheric El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), using the Southern

  1. How does low temperature coupled with different pressures affect initiation mechanisms and subsequent decompositions in nitramine explosive HMX?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Xiong, Guolin; Zhu, Weihua; Xiao, Heming

    2015-09-21

    We have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to study coupling effects of temperature (534-873 K) and pressure (1-20 GPa) on the initiation mechanisms and subsequent chemical decompositions of nitramine explosive 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX). A new initiation decomposition mechanism of HMX was found to be the unimolecular C-H bond breaking, and this mechanism was independent of the coupling effects of different temperatures and pressures. The formed hydrogen radicals could promote subsequent decompositions of HMX. Subsequent decompositions were very sensitive to the pressure at low temperatures (534 and 608 K), while the temperature became the foremost factor that affected the decomposition at a high temperature (873 K) instead of the pressure. Our study may provide a new insight into understanding the coupling effects of the temperature and pressure on the initiation decomposition mechanisms of nitramine explosives.

  2. An experimental study of the effect of different starting room temperatures on occupant comfort in Danish summer weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2018-01-01

    As office workers will usually have a slightly elevated metabolic rate when arriving at work, they may prefer a room temperature below the comfort range for sedentary activity in the morning. This possibility was studied in an experiment with 25 young people, male and female, exposed to four...... different conditions. Each condition consisted of two sessions, the simulated commute (activity equivalent to walking to work) and the office session. Each office session had a different starting room temperature, namely 18.5 °C, 20 °C, 21.5 °C or 23 °C, followed by an increasing temperature “ramp” of 1.5K...... every 30 min. During the last 30 min the temperature remained constant. Physical measurements were continuously recorded and subjective evaluation questionnaires were completed every 30 min. It was observed that, upon arrival at the office-lab, a room temperature of 20 °C provided a thermal environment...

  3. Thermal preference, thermal resistance, and metabolic rate of juvenile Chinese pond turtles Mauremys reevesii acclimated to different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Dang, Wei; Geng, Jun; Lu, Hong-Liang

    2015-10-01

    The thermal acclimatory capacity of a particular species may determine its resilience to environmental change. Evaluating the physiological acclimatory responses of economically important species is useful for determining their optimal culture conditions. Here, juvenile Chinese three-keeled pond turtles (Mauremys reevesii) were acclimated to one of three different temperatures (17, 25 or 33°C) for four weeks to assess the effects of thermal acclimation on some physiological traits. Thermal acclimation significantly affected thermal resistance, but not thermal preference, of juvenile M. reevesii. Turtles acclimated to 17°C were less resistant to high temperatures than those acclimated to 25°C and 33°C. However, turtles increased resistance to low temperatures with decreasing acclimation temperature. The acclimation response ratio of the critical thermal minimum (CTMin) was lower than that of the critical thermal maximum (CTMax) for acclimation temperatures between 17 and 25°C, but slightly higher between 25 and 33°C. The thermal resistance range (i.e., the difference between CTMax and CTMin) was widest in turtles acclimated to the intermediate temperature (25°C), and narrowest in those acclimated to low temperature (17°C). The standard metabolic rate increased as body temperature and acclimation temperature increased, and the temperature quotient (Q10) between acclimation temperatures 17 and 25°C was higher than the Q10 between 25 and 33°C. Our results suggest that juvenile M. reevesii may have a greater resistance under mild thermal conditions resembling natural environments, and better physiological performance at relatively warm temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on the sugars development of irradiated potatoes receiving different nitrogen levels during growth and stored at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badshah, N.; Iritani, W.M.; Rom, C.R.; Patterson, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tubers of Russet Burbank potatoes from 0, 181.8 and 363.6 kg/ha nitrogen were irradiated with 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 kGy of gamma rays (Co 60 source) and stored for three months at temperatures of 10 and 15.5°C. Changes in reducing sugars and sucrose contents were significantly influenced by nitrogen and irradiation levels while storage temperatures had no significant effect. Nitrogen and irradiation significantly decreased reducing and non-reducing sugars while temperature had no significant effect. Reducing sugars decreased with increasing levels of nitrogen and irradiation. Tubers from zero fertilizer regime developed 1.5% reducing sugars. Irradiation at 0.2 kGy dosage decreased reducing sugars from 1.7 to 0.9%. The breakdown of non-reducing sugars increased with increasing nitrogen levels but decreased with irradiation. Tubers from the maximum nitrogen plot had a 36% decrease of non-reducing sugars. Irradiation at 0.1 kGy dosage had the least change (4.9% decrease) of non-reducing sugars. (author)

  5. X-ray characteristic temperature of Fe-Ni alloys with different crystal lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnikova, G.N.; Ushakov, A.I.; Kazakov, V.G.; Bochkarev, V.F.; Gorovoj, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated has been the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient and the characteristic Debye temperature of the ferronickel films, having a body-centered (cubic) and a face-centered (cubic) lattice. In case of the body-centered lattice films the tests have been staged in the 100-200 deg C range, and in case of the face c.entered lattice films - in the 20-300 deg C range. The study of temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient has revealed that a non-linear growth of the thermal expansion coefficient occurs in α-phase samples when approaching the phase transition temperature. The phase transition in the Invar composition Fe-Ni films is conductive to a considerable variation of the Debye temperature. Approaching the phase transition temperature, the crystal lattice dynamic characteristics vary

  6. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface...... different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cosθ values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability...... contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability....

  7. Modeling of soil nitrification responses to temperature reveals thermodynamic differences between ammonia-oxidizing activity of archaea and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne E; Giguere, Andrew T; Zoebelein, Conor M; Myrold, David D; Bottomley, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    Soil nitrification potential (NP) activities of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria (AOA and AOB, respectively) were evaluated across a temperature gradient (4-42 °C) imposed upon eight soils from four different sites in Oregon and modeled with both the macromolecular rate theory and the square root growth models to quantify the thermodynamic responses. There were significant differences in response by the dominant AOA and AOB contributing to the NPs. The optimal temperatures (T opt ) for AOA- and AOB-supported NPs were significantly different (P12 °C greater than AOB. The change in heat capacity associated with the temperature dependence of nitrification (ΔC P ‡ ) was correlated with T opt across the eight soils, and the ΔC P ‡ of AOB activity was significantly more negative than that of AOA activity (Ptemperature (T min ) and different, albeit very similar, maximum temperature (T max ) values for AOB than for AOA activity. The results also suggested that there may be different forms of AOA AMO that are active over different temperature ranges with different T min , but no evidence of multiple T min values within the AOB. Fundamental differences in temperature-influenced properties of nitrification driven by AOA and AOB provides support for the idea that the biochemical processes associated with NH 3 oxidation in AOA and AOB differ thermodynamically from each other, and that also might account for the difficulties encountered in attempting to model the response of nitrification to temperature change in soil environments.

  8. Chemical spray pyrolysis of β-In2S3 thin films deposited at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Thierno; Marí Soucase, Bernabé; Mollar, Miguel; Hartitti, Bouchaib; Fahoume, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    In2S3 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis while keeping the substrates at different temperatures. The structures of the sprayed In2S3 thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XFD). The quality of the thin films was determined by Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy were used to explore the surface morphology and topography of the thin films, respectively. The optical band gap was determined based on optical transmission measurements. The indium sulfide phase exhibited a preferential orientation in the (0, 0, 12) crystallographic direction according to the XRD analysis. The phonon vibration modes determined by Raman spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of the In2S3 phase in our samples. According to SEM, the surface morphologies of the films were free of defects. The optical band gap energy varied from 2.82 eV to 2.95 eV.

  9. Electrical properties of undoped zinc oxide nanostructures at different annealing temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. F., E-mail: babaibaik2002@yahoo.com; Zainol, M. N., E-mail: nizarzainol@yahoo.com; Hannas, M., E-mail: mhannas@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: mhmamat@salam.uitm.edu.my; Rusop, Mohamad, E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, S. A., E-mail: saadah@um.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    This project has been focused on the electrical and optical properties respectively on the effect of Undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films at different annealing temperature which is varied 400 °C, 450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C.Undoped ZnO solutions were deposited onto the glass substrates using sol-gel spin coating method. This project was involved with three phases, which are thin films preparation, deposition and characterization. The thin films were characterized using Current Voltage (I-V) measurement and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer for electrical properties and optical properties. The electrical properties show that the resistivity is the lowest at 500 °C which its resistivity is 5.36 × 10{sup 4} Ωcm{sup −1}. The absorption coefficient spectrum obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer measurement shows all films exhibit very low absorption in the visible (400-800 nm) and near infrared (NIR) (>800 nm) range but exhibit high absorption in the UV range.

  10. Effect of the thawing time of castor bean pollen grains stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Copstein Cuchiara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at evaluating the effect of thawing time of pollen grains of castor bean cultivars undergoing different environmental conditions and storage periods. For this, pollen grains were maintained in four environments: refrigerator (4ºC, freezer (-18ºC, ultrafreezer (-72ºC, and liquid nitrogen (-196ºC for 60 days. To evaluate viability, in vitro germination was carried out in three tests: 15, 30, and 60 days, in which the pollens grains germinated within an hour were analyzed up to 6h and after 24h. In a completely randomized design, 100 pollen grains were analyzed in the 6 replications of each treatment. For the cultivar IAC 80, both after 15 and 30 days of storage in ultrafreezer, about 50% of pollen grains germinated required from 5h to 6h of incubation for the resumption of metabolism, respectively. For the cultivar AL Guarany 2002, ultrafreezer presented a higher degree of technical uniformity; however, the best germination was achieved through criopreservation. After 60 days, there was a dramatic decrease in the viability under all environmental conditions. Depending on the temperature, there may be a need for a larger thawing time for the resumption of physiological activities.

  11. Kefir grains as a starter for whey fermentation at different temperatures: chemical and microbiological characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Alejandra; Hamet, María F; De Antoni, Graciela L; Garrote, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G

    2012-08-01

    We report here a comparative analysis of the growth, acidification capacity, and chemical and microbiologic composition between kefir grains after 20 subcultures in whey at 20, 30, and 37°C and the original kefir grains coming from milk along with a determination of the microbiological composition of the fermented whey as compared with that of traditional fermented milk. When fermentation was carried out repeatedly at 30 or 37°C, kefir grains changed their kefir-like appearance, exhibited reduced growth rates, had a lower diversity of yeasts and water content, and a higher protein-to-polysaccharide ratio compared with the original kefir grains. In contrast, at 20°C kefir grains could remain in whey for prolonged periods without altering their acidification capacity, growth rate, macroscopic appearance or chemical and microbiologic composition-with the only difference being a reduction in certain yeast populations after 20 subcultures in whey. At this incubation temperature, the presence of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lb. kefir, Lb. parakefir, Lactococcus lactis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces unisporus, and Sac. cerevisiae was detected in kefir grains and in fermented whey by denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In whey fermented at 20°C the number of lactic-acid bacteria (LAB) was significantly lower (Pkefir grains as whey-fermentation starters.

  12. Soil temperature modeling at different depths using neuro-fuzzy, neural network, and genetic programming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Sanikhani, Hadi; Cobaner, Murat

    2017-08-01

    The applicability of artificial neural networks (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and genetic programming (GP) techniques in estimating soil temperatures (ST) at different depths is investigated in this study. Weather data from two stations, Mersin and Adana, Turkey, were used as inputs to the applied models in order to model monthly STs. The first part of the study focused on comparison of ANN, ANFIS, and GP models in modeling ST of two stations at the depths of 10, 50, and 100 cm. GP was found to perform better than the ANN and ANFIS-SC in estimating monthly ST. The effect of periodicity (month of the year) on models' accuracy was also investigated. Including periodicity component in models' inputs considerably increased their accuracies. The root mean square error (RMSE) of ANN models was respectively decreased by 34 and 27 % for the depths of 10 and 100 cm adding the periodicity input. In the second part of the study, the accuracies of the ANN, ANFIS, and GP models were compared in estimating ST of Mersin Station using the climatic data of Adana Station. The ANN models generally performed better than the ANFIS-SC and GP in modeling ST of Mersin Station without local climatic inputs.

  13. Supergravity separation of Pb and Sn from waste printed circuit boards at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Long; Wang, Zhe; Zhong, Yi-wei; Chen, Kui-yuan; Guo, Zhan-cheng

    2018-02-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain many toxic substances as well as valuable metals, e.g., lead (Pb) and tin (Sn). In this study, a novel technology, named supergravity, was used to separate different mass ratios of Pb and Sn from Pb-Sn alloys in PCBs. In a supergravity field, the liquid metal phase can permeate from solid particles. Hence, temperatures of 200, 280, and 400°C were chosen to separate Pb and Sn from PCBs. The results depicted that gravity coefficient only affected the recovery rates of Pb and Sn, whereas it had little effect on the mass ratios of Pb and Sn in the obtained alloys. With an increase in gravity coefficient, the recovery values of Pb and Sn in each step of the separation process increased. In the single-step separation process, the mass ratios of Pb and Sn in Pb-Sn alloys were 0.55, 0.40, and 0.64 at 200, 280, and 400°C, respectively. In the two-step separation process, the mass ratios were 0.12 and 0.55 at 280 and 400°C, respectively. Further, the mass ratio was observed to be 0.76 at 400°C in the three-step separation process. This process provides an innovative approach to the recycling mechanism of Pb and Sn from PCBs.

  14. The choice of terminal temperature difference for closed feedwater heaters in a steam power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Errico, P.A.; Andreone, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Terminal temperature difference (TTD) and the drains cooler approach (DCA), the thermal performance parameters for closed feedwater heaters, (CFWH) in steam power cycles, frequently are selected on the basis of economics. In the design study process, optimal heater performance is determined by analyzing the trends in overall cycle performance economics as they vary with heater TTD and DCA. TTD and DCA are selected to provide the lowest evaluated cost, taking into account unit performance cost and the investment costs associated with the heaters as these performance parameters are varied. Practical constraints such as an overall heater length, tube side velocities, desuperheating (DSH) zone wet wall, etc, must be considered as well. An exception occurs when this procedure is applied to the TTD of the highest pressure heater in the cycle. When calculating overall cycle performance, the heat rate is found to improve with improved (lower) TTD results in greater investment costs, the evaluation for the highest extraction pressure CFWH may be contrary to those obtained for similar calculations on other heaters. This paper discusses guidelines for calculating heater performance parameters and specifically addresses the practical aspects of choosing the TTD's for CFWH in a steam power cycle

  15. Investigation of potential waste material insulating properties at different temperature for thermal storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T. Z. S.; Rosli, A. B.; Gan, L. M.; Billy, A. S.; Farid, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal energy storage system (TES) is developed to extend the operation of power generation. TES system is a key component in a solar energy power generation plant, but the main issue in designing the TES system is its thermal capacity of storage materials, e.g. insulator. This study is focusing on the potential waste material acts as an insulator for thermal energy storage applications. As the insulator is used to absorb heat, it is needed to find suitable material for energy conversion and at the same time reduce the waste generation. Thus, a small-scale experimental testing of natural cooling process of an insulated tank within a confined room is conducted. The experiment is repeated by changing the insulator from the potential waste material and also by changing the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The analysis presented the relationship between heat loss and the reserved period by the insulator. The results show the percentage of period of the insulated tank withstands compared to tank insulated by foam, e.g. newspaper reserved the period of 84.6% as much as foam insulated tank to withstand the heat transfer of cooking oil to the surrounding. The paper finally justifies the most potential waste material as an insulator for different temperature range of heat transfer fluid.

  16. Operative air temperature data for different measures applied on a building envelope in warm climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Baglivo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several technical combinations have been evaluated in order to design high energy performance buildings for the warm climate. The analysis has been developed in several steps, avoiding the use of HVAC systems.The methodological approach of this study is based on a sequential search technique and it is shown on the paper entitled “Envelope Design Optimization by Thermal Modeling of a Building in a Warm Climate” [1].The Operative Air Temperature trends (TOP, for each combination, have been plotted through a dynamic simulation performed using the software TRNSYS 17 (a transient system simulation program, University of Wisconsin, Solar Energy Laboratory, USA, 2010.Starting from the simplest building configuration consisting of 9 rooms (equal-sized modules of 5 × 5 m2, the different building components are sequentially evaluated until the envelope design is optimized. The aim of this study is to perform a step-by-step simulation, simplifying as much as possible the model without making additional variables that can modify their performances. Walls, slab-on-ground floor, roof, shading and windows are among the simulated building components. The results are shown for each combination and evaluated for Brindisi, a city in southern Italy having 1083 degrees day, belonging to the national climatic zone C. The data show the trends of the TOP for each measure applied in the case study for a total of 17 combinations divided into eight steps.

  17. The role of coupling on the statistical properties of the energy fluxes between stochastic systems at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérut, A.; Imparato, A.; Petrosyan, A.; Ciliberto, S.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally study the statistical properties of the energy fluxes in two systems whose components are kept at different temperatures. The first system under consideration is an electric circuit which is composed by two resistances, kept at different temperatures and connected by a capacitance (conservative coupling) which couples the thermal noise of the two resistances. The other system is composed by two Brownian particles, trapped with optical tweezers, interacting through a dissipative hydrodynamic coupling. The particles are subjected to an effective temperature difference obtained by random forcing the position of one trap. In these two systems we measure the properties of the energy flowing between the two reservoirs. The role on these properties of the coupling and of the method used to produce the highest temperature is analyzed.

  18. Mechanical performance of hemp fiber polypropylene composites at different operating temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi Tajvidi; Nazanin Motie; Ghonche Rassam; Robert H. Falk; Colin Felton

    2010-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of hemp fiber polypropylene composites, formulations containing 25% and 40% (by weight) hemp fiber were produced and tested at three representative temperatures of 256, 296, and 336 K. Flexural, tensile, and impact tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis, were performed and the reduction...

  19. A Student-Constructed Galvanic Cell for the Measurement of Cell Potentials at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A student-made galvanic cell is proposed for temperature measurements of cell potential. This cell can be easily constructed by students, the materials needed are readily available and nontoxic, and the solution applied is in an attractive color. For this cell, the potential values are excellently reproducible at each temperature, and the…

  20. Improving efficiency of heat pumps by use of zeotropic mixtures for different temperature glides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zühlsdorf, Benjamin; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Cignitti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the optimization of a heat pump for an application with a large temperature glide on the sink and a smaller temperature glide on the source side. The study includes a simulation of a heat pump cycle for all possible binary mixtures from a list of 14 natural...

  1. Temperature distribution in Risø Flexhouse Room 3 with different heating control principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    in winter and spring 2009 to study the distribution of local temperatures in the room – particularly with the purpose to compare with the temperature measured and logged by the heating control sensor which was already installed in the room. The measured data shall be used together with mathematical models...

  2. Temperature Effect on the Susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to Four Different Cephalosporins

    OpenAIRE

    Canawati, Hanna N.; Witte, Joyce L.; Sapico, Francisco L.

    1982-01-01

    Forty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were tested for in vitro susceptibility to cephalothin, cefamandole, cefotaxime, and moxalactam, using the disk diffusion and microbroth dilution methods at incubation temperatures of 30 and 35°C. Resistance to all four antibiotics was more clearly evident at an incubation temperature of 30°C.

  3. Effect of biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperature on the soil respiration of abandoned mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Seong; Kim, Juhee; Hwang, Wonjae; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    infrared gas sensor, and these data were sent to a data logger. During the measuring periods, the cumulative CO2 emission were similar between the control (516.8 mg-CO2 kg-1-soil) and BC4 5% mixture (519.3 mg-CO2 kg-1-soil), while BC7 5% mixture was significantly decreased (356.1 mg-CO2 kg-1-soil) compared to other treatment and control. Because the degradation rate of biochar generally increased with decreasing pyrolysis temperature, this result suggest that the soil respiration rates of biochar amended soils are affected by physico-chemical properties of biochar during early incubation periods (about 1 weeks), For example, surface properties of used biochars, which are related to adsorption of soil organic matter and CO2, have different properties with pyrolysis temperature such as specific surface area (BC4=5.08 m2g-1; BC7=260.75 m2 g-1, respectively), average pore diameter (BC4=4,673 nm; BC7=2,606 nm, respectively), and functional groups of biochar surface. However, there was not clear evidence of biochar-mine soil interaction process, because of the short observation periods. Future work should focus on the adsorption of CO2 and soil organic matter of biochar and soil-biochar interaction with long time periods and various biological test.

  4. Search for Trends and Periodicities in Inter-hemispheric Sea Surface Temperature Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, R.; Tiwari, R. K.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the role of coupled solar and internal ocean dynamics on hemispheric climate variability is critical to climate modelling. We have analysed here 165 year long annual northern hemispheric (NH) and southern hemispheric (SH) sea surface temperature (SST) data employing spectral and statistical techniques to identify the imprints of solar and ocean-atmospheric processes, if any. We reconstructed the eigen modes of NH-SST and SH-SST to reveal non-linear oscillations superimposed on the monotonic trend. Our analysis reveals that the first eigen mode of NH-SST and SH-SST representing long-term trend of SST variability accounts for 15-23% variance. Interestingly, these components are matching with first eigen mode (99% variance) of the total solar irradiance (TSI) suggesting possible impact of solar activity on long-term SST variation. Furthermore, spectral analysis of SSA reconstructed signal revealed statistically significant periodicities of 63 ± 5, 22 ± 2, 10 ± 1, 7.6, 6.3, 5.2, 4.7, and 4.2 years in both NH-SST and SH-SST data. The major harmonics centred at 63 ± 5, 22 ± 2, and 10 ± 1 years are similar to solar periodicities and hence may represent solar forcing, while the components peaking at around 7.6, 6.3, 5.2, 4.7, and 4.2 years apparently falls in the frequency bands of El-Nino-Southern Oscillations linked to the oceanic internal processes. Our analyses also suggest evidence for the amplitude modulation of 9-11 and 21-22 year solar cycles, respectively, by 104 and 163 years in northern and southern hemispheric SST data. The absence of the above periodic oscillations in CO2 fails to suggest its role on observed inter-hemispheric SST difference. The cross-plot analysis also revealed strong influence of solar activity on linear trend of NH- and SH-SST in addition to small contribution from CO2. Our study concludes that (1) the long-term trends in northern and southern hemispheric SST variability show considerable synchronicity with cyclic

  5. Temperature rise during adhesive and composite polymerization with different light-curing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Da Silva, A; Alves Da Cunha, L; Pagani, C; De Mello Rode, S

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated the temperature rise of the adhesive system Single Bond (SB) and the composite resins Filtek Z350 flow (Z) and Filtek Supreme (S), when polymerized by light-emitting diode (LED XL 3000) and quartz-tungsten halogen (QTH Biolux). Class V cavities (3 yen2 mm) were prepared in 80 bovine incisors under standardized conditions. The patients were divided as follows: G1: Control; G2: SB; G3: SB + Z; G4: SB + S. The groups were subdivided into two groups for polymerization (A: QTH, B: LED). Light curing was performed for 40 s and measurement of temperature changes during polymerization was performed with a thermocouple positioned inside the pulp chamber. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests. The factors material (P<0.00001) and curing unit (P<0.00001) had significant influence on temperature rise. The lowest temperature increase (0.15 degrees C) was recorded in G2 B and the highest was induced in G1 A (0.75 degrees C, P<0.05). In all groups, lower pulp chamber temperature measurements were obtained when using LED compared to QTH (P<0.05). QTH caused greater increases in tooth temperature than LED. However, both sources did not increase pulpal temperature above the critical value that may cause pulpal damage.

  6. Physiochemical and functional properties of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) skin gelatin extracted at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xia, Lining; Jia, Hui; Li, Qi; Jin, Wengang; Dong, Xiuping; Pan, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic source gelatins are gaining more attention due to the advantages in safety and religion acceptability compared with mammalian sources. For understanding the effects of extracting temperature on gelatins from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) skins (GCSS), gelatins were extracted at temperatures from 40 to 90°C and the physiochemical properties of GCSS were investigated. GCSS yield increased while imino acids content declined as the increase of temperature. GCSS40, 50 and 60 showed strong β-, α1- and α2-chains but the three faded in GCSS70, 80 and 90, with the presence of low molecular weight fragments. Amides A, I and III were shifted to higher wavenumber in GCSS70, 80 and 90 compared with that of GCSS40, 50 and 60. X-ray diffraction showed lower intensity of peak at 7° in GCSS80 and 90 than in the other GCSS. Gel strength declined while a*, b* and ΔE* value increased as temperature increased. Foam expansion and stability of GCSS40, 50 and 60 were lower than those of GCSS70, 80 and 90. Emulsion activity and stability decreased as temperature increased. Extracting temperature greatly affected yield, molecular composition and functionalities of GCSS. A temperature lower than 50°C is recommended for GCSS extraction. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K; Kohn, Matthew J; Cerling, Thure E; Chiappe, Luis M; Eiler, John M

    2015-10-13

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ∼ 6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  8. Yield and nutrient composition of biochar produced from different feedstocks at varying pyrolytic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, M.A.; Khalid, M.; Arshad, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in pyrolytic temperatures and feedstocks affects the yield and nutrient composition of biochar. Selection of suitable feedstock and optimum pyrolytic temperature is crucial before using it for agricultural purposes. We compared biochars produced from two feedstocks (wheat straw and rice) at three temperatures (300, 400 and 500 degree C). Biochar yield decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while ash contents were increased. The cation exchange capacity was significantly higher (119 cmolc kg/sup -1/) at temperature 400 degree C. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and carbon content of biochars increased significantly with increasing temperature and maximum pH (10.4) and EC (3.35 dS m/sup -1/) were observed in rice straw biochar (WSB) at 500 degree C and carbon content (662 g kg/sup -1/) in wheat straw biochar (RSB) at 500 degree C. Concentration of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) increased significantly with increasing temperature, while of nitrogen (N) decreased. Overall, the maximum N (13.8 g kg/sup -1/at 300 degree C) and P (3.4 g kg/sup -1/at 500 degree C) concentrations were observed in WSB while, maximum K (48 g kg/sup -1/ at 500 degree C)in RSB. High pyrolysis temperature reduced AB-DTPA extractable nutrients (expect Mn). The highest AB-DTPA extractable nutrients such as P (113 mg kg/sup -1/) and Ca (1.07 g kg/sup -1/) were observed in WSB at 300 degree C while, K (18 g kg/sup -1/) and magnesium (Mg) (1.55 g kg/sup -1/) in RSB at 300 degree C. Selected feedstock and use of low pyrolysis temperature may produce nutrient-rich biochar, with high CEC and low pH and these could have positive effects on calcareous soils. (author)

  9. Differences in sensitivity of native and exotic fish species to changes in river temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.E.W. LEUVEN, A.J. HENDRIKS, M.A.J. HUIJBREGTS, H.J.R. LENDERS,J. MATTHEWS, G. VAN DER VELDE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effects that temperature changes in the Rhine river distributaries have on native and exotic fish diversity. Site-specific potentially affected fractions (PAFs of the regional fish species pool were derived using species sensitivity distributions (SSDs for water temperature. The number of fish species in the river distributaries has changed remarkably over the last century. The number of native rheophilous species declined up until 1980 due to anthropogenic disturbances such as commercial fishing, river regulation, migration barriers, habitat deterioration and water pollution. In spite of progress in river rehabilitation, the native rheophilous fish fauna has only partially recovered thus far. The total number of species has strongly increased due to the appearance of more exotic species. After the opening of the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway in 1992, many fish species originating from the Ponto-Caspian area colonized the Rhine basin. The yearly minimum and maximum river temperatures at Lobith have increased by circa 4 0C over the period 1908-2010. Exotic species show lower PAFs than native species at both ends of the temperature range. The interspecific variation in the temperature tolerance of exotic fish species was found to be large. Using temporal trends in river temperature allowed past predictions of PAFs to demonstrate that the increase in maximum river temperature negatively affected a higher percentage of native fish species than exotic species. Our results support the hypothesis that alterations of the river Rhine’s temperature regime caused by thermal pollution and global warming limit the full recovery of native fish fauna and facilitate the establishment of exotic species which thereby increases competition between native and exotic species. Thermal refuges are important for the survival of native fish species under extreme summer or winter temperature conditions [Current Zoology 57 (6: 852–862, 2011].

  10. Similarities and differences among fluid milk products: traditionally produced, extended shelf life and ultrahigh-temperature processed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, N T; Ahlfeld, B; Brix, A; Hagemann, A; von Münchhausen, C; Klein, G

    2013-06-01

    Extended shelf life milk is a relatively new kind of fluid milk, generally manufactured by high-temperature treatment and/or micro-filtration. Being advertised as 'pasteurized milk with an extended shelf life', its flavour, compositional quality and labelling was questioned. Extended shelf life (high-temperature treatment), pasteurized ('traditionally produced') and ultrahigh-temperature milk were, therefore, compared at the beginning and end of shelf life. In triangle tests, panellists distinguished clearly between all products. High-temperature treatment milk's flavour was closer to ultrahigh-temperature and traditionally produced milk in the beginning and at the end of shelf life, respectively. Physicochemically and bacteriologically, all three types could be distinguished. Since 'extended shelf life' comprises many process varieties (each affecting flavour differently), consumer information and appropriate package labelling beyond 'long-lasting' is necessary, e.g. by mentioning the heat treatment applied.

  11. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.F.; Steffensen, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    .2+/-1.5 degrees C while HbI-1 cod preferred 15.4+/-1.1 degrees C, and this preference was significant. The effect of hypoxia (35% oxygen saturation) on the preferred temperature was also measured. Previous studies showed that the preferred temperature of fish decreases during hypoxia, and this was the case for Hb......I-1 cod, which preferred 9.8+/-1.8 degrees C during hypoxia, whereas HbI-2 cod did not show this effect. The results indicate that environmental temperature changes will lead to a distributional change in the different haemoglobin types of Atlantic cod, global warming providing an advantage for HbI-1...... cod. However, since HbI-1 cod prefer a low temperature under hypoxic conditions, a combination of increased water temperature and hypoxia could be unfavourable for Atlantic cod stocks....

  12. Specificity of germination of heteromorphic seeds in four annuals (Salsola L.) at different temperatures in the Junggar basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, L.; Feng, L.H.; Chi, L.Z.; Xia, C.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Salsola L. is a large genus of arid desert plants that are primarily distributed in the Junggar Basin, China. We analysed their ability to adapt to arid habitats by comparing differences in germination characteristics of the species and populations of Salsola affinis C. A. Mey, Salsola korshinskyi Drob., Salsola brachiata Pall. and Salsola nitraria Pall. We classified the 4 species into four types (A, B, C and D) according to seed wing and seed size, and the heteromorphic seeds were incubatedunder different temperature regimes (0/10 degree C, 5/15 degree C, 10/25 degree C and 20/35 degree C). The 4 species had the highest germination rates and germination potential at 0/1 C. Germination rates and potential decreased with increasing temperature. However, the change range of the germination rate among the four species was different. Type A and B seeds of S. affinis, S. nitraria and S. korshinskyi were dominant at all temperatures and decreased with increasing temperature. The germination rate of type C seeds was between that of type A, B and D seeds. D-type seeds had the lowest germination rate and the lowest germination potential under the four temperature regimes among the four species but the differences were not significant. The germination rates of the four types of S. brachiata seeds did not significantly change with temperature. These results suggest that Salsola spp. can germinate continuously from spring to autumn to adapt to moisture fluctuations in the desert. (author)

  13. Numerical Analysis of Temperature Field in a Disc Brake at Different Cover Angle of the Pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grześ Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper an influence of the cover angle of the pad on temperature fields of the components of the disc brake is studied. A three-dimensional finite element (FE model of the pad-disc system was developed at the condition of equal temperatures on the contacting surfaces. Calculations were carried out for a single braking process at constant deceleration assuming that the contact pressure corresponds with the cover angle of the pad so that the moment of friction is equal in each case analysed. Evolutions and distributions of temperature both for the contact surface of the pad and the disc were computed and shown.

  14. Fungal Communities Associated with the Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane Buried under Compost at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future. PMID:24056469

  15. Fungal communities associated with the biodegradation of polyester polyurethane buried under compost at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2013-12-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future.

  16. Differences in the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition in a Semi-Arid Ecosystem across an Elevational Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvinne, H.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.; Feris, K. P.; De Graaff, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Semi-arid ecosystems are a significant component of the global carbon (C) cycle as they store approximately 20% of global soil C. Yet, projected increases in mean annual temperatures might alter the amount of soil organic C (SOC) currently stored in these ecosystems. Uncertainties about the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition have hindered accurate predictions of C cycle feedbacks to climate change. This study aims to elucidate how the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition varies along an elevational (1000m) and climatic (i.e. mean annual temperature and precipitation) gradient. The study sites are located at Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory in Owyhee Mountains of Idaho, USA. We conducted stratified random sampling of soil up to 0-5cm across sagebrush canopy and inter-canopy areas at four elevations. We hypothesized decomposition of SOC pools at lower elevations to have greater temperature sensitivity (more CO2 respired per unit C) compared to upper due to the quality of C that is inherently more temperature sensitive. To assess the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition, we used aerobic laboratory incubations (n=40) across a temperature gradient ((15, 20, 25, 30) oC) at constant soil moisture (60% water holding capacity) for 120 days and measured CO2 respired. Cumulative CO2 respired increased with increasing incubation temperature. Cumulative CO2 respired also increased with elevation as upper elevations support greater amounts of C. However, when normalized by SOC, we found that the temperature response of CO2 respiration was greater in soils derived from lower than higher elevations (pelevated temperatures differs strongly across the landscape in semi-arid ecosystems.

  17. Experimental investigation on electromechanical deformation of dielectric elastomers under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Under an applied voltage, dielectric elastomers (DEs produce an actuation strain that is nonlinear, partly because of the material properties. In this study, an experimental characterization is conducted to evaluate how the ambient temperature and pre-stretch affected the actuation performance. For DEs with a pre-stretch of 2×2, an increase of temperature from −10°to 80°results in a variation in the actuation strain of more than 1700%. Low pre-stretched DEs are more susceptible to temperature change; while highly pre-stretched DEs are relatively insensitive to temperature, because in this case the energy conversion was dominated by mechanical stretching, rather than thermal conduction, during the actuation.

  18. Estimation of Water Diffusion Coefficient into Polycarbonate at Different Temperatures Using Numerical Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, many electronic systems are exposed to harsh conditions of relative humidity and temperature. Masstransport properties of electronic packaging materials are needed in order to investigate the influence of moisture andtemperature on reliability of electronic devices. Polycarbonate (PC...

  19. The Effect of Water Temperature on Argulus foliaceus L. 1758 (Crustacea; Branchiura on Different Fish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KOYUN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parasites belonging to Argulus genus, known as fish louse (Argulus foliaceus L. significantly affect in negative way both in natural and farming environment. In this study, the pathogenic effect of fish louse temperature on fish depending on water was investigated. In this research to estimate the effects of several factors such as water temperature, gender of the fish and the infection of fish louse were studied through Poisson regression method. As fish species, Alburnus alburnus (bleak, Carassius carassius (crucian carp and Carassius auratus (golden carp were caught periodically, starting from May during the year, and the parasites were counted. The gender and metrical measures of the examined fish were categorized separately. The degrees of water temperature of the dam were measured. Results from Poisson regression analysis showed that fish louse has harmful effect on the mentioned fish, depending on the water temperature.

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF Bowdichia virgilioides KUNTH. SEEDS UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE AND LIGHT CONDICTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELINE SOUSA ALBUQUERQUE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This research verified the influence of the temperature and light on seed germination of Bowdichia virgilioides. The experiment was conducted in factorial system 3x5x2, correspoding to three lots of seeds, five temperatures and two light condictions. The germination test was conducted in thermo gradiente table regulated in temperatures of 20°C, 25°C, 30°C and 35°C under constant light and BOD adjusted in temperature 20-30°C with photoperiod of 12 hours. In order to simulate the light absence the gerbox were involved with alluminium paper. There were evaluated the percentage of germination, index speed of germination and dry weight of seedlings. The tempeatures of 25°C and 20-30°C result in higher percentage. In relation to photoblastism, the seeds are indifferent to light conditions.

  1. A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF TEMPERATURE RESPONSES OF CARIBBEAN SEAWEEDS FROM DIFFERENT BIOGEOGRAPHIC GROUPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PAKKER, H; BREEMAN, AM; VANREINE, WFP; VANDENHOEK, C

    Temperature tolerances were determined for Caribbean isolates (total 31) of seaweeds belonging to three distributional groups: 1) species confined to the tropical western Atlantic (Botryocladia spinulifera, Chamaedoris peniculum, Cladophoropsis sundanensis, Dictyopteris justii, Dictyurus

  2. Tensile behaviour of radiata pine with different moisture contents at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain tensile elastic modulus (EM) information for radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood in tangential grain direction, over a temperature range of 70 °C to 150 °C for a wide range of moisture contents. Such information is scarce, probably because of difficulties...... that moisture and temperature can play a significant role in reducing stress during drying, regardless of the drying time. Properties of wood, such as tensile elastic information at elevated temperatures, are important for mechanical design, distortion modelling and understanding the fundamental behaviour...... with research equipment design and process control strategies to perform accurate tests. As expected, EM dramatically decreased with increasing temperature and moisture content. The results were modelled to yield a relationship between stress and strain. The results were also successfully transposed...

  3. Performance of TFET and FinFET devices applied to current mirrors for different dimensions and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, M. D. V.; Martino, J. A.; Agopian, P. G. D.; Vandooren, A.; Rooyackers, R.; Simoen, E.; Thean, A.; Claeys, C.

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this work is to compare the behavior of a current mirror designed with Tunnel-FET and FinFET devices. The suitability of these technologies in such a basic circuit has been analyzed focusing on the susceptibility to output bias conditions, dimensions mismatching and temperature variations. In the experimental part, results revealed a similar channel width dependence, but a much more relevant channel length dependence for the circuit with FinFETs. Meanwhile, varying the output bias, it was observed that a wider range of output drain voltage results in a suitable mirrored current for the circuit with tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs). In the second part of this work, numerical simulations have been performed for different temperatures. The opposite trends observed for higher temperatures could be justified based on the different dominant transport mechanism in each circuit. Globally, current mirrors with TFETs presented the best results, with lower output current susceptibility to dimensions mismatching and temperature variation.

  4. Effect of moderate hypoxia at three acclimation temperatures on stress responses in Atlantic cod with different haemoglobin types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methling, Caroline; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-01-01

    in a difference in stress response to hypoxia exposure. Two hsp70-isoforms (labelled a and b) were detected and they differed in expression in the gills but not in the liver of Atlantic cod. Acclimation temperature significantly affected the expression of hsp70 in the liver, and in an isoform-specific manner...... in the gills. Hypoxia exposure increased the expression of hsp70 in the liver, but not the gills, of cod and this response was not influenced by the acclimation temperature. The expression of hsp70 in both tissues did not differ between fish with different haemoglobin types. Acclimation temperature...... hypoxic exposure influence the organismal and cellular stress responses in Atlantic cod. We hypothesise that HbI-2 fish are more tolerant to short-term hypoxic episodes than HbI-1 fish, and this adaptation may be independent of tissue hsp70 expression....

  5. Foot model for tracking temperature of safety boot insoles: application to different insole materials in firefighter boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, César; Sánchez-Álvarez, Eduardo J; Huertas-Talón, José-Luis

    2016-01-01

    This research is based on the development of a human foot model to study the temperature conditions of a foot bottom surface under extreme external conditions. This foot model is made by combining different manufacturing techniques to enable the simulation of bones and tissues, allowing the placement of sensors on its surface to track the temperature values of different points inside a shoe. These sensors let researchers capture valuable data during a defined period of time, making it possible to compare the features of different safety boots, socks or soles, among others. In this case, it has been applied to compare different plantar insole materials, placed into safety boots on a high-temperature surface.

  6. Effect of different light curing units on Knoop hardness and temperature of resin composite

    OpenAIRE

    Guiraldo Ricardo; Consani Simonides; Xediek Consani Rafael; Mendes Wilson; Lympius Thais; Coelho Sinhoreti Mario

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the influence of quartz tungsten halogen and plasma arc curing (PAC) lights on Knoop hardness and change in polymerization temperature of resin composite. Materials and Methods: Filtek Z250 and Esthet X composites were used in the shade A3. The temperature increase was registered with Type-k thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46). A self-cured polymerized acrylic resin base was built in order to guide the thermocouple and to support the dentin disk ...

  7. The impact of different cooling strategies on urban air temperatures: the cases of Campinas, Brazil and Mendoza, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alchapar, Noelia Liliana; Pezzuto, Claudia Cotrim; Correa, Erica Norma; Chebel Labaki, Lucila

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes different ways of reducing urban air temperature and their results in two cities: Campinas, Brazil—a warm temperate climate with a dry winter and hot summer (Cwa), and Mendoza, Argentina—a desert climate with cold steppe (BWk). A high-resolution microclimate modeling system—ENVI-met 3.1—was used to evaluate the thermal performance of an urban canyon in each city. A total of 18 scenarios were simulated including changes in the surface albedo, vegetation percentage, and the H/W aspect ratio of the urban canyons. These results revealed the same trend in behavior for each of the combinations of strategies evaluated in both cities. Nevertheless, these strategies produce a greater temperature reduction in the warm temperate climate (Cwa). Increasing the vegetation percentage reduces air temperatures and mean radiant temperatures in all scenarios. In addition, there is a greater decrease of urban temperature with the vegetation increase when the H/W aspect ratio is lower. Also, applying low albedo on vertical surfaces and high albedo on horizontal surfaces is successful in reducing air temperatures without raising the mean radiant temperature. The best combination of strategies—60 % of vegetation, low albedos on walls and high albedos on pavements and roofs, and 1.5 H/W—could reduce air temperatures up to 6.4 °C in Campinas and 3.5 °C in Mendoza.

  8. Detection of Variations in Air Temperature at Different Time Scales During the Period 1889-1998 at Firenze, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.V. [Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santoshnagar, Saidabad, Hyderabad, 500059, Andhra Pradesh (India); Bindi, M. [DISAT-UNIFI, P.le delle Cascine 18, 50144, Firenze (Italy); Crisci, A. [LaMMA-Laboratorio per la Meteorologia, Climatologia e la Modellistica Ambientale, Campi Bisenzio (Italy); Maracchi, G. [IATA-CNR, P.le delle Cascine 18, 50144 Firenze (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    In an attempt to contribute to studies on global climatic change, 110 years of temperature data for Firenze, Italy, were analysed. Means and trends of annual and monthly temperatures (minimum, maximum and average) were analysed at three different time scales: short (20 years), medium (36-38 years) and long (55 years). Comparative changes in extreme events viz. frosts in the first and second parts of the 20th century were also analysed. At short time scales, climatic change was found in minimum and average temperatures but not in maximum temperatures. At all three time scales, the annual means of minimum, maximum and average temperatures were significantly warmer in the last part than in the early part of the 20th century. The monthly mean temperatures showed significant warming of winter months. Over the last four decades, minimum, maximum and average temperatures had warmed by 0.4, 0.43 and 0.4C per decade, respectively, and if this trend continues, they will be warmer by 4C by the end of the 21st century. The significant decline in days with subzero temperatures and frosts in the last half of the 20th century, further substantiated the occurrence of climate change at this site.

  9. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M. A. R.; Mamat, M. H.; Ismail, A. S.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  10. Reproductive activity and survivorship of Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at different temperatures and relative humidity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Lima, T C; Geremias, L D; Parra, J R P

    2010-02-01

    We studied a population of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) identified by morphological and molecular techniques from the semiarid region of the Brazilian northeast. The influence of temperature and relative humidity on the survival and reproductive parameters of L. sativae in cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) (Fabales: Fabaceae) was evaluated. We used temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C (50 +/- 10% RH) and relative humidity values of 30, 50, 70, and 90 +/- 10% (25 +/- 1 degrees C) under a 14 L:10 D photoperiod. Adult longevity decreased as temperature and relative humidity increased and was greater, in general, for females. The preoviposition and oviposition periods also decreased as temperature increased, whereas relative humidity only caused reductions in the oviposition period at higher levels. Fecundity was similar in the range from 18 to 30 degrees C but decreased at 32 degrees C with respect to relative humidity; the best performances of L. sativae occurred at lower levels. The pattern of oviposition rate changed with temperature and relative humidity. Regardless of temperature and relative humidity, L. sativae laid between 75 and 92% of its eggs on the adaxial surface of the cowpea leaves. This information will be highly useful to design a leafminer production system aimed at the multiplication of natural enemies, as well as for pest management in the field.

  11. Molecular analysis of the microbial community structures in water-flooding petroleum reservoirs with different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.-Y.; Duan, R.-Y.; Liu, J.-F.; Yang, S.-Z.; Gu, J.-D.; Mu, B.-Z.

    2012-04-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors regulating the activity and determining the composition of the microbial community. Analysis of microbial communities from six water-flooding petroleum reservoirs at temperatures from 20 to 63 °C by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicates the presence of physiologically diverse and temperature-dependent microorganisms in these subterrestrial ecosystems. In high-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences belong to the thermophilic archaea including the genera Thermococcus, Methanothermobacter and Thermoplasmatales, most of the bacterial sequences belong to the phyla Firmicutes, Thermotogae and Thermodesulfobacteria; in low-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences are affiliated with the genera Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus and Methanocalculus, most of the bacterial sequences to the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that temperature, mineralization, ionic type as well as volatile fatty acids showed correlation with the microbial community structures. These organisms may be adapted to the environmental conditions of these petroleum reservoirs over geologic time by metabolizing buried organic matter from the original deep subsurface environment and became the common inhabitants in subsurface environments.

  12. Linking leach chemistry and microbiology of low-grade copper ore bioleaching at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Sun, He-yun; Tan, Qiao-yi; Gao, Hong-shan; Feng, Xing-liang; Ruan, Ren-man

    2018-03-01

    The effects of temperature on chalcocite/pyrite oxidation and the microbial population in the bioleaching columns of a low-grade chalcocite ore were investigated in this study. Raffinate from the industrial bioleaching heap was used as an irrigation solution for columns operated at 20, 30, 45, and 60°C. The dissolution of copper and iron were investigated during the bioleaching processes, and the microbial community was revealed by using a high-throughput sequencing method. The genera of Ferroplasma, Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum, Acidiplasma, and Sulfobacillus dominated the microbial community, and the column at a higher temperature favored the growth of moderate thermophiles. Even though microbial abundance and activity were highest at 30°C, the column at a higher temperature achieved a much higher Cu leaching efficiency and recovery, which suggested that the promotion of chemical oxidation by elevated temperature dominated the dissolution of Cu. The highest pyrite oxidation percentage was detected at 45°C. Higher temperature resulted in precipitation of jarosite in columns, especially at 60°C. The results gave implications to the optimization of heap bioleaching of secondary copper sulfide in both enhanced chalcocite leaching and acid/iron balance, from the perspective of leaching temperature and affected microbial community and activity.

  13. Daphnia magna fitness during low food supply under different water temperature and brownification scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of our current knowledge about non-limiting dietary carbon supply for herbivorous zooplankton is based on experimental evidence and typically conducted at ~1 mg C L-1 and ~20°C. Here we ask how low supply of dietary carbon affects somatic growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia magna and test effects of higher water temperature (+3 °C relative to ambient and brownification (3X higher than natural water color; both predicted effects of climate change during fall cooling. We predicted that even at very low carbon supply (~5µg C L-1, higher water temperature and brownification will allow D. magna to increase its fitness. Neonates (<24 h old were incubated with lake seston for 4 weeks (October-November 2013 in experimental bottles submerged in outdoor mesocosms to explore effects of warmer and darker water. Higher temperature and brownification did not significantly affect food quality, as assessed by its fatty acid composition. Daphnia exposed to both increased temperature and brownification had highest somatic growth and were the only that reproduced, and higher temperature caused the highest Daphnia survival success. These results suggest that even under low temperature and thus lower physiological activity, low food quantity is more important than its quality for D. magna fitness.

  14. Inhibitive effect of N,N'-Dimethylaminoethanol on carbon steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution, at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Hassoune Mohammed; Bezzar Abdelillah; Sail Latéfa; Ghomari Fouad

    2018-01-01

    The inhibition of carbon steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution by N,N'- Dimethylaminoethanol (DMEA), at different temperatures, was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results obtained confirm that DMEA is a good organic corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 0.5M of NaCl (concentration encountered in the Mediterranean seawater), over the whole range of temperatures studied. The inhibition...

  15. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  16. Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed analysis of physiological, biochemical and molecular-genetic responses of Ricinus communis to temperature during seed germination and seedling establishment. In Chapter 2, I describe the assessment of 17 candidate reference genes across a diverse set of samples,...

  17. Critical Temperature Differences of a Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Prime Mover with Various Helium-Based Binary Mixture Working Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Ikhsan; Nohtomi, Makoto; Katsuta, Masafumi

    2015-06-01

    Thermoacoustic prime movers are energy conversion devices which convert thermal energy into acoustic work. The devices are environmentally friendly because they do not produce any exhaust gases. In addition, they can utilize clean energy such as solar-thermal energy or waste heat from internal combustion engines as the heat sources. The output mechanical work of thermoacoustic prime movers are usually used to drive a thermoacoustic refrigerator or to generate electricity. A thermoacoustic prime mover with low critical temperature difference is desired when we intend to utilize low quality of heat sources such as waste heat and sun light. The critical temperature difference can be significantly influenced by the kinds of working gases inside the resonator and stack's channels of the device. Generally, helium gas is preferred as the working gas due to its high sound speed which together with high mean pressure will yield high acoustic power per unit volume of the device. Moreover, adding a small amount of a heavy gas to helium gas may improve the efficiency of thermoacoustic devices. This paper presents numerical study and estimation of the critical temperature differences of a standing wave thermoacoustic prime mover with various helium-based binary-mixture working gases. It is found that mixing helium (He) gas with other common gases, namely argon (Ar), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and carbon dioxide (CO2), at appropriate pressures and molar compositions, reduce the critical temperature differences to lower than those of the individual components of the gas mixtures. In addition, the optimum mole fractions of Hegas which give the minimum critical temperature differences are shifted to larger values as the pressure increases, and tends to be constant at around 0.7 when the pressure increases more than 2 MPa. However, the minimum critical temperature differences slightly increase as the pressure increases to higher than 1.5 MPa. Furthermore, we found that the lowest

  18. Optimization of temperature differences in a utilizer in relation to the lowest sum of capital and operating cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustrin, I.; Tuma, M.

    1992-01-01

    Our environment and nature are currently overburdened with the emission of noxious substances. Steam boilers fired with coal are therefore not very popular. Wherever possible, they are being replaced by devices which are less harmful for the environment because they use different fuel. This paper discusses replacing a steam boiler with a gas turbine and an utilizer. A mathematical model for performing the optimization of capital and operating costs is presented. The model optimizes the degree of preheating of the flue gases i.e. the temperature of the entering flue gases. The smallest temperature difference (pinch point) was not estimated by the pinch technology because the presented example is relatively simple and the pinch point temperature difference was chosen according to the values reported in various literature sources. The optimization is supplemented with an analysis of the thermal and exergetical efficiencies of the utilizer under different conditions (average temperature difference between the hot gases and water or steam, exit temperature of the hot gases), which condition the choice of the type of utilizer

  19. Early warning signals of abrupt temperature change in different regions of China over the past 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the early warning signals of abrupt temperature change in different regions of China are investigated. Seven regions are divided on the basis of different climate temperature patterns, obtained through the rotated empirical orthogonal function, and the signal-to-noise temperature ratios for each region are then calculated. Based on the concept of critical slowing down, the temperature data that contain noise in the different regions of China are preprocessed to study the early warning signals of abrupt climate change. First, the Mann–Kendall method is used to identify the instant of abrupt climate change in the temperature data. Second, autocorrelation coefficients that can identify critical slowing down are calculated. The results show that the critical slowing down phenomenon appeared in temperature data about 5–10 years before abrupt climate change occurred, which indicates that the critical slowing down phenomenon is a possible early warning signal for abrupt climate change, and that noise has less influence on the detection results of the early warning signals. Accordingly, this demonstrates that the model is reliable in identifying the early warning signals of abrupt climate change based on detecting the critical slowing down phenomenon, which provides an experimental basis for the actual application of the method. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  20. Germination of Croton urucurana L. seeds exposed to different storage temperatures and pre-germinative treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana P.Q. Scalon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the germinability and vigor of Croton urucurana seeds. 1 Seeds were sorted by color (caramel, gray and black and were subjected to seven different pre-germination treatments followed by incubation at 20ºC, 25°C or 20/30°C. 2 Seeds were stored in cold chambers or at room temperature for up to 300 days and were subsequently incubated at 20/30ºC in a germination chamber or under greenhouse conditions. Only gray seeds showed significant germination rates. The highest first count percentages of total germination and the highest germination speed indices were observed in control seeds and in those which were treated with water or 200 mg. L-1 gibberellic acid for 12 hours. Seeds stored under refrigeration showed the highest values for all of the characteristics examined, as well as less electrical conductivity of the imbibing solution. Seedlings were more vigorous when seeds were stored for 300 days in a cold chamber. The seedlings production can be increased by incubating the seeds at alternating temperatures (20/30°C. The seeds do not need pre-germination treatments.O presente trabalho avaliou a germinação e vigor de sementes de Croton urucurana. 1 As sementes foram classificadas por cores (caramelo, cinza e preto e foram submetidas a sete diferentes tratamentos pré-germinativos seguidos de incubação a 20ºC, 25°C e 20/30°C. 2 As sementes foram armazenadas em câmaras frias ou em temperatura ambiente por até 300 dias e foram posteriormente incubadas a 20/30ºC em câmara de germinação ou em condições de estufa. Somente sementes cinza apresentaram taxas significativas de germinação. As maiores percentagens de primeira contagem de germinação total e os maiores índices de velocidade de germinação foram observados em sementes de controle e naquelas que foram tratadas com água ou 200 mg L-1 de ácido giberélico por 12 horas. Sementes armazenadas sob refrigeração apresentaram os maiores valores para

  1. Projection of temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease in beijing under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boya; Li, Guoxing; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2018-04-01

    Human health faces unprecedented challenges caused by climate change. Thus, studies of the effect of temperature change on total mortality have been conducted in numerous countries. However, few of those studies focused on temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or considered future population changes and adaptation to climate change. We present herein a projection of temperature-related mortality due to CVD under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios in Beijing, a megacity in China. To this end, 19 global circulation models (GCMs), 3 representative concentration pathways (RCPs), 3 socioeconomic pathways, together with generalized linear models and distributed lag non-linear models, were used to project future temperature-related CVD mortality during periods centered around the years 2050 and 2070. The number of temperature-related CVD deaths in Beijing is projected to increase by 3.5-10.2% under different RCP scenarios compared with that during the baseline period. Using the same GCM, the future daily maximum temperatures projected using the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios showed a gradually increasing trend. When population change is considered, the annual rate of increase in temperature-related CVD deaths was up to fivefold greater than that under no-population-change scenarios. The decrease in the number of cold-related deaths did not compensate for the increase in that of heat-related deaths, leading to a general increase in the number of temperature-related deaths due to CVD in Beijing. In addition, adaptation to climate change may enhance rather than ameliorate the effect of climate change, as the increase in cold-related CVD mortality greater than the decrease in heat-related CVD mortality in the adaptation scenarios will result in an increase in the total number of temperature-related CVD mortalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth and lipid accumulation in response to different cultivation temperatures in Nannochloropsis oculata for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microalgal lipid is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cultivation temperature on the growth and lipid accumulation properties of Nannochloropsis oculata microalgae. Methods: Nannochloropsis oculatacan grow in a wide range of temperatures (5 ~ 35°C. Late in the stationary growth phase of microalgae, biomass production and lipid accumulation were measured. The methanol-chloroform extraction method was used to extract total lipids from dried cells. The direct esterification method was used to measure fatty acids. Constituents were identified by gas chromatography. Results: The results show that the maximum specific growth rate at 20°C was 0.1569 day-1, and the maximum biomass production of microalgae at 25°C was 2.2667 g/L. The highest percentage of biomass conversion into lipid (35.71% occurred at 30°C. Maximum lipid productivity was seen at temperatures of 15°C, 20°C, and 25°C, but the analysis of fatty acids in the three temperatures shownare maximum accumulations of triglycerides in the microalgae cells at 20°C and 25°C. Conclusion: In the cultivation of Nannochloropsis oculata, the optimal temperature range for maximum efficiency in biodiesel production from lipids is 20°C to 25°C.

  3. Association between Three-Dimensional Built Environment and Urban Air Temperature: Seasonal and Temporal Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolyeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the urban heat island phenomenon are increasingly important issues in urban thermal environments. However, there is a lack of research on the relationship between three-dimensional built environments and air temperature. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide policy suggestions that could be used to improve urban thermal environments by analyzing the effect of the three-dimensional built environment of an urban space on the urban air temperature according to changes in time (i.e., season, time of day. Using data from 236 automatic weather stations (AWSs in Seoul, Korea, this study focused on three-dimensional built environmental variables and land use variables that affect air temperature in terms of season and time. The analysis results indicate that the sky view factor and porosity were lower in urban areas, with higher sky view factor and porosity values associated with lower air temperature. This study also indicates that surface roughness is higher in urban areas, with higher surface roughness associated with higher air temperature. These results suggest that urban design practices should consider the three-dimensional built environment when planning urban development and urban regeneration projects in order to improve the urban thermal environment.

  4. Low-temperature embrittlement and fracture of metals with different crystal lattices – Dislocation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Chernov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of a low-temperature embrittlement (cold brittleness and dislocation mechanisms for formation of the temperature of a ductile-brittle transition and brittle fracture of metals (mono- and polycrystals with various crystal lattices (BCC, FCC, HCP are considered. The conditions for their formation connected with a stress-deformed state and strength (low temperature yield strength as well as the fracture breaking stress and mobility of dislocations in the top of a crack of the fractured metal are determined. These conditions can be met for BCC and some HCP metals in the initial state (without irradiation and after a low-temperature damaging (neutron irradiation. These conditions are not met for FCC and many HCP metals. In the process of the damaging (neutron irradiation such conditions are not met also and the state of low-temperature embrittlement of metals is absent (suppressed due to arising various radiation dynamic processes, which increase the mobility of dislocations and worsen the strength characteristics.

  5. Comprehensive Adsorption Studies of Doxycycline and Ciprofloxacin Antibiotics by Biochars Prepared at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-wei; Tan, Xiao-fei; Liu, Yun-guo; Tian, Si-rong; Zeng, Guang-ming; Jiang, Lu-hua; Liu, Shao-bo; Li, Jiang; Liu, Ni; Yin, Zhi-hong

    2018-01-01

    This paper comparatively investigated the removal efficiency and mechanisms of rice straw biochars prepared under three pyrolytic temperatures for two kinds of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics (doxycycline and ciprofloxacin). The influencing factors of antibiotic adsorption (including biochar dosage, pH, background electrolytes, humic acid, initial antibiotics concentration, contact time, and temperature) were comprehensively studied. The results suggest that biochars produced at high-temperature [i.e., 700°C (BC700)], have higher adsorption capacity for the two antibiotics than low-temperature (i.e., 300–500°C) biochars (BC300 and BC500). Higher surface area gives rise to greater volume of micropores and mesopores, and higher graphitic surfaces of the BC700 contributed to its higher functionality. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be in the following order: DOX > CIP. The π-π EDA interaction and hydrogen bonding might be the predominant adsorption mechanisms. Findings in this study highlight the important roles of high-temperature biochars in controlling the contamination of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics in the environment. PMID:29637067

  6. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  7. The use of a DNA stabilizer in human dental tissues stored under different temperature conditions and time intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    TERADA, Andrea Sayuri Silveira Dias; da SILVA, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; GALO, Rodrigo; de AZEVEDO, Aline; GERLACH, Raquel Fernanda; da SILVA, Ricardo Henrique Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the use of a reagent to stabilize the DNA extracted from human dental tissues stored under different temperature conditions and time intervals. Material and Methods A total of 161 teeth were divided into two distinct groups: intact teeth and isolated dental pulp tissue. The samples were stored with or without the product at different time intervals and temperature. After storage, DNA extraction and genomic DNA quantification were performed using real-time PCR; the fragments of the 32 samples that represented each possible condition were analyzed to find the four pre-selected markers in STR analysis. Results The results of the quantification showed values ranging from 0.01 to 10,246.88 ng/μL of DNA. The statistical difference in the quantity of DNA was observed when the factors related to the time and temperature of storage were analyzed. In relation to the use of the specific reagent, its use was relevant in the group of intact teeth when they were at room temperature for 30 and 180 days. The analysis of the fragments in the 32 selected samples was possible irrespective of the amount of DNA, confirming that the STR analysis using an automated method yields good results. Conclusions The use of a specific reagent showed a significant difference in stabilizing DNA in samples of intact human teeth stored at room temperature for 30 and 180 days, while the results showed no justification for using the product under the other conditions tested. PMID:25141206

  8. Comparison of Growth of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto at Five Different Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Veinović

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a fastidious bacterium that replicates slowly and requires special conditions to grow in the laboratory. Borrelia isolation from clinical material is a golden standard for microbiological diagnosis of borrelial infection. Important factors that affect in vitro borrelia growth are temperature of incubation and number of borrelia cells in the sample. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of temperature on borrelia growth and survival by evaluation and comparison of growth of 31 different borrelia strains at five different temperatures and to determine the influence of different inoculums on borrelia growth at different temperatures. Borreliae were cultured in the MKP medium; the initial and final number of spirochetes was determined by dark field microscopy using Neubauer counting chamber. The growth of borrelia was defined as final number of cells/mL after three days of incubation. For all three Borrelia species, the best growth was found at 33°C, followed by 37, 28, and 23°C, while no growth was detected at 4°C (P0.05, respectively. Inoculum had statistically significant influence on growth of all three Borrelia species at all tested temperatures except at 4°C.

  9. Comparison of Growth of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto at Five Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinović, Gorana; Ružić-Sabljić, Eva; Strle, Franc; Cerar, Tjaša

    2016-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a fastidious bacterium that replicates slowly and requires special conditions to grow in the laboratory. Borrelia isolation from clinical material is a golden standard for microbiological diagnosis of borrelial infection. Important factors that affect in vitro borrelia growth are temperature of incubation and number of borrelia cells in the sample. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of temperature on borrelia growth and survival by evaluation and comparison of growth of 31 different borrelia strains at five different temperatures and to determine the influence of different inoculums on borrelia growth at different temperatures. Borreliae were cultured in the MKP medium; the initial and final number of spirochetes was determined by dark field microscopy using Neubauer counting chamber. The growth of borrelia was defined as final number of cells/mL after three days of incubation. For all three Borrelia species, the best growth was found at 33°C, followed by 37, 28, and 23°C, while no growth was detected at 4°C (P0.05), respectively. Inoculum had statistically significant influence on growth of all three Borrelia species at all tested temperatures except at 4°C. PMID:27310556

  10. Transient temperature fields in functionally graded materials with different shapes under convective boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Ai, X.; Li, Y. Z.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents analyses of the transient temperature fields in an infinite plate, an infinite solid cylinder and a solid sphere made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) under convective boundary conditions. The composition and the thermo-physical properties of the infinite FGM plate, the infinite FGM solid cylinder and the FGM solid sphere are of planar symmetric, axially symmetric and spherically symmetric distributions, respectively. The analytical formulae of the one-dimensional transient temperature fields for the three FGM solids are obtained respectively by using the separation-of-variables method and the variable substitution method. Numerical results reveal that the transient temperature fields of the FGM components exhibit similar shape effect to that of homogeneous components. The present work provides valuable basis for the investigation of the thermal shock resistance of FGMs with various shapes.

  11. [Study on the vacuum ultraviolet transmittance of barium fluoride crystals at different temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ru-Yi; Fu, Li-Ping; Tao, Ye

    2014-03-01

    Two VUV-grade BaF2 windows with 0.5 mm-thick and 1 mm-thick respectively were selected to study the transmittance variety with the temperature. The results show that the cutoff wavelength of BaF2 crystals will shift towards the long wave with the increase in temperature. In a certain temperature range, BaF2 crystals can depress 130.4 nm radiation well, and also has a high transmittance at 135.6 nm. Compared with the reported method in which SrF2 crystals can be applied to suppress 130.4 nm stray light by heating, BaF2 crystal can inhibit the 130. 4 nm emission line completely, and thus reduce the power consumption of the device at the same time. This indicates that BaF2 crystals can play an important role in the ionosphere optical remote sensing detection.

  12. Effects of pressure and temperature on thermal contact resistance between different materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore whether pressure and temperature can affect thermal contact resistance, we have proposed a new experimental approach for measurement of the thermal contact resistance. Taking the thermal contact resistance between phenolic resin and carbon-carbon composites, cuprum, and aluminum as the examples, the influence of the thermal contact resistance between specimens under pressure is tested by experiment. Two groups of experiments are performed and then an analysis on influencing factors of the thermal contact resistance is presented in this paper. The experimental results reveal that the thermal contact resistance depends not only on the thermal conductivity coefficient of materials, but on the interfacial temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the thermal contact resistance between cuprum and aluminum is more sensitive to pressure and temperature than that between phenolic resin and carbon-carbon composites.

  13. Uncovering different masking factors on wrist skin temperature rhythm in free-living subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martinez-Nicolas

    Full Text Available Most circadian rhythms are controlled by a major pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Some of these rhythms, called marker rhythms, serve to characterize the timing of the internal temporal order. However, these variables are susceptible to masking effects as the result of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. Recently, wrist skin temperature (WT has been proposed as a new index for evaluating circadian system status. In light of previous evidence suggesting the important relationship between WT and core body temperature regulation, the aim of this work was to purify the WT pattern in order to obtain its endogenous rhythm with the application of multiple demasking procedures. To this end, 103 subjects (18-24 years old were recruited and their WT, activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep were recorded under free-living conditions for 1 week. WT demasking by categories or intercepts was applied to simulate a "constant routine" protocol (awakening, dim light, recumbent position, low activity and warm environmental temperature. Although the overall circadian pattern of WT was similar regardless of the masking effects, its amplitude was the rhythmic parameter most affected by environmental conditions. The acrophase and mesor were determined to be the most robust parameters for characterizing this rhythm. In addition, a circadian modulation of the masking effect was found for each masking variable. WT rhythm exhibits a strong endogenous component, despite the existence of multiple external influences. This was evidenced by simultaneously eliminating the influence of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. We therefore propose that it could be considered a valuable and minimally-invasive means of recording circadian physiology in ambulatory conditions.

  14. The relationship between heart rate and rate of oxygen consumption in Galapagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) at two different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J; Frappell, Peter B; Wang, Tobias; Wikelski, Martin

    2002-07-01

    To enable the use of heart rate (fH) for estimating field metabolic rate (FMR) in free-ranging Galapagos marine iguanas Amblyrhynchus cristatus, we determined the relationships between fH and mass-specific rate of oxygen consumption (sVO2) in seven iguanas before and during exercise on a treadmill and during the post-exercise period. The experiments were conducted at 27 and 35 degrees C, which are the temperatures that represent the lowest and highest average body temperatures of these animals in the field during summer. There were linear and significant relationships between fH and sVO2 at both temperatures (r(2)=0.86 and 0.91 at 27 degrees C and 36 degrees C, respectively). The slopes of the two regression lines did not differ, but there were significant differences in their intercepts. Thus, while heart rate can be used to predict FMR, the effects of temperature on the intercept of the regression must be taken into account when converting fH to sVO2. On the basis of our data, this can be achieved by applying the following formula: sVO2=0.0113fH-0.2983Q(10)((T(b)-27)/10). The increase in sVO2 with elevated body temperature results from an increase in fH, with no significant change in mass-specific oxygen pulse (sO(2) pulse; cardiac stroke volume times the difference in oxygen content between arterial and mixed venous blood). However, during exercise at both temperatures, increases in fH are insufficient to provide all of the additional O(2) required and there are also significant increases in the sO(2) pulses. This creates the situation whereby the same fH at the two temperatures can represent different values of sVO2.

  15. Analysis of chiller units capacity for different heat loads considering variation of ambient air and cooling water temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, Aurelia Camelia; Tenescu, Mircea

    2010-01-01

    The paper purpose is to analyze the chiller units capacity to determine whether they can cope with high air and cooling water temperatures during summer time to remove heat loads imposed from Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) units in a CANDU 6 Nuclear Power Plant. The starting point is calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient at the evaporator and condenser. They are used in heat balance equations of heat exchangers. A mathematical model was developed that simulates the refrigeration cycle to assess the response of chilled water system and its performance at different heat loads. In this analysis there were calculated values for inlet/outlet chilled water temperature and the refrigerant cycle thermodynamic parameters (condenser and evaporator pressure/temperature, refrigerant mass flowrate, refrigerant quality at the evaporator, refrigerant vapour superheated temperature at the compressor outlet, refrigerant subcooled temperature at the condenser outlet). To find the adequate functioning parameters of the installation, the MathCAD 13 software was used in all cases analyzed. The behaviour of the chiller units was investigated by examining the variation of three basic parameters, namely: - cooling water (river water) temperature; - air temperature; - heat load. The simultaneous variation of these three independent parameters allows to identify the actual chillers unit operating point (including chiller trip). (authors)

  16. The effect of different mesophilic temperatures during anaerobic digestion of sludge on the overall performance of a WWTP in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moestedt, J; Rönnberg, J; Nordell, E

    2017-12-01

    This project was initiated to evaluate the effect of alternative process temperatures to 38 °C at the anaerobic digestion step in a Swedish wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) treating mixed sludge. The efficiency of the different temperatures was evaluated with respect to biogas production, volume of sludge produced and nutrient content in the reject water to find the optimum temperature for the WWTP as a whole. Three temperatures, 34 °C, 38 °C and 42 °C, were compared in laboratory scale. Increasing the process temperature to 42 °C resulted in process instability, reduced methane yield, accumulation of volatile fatty acids and higher treatment costs of the reject water. By decreasing the temperature to 34 °C, slightly higher sludge mass was observed and a lower gas production rate, while the specific methane produced remained unchanged compared to 38 °C but foaming was observed at several occasions. In summary 38 °C was proved to be the most favourable temperature for the anaerobic digestion process treating mixed sludge when the evaluation included effects such as foaming, sludge mass and quality of the reject water.

  17. Temperature responses of developmental processes have not been affected by breeding in different ecological areas for 17 crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Boris; Tardieu, François

    2012-05-01

    • Rates of tissue expansion, cell division and progression in the plant cycle are driven by temperature, following common Arrhenius-type response curves. • We analysed the genetic variability of this response in the range 6-37°C in seven to nine lines of maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza spp.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) and in 18 species (17 crop species, different genotypes) via the meta-analysis of 72 literature references. • Lines with tropical or north-temperate origins had common response curves over the whole range of temperature. Conversely, appreciable differences in response curves, including optimum temperatures, were observed between species growing in temperate and tropical areas. • Therefore, centuries of crop breeding have not impacted on the response of development to short-term changes in temperature, whereas evolution over millions of years has. This slow evolution may be a result of the need for a synchronous shift in the temperature response of all developmental processes, otherwise plants will not be viable. Other possibilities are discussed. This result has important consequences for the breeding and modelling of temperature effects associated with global changes. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. [Soil Microbial Respiration Under Different Soil Temperature Conditions and Its Relationship to Soil Dissolved Organic Carbon and Invertase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Chen, Shu-tao; Hu, Zheng-hua; Zhang, Xu

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the soil microbial respiration under different temperature conditions and its relationship to soil dissolved organic carbon ( DOC) and invertase, an indoor incubation experiment was performed. The soil samples used for the experiment were taken from Laoshan, Zijinshan, and Baohuashan. The responses of soil microbial respiration to the increasing temperature were studied. The soil DOC content and invertase activity were also measured at the end of incubation. Results showed that relationships between cumulative microbial respiration of different soils and soil temperature could be explained by exponential functions, which had P values lower than 0.001. The coefficient of temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) varied from 1.762 to 1.895. The Q10 value of cumulative microbial respiration decreased with the increase of soil temperature for all soils. The Q10 value of microbial respiration on 27 days after incubation was close to that of 1 day after incubation, indicating that the temperature sensitivity of recalcitrant organic carbon may be similar to that of labile organic carbon. For all soils, a highly significant ( P = 0.003 ) linear relationship between cumulative soil microbial respiration and soil DOC content could be observed. Soil DOC content could explain 31.6% variances of cumulative soil microbial respiration. For the individual soil and all soils, the relationship between cumulative soil microbial respiration and invertase activity could be explained by a highly significant (P soil microbial respiration.

  19. Effectiveness of the Entomopathogenic Nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema feltiae against Tenebrio molitor (Yellow Mealworm) Larvae in Different Soil Types at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    SUSURLUK, Alper

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema feltiae Tur-S3 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Tur-H2, isolated in Turkey, against larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. was investigated in different soil type and temperature conditions. Sterilized and non-sterilized silver sand, clay-loam soil, and compost soil were tested, each at 12, 18, and 24 ºC. Temperature had the greatest effect on the mortality of T. molitor larvae caused by both nematode species. The efficiency of the 2 nemato...

  20. Identification of new chemical structures in poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoropropyl vinyl ether) irradiated in vacuum at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappan, U.; Geissler, U.; Scheler, U.; Lunkwitz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation of perfluorinated copolymer poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoropropyl vinyl ether) (PFA) was carried out in vacuum at different temperatures between room temperature and temperature above the melting point of PFA. Changes of chemical structure were studied by 19 F solid-state NMR and IR spectroscopy. Chain scissions and branching reactions occur simultaneously, which are indicated by formation of CF 3 , COF and COOH end groups, CF branching points and CF 3 side groups. Branching density based on concentration of CF groups increases with increasing temperature. Formation of cross-links is concluded for PFA irradiated in molten state. Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether (PPVE) units are found to be more sensitive to radiation than tetrafluoroethylene units. COF and COOH groups are assumed to result from PPVE degradation

  1. Identification of new chemical structures in poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoropropyl vinyl ether) irradiated in vacuum at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappan, U. E-mail: lappan@ipfdd.de; Geissler, U.; Scheler, U.; Lunkwitz, K

    2003-06-01

    Electron beam irradiation of perfluorinated copolymer poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoropropyl vinyl ether) (PFA) was carried out in vacuum at different temperatures between room temperature and temperature above the melting point of PFA. Changes of chemical structure were studied by {sup 19}F solid-state NMR and IR spectroscopy. Chain scissions and branching reactions occur simultaneously, which are indicated by formation of CF{sub 3}, COF and COOH end groups, CF branching points and CF{sub 3} side groups. Branching density based on concentration of CF groups increases with increasing temperature. Formation of cross-links is concluded for PFA irradiated in molten state. Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether (PPVE) units are found to be more sensitive to radiation than tetrafluoroethylene units. COF and COOH groups are assumed to result from PPVE degradation.

  2. Temperature sensitivity of extracellular enzyme kinetics in subtropical wetland soils under different nutrient and water level conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, S.; Inglett, K.; Inglett, P.

    2012-12-01

    Microbial extracellular enzymes play an important role in the initial steps of soil organic matter decomposition and are involved in regulating nutrient cycle processes. Moreover, with the recent concern of climate change, microbial extracellular enzymes may affect the functioning (C losses, C sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions, vegetation changes) of different ecosystems. Hence, it is imperative to understand the biogeochemical processes that may be climate change sensitive. Here, we have measured the Michaelis Menten Kinetics [maximal rate of velocity (Vmax) and half-saturation constant (Km)] of 6 enzymes involved in soil organic matter decomposition (phosphatase, phosphodiesterase, β-D-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, leucine aminopeptidase, N-Acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase) in different nutrient(P) concentration both aerobically and anaerobically in Everglade water conservation area 2A (F1, F4-slough and U3-slough). Temperature sensitivity of different enzymes is assessed within soil of different P concentrations. We hypothesized that the temperature sensitivity of the enzyme changes with the biogeochemical conditions including water level and nutrient condition. Furthermore, we have tested specific hypothesis that higher P concentration will initiate more C demand for microbes leading to higher Vmax value for carbon processing enzymes in high P site. We found temperature sensitivity of all enzymes for Vmax and Km under both aerobic and anaerobic condition ranges from 0.6 to 3.2 for Vmax and 0.5 to 2.5 for Km. Q10 values of Km for glucosidase indicate more temperature sensitivity under anaerobic condition. Under aerobic condition higher temperature showed significant effect on Vmax for bisphosphatase between high P and low P site. Decreasing P concentration from F1 site to U3-S site had showed significant effect in all temperature on carbon processing enzyme. This suggests that in high P site, microbes will use more carbon-processing enzyme to get more carbon

  3. Clearance of yellow pigments lutein and zeathanxin in channel catfish reared at different water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine clearance time of yellow pigments lutein and zeaxanthin in channel catfish at various temperatures. Fish of initial weight of 13.4 g were stocked into flow-through aquaria and fed once daily with a yellow pigment enhanced diet for 11 weeks when the yellow color be...

  4. Biochemical and Microbiological Changes during the Ivorian Sorghum Beer Deterioration at Different Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constant K. Attchelouwa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend shelf life of traditional sorghum beers, it is of importance to evaluate their spoilage characteristics. Therefore, the microbiological, biochemical, and sensory changes of the Ivorian sorghum beer tchapalo during storage at ambient temperature (28 to 30 °C for four days and at 4 °C for six days were assessed. The aerobic mesophilic bacteria and the yeast counts remained stable during the storage time. However, variations were observed in the lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria counts. The deteriorating tchapalo acidity did not show significant variations. In contrast, the total soluble solids decreased at ambient temperature and remained stable at 4 °C. Lactic acid was a major compound during storage, and acetic acid was found at a detectable level of 1.26 mg/mL after the third day at ambient temperature. The ethanol contents increased significantly at ambient temperature after two days and then decreased but showed a fair decrease at 4 °C. Evaluating the beer’s appearance, odor, and taste, a panel considered the beers to be spoiled after two days when stored at 28 to 30 °C and after three days when stored at 4 °C.

  5. Analysis of current mirror circuits designed with line tunnel FET devices at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, M. D. V.; Martino, J. A.; Agopian, P. G. D.; Vandooren, A.; Rooyackers, R.; Simoen, E.; Claeys, C.

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this work is to study the performance of current mirror circuits designed with line tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) devices and compare the suitability of this technology with alternatives such as point TFETs and FinFETs. Experimental results have been obtained at room and high temperatures and the analyses focused on parameters such as the magnitude of the on-state current and the sensitivity of the current transfer ratio to channel dimensions mismatch and to the temperature. Line TFETs exhibited higher on-state current than point TFETs, in spite of a higher susceptibility to the channel length. When band-to-band tunneling prevails for both input and output transistors, the current transfer ratio with line TFETs presented a nearly linear dependence on the temperature due to bandgap narrowing. This way, a general equation of the current transfer ratio for circuits designed with the three highlighted technologies is proposed. Globally, it was observed that, unless a very low sensitivity to channel length mismatch is required, line TFET devices are a very suitable alternative for current mirror circuits, since this technology provides much higher on-state currents than point TFETs, and at the same time it is much less sensitive to temperature variations than FinFET transistors.

  6. Grain Boundary Related Effects in Aluminium during 600 MeV Proton Irradiation of Different Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben; Green, W.V.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of high-purity aluminium were irradiated with 600 MeV protons at temperatures in the range 130 to 433°C; in these experiments 615 and 125 appm of hydrogen and helium, respectively, are produced per dpa. Bubble formation and growth at grain boundaries and in the zone adjacent to the bubble...

  7. Interactions in a blend of two polymers greatly differing in glass transition temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Šturcová, Adriana; Sikora, Antonín; Dybal, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 14 (2011), s. 1031-1040 ISSN 0887-6266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) * fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) * glass transition temperature Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2011

  8. Mechanical properties of AA5083 in different tempers at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanjun; Wu, Zhixiong; Huang, Rongjin; Wang, Wei; Li, Laifeng

    2017-12-01

    Aluminium alloy 5083 was chosen for use in the critical cryogenic applications of shipboard transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG). In the present work, the tensile, Charpy impact, bend and fatigue crack propagation behaviours of aluminium alloy 5083 in temper O, H112, and H32 were investigated both at room and cryogenic temperatures.

  9. Deep level centers in electron-irradiated silicon crystals doped with copper at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarykin, Nikolai [Institute of Microelectronics Technology, RAS, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Weber, Joerg [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The effect of bombardment with energetic particles on the deep-level spectrum of copper-contaminated silicon wafers is studied by space charge spectroscopy methods. The p-type FZ-Si wafers were doped with copper in the temperature range of 645-750 C and then irradiated with the 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} fluence of 5 MeV electrons at room temperature. Only the mobile Cu{sub i} species and the Cu{sub PL} centers are detected in significant concentrations in the non-irradiated Cu-doped wafers. The properties of the irradiated samples are found to qualitatively depend on the copper in-diffusion temperature T{sub diff}. For T{sub diff} > 700 C, the irradiation partially reduces the Cu{sub i} concentration and introduces additional Cu{sub PL} centers while no standard radiation defects are detected. If T{sub diff} was below ∝700 C, the irradiation totally removes the mobile Cu{sub i} species. Instead, the standard radiation defects and their complexes with copper appear in the deep-level spectrum. A model for the defects reaction scheme during the irradiation is derived and discussed. DLTS spectrum of the Cu-contaminated and then irradiated silicon qualitatively depends on the copper in-diffusion temperature. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Physiological and sensorial quality of Arabica coffee subjected to different temperatures and drying airflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Euripedes Alves

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between a group of physiological variables (electrical conductivity, potassium leaching, and germination percentage and a group of drying kinetics variables (drying time and drying rate in addition to verifying the relation between drying kinetics variables and coffee quality as a function of processing type, temperature, and drying airflow. Coffee drying was conducted in a fixed-layer dryer at two temperatures and two airflows. After drying, an evaluation of the physiological and sensorial quality was conducted. Based on the results obtained, the following conclusions were drawn: coffee that is processed via a dry method is more sensitive to mechanical drying with heated air than coffee processed via a wet method, resulting in poor physiological performance; airflow does not interfere with the physiological quality of pulped and natural coffees; a temperature increase from 40 to 45°C resulted in a decrease in the physiological quality only for pulped coffee; and an increase in the drying rate as a result of an increase in the drying temperature to 40°C had a negative effect on the sensorial quality of pulped coffee.

  11. Effects of increasing temperatures on physiological changes in pigs at different relative humidities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.; Canh, T.T.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) and high ambient temperature (T) on physiological responses and animal performance were studied using 12 groups (10 gilts per group) in pens inside respiration chambers. The microclimate in the chamber was programmed so that T remained constant within a day.

  12. Response of benthic foraminifera Rosalina leei to different temperature and salinity, under laboratory culture experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Kurtarkar, S.R.; Saraswat, R.; Linshy, V.N.; Rana, S.S.

    Live specimens of benthic foraminiferal species Rosalina leei were subjected to a combination of temperature (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C) and salinity (25 ppt, 30 ppt, and 35 ppt) to assess its differential response to the annual...

  13. Controlled AFM detachments and movement of nanoparticles: gold clusters on HOPG at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Manoj; Paolicelli, Guido; D'Addato, Sergio; Valeri, Sergio

    2012-06-22

    The effect of temperature on the onset of movement of gold nanoclusters (diameter 27 nm) deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Using the AFM with amplitude modulation (tapping mode AFM) we have stimulated and controlled the movement of individual clusters. We show how, at room temperature, controlled detachments and smooth movements can be obtained for clusters having dimensions comparable to or smaller than the tip radius. Displacement is practically visible in real time and it can be started and stopped easily by adjusting only one parameter, the tip amplitude oscillation. Analysing the energy dissipation signal at the onset of nanocluster sliding we evaluated a detachment threshold energy as a function of temperature in the range 300-413 K. We also analysed single cluster thermal induced displacement and combining this delicate procedure with AFM forced movement behaviour we conclude that detachment threshold energy is directly related to the activation energy of nanocluster diffusion and it scales linearly with temperature as expected for a single-particle thermally activated process.

  14. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. seeds stored under different germination temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Strenske

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we assessed the germination and vigor of quinoa seeds packed in paper bags and stored at room temperature for 36, 85, 119, 146, 177 and 270 days. The seeds were harvested under experimental conditions in Marechal Candido Rondon, Paraná, during the 2012/13 growing seasons. Four replicates of 100 seeds each were established for each storage time, and the seeds were evaluated, on paper, based on the BOD under the following experimental temperature conditions: alternating temperatures of 20 and 30°C and a constant temperature of 25°C. The seeds from both treatments were subject to seven-hour photoperiods and 25°C under continuous darkness. The germinated seeds were counted daily for eight days after sowing, and we evaluated the percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings and the germination index. The experimental design was completely randomized using a split-plot design. Increasing the storage time decreased the percentage of germinated seeds and seed vigor due to the increased number of abnormal seedlings. Over the 430-day study period, quinoa seed germination completely declined under the experimental conditions. The final number of germinating seeds should be evaluated 7 days after the beginning of the germination test.

  15. Vulnerability of lodging risk to elevated CO2 and increased soil temperature differs between rice cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], and subsequent increases in surface temperatures, are likely to impact the growth and yield of cereal crops. One means for yield reduction is for climate parameters to increase the occurrence of lodging. Using an in situ f...

  16. Effect of olive storage period at two different temperatures on oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dgomi

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... This reduction was more severe in Chemlali olive oils than those of Chétoui cultivar. ... been beneficial to human health and content of other ... piled into large heaps and could be stored at ambient temperature for up to several days prior to processing for oil extraction. Pressure within the olive pile during ...

  17. Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profiles of air at different temperatures and pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Z.; Witschas, B.; van der Water, W.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering profiles for air have been recorded for the temperature range from 255 to 340 K and the pressure range from 640 to 3300 mbar, covering the conditions relevant for the Earth's atmosphere and for planned atmospheric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) missions. The

  18. The influence of temperature on mortality and its Lag effect: a study in four Chinese cities with different latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junzhe; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua; Li, Xudong

    2016-05-04

    Global climate change is one of the most serious environmental issues faced by humanity, and the resultant change in frequency and intensity of heat waves and cold spells could increase mortality. The influence of temperature on human health could be immediate or delayed. Latitude, relative humidity, and air pollution may influence the temperature-mortality relationship. We studied the influence of temperature on mortality and its lag effect in four Chinese cities with a range of latitudes over 2008-2011, adjusting for relative humidity and air pollution. We recorded the city-specific distributions of temperature and mortality by month and adopted a Poisson regression model combined with a distributed lag nonlinear model to investigate the lag effect of temperature on mortality. We found that the coldest months in the study area are December through March and the hottest months are June through September. The ratios of deaths during cold months to hot months were 1.43, 1.54, 1.37 and 1.12 for the cities of Wuhan, Changsha, Guilin and Haikou, respectively. The effects of extremely high temperatures generally persisted for 3 days, whereas the risk of extremely low temperatures could persist for 21 days. Compared with the optimum temperature of each city, at a lag of 21 days, the relative risks (95 % confidence interval) of extreme cold temperatures were 4.78 (3.63, 6.29), 2.38 (1.35, 4.19), 2.62 (1.15, 5.95) and 2.62 (1.44, 4.79) for Wuhan, Changsha, Guilin and Haikou, respectively. The respective risks were 1.35 (1.18, 1.55), 1.19 (0.96, 1.48), 1.22 (0.82, 1.82) and 2.47 (1.61, 3.78) for extreme hot temperatures, at a lag of 3 days. Temperature-mortality relationships vary among cities at different latitudes. Local governments should establish regional prevention and protection measures to more effectively confront and adapt to local climate change. The effects of hot temperatures predominantly occur over the short term, whereas those of cold temperatures can

  19. Research on the Effects of Drying Temperature on Nitrogen Detection of Different Soil Types by Near Infrared Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pengcheng; Dong, Tao; He, Yong; Xiao, Shupei

    2018-01-29

    Soil is a complicated system whose components and mechanisms are complex and difficult to be fully excavated and comprehended. Nitrogen is the key parameter supporting plant growth and development, and is the material basis of plant growth as well. An accurate grasp of soil nitrogen information is the premise of scientific fertilization in precision agriculture, where near infrared sensors are widely used for rapid detection of nutrients in soil. However, soil texture, soil moisture content and drying temperature all affect soil nitrogen detection using near infrared sensors. In order to investigate the effects of drying temperature on the nitrogen detection in black soil, loess and calcium soil, three kinds of soils were detected by near infrared sensors after 25 °C placement (ambient temperature), 50 °C drying (medium temperature), 80 °C drying (medium-high temperature) and 95 °C drying (high temperature). The successive projections algorithm based on multiple linear regression (SPA-MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and competitive adaptive reweighted squares (CARS) were used to model and analyze the spectral information of different soil types. The predictive abilities were assessed using the prediction correlation coefficients (R P ), the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP), and the residual predictive deviation (RPD). The results showed that the loess (R P = 0.9721, RMSEP = 0.067 g/kg, RPD = 4.34) and calcium soil (R P = 0.9588, RMSEP = 0.094 g/kg, RPD = 3.89) obtained the best prediction accuracy after 95 °C drying. The detection results of black soil (R P = 0.9486, RMSEP = 0.22 g/kg, RPD = 2.82) after 80 °C drying were the optimum. In conclusion, drying temperature does have an obvious influence on the detection of soil nitrogen by near infrared sensors, and the suitable drying temperature for different soil types was of great significance in enhancing the detection accuracy.

  20. Sorption of antibiotic sulfamethoxazole varies with biochars produced at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Hao; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Jian; Herbert, Stephen; Xing, Baoshan

    2013-01-01

    Sorption of sulfonamides on biochars is poorly understood, thus sulfamethoxazole (SMX) sorption on biochars produced at 300–600 °C was determined as a function of pH and SMX concentration, as well as the inorganic fractions in the biochars. Neutral SMX molecules (SMX 0 ) were dominant for sorption at pH 1.0–6.0. Above pH 7.0, although biochars surfaces were negatively-charged, anionic SMX species sorption increased with pH and is regulated via charge-assisted H-bonds. SMX 0 sorption at pH 5.0 was nonlinear and adsorption-dominant for all the biochars via hydrophobic interaction, π–π electron donor–acceptor interaction and pore-filling. The removal of inorganic fraction reduced SMX sorption by low-temperature biochars (e.g., 300 °C), but enhanced the sorption by high-temperature biochars (e.g., 600 °C) due to the temperature-dependent inorganic fractions in the biochars. These observations are useful for producing designer biochars as engineered sorbents to reduce the bioavailability of antibiotics and/or predict the fate of sulfonamides in biochar-amended soils. -- Highlights: •Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) sorption on biochars at pH 5.0 was adsorption-dominant. •Removal of inorganic fractions in low-temperature biochars reduced SMX sorption. •Removal of inorganic fractions in high-temperature biochars enhanced SMX sorption. •Anionic SMX was adsorbed on negatively charged biochar via charge-assisted H-bond. -- Solution pH and biochar property control the sorption amount and mechanisms of antibiotic sulfamethoxazole

  1. Evaluating efficacy of filtration + UV-C radiation for ballast water treatment at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D.; Chan, Po-Shun; Kydd, Jocelyn; Vanden Byllaardt, Julie; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    To prevent new ballast water-mediated introductions of aquatic nonindigenous species (NIS), many ships will soon use approved Ballast Water Management Systems (BWMS) to meet discharge standards for the maximum number of viable organisms in ballast water. Type approval testing of BWMS is typically conducted during warmer seasons when plankton concentrations are highest, despite the fact that ships operate globally year-round. Low temperatures encountered in polar and cool temperate climates, particularly during the winter season, may impact treatment efficacy through changes in plankton community composition, biological metabolic rates or chemical reaction rates. Filtration + UV irradiance is one of the most common ballast water treatment methods, but its effectiveness at low temperatures has not been assessed. The objective in this study was to examine the efficacy of filtration + UV-C irradiation treatment at low temperatures for removal or inactivation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations during simulated ballast water treatment. Organisms from two size classes (≥ 10 to < 50 μm and ≥ 50 μm) were identified and enumerated using microscope and culture techniques. The response of organisms in both size categories to UV-C irradiation was evident across a range of temperatures (18 °C, 12 °C and 2 °C) as a significant decrease in concentration between controls and treated samples. Results indicate that filtration + UV-C irradiation will be effective at low temperatures, with few viable organisms ≥ 10 to < 50 μm recorded even 21 days following UV exposure (significantly lower than in the control treatment).

  2. Combined effects of temperature changes and metal contamination at different levels of biological organization in yellow perch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasset, Julie [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Ollivier, Élodie [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bougas, Bérénice [Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Yannic, Glenn [Laboratoire d’Écologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Université de Savoie Mont Blanc, 73376 Le Bourget-du-lac (France); Campbell, Peter G.C. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bernatchez, Louis [Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Couture, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.couture@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Yellow perch were exposed to a combination of heat and metal (Cd or Ni) stress. • Kidney metal accumulation was greatly enhanced at higher temperatures. • Elevated temperatures negatively affected several indicators of condition and metabolic capacities. • Exposure to Ni stimulated gonad development. • Metal stress modified the normal response of antioxidant capacities and apoptosis to heat stress. - Abstract: In this study, we measured the effects of temperature (9 °C, 20 °C, and 28 °C), metal contamination (cadmium and nickel) and their interaction on yellow perch (Perca flavescens) using liver enzymatic and transcriptomic endpoints and biometric indices. Kidney metal concentrations increased with a rise of temperature. The biometric indices analysed (Fulton condition factor, pyloric cæca, hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices) generally decreased with an increase of temperature but not with metal contamination. At the enzymatic level, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), involved in antioxidant response, was affected by both temperature and metal contamination, whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), involved in energy accumulation but also in antioxidant response, was only affected by metal exposure. The response of perch to the stressors at the transcriptional level differed from the metabolic response. In particular, the transcription level of the cco and g6pdh genes sharply decreased with increasing temperature, while the activities of the corresponding enzymes remained stable. The normal response of the transcription level of the apoptotic gene (diablo) to heat stress was also altered in metal-contaminated fish. The combination of metal and temperature stresses also modified the response of antioxidant metabolism induced by these stressors individually. This study contributes to a better understanding of the influences of natural stressors like temperature on biomarkers commonly used in

  3. Impact of storage conditions on seed germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L. at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed storage conditions and different temperatures (5˚C, 10˚C, 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C, 30˚C and 26˚C/21˚C during germination and seedling development on seed germination, shoot length and germination rate of wild oat (Avena fatua L. was examined. Germinated seeds were counted daily over a period of ten days and shoot length was measured on the last day, while germination rates were calculated from those measurements. The results showed that seed storage under controlled conditions (T1: temperature 24±1°C, humidity 40-50%; T2: temperature 26±1°C, humidity 70-80% and T3: temperature 4˚C for periods of 3 (t1 and 12 (t2 months had a significant influence on germination of wild oat seeds. The percentage of germinated seeds under all examined temperatures was higher when they were stored for 12 months under controlled temperature and humidity. The results also showed that temperature had a significant effect on the percentage of germination and germination rate of A. fatua seeds. The highest total germination occurred at 15˚C temperature (T1: t1 - 41.25%, t2 - 44.37%; T2: t1 - 28.13%, t2 - 34.37%; T3: t1 - 10.63%, t2 - 12.50%. Germination percentage under an alternating day /night photoperiod at 26˚C/21˚C temperature was higher in all treatment variants (T1: t1 - 8.13%, t2 - 10.00%; T2: t1 - 11.87%, t2 - 13.13%; T3: t1 - 2.42%, t2 - 2.70% than germination in the dark at 25˚C, 30˚C and 5˚C.

  4. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: temperature-dependent cysteine reactivity suggests different stable conformers of the conduction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehong; Dawson, David C

    2011-11-29

    Cysteine scanning has been widely used to identify pore-lining residues in mammalian ion channels, including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). These studies, however, have been typically conducted at room temperature rather than human body temperature. Reports of substantial effects of temperature on gating and anion conduction in CFTR channels as well as an unexpected pattern of cysteine reactivity in the sixth transmembrane segment (TM6) prompted us to investigate the effect of temperature on the reactivity of cysteines engineered into TM6 of CFTR. We compared reaction rates at temperatures ranging from 22 to 37 °C for cysteines placed on either side of an apparent size-selective accessibility barrier previously defined by comparing reactivity toward channel-permeant and channel-impermeant, thiol-directed reagents. The results indicate that the reactivity of cysteines at three positions extracellular to the position of the accessibility barrier, 334, 336, and 337, is highly temperature-dependent. At 37 °C, cysteines at these positions were highly reactive toward MTSES(-), whereas at 22 °C, the reaction rates were 2-6-fold slower to undetectable. An activation energy of 157 kJ/mol for the reaction at position 337 is consistent with the hypothesis that, at physiological temperature, the extracellular portion of the CFTR pore can adopt conformations that differ significantly from those that can be accessed at room temperature. However, the position of the accessibility barrier defined empirically by applying channel-permeant and channel-impermeant reagents to the extracellular aspect of the pore is not altered. The results illuminate previous scanning results and indicate that the assay temperature is a critical variable in studies designed to use chemical modification to test structural models for the CFTR anion conduction pathway.

  5. Different transcriptional responses from slow and fast growth rate strains of Listeria monocytogenes adapted to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoska eCordero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes has become one of the principal foodborne pathogens worldwide. The capacity of this bacterium to grow at low temperatures has opened an interesting field of study in terms of the identification and classification of new strains of L. monocytogenes with different growth capacities at low temperatures. We determined the growth rate at 8 ºC of 110 strains of L. monocytogenes isolated from different food matrices. We identified a group of slow and fast strains according to their growth rate at 8 °C and performed a global transcriptomic assay in strains previously adapted to low temperature. We then identified shared and specific transcriptional mechanisms, metabolic and cellular processes of both groups; bacterial motility was the principal process capable of differentiating the adaptation capacity of L. monocytogenes strains with different ranges of tolerance to low temperatures. Strains belonging to the fast group were less motile, which may allow these strains to achieve a greater rate of proliferation at low temperature.

  6. Effect of temperature difference between manikin and wet fabric skin surfaces on clothing evaporative resistance: how much error is there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Clothing evaporative resistance is one of the inherent factors that impede heat exchange by sweating evaporation. It is widely used as a basic input in physiological heat strain models. Previous studies showed a large variability in clothing evaporative resistance both at intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory testing. The errors in evaporative resistance may cause severe problems in the determination of heat stress level of the wearers. In this paper, the effect of temperature difference between the manikin nude surface and wet textile skin surface on clothing evaporative resistance was investigated by both theoretical analysis and thermal manikin measurements. It was found that the temperature difference between the skin surface and the manikin nude surface could lead to an error of up to 35.9% in evaporative resistance of the boundary air layer. Similarly, this temperature difference could also introduce an error of up to 23.7% in the real clothing total evaporative resistance (R ( et_real ) < 0.1287 kPa m(2)/W). Finally, it is evident that one major error in the calculation of evaporative resistance comes from the use of the manikin surface temperature instead of the wet textile fabric skin temperature.

  7. Changes in Temperature Sensitivity and Activation Energy of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in Different Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; He, Nianpeng; Wei, Xuehong; Gao, Yang; Zuo, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau grasslands are unique geographical regions and store substantial soil organic matter (SOM) in the soil surface, which make them very sensitive to global climate change. Here, we focused on three main grassland types (alpine meadow, steppe, and desert) and conducted a soil incubation experiment at five different temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) to investigate SOM decomposition rates (R), temperature sensitivity (Q10), and activation energy (Ea). The results showed that grassland type and incubation temperature had significant impact on R (P alpinesteppe > alpine desert. The Q10 values differed significantly among different grasslands, and the overall trends were as follows: alpine meadow (1.56 ± 0.09) < alpine steppe (1.88 ± 0.23) < alpine desert (2.39 ± 0.32). Moreover, the Ea values differed significantly across different grassland types (P < 0.001) and increased with increasing incubation time. The exponential negative correlations between Ea and R at 20°C across all grassland types (all Ps < 0.001) indicated that the substrate-quality temperature hypothesis is applicable to the alpine grasslands. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the responses of SOM decomposition and storage to warming scenarios in this Plateau. PMID:26176705

  8. Numerical simulation of temperature distribution using finite difference equations and estimation of the grain size during friction stir processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.; Singh, H.; Dhindaw, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Magnesium alloy AE42 was friction stir processed under different cooling conditions. ► Heat flow model was developed using finite difference heat equations. ► Generalized MATLAB code was developed for solving heat flow model. ► Regression equation for estimation of grain size was developed. - Abstract: The present investigation is aimed at developing a heat flow model to simulate temperature history during friction stir processing (FSP). A new approach of developing implicit form of finite difference heat equations solved using MATLAB code was used. A magnesium based alloy AE42 was friction stir processed (FSPed) at different FSP parameters and cooling conditions. Temperature history was continuously recorded in the nugget zone during FSP using data acquisition system and k type thermocouples. The developed code was validated at different FSP parameters and cooling conditions during FSP experimentation. The temperature history at different locations in the nugget zone at different instants of time was further utilized for the estimation of grain growth rate and final average grain size of the FSPed specimen. A regression equation relating the final grain size, maximum temperature during FSP and the cooling rate was developed. The metallurgical characterization was done using optical microscopy, SEM, and FIB-SIM analysis. The simulated temperature profiles and final average grain size were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The presence of fine precipitate particles generated in situ in the investigated magnesium alloy also contributed in the evolution of fine grain structure through Zener pining effect at the grain boundaries.

  9. Acid tolerance in Salmonella typhimurium induced by culturing in the presence of organic acids at different growth temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes

    2010-02-01

    The influence of growth temperature and acidification of the culture medium up to pH 4.25 with acetic, citric, lactic and hydrochloric acids on the growth and subsequent acid resistance at pH 3.0 of Salmonella typhimurium CECT 443 was studied. The minimum pH value which allowed for S. typhimurium growth within the temperature range of 25-37 degrees C was 4.5 when the pH was reduced using citric and hydrochloric acids, and 5.4 and 6.4 when lactic acid and acetic acid were used, respectively. At high (45 degrees C) or low (10 degrees C) temperatures, the growth pH boundary was increased about 1 pH unit. The growth temperature markedly modified the acid resistance of the resulting cells. In all cases, D-values were lower for cells grown at 10 degrees C and significantly increased with increasing growth temperature up to 37 degrees C, at which D-values obtained were up to 10 times higher. Cells grown at 45 degrees C showed D-values similar to those found for cells grown at 25 degrees C. The growth of cells in acidified media, regardless of the pH value, caused an increase in their acid resistance at the four incubation temperatures, although the magnitude of the Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) observed depended on the growth temperature. Acid adapted cultures at 10 degrees C showed D-values ranging from 5.75 to 6.91 min, which turned out to be about 2 times higher than those corresponding to non-acid adapted cultures, while higher temperatures induced an increase in D-values of at least 3.5 times. Another finding was that, while at 10 and 45 degrees C no significant differences among the effect of the different acids tested in inducing an ATR were observed, when cells were grown at 25 and 37 degrees C citric acid generally turned out to be the acid which induced the strongest ATR. Results obtained in this study show that growth temperature is an important factor affecting S. typhimurium acid resistance and could contribute to find new strategies based on intelligent

  10. Heat stress and recovery of photosystem II efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars acclimated to different growth temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Sabibul; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The effect of heat stress on photosystem II (PS II) efficiency and post-stress recovery was studied in four wheat cultivars using chlorophyll fluorescence. The main aim was to examine the cultivar differences in relation to inhibition and recovery of PSII functionality after heat stress...... at different growth stages. The secondary aim was to investigate whether a pre-acclimation of plants to elevated temperature during the growth period induces a better tolerance to heat stress than for plants grown in ambient temperature or not. The plants were grown in two growth temperature conditions (15 °C...... and 25 °C) and subjected to heat stress (40 °C) for two days at early tillering and three days at anthesis and early grain development stages. The plants were returned to their original growth conditions after heat stress and recovery was observed for three days. The maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv...

  11. Characterization of Micro-arc Oxidation Coatings on 6N01 Aluminum Alloy Under Different Electrolyte Temperature Control Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefei; Zhu, Zongtao; Li, Yuanxing; Chen, Hui

    2018-03-01

    The micro-arc oxidation coatings of 6N01 aluminum alloy produced under different control modes of the electrolyte temperature are discussed in detail. Compared to those coated by a thermostatically controlled treatment, the coatings had different surface characterizations when they were coated without controlling the electrolyte temperature, particularly after treatment involving boiling electrolytes. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to observe the morphology of the coatings. Energy-dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometer were used to characterize their elemental and crystalline phase compositions. The results indicate that the treatment without a controlled electrolyte temperature ultimately led to a thicker and rougher film with a respectably thick inner barrier film, a lower content of γ-Al2O3 and better corrosion resistance.

  12. Temperature responses of growth and wood anatomy in European beech saplings grown in different carbon dioxide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overdieck, D.; Ziche, D.; Bottcher-Jungclaus, K.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between wood anatomical properties, growth, and mass allocation of well-watered beech saplings growing in different temperature and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) regimes. The study was conducted to test whether growth was enhanced by increasing temperature and CO 2 , as well as to determine whether the leaf area to stem cross-sectional area ratio, leaf mass ratio, and leaf area ratio declined with increasing temperature. The study also investigated the hypothesis that vessel member and size decreases with increasing temperature and CO 2 as well as the hypothesis that wood parenchyma content declines with increasing temperature and increases in response to elevated CO 2 . The beech saplings were grown in 7-1 pots for 2.5 years in field-phytotron chambers supplied with ambient or elevated CO 2 . Temperatures in the chambers ranged in increments of 2 degrees C. Soil was not fertilized and soil water and air humidity were kept constant. Data were evaluated by regression analysis. Results of the study showed that stem diameter was significantly larger at increased temperatures. In addition, stems were taller, and leaf area and stem mass were greater. The allocation pattern was influenced by temperature, as leaf mass ratio and leaf area ratio decreased with increasing temperature. Elevated CO 2 enhanced height growth by 8.8 per cent, and decreased coarse root mass and total mass by 10.3 per cent. The root/shoot ratio was decreased by 11.7 per cent. At final harvest, a synergistic interaction was observed between elevated CO 2 and temperature yielded trees that were 3.2 per cent taller at -4 degrees C, and 12.7 per cent taller at 4 degrees C than trees grown in ambient CO 2 . After 2.5 seasons, the cross-sectional area of the oldest stem part was approximately 32 per cent greater in the 4 degree C treatment than the -4 degree C treatment. In the final year, approximately 67 per cent more leaf area per unit tree ring area was produced in the

  13. Investigation of temperature and its indices under climate change scenarios over different regions of Rajasthan state in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditya; Sharma, Devesh; Panda, S. K.; Dubey, Swatantra Kumar; Pradhan, Rajani K.

    2018-02-01

    The ongoing increases in concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gas will most likely affect global climate for the rest of this century. Global warming brings a huge provocation to society and human beings. Single extreme events and increased climate variability have a greater impact than long-term changes in the mean of climatic variables. This study analyzed the temperature projections for Rajasthan state, India using data obtain from two General Circulation Models (GFCM21 and HadCM3) for three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Range of Emission Scenarios (SRES) A1B, A2, and B1. A 30 years of maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperature for the period 1976-2005 has been obtained from India Meteorological Department (IMD) and by using LARS-WG5 to generate the long-term weather series for three different periods i.e. 2011-2040 (2025s), 2041-2070 (2055s), and 2071-2100 (2085s). Further to determine the changes in extreme temperature events, the data for the baseline period and the future periods was represented by eight extreme temperature indices. Results illustrate that an increase in minimum and the maximum temperature are observed in all the three future periods. The average mean temperature for base period and three future periods over four regions of Rajasthan was observed highest in region 3 which shows an incessantly increased in mean temperature about 2.6 °C i.e. north-east and north-west part of Rajasthan. Two GCMs depicts that the incessant temperatures may be increase in the future and future maximum temperature in all the seasons varies from 2.43 °C to 4.27 °C in the direction from south to north of Rajasthan during 2071-2100. While for minimum temperature, the range of temperature changes varies from 0.23 °C to 1.42 °C from south-east to north-west of Rajasthan during 2011-2040. In the temperature indices, the number of tropical nights (TR20), warmest day (TX90p), warmest night (TN90p) and summer days (SU25) is expected

  14. Prediction of Daily Global Solar Radiation by Daily Temperatures and Artificial Neural Networks in Different Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I Saedi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Global solar radiation is the sum of direct, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation. Weather forecasts, agricultural practices, and solar equipment development are three major fields that need proper information about solar radiation. Furthermore, sun in regarded as a huge source of renewable and clean energy which can be used in numerous applications to get rid of environmental impacts of non-renewable fossil fuels. Therefore, easy and fast estimation of daily global solar radiation would play an effective role is these affairs. Materials and Methods This study aimed at predicting the daily global solar radiation by means of artificial neural network (ANN method, based on easy-to-gain weather data i.e. daily mean, minimum and maximum temperatures. Having a variety of climates with long-term valid weather data, Washington State, located at the northwestern part of USA was chosen for this purpose. It has a total number of 19 weather stations to cover all the State climates. First, a station with the largest number of valid historical weather data (Lind was chosen to develop, validate, and test different ANN models. Three training algorithms i.e. Levenberg – Marquardt (LM, Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG, and Bayesian regularization (BR were tested in one and two hidden layer networks each with up to 20 neurons to derive six best architectures. R, RMSE, MAPE, and scatter plots were considered to evaluate each network in all steps. In order to investigate the generalizability of the best six models, they were tested in other Washington State weather stations. The most accurate and general models was evaluated in an Iran sample weather station which was chosen to be Mashhad. Results and Discussion The variation of MSE for the three training functions in one hidden layer models for Lind station indicated that SCG converged weights and biases in shorter time than LM, and LM did that faster than BR. It means that SCG provided the fastest

  15. Juvenile growth and survival of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae) reared at different constant temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuffert, María E; Martín, Pablo R

    2013-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that cultured under certain conditions could provide interesting rewards in research and aquaculture. P. canaliculata is usually reared at 25°C, though the optimal temperature for culturing this species, that balances growth and survival rates, is so far unknown. In this work we present results of growth and survival of cohorts reared in the laboratory at different constant water temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C) during the pre-reproductive period. Two different groups were recognized among the five treatments: the two lower temperatures (15 and 20°C) that showed no mortality but with very low growth rates and the treatments of 25, 30 and 35°C in which snails grew faster but displayed a reduction in survival as temperature increases. After 10 weeks, the mean shell lengths attained at 30 and 35°C were only 2-3 mm higher than that of the treatment of 25°C and were not statistically different. Our results support using water temperatures of 25°C for the rearing of cohorts when the objective is to quickly obtain numerous large snails. Temperatures of 15 and 20°C may be appropriate if the aim is to preserve juveniles for long periods with a very low risk of mortality. The results reported here will be useful to the scheduling of laboratory trials intended for basic research, snail control or mass rearing for different applications of this species.

  16. Effect of different temperatures on reproductive performance of Scolothrips longicornis reared on Tetranychus urticae eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive parameters for Scolothrips longicornis were determined and compared at six temperatures (15, 20, 26, 30, 35 and 37°C), 60 ± 10% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (light:dark). Reproductive parameters were estimated for individual newly emerged thrips, which had spent...... rate varied from 80.2 eggs/female (at 30°C) to 10.04 eggs/female (at 37°C). The net fertility rate was highest at 30°C (69.7 eggs/female) and lowest at 37°C (5.2 eggs/female). The daily number of eggs laid per female ranged from 0.8 to 3.93 eggs, with a minimum at 15°C and a maximum at 35°C. Our...... results demonstrated that 30°C was the optimum temperature for reproductive of the studied population of S. longicornis....

  17. Controlled-Growth of ZnO Nano wires with Different Processing Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap Chi Chin; Muhammad Yahaya; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Dee Chang Fu

    2008-01-01

    ZnO nano wires have been synthesized using a catalyst-free carbothermal reduction approach on SiO 2 -coated Si substrates in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere with a mixture of ZnO and graphite as reactants. The collected ZnO nano wires have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Controlled growth of the ZnO nano wires was achieved by manipulating the reactants heating temperature from 700 to 1000 degree Celsius. It was found that the optimum temperature to synthesize high density and long ZnO nano wires was about 800 degree Celsius. The possible growth mechanism of ZnO nano wires is also proposed. (author)

  18. Kinetics of Ni:C Thin Film Composition Formation at Different Temperatures and Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas KAIRAITIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work analysis considering Ni:C thin films growth on thermaly oxidized Si substrate by proposed kinetic model is presented. Model is built considering experimental results where microstructure evolution as a function of the substrate temperature and metal content of Ni:C nanocomposite films grown by hyperthermal ion deposition is investigated. The proposed kinetic model is based on the rate equations and includes processes of adsorption, surface segregation, diffusion, chemical reactions of constituents. The experimental depth profile curves were fitted by using proposed model. The obtained results show a good agreement with experiment taking into account concentration dependent diffusion. It is shown by modeling that with the increase of substrate temperature the process of nickel surface segregation becomes most important. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5234

  19. Eleven years of ground–air temperature tracking over different land cover types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Vladimír; Bodri, L.; Krešl, Milan; Dědeček, Petr; Šafanda, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2017), s. 1084-1099 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/0183; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13040 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : long-term temperature monitoring * land-cover materials * underground climate signal * borehole climatology * climate change Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2016

  20. Sorption of simazine to corn straw biochars prepared at different pyrolytic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guixiang; Zhang Qing; Sun Ke; Liu Xitao; Zheng Wenjuan; Zhao Ye

    2011-01-01

    Simazine sorption to corn straw biochars prepared at various temperatures (100-600 deg. C) was examined to understand its sorption behavior as influenced by characteristics of biochars. Biochars were characterized via elemental analysis, BET-N 2 surface area (SA), FTIR and 13 C NMR. Freundlich and dual-mode models described sorption isotherms well. Positive correlation between log K oc values and aromatic C contents and negative correlation between log K oc values and (O + N)/C ratios indicate aromatic-rich biochars have high binding affinity to simazine (charge transfer (π-π*) interactions) and hydrophobic binding may overwhelm H-bonding, respectively. Dual-mode model results suggest adsorption contribution to total sorption increases with carbonization degree. Positive correlation between amounts of adsorption (Q ad ) and SA indicates pore-filling mechanism. Comparison between our results and those obtained with other sorbents indicates corn straw biochars produced at higher temperature can effectively retain simazine. These observations will be helpful for designing biochars as engineered sorbents to remove triazine herbicides. - Highlights: → Biochars were characterized via elemental analysis, BET-N 2 , FTIR and 13 C NMR. → Freundlich and dual-mode models described sorption isotherms well. → Biochar produced at higher temperature had larger sorption capacity for simazine. → Aromatic-rich biochars have high binding affinity to simazine. → Dual-mode model results suggest adsorption contribution to total sorption. - The corn straw biochar prepared at higher temperature with stronger hydrophobicity, more aromatic C and larger surface area had higher sorption capacity for simazine.

  1. Metabolic rates of the antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica at different temperatures and salinities

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Vicente; Passos, Maria José de Arruda Campos Rocha; Rocha, Arthur José da Silva; Santos, Thais da Cruz Alves dos; Machado, Alex Sander Dias; Ngan, Phan Van

    2013-01-01

    Changes in environmental factors may deeply affect the energy budget of Antarctic organisms as many of them are stenothermal and/or stenohaline ectotherms. In this context, the aim of this study is to contribute to knowledge on variations in the energy demand of the Antarctic amphipod, Gondogeneia antarctica as a function of temperature and salinity. Experiments were held at the Brazilian Antarctic Station "Comandante Ferraz", under controlled conditions. Animals collected at Admiralty Bay we...

  2. Characteristics of Armillaria species development and their growth at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Nenad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research shows that 5 Armillaria species are identified in forest ecosystems in Serbia. This paper presents the Pegler's key of species identification based on fruiting bodies - mushrooms. Previous reference data from Serbia refer only to the species A. mellea. Because of the insufficient information on the bioecology of individual species in the genus Armillaria we studied the effect of temperature, as one of the most important ecological factors for the development of mycelium and rhisomorphs.

  3. The influence of temperature and humidity on the stability of the response of different thermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.A.R. da

    1989-01-01

    Fading results are presented for thermoluminescent detectors for temperatures of 20, 35 and 50 0 C and for relative humidities of 50 and 90% during storage periods of up to 30 days. The thermoluminescent detectors investigated were LiF:Mg,Ti(TLD-100 and TLD-700), CaF 2 :Dy(TLD-200) and Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Mn,Si. These detectors are very commonly used in personnel monitoring. (author)

  4. Molecular and Cellular Effects Induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis Treated with Oxytetracycline at Different Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Banni

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the interactive effects of temperature (16°C and 24°C and a 4-day treatment with the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC at 1 and 100 μg/L on cellular and molecular parameters in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS, a sensitive biomarker of impaired health status in this organism, was assessed in the digestive glands. In addition, oxidative stress markers and the expression of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in antioxidant defense (catalase (cat and glutathione-S-transferase (gst and the heat shock response (hsp90, hsp70, and hsp27 were evaluated in the gills, the target tissue of soluble chemicals. Finally, cAMP levels, which represent an important cell signaling pathway related to oxidative stress and the response to temperature challenges, were also determined in the gills. Exposure to heat stress as well as to OTC rendered a decrease in LMS and an increase in malonedialdehyde accumulation (MDA. CAT activity was not significantly modified, whereas GST activity decreased at 24°C. Cat and gst expression levels were reduced in animals kept at 24°C compared to 16°C in the presence or absence of OTC. At 16°C, treatment with OTC caused a significant increase in cat and gst transcript levels. Hsp27 mRNA was significantly up-regulated at all conditions compared to controls at 16°C. cAMP levels were increased at 24°C independent of the presence of OTC. PCA analysis showed that 37.21% and 25.89% of the total variance was explained by temperature and OTC treatment, respectively. Interestingly, a clear interaction was observed in animals exposed to both stressors increasing LMS and MDA accumulation and reducing hsp27 gene expression regulation. These interactions may suggest a risk for the organisms due to temperature increases in contaminated seawaters.

  5. Emission properties of MEH-PPV in thin films simultaneously illuminated and annealed at different temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Botiz, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We report on the enhancement of photoluminescence in thin films of poly[2-methoxy-5-((2′-ethylhexyl)oxy)-1,4-phenylenvinylene], neat or embedded in polystyrene, upon illumination with light as a function of annealing temperature, with our data emphasizing the picture of a light-induced conformation change that leads to the altered photophysical response of this polymer.

  6. Evolution of Total Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity in Broccoli Florets during Storage at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Mahn, Andrea; Rubio, M. Paz

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli has great potential as functional food because of its high content of bioactive compounds. Polyphenols are to a great extent responsible for the high antioxidant activity of broccoli. An important challenge to keep the health promoting properties of broccoli is preservation, with freezing and refrigeration being the preferred methods. Despite storage at low temperature reduces the rate of deterioration reactions, some reactions still occur, thus affecting the content of bioactive com...

  7. Latitudinal variation of the topside electron temperature at different levels of solar activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Truhlík, Vladimír; Bilitza, D.; Třísková, Ludmila

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2009), s. 693-700 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420603 Grant - others: NASA (US) NNH06CD17C Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Electron temperature * Solar activity variation * Latitudinal dependence Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2009

  8. Characterization of hydrolytic degradation of polylactic acid/rice hulls composites in water at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic degradations of polylactic acid/rice hulls (PLA/RH composites with various rice hulls contents due to water absorptions at 23, 51 and 69°C were investigated by studying the thermal properties, chemical composition, molecular weight, and morphology of the degraded products. The results have attested that the stability of PLA/RH composites in water depends slightly on rice hulls contents but it is significantly influenced by water temperature. Water absorption in 30 days at 23°C was between 0.87 and 9.25% depending on rice hull contents. However, at thermophilic temperatures, the water absorption and degradation of these products were increased significantly. Saturations were achieved in less than 25 and 9 days at 51°C and 69°C, respectively, while hydrolytic degradation was demonstrated by an increase in fragility and development of crystallinity. At 69°C, there were significant reductions of the decomposition and glass transition temperatures of the polymer by 13°C. These changes were associated with the reduction of the molecular weight of PLA from 153.1 kDa to ~10.7 kDa due to hydrolysis of its ester group.

  9. [Effects of different mulches on rhizosphere temperature, growth, and physiological properties of fluecured tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhihong; Yi, Jianhua; Sun, Zaijun

    2006-11-01

    With greenhouse plastic film, rice straw plus greenhouse plastic film, soil-mulching plastic film, rice straw, rice straw plus sun-shading net, and sun-shading net as test mulches, this paper studied their effects on the rhizosphere temperature, growth, and physiological properties of flue-cured tobacco. The results showed that after mulching for 22 days, the accumulative rhizosphere temperature at the depth of 5 cm was the highest (424.75 degrees C) for greenhouse plastic film and the lowest (378.75 degrees C) for rice straw plus sun-shading net, while that at the depth of 15 cm was the highest (396.75 degrees C) for greenhouse plastic film and the lowest (368.31 degrees C) for sun-shading net. With the increase of accumulative rhizosphere temperature, the dry weight of above- and underground parts, photosynthesis, and root vigor of flue-cured tobacco tended to increase, and at the 10th day after mulches removal, root biomass had the largest increment in the treatment of soil-mulching plastic film and the smallest increment in the treatment of rice straw plus sun-shading net.

  10. Differential stability of TATA box binding proteins from archaea with different optimal growth temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopitz, Annette; Soppa, Jörg; Krejtschi, Carsten; Hauser, Karin

    2009-09-01

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) is involved in promoter recognition, the first step of transcription initiation. TBP is universally conserved and essential in archaea and eukaryotes. In archaea, TBPs have to be stable and to function in species that cover an extremely wide range of optimal growth temperatures (OGTs), from below 0 °C to more than 100 °C. Thus, the archaeal TBP family is ideally suited to study the evolutionary adaptation of proteins to an extremely wide range of temperatures. We characterized the thermostability of one mesophilic and one thermophilic TBP by infrared spectroscopy. Transition temperatures ( Tms) of thermal unfolding have been determined using TBPs from Methanosarcina mazei (OGT 37 °C) and from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (OGT 65 °C). Furthermore, the influence of protein and salt concentration on thermostability has been characterized. Together with previous studies, our results reveal that the Tms of archaeal TBPs are closely correlated with the OGTs of the respective species. Noteworthy, this is also true for the TBP from M. mazei representing the first characterized TBP from a mesophilic archaeon. In contrast, the only characterized eukaryotic TBP of the mesophilic plant Arabidopsis thaliana has a Tm more than 40 °C above the OGT.

  11. ETBE synthesis over silicotungstic acid and tungstophosphoric acid catalysts calcined at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degirmenci, Levent; Oktar, Nuray; Dogu, Gulsen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Vapor phase ethyl tertiary butyl ether synthesis was investigated using heat treated heteropoly acid catalysts, namely silicotungtsic acid (STA) and tungstophosphoric acid-Keggin (TPA-K) and these results were compared with the results obtained with untreated catalysts. ETBE synthesis experiments showed that heat treatment of TPA-K at temperatures over 473 K had caused significant decrease of its catalytic activity. Activity of STA was more stable and deactivation of this catalyst was observed by heat treatment at 673 K and above. Heat treatment at high temperatures caused loss of constitutional water of STA and TPA-K, causing loss of protons, consequently the loss of acidity of the catalysts, resulting deactivation. FT-IR, TGA-DTA and DRIFTS analyses on pyridine-adsorbed catalysts supported the conclusions related to structural changes of STA and TPA-K with heat treatment. Highest ETBE yields were obtained at around 368 K, while at temperatures over 423 K formation of DEE and ethylene were observed due to dehydration of ethanol. (author)

  12. Differences in human birth weight and corollary attributes as a result of temperature regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per M; Sørensen, Marten

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) is an important attribute of human populations affecting post-natal mortality and later life morbidity, such as diabetes and reduced cognitive skills. BW is influenced by many factors, whereof temperature regime represents an important factor. By applying a generalized linear model, the impact of temperatures, altitude, nutrition, age at motherhood and other potential causes for BW variation were evaluated in more than 60 countries worldwide. National IQ scores were analysed in the same model. This study identified a model explaining 2/3 of the global variation in BW. This model suggests that BW will decrease by 0.44-1.05% per °C increase in temperature under projected climate change. National IQ scores revealed a close relationship between IQ and BW. However, the model of IQ variation did not appear robust when challenged with variables not correlated with BW. Climate change will affect BW, but it cannot be assumed that other human attributes such as IQ will change because (i) BW, in mainly being sensitive to intra-uterine conditions in the last quarter of pregnancy, is a poor predictor of intra-uterine conditions as such and (ii) developmental plasticity may require post-natal stimuli to unfold.

  13. Measurements of Sr/Ca in bones to evaluate differences in temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, P.R. [IFUSP, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Added, N. [IFUSP, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: nemitala@dfn.if.usp.br; Aburaya, J.H.; Rizzutto, M.A. [IFUSP, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    Analysis of aragonite from sea shells and coral skeletons showed a clear correlation between the strontium and calcium concentrations for these crystals (Sr/Ca ratio) and seawater temperature obtained by satellites and ship readings. In this work we present the results of a study that correlates Sr/Ca ratio with formation temperature of another calcium crystal, the hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}), main mineral compound of teeth and bones from vertebrates. These animals, independent of its thermoregulation pattern (endothermic or ectothermic) have variations of internal temperature along the body. One interesting application of this work is to differentiate warm-blooded animals from cold-blooded ones just by measuring Sr/Ca ratio in their bones. Bones from a crocodile from Caiman yacare species and two dogs, a poodle and a non defined race, were analyzed using PIXE technique and thick target correction. A 1.78 (18) MeV external proton beam was used in LAMFI-USP with an accumulated charge of about 10 {mu}C for probing the samples. Emitted X-rays were collected using Si-PIN detectors (140 keV for Fe). As in coral skeletons, the Sr/Ca ratio of animals is lower in the body's warmer parts and higher in colder parts.

  14. [Comparison of body temperatures in children measured using 3 different thermometers: tympanic, skin and digital axillary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Ruiz-Paloalto, M Laura; Díaz-Guerrero, Rosalina; Olvera-Villanueva, Georgina; Maldonado, Angélica; Raygoza-Mendoza, María Del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To compare body temperature measurements using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. Hospitalized or outpatient children from the General Hospital Celaya, ISSSTE Hospital Clinic and General Hospital No. 4 IMSS, and the pediatric private service in Celaya, Guanajuato, from 1 day of life until 16 years old, were recruited over a one month period, after their parents signed the consent form. The order of each institution was selected by simple randomization. Body temperatures were measured in triplicate using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. The sample consisted of 554 children. The Pearson r between the tympanic and digital axillary thermometers was 0.57 to 0.65, with a positive linear relationship (P<.05); between the skin and the digital axillary thermometers, it was between 0.47 and 0.52 with a positive linearrelationship (P<.05). The intra-observer Kappa for the tympanic thermometer was 0.86, and for the inter-observer was 0.77; for the skin thermometer it was 0.82 and 0.67, respectively, and for the digital axillary thermometer it was 0.86 for intra-observer reliability and 0.78 for inter -observer reliability. Tympanic and axillary thermometers showed better precision in measuring the body temperature in children than skin thermometers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurements of Sr/Ca in bones to evaluate differences in temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P. R.; Added, N.; Aburaya, J. H.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2008-04-01

    Analysis of aragonite from sea shells and coral skeletons showed a clear correlation between the strontium and calcium concentrations for these crystals (Sr/Ca ratio) and seawater temperature obtained by satellites and ship readings. In this work we present the results of a study that correlates Sr/Ca ratio with formation temperature of another calcium crystal, the hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), main mineral compound of teeth and bones from vertebrates. These animals, independent of its thermoregulation pattern (endothermic or ectothermic) have variations of internal temperature along the body. One interesting application of this work is to differentiate warm-blooded animals from cold-blooded ones just by measuring Sr/Ca ratio in their bones. Bones from a crocodile from Caiman yacare species and two dogs, a poodle and a non defined race, were analyzed using PIXE technique and thick target correction. A 1.78 (18) MeV external proton beam was used in LAMFI-USP with an accumulated charge of about 10 μC for probing the samples. Emitted X-rays were collected using Si-PIN detectors (140 keV for Fe). As in coral skeletons, the Sr/Ca ratio of animals is lower in the body's warmer parts and higher in colder parts.

  16. Electrical resistivity, Hall coefficient and electronic mobility in indium antimonide at different magnetic fields and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Madan; Prasad, Vijay; Singh, Amita

    1995-01-01

    The electrical resistivity, Hall coefficient and electronic mobility of n-type and p-type crystals of indium antimonide have been measured from 25 degC-100 degC temperature range. It has been found by this measurement that indium antimonide is a compound semiconductor with a high mobility 10 6 cm 2 /V.S. The Hall coefficient R H was measured as a function of magnetic field strength H for a number of samples of both p and n-type using fields up to 12 kilo gauss. The Hall coefficient R h decreases with increasing magnetic fields as well as with increase in temperature of the sample. The electric field is more effective on samples with high mobilities and consequently the deviations from linearity are manifested at comparatively low values of the electric field. The measurement of R H in weak and strong magnetic fields makes it possible to determine the separate concentration of heavy and light holes. Measured values of Hall coefficient and electrical resistivity show that there is a little variation of ρ and R h with temperatures as well as with magnetic fields. (author). 12 refs., 5 tabs

  17. Energy harvesting through gas dynamics in the free molecular flow regime between structured surfaces at different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baier, Tobias; Dölger, Julia; Hardt, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    For a gas confined between surfaces held at different temperatures the velocity distribution shows a significant deviation from the Maxwell distribution when the mean free path of the molecules is comparable to or larger than the channel dimensions. If one of the surfaces is suitably structured, ...

  18. Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed analysis of physiological,

  19. Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus

    The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed

  20. Cell cycle analysis of brain cells as a growth index in larval cod at different feeding conditions and temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael González-Quirós

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of cells dividing in a specific tissue of individual larvae can be estimated by analyzing DNA per cell by flow cytometry. An experimental test was carried out with cod (Gadus morhua larvae, with brain as the target tissue, to validate this technique as an appropriate growth index for larval fish. Standard length (SL, myotome height, and %S-phase (% of cells in the S-phase of the cell-division cycle variability were analyzed, with temperature (6 and 10°C, food level (high- and no-food and larval developmental stage (first feeding, pre-metamorphosis and post-metamorphosis as independent factors. Cod larvae grew faster (in SL and presented a higher %S-phase under high-food conditions. Larval SL increased with temperature in rearing and experimental tanks. However, there was a significant interaction between temperature and food in the %S-phase. There were no significant differences in the %S-phase between 6 and 10°C at high-food levels. We suggest that this result is a consequence of temperature-dependency of the duration of the cell cycle. In the absence of food, larvae at 10ºC had a lower %S-phase than larvae at 6°C, which may be related to increased metabolic costs with increasing temperature. Considering the effect of temperature, the mean % S-phase explained 74% of the variability in the estimated standard growth rate.

  1. Comparison of temperature rise in the pulp chamber with different light curing units: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh Ebenezar, A V; Anilkumar, R; Indira, R; Ramachandran, S; Srinivasan, M R

    2010-07-01

    This in vitro study was designed to measure and compare the temperature rise in the pulp chamber with different light curing units. The study was done in two settings-in-vitro and in-vivo simulation. In in-vitro setting, 3mm and 6mm acrylic spacers with 4mm tip diameter thermocouple was used and six groups were formed according to the light curing source- 3 Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen (QTH) units and 3 Light-Emitting-Diode (LED) units. For the LED units, three modes of curing like pulse-cure mode, fast mode and ramp mode were used. For in-vivo simulation, 12 caries free human third molar tooth with fused root were used. K-type thermocouple with 1 mm tip diameter was used. Occlusal cavity was prepared, etched, rinsed with water and blot dried; bonding agent was applied and incremental curing of composite was done. Thermal emission for each light curing agent was noted. Temperature rise was very minimal in LED light cure units than in QTH light cure units in both the settings. Temperature rise was minimal at 6mm distance when compared to 3 mm distance. Among the various modes, fast mode produces the less temperature rise. Temperature rise in all the light curing units was well within the normal range of pulpal physiology. Temperature rise caused due to light curing units does not result in irreversible pulpal damage.

  2. Growth and lipid accumulation in three Chlorella strains from different regions in response to diurnal temperature fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weinan; Zou, Shanmei; He, Meilin; Fei, Cong; Luo, Wei; Zheng, Shiyan; Chen, Bo; Wang, Changhai

    2016-02-01

    It was economically feasible to screen strains adaptive to wide temperature fluctuation for outdoor cultivation without temperature control. In this research, three Chlorella strains from arctic glacier, desert soil and temperate native lake were isolated and identified. The growth, biochemical composition, lipid content and fatty acid composition of each strain cultured under the mode of diurnal temperature fluctuations were compared. All the three Chlorella strains showed desirable abilities of accumulating lipid under diurnal temperature fluctuations and their fatty acid profiles were suitable for biodiesel production, although the growth and biochemical composition were seemed to be region-specific. The highest lipid content was at 51.83±2.49% DW, 42.80±2.97% DW and 36.13±2.27% DW under different temperature fluctuation of 11 °C, 25 °C, 7 °C, respectively. The results indicated that the three Chlorella strains could be promising biodiesel feedstock for outdoor cultivation by the cultural mode of diurnal temperature fluctuations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth morphology of CL-20/HMX cocrystal explosive: insights from solvent behavior under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Li, Qi-Fa; Gou, Rui-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Hai; Ren, Fu-de; Wang, Li; Guan, Rong

    2017-11-28

    A 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) /1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane (HMX)-isopropanol (IPA) interfacial model was constructed to investigate the effect of temperature on cocrystal morphology. A constant volume and temperature molecular dynamics (NVT-MD) simulation was performed on the interfacial model at various temperatures (295-355 K, 20 K intervals). The surface electrostatic potential (ESP) of the CL-20/HMX cocrystal structure and IPA molecule were studied by the B3LYP method at 6-311++G (d, p) level. The surface energies, polarities, adsorption energy, mass density distribution, radial distribution function (RDF), mean square displacement (MSD) and relative changes of attachment energy were analyzed. The results show that polarities of (1 0 0) and (0 1 1) cocrystal surfaces may be more negative and affected by IPA solvent. The adsorption energy per area indicates that growth of the (1 0-2) face in IPA conditions may be more limited, while the (1 0 0) face tends to grow more freely. MSD and diffusion coefficient (D) analyses demonstrated that IPA molecules gather more easily on the cocrystal surface at lower temperatures, and hence have a larger effect on the growth of cocrystal faces. RDF analysis shows that, with the increasing of temperature, the strength of hydrogen bond interactions between cocrystal and solvent becomes stronger, being highest at 335 K for the (1 0 0) and (0 1 1) interfacial models. Results of relative changes of modified attachment energy show that (1 0 0) and (0 1 1) faces tends to be larger than other faces. Moreover, the predicted morphologies at 295 and 355 K are consistent with experimental values, proving that the CL-20/HMX-IPA interfacial model is a reasonable one for this study. Graphical Abstract Construction of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) /1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane (HMX)-isopropanol (IPA) interfacial model, analysis

  4. Differences in Temperature and Water Chemistry Shape Distinct Diversity Patterns in Thermophilic Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Cecilia M; Szekeres, Edina; Rudi, Knut; Baricz, Andreea; Hegedus, Adriana; Dragoş, Nicolae; Coman, Cristian

    2017-11-01

    This report describes the biodiversity and ecology of microbial mats developed in thermal gradients (20 to 65°C) in the surroundings of three drillings (Chiraleu [CH], Ciocaia [CI], and Mihai Bravu [MB]) tapping a hyperthermal aquifer in Romania. Using a metabarcoding approach, 16S rRNA genes were sequenced from both DNA and RNA transcripts (cDNA) and compared. The relationships between the microbial diversity and the physicochemical factors were explored. Additionally, the cDNA data were used for in silico functionality predictions, bringing new insights into the functional potential and dynamics of these communities. The results showed that each hot spring determined the formation of distinct microbial communities. In the CH mats (40 to 53°C), the abundance of Cyanobacteria decreased with temperature, opposite to those of Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria Ectothiorhodospira , Oscillatoria , and methanogenic archaea dominated the CI communities (20 to 65°C), while the MB microbial mats (53 to 65°C) were mainly composed of Chloroflexi , Hydrogenophilus , Thermi , and Aquificae Alpha-diversity was negatively correlated with the increase in water temperature, while beta-diversity was shaped in each hot spring by the unique combination of physicochemical parameters, regardless of the type of nucleic acid analyzed (DNA versus cDNA). The rank correlation analysis revealed a unique model that associated environmental data with community composition, consisting in the combined effect of Na + , K + , HCO 3 - , and PO 4 3- concentrations, together with temperature and electrical conductivity. These factors seem to determine the grouping of samples according to location, rather than with the similarities in thermal regimes, showing that other parameters beside temperature are significant drivers of biodiversity. IMPORTANCE Hot spring microbial mats represent a remarkable manifestation of life on Earth and have been intensively studied for decades. Moreover, as hot spring

  5. Changes in the temperature of a dental light-cured composite resin by different light-curing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, A. N. S.; Jacomassi, D. P.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increase during the polymerization process through the use of three different light-curing units with different irradiation times. One argon laser (Innova, Coherent), one halogen (Optilight 501, Demetron), and one blue LED (LEC 1000, MM Optics) LCU with 500 mW/cm2 during 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 s of irradiation times were used in this study. The composite resin used was a microhybrid Filtek Z-250 (3M/ESPE) at color A2. The samples were made in a metallic mold 2 mm in thickness and 4 mm in diameter and previously light-cured during 40 s. A thermocouple (Model 120 202 EAJ, Fenwal Electronic, Milford, MA, USA) was introduced in the composite resin to measure the temperature increase during the curing process. The highest temperature increase was recorded with a Curing Light 2500 halogen LCU (5 and 31°C after 5 and 60 s, respectively), while the lowest temperature increase was recorded for the Innova LCU based on an argon laser (2 and 11°C after 5 and 60 s, respectively). The temperature recorded for LCU based on a blue LED was 3 and 22°C after 5 and 60 s, respectively. There was a quantifiable amount of heat generated during the visible light curing of a composite resin. The amount of heat generated was influenced by the characteristics of the light-curing units used and the irradiation times.

  6. The effects of different lying positions on interface pressure, skin temperature, and tissue blood flow in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källman, Ulrika; Engström, Maria; Bergstrand, Sara; Ek, Anna-Christina; Fredrikson, Mats; Lindberg, Lars-Göran; Lindgren, Margareta

    2015-03-01

    Although repositioning is considered an important intervention to prevent pressure ulcers, tissue response during loading in different lying positions has not been adequately explored. To compare the effects of different lying positions on interface pressure, skin temperature, and tissue blood flow in nursing home residents. From May 2011 to August 2012, interface pressure, skin temperature, and blood flow at three tissue depths were measured for 1 hr over the sacrum in 30° supine tilt and 0° supine positions and over the trochanter major in 30° lateral and 90° lateral positions in 25 residents aged 65 years or older. Measurement of interface pressure was accomplished using a pneumatic pressure transmitter connected to a digital manometer, skin temperature using a temperature sensor, and blood flow using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flowmetry. Interface pressure was significantly higher in the 0° supine and 90° lateral positions than in 30° supine tilt and 30° lateral positions. The mean skin temperature increased from baseline in all positions. Blood flow was significantly higher in the 30° supine tilt position compared to the other positions. A hyperemic response in the post pressure period was seen at almost all tissue depths and positions. The 30° supine tilt position generated less interface pressure and allowed greater tissue perfusion, suggesting that this position is the most beneficial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. An Investigation of Porous Structure of TiNi-Based SHS-Materials Produced at Different Initial Synthesis Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodorenko, V. N.; Anikeev, S. G.; Kokorev, O. V.; Yasenchuk, Yu. F.; Gunther, V. É.

    2018-02-01

    An investigation of structural characteristics and behavior of TiNi-based pore-permeable materials manufactured by the methods of selfpropagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) at the initial synthesis temperatures T = 400 and 600°C is performed. It is shown that depending on the temperature regime, the resulting structure and properties of the material can differ. It is found out that the SHS-material produced at the initial synthesis temperature T = 400°C possesses the largest number of micropores in the pore wall surface structure due to a high phase inhomogeneity of the alloy. The regime of structure optimization of the resulting materials is described and the main stages of formation of the pore wall microporous surfaces are revealed. It is demonstrated that after optimization of the surface structure of a TiNi-based fine-pore alloy by its chemical etching, the fraction of micropores measuring in size less than 50 nm increased from 59 to 68%, while the number of pores larger than 1 μm increased twofold from 11 to 22%. In addition, peculiar features of interaction between certain cell cultures with the surface of the SHS-material manufactured at different initial synthesis temperatures are revealed. It is found out that the dynamics of the cell material integration depends on the pore wall surface morphology and dimensions of macropores.

  8. Effect of disorder on carrier transport in ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, D.; Das, Amit. K.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-07-01

    We have grown ˜200 nm thick ZnO films on (0001) sapphire substrates using atomic layer deposition at different substrate temperatures ranging from ˜150 to 350 °C. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectra of these films showed that crystalline and compositional native defects were strongly dependent on the substrate temperature. Room temperature Hall measurement showed that all the films were degenerate with carrier concentration exceeding the Mott's critical density nc required for metallic conduction. The lowest value of room temperature resistivity ˜3.6 × 10-3 Ω cm was achieved for the film deposited at ˜200 °C, which had an estimated carrier concentration ˜5.7 × 1019 cm-3 and mobility ˜30 cm2/V s. The films deposited both below and above ˜200 °C showed increased resistivity and decreased mobility presumably due to the intensified defects and deteriorated crystalline quality of these films. To investigate the effect of disorder on the underlying charge transport mechanisms in these films, the electrical resistivity was measured in the temperature range of ˜4.2 to 300 K. The films grown at ˜150, 300, and 350 °C were found to be semiconducting in the entire range of the measurement temperature due to the intensified disorder which impeded the metallic transport in these films. However, the films grown at ˜200 and 250 °C showed a transition from metallic to semiconducting transport behaviour at lower temperatures due to the reduced defects and improved crystalline quality of these films. The observed semiconducting behaviour below the transition temperature for these films could be well explained by considering quantum corrections to the Boltzmann conductivity which includes the effect of disorder induced weak localization and coulomb electron-electron interactions.

  9. Seed germination of three provenances of arbutus Andrachne L. in response to different pretreatments, temperature and light

    OpenAIRE

    Tilki, Fahrettin; Güner, Sinan

    2007-01-01

    Seeds of Arbutus andrachne possess a physiological dormancy that prevents synchronized and rapid germina­ tion. The seeds were subjected to different pretreatments involving hot water, concentrated sulphuric acid, gibberellic acid and cold-moist stratification to break the dormancy. To determine the effects of temperature and light on seed germination they were treated with gibberellic acid and incubated at 20 and 24°C in light or dark. Gennination ability of seeds from different sources was ...

  10. Parametric Evaluation of Large-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Using Different Advanced Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, Edwin A.; McKellar, Michael G.; O'Brien, James E.; Herring, J. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE), when coupled to an advanced nuclear reactor capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 C to 950 C, has the potential to efficiently produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs. To evaluate the potential benefits of nuclear-driven hydrogen production, the UniSim process analysis software was used to evaluate different reactor concepts coupled to a reference HTE process design concept. The reference HTE concept included an Intermediate Heat Exchanger and intermediate helium loop to separate the reactor primary system from the HTE process loops and additional heat exchangers to transfer reactor heat from the intermediate loop to the HTE process loops. The two process loops consisted of the water/steam loop feeding the cathode side of a HTE electrolysis stack, and the sweep gas loop used to remove oxygen from the anode side. The UniSim model of the process loops included pumps to circulate the working fluids and heat exchangers to recover heat from the oxygen and hydrogen product streams to improve the overall hydrogen production efficiencies. The reference HTE process loop model was coupled to separate UniSim models developed for three different advanced reactor concepts (a high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept and two different supercritical CO2 reactor concepts). Sensitivity studies were then performed to evaluate the affect of reactor outlet temperature on the power cycle efficiency and overall hydrogen production efficiency for each of the reactor power cycles. The results of these sensitivity studies showed that overall power cycle and hydrogen production efficiencies increased with reactor outlet temperature, but the power cycles producing the highest efficiencies varied depending on the temperature range considered

  11. Differences in the metabolic response to temperature acclimation in nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations from contrasting thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneaux, Matthieu; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Laine, Veronika N; Lindström, Kai; Primmer, Craig R; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic responses to temperature changes are crucial for maintaining the energy balance of an individual under seasonal temperature fluctuations. To understand how such responses differ in recently isolated populations (temperature range, 0-29°C) and from colder, more thermally stable spring-fed ponds (1-19°C). Salinity and predation pressure also differed between these locations. We acclimatized wild-caught fish to 6, 11, and 19°C in common garden conditions for 4-6 months and determined their aerobic scope and hepatosomatic index (HSI). The freshwater fish from the colder (2-14°C), predator-free pond population exhibited complete temperature compensation for their aerobic scope, whereas the coastal populations underwent metabolic rate reduction during the cold treatment. Coastal populations had higher HSI than the colder pond population at all temperatures, with cold acclimation accentuating this effect. The metabolic rates and HSI for freshwater fish from the pond with higher predation pressure were more similar to those of the coastal ones. Our results suggest that ontogenic effects and/or genetic differentiation are responsible for differential energy storage and metabolic responses between these populations. This work demonstrates the metabolic versatility of the nine-spined stickleback and the pertinence of an energetic framework to better understand potential local adaptations. It also demonstrates that instead of using a single acclimation temperature thermal reaction norms should be compared when studying individuals originating from different thermal environments in a common garden setting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus - two invasive mosquito species with different temperature niches in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cunze

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes albopictus and Ae. japonicus are two of the most widespread invasive mosquito species that have recently become established in western Europe. Both species are associated with the transmission of a number of serious diseases and are projected to continue their spread in Europe. Methods In the present study, we modelled the habitat suitability for both species under current and future climatic conditions by means of an Ensemble forecasting approach. We additionally compared the modelled MAXENT niches of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus regarding temperature and precipitation requirements. Results Both species were modelled to find suitable habitat conditions in distinct areas within Europe: Ae. albopictus within the Mediterranean regions in southern Europe, Ae. japonicus within the more temperate regions of central Europe. Only in few regions, suitable habitat conditions were projected to overlap for both species. Whereas Ae. albopictus is projected to be generally promoted by climate change in Europe, the area modelled to be climatically suitable for Ae. japonicus is projected to decrease under climate change. This projection of range reduction under climate change relies o