WorldWideScience

Sample records for polarized two-colored photon

  1. Nondestructive inspection of explosive materials using linearly polarized two-colored photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyokawa, H.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Hajima, R.; Masuda, K.; Ohgaki, H.

    2011-01-01

    A nondestructive inspection method for screening explosive materials that are hidden in passenger vehicles, trucks, and cargo containers with radiation shielding was presented. The method was examined experimentally using linearly polarized two-colored photon beam. A sample object was irradiated with the photon beam, followed by an emission of gamma-rays in nuclear resonance fluorescence. The gamma-rays from oxygen and nitrogen emitted through nuclear resonance fluorescence were measured using high-purity germanium detectors. We were able to evaluate the element concentration ratio.

  2. Two-Color Single-Photon Photoinitiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Timothy F.; Kowalski, Benjamin A.; Sullivan, Amy C.; Bowman, Christopher N.; McLeod, Robert R.

    2009-05-01

    Controlling and reducing the developed region initiated by photoexposure is one of the fundamental goals of optical lithography. Here, we demonstrate a two-color irradiation scheme whereby initiating species are generated by single-photon absorption at one wavelength while inhibiting species are generated by single-photon absorption at a second, independent wavelength. Co-irradiation at the second wavelength thus reduces the polymerization rate, delaying gelation of the material and facilitating enhanced spatial control over the polymerization. Appropriate overlapping of the two beams produces structures with both feature sizes and monomer conversions otherwise unobtainable with use of single- or two-photon absorption photopolymerization. Additionally, the generated inhibiting species rapidly recombine when irradiation with the second wavelength ceases, allowing for fast sequential exposures not limited by memory effects in the material and thus enabling fabrication of complex two- or three-dimensional structures.

  3. Ultrafast molecular photoionization by two-color orthogonally polarized ultraviolet laser pulses: Effects of relative pulse phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2017-09-01

    We present molecular photoionization by two-color 2ω1 =ω2 orthogonally polarized ultraviolet laser pulses. Simulations are performed on aligned H+ by numerically solving time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Two ionization processes with one ω2 photon interfering with two ω1 photon absorption are studied at different molecular alignments. Molecular frame photoelectron momentum and angular distributions exhibit asymmetries which are functions of the relative pulse phase. For resonant excitation processes by the ω1 pulse, symmetric distributions are obtained. An attosecond ionization model is adopted to describe the ultrafast ionization dynamics. The dependence of the ionization asymmetry on the molecular alignment allows to further monitor interference effects on orbital symmetry.

  4. Recollision induced excitation-ionization with counter-rotating two-color circularly polarized laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Shuai; Guo, Pei-Ying; Pan, Xue-Fei; Xu, Tong-Tong; Song, Kai-Li; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2017-07-01

    Nonsequential double ionization of Ar by a counter-rotating two-color circularly polarized laser field is theoretically investigated. At the combined intensity in the "knee" structure range, the double ionization occurs mainly through recollision induced excitation followed by subsequent ionization of Ar+∗ . By tracing the history of the recollision trajectories, we explain how the relative intensity ratio of the two colors controls the correlated electron dynamics and optimizes the ionization yields. The major channels contributing to enhancing the double ionization are through the elliptical trajectories with smaller travel time but not through the triangle shape or the other long cycle trajectories. Furthermore, the correlated electron dynamics could be limited to the attosecond time scale by adjusting the relative intensity ratio. Finally, the double ionization from doubly excited complex at low laser intensity is qualitatively discussed.

  5. Stokes image reconstruction for two-color microgrid polarization imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, Daniel A

    2011-07-18

    The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a new microgrid polarization imaging system capable of simultaneously reconstructing linear Stokes parameter images in two colors on a single focal plane array. In this paper, an effective method for extracting Stokes images is presented for this type of camera system. It is also shown that correlations between the color bands can be exploited to significantly increase overall spatial resolution. Test data is used to show the advantages of this approach over bilinear interpolation. The bounds (in terms of available reconstruction bandwidth) on image resolution are also provided.

  6. Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-07-13

    Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.

  7. Two-color ghost interference with photon pairs generated in hot atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Ding

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental observation of a two-photon ghost interference experiment. A distinguishing feature of our experiment is that the photons are generated via a non-degenerated spontaneous four-wave mixing process in a hot atomic ensemble; therefore the photon has narrow bandwidth. Besides, there is a large difference in frequency between two photons in a pair. Our works may be important to achieve more secure, large transmission capacity long-distance quantum communication.

  8. Simulation of Far-Field Superresolution Fluorescence Imaging with Two-Color One-Photon Excitation of Reversible Photoactivatable Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Qiao Ling-Ling; Mao Zheng-Le

    2011-01-01

    We propose to achieve far-field super-resolution imaging by using offset two-color one-photon (2C1P) excitation of reversible photoactivatable fluorescence proteins. Due to the distinctive photoswitching performance of the proteins, such as dronpa, the fluorescence emission will only come from the overlapped region of activation beam and excitation beam. The analysis solution of rate equation shows that the resolution of offset 2C1P microscope is 'engineered' by laser power of excitation and activation beams and the power ratio between them. Superior lateral and transverse resolution is theoretically demonstrated compared with conventional fluorescence scanning microscopy. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  9. Control of threshold enhancements in harmonic generation by atoms in a two-color laser field with orthogonal polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starace, Anthony F.; Frolov, M. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Sarantseva, T. S.; Silaev, A. A.; Vvedenskii, N. V.

    2017-04-01

    Threshold phenomena (or channel-closing effects) are analyzed in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by atoms in a two-color laser field with orthogonal linearly polarized components of a fundamental field and its second harmonic. We show that the threshold behavior of HHG rates for the case of a weak second harmonic component is sensitive to the parity of a closing multiphoton ionization channel and the spatial symmetry of the initial bound state of the target atom, while for the case of comparable intensities of both components, suppression of threshold phenomena is observed as the relative phase between the components of a two-color field varies. A quantum orbit analysis as well as phenomenological considerations in terms of Baz' theory of threshold phenomena are presented in order to describe and explain the major features of threshold phenomena in HHG by a two-color field. Work supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHYS-1505492 (AFS), by Russian Science Foundation Grant No. 15-12-10033 (MVF, TSS, AAS, NVV), and by the Ministry of Education & Science of the Russian Federation Project No. 1019 (NLM).

  10. Distilling two-center-interference information during tunneling of aligned molecules with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Chen, Y. J.; Xin, G. G.; Liu, J.; Fu, L. B.

    2017-12-01

    When electrons tunnel through a barrier formed by the strong laser field and the two-center potential of a diatomic molecule, a double-slit-like interference can occur. However, this interference effect can not be probed directly right now, as it is strongly coupled with other dynamical processes during tunneling. Here, we show numerically and analytically that orthogonally polarized two-color (OTC) laser fields are capable of resolving the interference effect in tunneling, while leaving clear footprints of this effect in photoelectron momentum distributions. Moreover, this effect can be manipulated by changing the relative field strength of OTC fields.

  11. Cation spectroscopy of 3,4-difluoroaniline by two-color resonant two-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei Chih; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2011-03-01

    We applied the two-color resonant two-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization technique to record the vibrationally resolved cation spectra of 3,4-difluoroaniline (34DFA) via the 0 0, X, 6b 1, and I 2 levels of the S 1 state. The adiabatic ionization energy of this molecule was determined to be 64 195 ± 5 cm -1. Most of the observed active modes of the 34DFA cation in the D 0 state are related to the in-plane ring deformation vibrations. Comparing these data with those of 3-fluoroaniline and 4-fluoroaniline, one can learn the effects of fluorine substitution on the electronic transition and molecular vibration.

  12. Controlling electron-electron correlation in frustrated double ionization of triatomic molecules with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A.; Kling, M. F.; Emmanouilidou, A.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate the control of electron-electron correlation in frustrated double ionization (FDI) of the two-electron triatomic molecule D3 + when driven by two orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields. We employ a three-dimensional semiclassical model that fully accounts for the electron and nuclear motion in strong fields. We analyze the FDI probability and the distribution of the momentum of the escaping electron along the polarization direction of the longer wavelength and more intense laser field. These observables, when considered in conjunction, bear clear signatures of the prevalence or absence of electron-electron correlation in FDI, depending on the time delay between the two laser pulses. We find that D3 + is a better candidate than H2 for demonstrating also experimentally that electron-electron correlation indeed underlies FDI.

  13. Generation of an XUV supercontinuum by optimization of the angle between polarization planes of two linearly polarized pulses in a multicycle two-color laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jinping; Zeng Bin; Fu Yuxi; Chu Wei; Ni Jielei; Li Yao; Xiong Hui; Xu Han; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan; Liu Xiaojun; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in helium using a two-color laser field synthesized by an intense 25-fs laser pulse at 800 nm and a relatively weak ∼43-fs laser pulse at 1400 nm. When the polarization between the two pulses is arranged at an angle of ∼73 deg., supercontinuum spectra are dramatically broadened to 180 eV, which is sufficient to support an isolated ∼73-as pulse without any phase compensation. The physical mechanisms behind the phenomenon are well explained in terms of quantum and classical analyses. Furthermore, in the long-pulse regime, this method of extending the supercontinuum spectrum shows the significant advantage over previous two-color HHG schemes.

  14. Single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field combined with a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Changlong; Zhang Gangtai; Wu Jie; Liu Xueshen

    2010-01-01

    We investigate theoretic high-order harmonic generation and single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field, which is synthesized by a mid-infrared (IR) pulse (12.5 fs, 2000 nm) in the y component and a much weaker (12 fs, 800 nm) pulse in the x component. We find that the width of the harmonic plateau can be extended when a static electric field is added in the y component. We also investigate emission time of harmonics in terms of a time-frequency analysis to illustrate the physical mechanism of high-order harmonic generation. We calculate the ionization rate using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov model and interpret the variation of harmonic intensity for different static electric field strengths. When the ratio of strengths of the static and the y-component laser fields is 0.1, a continuous harmonic spectrum is formed from 220 to 420 eV. By superposing a properly selected range of the harmonic spectrum from 300 to 350 eV, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of about 75 as is obtained, which is near linearly polarized.

  15. The 2 1Ag state of isolated cis-trans-1,3,5,7-octatetraene: two-color resonance enhanced two-photon ionization studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohler, B.E.; Shaler, T.; Buma, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Vibrationally resolved 1 1Ag2 1Ag excitation spectra and decay times for cis,trans-1,3,5,7-octatetraene seeded in a supersonic He expansion have been measured by two-color resonance enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy. The excitation energy of the 1 1Ag2 1Ag 0-0 band (29 035 cm-1 ) is ~6500

  16. Dynamically controlled two-color photonic band gaps via balanced four-wave mixing in one-dimensional cold atomic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Yang, Liu; Wang, Xiao-Chang; Cui, Cui-Li; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2013-12-01

    We study an ensemble of cold atoms driven to the four-level double-Λ configuration and trapped in the one-dimensional optical lattices for achieving dynamically controlled photonic band gaps (PBGs) via the balanced four-wave mixing interaction. Numerical results show that a pair of PBGs characterized by high platforms of probe reflectivities and reduced density of photonic states are established, simultaneously, on both probe transitions in one symmetric driving scheme. Such two-color PBGs can be easily manipulated in position and width by modulating, e.g., the balanced Rabi frequencies of two coupling fields and the Gaussian widths of atomic density distributions, to change the equal probe detunings fulfilling both Bragg conditions. Each two-color PBG as predicted in the coherent atomic lattices may be explored to attain robust light entanglement, even for single-probe photons, via an efficient frequency conversion during the nonlinearly correlated reflection.

  17. Silicon photonic thermometer operating on multiple polarizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    A silicon photonics optical thermometer simultaneously operating on the multiple polarizations is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Measured sensitivities are 86pm/°C and 48pm/°C for the transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations, respectively.......A silicon photonics optical thermometer simultaneously operating on the multiple polarizations is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Measured sensitivities are 86pm/°C and 48pm/°C for the transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations, respectively....

  18. Two-Color VR CCD Photometry of the Intermediate Polar 1RXS J062518.2+733433

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggi Kim

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of 7 nights of CCD VR photometry of the intermediate polar 1RXS J062518.2 +733433 obtained at the Korean 1.8m telescope are reported. The corrected ephemeris for the orbital minimum is BJD (Orb.min = 2453023.6159 (42+0.1966431 (33 (E- 1735. The corrected ephemeris for the spin maximum is BJD (spin max = 2452893 .78477 (10+0.01374116815 (17 (E-15382 (cycle numbering corresponds to that of Staude et al.~2003. The variations of the shape of the individual spin variations are highly correlated in V and R. The phase of the spin maximum is found to be dependent on the orbital phase. The corresponding semi-amplitude of sinusoidal variations of phase is 0.11±0.03. This new phenomenon is explained by the changing viewing conditions of the accreting magnetic white dwarf, and should be checked in further observations this star and for other intermediate polars. To avoid influence of this effect on the analysis of the long-term spin period variations, the runs of at least one orbital period are recommended. Results of time series analysis are presented in tables.

  19. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turduev, M.; Bor, E.; Kurt, H.

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a/λ  =  0.280 and a/λ  =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25λ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  20. Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    'Project Title: Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Photons' DOE Contract Number: FG02-04ER41355 Principal Investigator: Prof. Kirk McDonald Period of Performance: 09/10/2004 thru 08/31/2006 This award was to fund Princeton's activity on SLAC experiment E166, 'Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Positrons' which was performed at SLAC during June and September 2005. Princeton U. fabricated a magnetic spectrometer for this experiment, and participated in the commissioning, operation, and analysis of the experiment, for which Prof. McDonald was a co-spokesperson. The experiment demonstrated that an intense positron beam with 80% longitudinal polarization could be generated by conversion of MeVenergy circularly polarized photons in a thin target, which photons were generated by passage of high-energy electrons through a helical undulator. This technique has since been adopted as the baseline for the polarized positron source of the proposed International Linear Collider. Results of the experiment have been published in Physical Review Letters, vol 100, p 210801 (2008) (see attached .pdf file), and a longer paper is in preparation.

  1. Performance Considerations for the SIMPL Single Photon, Polarimetric, Two-Color Laser Altimeter as Applied to Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Philip W.; Harding, David J.; Valett, Susan R.; Vasilyev, Aleksey A.; Yu, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) is a multi-beam, micropulse airborne laser altimeter that acquires active and passive polarimetric optical remote sensing measurements at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. SIMPL was developed to demonstrate advanced measurement approaches of potential benefit for improved, more efficient spaceflight laser altimeter missions. SIMPL data have been acquired for wide diversity of forest types in the summers of 2010 and 2011 in order to assess the potential of its novel capabilities for characterization of vegetation structure and composition. On each of its four beams SIMPL provides highly-resolved measurements of forest canopy structure by detecting single-photons with 15 cm ranging precision using a narrow-beam system operating at a laser repetition rate of 11 kHz. Associated with that ranging data SIMPL provides eight amplitude parameters per beam unlike the single amplitude provided by typical laser altimeters. Those eight parameters are received energy that is parallel and perpendicular to that of the plane-polarized transmit pulse at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near IR), for both the active laser backscatter retro-reflectance and the passive solar bi-directional reflectance. This poster presentation will cover the instrument architecture and highlight the performance of the SIMPL instrument with examples taken from measurements for several sites with distinct canopy structures and compositions. Specific performance areas such as probability of detection, after pulsing, and dead time, will be highlighted and addressed, along with examples of their impact on the measurements and how they limit the ability to accurately model and recover the canopy properties. To assess the sensitivity of SIMPL's measurements to canopy properties an instrument model has been implemented in the FLIGHT radiative transfer code, based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport. SIMPL data collected in 2010 over

  2. Capsize of polarization in dilute photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, Zhyrair; Hakhoumian, Arsen; Gasparian, Vladimir; Cuevas, Emilio

    2017-11-29

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, polarization rotation effects in dilute photonic crystals with transverse permittivity inhomogeneity perpendicular to the traveling direction of waves. A capsize, namely a drastic change of polarization to the perpendicular direction is observed in a one-dimensional photonic crystal in the frequency range 10 ÷ 140 GHz. To gain more insights into the rotational mechanism, we have developed a theoretical model of dilute photonic crystal, based on Maxwell's equations with a spatially dependent two dimensional inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity. We show that the polarization's rotation can be explained by an optical splitting parameter appearing naturally in Maxwell's equations for magnetic or electric fields components. This parameter is an optical analogous of Rashba like spin-orbit interaction parameter present in quantum waves, introduces a correction to the band structure of the two-dimensional Bloch states, creates the dynamical phase shift between the waves propagating in the orthogonal directions and finally leads to capsizing of the initial polarization. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  3. Polarized photon transport through fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jonathan; Persons, Christopher M.; DeSilva, Robert; Kirkland, James H.; Finney, Greg A.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Hokr, Brett H.

    2017-09-01

    Anyone who has driven through fog understands the detrimental effect scattering can have on your ability to see. When light interacts with a scattering center, in this case a fog droplet, it is scattered into a new direction, ultimately turning the world around you into a dull gray haze. In some fogs, visibility can be less than 100 meters. It would be possible to see through turbid media like fog if you can separate the scattered light from the unscattered, or ballistic, light; however, we must understand the light transport properties of the atmosphere to determine the optimum scheme. Here, we present an end-to-end simulation for polarized light transport through fog. Our approach can be summarized in three steps: compute the Mueller matrix for a single scattering interaction, ensemble average a distribution of sizes and shapes, and solve the light transport using a Monte Carlo simulation. For small spherical particles, such as fog, we use Mie theory to calculate the single scattering Mueller matrix, but this approach can be generalized to non-spherical particles using ray tracing for large particles or a T-matrix approach for smaller particles. Through this simulation, we are able to determine a backscattering Mueller matrix and a forward scattering Mueller matrix response function for the atmosphere as a function of position and detection angle.

  4. Polarization of photons emitted by decaying dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bonivento

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiatively decaying dark matter may be searched through investigating the photon spectrum of galaxies and galaxy clusters. We explore whether the properties of dark matter can be constrained through the study of a polarization state of emitted photons. Starting from the basic principles of quantum mechanics we show that the models of symmetric dark matter are indiscernible by the photon polarization. However, we find that the asymmetric dark matter consisted of Dirac fermions is a source of circularly polarized photons, calling for the experimental determination of the photon state.

  5. Polarization maintaining large-mode area photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Nielsen, Martin Dybendal; Mortensen, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber. Unlike, previous work on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers, birefringence is introduced using stress applying parts. This has allowed us to realize fibers, which are both single mode at any wavelength a...

  6. Simultaneous production of spin-polarized ions/electrons based on two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takashi; Yonekura, Nobuaki; Matsuo, Yukari; Kobayashi, Tohru; Fukuyama, Yoshimitsu

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the simultaneous production of spin-polarized ions/electrons using two-color, two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms. Specifically, we have applied the developed technique to laser-ablated Sr atoms, and found that the electron-spin polarization of Sr + ions, and accordingly, the spin polarization of photoelectrons is 64%±9%, which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction we have recently reported [T. Nakajima and N. Yonekura, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2112 (2002)]. Our experimental results open up a simple way toward the construction of a spin-polarized dual ion/electron source

  7. Compact electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2009-01-01

    An electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic-bandgap fiber polarizer is experimentally demonstrated. A maximum 21.3dB electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio is achieved with 45° rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in 1300nm–1600nm.......An electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic-bandgap fiber polarizer is experimentally demonstrated. A maximum 21.3dB electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio is achieved with 45° rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in 1300nm–1600nm....

  8. Thomson scattering of polarized photons in an intense laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byung Yunn

    2006-02-21

    We present a theoretical analysis of the Thomson scattering of linearly and circularly polarized photons from a pulsed laser by electrons. The analytical expression for the photon distribution functions presented in this paper should be useful to designers of Thomson scattering experiments.

  9. Photon polarization in Compton scattering: pulse shape effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boca, M; Stoica, C; Dumitriu, A; Florescu, V

    2015-01-01

    We study in the framework of quantum electrodynamics the scattering of a plane wave electromagnetic field on free electrons in the low intensity limit. We derive analytic formulas describing the polarization properties of the emitted photons. We discuss and illustrate with a numerical example the effects of the electromagnetic pulse duration on their polarization

  10. Room Temperature Memory for Few Photon Polarization Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchak, Connor; Mittiga, Thomas; Jordan, Bertus; Nazami, Mehdi; Nolleke, Christian; Figueroa, Eden

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a room temperature quantum memory device based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency capable of reliably storing and retrieving polarization qubits on the few photon level. Our system is realized in a vapor of 87Rb atoms utilizing a Λ-type energy level scheme. We create a dual-rail storage scheme mediated by an intense control field to allow storage and retrieval of any arbitrary polarization state. Upon retrieval, we employ a filtering system to sufficiently remove the strong pump field, and subject retrieved light states to polarization tomography. To date, our system has produced signal-to-noise ratios near unity with a memory fidelity of >80 % using coherent state qubits containing four photons on average. Our results thus demonstrate the feasibility of room temperature systems for the storage of single-photon-level photonic qubits. Such room temperature systems will be attractive for future long distance quantum communication schemes.

  11. Photonic Heterostructures with Properties of Ferroelectrics and Light Polarizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P., E-mail: palto@online.ru; Draginda, Yu. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    The optical and electro-optical properties of a new type of photonic heterostructure composed of alternating ferroelectric molecular layers and optically anisotropic layers of another material are considered. A numerical simulation of the real prototype of this heterostructure, which can be prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett method from layers of a ferroelectric copolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) and an azo dye with photoinduced optical anisotropy, has been performed. It is shown that this heterostructure has pronounced polarization optical properties and yields a significant change in the polarization state of light at the photonic band edges in the ranges of the maximum density of photon states. The latter property can be used to obtain an enhanced electro-optic effect at small spectral shifts of the photonic band (the latter can be provided by the piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric layers).

  12. Two-dimensional photonic crystal polarizer modulated by silicon resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chunhua; Huang, Xuguang

    2007-11-01

    Photonic crystals(PCs)have many potential applications because of their ability to control light-wave propagation. In this paper, we theoretically investigate the tunability of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides in two-dimensional photonic crystals with square lattices composed of heat-resistant silicon resin. Waveguides can be obtained by the infiltration of silicon resin into air regions in two-dimensional photonic crystals composed of air holes with square lattices of dielectric cylinders. The refractive index of silicon resin can be changed by manipulating the temperature of the sample. Numerical simulation by solving Maxwell's equations using the plane wave expansion(PWE) method shows that the band gaps can be continuously tuned by silicon resin, accordingly the light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides can be controlled. The band gap is analyzed in the temperature range of 20°C-120°C. In our work, the gap map for a square lattice of dielectric cylinders is also simulated. The method can separate TM- and TE-polarized modes in the waveguide. Such a mechanism of band gap adjustment should open up a new application for designing field-sensitive polarizer in photonic integrated circuits.

  13. One-bit photon polarization in two-photon experiments. An information mechanics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, F.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper is presented a detailed treatment of amount and representation of photon polarization information in the two-photon experiments of Aspect, Grangier, and Roger, seeking to test Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's thought experiment. Newton's mechanics, Einstein's relativistic mechanics, and quantum mechanics do not treat as fundamental the amount and representation of information in physical systems. The line of reasoning presented here was reached via Kantor's information mechanics. The information bookkeeping presented here appears to offer a simple, physical insight into what the apparatus and the photons are doing together

  14. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure

  15. Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansel, Justyna K; Thiel, Michael; Rill, Michael S; Decker, Manuel; Bade, Klaus; Saile, Volker; von Freymann, Georg; Linden, Stefan; Wegener, Martin

    2009-09-18

    We investigated propagation of light through a uniaxial photonic metamaterial composed of three-dimensional gold helices arranged on a two-dimensional square lattice. These nanostructures are fabricated via an approach based on direct laser writing into a positive-tone photoresist followed by electrochemical deposition of gold. For propagation of light along the helix axis, the structure blocks the circular polarization with the same handedness as the helices, whereas it transmits the other, for a frequency range exceeding one octave. The structure is scalable to other frequency ranges and can be used as a compact broadband circular polarizer.

  16. TE-polarized graphene modes sustained by photonic crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli-Eredi, I; Sipe, J E; Vermeulen, N

    2015-05-01

    We present the design of a supporting photonic crystal structure that would allow for the excitation of the predicted transverse electric (TE) polarized excitation in a single layer of graphene. We show that it is possible to measure this excitation at room temperature, and that adding an extra layer of dielectric material on top of the structure would further facilitate the experimental observation of the graphene mode.

  17. Asymmetry ratio in pair production and the degree of linearly polarized photons at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, J

    1999-01-01

    In order to initiate the experiments using linearly polarized tagged photons at intermediate energies, it is imperative to know and to monitor the degree of polarization. The relationship is re-examined between the linear polarization of photons and the asymmetry ratio in pair production by such photons. An improved method is proposed in which pairs are prohibited from entering the cone region around the incident photon beam. By restricting the directions of pairs, the asymmetry ratio is much improved. (author)

  18. Two-photon polarization Fourier spectroscopy of metastable atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.J.; Beyer, H.-J.; Kleinpoppen, H.; Sheikh, Z.A,; B-Z Univ., Multan

    1997-01-01

    A novel Fourier-transform spectroscopic method using two-photon polarization to determine the spectral distribution of the two photons emitted in the spontaneous decay of metastable atomic hydrogen is described. The method uses birefringent retardation plates and takes advantage of the subtle interplay between the spectral properties and the entangled polarization properties of the radiation emitted in the decay. Assuming the validity of the theoretical spectral distribution, it is shown that the experimental results agree well with theory. On the other hand, success in solving the inverse problem of determining the spectral distribution from the experimental results is limited by the small number of experimental points. However, making reasonable assumptions it is deduced that the observed spectrum is characterized by a broadband signal of width (0.43 ± 0.06) x 10 16 rad s -1 and centre angular frequency (0.77 ± 0.03) x 10 16 rad s -1 in good agreement with the predictions of 0.489 x 10 16 rad s -1 and 0.775 x 10 16 rad s -1 , respectively, obtained from the theoretical spectral distribution modified to take account of the absorption of the two-photon radiation in air. The values of 1.5 fs for the coherence time and 440 nm for the coherence length for single photons of the two-photon pair which are obtained from the measured bandwidth imply that, in the ideal case, these values are determined by the essentially zero lifetime of the virtual intermediate state of the decay process rather than the long lifetime of the metastable state which, it is suggested, determines the coherence time and coherence length appropriate to certain types of fourth-order interference experiments. (Author)

  19. Two-color infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2014-05-13

    A two-color detector includes a first absorber layer. The first absorber layer exhibits a first valence band energy characterized by a first valence band energy function. A barrier layer adjoins the first absorber layer at a first interface. The barrier layer exhibits a second valence band energy characterized by a second valence band energy function. The barrier layer also adjoins a second absorber layer at a second interface. The second absorber layer exhibits a third valence band energy characterized by a third valence band energy function. The first and second valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the first interface and the second and third valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the second interface.

  20. Polarization sensitive beam bending using a spatially variant photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digaum, Jennefir L.; Pazos, Javier; Rumpf, Raymond; Chiles, Jeff; Fathpour, Sasan; Thomas, Jeremy N.; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2015-02-01

    A spatially-variant photonic crystal (SVPC) that can control the spatial propagation of electromagnetic waves in three dimensions with high polarization sensitivity was fabricated and characterized. The geometric attributes of the SVPC lattice were spatially varied to make use of the directional phenomena of self-collimation to tightly bend an unguided beam coherently through a 90 degree angle. Both the lattice spacing and the fill factor of the SVPC were maintained to be nearly constant throughout the structure. A finite-difference frequency-domain computational method confirms that the SVPC can self-collimate and bend light without significant diffuse scatter caused by the bend. The SVPC was fabricated using multi-photon direct laser writing in the photo-polymer SU-8. Mid-infrared light having a vacuum wavelength of λ0 = 2.94 μm was used to experimentally characterize the SVPCs by scanning the sides of the structure with optical fibers and measuring the intensity of light emanating from each face. Results show that the SVPC is capable of directing power flow of one polarization through a 90-degree turn, confirming the self-collimating and polarization selective light-guiding properties of the structures.

  1. Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Thorhauge, Morten

    2003-01-01

    D finite-difference-time-domain method. The simulated spectra are in excellent agreement with the experimental results, which show a propagation loss as low as 2.5±4 dB/mm around 1525 nm and bend losses at 2.9±0.2 dB for TM polarized light. We demonstrate a high coupling for TM polarized light......We have investigated the properties of TM polarized light in planar photonic crystal waveguide structures, which exhibit photonic band gaps for TE polarized light. Straight and bent photonic crystal waveguides and couplers have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and modelled using a 3...

  2. Photonic Choke-Joints for Dual-Polarization Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J.; U-yen, Kongpop; Chuss, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Photonic choke joint (PCJ) structures for dual-polarization waveguides have been investigated for use in device and component packaging. This interface enables the realization of a high performance non-contacting waveguide joint without degrading the in-band signal propagation properties. The choke properties of two tiling approaches, symmetric square Cartesian and octagonal quasi-crystal lattices of metallic posts, are explored and optimal PCJ design parameters are presented. For each of these schemes, the experimental results for structures with finite tilings demonstrate near ideal transmission and reflection performance over a full waveguide band.

  3. Uncovering the Circular Polarization Potential of Chiral Photonic Cellulose Films for Photonic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongzhi; Li, Wanru; Li, Wen; Wang, Xiaojun; Tang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An; Xu, Yan

    2018-02-12

    Circularly polarized light (CPL) is central to photonic technologies. A key challenge lies in developing a general route for generation of CPL with tailored chiroptical activity using low-cost raw materials suitable for scale-up. This study presents that cellulose films with photonic bandgaps (PBG) and left-handed helical sense have an intrinsic ability for circular polarization leading to PBG-based CPL with extraordinary |g | values, well-defiend handedness, and tailorable wavelength by the PBG change. Using such cellulose films, incident light ranging from near-UV to near-IR can be transformed to passive L-CPL and R-CPL with viewing-side-dependent handedness and |g | values up to 0.87, and spontaneous emission transformed to R-CPL emission with |g | values up to 0.68. Unprecedented evidence is presented with theoretical underpinning that the PBG effect can stimulate the R-CPL emission. The potential of cellulose-based CPL films for polarization-based encryption is illustrated. The evaporation-induced self-assembly coupled with nanoscale mesogens of cellulose nanocrystals opens new venues for technological advances and enables a versatile strategy for rational design and scalable manufacturing of organic and inorganic CPL films for photonic applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Broadband topology-optimized photonic crystal components for both TE and TM polarizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Têtu, A.; Kristensen, M.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2005-01-01

    Several planar photonic crystal components topology-optimized for TE-polarized light, including 60º bends, Y-splitters, and 90º bends, have been characterized for the TM polarization. The experimental results are confirmed by finite-difference time-domain calculations. The surprising efficiency f...... for TM-polarized light is found and paves the way for photonic crystal components suitable for both polarizations....

  5. Heralded noiseless amplification of a photon polarization qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, S.; Xiang, G. Y.; Ralph, T. C.; Pryde, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Photons are the best long-range carriers of quantum information, but the unavoidable absorption and scattering in a transmission channel places a serious limitation on viable communication distances. Signal amplification will therefore be an essential feature of quantum technologies, with direct applications to quantum communication, metrology and fundamental tests of quantum theory. Non-deterministic noiseless amplification of a single mode can circumvent the challenges related to amplifying a quantum signal, such as the no-cloning theorem and the minimum noise cost for deterministic quantum state amplification. However, existing devices are not suitable for amplifying the fundamental optical quantum information carrier: a qubit coherently encoded across two optical modes. Here, we construct a coherent two-mode amplifier to demonstrate the first heralded noiseless linear amplification of a qubit encoded in the polarization state of a single photon. In doing so, we increase the transmission fidelity of a realistic qubit channel by up to a factor of five. Qubit amplifiers promise to extend the range of secure quantum communication and other quantum information science and technology protocols.

  6. Knot Undulator to Generate Linearly Polarized Photons with Low on-Axis Power Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, S.

    2009-01-01

    Heat load on beamline optics is a serious problem to generate pure linearly polarized photons in the third generation synchrotron radiation facilities. For permanent magnet undulators, this problem can be overcome by a figure-8 operating mode. But there is still no good method to tackle this problem for electromagnetic elliptical undulators. Here, a novel operating mode is suggested, which can generate pure linearly polarized photons with very low on-axis heat load. Also the available minimum photon energy of linearly polarized photons can be extended much by this method.

  7. Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapateau, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I., E-mail: isabelle.zaquine@telecom-paristech.fr [LTCI, CNRS, Télécom ParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 75013 Paris (France); Ghalbouni, J. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences 2, Lebanese University, Campus Fanar, BP 90656 Jdeidet (Lebanon)

    2015-10-14

    We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.

  8. Heralded noiseless amplification for single-photon entangled state with polarization feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Jin, Yu-Yu; Qin, Sheng-Xian; Zu, Hao; Zhou, Lan; Zhong, Wei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2018-03-01

    Heralded noiseless amplification is a promising method to overcome the transmission photon loss in practical noisy quantum channel and can effectively lengthen the quantum communication distance. Single-photon entanglement is an important resource in current quantum communications. Here, we construct two single-photon-assisted heralded noiseless amplification protocols for the single-photon two-mode entangled state and single-photon three-mode W state, respectively, where the single-photon qubit has an arbitrary unknown polarization feature. After the amplification, the fidelity of the single-photon entangled state can be increased, while the polarization feature of the single-photon qubit can be well remained. Both the two protocols only require the linear optical elements, so that they can be realized under current experimental condition. Our protocols may be useful in current and future quantum information processing.

  9. The photon polarization in radiative D decays, phenomenologically

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Stefan; Hiller, Gudrun

    2018-03-01

    We work out the phenomenology of untagged time-dependent analysis with radiative D^0-decays into CP eigenstates, which allows to probe the photon polarization by means of the charm mesons' finite width difference. We show that D^0 → φ γ or D^0 → \\bar{K}^{0 *} γ decays, which are SM-dominated, or SM-like, respectively, together with U-spin allow to obtain chirality-predictions for radiative decay amplitudes. The order of magnitude of wrong-chirality contributions in the SM can be cross-checked with an up-down asymmetry in D^0 → \\bar{K}_1^0 (→ \\bar{K} π π ) γ . We explore the sensitivity to new physics in |Δ c|=|Δ u|=1 dipole couplings in the decays D^0 → ρ ^0 γ . We point out the possibility to test the SM with D_s → K_1^+( → K π π ) γ decays.

  10. Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs at a rubidium D1 line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Long; Li Shujing; Yuan Haoxiang; Wang Hai

    2016-01-01

    Using the process of cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), we generate a narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pair resonant on the rubidium (Rb) D1 line (795 nm). The degenerate single-mode photon pair is selected by multiple temperature controlled etalons. The linewidth of generated polarization-entangled photon pairs is 15 MHz which matches the typical atomic memory bandwidth. The measured Bell parameter for the polarization-entangled photons S = 2.73 ± 0.04 which violates the Bell-CHSH inequality by ∼18 standard deviations. The presented entangled photon pair source could be utilized in quantum communication and quantum computing based on quantum memories in atomic ensemble. (author)

  11. Electrically Rotatable Polarizer Using One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal with a Nematic Liquid Crystal Defect Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryotaro Ozaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polarization characteristics of defect mode peaks in a one-dimensional (1D photonic crystal (PC with a nematic liquid crystal (NLC defect layer have been investigated. Two different polarized defect modes are observed in a stop band. One group of defect modes is polarized along the long molecular axis of the NLC, whereas another group is polarized along its short axis. Polarizations of the defect modes can be tuned by field-induced in-plane reorientation of the NLC in the defect layer. The polarization properties of the 1D PC with the NLC defect layer is also investigated by the finite difference time domain (FDTD simulation.

  12. Spin polarization in top pair production in association with two photons at NLO+PS

    CERN Document Server

    Luisoni, Gionata

    2017-01-01

    This talk focuses on the impact of top-quark spin polarization effects in Higgs boson production in association with a top-quark pair, where the Higgs boson decays to two photons. Predictions for the signal are compared with direct top-quark pair production in association with two photons at NLO+PS.

  13. LHCb Observation of photon polarization in the $b\\rightarrow s\\gamma$ transition

    CERN Multimedia

    Veneziano, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM) predicts that the photon emitted in $b\\rightarrow s\\gamma$ transitions is predominantly left-handed. While the measured inclusive $b\\rightarrow s\\gamma$ rate agrees with the SM calculations, no direct evidence exists for a nonzero photon polarization $\\lambda_\\gamma$ in this type of decays. Several extensions of the SM, compatible with all current measurements, predict that the photon acquires a significant right-handed component.

  14. A novel method for polarization squeezing with Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milanovic, Josip; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2010-01-01

    fiber squeezing experiments. Explicit we produce squeezed states in counter propagating pulses along the same fiber axis to achieve near identical dispersion properties. This enables the production of polarization squeezing through interference in a polarization type Sagnac interferometer. We observe...

  15. Two-color above-threshold ionization of atoms and ions in XUV Bessel beams and intense laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipt, D.; Müller, R. A.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-11-01

    The two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms and ions is investigated for a vortex Bessel beam in the presence of a strong near-infrared (NIR) light field. While the photoionization is caused by the photons from the weak but extreme ultraviolet (XUV) vortex Bessel beam, the energy and angular distribution of the photoelectrons and their sideband structure are affected by the plane-wave NIR field. We here explore the energy spectra and angular emission of the photoelectrons in such two-color fields as a function of the size and location of the target atoms with regard to the beam axis. In addition, analog to the circular dichroism in typical two-color ATI experiments with circularly polarized light, we define and discuss seven different dichroism signals for such vortex Bessel beams that arise from the various combinations of the orbital and spin angular momenta of the two light fields. For localized targets, it is found that these dichroism signals strongly depend on the size and position of the atoms relative to the beam. For macroscopically extended targets, in contrast, three of these dichroism signals tend to zero, while the other four just coincide with the standard circular dichroism, similar as for Bessel beams with a small opening angle. Detailed computations of the dichroism are performed and discussed for the 4 s valence-shell photoionization of Ca+ ions.

  16. Two-color QCD via dimensional reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian; Brauner, Tomáš; Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2012-02-01

    We study the thermodynamics of two-color QCD at high temperature and/or density using a dimensionally reduced superrenormalizable effective theory, formulated in terms of a coarse grained Wilson line. In the absence of quarks, the theory is required to respect the Z(2) center symmetry, while the effects of quarks of arbitrary masses and chemical potentials are introduced via soft Z(2) breaking operators. Perturbative matching of the effective theory parameters to the full theory is carried out explicitly, and it is argued how the new theory can be used to explore the phase diagram of two-color QCD.

  17. Quasi interference of perpendicularly polarized guided modes observed with a photon scanning tunneling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balistreri, M.L.M.; Driessen, A.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    The simultaneous detection of TE- as well as TM-polarized light with a photon scanning tunneling microscope leads to a quasi- interference pattern of these mutually perpendicular polarized fields. This interference pattern has been observed in the optical field distribution as a function of both

  18. Quantum entropy and polarization measurements of the two-photon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanian, Moorad; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the bipartite state of a two-photon polarization system and obtain the exact analytical expression for the von Neumann entropy in the particular case of a five-parameter polarization density matrix. We investigate and graphically illustrate the dependence of the entropy on these five parameters, in particular, the existence of exotic, transition from exotic to nonexotic, and nonexotic states, where the quantum conditional entropy is negative, both positive and negative, and positive, respectively. We study the "cooling" or "heating" effect that follows from the reduced density of photon 2 when a measurement is performed on photon 1.

  19. Design Studies for Flux and Polarization Measurements of Photons and Positrons for SLAC Proposal E166: An experiment to test polarized positron production in the FFTB (LCC-0107)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, M

    2003-10-02

    We present results from design studies carried out to investigate measurements of the flux, spectrum and polarization of undulator photons for SLAC Proposal E166. A transmission Compton polarimeter is considered for measuring the photon circular polarization. We also present results for measuring the flux and spectrum of positrons produced by the undulator photons in an 0.5X{sub 0} Titanium target. And we present some considerations for use of a transmission Compton polarimeter to measure the circular polarization of bremsstrahlung photons emitted by the polarized positrons in a thin radiator.

  20. Polarization Beam Splitter Based on a Self-Collimation Michelson Interferometer in a Silicon Photonic Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi-Yao; Lin Gui-Min; Li Jun-Jun; Xu Xiao-Fu; Jiang Jun-Zhen; Qiang Ze-Xuan; Qiu Yi-Shen; Li Hui

    2012-01-01

    A polarization beam splitter based on a self-collimation Michelson interferometer (SMI) in a hole-type silicon photonic crystal is proposed and numerically demonstrated. Utilizing the polarization dependence of the transmission spectra of the SMI and polarization peak matching method, the SMI can work as a polarization beam splitter (PBS) by selecting an appropriate path length difference in the structure. Based on its novel polarization beam splitting mechanics, the polarization extinction ratios (PERs) for TM and TE modes are as high as 18.4 dB and 24.3 dB, respectively. Since its dimensions are only several operating wavelengths, the PBS may have practical applications in photonic integrated circuits. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  1. Two-photon spin-polarization spectroscopy in silicon-doped GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2009-05-14

    We generate spin-polarized electrons in bulk GaAs using circularly polarized two-photon pumping with excess photon energy (DeltaE) and detect them by probing the spin-dependent transmission of the sample. The spin polarization of conduction band electrons is measured and is found to be strongly dependent on DeltaE. The initial polarization, pumped with DeltaE=100 meV, at liquid helium temperature is estimated to be approximately 49.5%, which is very close to the theoretical value (50%) permitted by the optical selection rules governing transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction band states in a bulk sample. However, the polarization pumped with larger DeltaE decreases rapidly because of the exciting carriers from the split-off band.

  2. Proceedings of the Workshop on future of nuclear physics in Europe with polarized electrons and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didelez, J.P.; Tamas, G.

    1990-01-01

    In the proceedings of the workshop, held at the Institut de Physique Nucleaire in Orsay, France, full texts of 20 contributions are presented. The two main topics were polarized electrons and polarized photons. It has been reported that significant processes have been made recently in the science and technology of polarized electron sources, polarized targets and polarimeters. The relevant tools are therefore now available to complete extensive experimental programs. The 20 papers are indexed and abstracted separately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  3. Polarization control of intermediate state absorption in resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuwu; Yao, Yunhua; Jia, Tianqing; Ding, Jingxin; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Huang, Yunxia

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the control of the intermediate state absorption in an (n + m) resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process by the polarization-modulated femtosecond laser pulse. An analytical solution of the intermediate state absorption in a resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process is obtained based on the time-dependent perturbation theory. Our theoretical results show that the control efficiency of the intermediate state absorption by the polarization modulation is independent of the laser intensity when the transition from the intermediate state to the final state is coupled by the single-photon absorption, but will be affected by the laser intensity when this transition is coupled by the non-resonant multi-photon absorption. These theoretical results are experimentally confirmed via a two-photon fluorescence control in (2 + 1) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of Coumarin 480 dye and a single-photon fluorescence control in (1 + 2) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of IR 125 dye. (paper)

  4. Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranen, Martti; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Malcuit, Michelle S.; Boyd, Robert W.

    1989-08-01

    We develop a semiclassical theory of the polarization properties of phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing. The theory includes the effects of saturation by the pump waves. We solve the density-matrix equations of motion in steady state for a nonlinear medium consisting of stationary atoms with a ground and excited state connected by two-photon transitions. As an illustration of the general results, we consider an S0-->S0 two-photon transition, which is known to lead to perfect polarization conjugation in the limit of third-order theory. We show that the fidelity of the polarization-conjugation process is degraded for excessively large pump intensities. The degradation can occur both due to transfer of population to the excited state and due to nonresonant Stark shifts. Theoretical results are compared to those of a recent experiment [Malcuit, Gauthier, and Boyd, Opt. Lett. 13, 663 (1988)].

  5. Room-Temperature Single-photon level Memory for Polarization States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchak, Connor; Mittiga, Thomas; Jordaan, Bertus; Namazi, Mehdi; Nölleke, Christian; Figueroa, Eden

    2015-01-01

    An optical quantum memory is a stationary device that is capable of storing and recreating photonic qubits with a higher fidelity than any classical device. Thus far, these two requirements have been fulfilled for polarization qubits in systems based on cold atoms and cryogenically cooled crystals. Here, we report a room-temperature memory capable of storing arbitrary polarization qubits with a signal-to-background ratio higher than 1 and an average fidelity surpassing the classical benchmark for weak laser pulses containing 1.6 photons on average, without taking into account non-unitary operation. Our results demonstrate that a common vapor cell can reach the low background noise levels necessary for polarization qubit storage using single-photon level light, and propels atomic-vapor systems towards a level of functionality akin to other quantum information processing architectures.

  6. Light trapping and circularly polarization at a Dirac point in 2D plasma photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Hu, Lei; Mao, Qiuping; Jiang, Haiming; Hu, Zhijia; Xie, Kang; Wei, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Light trapping at the Dirac point in 2D plasma photonic crystal has been obtained. The new localized mode, Dirac mode, is attributable to neither photonic bandgap nor total internal reflection. It exhibits a unique algebraic profile and possesses a high-Q factor resonator of about 105. The Dirac point could be modulated by tuning the filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency, respectively. When a magnetic field parallel to the wave vector is applied, Dirac modes for right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves could be obtained at different frequencies, and the Q factor could be tuned. This property will add more controllability and flexibility to the design and modulation of novel photonic devices. It is also valuable for the possibilities of Dirac modes in photonic crystal containing other kinds of metamaterials.

  7. Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs with arbitrary joint spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-01-01

    We present a scheme for generating polarization-entangled photons pairs with arbitrary joint spectrum. Specifically, we describe a technique for spontaneous parametric down-conversion in which both the center frequencies and the bandwidths of the down-converted photons may be controlled by appropriate manipulation of the pump pulse. The spectral control offered by this technique permits one to choose the operating wavelengths for each photon of a pair based on optimizations of other system parameters (loss in optical fiber, photon counter performance, etc.). The combination of spectral control, polarization control, and lack of group-velocity matching conditions makes this technique particularly well suited for a distributed quantum information processing architecture in which integrated optical circuits are connected by spans of optical fiber

  8. The tagged photon beam polarization of the jet target experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, N.; Muccifora, V.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of the residual electron selection method to the tagging method of the jet target laboratory has been studied. With this end in view the behaviour of the polarized bremsstrahlung cross section in the range considered has been analysed, while the polarization increase by means of the RES has been evaluated. The vertical conditions of the focusing of the tagging spectrometer as a function of energy have been determined. Finally the gamma beam density and the tagging efficiency have been calculated

  9. Research on polarization noise of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber resonator optic gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lishuang; Jiao, Hongchen; Song, Wenshuai

    2015-10-01

    Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) resonator optic gyroscope is an important direction of high accuracy fiber optic gyroscope. The development and application of HCPCF has provided broad prospect for the research of resonator fiber optic gyroscope (RFOG). The HCPCF can restrict light to propagate in the fiber core filled with air/vacuum based on photonic band-gap effect. Compared with conventional polarization maintaining fiber based RFOG (PM-RFOG), the HCPCF based RFOG (HC-RFOG) has great potential to achieve lower nonreciprocal bias and better environment adaptability. The polarization noise, which is one of the main noise sources in the RFOG, is modeled and simulated in this paper. The resonance curves of RFOG with two polarization modes excited are presented, and the polarization noises caused by fiber parameters are calculated. The comparison of polarization noises between HCPCF resonator and polarization maintaining optical fiber (PMF) resonator are carried out by numerical simulation. The polarization features of the HCPCF resonator and conventional PMF resonator are experimentally characterized. The analysis result shows that the polarization stability of HCPCF resonator can be two orders of magnitude lower than that of the conventional PMF resonator. Therefore, the HCPCF resonator has evidently superiority in reducing polarization noise and improving gyro performance. The captive tests based on the HCPCF RFOG system are realized, and a bias stability in the range of 2.5°/s is successfully demonstrated.

  10. Unambiguous modification of nonorthogonal single- and two-photon polarization states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Ruiz, F. A.; Aguirre, J.; Delgado, A.; Lima, G.; Neves, L.; Roa, L.; Saavedra, C.; Padua, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a probabilistic method which allows an unambiguous modification of two nonorthogonal quantum states. We experimentally implement this protocol by using two-photon polarization states generated in the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion. In the experiment, for codifying initial quantum states, we consider single-photon states and heralded detection. We show that the application of this protocol to entangled states allows a fine control of the amount of entanglement of the initial state.

  11. Search for new physics via photon polarization of b→sγ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue, 690-8504 (Japan); Nakaya, Tsuyoshi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Shimizu, Yasuhiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai, 980-8578 (Japan); Academic Support Center, Kogakuin University,Hachioji, 192-0015 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue, 690-8504 (Japan)

    2015-03-30

    We suggest a discriminant analysis of new physics beyond the standard model through a detection of photon polarization in a radiative B meson decay. This analysis is investigated in SUSY SU(5) GUT with right-handed neutrino and left-right symmetric models. New physics search via CP asymmetry in the same process are also evaluated in each model for comparison. We show that new physics can be found via detecting the photon polarization in a parameter space of TeV energy scale.

  12. Three experimental tests of Bell's inequalities by measurement of polarization correlation of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspect, A.

    1983-02-01

    We have performed three experimental tests of Bell's inequalities by measuring the linear-polarization correlation of photons emitted by pairs in the 4p 2 1 S 0 → 4s4p 1 P 1 → 4s 2 1 S 0 radiative cascade of calcium. The first part of this dissertation reminds the theoretical background (Bell's theorem), and the experimental situation (previous experiments). We then describe our apparatus: the source (calcium atomic beam selectively excited by two-photon absorption), the optics, the photon coincidence-counting system. Our first experiment, analogous to previous ones (but more precise) involves one-channel polarizers. Our second experiment, based on a conceptually simpler scheme, uses two-channel polarizers. The third experiment involves acousto-optical switches followed by two linear polarizers: these devices act as time-varying polarizers, the orientation of which is changed during the time of flight of photons. In the three experiments, the results are in good agreement with the Quantum mechanical predictions, and they distinctly violate the relevant Bell's inequalities [fr

  13. Applications of circularly polarized photons at the ALS with a bend magnet source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to focus attention on, and to stimulate the scientific exploitation of, the natural polarization properties of bend-magnet synchrotron radiation at the ALS -- for research in biology, materials science, physics, and chemistry. The topics include: The Advanced Light Source; Magnetic Circular Dichroism and Differential Scattering on Biomolecules; Tests of Fundamental Symmetries; High {Tc} Superconductivity; Photoemission from Magnetic and Non-magnetic Solids; Studies of Highly Correlated Systems; and Instrumentation for Photon Transport and Polarization Measurements.

  14. A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Wim; Taillaert, Dirk; Dumon, Pieter; Van Thourhout, Dries; Baets, Roel; Pluk, Elroy

    2007-02-19

    We present a wavelength duplexer based on a compact arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides. Polarization insensitive operation is achieved through a special polarization diversity approach in which we use 2-D grating fiber couplers as integrated polarization splitters. To mitigate the effects of process variations, we propagated both polarizations in opposite directions through the same AWG with a mere 600x350microm(2) footprint. This resulted in an on-chip insertion loss between -2.1dB and -6.9dB, crosstalk of -15dB, and only 0.66dB polarization dependent loss. This is the first demonstration of a functional polarization-diversity circuit implemented in SOI nanophotonic waveguides, including interfaces to single-mode fiber.

  15. Ultra-compact polarization rotation in integrated silicon photonics using digital metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Apratim; Shen, Bing; Polson, Randy; Menon, Rajesh

    2017-08-21

    Polarization controlling devices such as polarization splitters and rotators are critical elements in integrated-photonic circuits that function via polarization-diversity schemes. Here, we present the design of an ultra-compact nanophotonic-polarization rotator (NPR) that rotates the polarization state from TE to TM with a simulated extinction ratio of 23dB over a coupling length of 5µm and an operating bandwidth of 40nm. This all-silicon device can be fabricated in a single lithography step and we have fabricated and characterized a preliminary device exhibiting 9dB extinction ratio. To emphasize the generality of our methodology, we also designed a NPR that can rotate the polarization state from TM to TE as well. A small device footprint is enabled by the evanescent coupling of guided modes enabled by computationally designed digital metamaterials.

  16. Linear polarization of gluons and photons in unpolarized collider experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisano, C.; Boer, D.; Brodsky, S. J.; Buffing, M.G.A.; Mulders, P.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    We study azimuthal asymmetries in heavy quark pair production in unpolarized electron-proton and proton-proton collisions, where the asymmetries originate from the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized hadrons. We provide cross section expressions and study the maximal asymmetries allowed

  17. Spinor Slow Light and Two-Color Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ite; Lee, Meng-Jung; Ruseckas, Julius; Lee, Chin-Yuan; Kudriasov, Viaceslav; Chang, Kao-Fang; Cho, Hung-Wen; Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Yu, Ite A.

    2015-05-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of two-component or spinor slow light (SSL) using a double tripod (DT) atom-light coupling scheme. The scheme involves three atomic ground states coupled to two excited states by six light fields. The oscillation due to the interaction between the two components was observed. SSL can be used to achieve high conversion efficiencies in the sum frequency generation and is a better method than the widely-used double- Λ scheme. On the basis of the stored light, our data showed that the DT scheme behaves like the two outcomes of an interferometer enabling precision measurements of frequency detuning. Furthermore, the single-photon SSL can be considered as the qubit with the superposition state of two frequency modes or, simply, as the two-color qubit. We experimentally demonstrated a possible application of the DT scheme as quantum memory/rotator for the two-color qubit. This work opens up a new direction in the EIT/slow light research. yu@phys.nthu.edu.tw

  18. Two-color beam generation based on wakefield excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bettoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several beam manipulation methods have been studied and experimentally tested to generate two-color photon beams in free electron laser facilities to accommodate the user requests. We propose to use the interaction of the beam with an oscillating longitudinal wakefield source to obtain a suitable electron beam structure. The bunch generates two subpulses with different energies and delayed in time passing through a magnetic chicane after its longitudinal phase space has been modulated by the wakefield source. According to this approach the power of the emitted radiation is not degraded compared to the monochromatic beam, and the setup in the machine is quite simple because the bunch is manipulated only in the high energy section, where it is more rigid. We present the design applied to SwissFEL. We identified the parameters and the corresponding range of tunability of the time and energy separation among the two subbunches.

  19. Measurement of the photon polarization using ${B_s^0\\to \\phi\\gamma}$ at LHCb.

    CERN Document Server

    Hoballah, Mostafa; Deschamps, Olivier

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of the photon polarization in ${B_s^0\\to \\phi\\gamma}$ decays at LHCb. At the quark level, such decays proceed via a $b \\to s \\gamma$ penguin transition and are sensitive to possible virtual contributions from New Physics. The measurement of the photon polarization stands also as a test of the $V-A$ structure of the Standard Model coupling in the processes mediated by loop penguin diagrams. The measurement of the photon polarization can be done through a study of the time-dependent decay rate of the $B$ meson. A delicate treatment has been done to understand the proper time distribution and the selection acceptance affecting it. To control the proper time acceptance, data driven control methods have been developed. Several possible strategies to measure the photon polarization are introduced and preliminary blinded results are presented. A study of some of the systematic effects is discussed. In the context of studying radiative decays, the author has developed a new photo...

  20. First Experimental Study of Photon Polarization in Radiative B-s(0) Decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Romeu, J. Arnau; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baszczyk, M.; Batozskaya, V.; Batsukh, B.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, I.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Gomez, M. Calvo; Camboni, A.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Perez, D. H. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Akiba, K. Carvalho; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Sobral, C. M. Costa; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. -T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Suarez, A. Dosil; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Deleage, N.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Lima, V. Franco; Frei, C.; Furfaro, E.; Farber, C.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Cazon, B. R. Gruberg; Grunberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Gobel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hatch, M.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, H.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jiang, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kozachuk, A.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Lefevre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; Mcnab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. -N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Mussini, M.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Mueller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Goicochea, J. M. Otalora; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, G. D.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Olloqui, E. Picatoste; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Lopez, J. A. Rodriguez; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. -H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, I. T.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Toriello, F.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2017-01-01

    The polarization of photons produced in radiative B-s(0) decays is studied for the first time. The data are recorded by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb(-1) at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. A time-dependent analysis of the B-s(0) ->phi

  1. Two-Color Pyrometry with Diesel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Katharine; Bittle, Joshua

    2017-11-01

    Diesel combustion lasts only milliseconds and takes place inside a closed engine cylinder. Because of this, the mixing and subsequent combustion processes are still not completely understood. Using optically accessible experimental apparatuses and various highspeed optical diagnostic techniques can give insight into the effects of different types of fuels on their subsequent combustion. Two-color pyrometry is an example of such techniques, and has been proven to give accurate temperature measurements of a flame while requiring no physical contact with the surface of interest. A two-color pyrometer has been designed, built, and tested with a Bunsen burner, with the intent of applying the pyrometer to a combustion spray chamber in the future. Initial testing has been made at various fuel rates using a controlled Bunsen burner flame. Temperature maps have been generated from the pyrometer images showing trends that flames with higher fuel flow rates burned at lower mean temperatures. A preliminary video of diesel spray has been captured, showing that future application to diesel combustion is possible with the pyrometer setup.

  2. Photonic Choke-Joints for Dual Polarization Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Chuss, David T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A waveguide structure for a dual polarization waveguide includes a first flange member, a second flange member, and a waveguide member disposed in each of the first flange member and second flange member. The first flange member and the second flange member are configured to be coupled together in a spaced-apart relationship separated by a gap. The first flange member has a substantially smooth surface, and the second flange member has an array of two-dimensional pillar structures formed therein.

  3. Polarization splitting phenomenon of photonic crystals constructed by two-fold rotationally symmetric unit-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, U. G.; Giden, I. H.; Turduev, M.; Kurt, H.

    2017-09-01

    We present an intrinsic polarization splitting characteristic of low-symmetric photonic crystals (PCs) formed by unit-cells with C 2 rotational symmetry. This behavior emerges from the polarization sensitive self-collimation effect for both transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) modes depending on the rotational orientations of the unit-cell elements. Numerical analyzes are performed in both frequency and time domains for different types of square lattice two-fold rotational symmetric PC structures. At incident wavelength of λ = 1550 nm, high polarization extinction ratios with ˜26 dB (for TE polarization) and ˜22 dB (for TM polarization) are obtained with an operating bandwidth of 59 nm. Moreover, fabrication feasibilities of the designed structure are analyzed to evaluate their robustness in terms of the unit-cell orientation: for the selected PC unit-cell composition, corresponding extinction ratios for both polarizations still remain to be over 18 dB for the unit-cell rotation interval of θ = [40°-55°]. Taking all these advantages, two-fold rotationally symmetric PCs could be considered as an essential component in photonic integrated circuits for polarization control of light.

  4. High-frequency dynamics of spin-polarized carriers and photons in a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, D.; Basu, D.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2010-11-01

    The high-frequency dynamics of spin-polarized carriers and photons in a spin laser have been studied. The transient response of the device obtained from the rate equations is characterized by two sets of relaxation oscillations in the carrier and photon distributions corresponding to the two polarization modes. Consequently two distinct resonant peaks are observed in the small-signal modulation response. The calculated transient characteristics indicate that the best results are obtained from a spin laser when only the favored polarization mode, with lower threshold, is operational. Under this condition the small-signal modulation bandwidth is higher than that in a conventional laser, the threshold current is lower and the output polarization can be 100% with appropriate bias conditions, independent of the spin polarization of carriers in the active region. Measurements were made at 230 K on a InAs/GaAs quantum dot spin vertical cavity surface emitting laser. A time-averaged output polarization of 55% is measured with an active region spin polarization of 5-6% . The experimental results are in good agreement with calculated data.

  5. Controllably releasing long-lived quantum memory for photonic polarization qubit into multiple spatially-separate photonic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lirong; Xu, Zhongxiao; Zeng, Weiqing; Wen, Yafei; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai

    2016-09-26

    We report an experiment in which long-lived quantum memories for photonic polarization qubits (PPQs) are controllably released into any one of multiple spatially-separate channels. The PPQs are implemented with an arbitrarily-polarized coherent signal light pulses at the single-photon level and are stored in cold atoms by means of electromagnetic-induced-transparency scheme. Reading laser pulses propagating along the direction at a small angle relative to quantum axis are applied to release the stored PPQs into an output channel. By changing the propagating directions of the read laser beam, we controllably release the retrieved PPQs into 7 different photonic output channels, respectively. At a storage time of δt = 5 μs, the least quantum-process fidelity in 7 different output channels is ~89%. At one of the output channels, the measured maximum quantum-process fidelity for the PPQs is 94.2% at storage time of δt = 0.85 ms. At storage time of 6 ms, the quantum-process fidelity is still beyond the bound of 78% to violate the Bell's inequality. The demonstrated controllable release of the stored PPQs may extend the capabilities of the quantum information storage technique.

  6. Photon polarization effects in b →sγg decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, T.M.; Pak, N.K.; Rekalo, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the polarization properties of photons which are produced in the unpolarized b-quark decay, b → sγg. Using the structure function formalism we carry out a general analysis of the polarization characteristics of γ in terms of the standard Stokes parameters. The expressions for five independent structure functions are constructed in terms of the weak magnetic transition form factors of the vertices b → sγ and b → sg. Numerical calculations of the Stokes parameters and various differential distributions for b → sγg are performed for the two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM). We studied the dependences of all these characteristics to the model parameters. These results were compared with the Standard Model predictions for different top quark masses. Strong sensitivity of the Stokes parameters, which defines the linear photon polarization, to the model is demonstrated. (orig.)

  7. A versatile source of polarization entangled photons for quantum network applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Florian; Issautier, Amandine; Ngah, Lutfi A; Alibart, Olivier; Martin, Anthony; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    We report a versatile and practical approach for the generation of high-quality polarization entanglement in a fully guided-wave fashion. Our setup relies on a high-brilliance type-0 waveguide generator producing paired photons at a telecom wavelength associated with an advanced energy-time to polarization transcriber. The latter is capable of creating any pure polarization entangled state, and allows manipulation of single-photon bandwidths that can be chosen at will over five orders of magnitude, ranging from tens of MHz to several THz. We achieve excellent entanglement fidelities for particular spectral bandwidths, i.e. 25 MHz, 540 MHz and 80 GHz, proving the relevance of our approach. Our scheme stands as an ideal candidate for a wide range of network applications, ranging from dense division multiplexing quantum key distribution to heralded optical quantum memories and repeaters. (letter)

  8. Deformed photon-added entangled squeezed vacuum and one-photon states: Entanglement, polarization, and nonclassical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Karimi; M, K. Tavassoly

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, after a brief review on the entangled squeezed states, we produce a new class of the continuous-variable-type entangled states, namely, deformed photon-added entangled squeezed states. These states are obtained via the iterated action of the f-deformed creation operator A = f (n)a † on the entangled squeezed states. In the continuation, by studying the criteria such as the degree of entanglement, quantum polarization as well as sub-Poissonian photon statistics, the two-mode correlation function, one-mode and two-mode squeezing, we investigate the nonclassical behaviors of the introduced states in detail by choosing a particular f-deformation function. It is revealed that the above-mentioned physical properties can be affected and so may be tuned by justifying the excitation number, after choosing a nonlinearity function. Finally, to generate the introduced states, we propose a theoretical scheme using the nonlinear Jaynes-Cummings model.

  9. Production of positive pions from polarized protons by linearly polarized photons in the energy region 300--420 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Grushin, V.F.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Luchanin, A.A.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sanin, V.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Shalatskii, S.V.

    1980-10-01

    A technique for measurement of the polarization observables ..sigma.., P, and T for the reaction ..gamma..p..-->..n..pi../sup +/ in a doubly polarized experiment (polarized proton target + linearly polarized photon beam) is described. Measurements of the angular distributions of these observables in the range of pion emission angles 30--150/sup 0/ are presented for four photon energies from 300 to 420 MeV. Inclusion of the new experimental data in an energy-independent multipole analysis of photoproduction from protons permits a more reliable selection of solutions to be made.

  10. Impact of spin-zero particle-photon interactions on light polarization in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yi

    2007-01-01

    If the recent PVLAS results on polarization changes of a linearly polarized laser beam passing through a magnetic field are interpreted by an axion-like particle, it is almost certain that it is not a standard QCD axion. Considering this, we study the general effective interactions of photons with spin-zero particles without restricting the latter to be a pseudo-scalar or a scalar, i.e., a parity eigenstate. At the lowest order in effective field theory, there are two dimension-5 interactions, each of which has previously been treated separately for a pseudo-scalar or a scalar particle. By following the evolution in an external magnetic field of the system of spin-zero particles and photons, we compute the changes in light polarization and the transition probability for two experimental set-ups: one-way propagation and round-trip propagation. While the first may be relevant for astrophysical sources of spin-zero particles, the second applies to laboratory optical experiments like PVLAS. In the one-way propagation, interesting phenomena can occur for special configurations of polarization where, for instance, transition occurs but light polarization does not change. For the round-trip propagation, however, the standard results of polarization changes for a pseudoscalar or a scalar are only modified by a factor that depends on the relative strength of the two interactions

  11. Polarization dependence of two-photon transition intensities in rare-earth doped crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Nguyen, An-Dien [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A polarization dependence technique has been developed as a tool to investigate phonon scattering (PS), electronic Raman scattering (ERS), and two-photon absorption (TPA) transition intensities in vanadate and phosphate crystals. A general theory for the polarization dependence (PD) of two-photon transition intensities has been given. Expressions for the polarization dependent behavior of two-photon transition intensities have been tabulated for the 32 crystallographic point groups. When the wavefunctions for the initial and final states of a rare-earth doped in crystals are known, explicit PD expressions with no unknown parameters can be obtained. A spectroscopic method for measuring and interpreting phonon and ERS intensities has been developed to study PrVO4, NdVO4, ErVO4, and TmVO4 crystals. Relative phonon intensities with the polarization of the incident and scattered light arbitrarily varied were accurately predicted and subsequently used for alignment and calibration in ERS measurements in these systems for the first time. Since ERS and PS intensities generally follow different polarization curves as a function of polar angles, the two can be uniquely identified by comparing their respective polarization behavior. The most crucial application of the technique in ERS spectroscopy is the establishment of a stringent test for the Axe theory. For the first time, the F1/F2 ratio extracted from the experimental fits of the ERS intensities were compared with those predicted by theories which include both the second- and third-order contributions. Relatively good agreement between the fitted values of F1/F2 and the predicted values using the second-order theory has been found.

  12. Polarized-photon frequency filter in double-ferromagnetic barrier silicene junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantngarm, Peerasak; Yamada, Kou [Domain of Mechanical Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Gunma (Japan); Soodchomshom, Bumned, E-mail: Bumned@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2017-05-01

    We present an analytical study of effects from circularly polarized light illumination on controlling spin-valley currents in a dual ferromagnetic-gated silicene. Two different perpendicular electric fields are applied into the ferromagnetic (FM) gates and the photo-irradiated normal (NM) area between the gates. One parallel (P) and two anti-parallel (AP) configurations of exchange fields applied along with chemical potential to the gates are used in this investigation. Interestingly, the studied junction might give rise to polarized-photon frequency filter. Spin-valley filtering can be achieved at the off-resonant frequency region with appropriate direction of electric fields and the configuration of exchange fields (AP-1 or AP-2). Under the photo irradiation, this study found that tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) is controllable to achieve giant magnetoresistance (GMR) by adjusting electric fields or chemical potentials. Our study suggests the potential of photo-sensing devices in spin-valleytronics realm. - Highlights: • Photon-frequency control of spin-valley currents in silicene is investigated. • Complete photon frequency filtering effect is predicted. • Giant magnetoresistance induced by polarized photon is also found. • The junction is applicable for photo-sensing devices in spin-valleytronics realm.

  13. Realization of reliable solid-state quantum memory for photonic polarization qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zong-Quan; Lin, Wei-Bin; Yang, Ming; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2012-05-11

    Faithfully storing an unknown quantum light state is essential to advanced quantum communication and distributed quantum computation applications. The required quantum memory must have high fidelity to improve the performance of a quantum network. Here we report the reversible transfer of photonic polarization states into collective atomic excitation in a compact solid-state device. The quantum memory is based on an atomic frequency comb (AFC) in rare-earth ion-doped crystals. We obtain up to 0.999 process fidelity for the storage and retrieval process of single-photon-level coherent pulse. This reliable quantum memory is a crucial step toward quantum networks based on solid-state devices.

  14. Broadband photonic crystal fiber coupler with polarization selection of coupling ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Marć, Paweł; Szymański, Michał

    2010-09-01

    In the paper a new broadband photonic crystal fiber coupler is presented. The proper application of the biconical taper technology has been used for manufacturing the coupler without air holes collapse in LMA10 fiber (NKT Photonics Crystal). This coupler, operates in the weakly coupling condition, protects coupling operation in range from 900 nm to 1700 nm. The coupling ratio between output arms is depending on wavelength and can be tuning by selection the proper input state of polarization. It gives opportunity to use the broadband crystal fiber coupler in many applications in which it is necessary to tune a coupling between output arms during the measurement.

  15. Long lifetime and high-fidelity quantum memory of photonic polarization qubit by lifting zeeman degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongxiao; Wu, Yuelong; Tian, Long; Chen, Lirong; Zhang, Zhiying; Yan, Zhihui; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2013-12-13

    Long-lived and high-fidelity memory for a photonic polarization qubit (PPQ) is crucial for constructing quantum networks. We present a millisecond storage system based on electromagnetically induced transparency, in which a moderate magnetic field is applied on a cold-atom cloud to lift Zeeman degeneracy and, thus, the PPQ states are stored as two magnetic-field-insensitive spin waves. Especially, the influence of magnetic-field-sensitive spin waves on the storage performances is almost totally avoided. The measured average fidelities of the polarization states are 98.6% at 200  μs and 78.4% at 4.5 ms, respectively.

  16. Polarization-independent self-collimation based on pill-void photonic crystals with square symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Lan, Sheng; Dai, Qiao-Feng; Guo, Qi; Wu, Li-Jun

    2009-03-16

    We investigate discrepancy and similarity in dispersion relations between transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) polarizations in rectangular, square and triangular two-dimensional photonic crystals. It is found that the square lattice is the most appropriate candidate to realize polarization-independent, i.e. absolute self-collimation (ASC) in the first photonic band since it possesses not only a relatively broad angular range for self-collimation but also a small difference in dispersion relations between TE and TM modes. By tailoring the shape of air voids in the square-lattice-based structure, the electric-field vector can be rotated to reduce the discrepancy between TE and TM modes whereby the frequency bandwidth of ASC can be enlarged to approximately 4.8%. The ASC phenomenon is demonstrated by numerical experiments based on a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique with negligible propagation losses. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  17. First experimental study of photon polarization in radiative $B^{0}_{s}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, V.V.; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-01-09

    The polarization of photons produced in radiative $B^{0}_{s}$ decays is studied for the first time. The data are recorded by the LHCb experiment in $pp$ collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3fb$^{-1}$ at center-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8$TeV. A time-dependent analysis of the $B^{0}_{s} \\to \\phi \\gamma$ decay rate is conducted to determine the parameter ${\\mathcal{A}}^\\Delta$, which is related to the ratio of right- over left-handed photon polarization amplitudes in $b \\to s \\gamma$ transitions. A value of ${\\mathcal{A}}^\\Delta=-0.98^{\\,+0.46\\,+0.23}_{\\,-0.52\\,-0.20}$ is measured. This result is consistent with the Standard Model prediction within two standard deviations.

  18. Measurement of the photon polarization in radiative $B^0_s$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The photon polarization is studied for the first time in $B_s^0$ decays, using an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton data recorded by the LHCb experiment. An untagged time-dependent analysis of $B_s^0 \\rightarrow \\phi\\gamma$ decays allows to measure the CPV parameter $\\mathcal{A}^{\\Delta}$, which is sensitive to the left- and right-handed helicity amplitudes. The measured value $\\mathcal{A}^{\\Delta} = -0.98 \\; ^{+0.46}_{-0.52}\\text{(stat.)} ^{+0.23}_{-0.20}\\text{(syst.)}$ is consistent with the Standard Model prediction within two standard deviations. This value can put constraints on the Wilson coefficients $\\mathcal{C}_7$ and $\\mathcal{C}_7^{'}$. With a tagged analysis of the same decay the parameter $S_{\\phi\\gamma}$, also sensitive to the photon polarization, could be measured.

  19. Design of a novel multi channel photonic crystal fiber polarization beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunyan; Li, Shuguang; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Guangyao; Shi, Min; Wu, Junjun

    2017-10-01

    A kind of multi channel dual-core photonic crystal fiber polarization beam splitter is designed. We analyze the effects of the lattice parameters and the thickness of gold layer on the beam splitting by the finite element method. Numerical results show that the thickness of metal layer and the size of the air holes near the fiber cores are closely linked with the nature of the polarization beam splitter. We also obtain that extinction ratio can reach -73.87 dB at 1 . 55 μm wavelength and at 1 . 41 μm, 1 . 65 μm extinction ratio can reach 30.8978 dB and 31.1741 dB, respectively. The comparison of the effect on the characteristic of the photonic crystal fiber with coating no gold is also taken into account.

  20. Extension of supercontinuum spectrum, generated in polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber, using chirped femtosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengelis, Julius; Jarutis, Vygandas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas

    2018-01-01

    We present results of experimental and numerical investigation of supercontinuum (SC) generation in polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using chirped femtosecond pulses. The initial unchirped pump pulse source was a mode-locked Yb:KGW laser generating 52-nJ energy, 110-fs duration pulses at 1030 nm with a 76-MHz repetition rate. The nonlinear medium was a 32-cm-long polarization-maintaining PCF manufactured by NKT Photonics A/S. We demonstrated the influence of pump pulse chirp on spectral characteristics of a SC. We showed that by chirping pump pulses positively or negatively one can obtain a broader SC spectrum than in the case of unchirped pump pulses at the same peak power. Moreover, the extension can be controlled by changing the amount of pump pulse chirp. Numerical simulation results also indicated that pump pulse chirp yields an extension of SC spectrum.

  1. Photofission of NAT Pt by monochromatic and polarized photons in the quasi-deuteron region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Eduardo de.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of the Nat Pt photofission yield at 69 MeV of effective average energy of the incident photon is made using a polarized and monochromatic photon beam from the LADON system of the National Laboratory of Frascati, Italy, produced by inverse Compton scattering of laser light by high energy electrons of the ADONE Accelerator and using as fission track solid detector the Makrofol, being the developing made by usual procedure. The experimental value of the nuclear fissionability is compared to a theoretical value obtained following a model at two stages: in the first, the photon energy is absorbed by a neutron-proton pair inducing to the nucleus excitation, and in the second the nucleus de-excites due to the competition between nucleon evaporation and fission. The effect of fast nucleon emission during the first stage and the successive evaporation of neutrons in the second stage are considered. 40 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs

  2. Observation of photon polarization in the b → sγ transition at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The Standard Model predicts that the photons emitted in flavor-changing neutral current b to s gamma transitions are predominantly left-handed. However, the photon polarization has never been observed in a direct measurement and remains largely unexplored. Several extensions of the Standard Model predicting a significantly different photon polarization have not been yet ruled out by other measurements, such as the inclusive B to Xs gamma decay rate. This talk will focus on the recent study of the radiative B to K pi pi gamma decays performed using data collected in pp collisions with the LHCb detector at 7 and 8 TeV center-of-mass energies. The distribution of the angle of the photon direction with respect to the plane defined by the final-state hadrons in their rest frame is studied in intervals of K pi pi mass and the asymmetry between the number of signal events found on each side of the plane is presented. This approach is conceptually very similar to the historic Wu measurement of parity violation from...

  3. Effect of a cosmological constant on propagation of vacuum polarized photons in stationary spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav

    2015-06-01

    Consideration of vacuum polarization in quantum electrodynamics may affect the momentum dispersion relation for photons for a non-trivial background, due to the appearance of curvature dependent terms in the effective action. We investigate the effect of a positive cosmological constant on this at one-loop order for stationary -vacuum spacetimes. To the best of our knowledge, so far it only has been shown that affects the propagation in a time dependent black hole spacetime. Here we consider the static de Sitter cosmic string and the Kerr-de Sitter spacetime to show that there might occur a non-vanishing effect due to for physical polarizations. The consistency of these results with the polarization sum rule is discussed.

  4. Effect of a cosmological constant on propagation of vacuum polarized photons in stationary spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav [University of Crete, Department of Physics, Institute for Theoretical and Computational Physics, Heraklion (Greece)

    2015-06-15

    Consideration of vacuum polarization in quantum electrodynamics may affect the momentum dispersion relation for photons for a non-trivial background, due to the appearance of curvature dependent terms in the effective action. We investigate the effect of a positive cosmological constant Λ on this at one-loop order for stationary Λ-vacuum spacetimes. To the best of our knowledge, so far it only has been shown that Λ affects the propagation in a time dependent black hole spacetime. Here we consider the static de Sitter cosmic string and the Kerr-de Sitter spacetime to show that there might occur a non-vanishing effect due to Λ for physical polarizations. The consistency of these results with the polarization sum rule is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Operation of a fast polarization-switching source at the Photon Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kimichika; Shioya, Tatsuro; Aoto, Tomohiro; Harada, Kentaro; Obina, Takashi; Sakamaki, Masako; Amemiya, Kenta

    2013-03-01

    We have been developing a fast polarization-switching source for the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray region at the B15-16 straight section of the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory (PF) storage ring. The source consists of two tandem APPLE-II-type elliptically polarizing undulators (EPUs), namely, U#16-1 and U#16-2, and a fast kicker system. The target frequency of polarization switching is 10 Hz. As the first step, we installed U#16-1 and five identical bump kickers in the PF ring in March 2008. Then, we constructed U#16-2 and installed it in August 2010. The orbit switching operation at 10 Hz, for user experiments, started in January 2012. We describe the details of the operation status of two EPUs and the fast local bump system in this report.

  6. Amplification of Circularly Polarized Luminescence through Triplet-Triplet Annihilation-Based Photon Upconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianlei; Duan, Pengfei; Li, Xianggao; Liu, Minghua

    2017-07-26

    Amplification of circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) is demonstrated in a triplet-triplet annihilation-based photon upconversion (TTA-UC) system. When chiral binaphthyldiamine acceptors are sensitized with an achiral Pt(II) octaethylporphine (PtOEP) in solution, upconverted circularly polarized luminescence (UC-CPL) were observed for the first time, in which the positive or negative circularly polarized emission could be obtained respectively, following the molecular chirality of the acceptors (R/S). More interestingly, one order of magnitude amplification of the dissymmetry factor g lum in UC-CPL was obtained in comparison with the normal promoted CPL. The multistep photophysical process of TTA-UC including triplet-triplet energy transfer (TTET) and triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) have been suggested to enhance the UC-CPL, which provided a new strategy to design CPL materials with a higher dissymmetry factor.

  7. Ultra-high tunable liquid crystal-plasmonic photonic crystal fiber polarization filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O; Heikal, A M; Younis, B M; Abdelrazzak, Maher; Obayya, S S A

    2015-03-23

    A novel ultra-high tunable photonic crystal fiber (PCF) polarization filter is proposed and analyzed using finite element method. The suggested design has a central hole infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) that offers high tunability with temperature and external electric field. Moreover, the PCF is selectively filled with metal wires into cladding air holes. Results show that the resonance losses and wavelengths are different in x and y polarized directions depending on the rotation angle φ of the NLC. The reported filter of compact device length 0.5 mm can achieve 600 dB / cm resonance losses at φ = 90° for x-polarized mode at communication wavelength of 1300 mm with low losses of 0.00751 dB / cm for y-polarized mode. However, resonance losses of 157.71 dB / cm at φ = 0° can be achieved for y-polarized mode at the same wavelength with low losses of 0.092 dB / cm for x-polarized mode.

  8. Polarization ratio enhancement of a-plane GaN light emitting diodes by asymmetric two-dimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yen; Li, Hsiang-Wei; Yin, Yu-Feng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Yen-Chen; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Huang, Jian Jang; Lin, Da-Wei; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Fabricating photonic crystals (PhCs) on GaN based non-polar light emitting diodes (LEDs) is an effective way to increase light extraction and meanwhile to preserve or improve polarization ratio. In this work, a-plane GaN LEDs with two-dimensional PhCs were demonstrated. With the E // m polarized modes (which mean the optical polarization with the electric field parallel to m-axis) as the target of diffraction, we matched E//m modes to the photonic bands and aligned E//c modes to fall within the photonic band gap. The results show stronger E//m but weaker E//c mode diffractions on both c- and m-axes. At the vertical direction, the polarization ratio is enhanced from 45.8% for the planar device to 52.3% for the LEDs with PhCs

  9. A Study of the use of a Crystal as a `Quarter-Wave Plate' to Produce High Energy Circularly Polarized Photons

    CERN Multimedia

    Kononets, I

    2002-01-01

    %NA59 %title\\\\ \\\\We present a proposal to study the use of a crystal as a `quarter-wave plate' to produce high energy circularly polarized photons, starting from unpolarized electrons. The intention is to generate linearly polarized photons by letting electrons pass a crystalline target, where they interact coherently with the lattice nuclei. The photon polarization is subsequently turned into circular polarization after passing another crystal, which acts as a `quarter-wave plate'.

  10. Features of possible polarized photon beams at high energy and corresponding physics programme or the proton structure function using real photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the range of electron energies available at Fermilab, 100 GeV less than or equal to E less than or equal to 500 GeV, coherent Bremsstrahlung in crystals, particularly diamond, gives a huge enhancement to the equivalent photon spectrum at large values of x where x = k/E. The photons in this enhancement are polarized. Requirements on electron beam energy spread, angular divergence and spot size imposed by the use of a diamond as a radiator are discussed. The physics program emphasizes hard processes and tests of QCD using polarization

  11. Photon polarization in $B_s^0 \\to \\phi \\gamma$ decays at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392538; Martínez Vidal, Fernando

    The Standard Model predicts a predominance of left handed photons emitted in the $b \\to s\\gamma$ interaction, due to the coupling of the $W$ boson to only left handed quarks. Moreso, several Beyond Standard Model theories predict an enhancement of right handed photon emission. A measurement of the photon polairization is therefore a direct probe of New Physics. The photon polarization sensible parameter $\\mathcal{A}^\\Delta$ is measured through a fit to the ratio of untagged time dependent decay rates of $B_s^0 \\to \\phi \\gamma$ over that of $B^0 \\to K^\\ast \\gamma$, the former being sensitive to the parameter because of its non-negligible decay width difference (Phys.Lett.B664:174-179,2008) and the latter being the control channel due to its kinematical similarities and sixfold larger yield. Using 3 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected at LHCb during 2011 and 2012 at centre of mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, respectively, 4200 $B_s^0 \\to \\phi \\gamma$ and 25700 $B^0 \\to K^\\ast \\gamma$ events are reconstructed. The selecti...

  12. Efficient Entanglement Concentration of Nonlocal Two-Photon Polarization-Time-Bin Hyperentangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Hang; Yu, Wen-Xuan; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Gao, Cheng-Yan; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2018-03-01

    We present two different hyperentanglement concentration protocols (hyper-ECPs) for two-photon systems in nonlocal polarization-time-bin hyperentangled states with known parameters, including Bell-like and cluster-like states, resorting to the parameter splitting method. They require only one of two parties in quantum communication to operate her photon in the process of entanglement concentration, not two, and they have the maximal success probability. They work with linear optical elements and have good feasibility in experiment, especially in the case that there are a big number of quantum data exchanged as the parties can obtain the information about the parameters of the nonlocal hyperentangled states by sampling a subset of nonlocal hyperentangled two-photon systems and measuring them. As the quantum state of photons in the time-bin degree of freedom suffers from less noise in an optical-fiber channel, these hyper-ECPs may have good applications in practical long-distance quantum communication in the future.

  13. Cross-polarization mode coupling and exceptional points in photonic crystal slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Dmitry A.; Doskolovich, Leonid L.

    2018-01-01

    We study exceptional points that occur in photonic crystal slabs due to cross-polarization (TE-TM) mode coupling. To do this, we develop spatiotemporal coupled-mode theory that describes optical properties of photonic crystal slabs supporting TE and TM modes in the case of conical mount. The developed theory suggests that by tuning the in-plane wave numbers of the incident light one can make two modes of the structure coalesce, which results in an exceptional point. The developed theory provides simple analytical expressions for the exceptional point position and the line shape of the corresponding resonance. The parameters of the proposed model can be rigorously estimated by a numerical calculation of the S-matrix poles of the structure. We show that the proposed analytical model with the estimated parameters is in good agreement with the presented full-wave simulations.

  14. Imaging nanoscale magnetic structures with polarized soft x-ray photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.

    2010-01-18

    Imaging nanoscale magnetic structures and their fast dynamics is scientifically interesting and technologically of highest relevance. The combination of circularly polarized soft X-ray photons which provide a strong X-ray magnetic circular dichroism effect at characteristic X-ray absorption edges, with a high resolution soft X-ray microscope utilizing Fresnel zone plate optics allows to study in a unique way the stochastical behavior in the magnetization reversal process of thin films and the ultrafast dynamics of magnetic vortices and domain walls in confined ferromagnetic structures. Future sources of fsec short and high intense soft X-ray photon pulses hold the promise of magnetic imaging down to fundamental magnetic length and time scales.

  15. Photon polarization tensor in pulsed Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbstein, Felix; Mosman, Elena A.

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we provide analytical expressions for the photon polarization tensor in pulsed Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams. Our results are based on a locally constant field approximation of the one-loop Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian for quantum electrodynamics. Hence, by construction they are limited to slowly varying electromagnetic fields, varying on spatial and temporal scales significantly larger than the Compton wavelength/time of the electron. The latter criterion is fulfilled by all laser beams currently available in the laboratory. Our findings will, e.g., be relevant for the study of vacuum birefringence experienced by probe photons brought into collision with a high-intensity laser pulse which can be represented as a superposition of either Hermite- or Laguerre-Gaussian modes.

  16. Polarization-independent asymmetric light transmission in all-dielectric photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkiewicz, Lukasz; Nawrot, Michal; Haberko, Jakub; Wasylczyk, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    We design, optimize and fabricate an all-dielectric photonic structure, having a significant, polarization-independent asymmetry in light transmission for opposite incident wave directions. The device, consisting of a dielectric Bragg mirror topped with a regular grid of micrometer-sized pillars, acting as a diffraction grating, is potentially scalable into industrial production. The light propagation simulation results are confirmed by direct measurement of the difference in light transmission, reaching 0.55 near 780 nm, and exceeding 0.2 over a spectral range spanning from 750 to 820 nm.

  17. Design of a compact polarization beam splitter based on a deformed photonic crystal directional coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Gang; Zheng Wanhua; Wang Ke; Du Xiaoyu; Xing Mingxin; Chen Lianghui

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a compact polarization beam splitter based on a deformed photonic crystal directional coupler is designed and simulated. The transverse-electric (TE) guided mode and transverse-magnetic (TM) guided mode are split due to different guiding mechanisms. The effect of the shape deformation of the air holes on the coupler is studied. It discovered that the coupling strength of the coupled waveguides is strongly enhanced by introducing elliptical airholes, which reduce the device length to less than 18.5μm. A finite-difference time-domain simulation is performed to evaluate the performance of the device, and the extinction ratios for both TE and TM polarized light are higher than 20 dB. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  18. Polarization entanglement of sum-frequency photons: A tool to probe the Markovian limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Victor; Chelli, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    The article addresses the possibility of entanglement-specific infrared-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. In the case of an anisotropic interface, it is possible to employ SSS and PSS polarizations to detect responses not only specific to χY Y Y and χX Y Y nonlinearities, but also to higher-order χ(Y Y Y )(X Y Y ) and χ(X Y Y )(Y Y Y ) nonlinearities. Using quantum mechanical studies of the rhenium complex [Re (OH) 3(CO) 3] as a molecular model, we demonstrate that if such complexes would form an anisotropic orientational distribution at a surface, under the considered geometry and the polarization settings, we may prepare quantum correlated C =O vibrational states to emit polarization-entangled photons. Accordingly, we explore the possibility of a polarization-measurement protocol to extract spectral signatures of the entangled states. The response would be informative on intramolecular interactions. As a result, we discuss the possible practical implications in probing dynamics at interfaces, and different opportunities in the preparation of entangled vibrational states of quantified fidelity.

  19. Construction and performance of BL28 of the Photon Factory for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagoshima, Y.; Muto, S.; Miyahara, T.; Koide, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Kitamura, H.

    1992-01-01

    A branch beamline, BL28A, has been constructed for the application of circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The radiation can be obtained in the helical undulator operation mode of an insertion device, EMPW number-sign 28, which is also cut for elliptically polarized hard x-ray radiation. T first harmonic of the helical undulator radiation can be tuned from 40 to 350 eV with its corresponding K value from 3 to 0.2. A monochromator working basically with constant deviation optics was installed, and has started its operation. A circularly polarized flux of ∼10 10 photons/s has been achieved with energy resolution of around 500--1000 at the first harmonic peak. The circular polarization after the monochromator was estimated to be higher than 70% by comparing theory and experiment on the magnetic circular dichroism of nickel films in the 3p-3d excitation region. The design philosophy of the beamline and recent results on the performance tests are presented

  20. MEASUREMENT OF POLARIZATION OBSERVABLES IN VECTOR MESON PHOTOPRODUCTION USING A TRANSVERSELY-POLARIZED FROZEN-SPIN TARGET AND POLARIZED PHOTONS AT CLAS, JEFFERSON LAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Priyashree [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The study of baryon resonances provides a deeper understanding of the strong interaction because the dynamics and relevant degrees of freedom hidden within them are re ected by the properties of the excited states of baryons. Higher-lying excited states at and above 1.7 GeV/c2 are generally predicted to have strong couplings to final states involving a heavier meson, e. g. one of the vector mesons, ρ, ω φ, as compared to a lighter pseudoscalar meson, e. g. π and η. Decays to the ππΝ final states via πΔ also become more important through the population of intermediate resonances. We observe that nature invests in mass rather than momentum. The excited states of the nucleon are usually found as broadly overlapping resonances which may decay into a multitude of final states involving mesons and baryons. Polarization observables make it possible to isolate single resonance contributions from other interference terms. The CLAS g9 (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Je?erson Laboratory, accumulated photoproduction data using circularly- & linearly-polarized photons incident on a transversely-polarized butanol target (g9b experiment) in the photon energy range 0:3-2:4 GeV & 0:7-2:1 GeV, respectively. In this work, the analysis of reactions and polarization observables which involve two charged pions, either in the fully exclusive reaction γρ -> ρπ+π- or in the semi-exclusive reaction with a missing neutral pion, γρ -> ρπ+π-(π0) will be presented. For the reaction ρπ+π-, eight polarization observables (Is, Ic, Px, Py, Psx; y, Pcx; y) have been extracted. The high statistics data rendered it possible to extract these observables in three dimensions. All of them are first-time measurements. The fairly good agreement of Is, Ic obtained from this analysis with the experimental results from a previous CLAS experiment provides support for the first-time measurements. For the reaction γρ -> ρω -> ρπ+π(π0, five polarization

  1. Real photon spectral weight functions, imaginary part of vacuum polarization and electromagnetic vertices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, C.; College de France, 75 - Paris. Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire)

    1978-02-01

    The concept of a real photon spectral weight function for any cross-section involving charged particles is introduced as a simple approximation taking into account the soft part of photon emission to all orders in perturbation theory. The spectral weight function replaces the energy-momentum conservation delta function in the elastic cross-section. The spectral weight function is computed in closed form in space-time and in the peaking approximation in momentum space. The spectral weight function description is applied to the imaginary part of vacuum polarization ImPI and to electron-proton scattering. A spectral representation for ImPI is derived and its content compared with the known fourth order result, showing in particular the identity of the soft and peaking approximations in lowest order. The virtual photon radiative corrections are discussed in part, with emphasis on the threshold behavior of the vertex functions. A relativistic generalization of the electric non-relativistic vertex function is given, whose asymptotic behavior is approppriate to use in conjuction with the spectral weight function

  2. Effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation between different atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Debashree; Deb, Bimalendu

    2014-01-01

    We study non-perturbative effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of different atoms. A static electric field induces anisotropy in scattering between two different atoms and hybridizes field-free rotational states of heteronuclear dimers or polar molecules. In a previous paper [D. Chakraborty et al., J. Phys. B 44, 095201 (2011)], the effects of a static electric field on one-color photoassociation between different atoms has been described through field-modified ground-state scattering states, neglecting electric field effects on heteronuclear diatomic bound states. To study the effects of a static electric field on heteronuclear bound states, and the resulting influence on Raman-type two-color photoassociation between different atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we develop a non-perturbative numerical method to calculate static electric field-dressed heteronuclear bound states. We show that the static electric field induced scattering anisotropy as well as hybridization of rotational states strongly influence two-color photoassociation spectra, leading to significant enhancement in PA rate and large shift. In particular, for static electric field strengths of a few hundred kV/cm, two-color PA rate involving high-lying bound states in electronic ground-state increases by several orders of magnitude even in the weak photoassociative coupling regime

  3. Reference wavelength method for a two-color pyrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, J W; Rhee, C

    1987-12-15

    The reference wavelength method is used for a two-color pyrometer and, with the reference wavelength method, an analytical formula of the ratio temperature for the two-color pyrometer is derived. For one channel of the two-color pyrometer, with a triangular spectral response of 0.1-micro m FWHM and 2.0-micro m peak wavelength, the effective wavelength and the correction factors with several reference wavelengths are determined. By fitting the curves of the effective wavelength and the correction factor to simple functional forms of temperature, the radiance errors for both cases are calculated. Also, it is found that the correction factor determined in a single-color pyrometer can be used directly in one channel of the two-color pyrometer without additional calculation.

  4. Two-color double exposure photographic recording technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Josef

    1989-01-01

    A two-color double exposure technique is proposed for recording two close states of an object on the same photographic film. The idea is to use a two-color laser for illumination, one color for each state of the object, and a single photographic plate. After being developed, the image of each state may be observed separately. The technique is demonstrated for the deferred moire deflectometry where two closely displaced fringe patterns have to be recorded and resolved.

  5. Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauritsson, J.; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; Johnsson, P.; Gustafsson, E.; L'Hullier, A.; Schafer, K.J.; Gaarde, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. We present the generation of attosecond pulse trains from a superposition of an infrared (IR) laser field and its second harmonic. Our attosecond pulses are synthesized by selecting a number of synchronized harmonics generated in argon. By adding the second harmonic to the driving field the inversion symmetry of generation process is broken and both odd and even harmonics are generated. Consecutive half cycles in the two color field differ beyond the simple sign change that occurs in a one color field and have very different shapes and amplitudes. This sub-cycle structure of the field, which governs the generation of the attosecond pulses, depends strongly on the relative phase and intensity of the two fields, thereby providing additional control over the generation process. The generation of attosecond pulses is frequently described using the semi-classical three step model where an electron is: (1) ionized through tunneling ionization during one half cycle; (2) reaccelerated back towards the ion core by the next half cycle; where it (3) recombines with the ground-state releasing the access energy in a short burst of light. In the two color field the symmetry between the ionizing and reaccelerating field is broken, which leads to two possible scenarios: the electron can either be ionized during a strong half cycle and reaccelerated by a weaker field or vice versa. The periodicity is a full IR cycle in both cases and hence two trains of attosecond pulses are generated which are offset from each other. The generation efficiency, however, is very different for the two cases since it is determined mainly by the electric field strength at the time of tunneling and one of the trains will therefore dominate the other. We investigate experimentally both the spectral and temporal structure of the generated attosecond pulse trains as a function of the relative phase between the two driving fields. We find that for a wide range of

  6. High power all-polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber monolithic femtosecond nonlinear chirped-pulse amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhiguo; Yang, Zhi; Li, Feng; Yang, Xiaojun; Li, Qianglong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei

    2018-03-01

    We report on an experimental study on fully fusion spliced high power all-polarization-maintaining Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber (PCF) femtosecond nonlinear chirped-pulse amplifier (CPA), which features large values of the positive third-order dispersion (TOD) superposed from the single-mode fiber stretcher (SMFs) and grating-pair compressor. Compensation of the TOD is realized by means of self-phase modulation (SPM) induced nonlinear phase shift during amplification. Up to 9.8 W of compressed average power at 275 kHz repetition rates with 36 μJ pulse energy and 495 fs pulse width has been obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power generated from the strictly all-fiber nonlinear CPA amplifier in femtosecond domain, which provides a possibility for the industrialized promotion and development of the high energy femtosecond fiber laser.

  7. Two-color threshold photoionization spectroscopy of jet-cooled indole clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, James; Ivanco, Michael; Smith, Mark A.; Wallace, Stephen C.

    1986-06-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive investigation of the two-color threshold photoionization of jet-cooled indole clusters. Using two-color photoionization spectroscopy, we have probed both the neutral excited levels and the ground ionic states of indole clusters containing non-polar (Ar, CH 4, CF 4, C 6H 6) and polar (H 2O, MeOH, EtOH, NH 3, N(CH 3) 3) solvent species. These studies have allowed the determination of accurate cluster ionization energies (IEs) as well as the assignment of electronic absorption features to clusters of known composition. The determination of the cluster IE, which is typically lower than that of bare indole, has allowed us to investigate the importance of charge-induced dipole and charge-dipole attractive forces in the binding of the ion-neutral clusters. In addition, we have found that the shape of the photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectra gives valuable information regarding the relative shape and/or position of the potential energy surfaces of the neutral excited and ground ionic states of the clusters. We have also identified two distinct conformational isomers of the indole-(H 2O) 1 hydrogen bonded cluster using the techniques of electronic spectroscopy, two-color threshold ionization spectroscopy and mass analysis.

  8. Observation of photon polarization in the b→sγ transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Caponio, F; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dorosz, P; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Esen, S; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani', S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Hafkenscheid, T W; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manzali, M; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spinella, F; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-04-25

    This Letter presents a study of the flavor-changing neutral current radiative B±→K±π∓π±γ decays performed using data collected in proton-proton collisions with the LHCb detector at 7 and 8 TeV center-of-mass energies. In this sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3  fb-1, nearly 14 000 signal events are reconstructed and selected, containing all possible intermediate resonances with a K±π∓π± final state in the [1.1,1.9]  GeV/c2 mass range. The distribution of the angle of the photon direction with respect to the plane defined by the final-state hadrons in their rest frame is studied in intervals of K±π∓π± mass and the asymmetry between the number of signal events found on each side of the plane is obtained. The first direct observation of the photon polarization in the b→sγ transition is reported with a significance of 5.2σ.

  9. Thermally Optimized Polarization-Maintaining Photonic Crystal Fiber and Its FOG Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxi; Zhang, Zhihao; Xu, Xiaobin; Cai, Wei

    2018-02-13

    In this paper, we propose a small-diameter polarization-maintaining solid-core photonic crystal fiber. The coating diameter, cladding diameter and other key parameters relating to the thermal properties were studied. Based on the optimized parameters, a fiber with a Shupe constant 15% lower than commercial photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) was fabricated, and the transmission loss was lower than 2 dB/km. The superior thermal stability of our fiber design was proven through both simulation and measurement. Using the small-diameter fiber, a split high precision fiber optic gyro (FOG) prototype was fabricated. The bias stability of the FOG was 0.0023 °/h, the random walk was 0.0003 °/ h , and the scale factor error was less than 1 ppm. Throughout a temperature variation ranging from -40 to 60 °C, the bias stability was less than 0.02 °/h without temperature compensation which is notably better than FOG with panda fiber. As a result, the PCF FOG is a promising choice for high precision FOG applications.

  10. Thermally Optimized Polarization-Maintaining Photonic Crystal Fiber and Its FOG Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxi Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a small-diameter polarization-maintaining solid-core photonic crystal fiber. The coating diameter, cladding diameter and other key parameters relating to the thermal properties were studied. Based on the optimized parameters, a fiber with a Shupe constant 15% lower than commercial photonic crystal fibers (PCFs was fabricated, and the transmission loss was lower than 2 dB/km. The superior thermal stability of our fiber design was proven through both simulation and measurement. Using the small-diameter fiber, a split high precision fiber optic gyro (FOG prototype was fabricated. The bias stability of the FOG was 0.0023 °/h, the random walk was 0.0003 °/ h , and the scale factor error was less than 1 ppm. Throughout a temperature variation ranging from −40 to 60 °C, the bias stability was less than 0.02 °/h without temperature compensation which is notably better than FOG with panda fiber. As a result, the PCF FOG is a promising choice for high precision FOG applications.

  11. Development and fabrication of the vacuum systems for an elliptically polarized undulator at Taiwan Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chin-Chun, E-mail: chinchun@nsrrc.org.tw; Chan, Che-Kai; Wu, Ling-Hui; Shueh, Chin; Shen, I.-Ching; Cheng, Chia-Mu; Yang, I.-Chen

    2017-05-01

    Three sets of a vacuum system were developed and fabricated for elliptically polarized undulators (EPU) of a 3-GeV synchrotron facility. These chambers were shaped with low roughness extrusion and oil-free machining; the design combines aluminium and stainless steel. The use of a bimetallic material to connect the EPU to the vacuum system achieves the vacuum sealing and to resolve the leakage issue due to bake process induced thermal expansion difference. The interior of the EPU chamber consists of a non-evaporable-getter strip pump in a narrow space to absorb photon-stimulated desorption and to provide a RF bridge design to decrease impedance effect in the two ends of EPU chamber. To fabricate these chambers and to evaluate the related performance, we performed a computer simulation to optimize the structure. During the machining and welding, the least deformation was achieved, less than 0.1 mm near 4 m. In the installation, the linear slider can provide a stable and precision moved along parallel the electron beam direction smoothly for the EPU chamber to decrease the twist issue during baking process. The pressure of the EPU chamber attained less than 2×10{sup −8} Pa through baking. These vacuum systems of the EPU magnet have been installed in the electron storage ring of Taiwan Photon Source in 2015 May and have normally operated at 300 mA continuously since, and to keep beam life time achieved over than 12 h.

  12. Observation of photon polarization in the $b \\to s\\gamma$ transition

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Caponio, Francesco; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bonis, Isabelle; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dorosz, Piotr; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Esen, Sevda; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Hafkenscheid, Tom; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Wallaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Ian; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manzali, Matteo; Maratas, Jan; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muryn, Bogdan; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pavel-Nicorescu, Carmen; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Roberts, Douglas; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Oksana; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spinella, Franco; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teodorescu, Eliza; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Webber, Adam Dane; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiechczynski, Jaroslaw; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This Letter presents a study of the flavor-changing neutral current radiative $B^{\\pm} \\to K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm}\\gamma$ decays performed using data collected in proton-proton collisions with the LHCb detector at $7$ and $8\\,$TeV center-of-mass energies. In this sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$, nearly $14\\,000$ signal events are reconstructed and selected, containing all possible intermediate resonances with a $K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm}$ final state in the $[1.1, 1.9]\\,$GeV/$c^{2}$ mass range. The distribution of the angle of the photon direction with respect to the plane defined by the final-state hadrons in their rest frame is studied in intervals of $K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm}$ mass and the asymmetry between the number of signal events found on each side of the plane is obtained. The first direct observation of the photon polarization in the $b \\to s\\gamma$ transition is reported with a significance of $5.2\\,\\sigma$.

  13. Flexible Holographic Fabrication of 3D Photonic Crystal Templates with Polarization Control through a 3D Printed Reflective Optical Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lowell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have systematically studied the holographic fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures using a single 3D printed reflective optical element (ROE, taking advantage of the ease of design and 3D printing of the ROE. The reflective surface was setup at non-Brewster angles to reflect both s- and p-polarized beams for the interference. The wide selection of reflective surface materials and interference angles allow control of the ratio of s- and p-polarizations, and intensity ratio of side-beam to central beam for interference lithography. Photonic bandgap simulations have also indicated that both s and p-polarized waves are sometimes needed in the reflected side beams for maximum photonic bandgap size and certain filling fractions of dielectric inside the photonic crystals. The flexibility of single ROE and single exposure based holographic fabrication of 3D structures was demonstrated with reflective surfaces of ROEs at non-Brewster angles, highlighting the capability of the ROE technique of producing umbrella configurations of side beams with arbitrary angles and polarizations and paving the way for the rapid throughput of various photonic crystal templates.

  14. A Monte Carlo method for calculating the energy response of plastic scintillators to polarized photons below 100 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, T.; Kanai, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kiss, M.; Kurita, K.; Pearce, M.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Ueno, M.; Umeki, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Arimoto, M.; Axelsson, M.; Marini Bettolo, C.; Bogaert, G.; Chen, P.; Craig, W.; Fukazawa, Y.; Gunji, S.

    2009-01-01

    The energy response of plastic scintillators (Eljen Technology EJ-204) to polarized soft gamma-ray photons below 100 keV has been studied, primarily for the balloon-borne polarimeter, PoGOLite. The response calculation includes quenching effects due to low-energy recoil electrons and the position dependence of the light collection efficiency in a 20 cm long scintillator rod. The broadening of the pulse-height spectrum, presumably caused by light transportation processes inside the scintillator, as well as the generation and multiplication of photoelectrons in the photomultiplier tube, were studied experimentally and have also been taken into account. A Monte Carlo simulation based on the Geant4 toolkit was used to model photon interactions in the scintillators. When using the polarized Compton/Rayleigh scattering processes previously corrected by the authors, scintillator spectra and angular distributions of scattered polarized photons could clearly be reproduced, in agreement with the results obtained at a synchrotron beam test conducted at the KEK Photon Factory. Our simulation successfully reproduces the modulation factor, defined as the ratio of the amplitude to the mean of the distribution of the azimuthal scattering angles, within ∼5% (relative). Although primarily developed for the PoGOLite mission, the method presented here is also relevant for other missions aiming to measure polarization from astronomical objects using plastic scintillator scatterers.

  15. A Monte Carlo method for calculating the energy response of plastic scintillators to polarized photons below 100 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T.; Kanai, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kiss, M.; Kurita, K.; Pearce, M.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Ueno, M.; Umeki, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Arimoto, M.; Axelsson, M.; Marini Bettolo, C.; Bogaert, G.; Chen, P.; Craig, W.; Fukazawa, Y.; Gunji, S.; Kamae, T.; Katsuta, J.; Kawai, N.; Kishimoto, S.; Klamra, W.; Larsson, S.; Madejski, G.; Ng, J. S. T.; Ryde, F.; Rydström, S.; Takahashi, T.; Thurston, T. S.; Varner, G.

    2009-03-01

    The energy response of plastic scintillators (Eljen Technology EJ-204) to polarized soft gamma-ray photons below 100 keV has been studied, primarily for the balloon-borne polarimeter, PoGOLite. The response calculation includes quenching effects due to low-energy recoil electrons and the position dependence of the light collection efficiency in a 20 cm long scintillator rod. The broadening of the pulse-height spectrum, presumably caused by light transportation processes inside the scintillator, as well as the generation and multiplication of photoelectrons in the photomultiplier tube, were studied experimentally and have also been taken into account. A Monte Carlo simulation based on the Geant4 toolkit was used to model photon interactions in the scintillators. When using the polarized Compton/Rayleigh scattering processes previously corrected by the authors, scintillator spectra and angular distributions of scattered polarized photons could clearly be reproduced, in agreement with the results obtained at a synchrotron beam test conducted at the KEK Photon Factory. Our simulation successfully reproduces the modulation factor, defined as the ratio of the amplitude to the mean of the distribution of the azimuthal scattering angles, within ˜5% (relative). Although primarily developed for the PoGOLite mission, the method presented here is also relevant for other missions aiming to measure polarization from astronomical objects using plastic scintillator scatterers.

  16. Ultracompact 1×4 TM-polarized beam splitter based on photonic crystal surface mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Yejin; Wang, Yufei; Liu, Anjin; Zheng, Wanhua

    2012-05-01

    We provide an improved surface-mode photonic crystal (PhC) T-junction waveguide, combine it with an improved PhC bandgap T-junction waveguide, and then provide an ultracompact 1×4 TM-polarized beam splitter. The energy is split equally into the four output waveguides. The maximal transmission ratio of each output waveguide branch equals 24.7%, and the corresponding total transmission ratio of the ultracompact 1×4 beam splitter equals 98.8%. The normalized frequency of maximal transmission ratio is 0.397(2πc/a), and the bandwidth of the ultracompact 1×4 TM-polarized beam splitter is 0.0106(2πc/a). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such a high-efficiency 1×4 beam splitter exploiting the nonradiative surface mode as a guided mode has been proposed. Although we only employed a 1×4 beam splitter, our design can easily be extended to other 1×n beam splitters.

  17. A novel Zeonex based oligoporous-core photonic crystal fiber for polarization preserving terahertz applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Sultana, Jakeya; Dinovitser, Alex; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Abbott, Derek

    2018-04-01

    A novel waveguide consisting of oligo-porous core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a kagome lattice cladding has been designed for highly birefringent and near zero dispersion flattened applications of terahertz waves. The wave guiding properties of the designed PCF including birefringence, dispersion, effective material loss (EML), core power fraction, confinement loss, and modal effective area are investigated using a full vector Finite Element Method (FEM) with Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition. Simulation results demonstrate that an ultra-high birefringence of 0.079, low EML of 0.05 cm-1, higher core power fraction of 44% and negligible confinement loss of 7 . 24 × 10-7 cm-1 can be achieved at 1 THz. Furthermore, for the y-polarization mode a near zero flattened dispersion of 0 . 49 ± 0 . 05 ps/THz/cm is achieved within a broad frequency range of 0.8-1.7 THz. The fabrication of the proposed fiber is feasible using the existing fabrication technology. Due to favorable wave-guiding properties, the proposed fiber has potential for terahertz imaging, sensing and polarization maintaining applications in the terahertz frequency range.

  18. Real-time photonic sampling with improved signal-to-noise and distortion ratio using polarization-dependent modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Zhang, Zhiyao; Liu, Yong; Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Wei; Tan, Qinggui

    2018-04-01

    A real-time photonic sampling structure with effective nonlinearity suppression and excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance is proposed. The key points of this scheme are the polarization-dependent modulators (P-DMZMs) and the sagnac loop structure. Thanks to the polarization sensitive characteristic of P-DMZMs, the differences between transfer functions of the fundamental signal and the distortion become visible. Meanwhile, the selection of specific biases in P-DMZMs is helpful to achieve a preferable linearized performance with a low noise level for real-time photonic sampling. Compared with the quadrature-biased scheme, the proposed scheme is capable of valid nonlinearity suppression and is able to provide a better SNR performance even in a large frequency range. The proposed scheme is proved to be effective and easily implemented for real time photonic applications.

  19. New physics effects in the rare B sub s-> gamma l sup + l sup - decays with a polarized photon

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, U O; Sirvanli, B B

    2003-01-01

    Using the most general model independent form of the effective Hamiltonian, the rare B sub s-> gamma l sup + l sup - decays are studied by taking into account the polarization of the photon. The total and the differential branching ratios for these decays, when the photon is in the positive or the negative helicity state, are presented. The dependence of these observables on the new Wilson coefficients is studied. Also is investigated the sensitivity of the ''photon polarization asymmetry'' in B sub s-> gamma l sup + l sup - decays to the new Wilson coefficients. It has been shown that all these physical observables are very sensitive to the existence of new physics beyond SM and their experimental measurements can give valuable information on it. (orig.)

  20. Model-independent analysis of polarization effects in elastic electron-deuteron scattering in presence of two-photon exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakh, G.I.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.

    2006-01-01

    The general spin structure of the matrix element, taking into account the 2-photon exchange contribution, for the elastic electron (positron) - deuteron scattering has been derived using general symmetry properties of the hadron electromagnetic interaction, such as P-, C- and T-invariances as well as lepton helicity conservation in QED at high energy. Taking into account also crossing symmetry, the amplitudes of e ± d scattering can be parametrized in terms of fifteen real functions. The expressions for the differential cross section and for all polarization observables are given in terms of these functions. We consider the case of an arbitrary polarized deuteron target and polarized electron beam (both longitudinal and transverse). The transverse polarization of the electron beam induces a single-spin asymmetry which is non-zero in presence of 2-photon exchange. It is shown that elastic deuteron electromagnetic form factors can still be extracted in presence of 2 photon exchange, from the measurements of the differential cross sections and of one polarization observable (for example, the tensor asymmetry) for electron and positron deuteron elastic scattering, in the same kinematical conditions. (authors)

  1. Modulation instability and solitons in two-color nematic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikis, Theodoros P., E-mail: horikis@uoi.gr

    2016-10-14

    The conditions under which stable evolution of two nonlinear interacting waves are derived within the context of nematic liquid crystals. Two cases are considered: plane waves and solitons. In the first case, the modulation instability analysis reveals that while the nonlocal term suppresses the growth rates, substantially, the coupled system exhibits significantly higher growth rates than its scalar counterpart. In the soliton case, the necessary conditions are derived that lead the solitons to exhibit stable, undistorted evolution, suppressing any breathing behavior and radiation, leading to soliton mutual guiding. - Highlights: • Modulation instability analysis for two-color nematic crystals. • Stable soliton propagation for two-color nematic crystals. • Conditions for stable propagation of continuous waves and solitons in two-color nematic crystals.

  2. Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.

    1995-07-01

    If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO 2 lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers

  3. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry

  4. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov

  5. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol

  6. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas

  7. Investigation of photon detection probability dependence of SPADnet-I digital photon counter as a function of angle of incidence, wavelength and polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Játékos, Balázs, E-mail: jatekosb@eik.bme.hu; Ujhelyi, Ferenc; Lőrincz, Emőke; Erdei, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    SPADnet-I is a prototype, fully digital, high spatial and temporal resolution silicon photon counter, based on standard CMOS imaging technology, developed by the SPADnet consortium. Being a novel device, the exact dependence of photon detection probability (PDP) of SPADnet-I was not known as a function of angle of incidence, wavelength and polarization of the incident light. Our targeted application area of this sensor is next generation PET detector modules, where they will be used along with LYSO:Ce scintillators. Hence, we performed an extended investigation of PDP in a wide range of angle of incidence (0° to 80°), concentrating onto a 60 nm broad wavelength interval around the characteristic emission peak (λ=420 nm) of the scintillator. In the case where the sensor was optically coupled to a scintillator, our experiments showed a notable dependence of PDP on angle, polarization and wavelength. The sensor has an average PDP of approximately 30% from 0° to 60° angle of incidence, where it starts to drop rapidly. The PDP turned out not to be polarization dependent below 30°. If the sensor is used without a scintillator (i.e. the light source is in air), the polarization dependence is much less expressed, it begins only from 50°.

  8. Two-color visible/vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron imaging dynamics of Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenge, Jürgen; Nicolas, Christophe; Caster, Allison G; Ahmed, Musahid; Leone, Stephen R

    2006-10-07

    An experimental two-color photoionization dynamics study of laser-excited Br2 molecules is presented, combining pulsed visible laser excitation and tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation with photoelectron imaging. The X 1Sigmag + -B 3Pi0+u transition in Br2 is excited at 527 nm corresponding predominantly to excitation of the v' = 28 vibrational level in the B 3Pi0+u state. Tunable VUV undulator radiation in the energy range of 8.40-10.15 eV is subsequently used to ionize the excited molecules to the X 2Pi32,12 state of the ion, and the ionic ground state is probed by photoelectron imaging. Similar experiments are performed using single-photon synchrotron ionization in the photon energy range of 10.75-12.50 eV without any laser excitation. Photoelectron kinetic energy distributions are extracted from the photoelectron images. In the case of two-color photoionization using resonant excitation of the intermediate B 3Pi0+u state, a broad distribution of photoelectron kinetic energies is observed, and in some cases even a bimodal distribution, which depends on the VUV photon energy. In contrast, for single-photon ionization, a single nearly Gaussian-shaped distribution is observed, which shifts to higher energy with photon energy. Simulated spectra based on Franck-Condon factors for the transitions Br2(X 1Sigmag+, v" = 0)-Br2 +(X 2Pi12,32, v+) and Br2(B 3Pi0+u, v' = 28)-Br2 +(X 2Pi12,32, v+) are generated. Comparison of these calculated spectra with the measured images suggests that the differences in the kinetic energy distributions for the two ionization processes reflect the different extensions of the vibrational wave functions in the v" = 0 electronic ground state (X 1Sigmag+) versus the electronically and vibrationally excited state (B 3Pi0+u, v' = 28).

  9. The polarization modulation and fabrication method of two dimensional silica photonic crystals based on UV nanoimprint lithography and hot imprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuai; Niu, Chunhui; Liang, Liang; Chai, Ke; Jia, Yaqing; Zhao, Fangyin; Li, Ya; Zou, Bingsuo; Liu, Ruibin

    2016-10-04

    Based on a silica sol-gel technique, highly-structurally ordered silica photonic structures were fabricated by UV lithography and hot manual nanoimprint efforts, which makes large-scale fabrication of silica photonic crystals easy and results in low-cost. These photonic structures show perfect periodicity, smooth and flat surfaces and consistent aspect ratios, which are checked by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, glass substrates with imprinted photonic nanostructures show good diffraction performance in both transmission and reflection mode. Furthermore, the reflection efficiency can be enhanced by 5 nm Au nanoparticle coating, which does not affect the original imprint structure. Also the refractive index and dielectric constant of the imprinted silica is close to that of the dielectric layer in nanodevices. In addition, the polarization characteristics of the reflected light can be modulated by stripe nanostructures through changing the incident light angle. The experimental findings match with theoretical results, making silica photonic nanostructures functional integration layers in many optical or optoelectronic devices, such as LED and microlasers to enhance the optical performance and modulate polarization properties in an economical and large-scale way.

  10. Photon harvesting, coloring and polarizing in photovoltaic cell integrated color filters: efficient energy routing strategies for power-saving displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Long; Chen, Qin; Song, Shichao; Yu, Yan; Jin, Lin; Hu, Xin

    2015-07-03

    We describe the integral electro-optical strategies that combine the functionalities of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation and color filtering as well as polarizing to realize more efficient energy routing in display technology. Unlike the conventional pigment-based filters and polarizers, which absorb substantial amounts of unwanted spectral components and dissipate them in the form of heat, we propose converting the energy of those photons into electricity by constructing PV cell-integrated color filters based on a selectively transmitting aluminum (Al) rear electrode perforated with nanoholes (NHs). Combining with a dielectric-metal-dielectric (DMD) front electrode, the devices were optimized to enable efficient cavity-enhanced photon recycling in the PV functional layers. We perform a comprehensive theoretical and numerical analysis to explore the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through the Al NHs and identify basic design rules for achieving structural coloring or polarizing in our PV color filters. We show that the addition of thin photoactive polymer layers on the symmetrically configured Al NH electrode narrows the bandwidth of the EOT-assisted high-pass light filtering due to the strongly damped anti-symmetric coupling of the surface modes excited on the front and rear surface of the Al NHs, which facilitates the whole visible coloring with relatively high purity for the devices. By engineering the cut-off characteristics of the plasmonic waveguide mode supported by the circular or ellipsoidal Al NHs, beyond the photon recycling capacity, PV color filters and PV polarizing color filters that allow polarization-insensitive and strong polarization-anisotropic color filtering were demonstrated. The findings presented here may shed some light on expanding the utilization of PV electricity generation across new-generation energy-saving electrical display devices.

  11. Photon harvesting, coloring and polarizing in photovoltaic cell integrated color filters: efficient energy routing strategies for power-saving displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Long; Chen, Qin; Song, Shichao; Yu, Yan; Jin, Lin; Hu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    We describe the integral electro-optical strategies that combine the functionalities of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation and color filtering as well as polarizing to realize more efficient energy routing in display technology. Unlike the conventional pigment-based filters and polarizers, which absorb substantial amounts of unwanted spectral components and dissipate them in the form of heat, we propose converting the energy of those photons into electricity by constructing PV cell-integrated color filters based on a selectively transmitting aluminum (Al) rear electrode perforated with nanoholes (NHs). Combining with a dielectric-metal-dielectric (DMD) front electrode, the devices were optimized to enable efficient cavity-enhanced photon recycling in the PV functional layers. We perform a comprehensive theoretical and numerical analysis to explore the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through the Al NHs and identify basic design rules for achieving structural coloring or polarizing in our PV color filters. We show that the addition of thin photoactive polymer layers on the symmetrically configured Al NH electrode narrows the bandwidth of the EOT-assisted high-pass light filtering due to the strongly damped anti-symmetric coupling of the surface modes excited on the front and rear surface of the Al NHs, which facilitates the whole visible coloring with relatively high purity for the devices. By engineering the cut-off characteristics of the plasmonic waveguide mode supported by the circular or ellipsoidal Al NHs, beyond the photon recycling capacity, PV color filters and PV polarizing color filters that allow polarization-insensitive and strong polarization-anisotropic color filtering were demonstrated. The findings presented here may shed some light on expanding the utilization of PV electricity generation across new-generation energy-saving electrical display devices. (paper)

  12. GPU acceleration of Monte Carlo simulations for polarized photon scattering in anisotropic turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Celong; Li, Xianpeng; He, Honghui; Ma, Hui

    2016-09-20

    In earlier studies, we developed scattering models and the corresponding CPU-based Monte Carlo simulation programs to study the behavior of polarized photons as they propagate through complex biological tissues. Studying the simulation results in high degrees of freedom that created a demand for massive simulation tasks. In this paper, we report a parallel implementation of the simulation program based on the compute unified device architecture running on a graphics processing unit (GPU). Different schemes for sphere-only simulations and sphere-cylinder mixture simulations were developed. Diverse optimizing methods were employed to achieve the best acceleration. The final-version GPU program is hundreds of times faster than the CPU version. Dependence of the performance on input parameters and precision were also studied. It is shown that using single precision in the GPU simulations results in very limited losses in accuracy. Consumer-level graphics cards, even those in laptop computers, are more cost-effective than scientific graphics cards for single-precision computation.

  13. Indole: A model system for one-photon threshold photoionization in polar media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jamine; Robinson, G. Wilse

    1984-08-01

    Indole in a sufficiently polar medium, such as water, presents a relatively simple example of the one-photon near-threshold photoionization process in the condensed phase. This photoejection mechanism is the main object of study in this paper. To carry out this study, dynamic processes of indole in its first excited singlet state S1 are explored as a function of temperature in mixed water/methanol solvents. In mixed solvents having high water content, the dominant radiationless transition in the higher temperature regimes is a localized photoejection process. In pure methanol, electron photoejection is unimportant, indicating a distinction between aqueous solvents and other hydrophilic solvents that goes far beyond dielectric constant considerations. A water ``cage,'' composed of 4±1 water molecules, and probably quite close to the parent cation, is the electron acceptor. The apparently unique structure of this water cluster, different from that in normal water, is thought to be responsible for the large activation energy (43.4 kJ/mol-1) for this photoejection mechanism. A Markov random walk matrix method is adopted in order to analyze the photoelectron process in different mixture configurations. Good agreement between observed and theoretical results over the entire solvent concentration range for both the fluorescence decay rates and the fluorescence quantum yields at various temperatures between -15 and +75 °C supports the assumed model. It is interesting to speculate about possible roles of threshold electrons in chemical and biological long range electron transfer reactions.

  14. Wigner representation for experiments on quantum cryptography using two-photon polarization entanglement produced in parametric down-conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Guerra, S [Centro Asociado de la Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Placido, J [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)], E-mail: acasado@us.es

    2008-02-28

    In this paper, the theory of parametric down-conversion in the Wigner representation is applied to Ekert's quantum cryptography protocol. We analyse the relation between two-photon entanglement and (non-secure) quantum key distribution within the Wigner framework in the Heisenberg picture. Experiments using two-qubit polarization entanglement generated in nonlinear crystals are analysed in this formalism, along with the effects of eavesdropping attacks in the case of projective measurements.

  15. Wigner representation for experiments on quantum cryptography using two-photon polarization entanglement produced in parametric down-conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, A; Guerra, S; Placido, J

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the theory of parametric down-conversion in the Wigner representation is applied to Ekert's quantum cryptography protocol. We analyse the relation between two-photon entanglement and (non-secure) quantum key distribution within the Wigner framework in the Heisenberg picture. Experiments using two-qubit polarization entanglement generated in nonlinear crystals are analysed in this formalism, along with the effects of eavesdropping attacks in the case of projective measurements

  16. Photonics-based multi-function analog signal processor based on a polarization division multiplexing Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yamei; Pan, Shilong

    2017-12-01

    A photonics-based multi-function analog signal processor based on an optical polarization division multiplexing dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and demonstrated, which can implement simultaneously photonic microwave phase shifting, upconversion/downconversion and filtering with excellent tunability. An experiment is carried out. Downconverted and upconverted phase shifters with phases continuously tuned from -180 to 180 deg over 0-11 and 11-33 GHz are implemented. Based on the frequency-mixed phase shifter, a four-tap microwave photonic filter that has the capability to select a frequency-mixed component is built. The proposed approach features multi-function, scalable independent channels, a wide bandwidth, and high tunability, which can find applications in beamforming networks, radio frequency frontends, and radio over fiber systems.

  17. Generation and control of polarization-entangled photons from GaAs island quantum dots by an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Mohsen; Ohtani, Keita; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo

    2012-02-07

    Semiconductor quantum dots are potential sources for generating polarization-entangled photons efficiently. The main prerequisite for such generation based on biexciton-exciton cascaded emission is to control the exciton fine-structure splitting. Among various techniques investigated for this purpose, an electric field is a promising means to facilitate the integration into optoelectronic devices. Here we demonstrate the generation of polarization-entangled photons from single GaAs quantum dots by an electric field. In contrast to previous studies, which were limited to In(Ga)As quantum dots, GaAs island quantum dots formed by a thickness fluctuation were used because they exhibit a larger oscillator strength and emit light with a shorter wavelength. A forward voltage was applied to a Schottky diode to control the fine-structure splitting. We observed a decrease and suppression in the fine-structure splitting of the studied single quantum dot with the field, which enabled us to generate polarization-entangled photons with a high fidelity of 0.72 ± 0.05.

  18. Observation of new high-lying odd levels of U I in a two-color multiphoton ionization spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suri, B.M.; Dasgupta, K.; Bajaj, P.N.; Manohar, K.G.; Talukdar, R.; Chakraborti, P.K.; Rao, P.R.K.

    1987-11-01

    A two-color three-photon ionization technique, using two pulsed dye lasers, was employed to explore the high-lying energy levels of U I. A number of new U I levels in the 34 290--35 120-cm/sup -1/ region was observed. Uncertainty in the assignment of J values to some levels known from earlier studies was also reduced or removed.

  19. Two-Color Pyrometer for Process Temperature Measurement During Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Tapetado Moraleda, Alberto; Díaz Álvarez, José; Miguélez Garrido, María Henar; Vázquez García, María Carmen

    2016-01-01

    A fast fiber-optic two-color pyrometer operating on the optical communication bands is designed for temperature measurements in machining processes. Off-the-shelf low-loss fiber-optic demultiplexers and optoelectronics equipment are used in order to obtain a cost-effective sensing solution while reducing both the temperature measurement error and the minimum measurable temperature. The system is capable of measuring highly localized temperatures without using collimation lens. The designed py...

  20. Widely tunable single-bandpass microwave photonic filter based on polarization processing of a nonsliced broadband optical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zheng, Jian Yu; Li, Wei; Wang, Li Xian; Li, Ming; Xie, Liang; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2013-11-15

    We propose a new scheme of microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on the polarization processing of a broadband optical source (BOS), which features single-bandpass response and a wide span of operation bandwidth. The BOS is orthogonally polarized by a polarization division multiplexing emulator (PDME) with a tunable time delay between the two polarization states and incident at ± 45° to one principle axis of a polarization modulator (PolM). The PDME cascades a PolM, and a polarizer realizes a microwave modulation making the phase of the carrier able to be tuned while ± 1st sidebands remain unchanged, which after propagating in a dispersive medium results in a tunable single-bandpass response in the RF domain. We experimentally verify the MPF. By adjusting the time delay and the optical spectrum bandwidth, the passband center frequency is continuously tuned from DC to 20 GHz and the 3 dB passband bandwidth changes while the optical spectrum bandwidth ranges from 1 to 4 nm.

  1. Polarization entanglement purification of nonlocal microwave photons based on the cross-Kerr effect in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Qian; Xu, Xu-Sheng; Xiong, Jun; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2017-11-01

    Microwave photons have become very important qubits in quantum communication, as the first quantum satellite has been launched successfully. Therefore, it is a necessary and meaningful task for ensuring the high security and efficiency of microwave-based quantum communication in practice. Here, we present an original polarization entanglement purification protocol for nonlocal microwave photons based on the cross-Kerr effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). Our protocol can solve the problem that the purity of maximally entangled states used for constructing quantum channels will decrease due to decoherence from environment noise. This task is accomplished by means of the polarization parity-check quantum nondemolition (QND) detector, the bit-flipping operation, and the linear microwave elements. The QND detector is composed of several cross-Kerr effect systems which can be realized by coupling two superconducting transmission line resonators to a superconducting molecule with the N -type level structure. We give the applicable experimental parameters of QND measurement system in circuit QED and analyze the fidelities. Our protocol has good applications in long-distance quantum communication assisted by microwave photons in the future, such as satellite quantum communication.

  2. Two-color mid-infrared spectroscopy of optically doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcales, M.; Klik, M.A.J.; Vinh, N.Q.; Phillips, J.; Wells, J-P.R.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2003-01-01

    Optical doping is an attractive method to tailor photonic properties of semiconductor matrices for development of solid-state electroluminescent structures. For practical applications, thermal stability of emission obtained from these materials is required. Thermal processes can be conveniently investigated by two-color spectroscopy in the visible and the mid-infrared. Free-electron laser is a versatile high-brilliance source of radiation in the latter spectral range. In this contribution, we briefly review some of the results obtained recently by the two-color spectroscopy with a free-electron laser in different semiconductors optically doped with rare earth and transition metal ions. Effects leading to both enhancement and quenching of emission from optical dopants will be presented. For InP:Yb, Si:Er, and Si:Cu activation of particular optically induced non-radiative recombination paths will be shown. For Si:Er and Si:Ag, observation of a low temperature optical memory effect will be reported

  3. Ultrabright Linearly Polarized Photon Generation from a Nitrogen Vacancy Center in a Nanocube Dimer Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian Kim Hjælm; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate an exceptionally bright photon source based on a single nitrogen-vacancy center (NV center) in a nanodiamond (ND) placed in the nanoscale gap between two monocrystalline silver cubes in a dimer configuration. The system is operated near saturation at a stable photon rate of 850 kcps...

  4. Two-color monochromatic x-ray imaging with a single short-pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, H.; Daykin, T.; McLean, H. S.; Chen, H.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Pérez, F.

    2017-06-01

    Simultaneous monochromatic crystal imaging at 4.5 and 8.0 keV with x-rays produced by a single short-pulse laser is presented. A layered target consisting of thin foils of titanium and copper glued together is irradiated by the 50 TW Leopard short-pulse laser housed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. Laser-accelerated MeV fast electrons transmitting through the target induce Kα fluorescence from both foils. Two energy-selective curved crystals in the imaging diagnostic form separate monochromatic images on a single imaging detector. The experiment demonstrates simultaneous two-color monochromatic imaging of the foils on a single detector as well as Kα x-ray production at two different photon energies with a single laser beam. Application of the diagnostic technique to x-ray radiography of a high density plasma is also presented.

  5. Compact source of narrow-band counterpropagating polarization-entangled photon pairs using a single dual-periodically-poled crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Yan-Xiao; Xie, Zhen-Da; Xu, Ping; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Xue, Peng

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the generation of counterpropagating polarization-entangled photon pairs from a dual-periodically-poled crystal. Compared with the usual forward-wave-type source, this source, in the backward-wave way, has a much narrower bandwidth. With a 2-cm-long bulk crystal, the bandwidths of the example sources are estimated to be 3.6 GHz, and the spectral brightnesses are more than 100 pairs/(s GHz mW). Two concurrent quasi-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes in a single crystal enable our source to be compact and stable. This scheme does not rely on any state projection and applies to both degenerate and nondegenerate cases, facilitating applications of the entangled photons.

  6. Phase- and Polarization-Controlled Two-Photon Rabi Oscillation of the Biexciton State in a Semiconductor Quantum Dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under a degenerate two-photon resonant excitation, the Rabi oscillation of the four-level biexciton system in a semiconductor quantum dot is theoretically investigated. The influence of the laser phases on the state manipulation is modeled and numerically calculated. Due to the interference between different excitation paths, the laser phase plays an important role and can be utilized as an alternate control knob to coherently manipulate the biexciton state. The phase control can be facilely implemented by changing the light polarization via a quarter-wave plate.

  7. Needle-like focus generation by radially polarized halo beams emitted by photonic-crystal ring-cavity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kyoko; Nishimoto, Masaya; Sakai, Kyosuke; Noda, Susumu

    2012-11-01

    Focused fields that possess a small spot size and long depth of focus (DOF) are expected to lead to the further development of optical applications. Here, we develop a photonic-crystal ring-cavity laser that emits a beam with a radially polarized halo shape (rinner/router > 0.9). This beam has a needle-like focus with a spot size of less than 0.4λ and a depth of focus longer than 10 λ for a 0.9 numerical aperture objective lens. We evaluate the focusing properties of the emitted beam and demonstrate that it has a longer depth of focus than conventional beams.

  8. Amplification and ASE suppression in a polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped solid-core photonic bandgap fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Falk, Charlotte Ijeoma; Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate suppression of amplified spontaneous emission at the conventional ytterbium gain wavelengths around 1030 nm in a cladding-pumped polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped solid core photonic crystal fibre. The fibre works through combined index and bandgap guiding. Furthermore, we...... show that the peak of the amplified spontaneous emission can be shifted towards longer wavelengths by rescaling the fibre dimensions. Thereby one can obtain lasing or amplification at longer wavelengths (1100 nm - 1200 nm) as the amount of amplification in the fibre is shown to scale with the power...... of the amplified spontaneous emission....

  9. Polarization control of high order harmonics in the EUV photon energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Barszczak Sardinha, Anna; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Valentin, Constance; Lozano, Magali; Iaquaniello, Grégory; Delmotte, Franck; Sebban, Stéphane; Lüning, Jan; Zeitoun, Philippe

    2011-02-28

    We report the generation of circularly polarized high order harmonics in the extreme ultraviolet range (18-27 nm) from a linearly polarized infrared laser (40 fs, 0.25 TW) focused into a neon filled gas cell. To circularly polarize the initially linearly polarized harmonics we have implemented a four-reflector phase-shifter. Fully circularly polarized radiation has been obtained with an efficiency of a few percents, thus being significantly more efficient than currently demonstrated direct generation of elliptically polarized harmonics. This demonstration opens up new experimental capabilities based on high order harmonics, for example, in biology and materials science. The inherent femtosecond time resolution of high order harmonic generating table top laser sources renders these an ideal tool for the investigation of ultrafast magnetization dynamics now that the magnetic circular dichroism at the absorption M-edges of transition metals can be exploited.

  10. Polarization-dependent transverse-stress sensing based on photonic crystal fiber with gold-coated air-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Zhu, Chenghao; Wang, Yan; Tan, Ce; Li, Hongwei; Cheng, Deqiang

    2017-05-01

    A transverse-stress sensor with polarization filtering function based on a specially designed photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed. Four ultralarge side-holes are introduced into the cladding layer, and two of them are gold-coated to enhance the stress sensitivity. The finite element method is applied to study the polarization-dependent wavelength-selective sensing characteristics at the optical communication wavelength. Results reveal that the sensor can achieve a high sensitivity in either direction that can be divided into an x-direction component and a y-direction component. Combining the advantages of side-hole structure and surface plasmon resonance technology, the proposed sensor is believed to be an excellent candidate for the transverse-stress measurement.

  11. Polarization entangled photon pair source for space-based quantum communication, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this NASA effort is to develop and deliver efficient, single-pass quantum optical waveguide sources generating high purity hyper-entangled photon...

  12. Highly-nonlinear polarization-maintaining As2Se3-based photonic quasi-crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongtong; Lian, Zhenggang; Benson, Trevor; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Wan; Lou, Shuqin

    2017-11-01

    We propose an As2Se3-based photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF) with high nonlinearity and birefringence. By optimizing the structure parameters, a nonlinear coefficient up to 2079 W-1km-1 can be achieved at the wavelength of 2 μm; the birefringence reaches up to the order of 10-2 due to the introduction of large circular air holes in the cladding. Using an optical pulse with a peak power of 6 kW, a pulse width of 150 fs, and a central wavelength of 2.94 μm as the pump pulse, a mid-infrared polarized supercontinuum is obtained by using a 15 mm long PQF. The spectral width for x- and y-polarizations covers 1 μm-10.2 μm and 1 μm-12.5 μm, respectively. The polarization state can be well maintained when the incident angle of the input pulse changes within ±2°. The proposed PQF, with high nonlinear coefficient and birefringence, has potential applications in mid-infrared polarization-maintaining supercontinuum generation.

  13. The properties of photonic band gap and surface plasmon modes in the three-dimensional magnetized photonic crystals as the mixed polarized modes considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Chi

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gap (PBG) and surface plasmon modes in the three-dimensional (3D) magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated based on the plane wave expansion (PWE) method, in which the homogeneous magnetized plasma spheres are immersed in the homogeneous dielectric background, as the Voigt effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is perpendicular to the external magnetic field at any time). The dispersive properties of all of the EM modes are studied because the PBG is not only for the extraordinary and ordinary modes but also for the mixed polarized modes. The equations for PBGs also are theoretically deduced. The numerical results show that the PBG and a flatbands region can be observed. The effects of the dielectric constant of dielectric background, filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field) on the dispersive properties of all of the EM modes in such 3D MPPCs are investigated in detail, respectively. Theoretical simulations show that the PBG can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. Compared to the conventional dielectric-air PCs with similar structure, the larger PBG can be obtained in such 3D MPPCs. It is also shown that the upper edge of flatbands region cannot be tuned by the filling factor and dielectric constant of dielectric background, but it can be manipulated by the plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency.

  14. Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jinping; Li, Guihua; Jing, Chenrui; Zeng, Bin; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xie, Hongqiang; Zhang, Chaojin; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan; Li, Helong; Xu, Huailiang; Chin, See Leang

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of narrow-bandwidth emissions with excellent coherent properties at ∼391 and ∼428 nm from N 2 + (B 2 Σ u + (v′ = 0) → X 2 Σ g + (v = 0, 1)) inside a femtosecond filament in air by an orthogonally polarized two-color driver field (i.e. 800 nm laser pulse and its second harmonic). The durations of the coherent emissions at 391 and 428 nm are measured to be ∼2.4 and ∼7.8 ps, respectively, both of which are much longer than the duration of the pump and its second harmonic pulses. Furthermore, the measured temporal decay characteristics of the excited molecular systems suggest an ‘instantaneous’ population inversion mechanism that may be achieved in molecular nitrogen ions at an ultrafast time scale comparable to the 800 nm pump pulse. (paper)

  15. Spatial properties of a terahertz beam generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Wang, Tianwu; Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    2013-01-01

    We present a spatial characterization of terahertz (THz) beams generated from a two-color air plasma under different conditions by measuring full 3D beam profiles using a commercial THz camera. We compare two THz beam profiles emitted from plasmas generated by 35 fs and 100 fs laser pulses...... that this reduces the beam waist, and that the beam spot shape changes from Lorentzian to Gaussian. Finally, we observe a forward-propagating Gaussian THz beam by spatially filtering away the conical off-axis radiation with a 1 cm aperture......., and show that the spatial properties of the two THz beams do not change significantly. For the THz beam profile generated by the 35 fs pulse, the spatial effect of eliminating the lower frequencies is investigated by implementing two crossed polarizers working as a high-pass filter. We show...

  16. Velocity map imaging of scattering dynamics in orthogonal two-color fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würzler, D.; Eicke, N.; Möller, M.; Seipt, D.; Sayler, A. M.; Fritzsche, S.; Lein, M.; Paulus, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    In strong-field ionization processes, two-color laser fields are frequently used for controlling sub-cycle electron dynamics via the relative phase of the laser fields. Here we apply this technique to velocity map imaging spectroscopy using an unconventional orientation with the polarization of the ionizing laser field perpendicular to the detector surface and the steering field parallel to it. This geometry allows not only to image the phase-dependent photoelectron momentum distribution (PMD) of low-energy electrons that interact only weakly with the ion (direct electrons), but also to investigate the low yield of higher-energy rescattered electrons. Phase-dependent measurements of the PMD of neon and xenon demonstrate control over direct and rescattered electrons. The results are compared with semi-classical calculations in three dimensions including elastic scattering at different orders of return and with solutions of the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  17. On the partial-wave analysis of mesonic resonances decaying to multiparticle final states produced by polarized photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Carlos W.; Weygand, Dennis P.

    2014-04-01

    Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) using photon beams. In particular this report broadens this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

  18. On the Partial-Wave Analysis of Mesonic Resonances Decaying to Multiparticle Final States Produced by Polarized Photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Carlos W. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weygand, Dennis P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

  19. Two-color lattice QCD with staggered quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, David

    2015-07-20

    The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and density provides important contributions to the understanding of strong-interaction matter as it is present e.g. in nuclear matter and in neutron stars or as produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative approach, where equations of motion for quarks and gluons are discretized on a finite space-time lattice. The method successfully describes the behavior of QCD in the vacuum and at finite temperature, however it cannot be applied to finite baryon density due to the fermion sign problem. Various QCD-like theories, that offer to draw conclusions about QCD, allow simulations also at finite densities. In this work we investigate two-color QCD as a popular example of a QCD-like theory free from the sign problem with methods from lattice gauge theory. For the generation of gauge configurations with two dynamical quark flavors in the staggered formalism with the ''rooting trick'' we apply the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm. We carry out essential preparatory work for future simulations at finite density. As a start, we concentrate on the calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition, in dependence of the temperature and quark mass. It serves as an important input for effective models of QCD. We obtain the effective potential via the histogram method from local distributions of the Polyakov loop. To study the influence of dynamical quarks on gluonic observables, the simulations are performed with large quark masses and are compared to calculations in the pure gauge theory. In the second part of the thesis we examine aspects of the chiral phase transition along the temperature axis. The symmetry group of chiral symmetry in two-color QCD is enlarged to SU(2N{sub f}). Discretized two-color QCD in the staggered formalism exhibits a chiral symmetry breaking

  20. Linearly Polarized, Single-Mode Spontaneous Emission in a Photonic Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joël

    2012-01-01

    We introduce dielectric elliptical photonic nanowires to funnel efficiently the spontaneous emission of an embedded emitter into a single optical mode. Inside a wire with a moderate lateral aspect ratio, the electromagnetic environment is largely dominated by a single guided mode, with a linear...

  1. Polarization Properties of Elliptical-Hole Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartarini, Giovanni; Pansera, Marco; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of triangular photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with elliptical holes filled with a nematic liquid crystal (LC) are investigated theoretically. The analysis that is carried out using the finite-element method, including material dispersion effects, shows that LC anisotropy and hole...

  2. Experimental simulation of a polarization-dispersion-fluctuating channel with photon pairs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halenková, E.; Lemr, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 6 (2012), "063807-1"-"063807-5" ISSN 1050-2947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : entangled photons Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2012

  3. Polarization contrast in photon scanning tunnelling microscopy combined with atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Propstra, K.; Propstra, K.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    Photon scanning tunnelling microscopy combined with atomic force microscopy allows simultaneous acquisition and direct comparison of optical and topographical images, both with a lateral resolution of about 30 nm, far beyond the optical diffraction limit. The probe consists of a modified

  4. Variational Effective Index Method for 3D Vectorial Scattering Problems in Photonics: TE Polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Alyona; Stoffer, Remco; Kauppinen, L.J.; Hammer, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    In order to reduce the computational effort we develop a method for 3D-to-2D dimensionality reduction of scattering problems in photonics. Contrary to the `standard' Effective Index Method the effective parameters of the reduced problem are always rigorously defined using the variational technique,

  5. Polarization-resolved two-photon luminescence microscopy of V-groove arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, J.; Novikov, S. M.; Holmgaard, T.

    2012-01-01

    Using two-photon luminescence (TPL) microscopy and local reflection spectroscopy we investigate electromagnetic field enhancement effects from a mu m-sized composition of 450-nm-deep V-grooves milled by focused ion beam in a thick gold film and assembled to feature, within the same structure, ind...... obtained to evaluation of local field enhancements using TPL microscopy, especially when investigating extended structures exhibiting different radiation channels, are discussed. (C)2011 Optical Society of America......Using two-photon luminescence (TPL) microscopy and local reflection spectroscopy we investigate electromagnetic field enhancement effects from a mu m-sized composition of 450-nm-deep V-grooves milled by focused ion beam in a thick gold film and assembled to feature, within the same structure...

  6. Efficient entanglement purification for polarization logic Bell state with the photonic Faraday rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Logic-qubit entanglement is a promising resource in quantum information processing, especially in future large-scale quantum networks. In the paper, we put forward an efficient entanglement purification protocol (EPP) for nonlocal mixed logic entangled states with the bit-flip error in the logic qubits of the logic Bell state, resorting to the photon-atom interaction in low-quality (Q) cavity and atomic state measurement. Different from existing EPPs, this protocol can also purify the logic p...

  7. A Polarized High-Energy Photon Beam for Production of Exotic Mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senderovich, Igor [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This work describes design, prototyping and testing of various components of the Jefferson Lab Hall D photon beamline. These include coherent bremsstrahlung radiators to be used in this facility for generating the photon beam, a fine resolution hodoscope for the facility's tagging spectrometer, and a photon beam position sensor for stabilizing the beam on a collimator. The principal instrumentation project was the hodoscope: its design, implementation and beam testing will be thoroughly described. Studies of the coherent bremsstrahlung radiators involved X-ray characterization of diamond crystals to identify the appropriate line of manufactured radiators and the proper techniques for thinning them to the desired specification of the beamline. The photon beam position sensor project involved completion of a designed detector and its beam test. The results of these shorter studies will also be presented. The second part of this work discusses a Monte Carlo study of a possible photo-production and decay channel in the GlueX experiment that will be housed in the Hall D facility. Specifically, the γ p → Xp → b1 π → ω π+1 π-1 channel was studied including its Amplitude Analysis. This exercise attempted to generate a possible physics signal, complete with internal angular momentum states, and be able to reconstruct the signal in the detector and find the proper set of JPC quantum numbers through an amplitude fit. Derivation of the proper set of amplitudes in the helicity basis is described, followed by a discussion of the implementation, generation of the data sets, reconstruction techniques, the amplitude fit and results of this study.

  8. Semi-analytical approach for guided mode resonance in high-index-contrast photonic crystal slab: TE polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Peng, Chao; Li, Zhengbin

    2013-09-09

    In high-contrast (HC) photonic crystals (PC) slabs, the high-order coupling is so intense that it is indispensable for analyzing the guided mode resonance (GMR) effect. In this paper, a semi-analytical approach is proposed for analyzing GMR in HC PC slabs with TE-like polarization. The intense high-order coupling is included by using a convergent recursive procedure. The reflection of radiative waves at high-index-contrast interfaces is also considered by adopting a strict Green's function for multi-layer structures. Modal properties of interest like band structure, radiation constant, field profile are calculated, agreeing well with numerical finite-difference time-domain simulations. This analysis is promising for the design and optimization of various HC PC devices.

  9. Polarization effects in coherent and incoherent photon scattering: survey of measurements and theory relevant to radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    This report reviews available information on polarization effects arising when photons in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy regime undergo coherent (Rayleigh) scattering and incoherent (Compton) scattering by atomic electrons. In addition to descriptions and discussions of these effects, including estimates of their magnitudes as they apply to radiation transport calculations, an annotated bibliography of 102 selected works covering the period 1905-1991 is provided, with particularly relevant works for the purpose of this report flagged with asterisks (*). A major resource for this report is a 1948 unpublished informal report by L.V. Spencer which has been quoted here almost in its entirety, since, of all the works cited in the annotated bibliography, it appears to be the only one which explicitly and directly addresses the purpose of this report. Hence this valuable material should be re-introduced into the available and current literature. (author). 119 refs., 7 figs

  10. One-dimensional photonic crystals with highly Bi-substituted iron garnet defect in reflection polar geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailova, T V; Berzhansky, V N; Karavainikov, A V; Shaposhnikov, A N; Prokopov, A R; Lyashko, S D

    2016-01-01

    It is represented the results of modelling of magnetooptical properties in reflection polar geometry of one-dimensional photonic crystal, in which highly Bi-substituted iron garnet defect of composition Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 A l0.8 O 12 / Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 Oi 2 is located between the dielectric Bragg mirrors (SiO 2 / TiO 2 ) m (were m is number of layer pairs) and buffer SiO 2 and gold top layers of different thicknesses is placed on structure. The modification of spectral line- shapes of microcavity and Tamm plasmon-polariton modes depending on m is found. (paper)

  11. Observation of photon polarization in $B^\\pm \\to K^\\pm\\pi^\\mp\\pi^\\pm\\gamma$ decays

    CERN Multimedia

    Veneziano, G

    2014-01-01

    A study of the flavor-changing neutral current radiative $B^{\\pm} \\to K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm}\\gamma$ decays performed using data collected in proton-proton collisions with the LHCb detector at $7$ and $8\\,$TeV center-of-mass energies is presented. In this sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$, nearly $14\\,000$ signal events are reconstructed and selected, containing all possible intermediate resonances with a $K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm}$ final state in the $[1.1, 1.9]$\\,GeV/$c^{2}$ mass range. The distribution of the angle of the photon direction with respect to the plane defined by the final-state hadrons in their rest frame is studied in intervals of $K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm}$ mass and the asymmetry between the number of signal events found on each side of the plane is obtained. The first direct observation of the photon polarization in the $b \\to s\\gamma$ transition is reported with a significance of $5.2\\,\\sigma$.

  12. Electrically switchable photonic liquid crystal devices for routing of a polarized light wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushnova, Irina I.; Melnikova, Elena A.; Tolstik, Alexei L.; Muravsky, Alexander A.

    2018-04-01

    The new mode of LC alignment based on photoalignment AtA-2 azo dye where the refractive interface between orthogonal orientations of the LC director exists without voltage and disappeared or changed with critical voltage has been proposed. The technology to fabricate electrically controlled liquid crystal elements for spatial separation and switching of linearly polarized light beams on the basis of the total internal reflection effect has been significantly improved. Its distinctive feature is the application of a composite alignment material comprising two sublayers of Nylon-6 and AtA-2 photoalignment azo dye offering patterned liquid crystal director orientation with high alignment quality value q = 0 . 998. The fabricated electrically controlled spatially structured liquid crystal devices enable implementation of propagation directions separation for orthogonally polarized light beams and their switching with minimal crosstalk.

  13. Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Xie, Xinhua; Roither, Stefan; Kartashov, Daniil; Wang, YanLan; Wang, ChuanLiang; Schöffler, Markus; Shafir, Dror; Corkum, Paul B.; Baltuška, Andrius; Ivanov, Igor; Kheifets, Anatoli; Liu, XiaoJun; Staudte, André; Kitzler, Markus

    2014-12-01

    We study laser-sub-cycle control over electron trajectories concomitantly in space and time using orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields. We compare experimental photoelectron spectra of neon recorded by coincidence momentum imaging with photoelectron spectra obtained by semiclassical and numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We find that a resolution of a quarter optical cycle in the photoelectron trajectories can be achieved. It is shown that depending on their sub-cycle birth time the trajectories of photoelectrons are affected differently by the ion's Coulomb field.

  14. Effect of background dielectric on TE-polarized photonic bandgap of metallodielectric photonic crystals using Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Aliasghar; Rezaei, Behrooz

    2016-11-20

    Using the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated the photonic band structure of two-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals having the square and triangular lattices of circular metal rods in a dielectric background. We have selected the transverse electric mode of electromagnetic waves, and the resulting band structures showed the existence of photonic bandgap in these structures. We theoretically study the effect of background dielectric on the photonic bandgap.

  15. Efficient, High Brightness Sources of Polarized Neutrons and Photons and Their Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, James E.

    2000-05-18

    There are many applications that could benefit from an easily accessible source of monochromatic, high brightness, polarized gammas and neutrons. A compact and comparatively inexpensive system is discussed based on a low-energy, electron storage ring with undulators that is expected to provide 10{sup 11} epithermal n/s and 10{sup 15} {gamma}/s. This method could provide a more efficient, cleaner way to produce epithermal neutrons than conventional means. Technical innovations that make it feasible are described together with some fundamental and practical applications that also take advantage of developments in the field of high power lasers.

  16. Photon-photon colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1995-04-01

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R&D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy.

  17. Circularly polarized reflection from the scarab beetle Chalcothea smaragdina: light scattering by a dual photonic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Luke T; Finlayson, Ewan D; Wilts, Bodo D; Vukusic, Pete

    2017-08-06

    Helicoidal architectures comprising various polysaccharides, such as chitin and cellulose, have been reported in biological systems. In some cases, these architectures exhibit stunning optical properties analogous to ordered cholesteric liquid crystal phases. In this work, we characterize the circularly polarized reflectance and optical scattering from the cuticle of the beetle Chalcothea smaragdina (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) using optical experiments, simulations and structural analysis. The selective reflection of left-handed circularly polarized light is attributed to a Bouligand-type helicoidal morphology within the beetle's exocuticle. Using electron microscopy to inform electromagnetic simulations of this anisotropic stratified medium, the inextricable connection between the colour appearance of C. smaragdina and the periodicity of its helicoidal rotation is shown. A close agreement between the model and the measured reflectance spectra is obtained. In addition, the elytral surface of C. smaragdina possesses a blazed diffraction grating-like surface structure, which affects the diffuse appearance of the beetle's reflected colour, and therefore potentially enhances crypsis among the dense foliage of its rainforest habitat.

  18. Modelization, fabrication and evaluation avalanche photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode for the single photon in astrophysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellion, D.

    2008-12-01

    The genesis of the work presented in this this is in the field of very high energy astrophysics. One century ago, scientists identified a new type of messenger coming from space: cosmic rays. This radiation consists of particles (photons or other) of very high energy which bombard the Earth permanently. The passage of cosmic radiations in the Earth's atmosphere results in the creation of briefs luminous flashes (5 ns) of very low intensity (1 pW), a Cherenkov flash, and then becomes visible on the ground. In the current state of the art the best detector of light today is the Photomultiplier tube (PMT), thanks to its characteristics of sensitivity and speed. But there are some drawbacks: low quantum efficiency, cost, weight etc. We present in this thesis a new alternative technology: silicon photon counters, made of photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode. This operating mode makes it possible to obtain an effect of multiplication comparable to that of the PMT. A physical and electrical model was developed to reproduce the behaviour of this detector. We then present in this thesis work an original technological process allowing the realization of these devices in the Center of Technology of LAAS-CNRS, with the simulation of each operation of the process. We developed a scheme for the electric characterization of the device, from the static mode to the dynamic mode, in order to check conformity with SILVACO simulations and to the initial model. Results are already excellent, given this is only a first prototype step, and comparable with the results published in the literature. These silicon devices can intervene in all the applications where there is a photomultiplier and replace it. The applications are thus very numerous and the growth of the market of these detectors is very fast. We present a first astrophysical experiment installed at the 'Pic du Midi' site which has detected Cherenkov flashes from cosmic rays with this new semiconductor technology. (author)

  19. Double ionization of nitrogen molecules in orthogonal two-color femtosecond laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiying; Li, Hui; Wang, Junping; Lu, Peifen; Gong, Xiaochun; Ji, Qinying; Lin, Kang; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hanxiao; Zeng, Heping; He, Feng; Wu, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Double ionization of nitrogen molecules in orthogonally polarized two-color femtosecond laser fields is investigated by varying the relative intensity between the fundamental wave (FW) and its second harmonic (SH) components. The yield ratios of the double ionization channels, i.e., the non-dissociative {{{{N}}}2}2+ and Coulomb exploded (N+, N+), to the singly charged N2 + channel exhibit distinct dependences on the relative strength between the FW and SH fields. As the intensity ratio of SH to FW increases, the yield ratio of (N+, N+)/N2 + gradually increases, while the ratio of {{{{N}}}2}2+/N2 + first descends and then increases constituting a valley shape which is similar to the behavior of Ar2+/Ar+ observed in the same experimental condition. Based on the classical trajectory simulations, we found that the different characteristics of the two doubly ionized channels stem from two mechanisms, i.e., the {{{{N}}}2}2+ is mostly accessed by the (e, 2e) impact ionization while the recollision-induced excitation with subsequent ionization plays an important role in producing the (N+, N+) channel.

  20. Spectrally resolved measurements of the terahertz beam profile generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma .......Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma ....

  1. Photoproduction of Λ and Σ0 hyperons off protons with linearly polarized photons at Eγ=1.5 -3.0 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, S. H.; Kohri, H.; Chang, W. C.; Ahn, D. S.; Ahn, J. K.; Chen, J. Y.; Daté, S.; Ejiri, H.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Fukui, S.; Gohn, W.; Hicks, K.; Hotta, T.; Hwang, S. H.; Imai, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Joo, K.; Kato, Y.; Kon, Y.; Lee, H. S.; Maeda, Y.; Mibe, T.; Miyabe, M.; Mizutani, K.; Morino, Y.; Muramatsu, N.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsugawa, Y.; Niiyama, M.; Noumi, H.; Ohashi, Y.; Ohta, T.; Oka, M.; Parker, J. D.; Rangacharyulu, C.; Ryu, S. Y.; Sawada, T.; Shimizu, H.; Sugaya, Y.; Sumihama, M.; Tsunemi, T.; Uchida, M.; Ungaro, M.; Yosoi, M.; LEPS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We report the measurement of the γ p →K+Λ and γ p →K+Σ0 reactions at SPring-8. The differential cross sections and photon-beam asymmetries are measured at forward K+ production angles using linearly polarized tagged-photon beams in the range of Eγ=1.5 -3.0 GeV. With increasing photon energy, the cross sections for both γ p →K+Λ and γ p →K+Σ0 reactions decrease slowly. Distinct narrow structures in the production cross section have not been found at Eγ=1.5 -3.0 GeV. The forward peaking in the angular distributions of cross sections, a characteristic feature of t -channel exchange, is observed for the production of Λ in the whole observed energy range. A lack of similar feature for Σ0 production reflects a less dominant role of t -channel contribution in this channel. The photon-beam asymmetries remain positive for both reactions, suggesting the dominance of K* exchange in the t channel. These asymmetries increase gradually with the photon energy, and have a maximum value of +0.6 for both reactions. Comparison with theoretical predictions based on the Regge trajectory in the t channel and the contributions of nucleon resonances indicates the major role of t -channel contributions as well as non-negligible effects of nucleon resonances in accounting for the reaction mechanism of hyperon photoproduction in this photon energy regime.

  2. Efficient three-photon luminescence with strong polarization dependence from a scintillating silicate glass co-doped with Gd3+ and Tb3+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Can; Zhang, Cheng-Yun; Deng, Hai-Dong; Liu, Guang-Yin; Lan, Sheng; Qian, Qi-; Yang, Zhong-Min; Gopal, Achanta Venu

    2013-03-11

    Efficient three-photon luminescence (3PL) from a scintillating silicate glass co-doped with Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) was generated by using a focused femtosecond laser beam at 800 nm. Four emission bands centered at 496, 541, 583, and 620 nm were identified as the electronic transitions between the energy levels of Tb(3+) followed by three-photon absorption (3PA) in Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) and the resonant energy transfer from Gd(3+) to Tb(3+). More interestingly, a strong polarization dependence of the 3PL was observed and it is ascribed to the polarization dependent 3PA in Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) and/or the angular distribution of photogenerated electrons in the glass.

  3. Deterministic photonic spatial-polarization hyper-controlled-not gate assisted by a quantum dot inside a one-side optical microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Bao-Cang; Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2013-01-01

    To date, all work concerning the construction of quantum logic gates, an essential part of quantum computing, has focused on operating in one degree of freedom (DOF) for quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable photonic quantum computing based on two DOFs for quantum systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating in both the spatial mode and polarization DOFs for a photon pair simultaneously, using the giant optical Faraday rotation induced by a single-electron spin in a quantum dot inside a one-side optical microcavity as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. With this hyper-CNOT gate and linear optical elements, two-photon four-qubit cluster entangled states can be prepared and analyzed, which give an application to manipulate more information with less resources. We analyze the experimental feasibility of this hyper-CNOT gate and show that it can be implemented with current technology. (letter)

  4. Two-color, Polarimetric Laser Altimeter Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, P.; Yu, A. W.; Harding, D. J.; Valett, S. R.; Hicks, E.; Shuman, C. A.; Vasilyev, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past decade lidar remote sensing has proven to be a highly effective method for characterization of forest canopy structure and estimation of biomass stocks. However, traditional measurements only provide information on the vertical distribution of surfaces without ability to differentiate surface types. Also, an unresolved aspect of traditional measurements is the contribution of within-canopy multiple scattering to the lidar profiles of canopy structure. Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) data was acquired in July and August, 2010 for three sites with well-characterized forest structure in order to address these issues. SIMPL is an airborne, four-beam laser altimeter developed through the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program. It acquires single-photon laser ranging data at 532 and 1064 nm, recording range-resolved measurements of reflected energy parallel and perpendicular to the transmit pulse polarization plane. Prior work with a non-ranging, multi-wavelength laser polarimetry demonstrated differentiation of tree species types based on depolarization differences related to surface and volume multiple scattering at the leaf scale. By adding the ranging component, SIMPL provides a means to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution of optical scattering properties to better understand the interaction of pulsed laser energy with the foliage, stem and branch components of forest canopies. Data were acquired for the deciduous forest cover at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Maryland and mixed deciduous and pine cover in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, two sites being used by the ICESat-2 project to assess micropulse, single-photon measurements of forest canopies. A third site, in the Huron National Forest in Michigan, has had diverse forest silviculture management practices applied to pine stands. The contrasts in forest stands between these sites will be used to illustrate

  5. Effect of in-material losses on terahertz absorption, transmission, and reflection in photonic crystals made of polar dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serebryannikov, Andriy E., E-mail: andser@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Nanotechnology Research Center—NANOTAM, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Nojima, S. [Yokohama City University, Department of Nanosystem Science, Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Kanazawa Ku, 22-2 Seto, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2360027 (Japan); Alici, K. B. [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Materials Institute, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozbay, Ekmel [Nanotechnology Research Center—NANOTAM, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-10-07

    The effect of the material absorption factor on terahertz absorption (A), transmittance (T), and reflectance (R) for slabs of PhC that comprise rods made of GaAs, a polar dielectric, is studied. The main goal was to illustrate how critical a choice of the absorption factor for simulations is and to indicate the importance of the possible modification of the absorption ability by using either active or lossy impurities. The spectra of A, T, and R are strongly sensitive to the location of the polaritonic gap with respect to the photonic pass and stop bands connected with periodicity that enables the efficient combination of the effects of material and structural parameters. It will be shown that the spectra can strongly depend on the utilized value of the material absorption factor. In particular, both narrow and wide absorption bands may appear owing to a variation of the material parameters with a frequency in the vicinity of the polaritonic gap. The latter are often achieved at wideband suppression of transmission, so that an ultra-wide stop band can appear as a result of adjustment of the stop bands having different origin. The results obtained at simultaneous variation of the absorption factor and frequency, and angle of incidence and frequency, indicate the possibility of the existence of wide ranges of tolerance, in which the basic features do remain. This allows for mitigating the accuracy requirements for the absorption factor in simulations and promises the efficient absorption of nonmonochromatic waves and beams with a wide angular spectrum. Suppression of narrowband effects in transmission is demonstrated at rather large values of the absorption factor, when they appear due to either the defect modes related to structural defects or dispersion inspired variations of the material parameters in the vicinity of the polaritonic gap. Comparison with auxiliary structures helps one to detect the common features and differences of homogeneous slabs and slabs of a

  6. Polarization filtering in the visible wavelength range using surface plasmon resonance and a sunflower-type photonic quasi-crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bei; Wang, Anran; Liu, Exian; Tan, Wei; Xie, Jianlan; Ge, Rui; Liu, Jianjun

    2018-04-01

    A novel polarization filter based on a sunflower-type photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF) is proposed in this paper. We also discuss different methods to tune the filter wavelength. The proposed filter can efficiently produce polarized light with visible wavelengths by using the resonance between the second-order surface plasmon polariton mode and the core mode of the PQF. The filtered wavelength can be tuned between 0.55 µm and 0.68 µm by adjusting the thickness of the gold film. When the thickness of the gold film is 25.3 nm, the resonance loss in the y-polarized direction reaches 11707 dB m‑1 for a wavelength of 0.6326 µm, and the full width at half maximum is only 5 nm. Due to the flexible design and absence of both polarization coupling and polarization dispersion, this polarization filter can be used in devices that require narrow-band filtering.

  7. Theoretical evaluation of measurement uncertainties of two-color pyrometry applied to optical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tairan; Cheng, Xiaofang; Yang, Zangjian

    2008-11-10

    We present a theoretical analysis of two-color pyrometry applied to optical diagnostics. A two-color pyrometer built with a single CCD is advantageous due to the simple system design. We evaluate the possibility and degree of ill-conditionness on the basis of measurement uncertainties for different measurement approaches of this two-color system. We classify measurement approaches. The corresponding ill-conditionness criterion is established. The greater the criterion value is, the worse the ill-conditioned degree of solution is. So, the optimum choice of measurement approach for the two-color system is achieved through intercomparison of the criterion values. Numerical examples are also given to illustrate this point. The theoretical analysis not only provides an effective way of evaluating different measurement approaches, but also may help us to better understand the influences that determine the choices between wavelength/waveband measurements and calibration/noncalibration modes for temperature and soot distribution.

  8. A semiclassical approach for two-color four-mode solid-state superfluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambruschini, C.L.P.

    1991-05-01

    A model for multilevel superfluorescence is presented. By using a parametric solution of this model we explain basic features in the two-color solid-state superfluorescence experiments of Florian, Schwan and Schmid. (author). 23 refs

  9. Photon states in anisotropic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rosen) cor- relations as codified in Bell's inequalities have been tested for the polarization-entangled states of two photons. Similarly, quantum teleportation and quantum encryption have also been accomplished using photon polarization states.

  10. Gating of high-order harmonics generated by incommensurate two-color mid-IR laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, M; Vozzi, C; De Silvestri, S; Stagira, S; Kovacs, K; Tosa, V; Altucci, C; Velotta, R; Frassetto, F; Poletto, L; Villoresi, P

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a new technique for the temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation, based on the mixing of two mid-infrared laser pulses coming from optical parametric amplifiers, at wavelengths of 1.35 and 1.75 μm, respectively. Both parallel and perpendicular configurations of the polarization directions were investigated. Results obtained in xenon and argon show continuous spectra with a significant cutoff extension, up to 160 eV. These outcomes demonstrate the possibility of extending the two-color gating technique for the generation of isolated attosecond bursts to a mid-infrared laser source and are, to our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of the gating on a single half-cycle of high-order harmonics driven by laser pulses longer than 30 fs

  11. Design of single-polarization coupler based on dual-core photonic band-gap fiber implied in resonant fiber optic gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenlong; Li, Xuyou; Zhang, Chunmei; Ling, Weiwei; Liu, Pan; Xia, Linlin; Yang, Hanrui

    2016-12-01

    A novel (to our knowledge) type of single-polarization (SP) coupler based on a dual-core photonic band-gap fiber (PBF) is proposed. The effects of structure parameters on the performance of this coupler are studied numerically based on the full vector finite element method (FEM). Finally, an optimal design with a length of 0.377 mm at the wavelength of 1.55 μm is achieved, and its implication in PBF-based fiber ring resonator (FRR), the effect of angular misalignment on the SP coupler are analyzed as well. When the SP coupler is incorporated into a PBF-based FRR, it functions as the power splitter and the polarizer simultaneously, and can extinct the secondary eigenstate of polarization (ESOP) propagating in the FRR. The mode field of SP coupler can match with the polarization-maintaining (PM) PBF with ultra-low temperature sensitivity proposed in previous study, and an all PM-PBF based FRR can be established, which is of great significance in suppressing the temperature-related polarization fluctuation and improving the long-term stability for RFOG, and the SP coupler has high angular misalignment tolerance as well.

  12. Enhanced two-channel nonlinear imaging by a highly polarized supercontinuum light source generated from a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei; Bao, Hongchun; Gu, Min

    2011-05-01

    Real-time monitoring the variation of chlorophyll distributions and cellular structures in leaves during plant growth provides important information for understanding the physiological statuses of plants. Two-photon-excited autofluorescence imaging and second harmonic generation imaging of leaves can be used for monitoring the nature intrinsic fluorophores distribution and cellular structures of leaves by the use of the near-infrared region of light which has minimal light absorption by endogenous molecules and thus increases tissue penetration. However, the two-photon absorption peak of intrinsic fluorophores of a ficus benjamina leaf is 50 nm away from the second harmonic generation excitation wavelength, which cannot be effectively excited by a femtosecond laser beam with one central wavelength. This paper shows that a highly polarized supercontinuum light generated from a birefringent nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths can effectively excite two-photon autofluorescence as well as second harmonic generation signals for simultaneously monitoring intrinsic fluorophore distributions and non-centrosymmetric structures of leaves.

  13. Tunable ultra-broadband polarization filter based on three-core resonance of the fluid-infiltrated and gold-coated photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingchao; Chen, Hailiang; Ma, Mingjian; Zhang, Wenxun; Wang, Yujun; Li, Shuguang

    2018-03-01

    We propose a tunable ultra-broadband polarization filter based on three-core resonance of the fluid-infiltrated and gold-coated high birefringent photonic crystal fiber (HB-PCF). Gold film was applied to the inner walls of two cladding air holes and surface plasmon polaritons were generated on its surface. The two gold-coated cladding air holes acted as two defective cores. As the phase matching condition was satisfied, light transmitted in the fiber core and coupled to the two defective cores. The three-core PCF supported three super modes in two orthogonal polarization directions. The coupling characteristics among these modes were investigated using the finite-element method. We found that the coupling wavelengths and strength between these guided modes can be tuned by altering the structural parameters of the designed HB-PCF, such as the size of the voids, thickness of the gold-films and liquid infilling pattern. Under the optimized structural parameters, a tunable broadband polarization filter was realized. For one liquid infilling pattern, we obtained a broadband polarization filter which filtered out the light in y-polarization direction at the wavelength of 1550 nm. For another liquid infilling pattern, we filtered out light in the x-polarization direction at the wavelength of 1310 nm. Our studies on the designed HB-PCF made contributions to the further devising of tunable broadband polarization filters, which are extensively used in telecommunication and sensor systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61505175 and 61475134) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (Grant Nos. F2017203110 and F2017203193).

  14. Nonlinear polarization dynamics in a weakly birefringent all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber : toward a practical coherent fiber supercontinuum laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin

    2012-01-01

    Dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreased all-normal dispersion (DFDD-ANDi) photonic crystal fibers have been identified as promising candidates for high-spectral-power coherent supercontinuum (SC) generation. However, the effects of the unintentional birefringence of the fibers on the SC......−5 profoundly affects the SC generation in a DFDD-ANDi photonic crystal fiber. Conventional simulations based on the scalar generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE) fail to reproduce the prominent observed features of the SC generation in a short piece (9-cm) of this fiber. However, these features can...... be qualitatively or semi-quantitatively understood by the coupled GNLSE that takes into account the form-birefringence. The nonlinear polarization effects induced by the birefringence significantly distort the otherwise simple spectrotemporal field of the SC pulses. We therefore propose the fabrication...

  15. Polarization-dependent transverse-stress sensing characters of the gold-coated and liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fiber based on Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Zhu, Chenghao; Wang, Yan; Tan, Ce; Li, Hongwei

    2018-03-01

    A transverse-stress sensor with enhanced sensitivity based on nematic liquid crystal (NLC) filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed and analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM). The central hole of the PCF is infiltrated with NLC material with an adjustable rotation angle to achieve the polarization-dependent wavelength-selective sensing. And the combined use of side-hole structure and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technology enhanced the transverse-stress sensitivity enormously. Results reveal that the sensor can achieve a high sensitivity based on the polarization filter characteristic at special wavelengths. Besides that, the temperature and the transverse-stress in either direction can be effectively discriminated through dual-parameter demodulation method by adjusting the rotation angle of the NLC to introduce a new degree of freedom for sensing.

  16. The mechanism of producing energy-polarization entangled photon pairs in the cavity-quantum electrodynamics scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang-Gan; Xin, Xia; Liu, Yu-Min; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Yao, Wen-Jie; Wang, Dong-Lin; Cao, Gui

    2012-04-01

    We investigate theoretically two photon entanglement processes in a photonic-crystal cavity embedding a quantum dot in the strong-coupling regime. The model proposed by Johne et al. (Johne R, Gippius N A, Pavlovic G, Solnyshkov D D, Shelykh I A and Malpuech G 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 240404), and by Robert et al. (Robert J, Gippius N A and Malpuech G 2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 155317) is modified by considering irreversible dissipation and incoherent continuous pumping for the quantum dot, which is necessary to connect the realistic experiment. The dynamics of the system is analysed by employing the Born—Markov master equation, through which the spectra for the system are computed as a function of various parameters. By means of this analysis the photon-reabsorption process in the strong-coupling regime is first observed and analysed from the perspective of radiation spectrum and the optimal parameters for observing energy-entangled photon pairs are identified.

  17. Polarization-selective three-photon absorption and subsequent photoluminescence in CsPbBr3 single crystal at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. J.; Stoumpos, C. C.; Saouma, F. O.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Jang, J. I.

    2016-05-01

    We report on highly polarization-selective three-photon absorption (3PA) in a Bridgman-grown single crystal of CsPbBr3 oriented along the (112) direction, which is an inorganic counterpart to emerging organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites for solar-cell and optoelectronic applications. The crystal exhibits strong photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature as a direct consequence of 3PA of fundamental radiation. Interestingly, 3PA disappears when the input polarization is parallel to the (-110 ) direction. This 3PA effect is strongest when orthogonal to (-110 ) and the corresponding 3PA coefficient was measured to be γ =0.14 ±0.03 cm3/GW2 under picosecond-pulse excitation at the fundamental wavelength of λ =1200 nm. The laser-induced damage threshold was also determined to be about 20 GW/cm2 at the same wavelength. Based on relative PL intensities upon λ tuning over the entire 3PA range (1100 -1700 nm), we determined the nonlinear optical dispersion of the 3PA coefficient for CsPbBr3, which is consistent with a theoretical prediction. Experimentally observed significant polarization dependence of γ was explained by relevant selection rules. The perovskite is potentially important for nonlinear optical applications owing to its highly efficient 3PA-induced PL response with a sharp on/off ratio by active polarization control.

  18. Electroweak corrections to photon scattering, polarization and lensing in a gravitational background and the near horizon limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corianò, Claudio; Rose, Luigi Delle; Maglio, Matteo Maria [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento and INFN-Lecce,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Serino, Mirko [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento and INFN-Lecce,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-01-19

    We investigate the semiclassical approach to the lensing of photons in a spherically symmetric gravitational background, starting from Born level and include in our analysis the radiative corrections obtained from the electroweak theory for the graviton/photon/photon vertex. In this approach, the cross section is related to the angular variation of the impact parameter (b), which is then solved for b as a function of the angle of deflection, and measured in horizon units (b{sub h}≡b/(2GM)). Exact numerical solutions for the angular deflection are presented. The numerical analysis shows that perturbation theory in a weak background agrees with the classical Einstein formula for the deflection already at distances of the order of 20 horizon units (∼20 b{sub h}) and it is optimal in the description both of very strong and weak lensings. We show that the electroweak corrections to the cross section are sizeable, becoming very significant for high energy gamma rays. Our analysis covers in energy most of the photon spectrum, from the cosmic microwave background up to very high energy gamma rays, and scatterings with any value of the photon impact parameter. We also study the helicity-flip photon amplitude, which is of O(α{sup 2}) in the weak coupling α, and its massless fermion limit, which involves the exchange of a conformal anomaly pole. The corresponding cross section is proportional to the Born level result and brings to a simple renormalization of Einsten’s formula.

  19. Photon states in anisotropic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Quantum aspects of optical polarization are discussed for waves traveling in anisotropic dielectric media with a view to relate the dynamics of polarization with that of photon spin and its manipulation by classical polarizers.

  20. Measurement of polarization observables in the reaction {gamma}p{yields} p{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} using linearly polarized photons with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhoyan, Vahe

    2012-07-27

    The spectrum and the properties of baryon resonances can be studied using photons with energies appropriate to excite baryonic states. Double meson photoproduction allows access to cascading resonance decays via other excited states. Also, at higher energies the importance of the double meson photoproduction increases due to higher cross-sections in comparison to single meson photoproduction. To study baryon resonances, the measurement of polarization observables as well as the measurement of differential cross-sections plays a very important role. In this work the three-body polarization observables I{sup s}, I{sup c} and the respective twobody asymmetry {Sigma} were measured for the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} in an incoming photon energy range of E{sub {gamma}} = 970 - 1650 MeV. The data were acquired with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment located at the ELSA accelerator in Bonn, using a linearly polarized photon beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. The observables I{sup s} and I{sup c} which occur in two-meson final states are measured for the first time in the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}. The corresponding two-body asymmetry {Sigma} is measured in an extended energy range in comparison to already existing data. A comparison with theoretical models shows that the polarization observables provide valuable input to study resonance contributions and their decay modes. The D{sub 33}(1700) {yields} {Delta}{pi} decay is studied based on the comparison of the Bonn-Gatchina Partial Wave Analysis (PWA) predictions with the data. Furthermore, a comparison of the data with the Bonn-Gatchina PWA and the Fix isobar model predictions allows to distinguish between these two models. Additionally, band-like structures and peaks are observed in the mass ranges of {Delta}(1232), D{sub 13}(1520), F{sub 15}(1680), f{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 2}(1270) in the according Dalitz plots and invariant mass distributions. The contributions of these

  1. Long-range predissociation in two-color photoassociation of ultracold Na atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.A.; Straten, P. van der; Heideman, H.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    We report two-color photo-associative ionization of sodium in a Magneto-Optical Trap. The experimental results yield information on both singly and doubly excited states. We find that the highest bound vibrational levels (v > 20) of the singly-excited 0^- g state predissociate into the 3²P3/2

  2. Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber and polarization controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X M; Lin, A; Zhao, W; Lu, K Q; Wang, Y S; Zhang, T Y; Chung, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have proposed a novel multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser by using two polarization controllers and a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating(SC-FBG). On the assistance of SC-FBG, the proposed fiber lasers with excellent stability and uniformity are tunable and switchable by adjusting the polarization controllers. Our laser can stably lase two waves and up to eight waves simultaneously at room temperature

  3. Micro-pulse polarization lidar at 1.5  μm using a single superconducting nanowire single-photon detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiawei; Xia, Haiyun; Shangguan, Mingjia; Dou, Xiankang; Li, Manyi; Wang, Chong; Shang, Xiang; Lin, Shengfu; Liu, Jianjiang

    2017-11-01

    An all-fiber, eye-safe and micro-pulse polarization lidar is demonstrated with a polarization-maintaining structure, incorporating a single superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) at 1.5 μm. The time-division multiplexing technique is used to achieve a calibration-free optical layout. A single piece of detector is used to detect the backscatter signals at two orthogonal states in an alternative sequence. Thus, regular calibration of the two detectors in traditional polarization lidars is avoided. The signal-to-noise ratio of the lidar is guaranteed by using an SNSPD, providing high detection efficiency and low dark count noise. The linear depolarization ratio (LDR) of the urban aerosol is observed horizontally over 48 h in Hefei [N31°50'37'', E117°15'54''], when a heavy air pollution is spreading from the north to the central east of China. Phenomena of LDR bursts are detected at a location where a building is under construction. The lidar results show good agreement with the data detected from a sun photometer, a 532 nm visibility lidar, and the weather forecast information.

  4. High-birefringence photonic crystal fiber polarization filter with gold-coated and liquid-filled air holes based on surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Junbo; Li, Shuguang; Cheng, Tonglei; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xuenan

    2018-01-01

    A high-birefringence photonic crystal fiber polarization filter is proposed. The coupling theory is used to explain full and incomplete couplings. The resonance point can be adjusted to the communication band by optimizing the fiber structure parameters. Numerical simulation results indicate that the resonance strength can reach 924.96 and 710.28 dB.cm-1 at the communication wavelength of 1.31 and 1.55 μm in x- and y-polarized directions, respectively. By filling liquid analyte, the confinement loss can reach 804.52 dB.cm-1 at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. Furthermore, when the fiber length of L equals 500 μm, the peak value of the cross talk (CT) can reach 389.15 and -280.52 dB, respectively. When the length of the fiber L equals 200 μm, the bandwidth of the CT better than 20 dB is up to 120 nm at the wavelength of 1.31 μm, and the bandwidth of the CT<-20 dB is up to 140 nm at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. These properties make it a good candidate for designing types of polarization filter devices.

  5. Metallic layer-by-layer photonic crystals for linearly-polarized thermal emission and thermophotovoltaic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P.

    2016-07-26

    Metallic thermal emitters consisting of two layers of differently structured nickel gratings on a homogeneous nickel layer are fabricated by soft lithography and studied for polarized thermal radiation. A thermal emitter in combination with a sub-wavelength grating shows a high extinction ratio, with a maximum value close to 5, in a wide mid-infrared range from 3.2 to 7.8 .mu.m, as well as high emissivity up to 0.65 at a wavelength of 3.7 .mu.m. All measurements show good agreement with theoretical predictions. Numerical simulations reveal that a high electric field exists within the localized air space surrounded by the gratings and the intensified electric-field is only observed for the polarizations perpendicular to the top sub-wavelength grating. This result suggests how the emissivity of a metal can be selectively enhanced at a certain range of wavelengths for a given polarization.

  6. Ultra-broadband polarization splitter based on graphene layer-filled dual-core photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui; Xiong, Hui; Zhang, Yun-Shan; Ma, Yong; Zheng, Jia-Jin

    2017-12-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61405096 and 61504058), the Introduction of Talent Research and Research Fund of Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China (Grant No. NY214158), the Open Fund of Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, China (Grant No. M28035), and the Open Fund of State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SKLST201404).

  7. 1x3 beam splitter for TE polarization based on self-imaging phenomena in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Min; Malureanu, Radu; Krüger, Asger Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on inspiration from multi-mode interference self-imaging and theoretical FDTD simulations, a 1x3 beam splitter was designed, fabricated and characterized. Measurements show that for TE-polarized incident light the power is distributed equally between the output ports within 1dB in the range...

  8. Compact Design of an Electrically Tunable and Rotatable Polarizer Based on a Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2009-01-01

    fixing structures during the device assembly. The total insertion loss of this all-in-fiber device is 2.7 dB. An electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio of 21.3 dB is achieved with 45$^{circ}$ rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in the wavelength range of 1300–1600 nm....

  9. THz field engineering in two-color femtosecond filaments using chirped and delayed laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A.; González de Alaiza Martínez, P.; Thiele, I.; Skupin, S.; Bergé, L.

    2018-03-01

    We numerically study the influence of chirping and delaying several ionizing two-color light pulses in order to engineer terahertz (THz) wave generation in air. By means of comprehensive 3D simulations, it is shown that two chirped pulses can increase the THz yield when they are separated by a suitable time delay for the same laser energy in focused propagation geometry. To interpret these results, the local current theory is revisited and we propose an easy, accessible all-optical criterion that predicts the laser-to-THz conversion efficiencies given any input laser spectrum. In the filamentation regime, numerical simulations display evidence that a chirped pulse is able to produce more THz radiation due to propagation effects, which maintain the two colors of the laser field more efficiently coupled over long distances. A large delay between two pulses promotes multi-peaked THz spectra as well as conversion efficiencies above 10‑4.

  10. Strong-field photoelectron holography of atoms by bicircular two-color laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Jiang, Wei-Chao; Xie, Hui; Luo, Siqiang; Zhou, Yueming; Lu, Peixiang

    2018-02-01

    We study photoelectron holography in strong bicircular two-color laser fields by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) and a semiclassical rescattering model with implementing interference effect. The holographic patterns observed in the TDSE are well recaptured by the semiclassical rescattering model. Four types of photoelectron holographic interferences between the forward scattered and nonscattered trajectories are predicted by the semiclassical rescattering model in the bicircular two-color laser field. We find that those holographic patterns are spatially separated from each other in the electron momentum distribution. We further show that the dependence of the initial transverse momentum at the tunnel exit on the ionization time for the rescattering electron is recorded by the holographic patterns.

  11. Two-color RESOLFT nanoscopy with green and red fluorescent photochromic proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie-Cardinal, Flavie; Jensen, Nickels A.; Westphal, Volker; Stiel, Andre C.; Chmyrov, Andriy; Bierwagen, Jakob; Testa, Ilaria; Jakobs, Stefan; Hell, Stefan W.

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, all demonstrations of reversible saturable optical fluorescence transitions (RESOLFT) superresolution microscopy of living cells have relied on the use of reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFP) emitting in the green spectral range. Here we show RESOLFT imaging with rsCherryRev1.4, a new red-emitting RSFP enabling a spatial resolution up to four times higher than the diffraction barrier. By co-expressing green and red RSFPs in living cells we demonstrate two-color RESOLFT...

  12. Radio two-color diagram for QSOs, spiral galaxies, and BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacht, E.

    1976-01-01

    A radio ''color---color'' diagram is presented for 311 QSOs with known redshifts, 26 BL Lacertae-type objects, and 75 spiral galaxies. The spiral galaxies and BL Lac objects are found to cluster in two different almost mutually exclusive regions of the radio two-color diagram. The QSOs display a greater dispersion in their spectra and the dispersion appears to increase with redshift. The mean spectral index i /of the QSOs indicates a flatter spectrum with increasing

  13. Sequential double photodetachment of He- in elliptically polarized laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génévriez, Matthieu; Dunseath, Kevin M.; Terao-Dunseath, Mariko; Urbain, Xavier

    2018-02-01

    Four-photon double detachment of the helium negative ion is investigated experimentally and theoretically for photon energies where the transient helium atom is in the 1 s 2 s 3S or 1 s 2 p P3o states, which subsequently ionize by absorption of three photons. Ionization is enhanced by intermediate resonances, giving rise to series of peaks in the He+ spectrum, which we study in detail. The He+ yield is measured in the wavelength ranges from 530 to 560 nm and from 685 to 730 nm and for various polarizations of the laser light. Double detachment is treated theoretically as a sequential process, within the framework of R -matrix theory for the first step and effective Hamiltonian theory for the second step. Experimental conditions are accurately modeled, and the measured and simulated yields are in good qualitative and, in some cases, quantitative agreement. Resonances in the double detachment spectra can be attributed to well-defined Rydberg states of the transient atom. The double detachment yield exhibits a strong dependence on the laser polarization which can be related to the magnetic quantum number of the intermediate atomic state. We also investigate the possibility of nonsequential double detachment with a two-color experiment but observe no evidence for it.

  14. One-Photon Absorption Properties from a Hybrid Polarizable Density Embedding/Complex Polarization Propagator Approach for Polarizable Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hršak, Dalibor; Nørby, Morten Steen; Coriani, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    We present a formulation of the polarizable density embedding (PDE) method in combination with the complex polarization propagator (CPP) method for the calculation of absorption spectra of molecules in solutions. The method is particularly useful for the calculation of near-edge X-ray absorption...... fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. We compare the performance of PDE-CPP with the previously formulated polarizable embedding (PE)-CPP model for the calculation of the NEXAFS spectra of adenine, formamide, glycine, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in water at the carbon and nitrogen K-edges, as well...

  15. Modelization, fabrication and evaluation avalanche photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode for the single photon in astrophysics applications; Modelisation, fabrication et evaluation des photodiodes a avalanche polarisees en mode Geiger pour la detection du photon unique dans les applications Astrophysiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellion, D

    2008-12-15

    The genesis of the work presented in this this is in the field of very high energy astrophysics. One century ago, scientists identified a new type of messenger coming from space: cosmic rays. This radiation consists of particles (photons or other) of very high energy which bombard the Earth permanently. The passage of cosmic radiations in the Earth's atmosphere results in the creation of briefs luminous flashes (5 ns) of very low intensity (1 pW), a Cherenkov flash, and then becomes visible on the ground. In the current state of the art the best detector of light today is the Photomultiplier tube (PMT), thanks to its characteristics of sensitivity and speed. But there are some drawbacks: low quantum efficiency, cost, weight etc. We present in this thesis a new alternative technology: silicon photon counters, made of photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode. This operating mode makes it possible to obtain an effect of multiplication comparable to that of the PMT. A physical and electrical model was developed to reproduce the behaviour of this detector. We then present in this thesis work an original technological process allowing the realization of these devices in the Center of Technology of LAAS-CNRS, with the simulation of each operation of the process. We developed a scheme for the electric characterization of the device, from the static mode to the dynamic mode, in order to check conformity with SILVACO simulations and to the initial model. Results are already excellent, given this is only a first prototype step, and comparable with the results published in the literature. These silicon devices can intervene in all the applications where there is a photomultiplier and replace it. The applications are thus very numerous and the growth of the market of these detectors is very fast. We present a first astrophysical experiment installed at the 'Pic du Midi' site which has detected Cherenkov flashes from cosmic rays with this new semiconductor technology

  16. Assessing probe-specific dye and slide biases in two-color microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Zelanna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A primary reason for using two-color microarrays is that the use of two samples labeled with different dyes on the same slide, that bind to probes on the same spot, is supposed to adjust for many factors that introduce noise and errors into the analysis. Most users assume that any differences between the dyes can be adjusted out by standard methods of normalization, so that measures such as log ratios on the same slide are reliable measures of comparative expression. However, even after the normalization, there are still probe specific dye and slide variation among the data. We define a method to quantify the amount of the dye-by-probe and slide-by-probe interaction. This serves as a diagnostic, both visual and numeric, of the existence of probe-specific dye bias. We show how this improved the performance of two-color array analysis for arrays for genomic analysis of biological samples ranging from rice to human tissue. Results We develop a procedure for quantifying the extent of probe-specific dye and slide bias in two-color microarrays. The primary output is a graphical diagnostic of the extent of the bias which called ECDF (Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function, though numerical results are also obtained. Conclusion We show that the dye and slide biases were high for human and rice genomic arrays in two gene expression facilities, even after the standard intensity-based normalization, and describe how this diagnostic allowed the problems causing the probe-specific bias to be addressed, and resulted in important improvements in performance. The R package LMGene which contains the method described in this paper has been available to download from Bioconductor.

  17. Two-color fluorescent in situ hybridization in the embryonic zebrafish brain using differential detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauptmann Giselbert

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH is extensively used to characterize gene expression patterns in developing and adult brain and other tissues. To obtain an idea whether a novel gene might be involved in specification of a distinct brain subdivision, nucleus or neuronal lineage, it is often useful to correlate its expression with that of a known regional or neuronal marker gene. Two-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH can be used to compare different transcript distributions at cellular resolution. Conventional two-color FISH protocols require two separate rounds of horseradish peroxidase (POD-based transcript detection, which involves tyramide signal amplification (TSA and inactivation of the first applied antibody-enzyme conjugate before the second detection round. Results We show here that the alkaline phosphatase (AP substrates Fast Red and Fast Blue can be used for chromogenic as well as fluorescent visualization of transcripts. To achieve high signal intensities we optimized embryo permeabilization properties by hydrogen peroxide treatment and hybridization conditions by application of the viscosity-increasing polymer dextran sulfate. The obtained signal enhancement allowed us to develop a sensitive two-color FISH protocol by combining AP and POD reporter systems. We show that the combination of AP-Fast Blue and POD-TSA-carboxyfluorescein (FAM detection provides a powerful tool for simultaneous fluorescent visualization of two different transcripts in the zebrafish brain. The application of different detection systems allowed for a one-step antibody detection procedure for visualization of transcripts, which significantly reduced working steps and hands-on time shortening the protocol by one day. Inactivation of the first applied reporter enzyme became unnecessary, so that false-positive detection of co-localization by insufficient inactivation, a problem of conventional two-color FISH, could be

  18. Isotopically resolved photoelectron imaging unravels complex atomic autoionization dynamics by two-color resonant ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, P; Gryzlova, E V; Cubaynes, D; Garcia, G A; Nahon, L; Grum-Grzhimailo, A N; Meyer, M

    2013-12-13

    Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy in coincidence with high-resolution mass spectroscopy has been applied to study two-color resonant photoionization in atomic xenon. Separation of different isotopes enabled us to extract results for the electronic dynamics free from depolarization effects, which are generally introduced by the coupling of the electronic and nuclear angular momenta. The concerted experimental and theoretical analysis of the photoelectron angular distributions in the region of an autoionizing resonance emphasizes the strong sensitivity of the observed structures to the fine details of the treatment of the underlying dynamics.

  19. Two-color Brillouin ring laser gyro with gyro-compassing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, M; Quast, T

    1994-09-15

    We investigated the gyro-compassing capability of a Brillouin ring laser gyro set up in a two-color operation. Two counterpropagating pump lasers initiated two Brillouin ring lasers on different resonances of a fiber-optic ring resonator cavity, which excluded the mutual intracavity interaction between both counterpropagating Brillouin lasers. Additionally minimizing the external feedback channels of the individual Brillouin lasers allowed for high-resolution measurements, e.g., the horizontal component of the Earth's rotation rate (10.0 degrees /h at Uberlingen, Germany, which corresponded to a beat frequency of 6.85 Hz).

  20. Crustal Strain Observation Using a Two-Color Interferometer with Accurate Correction of Refractive Index of Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souichi Telada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A highly accurate two-color interferometer with automatic correction of the refractive index of air was developed for crustal strain observation. The two-color interferometer, which can measure a geometrical distance of approximately 70 m, with a relative resolution of 2 × 10−9, clearly detected a change in strain due to earth tides in spite of optical measurement in air. Moreover, a large strain quake due to an earthquake could be observed without disturbing the measurement. We demonstrated the advantages of the two-color interferometer in air for geodetic observation.

  1. Electron dynamics in CaB6 induced by one- and two-color femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Y.L.; Wang, F.; Hong, X.H.; Su, W.Y.; Chen, Q.H.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    We simulate nonlinear electron dynamics in CaB 6 crystal within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) under one-color femtosecond laser fields (400 nm, 800 nm) and two-color cases (400 nm+800 nm) with different relative phases of ϕ=0, ϕ=π/4, ϕ=π/2. The time-dependent Kohn–Sham equation (TDKS) is solved in real-time and real-space evolution scheme. We investigate the energy absorption and the electron excitation of CaB 6 crystal in detail. Besides, the electron density distributions and occupations are shown after each external field ends. Computational results indicate that for one-color case, the excitation behaviors are distinct due to the different frequencies; for two-color laser, we adjust the phase and obtain the asymmetric field, which causes the change of the dynamics response comparing with the symmetric field. At the end of laser, the electron occupation is broadly distributed in the energy range of 2.4–42.4 eV, which means a high excitation rate in the narrow-gap semiconductor under intense laser field. The occurrence of the breakdown is also checked for each case in the Letter.

  2. Diquark and pion condensation in random matrix models for two-color QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, B.; Toublan, D.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a random matrix model with the symmetries of QCD with two colors at nonzero isospin and baryon chemical potentials and temperature. We analyze its phase diagram and find phases with condensation of pion and diquark states in addition to the phases with spontaneously broken chiral symmetries. In the limit of small chemical potentials and quark masses, we reproduce the mean field results obtained from chiral Lagrangians. As in the case of QCD with three colors, the presence of two chemical potentials breaks the flavor symmetry and leads to phases that are characterized by different behaviors of the chiral condensates for each flavor. In particular, the phase diagram we obtain is similar to QCD with three colors and three flavors of quarks of equal masses at zero baryon chemical potential and nonzero isospin and strange chemical potentials. A tricritical point of the superfluid transitions found in lattice calculations and from an analysis in terms of chiral Lagrangians does not appear in the random matrix model. Remarkably, at fixed isospin chemical potential, for the regions outside of the superfluid phases, the phase diagrams in the temperature--baryon chemical potential plane for two colors and three colors are qualitatively the same

  3. Near-infrared two-color pyrometer for determining ignition temperatures of metals and metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, K.; Branch, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    A two-color pyrometer has been designed, constructed, and used to measure the ignition temperatures of metals and metal alloys. Cylindrical metal and metal alloy specimens were ignited by a focused cw CO2 laser beam in a cool, static, pure oxygen environment. The pyrometer operates in the near-infrared at two narrow spectral regions, with a nominal bandwidth of 10 nm centered at 0.9051 and 1.06 micron, and has a temperature range from 1000 to 4000 K. In the present design the temperature of a spot, about 0.5 mm in diameter, can be recorded with a maximum time resolution of 25 microseconds and with an accuracy of a few percent. Results of CO2 laser ignition of cylindrical specimens of 6061 aluminum alloy and 302 SS in a pure oxygen environment were obtained from the two-color pyrometer and were compared with those obtained from a thermocouple placed inside the specimen near the laser-irradiated surface.

  4. Long wavelength mid-infrared from mixing two colors from a fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Siyuan; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman; Strickland, Donna

    2015-05-01

    At Waterloo, we are developing a high power, short pulse, two-color, Yb:fiber amplifier system to generate the long wavelength (TATP) occur between 15 and 20 μm. To date, we have achieved a tuning range from 16 to 20 μm with a maximum average power of 1.7 mW. On the short wavelength side, the two colors would need to be pulled further apart, which requires a higher power seed to beat the amplified spontaneous emission that appears at the gain peak of the amplifiers between the two seed colors. On the long wavelength side, we are limited to 20 μm by the transparency region of the nonlinear crystals. We would like to find new nonlinear materials that have transparency from 1 to 30μm. If we could generate wavelengths from 15 to 30 μm with sufficient power, we could extend the spectral region to also cover 8 to 15μm by frequency doubling the longer wavelengths. We are currently working on replacing bulk optics in the system with fiber based optical elements to select the wavelengths as well as stretch and recompress the pulses in order to make the system compact and stable.

  5. Optimal designs for one- and two-color microarrays using mixed models: a comparative evaluation of their efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Passos, Valéria; Tan, Frans E S; Winkens, Bjorn; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies between the one- and two-color microarrays provide supportive evidence for similarities of results on differential gene expression. So far, no design comparisons between the two platforms have been undertaken. With the objective of comparing optimal designs of one- and two-color microarrays in their statistical efficiencies, techniques of design optimization were applied within a mixed model framework. A- and D-optimal designs for the one- and two-color platforms were sought for a 3 x 3 factorial experiment. The results suggest that the choice of the platform will not affect the "subjects to groups" allocation, being concordant in the two designs. However, under financial constraints, the two-color arrays are expected to have a slight upper hand in terms of efficiency of model parameters estimates, once the price of arrays is more expensive than that of subjects. This statement is especially valid for microarray studies envisaging class comparisons.

  6. Evolution of the THz Beam Profile from a Two-Color Air Plasma Through a Beam Waist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally measure the profile of a THz beam generated by a two-color air plasma as it passes through a beam waist, and show that it can be approximated as a Bessel-Gauss beam.......We experimentally measure the profile of a THz beam generated by a two-color air plasma as it passes through a beam waist, and show that it can be approximated as a Bessel-Gauss beam....

  7. Two-Photon Polarization Dependent Spectroscopy in Chirality: A Novel Experimental-Theoretical Approach to Study Optically Active Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio E. Hernández

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many phenomena, including life itself and its biochemical foundations are fundamentally rooted in chirality. Combinatorial methodologies for catalyst discovery and optimization remain an invaluable tool for gaining access to enantiomerically pure compounds in the development of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and flavors. Some exotic metamaterials exhibiting negative refractive index at optical frequencies are based on chiral structures. Chiroptical activity is commonly quantified in terms of circular dichroism (CD and optical rotatory dispersion (ORD. However, the linear nature of these effects limits their application in the far and near-UV region in highly absorbing and scattering biological systems. In order to surmount this barrier, in recent years we made important advancements on a novel non linear, low-scatter, long-wavelength CD approach called two-photon absorption circular dichroism (TPACD. Herein we present a descriptive analysis of the optics principles behind the experimental measurement of TPACD, i.e., the double L-scan technique, and its significance using pulsed lasers. We also make an instructive examination and discuss the reliability of our theoretical-computational approach, which uses modern analytical response theory, within a Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT approach. In order to illustrate the potential of this novel spectroscopic tool, we first present the experimental and theoretical results obtained in C2-symmetric, axially chiral R-(+-1,1'-bi(2-naphthol, R-BINOL, a molecule studied at the beginning of our investigation in this field. Next, we reveal some preliminary results obtained for (R-3,3′-diphenyl-2,2′-bi-1-naphthol, R-VANOL, and (R-2,2′-diphenyl-3,3′-(4-biphenanthrol, R-VAPOL. This family of optically active compounds has been proven to be a suitable model for the structure-property relationship study of TPACD, because its members are highly conjugated yet photo-stable, and easily

  8. The competition index of two-colored non-hamiltonian digraph with two cycles whose lengths differ by three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardi, Hari; Suwilo, Saib; Rosmaini, Elly

    2018-01-01

    A two-colored digraph is a digraph each of whose arcs is colored by red or blue. An (h, g)-walk in a two-colored digraph is a walk consisting of h red arcs and g blue arcs. A strongly connected two-colored digraph is primitive provided there exists a positive integer h + g such that for each ordered pair of vertices x and y there is a (h, g)-walk from x to y. The competition index of a primitive two-colored digraph is the least positive integer h + g over all pairs of nonnegative integers h and g such that for each pair of vertices x and y in there is a vertex w such that there are (h, g)-walks from x to w and from y to w. For some positive integer s ≥ 7 (s ≢ 0 mod 3), we discuss the competition index of a class of strongly connected primitive two-colored digraph D (2) consisting of two cycles of lengths s and s + 3, respectively. We present the competition index of such primitive two-colored digraph D (2) in terms of s and the lengths of two specific paths in D (2).

  9. Non-destructive spatial characterization of buried interfaces in multilayer stacks via two color picosecond acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge C. D.; Garnier, Philippe; Devos, Arnaud

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the ability to construct wide-area spatial mappings of buried interfaces in thin film stacks in a non-destructive manner using two color picosecond acoustics. Along with the extraction of layer thicknesses and sound velocities from acoustic signals, the morphological information presented is a powerful demonstration of phonon imaging as a metrological tool. For a series of heterogeneous (polymer, metal, and semiconductor) thin film stacks that have been treated with a chemical procedure known to alter layer properties, the spatial mappings reveal changes to interior thicknesses and chemically modified surface features without the need to remove uppermost layers. These results compare well to atomic force microscopy scans showing that the technique provides a significant advantage to current characterization methods for industrially important device stacks.

  10. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-01-01

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope

  11. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-07-01

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  12. Memory effects, two color percolation, and the temperature dependence of Mott variable-range hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2014-06-01

    There are three basic processes that determine hopping transport: (a) hopping between normally empty sites (i.e., having exponentially small occupation numbers at equilibrium), (b) hopping between normally occupied sites, and (c) transitions between normally occupied and unoccupied sites. In conventional theories all these processes are considered Markovian and the correlations of occupation numbers of different sites are believed to be small (i.e., not exponential in temperature). We show that, contrary to this belief, memory effects suppress the processes of type (c) and manifest themselves in a subleading exponential temperature dependence of the variable-range hopping conductivity. This temperature dependence originates from the property that sites of type (a) and (b) form two independent resistor networks that are weakly coupled to each other by processes of type (c). This leads to a two-color percolation problem which we solve in the critical region.

  13. Ar 3p photoelectron sideband spectra in two-color XUV + NIR laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemoto, Shinichirou; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Kazma; Komatsubara, Wataru; Majima, Takuya; Mizuno, Tomoya; Owada, Shigeki; Sakai, Hirofumi; Togashi, Tadashi; Yoshida, Shintaro; Yabashi, Makina; Yagishita, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We performed photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond XUV pulses from a free-electron laser and femtosecond near-infrared pulses from a synchronized laser, and succeeded in measuring Ar 3p photoelectron sideband spectra due to the two-color above-threshold ionization. In our calculations of the first-order time-dependent perturbation theoretical model based on the strong field approximation, the photoelectron sideband spectra and their angular distributions are well reproduced by considering the timing jitter between the XUV and the NIR pulses, showing that the timing jitter in our experiments was distributed over the width of {1.0}+0.4-0.2 ps. The present approach can be used as a method to evaluate the timing jitter inevitable in FEL experiments.

  14. Synthesis of Two-Color Laser Pulses for the Harmonic Cutoff Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Li; Zhou, Li-Hua; Zhao, Song-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Xin

    2016-05-01

    Increasing simultaneously both the cutoff energy and efficiency is a big challenge to all applications of high-order harmonic generation (HHG). For this purpose, the shaping of the waveform of driving pulse is an alternative approach. Here, we show that the harmonic cutoff can be extended by about two times without reducing harmonic yield after considering macroscopic propagation effects, by adopting a practical way to synthesize two-color fields with fixed energy. Our results, combined with the experimental techniques, show the great potential of HHG as a tabletop light source. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11264036, 11164025, 11364038, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China under Grant No. 20116203120001, and the Basic Scientific Research Foundation for Institution of Higher Learning of Gansu Province

  15. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori [Olympus Corporation, 2-3 Kuboyama-cho, Hachioji 192-8512 (Japan); Kitagawa, Katsuichi [Toray Engineering Co. Ltd., 1-1-45 Oe, Otsu 520-2141 (Japan); Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira [Ceratech Japan Co., Ltd., 500 Okada, Shinonoi, Nagano 381-2295 (Japan); Bokor, Nandor [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest 1111 (Hungary)

    2014-07-15

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  16. In Silico Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Two Color Morphs of the Common Coral Trout (Plectropomus Leopardus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Wang

    Full Text Available The common coral trout is one species of major importance in commercial fisheries and aquaculture. Recently, two different color morphs of Plectropomus leopardus were discovered and the biological importance of the color difference is unknown. Since coral trout species are poorly characterized at the molecular level, we undertook the transcriptomic characterization of the two color morphs, one black and one red coral trout, using Illumina next generation sequencing technologies. The study produced 55162966 and 54588952 paired-end reads, for black and red trout, respectively. De novo transcriptome assembly generated 95367 and 99424 unique sequences in black and red trout, respectively, with 88813 sequences shared between them. Approximately 50% of both trancriptomes were functionally annotated by BLAST searches against protein databases. The two trancriptomes were enriched into 25 functional categories and showed similar profiles of Gene Ontology category compositions. 34110 unigenes were grouped into 259 KEGG pathways. Moreover, we identified 14649 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and designed primers for potential application. We also discovered 130524 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the two transcriptomes, supplying potential genomic resources for the coral trout species. In addition, we identified 936 fast-evolving genes and 165 candidate genes under positive selection between the two color morphs. Finally, 38 candidate genes underlying the mechanism of color and pigmentation were also isolated. This study presents the first transcriptome resources for the common coral trout and provides basic information for the development of genomic tools for the identification, conservation, and understanding of the speciation and local adaptation of coral reef fish species.

  17. Two-color optical charge-coupled-device-based pyrometer using a two-peak filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tairan; Zhao, Huan; Zeng, Jun; Zhong, Maohua; Shi, Congling

    2010-12-01

    A two-color optical charge-coupled-device (CCD)-based pyrometer was developed using a multipeak interference filter with a color CCD sensor to measure multicolor signals with specified wavelengths. The effective and simple method adjusts the fixed spectrum response characteristics of a color CCD to allow improved temperature measurements. This pyrometer system not only has the advantage of traditional two-color (two-wavelength) pyrometry, but also overcomes the restrictions of color CCDs that can only be applied in waveband measurements. The measurement performance of the system using a two-peak filter (λ(1)=643 nm, λ(2)=564 nm) was evaluated by blackbody experiments. The results show that the low temperature detection limit is increased about 200 K with an increase in the sensitivity of the measured signals compared with the original system without two-peak filter [Fu, et al., Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 586 (2010)]. And the effective temperature range is also increased when T > 1233 K. The measured ratio C(R)/C(G) is monotonically relative to the temperature, which simplifies the measurements. The temperature sensitivity of 2.49 is larger and more uniform than the temperature sensitivity of 1.36 in the previous original system. Thus, the measurement performance of the new system is greatly improved. Finally, as an application, the surface temperature distribution of stainless steel sample in hot environments was determined by this new CCD-based pyrometer. The results agree well with the spectrometer-based results and further verify the applicability of the new system.

  18. Photofission of {sup NAT} Pt by monochromatic and polarized photons in the quasi-deuteron region; Fotofissao da {sup NAT} Pt por fotons monocromaticos e polarizados na regiao do quase-deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Eduardo de

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of the Nat Pt photofission yield at 69 MeV of effective average energy of the incident photon is made using a polarized and monochromatic photon beam from the LADON system of the National Laboratory of Frascati, Italy, produced by inverse Compton scattering of laser light by high energy electrons of the ADONE Accelerator and using as fission track solid detector the Makrofol, being the developing made by usual procedure. The experimental value of the nuclear fissionability is compared to a theoretical value obtained following a model at two stages: in the first, the photon energy is absorbed by a neutron-proton pair inducing to the nucleus excitation, and in the second the nucleus de-excites due to the competition between nucleon evaporation and fission. The effect of fast nucleon emission during the first stage and the successive evaporation of neutrons in the second stage are considered. 40 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs.

  19. Essentials of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Alan; Baets, Roel

    2008-01-01

    Photons and ElectronsHistorical SketchThe Wave Nature of LightPolarizationThe Electromagnetic SpectrumEmission and Absorption ProcessesPhoton Statistics The Behaviour of Electrons LasersSummaryWave Properties of LightThe Electromagnetic SpectrumWave RepresentationElectromagnetic WavesReflection and RefractionTotal Internal ReflectionInterference of LightLight WaveguidingInterferometersDiffractionGaussian Beams and Stable Optical ResonatorsPolarization OpticsThe Polarization EllipseCrystal OpticsRetarding WaveplatesA Variable Waveplate: The Soleil-Babinet Compensator Polarizing PrismsLinear BirefringenceCircular BirefringenceElliptical BirefringencePractical Polarization EffectsPolarization AnalysisThe Form of the Jones MatricesLight and Matter Emission, Propagation, and Absorption ProcessesClassical Theory of Light Propagation in Uniform Dielectric Media Optical Dispersion Emission and Absorption of LightOptical Coherence and CorrelationIntroductionMeasure of Coherence Wiener-Khinchin TheoremDual-Beam Interfe...

  20. PHOTON09. Proceedings of the international conference on the structure and interactions of the photon including the 18th international workshop on photon-photon collisions and the international workshop on high energy photon linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Olaf; Diehl, Markus; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Steinbrueck, Georg (eds.)

    2010-01-15

    The following topics were dealt with: Electroweak and new physics, photon-collider technology, low-energy photon experiments, prompt photons, photon structure, jets and heavy flavours, vacuum polarization and light-by-light scattering, small-x processes, diffraction, total cross sections, exclusive channels and resonances, photons in astroparticle physics. (HSI)

  1. PHOTON09. Proceedings of the international conference on the structure and interactions of the photon including the 18th international workshop on photon-photon collisions and the international workshop on high energy photon linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Olaf; Diehl, Markus; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Steinbrueck, Georg

    2010-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Electroweak and new physics, photon-collider technology, low-energy photon experiments, prompt photons, photon structure, jets and heavy flavours, vacuum polarization and light-by-light scattering, small-x processes, diffraction, total cross sections, exclusive channels and resonances, photons in astroparticle physics. (HSI)

  2. Comparison Study of Strong-Field Ionization of Molecules and Atoms by Bicircular Two-Color Femtosecond Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang; Jia, Xinyan; Yu, Zuqing; He, Feng; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hui; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Hanxiao; Lu, Peifen; Zeng, Heping; Chen, Jing; Wu, Jian

    2017-11-17

    We experimentally investigate the single and double ionization of N_{2} and O_{2} molecules in bicircular two-color femtosecond laser pulses, and compare with their companion atoms of Ar and Xe with comparable ionization thresholds. Electron recollision assisted enhanced ionization is observed in N_{2} and Ar by controlling the helicity and field ratio between the two colors, whereas the enhanced ionization via the recollision is almost absent in O_{2} and Xe. Our S-matrix simulations clearly reveal the crucial role of the detailed electronic structures of N_{2} and O_{2} on the two-dimensional recollision of the electrons driven by the bicircular two-color laser fields. As compared to Ar, the resonant multiphoton excitation dominates the double ionization of Xe.

  3. Perturbation facilitated two-color four-wave-mixing spectroscopy of C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, Y; Bornhauser, P; Knopp, G; Liu, Y; Gerber, T; Marquardt, R; Radi, P P

    2013-10-21

    Perturbation-facilitated two-color resonant four-wave-mixing spectroscopy is realized to access the (dark) triplet manifold of the C3 molecule from the singlet X̃(1)Σg (+) ground state. The inherent nonlinear signal dependence and coherence of the technique result in a favorable detection of the excited triplet states of interest. The observation of a newly found (3)Δu electronic state is achieved by a two-step excitation via "gate-way" levels (i.e., singlet-triplet mixed levels). Additionally, by fixing the probe laser on a transition exhibiting mainly triplet-triplet character and scanning the pump laser, we demonstrate an effective spin-filtering in a four-wave mixing measurement where only transitions to the perturber (3)Σu(-) state appear exclusively in an otherwise congested spectral range of the Comet band. Ab initio calculations of excited triplet states complement our analysis with the electronic assignment of the observed resonances.

  4. Two-color RESOLFT nanoscopy with green and red fluorescent photochromic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Cardinal, Flavie; Jensen, Nickels A; Westphal, Volker; Stiel, Andre C; Chmyrov, Andriy; Bierwagen, Jakob; Testa, Ilaria; Jakobs, Stefan; Hell, Stefan W

    2014-03-17

    Up to now, all demonstrations of reversible saturable optical fluorescence transitions (RESOLFT) superresolution microscopy of living cells have relied on the use of reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFP) emitting in the green spectral range. Here we show RESOLFT imaging with rsCherryRev1.4, a new red-emitting RSFP enabling a spatial resolution up to four times higher than the diffraction barrier. By co-expressing green and red RSFPs in living cells we demonstrate two-color RESOLFT imaging both for single ("donut") beam scanning and for parallelized versions of RESOLFT nanoscopy where an array of >23,000 "donut-like" minima are scanned simultaneously. ©2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  5. Laser-induced plasmas in air studied using two-color interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zefeng; Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Han, Jiaxun; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici; Wei, Wenfu

    2016-01-01

    Temporally and spatially resolved density profiles of Cu atoms, electrons, and compressed air, from laser-induced copper plasmas in air, are measured using fast spectral imaging and two-color interferometry. From the intensified CCD images filtered by a narrow-band-pass filter centered at 515.32 nm, the Cu atoms expansion route is estimated and used to determine the position of the fracture surface between the Cu atoms and the air. Results indicate that the Cu atoms density at distances closer to the target (0–0.4 mm) is quite low, with the maximum density appearing at the edge of the plasma's core being ∼4.6 × 10 24  m −3 at 304 ns. The free electrons are mainly located in the internal region of the plume, which is supposed to have a higher temperature. The density of the shock wave is (4–6) × 10 25  m −3 , corresponding to air compression of a factor of 1.7–2.5.

  6. Phase diagram of dense two-color QCD within lattice simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braguta V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a low-temperature scan of the phase diagram of dense two-color QCD with Nf = 2 quarks. The study is conducted using lattice simulation with rooted staggered quarks. At small chemical potential we observe the hadronic phase, where the theory is in a confining state, chiral symmetry is broken, the baryon density is zero and there is no diquark condensate. At the critical point μ = mπ/2 we observe the expected second order transition to Bose-Einstein condensation of scalar diquarks. In this phase the system is still in confinement in conjunction with nonzero baryon density, but the chiral symmetry is restored in the chiral limit. We have also found that in the first two phases the system is well described by chiral perturbation theory. For larger values of the chemical potential the system turns into another phase, where the relevant degrees of freedom are fermions residing inside the Fermi sphere, and the diquark condensation takes place on the Fermi surface. In this phase the system is still in confinement, chiral symmetry is restored and the system is very similar to the quarkyonic state predicted by SU(Nc theory at large Nc.

  7. Phase diagram of two-color QCD in a Dyson-Schwinger approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buescher, Pascal Joachim

    2014-04-28

    We investigate two-color QCD with N{sub f}=2 at finite temperatures and chemical potentials using a Dyson-Schwinger approach. We employ two different truncations for the quark loop in the gluon DSE: one based on the Hard-Dense/Hard-Thermal Loop (HDTL) approximation of the quark loop and one based on the back-coupling of the full, self-consistent quark propagator (SCQL). We compare results for the different truncations with each other as well as with other approaches. As expected, we find a phase dominated by the condensation of quark-quark pairs. This diquark condensation phase overshadows the critical end point and first-order phase transition which one finds if diquark condensation is neglected. The phase transition from the phase without diquark condensation to the diquark-condensation phase is of second order. We observe that the dressing with massless quarks in the HDTL approximation leads to a significant violation of the Silver Blaze property and to a too small diquark condensate. The SCQL truncation, on the other hand, is found to reproduce all expected features of the μ-dependent quark condensates. Moreover, with parameters adapted to the situation in other approaches, we also find good to very good agreement with model and lattice calculations in all quark quantities. We find indictions that the physics in recent lattice calculations is likely to be driven solely by the explicit chiral symmetry breaking. Discrepancies w.r.t. the lattice are, however, observed in two quantities that are very sensitive to the screening of the gluon propagator, the dressed gluon propagator itself and the phase-transition line at high temperatures.

  8. Optimal control and analysis of two-color genomotyping experiments using bacterial multistrain arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez Mário

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH evaluates the distribution of genes of sequenced bacterial strains among unsequenced strains of the same or related species. As genomic sequences from multiple strains of the same species become available, multistrain microarrays are designed, containing spots for every unique gene in all sequenced strains. To perform two-color aCGH experiments with multistrain microarrays, the choice of control sample can be the genomic DNA of one strain or a mixture of all the strains used in the array design. This important problem has no universally accepted solution. Results We performed a comparative study of the two control sample options with a Streptococcus pneumoniae microarray designed with three fully sequenced strains. We separately hybridized two of these strains (R6 and G54 as test samples using the third strain alone (TIGR4 or a mixture of the three strains as control. We show that for both types of control it is advantageous to analyze spots in separate sets according to their expected control channel signal (5–15% AUC increase. Following this analysis, the use of a mix control leads to higher accuracies (5% increase. This enhanced performance is due to gains in sensitivity (21% increase, p = 0.001 that compensate minor losses in specificity (5% decrease, p = 0.014. Conclusion The use of a single strain control increases the error rate in genes that are part of the accessory genome, where more variation across unsequenced strains is expected, further justifying the use of the mix control.

  9. Non-uniform chromatin condensation on chromosomes: Comparison of different loci by two-color FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tihy, F.; Fetni, r.; Lemieux, N. [Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Models for higher-order folding of the chromatin fiber have been proposed. To date, however, many questions are still unanswered concerning the specificity of chromatin condensation along the entire genome. With the most advanced molecular cytogenetic techniques, we could gather data to help elucidate some aspects of the structural organization of chromosomes by analyzing the resolution limit of adjacent probes at different loci. To study this limit of resolution, we have used two-color FISH to determine the minimal distance at which two probes are individualized. We used probes of known molecular distances on the following loci: the dystrophin gene on Xp21, the HLA locus on 6p21, the RB1 on 13q14 and the HSTF1 and INT2 genes on 11q13. For the dystrophin gene, the limit of resolution was found to be 250 kb, for the HLA locus, 150 kb, for HSTF1 and INT2 on 11q13, 40 kb, and for RB1, 30 kb. There was a large difference in resolution between the loci studied. These results show that condensation does not affect chromatin equally in every loci. The non-uniform compaction of chromatin within loci on chromosomes could be related to the different activities of those loci. The smallest limits of resolution that we observed were 30 kb for the RB1 gene and 40 kb for the HSTF1 and INT2 genes. These distances are much smaller than expected, suggesting that these genes have a particularly decondensed structure. Since these genes are known to be very active, these results can also be interpreted to show the relationship between greater activity and smaller condensation.

  10. On the chiral perturbation theory for two-flavor two-color QCD at finite chemical potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2006), s. 559-569 ISSN 0217-7323 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : two-color QCD * chiral perturbation theory * chemical potential Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.564, year: 2006

  11. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  12. Nonlinear polarization rotation in a dispersion-flattened photonic-crystal fiber for ultrawideband (> 100 nm) all-optical wavelength conversion of 10 Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, C.H.; Chow, C.W.; Tsang, H.K.

    2006-01-01

    We study the conversion bandwidth of the cross-polarization-modulation (YPoIM)-based wavelength conversion scheme with a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber for signals with a nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) modulation format. Both theoretical and experimental results show...... that the conversion bandwidth can be extended to cover a very wide band, including S-, C-, and L-bands for 10 Gbit/s NRZ signals (a total bandwidth of 120 nm is experimentally demonstrated). We also study the theoretical bandwidth limit for 40 Gbit/s NRZ signals. A significant extension of the conversion bandwidth...

  13. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haissinski, J.

    1986-06-01

    The discussions presented in this paper deal with the following points: distinctive features of gamma-gamma collisions; related processes; photon-photon elastic scattering in the continuum and γγ →gg; total cross section; γγ → V 1 V 2 (V=vector meson); radiative width measurements and light meson spectroscopy; exclusive channels at large /t/; jets and inclusive particle distribution in γγ collisions; and, the photon structure function F γ 2

  14. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e#betta# scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by #betta##betta# collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F 2 /sup #betta#/(x,Q 2 ) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved

  15. Photoionization and trans-to-cis isomerization of β-cyclodextrin-encapsulated azobenzene induced by two-color two-laser-pulse excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Tatsuya; Hara, Michihiro

    2018-03-01

    Azobenzene (1) and the complex resulting from the incorporation of 1 with cyclodextrin (1/CD) are attractive for light-driven applications such as micromachining and chemical biology tools. The highly sensitive photoresponse of 1 is crucial for light-driven applications containing both 1 and 1/CD to reach their full potential. In this study, we investigated the photoionization and trans-to-cis isomerization of 1/CD induced by one- and two-color two-laser pulse excitation. Photoionization of 1/CD, which was induced by stepwise two-photon absorption, was observed using laser pulse excitation at 266 nm. Additionally, simultaneous irradiation with 266 and 532 nm laser pulses increased the trans-to-cis isomerization yield (Υt → c) by 27%. It was concluded that the increase in Υt → c was caused by the occurrence of trans-to-cis isomerization in the higher-energy singlet state (Sn), which was reached by S1 → Sn transition induced by laser pulse excitation at 532 nm. The results of this study are potentially applicable in light-driven applications such as micromachining and chemical biology tools.

  16. Study of the. gamma. rho. -->. n. pi. /sup +/ reaction with polarized protons and photons at E/sub. gamma. /=340 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Grushin, V.F.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sanin, V.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.

    1979-07-05

    A two-fold polarization experiment of the ''beam-target'' type is carried out for the first time for the reaction ..gamma..p..-->..n..pi../sup +/ for E/sub ..gamma../ =340 MeV, and the three polarization parameters, ..sigma.., T, and P are determined simultaneously.

  17. Photon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1980-11-01

    Theoretical understanding of the photon structure function is reviewed. As an illustration of the pointlike component, the parton model is briefly discussed. However, the systematic study of the photon structure function is presented through the framework of the operator product expansion. Perturbative QCD is used as the theoretical basis for the calculation of leading contributions to the operator product expansion. The influence of higher order QCD effects on these results is discussed. Recent results for the polarized structure functions are discussed

  18. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Generation of an isolated sub-30 attosecond pulse in a two-color laser field and a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gang-Tai; Zhang Mei-Guang; Bai Ting-Ting

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from a helium ion model in a two-color laser field, which is synthesized by a fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse. It is shown that a supercontinuum spectrum can be generated in the two-color field. However, the spectral intensity is very low, limiting the application of the generated attosecond (as) pulse. By adding a static electric field to the synthesized two-color field, not only is the ionization yield of electrons contributing to the harmonic emission remarkably increased, but also the quantum paths of the HHG can be significantly modulated. As a result, the extension and enhancement of the supercontinuum spectrum are achieved, producing an intense isolated 26-as pulse with a bandwidth of about 170.5 eV. In particular, we also analyse the influence of the laser parameters on the ultrabroad supercontinuum spectrum and isolated sub-30-as pulse generation. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Implementations of quantum and classical gates with linear optical devices and photon number quantum non-demolition measurement for polarization encoded qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa Silva, Joao Batista; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2006-01-01

    Aiming the construction of quantum computers and quantum communication systems based on optical devices, in this work we present possible implementations of quantum and classical CNOTs gates, as well an optical setup for generation and distribution of bipartite entangled states, using linear optical devices and photon number quantum non-demolition measurement

  1. Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov I.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.

  2. Two-color phase control of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, D.A.; Wang, J.; Chu, S.

    1995-01-01

    We present a time-independent generalized Floquet approach for nonperturbative treatment of high-order harmonic generation (HG) in intense onea (i) determination of the complex quasienergy eigenvalue and eigenfunction by means of the non-Hermitian Floquet formalism, wherein the Floquet Hamiltonian is discretized by the complex-scaling generalized pseudospectral technique [Wang, Chu, and Laughlin, Phys. Rev. A 50, 3208 (1994)], and (ii) calculation of the HG rates based on the approach that implies the classical treatment of the electromagnetic field and quantal treatment of the atom. The method is applied to the nonperturbative study of HG by the hydrogen atom in strong laser fields with the fundamental frequencies 532 and 775 nm and their third harmonics. The results show a strong dependence on the relative phase δ between the fundamental frequency field and its harmonic. For the intensities used in calculations (1x10 13 and 5x10 13 W/cm 2 for the fundamental frequency 532 nm and 1x10 13 and 3x10 13 W/cm 2 for the fundamental frequency 775 nm, the harmonic intensity being 10 and 100 times weaker), the total photon emission rate has its maximum at δ=0 and minimum at δ=π. However, this tendency, while valid for the first several HG peaks, is reversed for the higher HG peaks. The HG spectrum for δ=π is broader and the peak heights decrease more slowly compared to the case of δ=0. These results have their analog in the multiphoton above-threshold detachment study performed recently for H - ions [Telnov, Wang, and Chu, Phys. Rev. A 51, 4797 (1995)

  3. Coherent control of D2/H2 dissociative ionization by a mid-infrared two-color laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanie, Vincent; Ibrahim, Heide; Beaulieu, Samuel; Thiré, Nicolas; Schmidt, Bruno E.; Deng, Yunpei; Alnaser, Ali S.; Litvinyuk, Igor V.; Tong, Xiao-Min; Légaré, François

    2016-01-01

    Steering the electrons during an ultrafast photo-induced process in a molecule influences the chemical behavior of the system, opening the door to the control of photochemical reactions and photobiological processes. Electrons can be efficiently localized using a strong laser field with a well-designed temporal shape of the electric component. Consequently, many experiments have been performed with laser sources in the near-infrared region (800 nm) in the interest of studying and enhancing the electron localization. However, due to its limited accessibility, the mid-infrared (MIR) range has barely been investigated, although it allows to efficiently control small molecules and even more complex systems. To push further the manipulation of basic chemical mechanisms, we used a MIR two-color (1800 and 900 nm) laser field to ionize H2 and D2 molecules and to steer the remaining electron during the photo-induced dissociation. The study of this prototype reaction led to the simultaneous control of four fragmentation channels. The results are well reproduced by a theoretical model solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the molecular ion, identifying the involved dissociation mechanisms. By varying the relative phase between the two colors, asymmetries (i.e., electron localization selectivity) of up to 65% were obtained, corresponding to enhanced or equivalent levels of control compared to previous experiments. Experimentally easier to implement, the use of a two-color laser field leads to a better electron localization than carrier-envelope phase stabilized pulses and applying the technique in the MIR range reveals more dissociation channels than at 800 nm.

  4. Stimulated emission pumping of NH in flames by using two-color resonant four-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radi, P.P.; Frey, H.M.; Mischler, B.; Tzannis, A.P.; Beaud, P.; Gerber, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In this work we examine the analytical potential of two-color resonant four-wave mixing for the determination and characterization of trace elements in a combustion environment. Experimental results for NH in flames at atmospheric pressure are presented. The selectivity of the technique is used to simplify the Q-branch region of the (0-0)A{sup 3}{Pi}-X{sup 3}{Sigma} vibronic transition of NH. In addition, we demonstrate that the technique is sensitive to state changing collisions. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  5. Observations of strain accumulation across the san andreas fault near palmdale, california, with a two-color geodimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J O; Linker, M F; McGarr, A; Slater, L E

    1982-12-17

    Two-color laser ranging measurements during a 15-month period over a geodetic network spanning the San Andreas fault near Palmdale, California, indicate that the crust expands and contracts aseismically in episodes as short as 2 weeks. Shear strain parallel to the fault has accumulated monotonically since November 1980, but at a variable rate. Improvements in measurement precision and temporal resolution over those of previous geodetic studies near Palmdale have resulted in the definition of a time history of crustal deformation that is much more complex than formerly realized.

  6. Electron-positron pair production by gamma-rays in an anisotropic flux of soft photons, and application to pulsar polar caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Guillaume; Mottez, Fabrice; Bonazzola, Silvano

    2018-02-01

    Electron-positron pair production by collision of photons is investigated in view of application to pulsar physics. We compute the absorption rate of individual gamma-ray photons by an arbitrary anisotropic distribution of softer photons, and the energy and angular spectrum of the outgoing leptons. We work analytically within the approximation that 1 ≫ mc2/E > ɛ/E, with E and ɛ the gamma-ray and soft-photon maximum energy and mc2 the electron mass energy. We give results at leading order in these small parameters. For practical purposes, we provide expressions in the form of Laurent series which give correct reaction rates in the isotropic case within an average error of ˜ 7 per cent. We apply this formalism to gamma-rays flying downward or upward from a hot neutron star thermally radiating at a uniform temperature of 106 K. Other temperatures can be easily deduced using the relevant scaling laws. We find differences in absorption between these two extreme directions of almost two orders of magnitude, much larger than our error estimate. The magnetosphere appears completely opaque to downward gamma-rays while there are up to ˜ 10 per cent chances of absorbing an upward gamma-ray. We provide energy and angular spectra for both upward and downward gamma-rays. Energy spectra show a typical double peak, with larger separation at larger gamma-ray energies. Angular spectra are very narrow, with an opening angle ranging from 10-3 to 10-7 radians with increasing gamma-ray energies.

  7. Advanced Silicon Photonic Transceivers - the Case of a Wavelength Division and Polarization Multiplexed Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Receiver for Terabit/s Optical Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-10

    S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AFOSR/SOARD U.S. Embassy Santiago Av. Andres Bello 2800 Santiago, Chile 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) AFRL/AFOSR IOS 11...with the aid of polarization controllers. A 50 GHz 160 GS/s real-time oscilloscope stores the output of the TIA for offline processing. The system

  8. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The current status, both theoretical and experimental, of two photon collision physics is reviewed with special emphasis on recent experimental results from e + e - storage rings. After a complete presentation of the helicity amplitude formalism for the general process e + e - → Xe + e - , various approximations (transverse photon, Weisaecker Williams) are discussed. Beam polarisation effects and radiative corrections are also briefly considered. A number of specific processes, for which experimental results are now available, are then described. In each case existing theoretical prediction are confronted with experimental results. The processes described include single resonance production, lepton and hadron pair production, the structure functions of the photon, the production of high Psub(T) jets and the total photon photon cross section. In the last part of the review the current status of the subject is summarised and some comments are made on future prospects. These include both extrapolations of current research to higher energy machines (LEP, HERA) as well as a brief mention of both the technical realisation and the physics interest of the real γγ and eγ collisions which may be possible using linear electron colliders in the 1 TeV energy range

  9. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  10. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of α/sub s/ and Λ/sup ms/ from the γ*γ → π 0 form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from γγ → H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub γγ/ from exclusive channels at low W/sub γγ/, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z 0 and W +- beams from e → eZ 0 and e → nu W will become important. 44 references

  11. Multistabilities and symmetry-broken one-color and two-color states in closely coupled single-mode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Eoin; O'Brien, Stephen; Amann, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the dynamics of two mutually coupled, identical single-mode semi-conductor lasers. For small separation and large coupling between the lasers, symmetry-broken one-color states are shown to be stable. In this case the light outputs of the lasers have significantly different intensities while at the same time the lasers are locked to a single common frequency. For intermediate coupling we observe stable symmetry-broken two-color states, where both lasers lase simultaneously at two optical frequencies which are separated by up to 150 GHz. Using a five-dimensional model, we identify the bifurcation structure which is responsible for the appearance of symmetric and symmetry-broken one-color and two-color states. Several of these states give rise to multistabilities and therefore allow for the design of all-optical memory elements on the basis of two coupled single-mode lasers. The switching performance of selected designs of optical memory elements is studied numerically.

  12. Time-lapse two-color 3D imaging of live cells with doubled resolution using structured illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolka, Reto; Shao, Lin; Rego, E Hesper; Davidson, Michael W; Gustafsson, Mats G L

    2012-04-03

    Previous implementations of structured-illumination microscopy (SIM) were slow or designed for one-color excitation, sacrificing two unique and extremely beneficial aspects of light microscopy: live-cell imaging in multiple colors. This is especially unfortunate because, among the resolution-extending techniques, SIM is an attractive choice for live-cell imaging; it requires no special fluorophores or high light intensities to achieve twice diffraction-limited resolution in three dimensions. Furthermore, its wide-field nature makes it light-efficient and decouples the acquisition speed from the size of the lateral field of view, meaning that high frame rates over large volumes are possible. Here, we report a previously undescribed SIM setup that is fast enough to record 3D two-color datasets of living whole cells. Using rapidly programmable liquid crystal devices and a flexible 2D grid pattern algorithm to switch between excitation wavelengths quickly, we show volume rates as high as 4 s in one color and 8.5 s in two colors over tens of time points. To demonstrate the capabilities of our microscope, we image a variety of biological structures, including mitochondria, clathrin-coated vesicles, and the actin cytoskeleton, in either HeLa cells or cultured neurons.

  13. Polarization bremsstrahlung in α decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Zon, B. A.; Kretinin, I. Yu.

    2007-01-01

    A mechanism of formation of electromagnetic radiation that accompanies α decay and is associated with the emission of photons by electrons of atomic shells due to the scattering of α particles by these atoms (polarization bremsstrahlung) is proposed. It is shown that, when the photon energy is no higher than the energy of K electrons of an atom, polarization bremsstrahlung makes a significant contribution to the bremsstrahlung in α decay

  14. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2014-02-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  15. Measurement problem and local hidden variables with entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchowski, Eugen

    2017-12-01

    It is shown that there is no remote action with polarization measurements of photons in singlet state. A model is presented introducing a hidden parameter which determines the polarizer output. This model is able to explain the polarization measurement results with entangled photons. It is not ruled out by Bell's Theorem.

  16. Photoproduction of π+π-π0 on hydrogen with linearly polarized photons of energy 20-70 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasalle, J.C.; Patrick, G.N.; Storr, K.M.; Atkinson, M.; Axon, T.J.; Barberis, D.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brookes, G.R.; Bunn, J.J.; Bussey, P.J.; Clegg, A.B.; Dainton, J.B.; Davenport, M.; Dickinson, B.; Dieckmann, B.; Donnachie, A.; Ellison, R.J.; Flower, P.; Flynn, P.J.; Galbraith, W.; Heinloth, K.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Hutton, J.S.; Ibbotson, M.; Jakob, H.P.; Jung, M.; Kemp, M.A.R.; Kumar, B.R.; Laberrigue, J.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lane, J.B.; Levy, J.M.; Liebenau, V.; McClatchey, R.H.; Mercer, D.; Morris, J.A.G.; Morris, J.V.; Newton, D.; Paterson, C.; Paul, E.; Raine, C.; Reidenbach, M.; Rotscheidt, H.; Schloesser, A.; Sharp, P.H.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Thompson, R.J.; Vaissiere, C. de la; Waite, A.P.; Worsell, M.F.; Yiou, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    Results on photoproduction of π + π - π 0 in the photon energy range 20-70 GeV are presented. For the ω meson, the production cross-section is found to be 1010 +- 15 (statistical) +- 290 (systematic) nb and is constant over the incident photon energy range. Spin-density matrix elements are evaluated for ω meson production. The PHI meson is observed with a total photoproduction cross section (corrected for branching ratio to π + π - π 0 ) of 610 +- 35 +- 170 nb. A third resonance, at 1.67 GeV, is seen in the mass spectrum and its interpretation is discussed. The production of a braod π + π - π 0 continuum, mainly via rhoπ, and peaking at 1.2 GeV, contributes with a cross section of about 2.5 μb. The spin-parity content is analysed by the moments of the π + π - π 0 decay angular distribution in the helicity frame and by maximum likelihood fits to the π + π - π 0 Dalitz plot. It is found that production of Jsup(P) = 1 - states accounts for less than half of the total mass spectrum above 900 MeV. There is a broad enhancement in the 1 + wave around 1.15 GeV indicating photoproduction of the H(1190) meson. (orig.)

  17. A Two-Color Fourier Transform Mm-Wave Spectrometer for Gas Analysis Operating from 260-295 GHZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steber, Amanda L.; Harris, Brent J.; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Pate, Brooks H.

    2013-06-01

    We have designed a two-color mm-wave spectrometer for Fourier transform mm-wave spectroscopy that uses consumer level components for the tunable synthesizers, digital control of the pulse modulators, and digitization of the coherent free induction decay (FID). The excitation pulses are generated using an x24 active multiplier chain (AMC) that produces a peak power of 30 mW. The microwave input to the AMC is generated in a frequency up conversion circuit that accepts a microwave input frequency from about 2-4 GHz. This circuit also generates the input to the mm-wave subhamonic mixer that creates the local oscillator from a separate 2-4 GHz microwave input. Excitation pulses at two independently tunable frequencies are generated using a dual-channel source based on a low-cost, wideband synthesizer integrated circuit (Valon Technology Model 5008). The outputs of the synthesizer are pulse modulated using a PIN diode switch that is driven using the arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) output of a USB-controlled high-speed digitizer / arbitrary waveform generator combination unit (Tie Pie HS-5 530 XM). The two pulses are combined using a Wilkinson power divider before input to the up conversion circuit. The FID frequency is down converted in a two-stage mixing process to 65 MHz. The two LO frequencies used in the receiver are provided by a second Valon 5008. The FID is digitized at 200 MSamples/s using the 12-bit Tie Pie digitizer. The digital oscilloscope (and its AWG channel) and the two synthesizers use a 10 MHz reference signal from a Rubidium clock to permit time-domain signal averaging. A key feature of the digital oscilloscope is its deep memory of 32 Mpts (complemented by the 64 Mpt memory in the 240 MS/s AWG). This makes it possible to perform several one- and two-color coherent measurements, including pulse echoes and double-resonance spectroscopy, in a single "readout" experiment to speed the analysis of mm-wave rotational spectra. The spectrometer sensitivity

  18. A multiplex two-color real-time PCR method for quality-controlled molecular diagnostic testing of FFPE samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoun Yeo

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR tests support personalized cancer treatment through more clinically meaningful diagnosis. However, samples obtained through standard clinical pathology procedures are formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE and yield small samples with low integrity RNA containing PCR interfering substances. RT-qPCR tests able to assess FFPE samples with quality control and inter-laboratory reproducibility are needed.We developed an RT-qPCR method by which 1 each gene was measured relative to a known number of its respective competitive internal standard molecules to control for interfering substances, 2 two-color fluorometric hydrolysis probes enabled analysis on a real-time platform, 3 external standards controlled for variation in probe fluorescence intensity, and 4 pre-amplification maximized signal from FFPE RNA samples. Reagents were developed for four genes comprised by a previously reported lung cancer diagnostic test (LCDT then subjected to analytical validation using synthetic native templates as test articles to assess linearity, signal-to-analyte response, lower detection threshold, imprecision and accuracy. Fitness of this method and these reagents for clinical testing was assessed in FFPE normal (N = 10 and malignant (N = 10 lung samples.Reagents for each of four genes, MYC, E2F1, CDKN1A and ACTB comprised by the LCDT had acceptable linearity (R(2>0.99, signal-to-analyte response (slope 1.0 ± 0.05, lower detection threshold (<10 molecules and imprecision (CV <20%. Poisson analysis confirmed accuracy of internal standard concentrations. Internal standards controlled for experimentally introduced interference, prevented false-negatives and enabled pre-amplification to increase signal without altering measured values. In the fitness for purpose testing of this two-color fluorometric LCDT using surgical FFPE samples, the diagnostic accuracy was 93% which was similar to that previously reported

  19. CONFERENCE: Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Despite being difficult to observe, photon-photon collisions have opened up a range of physics difficult, or even impossible, to access by other methods. The progress which has been made in this field was evident at the fifth international workshop on photon-photon collisions, held in Aachen from 13-16 April and attended by some 120 physicists

  20. Solution Growth of Two-Dimensional Bi2Se3 Nanosheets for Two-Color All-Optical Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghua Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional Bi2Se3 nanosheets with hexagonal shape are synthesized by a solution synthetic route. The Bi2Se3 nanosheets are 120 nm in edge width and 7 nm in thickness. The size of the Bi2Se3 nanosheets can be controlled by choosing different kinds of reducing agents including hydroxylamine and ethylenediamine. Subsequently, we demonstrate a configuration of two-color all-optical switching based on plasma channels effect using the as-synthesized Bi2Se3 nanosheets as an optical media. The signal light can be modulated as two states including dot and ring shape by changing the intensity of control light. The modulated signal light exhibits excellent spatial propagation properties. As a type of interesting optical material, ultrathin two-dimensional Bi2Se3 nanosheets might provide an effective option for photoelectric applications.

  1. Flow cytometric quantification of all phases of the cell cycle and apoptosis in a two-color fluorescence plot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Vignon

    Full Text Available An optimal technology for cell cycle analysis would allow the concomitant measurement of apoptosis, G0, G1, S, G2 and M phases in combination with cell surface phenotyping. We have developed an easy method in flow cytometry allowing this discrimination in an only two-color fluorescent plot. It is based on the concomitant use of 7-amino-actinomycin D and the antibodies anti-Ki67 and anti-phospho(Ser10-histone H3, both conjugated to Alexa Fluor®488 to discriminate G0 and M phases, respectively. The method is particularly valuable in a clinical setting as verified in our laboratory by analyzing human leukemic cells from marrow samples or after exposure to cell cycle modifiers.

  2. Polarization of Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1957-01-01

    The numerical results for the polarization of Bremsstrahlung are presented. The multiple scattering of electrons in the target is taken into account. The angular-and photon energy dependences are seen on the curves for an incident 25 MeV electron energy. (Author) [fr

  3. Interference and complementarity for two-photon hybrid entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, W. A. T.; Santibanez, M.; Delgado, A.; Saavedra, C.; Neves, L.; Lima, G.; Padua, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we generate two-photon hybrid entangled states (HESs), where the polarization of one photon is entangled with the transverse spatial degree of freedom of the second photon. The photon pair is created by parametric down-conversion in a polarization-entangled state. A birefringent double-slit couples the polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of these photons, and finally, suitable spatial and polarization projections generate the HES. We investigate some interesting aspects of the two-photon hybrid interference and present this study in the context of the complementarity relation that exists between the visibility of the one-photon and that of the two-photon interference patterns.

  4. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. Photonic crystals in epitaxial semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    La Rue, R M de

    1998-01-01

    The title of the paper uses the expression "photonic crystals". By photonic crystals, we mean regular periodic structures with a substantial refractive index variation in one-, two- or three- dimensional space. Such crystals can $9 exist naturally, for example natural opal, but are more typically fabricated by people. Under sufficiently strong conditions, i.e., sufficiently large refractive index modulation, correct size of structural components, and $9 appropriate rotational and translational symmetry, these crystals exhibit the characteristics of a photonic bandgap (PBG) structure. In a full photonic bandgap structure there is a spectral stop band for electromagnetic waves $9 propagating in any direction through the structure and with an arbitrary state of polarization. This behavior is of interest both from a fundamental viewpoint and from the point of view of novel applications in photonic devices. The $9 paper gives an outline review of work on photonic crystals carried out by the Optoelectronics Researc...

  6. Resonant inelastic X-ray spectroscopy of atoms and simple molecules: Satellite features and dependence on energy detuning and photon polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žitnik, M., E-mail: matjaz.zitnik@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Jadranska 21, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kavčič, M.; Bohinc, R.; Bučar, K.; Mihelič, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cao, W. [Research Centre for Molecular Materials, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Guillemin, R.; Journel, L.; Marchenko, T.; Carniato, S.; Kawerk, E. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); Piancastelli, M.N. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Simon, M. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-10-15

    We summarize recent results dealing with high resolution (resonant) X-ray spectroscopy of atomic and molecular targets in the tender X-ray energy region. We comment on advantages, new possibilities and problems related to RIXS spectroscopy with respect to the standard photoabsorption technique, where scanning the probe energy is the only option. In particular, three research areas are covered: X-ray emission mediated by energy dependent photoabsorption to multi-electron excited states, the Cl K core-hole clock studies exemplified by systematic study of chloro(fluoro)-hydrocarbon targets and the polarization dependent X-ray emission studies. Due to its spectral selectivity and simultaneous detection capability, high resolution wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has the capability to resolve structural and dynamical properties of matter within new instrumentation frontiers.

  7. Nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography with continuous-wave lights for both congruent and near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yan; Zhang Guoquan; Fu Bo; Xu Qingjun; Xu Jingjun

    2004-01-01

    We have studied theoretically the steady-state nonvolatile two-step, two-color holographic recording performance for both the congruent and the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Fe based on the two-center model (the deep-trap and the shallow-trap centers are Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ and Nb Li 4+ /Nb Li 5+ , respectively). The results show that the direct electron exchange between the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ centers and the Nb Li 4+ /Nb Li 5+ centers due to the tunneling effect dominates the charge-transfer process during the nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography and determines the two-step, two-color holography performance in LiNbO 3 :Fe. We have further studied the effects of the crystal stoichiometry on the performance of the two-step, two-color holography. It is shown that, as far as the total space-charge field is considered, the nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography performance in the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Fe is much better than that in the congruent LiNbO 3 :Fe within the intensity range reachable by the continuous-wave lights

  8. Polarized electron beams at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1992-11-01

    SLAC has successfully accelerated high energy polarized electrons for the Stanford Linear Collider and fixed polarized nuclear target experiments. The polarized electron beams at SLAC use a gallium arsenide (GaAlAs for E-142) photon emission source to provide the beam of polarized electrons with polarization of approximately 28% (41% for E-142). While the beam emittance is reduced in the damping ring for SLC operation a system of bend magnets and superconducting solenoids preserve and orient the spin direction for maximum longitudinal polarization at the collision point. The electron polarization is monitored with a Compton scattering polarimeter, and was typically 22% at the e+e- collision point for the 1992 run. Improvements are discussed to increase the source polarization and to reduce the depolarization effects between the source and the collision point

  9. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  10. Polarized Moessbauer transitions in mixed hyperfine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.; Tarina, D.

    1975-01-01

    A contribution to the theory of elliptical polarization in the Moessbauer effect for transitions between mixed nuclear states is reported. A relation between the two-dimensional complex vector parameterization and the photon polarization density matrix was used in describing changes in the polarization of the gamma-ray involved. (A.K.)

  11. Electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber based polarizer integrated in a double silicon v-groove assembly. The polarizer axis can be electrically controlled as well as switched on and off.......We demonstrate a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber based polarizer integrated in a double silicon v-groove assembly. The polarizer axis can be electrically controlled as well as switched on and off....

  12. Route to optimal generation of soft X-ray high harmonics with synthesized two-color laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Wang, Guoli; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C D

    2014-11-17

    High harmonics extending to X-rays have been generated from gases by intense lasers. To establish these coherent broadband radiations as an all-purpose tabletop light source for general applications in science and technology, new methods are needed to overcome the present low conversion efficiencies. Here we show that the conversion efficiency may be drastically increased with an optimized two-color pulse. By employing an optimally synthesized 2-µm mid-infrared laser and a small amount of its third harmonic, we show that harmonic yields from sub- to few-keV energy can be increased typically by ten-fold over the optimized single-color one. By combining with favorable phase-matching and together with the emerging high-repetition MHz mid-infrared lasers, we anticipate efficiency of harmonic yields can be increased by four to five orders in the near future, thus paving the way for employing high harmonics as useful broadband tabletop light sources from the extreme ultraviolet to the X-rays, as well as providing new tools for interrogating ultrafast dynamics of matter at attosecond timescales.

  13. Probabilistic Cash Flow-Based Optimal Investment Timing Using Two-Color Rainbow Options Valuation for Economic Sustainability Appraisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggu Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research determines the optimal investment timing using real options valuation to support decision-making for economic sustainability assessment. This paper illustrates an option pricing model using the Black-Scholes model applied to a case project to understand the model performance. Applicability of the project to the model requires two Monte Carlo simulations to satisfy a Markov process and a Wiener process. The position of project developers is not only the seller of products, but it is also the buyer of raw materials. Real options valuation can be influenced by the volatility of cash outflow, as well as the volatility of cash inflow. This study suggests two-color rainbow options valuation to overcome this issue, which is demonstrated for a steel plant project. The asymmetric results of the case study show that cash outflow (put option influences the value of the steel plant project more than cash inflow (call option does of which the discussion of the results is referred to a sensitivity analysis. The real options valuation method proposed in this study contributes to the literature on applying the new model, taking into consideration that investors maximize project profitability for economic sustainable development.

  14. Temperature characterization of a radiating gas layer using digital-single-lens-reflex-camera-based two-color ratio pyrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Sneh; Krishna, Yedhu; Jagadeesh, Gopalan

    2017-10-20

    The two-color ratio pyrometry technique using a digital single-lens reflex camera has been used to measure the time-averaged and path-integrated temperature distribution in the radiating shock layer in a high-enthalpy flow. A 70 mm diameter cylindrical body with a 70 mm long spike was placed in a hypersonic shock tunnel, and the region behind the shock layer was investigated. The systematic error due to contributions from line emissions was corrected by monitoring the emission spectrum from this region using a spectrometer. The relative contributions due to line emissions on R, G, and B channels of the camera were 7.4%, 2.2%, and 0.4%, respectively. The temperature contours obtained clearly distinguished regions of highest temperature. The maximum absolute temperature obtained in the experiment was ∼2920  K±55  K, which was 20% lower than the stagnation temperature. This lower value is expected due to line-of-sight integration, time averaging, and losses in the flow. Strategies to overcome these limitations are also suggested in the paper.

  15. Two-color cytofluorometry and cellular properties of the urokinase receptor associated with a human metastatic carcinomatous cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Gojobori, T.; Tanifuji, M.

    1991-01-01

    Purified human urokinase was labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate or iodine-125 and used as a probe for binding to the human metastatic carcinomatous cell line, Detroit 562. Cytofluorometry showed that the ligand bound preferentially to cells that had been exposed to acidic pH. The binding was competitive and decreased after mild tryptic digestion. The bound ligand could be removed by restoration of the cells to a low pH. Therefore, the cells had specific binding sites. The bound urokinase was involved in the breakdown of fibrin. Two-color cytofluorometric maps were constructed by counterstaining with propidium iodide. Results suggested that there were different cell populations that had different numbers of receptors and amounts of DNA. We cloned cells and found that single clones had homogeneous levels of receptors with different dissociation constants (from 10(-13) to 10(-11) mol/mg protein) for different clones. Cells of one clone, C5, which had high levels of receptor production, moved characteristically on a glass substratum coated with gold particles and reacted with wheat germ agglutinin, but not with concanavalin A. The receptors were found together with adhesion proteins at the sites where the cells adhered to the substrate. These results and the data obtained by zymography of the cellular proteins suggested that the urokinase-type plasminogen activators were bound to the receptors. The membrane-associated activator may stimulate local proteolysis, facilitating the migration of the tumor cell across the substrate

  16. Two-color cytofluorometry and cellular properties of the urokinase receptor associated with a human metastatic carcinomatous cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Gojobori, T.; Tanifuji, M. (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan))

    1991-02-01

    Purified human urokinase was labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate or iodine-125 and used as a probe for binding to the human metastatic carcinomatous cell line, Detroit 562. Cytofluorometry showed that the ligand bound preferentially to cells that had been exposed to acidic pH. The binding was competitive and decreased after mild tryptic digestion. The bound ligand could be removed by restoration of the cells to a low pH. Therefore, the cells had specific binding sites. The bound urokinase was involved in the breakdown of fibrin. Two-color cytofluorometric maps were constructed by counterstaining with propidium iodide. Results suggested that there were different cell populations that had different numbers of receptors and amounts of DNA. We cloned cells and found that single clones had homogeneous levels of receptors with different dissociation constants (from 10(-13) to 10(-11) mol/mg protein) for different clones. Cells of one clone, C5, which had high levels of receptor production, moved characteristically on a glass substratum coated with gold particles and reacted with wheat germ agglutinin, but not with concanavalin A. The receptors were found together with adhesion proteins at the sites where the cells adhered to the substrate. These results and the data obtained by zymography of the cellular proteins suggested that the urokinase-type plasminogen activators were bound to the receptors. The membrane-associated activator may stimulate local proteolysis, facilitating the migration of the tumor cell across the substrate.

  17. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  18. High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Broeng, Jes; Knudsen, Erik

    2001-01-01

    A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber design is analysed. Birefringence up to 10-3 is found. Random fluctuations in the cladding design are analysed, and the fiber is found to be a feasible polarization maintaining fiber.......A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber design is analysed. Birefringence up to 10-3 is found. Random fluctuations in the cladding design are analysed, and the fiber is found to be a feasible polarization maintaining fiber....

  19. Determination of self generated magnetic field and the plasma density using Cotton Mouton polarimetry with two color probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi A.S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Self generated magnetic fields (SGMF in laser produced plasmas are conventionally determined by measuring the Faraday rotation angle of a linearly polarized laser probe beam passing through the plasma along with the interferogram for obtaining plasma density. In this paper, we propose a new method to obtain the plasma density and the SGMF distribution from two simultaneous measurements of Cotton Mouton polarimetry of two linearly polarized probe beams of different colors that pass through plasma in a direction normal to the planar target. It is shown that this technique allows us to determine the distribution of SGMF and the plasma density without doing interferometry of laser produced plasmas.

  20. Photonic Hypercrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii E. Narimanov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new “universality class” of artificial optical media—photonic hypercrystals. These hyperbolic metamaterials, with periodic spatial variation of dielectric permittivity on subwavelength scale, combine the features of optical metamaterials and photonic crystals. In particular, surface waves supported by a hypercrystal possess the properties of both the optical Tamm states in photonic crystals and surface-plasmon polaritons at the metal-dielectric interface.

  1. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  2. Two-step two-color recording in a photorefractive praseodymium-doped La3Ga5SiO14 crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, T.; Johansen, P.M.; Yue, X.

    1999-01-01

    Two-step two-color recording is demonstrated in a photorefractive La3Ga5SiO14:Pr3+ crystal using cw laser radiation. The 488 nm line from an Ar-ion laser is used for gating and gratings are written using a Ti:sapphire laser operating in the range from 788 to 840 nm. The dependence of holographic...

  3. Room-temperature two-color lasing by current injection into a GaAs/AlGaAs coupled multilayer cavity fabricated by wafer bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Takahiro; Lu, Xiangmeng; Minami, Yasuo; Kumagai, Naoto; Morita, Ken

    2018-04-01

    Room-temperature two-color lasing was demonstrated by current injection into a GaAs/AlGaAs coupled multilayer cavity for terahertz emitting devices utilizing its difference-frequency generation (DFG) inside the structure. We prepared two epitaxial wafers with (001) and (113)B orientations and they were directly bonded to form the coupled multilayer cavity. The (001) side cavity contains two types of InGaAs multiple quantum wells to realize optical gain for two-color lasing while a single GaAs layer of the (113)B side cavity is a nonlinear medium for efficient DFG. Lasing behavior was clearly observed for two modes under pulsed current conditions at room temperature. We found that the intensity relation between two-color lasings was dependent on the pulse duration because of the different temporal profiles of emission intensity. Simultaneous two-color lasing in the device was also confirmed by measuring the sum-frequency generation signal using a beta barium borate crystal.

  4. Baryon spectroscopy with polarization observables from CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, Steffen [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Meson photoproduction is an important tool in the study of baryon resonances. The spectrum of broad and overlapping nucleon excitations can be greatly clarified by use of polarization observables. The N* program at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) includes experimental studies with linearly and circularly polarized tagged photon beams, longitudinally and transversely polarized nucleon targets, and recoil polarizations. An overview of these experimental studies and recent results will be given.

  5. Low cost CD4 enumeration using generic monoclonal antibody reagents and a two-color user-defined MultiSET protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Shain, Hla; Prasertsilpa, Varipin; Noulsri, Egarit; Lerdwana, Surada; Eksaengsri, Achara

    2006-09-15

    The standard three-tube, three-color flow cytometric method utilizing the TriTEST reagents in conjunction with the MultiSET software commonly used in most laboratories in Thailand for CD4 enumeration is expensive and thus unavailable to most HIV-infected patients. A more affordable method, i.e., the PanLeucogating protocol using only two monoclonal antibody reagents, has been described but requires the use of the CellQUEST software that does not have automatic gating and reporting facilities. We describe a simple protocol that utilizes a two-color user-defined protocol with the automated MultiSET software for the acquisition, analysis, and reporting of CD4 results. A two-color user-defined protocol was set up following instructions in the Becton Dickinson Biosciences MultiSET manual, adhering strictly to the information regarding the Gate and Attractor Hierarchy for analyzing various reagent combinations. This simple two-color user-defined MultiSET software was evaluated using generic monoclonal reagents in comparison with the standard TriTEST/MultiSET protocol. The two-color user-defined MultiSET software is easy to use. It requires only modification of the original MultiSET program and the results obtained are comparable with those derived from the standard TriTEST/MultiSET protocol. The use of this easy and reliable two-color user-defined MultiSET protocol represents an affordable alternative to CD4 testing in resource-poor settings. Copyright 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology.

  6. Polarization at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z/sup 0/ mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A helical optical for circular polarized UV-FEL project at the UVSOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hama, Hiroyuki [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Most of existing storage ring free electron lasers (SRFEL) are restricted those performances by degradation of mirrors in optical cavities. In general, the SRFEL gain at the short wavelength region with high energy electrons is quite low, and the high reflectivity mirrors such as dielectric multilayer mirrors are therefore required. The mirror degradation is considered as a result of irradiation of higher harmonic photons that are simultaneously emitted from planar optical klystron (OK) type undulators, which are commonly used in SRFEL. This problem is getting severer as the lasing wavelength becomes shorter. The UVSOR-FEL had been originally scheduled to be shutdown by 1996 because another undulator project for spectroscopic studies with circular polarized photon would take the FEL`s place. According to suggestion of the insertion device group of the SPring-8, we have designed a helical undulator that is able to vary degree and direction of the polarization easily. In addition, the undulator can be converted into a helical OK by replacing magnets at the center part of undulator in order to coexist with further FEL experiments. Using a calculated magnetic field for magnet configurations of the OK mode, the radiation spectrum at wide wavelength range was simulated by a Fourier transform of Lienard-Wiechert potentials. As a matter of course, some higher harmonics are radiated on the off-axis angle. However it was found out that the higher harmonics is almost negligible as far as inside a solid angle of the Gaussian laser mode. Moreover the gain at the UV region of 250 nm is expected to be much higher than our present FEL because of high brilliant fundamental radiation. The calculated spatial distribution of higher harmonics and the estimated instantaneous gain is presented. Advantages of the helical OK for SRFEL will be discussed in view of our experience, and a possibility of application two-color experiment with SR will be also mentioned.

  8. Polychromatic photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A review is given of the space-time wave mechanics of single photons, a subject with an almost century long history. The Landau-Peierls photon wave function, which is related nonlocally to the electromagnetic field is first described, and thereafter the so-called energy wave function, based...... on the positive-frequency Riemann-Silberstein vectors, is discussed. Recent attempts to understand the birth process of a photon emerging from a single atom are summarized. The polychromatic photon concept is introduced, and it is indicated how the wave mechanics of polychromatic photons can be upgraded to wave...... in a hyperfine spin transition shows an exponential falloff with the distance from the atomic nucleus. The length parameter in this falloff is the Bohr radius....

  9. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  10. Quantum secret sharing protocol using modulated doubly entangled photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan, Wang; Yong, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantum secret sharing protocol utilizing polarization modulated doubly entangled photon pairs. The measurement devices are constructed. By modulating the polarizations of entangled photons, the boss could encode secret information on the initial state and share the photons with different members to realize the secret sharing process. This protocol shows the security against intercept-resend attack and dishonest member cheating. The generalized quantum secret sharing protocol is also discussed. (general)

  11. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, J.

    2008-01-01

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to χ -14 , depending on the hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter χ at low masses (m γ' <1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)

  12. Resolved ${\\gamma^{*}_{L}}$ in hard collisions of virtual photons QCD effects

    CERN Document Server

    Chyla, J; Chyla, Jiri; Tasevsky, Marek

    2001-01-01

    The manifestations of QCD effects on quark and gluon distribution functions of longitudinally polarized virtual photons involved in hard collisions are investigated. It is shown that for moderate photon virtualities and in the kinematical region accessible at HERA and LEP these effects are sizable and significantly enhance theoretical predictions based on contributions of transversally polarized virtual photon only.

  13. Quantum communications system with integrated photonic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, Charles Glen; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Hughes, Richard John

    2017-11-14

    Security is increased in quantum communication (QC) systems lacking a true single-photon laser source by encoding a transmitted optical signal with two or more decoy-states. A variable attenuator or amplitude modulator randomly imposes average photon values onto the optical signal based on data input and the predetermined decoy-states. By measuring and comparing photon distributions for a received QC signal, a single-photon transmittance is estimated. Fiber birefringence is compensated by applying polarization modulation. A transmitter can be configured to transmit in conjugate polarization bases whose states of polarization (SOPs) can be represented as equidistant points on a great circle on the Poincare sphere so that the received SOPs are mapped to equidistant points on a great circle and routed to corresponding detectors. Transmitters are implemented in quantum communication cards and can be assembled from micro-optical components, or transmitter components can be fabricated as part of a monolithic or hybrid chip-scale circuit.

  14. Photonics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Reider, Georg A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction into photonics, from the electrodynamic and quantum mechanic fundamentals to the level of photonic components and building blocks such as lasers, amplifiers, modulators, waveguides, and detectors. The book will serve both as textbook and as a reference work for the advanced student or scientist. Theoretical results are derived from basic principles with convenient, yet state-of-the-art mathematical tools, providing not only deeper understanding but also familiarization with formalisms used in the relevant technical literature and research articles. Among the subject matters treated are polarization optics, pulse and beam propagation, waveguides, light–matter interaction, stationary and transient behavior of lasers, semiconductor optics and lasers (including low-dimensional systems such as quantum wells), detector technology, photometry, and colorimetry. Nonlinear optics are elaborated comprehensively. The book is intended for both students of physics and elect...

  15. Nonlocal hyperconcentration on entangled photons using photonic module system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Cong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Mi, Si-Chen; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution will inevitably be affected by the channel and environment noise. Thus distillation of maximal entanglement nonlocally becomes a crucial goal in quantum information. Here we illustrate that maximal hyperentanglement on nonlocal photons could be distilled using the photonic module and cavity quantum electrodynamics, where the photons are simultaneously entangled in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The construction of the photonic module in a photonic band-gap structure is presented, and the operation of the module is utilized to implement the photonic nondestructive parity checks on the two degrees of freedom. We first propose a hyperconcentration protocol using two identical partially hyperentangled initial states with unknown coefficients to distill a maximally hyperentangled state probabilistically, and further propose a protocol by the assistance of an ancillary single photon prepared according to the known coefficients of the initial state. In the two protocols, the total success probability can be improved greatly by introducing the iteration mechanism, and only one of the remote parties is required to perform the parity checks in each round of iteration. Estimates on the system requirements and recent experimental results indicate that our proposal is realizable with existing or near-further technologies.

  16. Hallo photons calls photon; Allo photon appelle photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-09-01

    When a pair of photons is created, it seems that these 2 photons are bound together by a mysterious link. This phenomenon has been discovered at the beginning of the seventies. In this new experiment the 2 photons are separated and have to follow different ways through optic cables until they face a quantum gate. At this point they have to chose between a short and a long itinerary. Statistically they have the same probability to take either. In all cases the 2 photons agree to do the same choice even if the 2 quantum gates are distant of about 10 kilometers. Some applications in ciphering and coding of messages are expected. (A.C.)

  17. Controlling light emission from single-photon sources using photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Chen, Yuntian; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The photonic nanowire has recently emerged as an promising alternative to microcavity-based single-photon source designs. In this simple structure, a geometrical effect ensures a strong coupling between an embedded emitter and the optical mode of interest and a combination of tapers and mirrors a...... designs allowing for electrical contacting, polarization control, improved efficiency and simplified fabrication....

  18. Two-color spectroscopy of UV excited ssDNA complex with a single-wall nanotube probe: Fast nucleobase autoionization mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatova, Tetyana; Balaeff, Alexander; Zheng, Ming; Blades, Michael; Stoeckl, Peter; Rotkin, Slava V.

    2015-01-01

    DNA autoionization is a fundamental process wherein UV-photoexcited nucleobases dissipate energy by charge transfer to the environment without undergoing chemical damage. Here, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are explored as a photoluminescent reporter for studying the mechanism and rates of DNA autoionization. Two-color photoluminescence spectroscopy allows separate photoexcitation of the DNA and the SWNTs in the UV and visible range, respectively. A strong SWNT photoluminescence quenchi...

  19. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics continues to see rapid growth. The integration of optical fiber and wireless networks has become a commercial reality and is becoming increasingly pervasive. Such hybrid technology will lead to many innovative applications, including backhaul solutions for mobile networks and ultrabroadband wireless networks that can provide users with very high bandwidth services. Microwave Photonics, Second Edition systematically introduces important technologies and applications in this emerging field. It also reviews recent advances in micro- and millimeter-wavelength and terahertz-freq

  20. Photon diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, John

    2009-11-01

    In current light models, a particle-like model of light is inconsistent with diffraction observations. A model of light is proposed wherein photon inferences are combined with the cosmological scalar potential model (SPM). That the photon is a surface with zero surface area in the travel direction is inferred from the Michelson-Morley experiment. That the photons in slits are mathematically treated as a linear antenna array (LAA) is inferred from the comparison of the transmission grating interference pattern and the single slit diffraction pattern. That photons induce a LAA wave into the plenum is inferred from the fractal model. Similarly, the component of the photon (the hod) is treated as a single antenna radiating a potential wave into the plenum. That photons are guided by action on the surface of the hod is inferred from the SPM. The plenum potential waves are a real field (not complex) that forms valleys, consistent with the pilot waves of the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics. Therefore, the Afshar experiment result is explained, supports Bohm, and falsifies Copenhagen. The papers may be viewed at http://web.citcom.net/˜scjh/.

  1. How do we select multiple features? Transient costs for selecting two colors rather than one, persistent costs for color-location conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Yu; Holcombe, Alex O

    2014-02-01

    In a previous study Lo, Howard, & Holcombe (Vision Research 63:20-33, 2012), selecting two colors did not induce a performance cost, relative to selecting one color. For example, requiring possible report of both a green and a red target did not yield a worse performance than when both targets were green. Yet a cost of selecting multiple colors was observed when selection needed be contingent on both color and location. When selecting a red target to the left and a green target to the right, superimposing a green distractor to the left and a red distractor to the right impeded performance. Possibly, participants cannot confine attention to a color at a particular location. As a result, distractors that share the target colors disrupt attentional selection of the targets. The attempt to select the targets must then be repeated, which increases the likelihood that the trial terminates when selection is not effective, even for long trials. Consistent with this, here we find a persistent cost of selecting two colors when the conjunction of color and location is needed, but the cost is confined to short exposure durations when the observer just has to monitor red and green stimuli without the need to use the location information. These results suggest that selecting two colors is time-consuming but effective, whereas selection of simultaneous conjunctions is never entirely successful.

  2. Experimental asymmetric phase-covariant quantum cloning of polarization qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubusta, Jan; Bartůšková, Lucie; Černoch, Antonín; Dušek, Miloslav; Fiurášek, Jaromír

    2008-11-01

    We report on two optical realizations of the 1→2 asymmetric phase-covariant cloning machines for polarization states of single photons. The experimental setups combine two-photon interference and tunable polarization filtering, which enables us to control the asymmetry of the cloners. The first scheme involves a special unbalanced bulk beam splitter exhibiting different splitting ratios for vertical and horizontal polarizations, respectively. The second implemented scheme consists of a balanced fiber coupler where photon bunching occurs, followed by a free-space part with polarization filters. With this latter approach we were able to demonstrate very high cloning fidelities which are above the universal cloning limit.

  3. Computational Modeling of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Single-Photon Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Nicole A.

    Conventional cryptography is based on algorithms that are mathematically complex and difficult to solve, such as factoring large numbers. The advent of a quantum computer would render these schemes useless. As scientists work to develop a quantum computer, cryptographers are developing new schemes for unconditionally secure cryptography. Quantum key distribution has emerged as one of the potential replacements of classical cryptography. It relics on the fact that measurement of a quantum bit changes the state of the bit and undetected eavesdropping is impossible. Single polarized photons can be used as the quantum bits, such that a quantum system would in some ways mirror the classical communication scheme. The quantum key distribution system would include components that create, transmit and detect single polarized photons. The focus of this work is on the development of an efficient single-photon source. This source is comprised of a single quantum dot inside of a photonic crystal microcavity. To better understand the physics behind the device, a computational model is developed. The model uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods to analyze the electromagnetic field distribution in photonic crystal microcavities. It uses an 8-band k · p perturbation theory to compute the energy band structure of the epitaxially grown quantum dots. We discuss a method that combines the results of these two calculations for determining the spontaneous emission lifetime of a quantum dot in bulk material or in a microcavity. The computational models developed in this thesis are used to identify and characterize microcavities for potential use in a single-photon source. The computational tools developed are also used to investigate novel photonic crystal microcavities that incorporate 1D distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical confinement. It is found that the spontaneous emission enhancement in the quasi-3D cavities can be significantly greater than in traditional suspended slab

  4. Baryon spectroscopy with polarization observables from CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, Steffen [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The spectrum of nucleon excitations is dominated by broad and overlapping resonances. Polarization observables in photoproduction reactions are key in the study of these excitations. They give indispensable constraints to partial-wave analyses and help clarify the spectrum. A series of polarized photoproduction experiments have been performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). These measurements include data with linearly and circularly polarized tagged-photon beams, longitudinally and transversely polarized proton and deuterium targets, and recoil polarizations through the observation of the weak decay of hyperons. An overview of these studies and recent results will be given.

  5. Quantum photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Pearsall, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    This textbook employs a pedagogical approach that facilitates access to the fundamentals of Quantum Photonics. It contains an introductory description of the quantum properties of photons through the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, introducing stimulated and spontaneous emission of photons at the quantum level. Schrödinger’s equation is used to describe the behavior of electrons in a one-dimensional potential. Tunneling through a barrier is used to introduce the concept of non­locality of an electron at the quantum level, which is closely-related to quantum confinement tunneling, resonant tunneling, and the origin of energy bands in both periodic (crystalline) and aperiodic (non-crystalline) materials. Introducing the concepts of reciprocal space, Brillouin zones, and Bloch’s theorem, the determination of electronic band structure using the pseudopotential method is presented, allowing direct computation of the band structures of most group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconducto...

  6. Two-photon spin generation and detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2009-02-21

    A time- and polarization-resolved two-photon pump-probe investigation is performed in lightly doped GaAs. We generate spin-polarized electrons in bulk GaAs at various temperatures using right-circularly polarized two-photon excitation and detect them by probing the spin-dependent transmission of the sample. The spin polarization (P) of conduction band electrons, as measured using probe pulses with the same (right) and opposite (left) circular polarization, is measured in dependences of pump-probe delay ({Delta}t), lattice temperature (T{sub L}), doping density (n) as well as of the excess photon energy {Delta}E{sub 2{omega}}= {h_bar}2{omega} - E{sub g}, where E{sub g} is the band gap energy. P is found to be decayed with {Delta}t and enhanced with the decrease in T{sub L} or the increase in n. It is also found that P decreases with the increase in {Delta}E{sub 2{omega}}and depolarizes rapidly for {Delta}E{sub 2{omega}}> {Delta}E{sub SO}, where {Delta}E{sub SO} is the spin-orbit splitting energy. The results demonstrate that due to a much longer absorption depth highly polarized spins can be generated optically by two-photon pumping of bulk semiconductors.

  7. Two-photon spin generation and detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2009-01-01

    A time- and polarization-resolved two-photon pump-probe investigation is performed in lightly doped GaAs. We generate spin-polarized electrons in bulk GaAs at various temperatures using right-circularly polarized two-photon excitation and detect them by probing the spin-dependent transmission of the sample. The spin polarization (P) of conduction band electrons, as measured using probe pulses with the same (right) and opposite (left) circular polarization, is measured in dependences of pump-probe delay (Δt), lattice temperature (T L ), doping density (n) as well as of the excess photon energy ΔE 2ω = ℎ2ω - E g , where E g is the band gap energy. P is found to be decayed with Δt and enhanced with the decrease in T L or the increase in n. It is also found that P decreases with the increase in ΔE 2ω and depolarizes rapidly for ΔE 2ω > ΔE SO , where ΔE SO is the spin-orbit splitting energy. The results demonstrate that due to a much longer absorption depth highly polarized spins can be generated optically by two-photon pumping of bulk semiconductors.

  8. Green photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas. (review article)

  9. Spin-Orbit Coupling for Photons and Polaritons in Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We use coupled micropillars etched out of a semiconductor microcavity to engineer a spin-orbit Hamiltonian for photons and polaritons in a microstructure. The coupling between the spin and orbital momentum arises from the polarization-dependent confinement and tunneling of photons between adjacent micropillars arranged in the form of a hexagonal photonic molecule. It results in polariton eigenstates with distinct polarization patterns, which are revealed in photoluminescence experiments in the regime of polariton condensation. Thanks to the strong polariton nonlinearities, our system provides a photonic workbench for the quantum simulation of the interplay between interactions and spin-orbit effects, particularly when extended to two-dimensional lattices.

  10. Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    illumination features. This is often not desirable as these may lose clarity or vanish altogether. We present an accurate method for reconstruction of indirect illumination with photon mapping. Instead of reconstructing illumination using classic density estimation on finite points, we use the correlation...

  11. Photon Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 69-72 Feature Article. Molecule of the Month Molecular–Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best! Photon Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1303-1306. Molecule of the Month - Molecular-Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best!

  12. Nonlinear optical response of a gold surface in the visible range: A study by two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. I. Experimental determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstein, L; Revel, A; Humbert, C; Busson, B

    2018-04-07

    We experimentally determine the effective nonlinear second-order susceptibility of gold over the visible spectral range. To reach that goal, we probe by vibrational two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy the methyl stretching region of a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer adsorbed on a gold film. The sum-frequency generation spectra show a remarkable shape reversal when the visible probe wavelength is tuned from 435 to 705 nm. After correcting from Fresnel effects, the methyl stretching vibrations serve as an internal reference, allowing to extract the dispersion of the absolute phase and relative amplitude of the effective nonlinear optical response of gold in the visible range.

  13. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunandar, Darius; Lentine, Anthony; Lee, Catherine; Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; Boynton, Nicholas; Martinez, Nicholas; DeRose, Christopher; Chen, Changchen; Grein, Matthew; Trotter, Douglas; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott; Wong, Franco N. C.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul; Urayama, Junji; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-01

    Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD) encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB) and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss). Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  14. Light-matter interactions in a polarization standing wave

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, X.; MacDonald, K.F.; Zheludev, N.I.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the application of polarization standing waves (PSW) to the coherent control of light-matter interactions in planar photonic nanostructures. Such waves, formed by counter-propagating (linear or circular) orthogonally polarized beams can uniquely detect polarization conversion, planar chirality and related asymmetric transmission effects.

  15. Single-Photon Source for Quantum Information Based on Single Dye Molecule Fluorescence in Liquid Crystal Host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukishova, S.G.; Knox, R.P.; Freivald, P.; McNamara, A.; Boyd, R.W.; Stroud, Jr. C.R.; Schmid, A.W.; Marshall, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new application for liquid crystals: quantum information technology. A deterministically polarized single-photon source that efficiently produces photons exhibiting antibunching is a pivotal hardware element in absolutely secure quantum communication. Planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts deterministically align the single dye molecules which produce deterministically polarized single (antibunched) photons. In addition, 1-D photonic bandgap cholesteric liquid crystals will increase single-photon source efficiency. The experiments and challenges in the observation of deterministically polarized fluorescence from single dye molecules in planar-aligned glassy nematic-liquid-crystal oligomer as well as photon antibunching in glassy cholesteric oligomer are described for the first time

  16. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  17. P1-9: Relationship between Color Shifts in Land's Two-Color Method and Higher- and Lower-Level Visual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Iwaida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Land's two-color method gives rise to apparent full-color perception, even though only two colors (e.g., red and gray are used. Previous studies indicate that chromatic adaptation, color memory, and inductive effects contribute to the shifts of color perception from real to illusory colors (e.g., Kuriki, 2006 Vision Research 46 3055–3066. This paper investigates the relationship between the color shifts induced by Land images and the skewness of the luminance histogram. In Experiment 1, several Land images are created based on a yellow ball, and the magnitude of the color shifts of the images are measured. The results of Experiment 1 show a significant correlation between the magnitude of the color shifts and skewness, suggesting that skewness is critical for the color shifts. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that color shifts depends on just skewness; the color shifts should be invariant even if the Land images are scrambled. However, the results of Experiment 2 demonstrate that scrambled Land images exhibit less intense color shifts, suggesting that color shifts are determined by the object's overall shape or surface gloss, not just skewness. Taken together, we conclude that both low-level visual processes, such as those associated with luminance histogram skew, and high-level cognitive functions, such as object interpretation or understanding of surface gloss, are involved in the color shift of Land images.

  18. MIDCOURSE SPACE EXPERIMENT VERSUS IRAS TWO-COLOR DIAGRAMS AND THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE-SEQUENCE OF OXYGEN-RICH LATE-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjouwerman, Lorant O.; Capen, Stephanie M.; Claussen, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We present Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) two-color diagrams that can be used to characterize circumstellar environments of sources with good quality MSX colors in terms of IRAS color regions for oxygen-rich stars. With these diagrams, we aim to provide a new tool that can be used to study circumstellar environments and to improve detection rates for targeted surveys for circumstellar maser emission similar to the IRAS two-color diagram. This new tool is especially useful for regions in the sky where IRAS was confused, in particular in the Galactic plane and bulge region. Unfortunately, using MSX colors alone does not allow one to distinguish between carbon-rich and oxygen-rich objects. An application of this tool on 86 GHz SiO masers shows that for this type of masers an instantaneous detection rate of 60% to 80% can be achieved if target sources are selected according to MSX color (region). Our investigations may have revealed an error in the MSX point source catalog version 2.3. That is, the photometry of the 21.3 μm (MSX E filter) band for most weak 8.28 μm (or MSX A filter) band sources seems off by about a factor 2 (0.5-1 mag too bright).

  19. Photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF 2 windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission

  20. Band structure peculiarities of magnetic photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, A. H.; Golik, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    In this work we studied light diffraction in magneto-photonic crystals (MPC) having large magneto-optical activity and modulation large depth. The case of arbitrary angles between the direction of the external static magnetic field and the normal to the border of the MPC layer is considered. The problem is solved by Ambartsumian's modified layer addition method. It is found that there is a new type of non-reciprocity, namely, the relation R (α) ≠ R (- α) takes place, where R is the reflection coefficient, and α is the incidence angle. It is shown the formation of new photonic band gap (PBG) at oblique incidence of light, which is not selective for the polarization of the incident light, in the case when the external magnetic field is directed along the medium axis. Such a system can be used as: a tunable polarization filter, polarization mirror, circular (elliptical) polarizer, tunable optical diode, etc.

  1. Experimental determination of the degree of polarization of quantum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothe-Termén, Christian; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate experimental excitation-manifold-resolved polarization characterization of quantum states of light ranging from the few-photon to the many-photon level. In contrast to the traditional characterization of polarization that is based on the Stokes parameters, we experimentally determine...... the Stokes vector of each excitation manifold separately. Only for states with a given photon number do the methods coincide. For states with an indeterminate photon number, for example Gaussian states, the employed method gives a richer and more accurate description. We apply the method both in theory...

  2. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  3. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  4. Photonics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Azzawi, Abdul

    2006-01-01

    Light The Nature of Light Light and Shadows Thermal Radiation Light Production Light Intensity Light and Colour Laws of Light Optics Plane Mirrors Spherical Mirrors Lenses Prisms Beamsplitters Light Passing through Optical Components Optical Instruments for Viewing Applications Polarization of Light Optical Materials Waves and Diffraction Waves Interference and Diffraction The Diffraction Grating Interferometers Spectrometers and Spectroscopes Optical Fibres Fibre Optic Cables Advanced Fibre Optic Cables Light Attenuation in Optical Components Fibre-Optic Cable Types and Installations Fibre-Optic Connectors Passive Fibre Optic Devices Wavelength Division Multiplexer Optical Amplifiers Optical Receivers Lasers Optical Switches Optical Fibre Communications Fibre Optic Lighting Testing Fibre Optic Testing Safety Photonics Laboratory Safety Miscellaneous Appendix A: Details of the Devices, Components, Tools, and Parts Appendix B: Alignment Procedure of a Conventional Ar...

  5. Switching the response of metasurfaces in polarization standing waves

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, X.; MacDonald, K.F.; Zheludev, N.I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that standing waves of polarization, as opposed to intensity, can be engaged to coherently control light-matter interactions in planar photonic nanostructures, presenting unique opportunities for all-optical data processing and polarization-dependent molecular spectroscopy. Such waves, formed by counter-propagating (linear or circular) orthogonally polarized beams can, for example, uniquely detect polarization conversion, planar chirality and related asymmetric t...

  6. Experimental Limits on Local Realism with Separable and Entangled Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    a photon received by Bob triggers a device which acts questionably on the unsuspecting feline ). There is only a single time slot available for the... feline fate information would not be available to her until after her photon reaches the (very remote) intrusive polarizer, and she had made a

  7. Resonant add-drop filter based on a photonic quasicrystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero-Vivas, J.; Chigrin, D. N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    We present a numerical study of optical properties of an octagonal quasi-periodic lattice of dielectric rods. We report on a complete photonic bandgap in TM polarization up to extremely low dielectric constants of rods. The first photonic bandgap remains open down to dielectric constant as small ...

  8. Photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, J.; Huke, K.; Chikawa, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Photon Factory (PF) was established on April 1, 1978 at KEK. The PF is a synchrotron radiation facility, which has a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring fully dedicated to the SR usage and a 2.5 GeV electron linac supplying electrons and positrons to the PF ring and the accumulation ring of TRISTAN (30 GeV electron-positron colliding machine). The PF consists of three departments, injector linac, light source, and instrumentation department. The facility is described

  9. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  10. SI-traceable absolute distance measurement over more than 800 meters with sub-nanometer interferometry by two-color inline refractivity compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Meyer, Tobias; Mildner, Jutta; Pollinger, Florian

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we demonstrate two-color inline refractivity compensation in a heterodyne synthetic wavelength interferometer for a measurement of absolute distances over several hundred meters with sub-millimeter accuracy. Two frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers with a coherence length of more than 1 km are used as light sources. Direct SI traceability is achieved by controlling the lasers' frequency difference in the radio frequency regime. The resulting synthetic wavelengths at 532 nm and 1064 nm are used for the absolute distance measurement and dispersion-based inline refractive index compensation. A standard deviation of 50 μm is achieved for distances up to 864 m. This performance corresponds to a standard deviation of the observable, the difference of the four optical wavelengths, on a sub-nanometer level. Comparison against white light interferometry confirms sub-millimeter accuracy over this distance. Temporally resolved data over 864 m provide quantitative insights into the influence of chromatic beam paths.

  11. Generation of Bright, Spatially Coherent Soft X-Ray High Harmonics in a Hollow Waveguide Using Two-Color Synthesized Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Stein, Gregory J; Hong, Kyung-Han; Lin, C D

    2015-07-24

    We investigate the efficient generation of low-divergence high-order harmonics driven by waveform-optimized laser pulses in a gas-filled hollow waveguide. The drive waveform is obtained by synthesizing two-color laser pulses, optimized such that highest harmonic yields are emitted from each atom. Optimization of the gas pressure and waveguide configuration has enabled us to produce bright and spatially coherent harmonics extending from the extreme ultraviolet to soft x rays. Our study on the interplay among waveguide mode, atomic dispersion, and plasma effect uncovers how dynamic phase matching is accomplished and how an optimized waveform is maintained when optimal waveguide parameters (radius and length) and gas pressure are identified. Our analysis should help laboratory development in the generation of high-flux bright coherent soft x rays as tabletop light sources for applications.

  12. A 7.2 keV spherical x-ray crystal backlighter for two-frame, two-color backlighting at Sandia's Z Pulsed Power Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollmeier, M. S.; Knapp, P. F.; Ampleford, D. J.; Harding, E. C.; Jennings, C. A.; Lamppa, D. C.; Loisel, G. P.; Martin, M. R.; Robertson, G. K.; Shores, J. E.; Smith, I. C.; Speas, C. S.; Weis, M. R.; Porter, J. L.; McBride, R. D.

    2017-10-01

    Many experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' Z Pulsed Power Facility—a 30 MA, 100 ns rise-time, pulsed-power driver—use a monochromatic quartz crystal backlighter system at 1.865 keV (Si He α ) or 6.151 keV (Mn He α ) x-ray energy to radiograph an imploding liner (cylindrical tube) or wire array z-pinch. The x-ray source is generated by the Z-Beamlet laser, which provides two 527-nm, 1 kJ, 1-ns laser pulses. Radiographs of imploding, thick-walled beryllium liners at convergence ratios CR above 15 [ C R = r i ( 0 ) / r i ( t ) ] using the 6.151-keV backlighter system were too opaque to identify the inner radius r i of the liner with high confidence, demonstrating the need for a higher-energy x-ray radiography system. Here, we present a 7.242 keV backlighter system using a Ge(335) spherical crystal with the Co He α resonance line. This system operates at a similar Bragg angle as the existing 1.865 keV and 6.151 keV backlighters, enhancing our capabilities for two-color, two-frame radiography without modifying the system integration at Z. The first data taken at Z include 6.2-keV and 7.2-keV two-color radiographs as well as radiographs of low-convergence (CR about 4-5), high-areal-density liner implosions.

  13. Comparison of soot formation for diesel and jet-a in a constant volume combustion chamber using two-color pyrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of the two-color line of sight soot and KL factor for NO.2 diesel and jet-A fuels was conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber by using a high speed camera under 1000 K ambient temperature and varied oxygen concentration conditions. The ambient conditions were set as follows: four oxygen cases including 10%, 15%, 18% and 21% at 1000 K ambient temperature. KL factor and soot temperature were determined based on the two-color pyrometry technique using two band-pass filters with wavelengths of 650 nm and 550 nm. The results show that low soot temperature is observed in the upstream inner flame along the centerline, which is surrounded by high soot temperature regions, and a high KL factor is found in the same region with a low soot temperature. The results under different times suggest that soot temperature is higher for high O2 conditions during the entire flame development; meanwhile, both integrated KL factor and soot area decrease with the increase of O2 concentration. The two fuels share a similar trend of soot temperature and KL factor, however, diesel flame has a higher soot temperature and a larger high soot temperature area compared to jet-A flame. On the other hand, diesel flame shows a lower soot level during the quasi-steady state with a higher total soot level at the end of the combustion under low O2 conditions. A lower O2 concentration range from 10% to 15% is expected to have the possibility to achieve a simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx in sooting flames under the 1000 K ambient temperature condition. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  14. Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit Mode Multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel silicon photonic integrated circuit enabling multiplexing of orthogonal modes in a few-mode fiber (FMF). By selectively launching light to four vertical grating couplers, all six orthogonal spatial and polarization modes supported by the FMF are successfully exc...

  15. Hyperentangled photon sources in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Dongpeng; Helt, L. G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze the performance of a technique to generate mode and polarization hyperentangled photons in monolithic semiconductor waveguides using two concurrent type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) processes. These two SPDC processes are achieved by waveguide engineering...

  16. Advances in photonic bandgap fiber functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian

    In order to take advantage of the many intriguing optical properties of photonic bandgap fibers, there are some technological challenges that have to be addressed. Among other things this includes transmission loss and the fibers ability to maintain field polarization. The work presented in this ...

  17. Laser-driven polarized H/D sources and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; Dutta, D.; Gao, H.; Seely, J.; Xu, W.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, Atomic Beam Sources are used to produce targets of nuclear polarized hydrogen (H) or deuterium (D) for experiments using storage rings. Laser-Driven Sources (LDSs) offer a factor of 20-30 gain in the target thickness (however, with lower polarization) and may produce a higher overall figure of merit. The LDS is based on the technique of spin-exchange optical pumping where alkali vapor is polarized by absorbing circularly polarized laser photons. The H or D atoms are nuclear-polarized through spin-exchange collisions with the polarized alkali vapor and through subsequent hyperfine interactions during frequent H-H or D-D collisions

  18. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, W.; Eliel, E. R.; Woerdman, J. P.; Euser, T. G.; Scharrer, M.; Russell, P.

    2012-03-01

    High-dimensional entangled photons pairs are interesting for quantum information and cryptography: Compared to the well-known 2D polarization case, the stronger non-local quantum correlations could improve noise resistance or security, and the larger amount of information per photon increases the available bandwidth. One implementation is to use entanglement in the spatial degree of freedom of twin photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, which is equivalent to orbital angular momentum entanglement, this has been proven to be an excellent model system. The use of optical fiber technology for distribution of such photons has only very recently been practically demonstrated and is of fundamental and applied interest. It poses a big challenge compared to the established time and frequency domain methods: For spatially entangled photons, fiber transport requires the use of multimode fibers, and mode coupling and intermodal dispersion therein must be minimized not to destroy the spatial quantum correlations. We demonstrate that these shortcomings of conventional multimode fibers can be overcome by using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which follows the paradigm to mimic free-space transport as good as possible, and are able to confirm entanglement of the fiber-transported photons. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons is largely unexplored yet, therefore we discuss the main complications, the interplay of intermodal dispersion and mode mixing, the influence of external stress and core deformations, and consider the pros and cons of various fiber types.

  19. Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinelli, M. L.; Johnson, Steven G.; Fan, Shanhui; Joannopoulos, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate the construction of two-dimensional- (2D-) like defect modes in a recently proposed 3D photonic crystal structure. These modes, which are confined in all three dimensions by a complete photonic band gap, bear a striking similarity to those in 2D photonic crystals in terms of polarization, field profile, and projected band structures. It is expected that these results will greatly facilitate the observation of widely studied 2D photonic-crystal phenomena in a realistic, 3D physical system

  20. Polarization and ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules generated by linearly polarized intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations for polarization and ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned N 2 , CO 2 , and O 2 molecules generated by linearly polarized lasers. Within the rescattering model, the two polarization amplitudes of the harmonics are determined by the photo-recombination amplitudes for photons emitted with polarization parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the same returning electron wave packet. Our results show clear species-dependent polarization states, in excellent agreement with experiments. We further note that the measured polarization ellipse of the harmonic furnishes the needed parameters for a 'complete' experiment in molecules.

  1. Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidal, G.

    1988-08-01

    Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Nuclear photon science with inverse compton photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments of the synchrotron radiation facilities and intense lasers are now guiding us to a new research frontier with probes of a high energy GeV photon beam and an intense and short pulse MeV γ-ray beam. New directions of the science developments with photo-nuclear reactions are discussed. The inverse Compton γ-ray has two good advantages for searching for a microscopic quantum world; they are 1) good emittance and 2) high linear and circular polarizations. With these advantages, photon beams in the energy range from MeV to GeV are used for studying hadron structure, nuclear structure, astrophysics, materials science, as well as for applying medical science. (author)

  3. System of measurement of proton polarization in a polarized target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnaukov, I.M.; Chechetenko, V.F.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with high sensitivity. The signal of NMR absorption is recorded by a Q-meter with a series circuit and a circuit for compensation of the resonance characteristic of the measuring circuit. In order to ensure uniform sensitivity of the system to the state of polarization throughout the volume of the target and to enhance the S/N ration the measuring coil is made of a flat conductor. The polarization-measuring system works on-line with an M-6000 computer. The total error of measurement of the polarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of the working substance under irradiation with an intense photon beam is less than or equal to 6%.

  4. Vector meson production from a polarized nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, M.

    2007-04-01

    We provide a framework to analyze the electroproduction process ep→epρ with a polarized target, writing the angular distribution of the ρ decay products in terms of spin density matrix elements that parameterize the hadronic subprocess γ * p → ρp. Using the helicity basis for both photon and meson, we find a representation in which the expressions for a polarized and unpolarized target are related by simple substitution rules. (orig.)

  5. Heralded single-photon absorption by a single atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, N.; Rohde, F.; Schuck, C.; Almendros, M.; Huwer, J.; Ghosh, J.; Haase, A.; Hennrich, M.; Dubin, F.; Eschner, J.

    2011-01-01

    Emission and absorption of single photons by single atoms is a fundamental limit of matter-light interaction, manifesting its quantum mechanical nature. As a controlled process, it is also a key tool in quantum optical information technology . Controlled single-photon emission is well advanced ; for controlled single-photon absorption by a single atom, proposals exist but only preliminary experimental steps have been taken . Here we report the absorption of single photons by a single trapped ion: employing a photon pair source, detection of the quantum-correlated partner photon heralds the presence of the resonant photon at the atom. We find clear correlations between the detection of the herald and the absorption process in the atom; we also demonstrate polarization control of this process. Our experiment evidences previously unexplored interaction between a single absorber and a quantum light source; with improved control over the coupling, it will open up new avenues in quantum technology.

  6. Study of small partial-wave contributions in the neighbourhood of dominating resonance states of the proton by linearly polarized photons; Untersuchung kleiner Partialwellenbeitraege in der Naehe dominierender Resonanzzustaende des Protons mit linear polarisierten Photonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, D.

    2007-04-15

    The reaction p(e, e'p){pi}{sup 0} has been studied at Q{sup 2}=0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} in the region of W=1232 MeV. From measurements left and right of (vector)q cross section asymmetries {rho}{sub LT} have been obtained in forward {rho}{sub LT}({theta}{sub {pi}{sup 0}}{sup cm}=20 )=(-11.68{+-}2.36{sub stat}{+-}2.36{sub sys}) and backward {rho}{sub LT}({theta}{sub {pi}}{sub {sup 0}}{sup cm}=160)=(12.18{+-}0.27{sub stat}{+-}0.82{sub sys}) {pi}{sup 0} kinematics, from which R{l_brace}S{sub 1+}{sup *}M{sub 1+}{r_brace}/ vertical stroke M{sub 1+} vertical stroke {sup 2} and R{l_brace}S{sub 0+}{sup *}M{sub 1+}{r_brace}/ vertical stroke M{sub 1+} vertical stroke {sup 2} could be determined. Using linear polarised tagged photon beams of energy up to E{sub {gamma}}{approx_equal}1.5 GeV the photon beam asymmetry {sigma} has been measured in the reaction p((vector){gamma}, {eta})p. Based on coherent bremsstrahlung off a diamond crystal a maximum polarisation of P{sub {gamma}}=49% has been achieved at E{sub {gamma}}=1305 MeV. The beam asymmetry has been extracted from the azimuthal modulation of the cross section using both decay modes of the {eta} into two photons and 3{pi}{sup 0}. Large asymmetries up to 80% are observed, in agreement with previous measurements where already available. There is also agreement with standard model calculations. However, the required partial waves to describe the measurements differ significantly. (orig.)

  7. Use of a Novel Two Color PALM Method to Examine Structural Properties of Drp1 Helical Rings during Mammalian Mitochondrial Fission In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Alyssa Blair

    In this thesis, we accomplish two goals: 1) we develop a novel two color photoactivatable light microscopy (PALM) method for imaging in mammalian cells and 2) we explore our original biological question and discern the structural properties of the Drp1 helical ring during fission. We established that mitochondrial membranes can be distinguished with the available photoactivatable fluorescent protein mEos2. However, we were not able to use any of the published photoactivatable and photoswitchable green fluorescent proteins, predominantly because of an inability to identify individual fluorescent events due to rapidity of the photoswitiching. Based on published crystal structures, we created novel Dronpa variants with increasing steric hindrance around the chromophore, likely partially inhibiting the isomerization. We replaced Val157 with isoleucine, leucine, or phenyalanine. DronpaV157F showed no fluorescence and was discarded. DronpaV157I and DronpaV157L showed photoswitchable green fluorescence, with individual fluorescent events that were more easily discerned. DronpaV157L in particular had bright fluorescent events that were well separated when imaged in mammalian cells at 20 Hz. We named this new variant rsKame. Using PALM we successfully imaged rsKame expressed and localized to the mammalian mitochondrial inner membrane. With the novel photoswitchable fluorescent protein, rsKame, available, we returned to the development of a novel two color PALM method. We chose PAmCherry1 as the partner for rsKame since PAmCherry1 has distinct and well separated excitation/emission spectra from rsKame and is not activated by low 405 nm laser power density. We first imaged rsKame with 405 nm activation at (0.61 mW/mm2) and 488 nm activation/excitation (5.87 W/mm 2) to completion. We then imaged PAmCherry1 with increasing 405 nm activation (0.6-6.0 W/mm2) and 561 nm excitation (22 W/mm 2). With the novel PALM imaging method, we labeled the inner and outer mitochondrial

  8. Two-Photon Physics in Hadronic Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Carlson; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-11-01

    Two-photon exchange contributions to elastic electron-scattering are reviewed. The apparent discrepancy in the extraction of elastic nucleon form factors between unpolarized Rosenbluth and polarization transfer experiments is discussed, as well as the understanding of this puzzle in terms of two-photon exchange corrections. Calculations of such corrections both within partonic and hadronic frameworks are reviewed. In view of recent spin-dependent electron scattering data, the relation of the two-photon exchange process to the hyperfine splitting in hydrogen is critically examined. The imaginary part of the two-photon exchange amplitude as can be accessed from the beam normal spin asymmetry in elastic electron-nucleon scattering is reviewed. Further extensions and open issues in this field are outlined.

  9. Photon counting and fluctuation of molecular movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inohara, Koichi

    1978-01-01

    The direct measurement of the fluctuation of molecular motions, which provides with useful information on the molecular movement, was conducted by introducing photon counting method. The utilization of photon counting makes it possible to treat the molecular system consisting of a small number of molecules like a radioisotope in the detection of a small number of atoms, which are significant in biological systems. This method is based on counting the number of photons of the definite polarization emitted in a definite time interval from the fluorescent molecules excited by pulsed light, which are bound to the marked large molecules found in a definite spatial region. Using the probability of finding a number of molecules oriented in a definite direction in the definite spatial region, the probability of counting a number of photons in a definite time interval can be calculated. Thus the measurable count rate of photons can be related with the fluctuation of molecular movement. The measurement was carried out under the condition, in which the probability of the simultaneous arrival of more than two photons at a detector is less than 1/100. As the experimental results, the resolving power of photon-counting apparatus, the frequency distribution of the number of photons of some definite polarization counted for 1 nanosecond are shown. In the solution, the variance of the number of molecules of 500 on the average is 1200, which was estimated from the experimental data by assuming normal distribution. This departure from the Poisson distribution means that a certain correlation does exist in molecular movement. In solid solution, no significant deviation was observed. The correlation existing in molecular movement can be expressed in terms of the fluctuation of the number of molecules. (Nakai, Y.)

  10. Polarization Bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Korol, Andrey V

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces and reviews both theory and applications of polarizational bremsstrahlung, i.e. the electromagnetic radiation emitted during collisions of charged particles with structured, thus polarizable targets, such as atoms, molecules and clusters.   The subject, following the first experimental evidence a few decades ago, has gained importance through a number of modern applications.  Thus, the study of several radiative mechanisms is expected to lead to the design of novel light sources, operating in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Conversely, the analysis of the spectral and angular distribution of the photon emission constitutes a new tool for extracting information on the interaction of the colliding particles, and on their internal structure and dynamical properties.   Last but not least, accurate quantitative descriptions of the photon emission processes determine the radiative energy losses of particles in various media, thereby providing essential  information required f...

  11. RR photons

    CERN Document Server

    Camara, Pablo G; Marchesano, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Type II string compactifications to 4d generically contain massless Ramond-Ramond U(1) gauge symmetries. However there is no massless matter charged under these U(1)'s, which makes a priori difficult to measure any physical consequences of their existence. There is however a window of opportunity if these RR U(1)'s mix with the hypercharge $U(1)_Y$ (hence with the photon). In this paper we study in detail different avenues by which $U(1)_{RR}$ bosons may mix with D-brane U(1)'s. We concentrate on Type IIA orientifolds and their M-theory lift, and provide geometric criteria for the existence of such mixing, which may occur either via standard kinetic mixing or via the mass terms induced by St\\"uckelberg couplings. The latter case is particularly interesting, and appears whenever D-branes wrap torsional $p$-cycles in the compactification manifold. We also show that in the presence of torsional cycles discrete gauge symmetries and Aharanov-Bohm strings and particles appear in the 4d effective action, and that ty...

  12. Single photon emission from ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sumin; Ton-That, Cuong; Phillips, Matthew R.; Aharonovich, Igor, E-mail: igor.aharonovich@uts.edu.au [School of Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales 2007 (Australia); Johnson, Brett C. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Castelletto, Stefania [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia)

    2014-06-30

    Room temperature single photon emitters are very important resources for photonics and emerging quantum technologies. In this work, we study single photon emission from defect centers in 20 nm zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. The emitters exhibit bright broadband fluorescence in the red spectral range centered at 640 nm with polarized excitation and emission. The studied emitters showed continuous blinking; however, bleaching can be suppressed using a polymethyl methacrylate coating. Furthermore, hydrogen termination increased the density of single photon emitters. Our results will contribute to the identification of quantum systems in ZnO.

  13. Two-color laser absorption near 5 μm for temperature and nitric oxide sensing in high-temperature gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almodovar, Christopher A.; Spearrin, R. Mitchell; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2017-12-01

    An infrared laser-absorption technique for in situ temperature and nitric oxide species sensing in high-temperature gases is presented. A pair of quantum cascade lasers in the mid-infrared near 5 μm were utilized to probe rovibrational transitions in nitric oxide's fundamental band. The line parameters of the selected transitions, including line strengths and collision broadening coefficients of nitric oxide with argon and nitrogen, were evaluated during controlled room-temperature static cell experiments and high-temperature shock tube experiments at temperatures between 1000 and 3000 K, and pressures between 1 and 5 atm. These studies provided new insights into the temperature dependence of nitric oxide collision broadening, highlighting the inadequacies of the power law over a broad temperature range. With an accurate spectroscopic model over a broad temperature range, the quantitative two-color temperature sensing strategy was demonstrated in non-reactive shock tube experiments from 1000 to 3000 K to validate thermometry and during a nitric oxide formation experiment near 1700 K and 4 atm to highlight capability for temporally-resolved species measurements at MHz rates. The technique has applicability for sensing in a broad range of flow fields that involve high-temperature air.

  14. Two-color Dye-swap DNA Microarray approach toward confident gene expression profiling in PMCAO mouse model for ischemia-related and PACAP38-influenced genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohide Hori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Toward twin goals of identifying molecular factors in brain injured by ischemic stroke, and the effects of neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP on the ischemic brain, we have established the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO mouse model and utilized the Agilent mouse whole genome 4 × 44 K DNA chip. PACAP38 (1 pmol injection was given intracerebroventrically in comparison to a control saline (0.9% NaCl injection, to screen genes responsive to PACAP38. Two sets of tissues were prepared, whole hemispheres (ischemic and non-ischemic and infract core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h. In this study, we have detailed the experimental design and protocol used therein and explained the quality controls for the use of total RNA in the downstream DNA microarray experiment utilizing a two-color dye-swap approach for stringent and confident gene identification published in a series of papers by Hori and coworkers (Hori et al., 2012–2015.

  15. Unraveling the rat blood genome-wide transcriptome after oral administration of lavender oil by a two-color dye-swap DNA microarray approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohide Hori

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lavender oil (LO is a commonly used essential oil in aromatherapy as non-traditional medicine. With an aim to demonstrate LO effects on the body, we have recently established an animal model investigating the influence of orally administered LO in rat tissues, genome-wide. In this brief, we investigate the effect of LO ingestion in the blood of rat. Rats were administered LO at usual therapeutic dose (5 mg/kg in humans, and following collection of the venous blood from the heart and extraction of total RNA, the differentially expressed genes were screened using a 4 × 44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA in conjunction with a two-color dye-swap approach. A total of 834 differentially expressed genes in the blood were identified: 362 up-regulated and 472 down-regulated. These genes were functionally categorized using bioinformatics tools. The gene expression inventory of rat blood transcriptome under LO, a first report, has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE67499. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation.

  16. Two-color Dye-swap DNA Microarray approach toward confident gene expression profiling in PMCAO mouse model for ischemia-related and PACAP38-influenced genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Motohide; Shibato, Junko; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Rakwal, Randeep; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Toward twin goals of identifying molecular factors in brain injured by ischemic stroke, and the effects of neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the ischemic brain, we have established the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) mouse model and utilized the Agilent mouse whole genome 4 × 44 K DNA chip. PACAP38 (1 pmol) injection was given intracerebroventrically in comparison to a control saline (0.9% NaCl) injection, to screen genes responsive to PACAP38. Two sets of tissues were prepared, whole hemispheres (ischemic and non-ischemic) and infract core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h. In this study, we have detailed the experimental design and protocol used therein and explained the quality controls for the use of total RNA in the downstream DNA microarray experiment utilizing a two-color dye-swap approach for stringent and confident gene identification published in a series of papers by Hori and coworkers (Hori et al., 2012-2015).

  17. The mechanics of unrest at Long Valley caldera, California: 1. Modeling the geometry of the source using GPS, leveling and two-color EDM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Segall, P.; Murray, J.; Cervelli, Peter; Langbein, J.

    2003-01-01

    We surveyed 44 existing leveling monuments in Long Valley caldera in July 1999, using dual frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers. We have been able to tie GPS and leveling to a common reference frame in the Long Valley area and computed the vertical deformation by differencing GPS-based and leveled orthometric heights. The resurgent dome uplifted 74??7 cm from 1975 to 1999. To define the inflation source, we invert two-color EDM and uplift data from the 1985-1999 unrest period using spherical or ellipsoidal sources. We find that the ellipsoidal source satisfies both the vertical and horizontal deformation data, whereas the spherical point source cannot. According to our analysis of the 1985-1999 data, the main source of deformation is a prolate ellipsoid located beneath the resurgent dome at a depth of 5.9 km (95% bounds of 4.9-7.5 km). This body is vertically elongated, has an aspect ratio of 0.475 (95% bounds are 0.25-0.65) and a volume change of 0.086 km3 (95% bounds are 0.06-0.13 km3). Failure to account for the ellipsoidal nature of the source biases the estimated source depth by 2.1 km (35%), and the source volume by 0.038 km3 (44%). ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hapten-Anti-Hapten Technique for Two-Color IHC Detection of Phosphorylated EGFR and H2AX Using Primary Antibodies Raised in the Same Host Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Jodi; Schwartz, David; Kalyuzhny, Alexander E

    2017-01-01

    Multiplex staining of cell and tissue sections with antibodies raised in the same host species is a serious challenge because of unwanted but inevitable cross-reactivity of secondary antibodies with irrelevant primary antibodies. Several techniques can be used to overcome this obstacle including direct labeling of primary antibodies with fluorescent tags and using tyramide signal amplification. Unfortunately these techniques either lack sensitivity, or require a long multistep protocol which can cause physical damage of specimens. As an alternative, we have developed a protocol based on conjugation of primary antibodies to small-size hapten molecules which can be detected with hapten-specific fluorescent secondary antibodies. This technique has been used for two-color labeling of Y845 phosphorylated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and S139 phosphorylated histone H2AX protein in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Our novel hapten-anti-hapten detection chemistry allows for generating a stronger fluorescent signal and completely avoid cross-interactions of secondary antibodies with irrelevant primary antibodies.

  19. Two-color double-labeling in situ hybridization of whole-mount Hydra using RNA probes for five different Hydra neuropeptide preprohormones: evidence for colocalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, G N; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra magnipapillata has a primitive nervous system that produces at least three distinct classes of neuropeptides: various peptides having the C-terminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (the Hydra-RFamide family), Leu-Trp-NH2 (the Hydra-LWamide family), and a single peptide having the C......-terminal sequence Lys-Val-NH2 (Hydra-KVamide). The various Hydra-RFamides are synthesized by three different preprohormones: preprohormone-A, -B, and -C. The various Hydra-LWamides are synthesized by a single preprohormone (prepro-Hydra-LWamide), as is Hydra-KVamide (prepro-Hydra-KVamide). Using a wholemount double......-labeling two-color in situ hybridization technique and RNA probes specific for each of these five Hydra preprohormone mRNAs, we found that specific sets of neurons express each of the five preprohormones, except for the peduncle region of Hydra (an area just above the basal disk), where a population of neurons...

  20. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  1. Political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  2. Political polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2007-05-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  3. Characterization of Partially Polarized Light Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Piquero, Gemma

    2009-01-01

    Polarization involves the vectorial nature of light fields. In current applications of optical science, the electromagnetic description of light with its vector features has been shown to be essential: In practice, optical radiation also exhibits randomness and spatial non-uniformity of the polarization state. Moreover, propagation through photonic devices can alter the correlation properties of the light field, resulting in changes in polarization. All these vectorial properties have been gaining importance in recent years, and they are attracting increasing attention in the literature. This is the framework and the scope of the present book, which includes the authors’ own contributions to these issues.

  4. Suppression of maximal linear gluon polarization in angular asymmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Mulders, Piet J.; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, Ya-jin

    2017-01-01

    We perform a phenomenological analysis of the cos 2 phi azimuthal asymmetry in virtual photon plus jet production induced by the linear polarization of gluons in unpolarized pA collisions. Although the linearly polarized gluon distribution becomes maximal at small x, TMD evolution leads to a Sudakov

  5. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid-state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as a cage for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale thus paves the way to the realisation of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This should contribute toward meeting the demands for a greater miniaturisation that the processing of an ever increasing number of data requires. Photonic Crystals intends at providing students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background needed for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found applications. As such, it aims at building brid...

  6. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexei; Pagnoux, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as cages for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale paves the way to the realization of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This will contribute towards meeting the demands for greater miniaturization imposed by the processing of an ever increasing number of data. Photonic Crystals will provide students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background required for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, ranging from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found application. As such, it aims at building bridges between...

  7. Optical pumping production of spin polarized hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knize, R.J.; Happer, W.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much interest recently in the production of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen in various fields including controlled fusion, quantum fluids, high energy, and nuclear physics. One promising method for the development of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen is the utilization of optical pumping with a laser. Optical pumping is a process where photon angular momentum is converted into electron and nuclear spin. The advent of tunable CW dye lasers (approx. 1 watt) allow the production of greater than 10 18 polarized atoms/sec. We have begun a program at Princeton to investigate the physics and technology of using optical pumping to produce large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen. Initial experiments have been done in small closed glass cells. Eventually, a flowing system, open target, or polarized ion source could be constructed

  8. Ionization of atoms by high energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Ioffe, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Photoionization of atoms by high energy photons is considered. It is emphasized that in this frequency region the cross section and other characteristics of the process are strongly effected by electron shell polarization and rearrangement effects, including that due to inner vacancy Auger decay. In the effects of nuclear structure could be important and noticeable, i.e. of virtual or real excitation of the nucleus degrees of freedom and of the Quantum Electrodynamics vacuum. Ionization accompanied by secondary photon emission (Compton ionization) is analyzed in the considered domain of energies

  9. Nuclear photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  10. Linear Polarization, Circular Polarization, and Depolarization of Gamma-ray Bursts: A Simple Case of Jitter Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jirong; Wang, Jiancheng, E-mail: jirongmao@mail.ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, Yunnan Province (China)

    2017-04-01

    Linear and circular polarizations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been detected recently. We adopt a simplified model to investigate GRB polarization characteristics in this paper. A compressed two-dimensional turbulent slab containing stochastic magnetic fields is considered, and jitter radiation can produce the linear polarization under this special magnetic field topology. Turbulent Faraday rotation measure (RM) of this slab makes strong wavelength-dependent depolarization. The jitter photons can also scatter with those magnetic clumps inside the turbulent slab, and a nonzero variance of the Stokes parameter V can be generated. Furthermore, the linearly and circularly polarized photons in the optical and radio bands may suffer heavy absorptions from the slab. Thus we consider the polarized jitter radiation transfer processes. Finally, we compare our model results with the optical detections of GRB 091018, GRB 121024A, and GRB 131030A. We suggest simultaneous observations of GRB multi-wavelength polarization in the future.

  11. Bi-directional evolutionary optimization for photonic band gap structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Huang, Xiaodong; Jia, Baohua

    2015-12-01

    Toward an efficient and easy-implement optimization for photonic band gap structures, this paper extends the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method for maximizing photonic band gaps. Photonic crystals are assumed to be periodically composed of two dielectric materials with the different permittivity. Based on the finite element analysis and sensitivity analysis, BESO starts from a simple initial design without any band gap and gradually re-distributes dielectric materials within the unit cell so that the resulting photonic crystal possesses a maximum band gap between two specified adjacent bands. Numerical examples demonstrated the proposed optimization algorithm can successfully obtain the band gaps from the first to the tenth band for both transverse magnetic and electric polarizations. Some optimized photonic crystals exhibit novel patterns markedly different from traditional designs of photonic crystals.

  12. Bi-directional evolutionary optimization for photonic band gap structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fei; Huang, Xiaodong; Jia, Baohua

    2015-01-01

    Toward an efficient and easy-implement optimization for photonic band gap structures, this paper extends the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method for maximizing photonic band gaps. Photonic crystals are assumed to be periodically composed of two dielectric materials with the different permittivity. Based on the finite element analysis and sensitivity analysis, BESO starts from a simple initial design without any band gap and gradually re-distributes dielectric materials within the unit cell so that the resulting photonic crystal possesses a maximum band gap between two specified adjacent bands. Numerical examples demonstrated the proposed optimization algorithm can successfully obtain the band gaps from the first to the tenth band for both transverse magnetic and electric polarizations. Some optimized photonic crystals exhibit novel patterns markedly different from traditional designs of photonic crystals.

  13. Exciton absorption of entangled photons in semiconductor quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ferney; Guzman, David; Salazar, Luis; Quiroga, Luis; Condensed Matter Physics Group Team

    2013-03-01

    The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers. Research funds from Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes

  14. Feasibility studies of a polarized positron source based on the Bremsstrahlung of polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, J.

    2011-09-01

    The nuclear and high-energy physics communities have shown a growing interest in the availability of high current, highly-polarized positron beams. A sufficiently energetic polarized photon or lepton incident on a target may generate, via Bremsstrahlung and pair creation within a solid target foil, electron-positron pairs that should carry some fraction of the initial polarization. Recent advances in high current (> 1 mA) spin polarized electron sources at Jefferson Lab offer the perspective of creating polarized positrons from a low energy electron beam. This thesis discusses polarization transfer from electrons to positrons in the perspective of the design optimization of a polarized positron source. The PEPPo experiment, aiming at a measurement of the positron polarization from a low energy (< 10 MeV) highly spin polarized electron beam is discussed. A successful demonstration of this technique would provide an alternative scheme for the production of low energy polarized positrons and useful information for the optimization of the design of polarized positron sources in the sub-GeV energy range. (author)

  15. Vector Monte Carlo simulations on atmospheric scattering of polarization qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Lu, Pengfei; Yu, Zhongyuan; Yan, Lei; Chen, Zhihui; Yang, Chuanghua; Luo, Xiao

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a vector Monte Carlo (MC) method is proposed to study the influence of atmospheric scattering on polarization qubits for satellite-based quantum communication. The vector MC method utilizes a transmittance method to solve the photon free path for an inhomogeneous atmosphere and random number sampling to determine whether the type of scattering is aerosol scattering or molecule scattering. Simulations are performed for downlink and uplink. The degrees and the rotations of polarization are qualitatively and quantitatively obtained, which agree well with the measured results in the previous experiments. The results show that polarization qubits are well preserved in the downlink and uplink, while the number of received single photons is less than half of the total transmitted single photons for both links. Moreover, our vector MC method can be applied for the scattering of polarized light in other inhomogeneous random media.

  16. DVCS in the fragmentation region of polarized electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akushevich, I.; Kuraev, E.A.; Nikolaev, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    For the kinematical region when a hard photon is emitted predominantly close to the direction of motion of a longitudinally polarized initial electron and relatively small momentum transfer to a proton we calculate the azimuthal asymmetry of a photon emission. It arises from the interference of the Bethe-Heitler amplitude and those which are described by a heavy photon impact factor. The azimuthal asymmetry does not decrease in the limit of infinite cms energy. The lowest order expression for the impact factor of a heavy photon is presented

  17. Characterization of photonic structures using visible and infrared polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kral Z.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Photonic Crystals are materials with a spatial periodic variation of the refractive index on the wavelength scale. This confers these materials interesting photonic properties such as the existence of photonic bands and forbidden photon frequency ranges, the photonic band gaps. Among their applications it is worth mentioning the achievement of low-threshold lasers and high-Q resonant cavities. A particular case of the Photonic Crystals is well-known and widely studied since a long time: the periodic thin film coatings. The characterization of thin film coatings is a classical field of study with a very well established knowledge. However, characterization of 2D and 3D photonic crystals needs to be studied in detail as it poses new problems that have to be solved. In this sense, Polarimetry is a specially suited tool given their inherent anisotropy: photonic bands depend strongly on the propagation direction and on polarization. In this work we show how photonic crystal structures can be characterized using polarimetry equipment. We compare the numerical modeling of the interaction of the light polarization with the photonic crystal with the polarimetry measurements. With the S-Matrix formalism, the Mueller matrix of a Photonic Crystal for a given wavelength, angle of incidence and propagation direction can be obtained. We will show that useful information from polarimetry (and also from spectrometry can be obtained when multivariate spectra are considered. We will also compare the simulation results with Polarimetry measurements on different kinds of samples: macroporous silicon photonic crystals in the near-IR range and Laser-Interference-Lithography nanostructured photoresist.

  18. Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.

  19. Preparation and purification of four-photon Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ying-Qiu; Ding, Dong; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient scheme for the preparing and purifying of the four-photon Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state based on linear optics and postselection. First, we describe how to create a four-photon GHZ state in both polarization and spatial degrees of freedom from two pairs. Moreover, in the presence of depolarization noise our scheme is capable of purifying the desired state. In the regime of weak nonlinearity we design an indirect photon number-resolving detection to distinguish two states of the two pairs. At last, a fourfold coincidence detector click indicates the creation of a polarization-entangled four-photon GHZ state. (paper)

  20. Photonic crystals: towards nanoscale photonic devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lourtioz, J.-M

    2005-01-01

    .... From this point of view, the emergence of photonic bandgap materials and photonic crystals at the end of the 1980s can be seen as a revenge to the benefit this time of optics and electromagnetism. In the same way as the periodicity of solid state crystals determines the energy bands and the conduction properties of electrons, the periodical structur...

  1. Photon-photon measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chudasama, Ruchi

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the measurement of photon-photon processes using data collected by the CMS experiment in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 and 8 TeV and in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{{\\rm NN}}}}= 5.02$ TeV.

  2. High energy photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Zerwas, P.M.

    1994-07-01

    The collisions of high energy photons produced at a electron-positron collider provide a comprehensive laboratory for testing QCD, electroweak interactions and extensions of the standard model. The luminosity and energy of the colliding photons produced by back-scattering laser beams is expected to be comparable to that of the primary e + e - collisions. In this overview, we shall focus on tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation, particularly γγ → W + W - , γγ → Higgs bosons, and higher-order loop processes, such as γγ → γγ, Zγ and ZZ. Since each photon can be resolved into a W + W minus pair, high energy photon-photon collisions can also provide a remarkably background-free laboratory for studying WW collisions and annihilation. We also review high energy γγ tests of quantum chromodynamics, such as the scaling of the photon structure function, t bar t production, mini-jet processes, and diffractive reactions

  3. Programmable Quantum Photonic Processor Using Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    mentioned above, increased infidelity in the single photon states produced by sources sharply increases the resource overhead for quantum repeaters...for a time-invariant cavity. Using a “dual Hong-Ou-Mandel” geometry shown in Fig. 3, we were able to ensure that the incoming and existing photon

  4. Photonic crystal light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  5. Photonic Design for Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.

    2014-08-28

    We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.

  6. Photonic crystal pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anscombe, Nadya

    2011-08-01

    Over the past ten years, Crystal Fiber, now part of NKT Photonics, has been busy commercializing photonic crystal fibre. Nadya Anscombe finds out about the evolution of the technology and its applications.

  7. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-03-05

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  8. Liquid Crystals and Photonic Bandgap Fiber Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Wei, Lei; Scolari, Lara

    Liquid Crystal(LC)filled Photonic Crystal Fibers(PCFs) represent a promising platform for the design and the fabrication of tunable all-in fiber devices. Tunability is achieved by varying the refractive index of the LC thermally, optically or electrically. In this contribution we present important...... parts of the LC theory as well as an application of a LC infiltrated PCF subject to an external electrostatic field. The fiber is placed between two electrodes and the voltage is increased step by step leading to the reorientation of the LC in the fiber capillaries. This mechanism can be used to produce...... a swichable polarizer, and an on chip LC photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter is presented, which admits strong attenuation of one polarization direction while the other one is nearly unaffected....

  9. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  10. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Nuclear spin polarization of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happer, W.

    1990-01-01

    Lasers can be used to produce milligrams to grams of noble gas nuclei with spin polarizations in excess of 50%. These quantities are sufficient to be very useful targets in nuclear physics experiments. Alkali-metal atoms are used to capture the angular momentum of circularly polarized laser photons, and the alkali-metal atoms transfer their angular momentum to noble gas atoms in binary or three-body collisions. Non-radiative collisions between the excited alkali atoms and molecular quenching gases are essential to avoid radiation trapping. The spin exchange can involve gas-phase van der Waals molecules, consisting of a noble gas atom and an alkali metal atom. Surface chemistry is also of great importance in determining the wall-induced relaxation rates of the noble gases

  12. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  13. Delayed photon selfinterference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel', A.R.; Moiseev, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Delayed photon selfinterference on a sample containing resonant two-level atoms is considered when the difference in the lengths in two optical paths exceeds the photon 'length'. It is shown that a reading pulse of the electromagnetic field can induce photon echo

  14. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  15. Light Higgs production at a photon collider

    CERN Document Server

    Söldner-Rembold, S

    2001-01-01

    We present a preliminary study of the production of a light Higgs boson with a mass between 120 and 160 GeV in photon-photon collisions at a Compton collider. The event generator for the backgrounds to a Higgs signal due to b-barb and c-barc heavy quark pair production in polarized gamma gamma collisions is based on a complete next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculation. For J sub z =0 the large double-logarithmic corrections up to four loops are also included. It is shown that the two-photon width of the Higgs boson can be measured with high statistical accuracy of about 2-10% for integrated gamma gamma luminosity in the hard part of the spectrum of 43 fb sup - sup 1. From this result the total Higgs boson width can be derived in a model independent way.

  16. Measurement of the longitudinal polarization of the HERA electron beam using crystals and the ZEUS luminosity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrzkowski, K.

    1995-12-01

    A measurement of the longitudinal polarization of the electron beam at HERA utilizing coherent interactions of high energy photons in crystals is described. Modification of existing facilities would allow an independent polarization measurement and a verification of birefringence phenomena in crystals for 20-30 GeV photons. Relevant experimental issues and systematic uncertainties are also presented. (orig.)

  17. Photon correlation holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Dinesh N; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ezawa, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Yoko; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2011-01-17

    Unconventional holography called photon correlation holography is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Using photon correlation, i.e. intensity correlation or fourth order correlation of optical field, a 3-D image of the object recorded in a hologram is reconstructed stochastically with illumination through a random phase screen. Two different schemes for realizing photon correlation holography are examined by numerical simulations, and the experiment was performed for one of the reconstruction schemes suitable for the experimental proof of the principle. The technique of photon correlation holography provides a new insight into how the information is embedded in the spatial as well as temporal correlation of photons in the stochastic pseudo thermal light.

  18. A study on photonic crystal slab waveguide with absolute photonic band gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumasa Satoh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the conventional photonic crystal (PhC slab waveguides have a photonic bandgap (PBG only for one polarization state of two orthogonal polarization states. In this paper, westudy on an absolute PBG that can realize PBG for both polarizations in the same frequency range anddemonstrate that an absolute PBG can be realized in PhC structures proposed here. In the numericalanalysis and design of PhC structures, we employ the two-dimensional finite element method (FEMbased on the effective index method (EIM. First, we propose two-types of PhC structures with anabsolute PBG and show that a steering type PhC is superior to an air-ring type PhC to obtain a widebandabsolute PBG. It is also shown that the optimized steering type PhC has the absolute PBG whosebandwidth of 164 nm at the center wavelength of 1.55 μm. Furthermore, we design PhC waveguidesbased on the obtained PhC structure having an absolute PBG in order to obtain guided modes for bothpolarization states within the same wavelength range. The transmission properties of the designed PhCwaveguides are also investigated and 60 degree bends which are required in compact photonic circuitsare designed. From these results, the possibility to realize compact polarization multiplexing photonicdevices is shown.

  19. Single-photon interference experiment for high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondani, Maria

    2014-07-01

    We follow the reductio ad absurdum reasoning described in the book "Sneaking a Look at God's Cards" by Giancarlo Ghirardi to demonstrate the wave-particle duality of light in a Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup analog to the conventional Young double-slit experiment. We aim at showing the double nature of light by measuring the existence of interference fringes down to the single-photon level. The setup includes a strongly attenuated laser, polarizing beam splitters, half-waveplates, polarizers and single-photon detectors.

  20. Photonic spin Hall effect in metasurfaces: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yachao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The photonic spin Hall effect (SHE originates from the interplay between the photon-spin (polarization and the trajectory (extrinsic orbital angular momentum of light, i.e. the spin-orbit interaction. Metasurfaces, metamaterials with a reduced dimensionality, exhibit exceptional abilities for controlling the spin-orbit interaction and thereby manipulating the photonic SHE. Spin-redirection phase and Pancharatnam-Berry phase are the manifestations of spin-orbit interaction. The former is related to the evolution of the propagation direction and the latter to the manipulation with polarization state. Two distinct forms of splitting based on these two types of geometric phases can be induced by the photonic SHE in metasurfaces: the spin-dependent splitting in position space and in momentum space. The introduction of Pacharatnam-Berry phases, through space-variant polarization manipulations with metasurfaces, enables new approaches for fabricating the spin-Hall devices. Here, we present a short review of photonic SHE in metasurfaces and outline the opportunities in spin photonics.

  1. Electron and Photon ID

    CERN Document Server

    Hryn'ova, Tetiana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background coming mostly from photons from hadron decays relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. Several methods are used to measure with data the efficiency of the photon identification requirements, to cover a broad energy spectrum. At low energy, photons from radiative Z decays are used. In the medium energy range, similarities between electrons and photon showers are exploited using Z->ee decays. At high energy, inclusive photon samples are used. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolation cuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statis...

  2. Polarization of submillimetre lines from interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic fields play important roles in many astrophysical processes. However, there is no universal diagnostic for the magnetic fields in the interstellar medium (ISM) and each magnetic tracer has its limitation. Any new detection method is thus valuable. Theoretical studies have shown that submillimetre fine-structure lines are polarized due to atomic alignment by ultraviolet photon-excitation, which opens up a new avenue to probe interstellar magnetic fields. We will, for the first time, perform synthetic observations on the simulated three-dimensional ISM to demonstrate the measurability of the polarization of submillimetre atomic lines. The maximum polarization for different absorption and emission lines expected from various sources, including star-forming regions are provided. Our results demonstrate that the polarization of submillimetre atomic lines is a powerful magnetic tracer and add great value to the observational studies of the submilimetre astronomy.

  3. Photo-Induced Electron Spin Polarization in a Narrow Band Gap Semiconductor Nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, A. John; Lee, Chang Woo

    2012-01-01

    Photo-induced spin dependent electron transmission through a narrow gap InSb/InGa x Sb 1−x semiconductor symmetric well is theoretically studied using transfer matrix formulism. The transparency of electron transmission is calculated as a function of electron energy for different concentrations of gallium. Enhanced spin-polarized photon assisted resonant tunnelling in the heterostructure due to Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling induced splitting of the resonant level and compressed spin-polarization are observed. Our results show that Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is dominant for the photon effect and the computed polarization efficiency increases with the photon effect and the gallium concentration

  4. Two color morphs of the pelagic yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura, from different locations of Costa Rica: snake venomics, toxicity, and neutralization by antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Pla, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Solórzano, Alejandro; Ureña-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Montes, María Laura; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sanz, Libia; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2014-05-30

    the treatment of envenomations by this species. Integrative analyses of animal venoms that combine the power of proteomics (venomics) with the characterization of their functional and immunological properties are significantly expanding knowledge on these remarkable bioweapons, both from a basic and a medical perspective. Costa Rica harbors a unique population of the yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura, that is restricted to a fjord-like gulf (Golfo Dulce). This population differs markedly from oceanic populations found elsewhere along the Pacific coast of this country, by presenting a patternless bright yellow coloration, instead of the typical bicolored or tricolored pattern of this species. It has been suggested that the dominance of this yellow-morph in Golfo Dulce might reflect gene flow restrictions, caused by the oceanographic conditions at this location. The present study demonstrates that the remarkable phenotypic variation between the two color morphs inhabiting Golfo Dulce and Golfo de Papagayo, respectively, is not associated with differences in the expression of venom components, as shown by their conserved RP-HPLC profiles. Proteomic analysis revealed the relatively simple toxin composition of P. platura venom, which contains three predominant types of proteins: three-finger toxins (protein abundance: 49.9%), phospholipases A2 (32.9%), and cysteine-rich secretory proteins (9.1%), together with few minor components. Further, the involvement of these most abundant proteins in the toxic effects of the venom, and their cross-recognition and neutralization by a sea snake antivenom produced against the venom of Enhydrina schistosa, were analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Chip for Label-Free Detection of Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Krüger, Asger Christian; Groothoff, Nathaniel

    Narrow polarization-mixing resonances in planar photonic crystals are studied as candidate components for label-free refractive index sensors for detecting bacteria causing sepsis through the identification of DNA strands....

  6. Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2014-01-01

    Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. Different FWM processes are observed, phasematching between fiber modes of orthogonal polarization, intermodal phasematching across bandgaps, and intramoda...

  7. Investigation of the polarization state of dual APPLE-II undulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    The use of an APPLE II undulator is extremely important for providing a high-brilliance X-ray beam with the capability to switch between various photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to systematically investigate the polarization characteristics of the two helical APPLE II undulators installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. A simple data acquisition and processing procedure has been developed to determine the Stokes polarization parameters for light polarized at arbitrary linear angles emitted from a single undulator, and for circularly polarized light emitted from both undulators in conjunction with a single-period undulator phasing unit. The purity of linear polarization is found to deteriorate as the polarization angle moves away from the horizontal and vertical modes. Importantly, a negative correlation between the degree of circular polarization and the photon flux has been found when the phasing unit is used.

  8. Precessing deuteron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Plis, Yu.A.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the acceleration in the Nuclotron of deuterons polarized in the horizontal plane is considered. This horizontal polarization is named precessing polarization. The effects of the main magnetic field and synchrotron oscillations are included. The precessing polarization is supposed to be used in studying the polarization parameters of the elastic dp back-scattering and other experiments

  9. Polarization of photoelectrons produced from atoms by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, V.W.; Lu, D.C.; Huang, K.N.

    1981-01-01

    The polarization of photoelectrons from stoms has proved to be an important tool for studying correlation effects in atoms, as well as relativistic effects such as the spin-orbit interaction. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have been made of the Fano effect, which is the production of polarized electrons by photoionization of unpolarized atoms by circularly polarized light. The experiments have dealt mostly with alkali atoms and with photon energies slightly above the ionization thresholds. Measurements that could be made to utilize polarized radiation are discussed

  10. Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Jaeckel, J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics and Phenomenology; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone. (orig.)

  11. Continuing research on the classical spiraling photon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongrui

    2014-11-01

    Based no the classical spiraling photon model proposed by Hongrui Li, the laws of reflection, refraction of a single photon can be derived. Moreover, the polarization, total reflection, evanescent wave and Goos-Hanchen shift of a single photon can be elucidated. However, this photon model is still unfinished. Especially, the spiraling diameter of a photon is not definite. In this paper, the continuous research works on this new theory are reported. According to the facts that the diffraction limit of light and the smallest diameter of the focal spot of lenses are all equal to the wavelength λ of the light, we can get that the spiraling diameter of a photon equals to the wavelength λ, so we gain that the angle between the linear velocity of the spiraling photon υ and the component of the linear velocity in the forward direction υb is 45°, and the energy of a classical spiraling photon E = (1/2)mυ2 = (1/2)m2c2 = mc2. This coincides with Einstein's mass-energy relation. While it is obtained that the velocity of the evanescent wave in the vacuum is slower than the velocity of light in glass in straight line. In such a way, the optical fiber can slow the light down. In addition, the force analysis of a single photon in optical tweezers system is discussed. And the reason that the laser beam can capture the particle slightly downstream from the focal point can be explained.

  12. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  13. Controllable light diffraction in woodpile photonic crystals filled with liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Chih-Hua; Zeng, Hao; Wiersma, Diederik S. [European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Maigyte, Lina; Trull, Jose; Cojocaru, Crina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Reserca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), passeig Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-01-12

    An approach to switching between different patterns of light beams transmitted through the woodpile photonic crystals filled with liquid crystals is proposed. The phase transition between the nematic and isotropic liquid crystal states leads to an observable variation of the spatial pattern transmitted through the photonic structure. The transmission profiles in the nematic phase also show polarization sensibility due to refractive index dependence on the field polarization. The experimental results are consistent with a numerical calculation by Finite Difference Time Domain method.

  14. Polare maskuliniteter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Anne Hauan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper my aim is to read and understand the journal of Gerrit de Veer from the last journey of William Barents to the Arctic Regions in 1596 and the journal of captain Junge on his hunting trip from Tromsø to Svalbard in 1834.It is nearly 240 years between this to voyages. The first journal is known as the earliest report from the arctic era. Gerrit de Veer adds instructive copper engravings to his text and give us insight in the crews meeting with this new land. Captain Junges journal is found together with his dead crew in a house in a fjord nearby Ny-Ålesund and has no drawings, but word. Both of these journals may be read as sources of the knowledge and understanding of the polar region. They might also unveil the ideas of how to deal with and survive under the challenges that is given. In addition one can ask if the sources can tell us more about how men describe their challenges. Can the way they expressed themselves in the journals give us an understanding of masculinity? And not least help us to create good questions of the change in the ideas of masculinities which is said to follow the change in understanding of the wilderness.

  15. Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Bernhard

    2008-11-03

    The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)

  16. Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)

  17. Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Gu, Chendong; Hou, Bo; Lai, Yun; Li, Jensen; Chen, Huanyang

    2013-01-01

    Optical diodes are fundamental elements for optical computing and information processing. Attempts to realize such non-reciprocal propagation of light by breaking the time-reversal symmetry include using indirect interband photonic transitions, the magneto-optical effect, optical nonlinearity or photonic crystals. Alternatively, asymmetric reciprocal transmission of light has been proposed in photonic metamaterial structures for either circularly or linearly polarized waves. Here we employ the recent concept of gradient index metamaterials to demonstrate a waveguide with asymmetric propagation of light, independent of polarization. The device blocks both transverse electric and magnetic polarized modes in one direction but transmits them in the other for a broadband spectrum. Unlike previous works using chiral properties of metamaterials, our device is based on the principle of momentum symmetry breaking at interfaces with phase discontinuities. Experiments in the microwave region verify our findings, which may pave the way to feasible passive optical diodes.

  18. Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic semiconductor chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rolf T; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng; Abolghasem, Payam; Scarcella, Carmelo; Della Frera, Adriano; Tosi, Alberto; Helt, Lukas G; Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Sipe, J E; Weihs, Gregor; Helmy, Amr S; Jennewein, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral filtering or post-selection. After splitting the twin-photons immediately after they emerge from the chip, we perform a variety of correlation tests on the photon pairs and show non-classical behaviour in their polarization. Combined with the BRW's versatile architecture our results signify the BRW design as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices.

  19. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  20. Photon Factory activity report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Since the foundation of Photon Factory a decade age, it has played an important role as a unique synchrotron X-ray radiation source in Japan. Installation of various insertion devices, storage of intense positron beam and reduction of beam emittance were the substantial achievements in the last several years. The exploitation of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring as a synchrotron radiation source has paved the way for a new potential of development. All these activities have brought about the increase of beamlines and the expansion of scientific fronts. Third International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation held in Tsukuba was one of the most highlighted events for the facility. In coming years, it is intended to open new research fields using the promising single bunch beam and circularly polarized wiggler radiation. The TRISTAN Main Ring also will be applied to synchrotron radiation research. The Photon Factory in a national synchrotron radiation research facility affiliated to the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, and it consists of a 2.5 GeV electron linac, a 2.5 GeV storage ring as a synchrotron light source, beam lines and experimental stations. The operation, improvement and development in respective departments are reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. Dipole model for double meson production in two-photon interactions at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, V.P. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Machado, M.V.T. [Universidade Federal do Pampa, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas, Campus de Bage, Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    In this work double vector meson production in two-photon interactions at high energies is investigated considering saturation physics. We extend the color dipole picture for this process and study the energy and virtuality dependence of the forward differential cross section. A comparison with previous results is presented, and the contribution of the different photon polarizations is estimated. (orig.)

  2. Cosmological birefringence constraints from CMB and astrophysical polarization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaverni, M. [Studio Teologico Interdiocesano, V.le Timavo 93, Reggio Emilia, 42121 Italy (Italy); Gubitosi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and sez. Roma1 INFN, Università di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro 2, Rome, 00185 Italy (Italy); Paci, F. [SISSA, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 Italy (Italy); Finelli, F., E-mail: matteo.galaverni@gmail.com, E-mail: giulia.gubitosi@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: fpaci@sissa.it, E-mail: finelli@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF-IASF Bologna, via Gobetti 101, Bologna, I-40129 Italy (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    Cosmological birefringence is a rotation of the polarization plane of photons coming from sources of astrophysical and cosmological origin. The rotation can also depend on the energy of the photons and not only on the distance of the source and on the cosmological evolution of the underlying theoretical model. In this work, we constrain few selected models for cosmological birefringence, combining CMB and astrophysical data at radio, optical, X and γ wavelengths, taking into account the specific energy and distance dependences.

  3. Tale of two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A very profitable spinoff from electron- positron collisions is two-photon physics. Rather than the electron and positron interacting directly via an exchanged photon, two virtual (transient) photons, one from each particle, get tangled up. With new electron-positron colliders appearing on the scene, a topical meeting on two-photon physics - 'From DAPHNE to LEP 200 and beyond' - held from 2-4 February in Paris, in the premises of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, was particularly timely. Some 60 physicists, both experimentalists and theorists, participated, with some thirty speakers

  4. Photon virtual bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.

    2004-01-01

    We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results

  5. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  6. Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratoryprovides this nation's (in fact, this hemisphere's) brightest storage...

  7. Review on Dark Photon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curciarello Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available e+e− collider experiments at the intensity frontier are naturally suited to probe the existence of a force beyond the Standard Model between WIMPs, the most viable dark matter candidates. The mediator of this new force, known as dark photon, should be a new vector gauge boson very weakly coupled to the Standard Model photon. No significant signal has been observed so far. I will report on current limits set on the coupling factor ε2 between the photon and the dark photon by e+e− collider experiments.

  8. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  9. Resonant transparency of a photonic crystal containing layered superconductor as a defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolov, S. S.; Makarov, N. M.; Yampolskii, V. A.

    2017-07-01

    Transmission of a TM-polarized terahertz wave through a 1D photonic crystal of finite thickness containing a defect consisting of a layered-superconductor plate with the superconducting layers orthogonal to the layers of the photonic crystal is studied theoretically. An analytical expression for the transmittance is derived. It is shown that the transparency in the band gap of the photonic crystal can be significantly enhanced due to the resonant excitation of the modes localized on the defect.

  10. Selection rules for the dematerialization of a particle into two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    Selection rules governing the disintegration of a particle into two photons are derived from the general principle of invariance under rotation and inversion. The polarization state of the photons is completely fixed by the selection rules for initial particles with spin less than 2. These results which are independent of any specific assumption about the interactions may possibly offer a method of deciding the symmetry nature of mesons which decay into two photons. 4 tables

  11. Dynamically unpolarized single-photon source in diamond with intrinsic randomness

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Naofumi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Sadgrove, Mark; Edamatsu, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Polarization is one of the fundamental properties of light, providing numerous applications in science and technology. While ?dynamically unpolarized? single-photon sources are demanded for various quantum applications, such sources have never been explored. Here we demonstrate dynamically unpolarized single-photon emission from a single [111]-oriented nitrogen- vacancy centre in diamond, in which the single-photon stream is unpolarized, exhibiting intrinsic randomness with vanishing polariza...

  12. Temperature characteristic of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lishuang; Jiao, Hongchen; Ren, Xiaoyuan; Song, Wenshuai

    2014-11-01

    The drift of birefringence difference can be caused by the ambient temperature variety of the fiber, which will lead to the change of lightwave polarization mode in the fiber. In the resonator fiber optic gyro systems, the change of lightwave polarization mode of the light transmission in the fiber can bring about the measurement error of the system. The hollowcore photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) resonator is designed to reduce the drift of birefringence difference caused by the temperature variety. It is verified experimentally that the temperature coefficient of the HCPCF birefringence difference is decreased about two orders of magnitude which is lower than that of the normal polarization maintaining fiber (PMF).

  13. Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The factorization of the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q 2 behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations

  14. Photon beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  15. Integrated microwave photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Sales, S.; Capmany, J.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A

  16. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features...

  17. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  18. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  19. Finite element method analysis of band gap and transmission of two-dimensional metallic photonic crystals at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmenci, Elif; Landais, Pascal

    2013-10-20

    Photonic band gap and transmission characteristics of 2D metallic photonic crystals at THz frequencies have been investigated using finite element method (FEM). Photonic crystals composed of metallic rods in air, in square and triangular lattice arrangements, are considered for transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. The modes and band gap characteristics of metallic photonic crystal structure are investigated by solving the eigenvalue problem over a unit cell of the lattice using periodic boundary conditions. A photonic band gap diagram of dielectric photonic crystal in square lattice array is also considered and compared with well-known plane wave expansion results verifying our FEM approach. The photonic band gap designs for both dielectric and metallic photonic crystals are consistent with previous studies obtained by different methods. Perfect match is obtained between photonic band gap diagrams and transmission spectra of corresponding lattice structure.

  20. Ultra-low emittance beam generation using two-color ionization injection in a CO2 laser-driven plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Benedetti, Carlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bulanov, Stepan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Min [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China); Esarey, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geddes, Cameron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vay, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yu, Lule [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China); Leemans, Wim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Ultra-low emittance (tens of nm) beams can be generated in a plasma accelerator using ionization injection of electrons into a wakefield. An all-optical method of beam generation uses two laser pulses of different colors. A long-wavelength drive laser pulse (with a large ponderomotive force and small peak electric field) is used to excite a large wakefield without fully ionizing a gas, and a short-wavelength injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field), co-propagating and delayed with respect to the pump laser, to ionize a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapped wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wake. The trapping condition, the ionized electron distribution, and the trapped bunch dynamics are discussed. Expressions for the beam transverse emittance, parallel and orthogonal to the ionization laser polarization, are presented. An example is shown using a 10-micron CO2 laser to drive the wake and a frequency-doubled Ti:Al2O3 laser for ionization injection.

  1. Polarization operator in quantum electrodynamics with a pair-producing external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashev, V.P.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.; Shabad, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Various radiative processes with one-photon initial state are treated in QED with pair-producing external field. It is shown that the probabilities of such processes are expressed in terms of two different polarization operators. For the case of a constant field the polarization operator which is expressed through the so-called causal Green electron function, is calculated. This operator has never been calculated previously. It enters the formula for probability of production of N arbitrary pairs by a photon

  2. High energy photon response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, F.M.; Yoder, R.C.; Endres, G.W.R.; Kathren, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the response of the Hanford 4-chip and 5-chip dosimeter to high energy photons. The dose response of the Hanford Multipurpose Personnel Diometer (HMPD) to photons with energies greater than 0.65 MeV has been evaluated relative to the dose produced by photons from a 60 Co. source. The penetrating dose determined with the HMPD is compared to the 1 cm depth dose in tissue measured with an extrapolation chamber. The results of the study indicate that the HMPD can be used to estimate the 1 cm depth dose in tissue from photons with energies between 0.65 MeV and 3.0 MeV to within an accuracy of 15%. However, the 1 cm depth dose is underestimated by 38% when the dosimeter is irradiated in a beam of very high energy photons produced by bombarding a tungsten target with 25 MeV electrons

  3. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...... readers with a general interest in photonic crystals, as well as for scientists who are entering the field and desire a broad overview as well as a solid starting point for further specialized stuides. Teh book, therefore, covers bothe general aspects such as the link from classical optics to photonic...

  4. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... are presented in this thesis. A variation of photonic crystal design parameters are used leading to a spectral shift of the dispersion, it is veried that the observed effects shift accordingly. An enhancement of the amplified spontaneous emission was observed close to the band edge, where light is slowed down...

  5. Nonlinear Photonics 2014: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, N; Kartashov, Yaroslav

    2015-01-12

    International Conference "Nonlinear Photonics-2014" took place in Barcelona, Spain on July 27-31, 2014. It was a part of the "Advanced Photonics Congress" which is becoming a traditional notable event in the world of photonics. The current focus issue of Optics Express contains contributions from the participants of the Conference and the Congress. The articles in this focus issue by no means represent the total number of the congress contributions (around 400). However, it demonstrates wide range of topics covered at the event. The next conference of this series is to be held in 2016 in Australia, which is the home of many researchers working in the field of photonics in general and nonlinear photonics in particular.

  6. Ion photon emission microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  7. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  8. Path-entangled photon sources on nonlinear chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Solntsev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Photon entanglement has a range of applications from secure communication to the tests of quantum mechanics. Utilizing optical nonlinearity for the generation of entangled photons remains the most widely used approach due to its quality and simplicity. The on-chip integration of entangled light sources has enabled the increase of complexity and enhancement of stability compared to bulk optical implementations. Entanglement over different optical paths is uniquely suited for photonic chips, since waveguides are typically optimized for particular wavelength and polarization, making polarization- and frequency-entanglement less practical. In this review we focus on the latest developments in the field of on-chip nonlinear path-entangled photon sources. We provide a review of recent implementations and compare various approaches to tunability, including thermo-optical, electro-optical and all-optical tuning. We also discuss a range of important technical issues, in particular the on-chip separation of the pump and generated entangled photons. Finally, we review different quality control methods, including on-chip quantum tomography and recently discovered classical-quantum analogy that allows to characterize entangled photon sources by performing simple nonlinear measurements in the classical regime.

  9. Transfer Matrix for Obliquely Incident Electromagnetic Waves Propagating in One Dimension Plasma Photonic Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Bin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the electromagnetic theory and by using an analytical technique-the transfer matrix method, the obliquely incident electromagnetic waves propagating in one-dimension plasma photonic crystals is studied. The dispersion relations for both the P-polarization waves and S-polarization waves, depending on the plasma density, plasma thickness and period, are discussed. (basic plasma phenomena)

  10. Search for new photon couplings in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Of great interest to particle physics is the question of the existence of new, light, pseudoscalar (or scalar) particles. In particular, the existence of a light pseudoscalar boson, known as the axion, would prove a solution to the strong CP problem. These particles, which must be very weakly coupled to ordinary matter, could also be the missing matter in the universe. The author attempted to produce axions in the laboratory by shining a laser beam through a transverse magnetic field. Only light polarized parallel to the magnetic field produces axions, so the polarization state of the light was carefully controlled. To increase the production of axions, the author constructed a multipass optical cavity that makes the light travel as much as 4 km through the magnetic field region. Using two different methods to detect the production of axions, limits were set on the axion coupling to two photons. In the first experiment, the change in polarization of the light was measured. To do this, the author constructed an ellipsometer, which could measure changes in polarization angle as small as 4 x 10 -11 rad. From the absence of an optical rotation due to the production of axions, it was possible to set a limit on axion coupling to two photons of g aγγ -7 GeV -1 . In the second experiment the author attempted to more directly measure the production of axions. In this case the axions were reconverted to photons, and the regenerated photons were counted by a low dark current photomultiplier tube. No photons in excess of the dark current were detected and the limit on axion coupling to two photons from this experiment is g aγγ -7 GeV -1

  11. Search for New Photon Couplings in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ruth Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Of great interest to particle physics is the question of the existence of new, light, pseudoscalar (or scalar) particles. In particular, the existence of a light pseudoscalar boson, known as the axion, would prove a solution to the strong CP problem. These particles, which must be very weakly coupled to ordinary matter, could also be the missing matter in the universe. We attempted to produce axions in the laboratory by shining a laser beam through a transverse magnetic field. Only light polarized parallel to the magnetic field produces axions, so the polarization state of the light was carefully controlled. To increase the production of axions, we constructed a multipass optical cavity that makes the light travel as much as 4 km through the magnetic field region. Using two different methods to detect the production of axions, we set limits on the axion coupling to two photons. In the first experiment, the change in polarization of the light was measured. To do this, we constructed an ellipsometer, which could measure changes in polarization angle as small as 4 times 10^{ -11} rad. From the absence of an optical rotation due to the production of axions, we were able to set a limit on axion coupling to two photons of g_ {rm agammagamma} times 10^{-7 } GeV^{-1}. In the second experiment we attempted to more directly measure the production of axions. In this case the axions were reconverted to photons, and the regenerated photons were counted by a low dark current photomultiplier tube. No photons in excess of the dark current were detected, and the limit on axion coupling to two photons from this experiment is g_{rm agamma gamma} times 10^{-7} GeV^{-1}.

  12. Optical activities of micro-spiral photonic crystals fabricated by multi-beam holographic lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jenny; Gao, Wensheng; Tam, Wing Yim

    2011-09-01

    We report on the optical activities of left- and right-handed micro-spirals fabricated in dichromate gelatin emulsions using a holographic interference technique involving six linearly polarized side beams and one circularly polarized central beam. Photonic bandgaps in the visible range are observed. More importantly, opposite optical activities—a polarization rotation of a few degrees and a circular dichroism (CD) of about 20% at the photonic band edges—are observed for the left- and right-handed spirals. Furthermore, the transmittance of circularly polarized light obeys the Lorentz reciprocity lemma for forward and backward incidence. However neither polarization rotation nor CD is observed for achiral split rings and hollow rods fabricated using all linearly polarized beams and six side beams without the central beam, respectively; this indicates that the chiral nature of the spirals is essential for the observed optical activities.

  13. Optical polarization modulation by competing atomic coherence effects in a degenerate four-level Yb atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Jong; Park, Chang Yong; Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2005-01-01

    A scheme of optical polarization modulation of a linearly polarized infrared probe field is studied in a degenerate four-level Yb atomic system. We have observed an anomalous transmission spectra of two circular polarization components of the probe field exhibiting an enhanced two-photon absorption and a three-photon gain with comparable magnitude, leading to the lossless transmission and enhanced circular dichroism. We carried out a proof-of-principle experiment of fast optical polarization modulation in such a system by modulating the polarization state of the coupling field. The observed enhanced two-photon absorption and three-photon gain of the probe field are due to the result of competing atomic coherence effects

  14. Polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The author discusses a number of interrelated hadronic spin effects which test fundamental features of perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. For example, the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and the axial coupling g{sub A} on the nucleon are shown to be related to each other for fixed proton radius, independent of the form of the underlying three-quark relativistic quark wavefunction. The renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities for the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for the polarized structure functions can be eliminated by using commensurate scale relations with other observables. Other examples include (a) new constraints on the shape and normalization of the polarized quark and gluon structure functions of the proton at large and small x{sub bj}; (b) consequences of the principle of hadron retention in high x{sub F} inclusive reactions; (c) applications of hadron helicity conservation to high momentum transfer exclusive reactions; and (d) the dependence of nuclear structure functions and shadowing on virtual photon polarization. The author also discusses the implications of a number of measurements which are in striking conflict with leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions, such as the extraordinarily large spin correlation A{sub NN} observed in large angle proton-proton scattering, the anomalously large {rho}{pi} branching ratio of the J/{psi}, and the rapidly changing polarization dependence of both J/{psi} and continuum lepton pair hadroproduction observed at large x{sub F}. The azimuthal angular dependence of the Drell-Yan process is shown to be highly sensitive to the projectile distribution amplitude, the fundamental valence light-cone wavefunction of the hadron.

  15. Creation of single-photon entangled states around rotating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racorean, Ovidiu

    2018-02-01

    Recently, numerical simulations showed that X-ray photons emitted by accretion disks acquire rotation of polarization angle and orbital angular momentum due to strong gravitational field in the vicinity of the rotating black holes. Based on these two degrees of freedom we construct a bipartite two-level quantum system of the accretion disks photons. To characterize the quantum states of this composite system we consider linear entropy for the reduced density matrix of polarization with the intention to exploit its direct relation with the photons degree of polarization. Accordingly, the minimum degree of polarization of X-ray radiation located in the transition region of the accretion disk indicates a high value of the linear entropy for the photons emitted on this region, inferring a high degree of entanglement in the composite system. We emphasize that for an extreme rotating black hole in the thermal state, the photons with energies at the thermal peak are maximally entangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum, leading to the creation of all four Bell states. Detection and measurement of quantum information encoded in photons emitted in the accretion disk around rotating black holes may be performed by actual quantum information technology.

  16. Single photons on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangier, P.; Abram, I.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  17. Progress in neuromorphic photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Shastri, Bhavin J.; Tait, Alexander N.; Nahmias, Mitchell A.; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2017-03-01

    As society's appetite for information continues to grow, so does our need to process this information with increasing speed and versatility. Many believe that the one-size-fits-all solution of digital electronics is becoming a limiting factor in certain areas such as data links, cognitive radio, and ultrafast control. Analog photonic devices have found relatively simple signal processing niches where electronics can no longer provide sufficient speed and reconfigurability. Recently, the landscape for commercially manufacturable photonic chips has been changing rapidly and now promises to achieve economies of scale previously enjoyed solely by microelectronics. By bridging the mathematical prowess of artificial neural networks to the underlying physics of optoelectronic devices, neuromorphic photonics could breach new domains of information processing demanding significant complexity, low cost, and unmatched speed. In this article, we review the progress in neuromorphic photonics, focusing on photonic integrated devices. The challenges and design rules for optoelectronic instantiation of artificial neurons are presented. The proposed photonic architecture revolves around the processing network node composed of two parts: a nonlinear element and a network interface. We then survey excitable lasers in the recent literature as candidates for the nonlinear node and microring-resonator weight banks as the network interface. Finally, we compare metrics between neuromorphic electronics and neuromorphic photonics and discuss potential applications.

  18. Two-photon polarization microscopy reveals protein structure and function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazar, Josef; Bondar, Alexey; Timr, S.; Firestein, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2011), s. 684-U120 ISSN 1548-7091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : green fluorescent protein s * living cells * in-vivo * indicators * anisotropy * activacion * dissociation * orientation * calmodulin * membranes Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 19.276, year: 2011

  19. Probing two-photon exchange with OLYMPUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, M.

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon exchange is believed to be responsible for the discrepancies in the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio found with the Rosenbluth and polarization transfer methods. If this explanation is correct, one expects significant differences in the lepton-proton cross sections between positrons and electrons. The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY in Hamburg, Germany was designed to measure the ratio of unpolarized positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections over a wide kinematic range with high precision, in order to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange. The experiment used intense beams of electrons and positrons stored in the DORIS ring at 2.0 GeV interacting with an internal windowless hydrogen gas target. The current status of OLYMPUS will be discussed. (authors)

  20. Virtual photonic couplings of quantum nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, H.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Ducommun, Yann

    as early as 1996, and subsequently on quantum gate application with quantum dots (QDs), coherent modes in an ensemble of QDs, a parity conserving dynamic Förster type mechanism between identical tuned QDs involving a real photon (RPH) or virtual photon (VPH), and the RDDDI mechanism between nonidentical...... detuned realistic GaAs QDs assisted by VPHs showing fine structures in photoluminescence (PL) spectra [2]. Our data are taken on each QD individually, see Fig.1, whereas other published data were so far measured on ensembles of QDs, e.g. solution-grown statistical number of CdSe QDs collected in a layered......, we illustrate more general resonance dynamic multipole-multipole interactions (RDMMIs) by plotting the interaction energy and range as a function of inter-polar distance, see Fig. 2 [4]. This RDMMI should inevitably appear in the course of realizing quantum information devices such as quantum...