WorldWideScience

Sample records for polarized light detectors

  1. Single photon detector with high polarization sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Li, Hao; You, LiXing; Zhang, WeiJun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, XiaoMing; Qi, Ming

    2015-04-15

    Polarization is one of the key parameters of light. Most optical detectors are intensity detectors that are insensitive to the polarization of light. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) is naturally sensitive to polarization due to its nanowire structure. Previous studies focused on producing a polarization-insensitive SNSPD. In this study, by adjusting the width and pitch of the nanowire, we systematically investigate the preparation of an SNSPD with high polarization sensitivity. Subsequently, an SNSPD with a system detection efficiency of 12% and a polarization extinction ratio of 22 was successfully prepared.

  2. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  3. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  4. Polarized light and optical measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, D N; Ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Polarized Light and Optical Measurement is a five-chapter book that begins with a self-consistent conceptual picture of the phenomenon of polarization. Chapter 2 describes a number of interactions of light and matter used in devising optical elements in polarization studies. Specific optical elements are given in Chapter 3. The last two chapters explore the measurement of the state of polarization and the various roles played in optical instrumentation by polarization and polarization-sensitive elements. This book will provide useful information in this field of interest for research workers,

  5. Design and construction of the POLAR detector

    OpenAIRE

    Produit, N.; Bao, T. W.; Batsch, T.; Bernasconi, T.; Britvich, I.; Cadoux, F.; Cernuda, I.; Chai, J. Y.; Dong, Y. W.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; Kole, M.; Kong, M. N.; Kramert, R.; Li, L.

    2017-01-01

    The POLAR detector is a space based Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) polarimeter with a wide field of view, which covers almost half the sky. The instrument uses Compton scattering of gamma rays on a plastic scintillator hodoscope to measure the polarization of the incoming photons. The instrument has been successfully launched on board of the Chinese space laboratory Tiangong~2 on September 15, 2016. The construction of the instrument components is described in this article. Details are provided on pro...

  6. Design and construction of the POLAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Produit, N.; Bao, T. W.; Batsch, T.; Bernasconi, T.; Britvich, I.; Cadoux, F.; Cernuda, I.; Chai, J. Y.; Dong, Y. W.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; Kole, M.; Kong, M. N.; Kramert, R.; Li, L.; Liu, J. T.; Liu, X.; Marcinkowski, R.; Orsi, S.; Pohl, M.; Rapin, D.; Rybka, D.; Rutczynska, A.; Shi, H. L.; Socha, P.; Sun, J. C.; Song, L. M.; Szabelski, J.; Traseira, I.; Xiao, H. L.; Wang, R. J.; Wen, X.; Wu, B. B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zwolinska, A.

    2018-01-01

    The POLAR detector is a space based Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) polarimeter with a wide field of view, which covers almost half the sky. The instrument uses Compton scattering of gamma rays on a plastic scintillator hodoscope to measure the polarization of the incoming photons. The instrument has been successfully launched on board of the Chinese space laboratory Tiangong 2 on September 15, 2016. The construction of the instrument components is described in this article. Details are provided on problems encountered during the construction phase and their solutions. Initial performance of the instrument in orbit is as expected from ground tests and Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. Polarization of light and Hopf fibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurco, B.

    1987-01-01

    A set of polarization states of quasi-monochromatic light is described geometrically in terms of the Hopf fibration. Several associated alternative polarization parametrizations are given explicitly, including the Stokes parameters. (author). 8 refs

  8. Polarized light in optics and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kliger, David S

    1990-01-01

    This comprehensive introduction to polarized light provides students and researchers with the background and the specialized knowledge needed to fully utilize polarized light. It provides a basic introduction to the interaction of light with matter for those unfamiliar with photochemistry and photophysics. An in-depth discussion of polarizing optics is also given. Different analytical techniques are introduced and compared and introductions to the use of polarized light in various forms of spectroscopy are provided.Key Features* Starts at a basic level and develops tools for resear

  9. Characterization of Partially Polarized Light Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Piquero, Gemma

    2009-01-01

    Polarization involves the vectorial nature of light fields. In current applications of optical science, the electromagnetic description of light with its vector features has been shown to be essential: In practice, optical radiation also exhibits randomness and spatial non-uniformity of the polarization state. Moreover, propagation through photonic devices can alter the correlation properties of the light field, resulting in changes in polarization. All these vectorial properties have been gaining importance in recent years, and they are attracting increasing attention in the literature. This is the framework and the scope of the present book, which includes the authors’ own contributions to these issues.

  10. CALDER: High-sensitivity cryogenic light detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casali, N.; Bellini, F.; Cardani, L.

    2017-01-01

    The current bolometric experiments searching for rare processes such as neutrinoless double-beta decay or dark matter interaction demand for cryogenic light detectors with high sensitivity, large active area and excellent scalability and radio-purity in order to reduce their background budget. The CALDER project aims to develop such kind of light detectors implementing phonon-mediated Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs). The goal for this project is the realization of a 5 × 5 cm"2 light detector working between 10 and 100mK with a baseline resolution RMS below 20 eV. In this work the characteristics and the performances of the prototype detectors developed in the first project phase will be shown.

  11. Hybrid fluorescent layer emitting polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadimasoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanorods have anisotropic absorption and emission properties. In this work a hybrid luminescent layer is produced based on a mixture of CdSe/CdS nanorods dispersed in a liquid crystal that is aligned by an electric field and polymerized by UV illumination. The film emits light with polarization ratio 0.6 (polarization contrast 4:1. Clusters of nanorods in liquid crystal can be avoided by applying an AC electric field with sufficient amplitude. This method can be made compatible with large-scale processing on flexible transparent substrates. Thin polarized light emitters can be used in LCD backlights or solar concentrators to increase the efficiency.

  12. A note on polarized light from magnetars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capparelli, L.M.; Damiano, A.; Polosa, A.D. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); Maiani, L. [CERN, Theory Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    In a recent paper it is claimed that vacuum birefringence has been experimentally observed for the first time by measuring the degree of polarization of visible light from a magnetar candidate, a neutron star with a magnetic field presumably as large as B ∝ 10{sup 13} G. The role of such a strong magnetic field is twofold. First, the surface of the star emits, at each point, polarized light with linear polarization correlated with the orientation of the magnetic field. Depending on the relative orientation of the magnetic axis of the star with the direction to the distant observer, a certain degree of polarization should be visible. Second, the strong magnetic field in the vacuum surrounding the star could enhance the effective degree of polarization observed: vacuum birefringence. We compare experimental data and theoretical expectations concluding that the conditions to support a claim of strong evidence of vacuum birefringence effects are not met. (orig.)

  13. Polarizing neutron by light-irradiated graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We study the spin orientation of the neutron scattered by light-irradiated graphene and calculate the average value of spin z-component of the neutron in terms of a generating functional technique. Our calculation results indicate that there is a remarkable neutron polarization effect when a neutron penetrates graphene irradiated by a circularly polarized light. We analyse the dynamical source of generating this effect from the aspect of photon-mediated interaction between the neutron spin and valley pseudospin. By comparing with the polarization induced by a magnetic field, we find that this polarization may be equivalent to the one led by a magnetic field of several hundred Teslas if the photon frequency is in the X-ray frequency range. This provides an approach of polarizing neutrons. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Polarization Of Light In The Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Kinsell L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a characterization of the fields of light polarization with which the optical designer or user of optical devices in the natural environment must be concerned. After a brief historical outline of the principal developments in polarization theory and observations during the last two centuries, the main emphasis is on the two primary processes responsible for the polarization of light in nature--scattering of light by particles of the atmosphere and reflection from soils, vegetation, snow, and water at the earth's surface. Finally, a seven minute film on polarization effects which can be seen in everyday surroundings will be shown. Scattering by atmospheric particles is responsible for high values of polarization in various atmospheric conditions and at certain scattering geometries. Such scattering particles include molecules of the atmospheric gases, aerosols of dust, haze, and air pollution, water droplets of fog and clouds, and the ice crystals of cirrus. It is seen that development of the theory of scattering by such particles has outstripped the measurements necessary for validation of the theory, a fact which points up the importance of symposia such as the present one. The reverse is true, however, for the polarizing properties of natural surfaces. Only in the case of still water is the theory of reflection adequate to characterize in a quantitative fashion the polarizing effects produced by the reflection of light from such natural surfaces. Polarization of light by reflection from vegetation is of prime importance in a remote sensing context, but much further work is needed to characterize vegetative reflectance for the purpose. The short film on polarization effects provides a good visualization technique and training aid for students interested in the field.

  15. Giessen polarization facility. III. Multi-detector analyzing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H H; Stock, R; Arnold, W; Berg, H; Huttel, E; Ulbricht, J; Clausnitzer, G [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenzentrum

    1977-06-15

    An analyzing system with a PDP 11 computer and a digital multiplexer is described. It allows to accept signals from 16 detectors with individual ADCs simultaneously. For measurements of analyzing powers the polarization of the ion beam can be switched to zero with a frequency of 1 kHz. The switching operation additionally controls the handling of the detector pulses. The software contains special programs for the analysis of polarization experiments.

  16. Sensitivity of Gamma-Ray Detectors to Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Yadigaroglu, I. -A.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the largest gamma-ray detector to date, EGRET, does not have useful polarization sensitivity. We have explored here some improved approaches to analyzing gamma-ray pair production events, leading to important gains in sensitivity to polarization. The performance of the next generation gamma-ray instrument GLAST is investigated using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the complete detector.

  17. Sky light polarization detection with linear polarizer triplet in light field camera inspired by insect vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Liu, Zejin

    2015-10-20

    Stable information of a sky light polarization pattern can be used for navigation with various advantages such as better performance of anti-interference, no "error cumulative effect," and so on. But the existing method of sky light polarization measurement is weak in real-time performance or with a complex system. Inspired by the navigational capability of a Cataglyphis with its compound eyes, we introduce a new approach to acquire the all-sky image under different polarization directions with one camera and without a rotating polarizer, so as to detect the polarization pattern across the full sky in a single snapshot. Our system is based on a handheld light field camera with a wide-angle lens and a triplet linear polarizer placed over its aperture stop. Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. Not only real-time detection but simple and costless architecture demonstrates the superiority of the approach proposed in this paper.

  18. Radiation effects on light sources and detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of optoelectronics includes a wide variety of both military and non-military applications in which the systems must meet radiation exposure requirements. Herein, we review the work on radiation effects on sources and detectors for such optoelectronic systems. For sources the principal problem is permanent damage-induced light output degradation, while for detectors it is ionizing radiation-induced photocurrents

  19. Reflection of a polarized light cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Jed; Weiss, Daniel; Berland, Keith

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a visually appealing experimental demonstration of Fresnel reflection. In this simple optical experiment, a polarized light beam travels through a high numerical-aperture microscope objective, reflects off a glass slide, and travels back through the same objective lens. The return beam is sampled with a polarizing beam splitter and produces a surprising geometric pattern on an observation screen. Understanding the origin of this pattern requires careful attention to geometry and an understanding of the Fresnel coefficients for S and P polarized light. We demonstrate that in addition to a relatively simple experimental implementation, the shape of the observed pattern can be computed both analytically and by using optical modeling software. The experience of working through complex mathematical computations and demonstrating their agreement with a surprising experimental observation makes this a highly educational experiment for undergraduate optics or advanced-lab courses. It also provides a straightforward yet non-trivial system for teaching students how to use optical modeling software.

  20. Scintillation light detectors with Neganov Luke amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaila, C.; Boslau, O.; Coppi, C.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Goldstraß, P.; Jagemann, T.; Jochum, J.; Kemmer, J.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Pahlke, A.; Potzel, W.; Rau, W.; Stark, M.; Wernicke, D.; Westphal, W.

    2006-04-01

    For an active suppression of the gamma and electron background in the Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) dark matter experiment both phonons and scintillation light generated in a CaWO 4 crystal are detected simultaneously. The phonon signal is read out by a transition edge sensor (TES) on the CaWO 4 crystal. For light detection a silicon absorber equipped with a TES is employed. An efficient background discrimination requires very sensitive light detectors. The threshold can be improved by applying an electric field to the silicon crystal leading to an amplification of the thermal signal due to the Neganov-Luke effect. Measurements showing the improved sensitivity of the light detectors as well as future steps for reducing the observed extra noise will be presented.

  1. Instrument Performance and Simulation Verification of the POLAR Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Kole, M.; Li, Z. H.; Produit, N.; Tymieniecka, T.; Zhang, J.; Zwolinska, A.; Bao, T. W.; Bernasconi, T.; Cadoux, F.; Feng, M. Z.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; Kong, S. W.; Li, H. C.; Li, L.

    2017-01-01

    POLAR is a new satellite-born detector aiming to measure the polarization of an unprecedented number of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the 50-500 keV energy range. The instrument, launched on-board the Tiangong-2 Chinese Space lab on the 15th of September 2016, is designed to measure the polarization of the hard X-ray flux by measuring the distribution of the azimuthal scattering angles of the incoming photons. A detailed understanding of the polarimeter and specifically of the systematic effects induce...

  2. Superconducting Undulator with Variably Polarized Light

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Ching Shiang; Ching Fan, Tai; Li, W P; Lin, P H

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates planar in-vacuo superconducting undulators with periodic length of 5 cm (IVSU5) producing linearly and circularly polarized infrared rays or xrays source. The vertically wound racetrack coil is selected for the coil and pole fabrication of the IVSU5. When the up and down magnetic pole arrays with alternative directions rotated wires in the horizontal plane, a helical field radiates circularly polarized light in the electron storage ring, the free electron laser (FEL), and the energy recovery linac (ERL) facilities. Meanwhile, an un-rotated wire is constructed together with the rotated wire on the same undulator is used to switch the linear horizontal and vertical, the right- and left-circular polarization radiation. Given a periodic length of 5 cm and a gap of 23 mm, the maximum magnetic flux density in the helical undulator are Bz = 1.5 T and Bx = 0.5 T when the wires rotated by 20°. This article describes the main factors of the planar and helical undulator design for FEL and...

  3. Polarized Light Sources for photocathode electron guns at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.; Frisch, J.; Witte, K.; Zolotorev, M.

    1992-12-01

    We describe current and future Polarized Light Sources at SLAC for use with photocathode electron guns to produce polarized electron beams. The SLAC experiments SLD and E142 are considered, and are used to define the required parameters for the Polarized Light Sources

  4. Photoconductive detector of circularly polarized radiation based on a MIS structure with a CoPt layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, A. V.; Dorokhin, M. V.; Zdoroveishchev, A. V.; Demina, P. B.; Vikhrova, O. V.; Kalent'eva, I. L.; Ved', M. V.

    2017-11-01

    A photoconductive detector of circularly polarized radiation based on the metal-insulator-semiconductor structure of CoPt/(Al2O3/SiO2/Al2O3)/InGaAs/GaAs is created. The efficiency of detection of circularly polarized radiation is 0.75% at room temperature. The operation of the detector is based on the manifestation of the effect of magnetic circular dichroism in the CoPt layer, that is, the dependence of the CoPt transmission coefficient on the sign of the circular polarization of light and magnetization.

  5. Potential Sources of Polarized Light from a Plant Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements have demonstrated that sunlight polarized during a first surface reflection by shiny leaves dominates the optical polarization of the light reflected by shiny-leafed plant canopies having approximately spherical leaf angle probability density functions ("Leaf Angle Distributions" - LAD). Yet for other canopies - specifically those without shiny leaves and/or spherical LADs - potential sources of optically polarized light may not always be obvious. Here we identify possible sources of polarized light within those other canopies and speculate on the ecologically important information polarization measurements of those sources might contain.

  6. Absorption of circularly polarized light by solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, G.; Brandi, H.S.

    1984-03-01

    The multiphoton absorption rate of circularly polarized light, by direct gap crystals, was investigated following a non-perturbative scheme proposed by Jones and Reiss. It was possible to derive closed analytical solutions, for the N-photon transition rate, valid for all field strenghts of practical interest. The accuracy of the approximations introduced in deriving these results was determined comparing the numerical computations of the multiphoton transition rate ('exact') with the analytical solutions. Specific calculations are done for ZnS and GaAs in the presence of a Nd-laser. It is shown that this formalism leads to a total transition rate which has not the tunneling behavior previously discussed by several authors within similar contexts. (Author) [pt

  7. Instrument performance and simulation verification of the POLAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, M.; Li, Z. H.; Produit, N.; Tymieniecka, T.; Zhang, J.; Zwolinska, A.; Bao, T. W.; Bernasconi, T.; Cadoux, F.; Feng, M. Z.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; Kong, S. W.; Li, H. C.; Li, L.; Liu, X.; Marcinkowski, R.; Orsi, S.; Pohl, M.; Rybka, D.; Sun, J. C.; Song, L. M.; Szabelski, J.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y. H.; Wen, X.; Wu, B. B.; Wu, X.; Xiao, H. L.; Xiong, S. L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, X. F.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-11-01

    POLAR is a new satellite-born detector aiming to measure the polarization of an unprecedented number of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the 50-500 keV energy range. The instrument, launched on-board the Tiangong-2 Chinese Space lab on the 15th of September 2016, is designed to measure the polarization of the hard X-ray flux by measuring the distribution of the azimuthal scattering angles of the incoming photons. A detailed understanding of the polarimeter and specifically of the systematic effects induced by the instrument's non-uniformity are required for this purpose. In order to study the instrument's response to polarization, POLAR underwent a beam test at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France. In this paper both the beam test and the instrument performance will be described. This is followed by an overview of the Monte Carlo simulation tools developed for the instrument. Finally a comparison of the measured and simulated instrument performance will be provided and the instrument response to polarization will be presented.

  8. Heterodyne detector for measuring the characteristic of elliptically polarized microwaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Michelsen, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, a device is introduced, which is capable of determining the three characteristic parameters of elliptically polarized light (ellipticity, angle of ellipticity, and direction of rotation) for microwave radiation at a frequency of 110 GHz. The device consists of two perpendicu......In the present paper, a device is introduced, which is capable of determining the three characteristic parameters of elliptically polarized light (ellipticity, angle of ellipticity, and direction of rotation) for microwave radiation at a frequency of 110 GHz. The device consists of two...... be calculated. Results from measured and calculated wave characteristics of an elliptically polarized 110 GHz microwave beam for plasma heating launched into the TEXTOR-tokamak experiment are presented. Measurement and calculation are in good agreement. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...

  9. Study of polarization phenomena in Schottky CdTe diodes using infrared light illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Goro, E-mail: gsato@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Fukuyama, Taro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Watanabe, Shin; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ohta, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Shin' nosuke [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Takahashi, Tadayuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiraki, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Ryoichi [ACRORAD Co., Ltd., 13-23 Suzaki, Uruma, Okinawa 904-2234 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Schottky CdTe diode detectors suffer from a polarization phenomenon, which is characterized by degradation of the spectral properties over time following exposure to high bias voltage. This is considered attributable to charge accumulation at deep acceptor levels. A Schottky CdTe diode was illuminated with an infrared light for a certain period during a bias operation, and two opposite behaviors emerged. The detector showed a recovery when illuminated after the bias-induced polarization had completely progressed. Conversely, when the detector was illuminated before the emergence of bias-induced polarization, the degradation of the spectral properties was accelerated. Interpretation of these effects and discussion on the energy level of deep acceptors are presented.

  10. Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Thorhauge, Morten

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of TM polarized light in planar photonic crystal waveguide structures, which exhibit photonic band gaps for TE polarized light. Straight and bent photonic crystal waveguides and couplers have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and modelled using a 3......D finite-difference-time-domain method. The simulated spectra are in excellent agreement with the experimental results, which show a propagation loss as low as 2.5±4 dB/mm around 1525 nm and bend losses at 2.9±0.2 dB for TM polarized light. We demonstrate a high coupling for TM polarized light...

  11. Spatiotemporal polarization gradients in phase-bearing light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembessis, V. E.; Babiker, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown how the interference of two circularly polarized laser beams endowed with orbital angular momentum can give rise to spatial and temporal polarization gradients, displaying axial as well as angular symmetry properties. Illustrations are given with reference to circularly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beams as typical light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  12. Simulation of erasure of photoinduced anisotropy by circularly polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajti, Sz.; Kerekes, Á.; Barabás, M.

    2001-01-01

    The temporal evolution of photoinduced birefringence is investigated on the basis of a model proposed by Pedersen and co-workers, This model is extended for the case of elliptically polarized light, and used to describe the erasure of photoinduced birefringence by circularly polarized light...

  13. Polymer photovoltaic cells sensitive to the circular polarization ofl light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilot, J.; Abbel, R.J.; Lakhwani, G.; Meijer, E.W.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Meskers, S.C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Chiral conjugated polymer is used to construct a photovoltaic cell whose response depends on the circular polarization of the incoming light. The selectivity for left and right polarized light as a function of the thickness of the polymer layer is accounted for by modeling of the optical properties

  14. [Application of polarized light in purulent-septic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiateryk, V I; Mikhno, S P; Kryvyts'kyĭ, Iu M; Kostiuk, S O

    2002-09-01

    Influence of polarized light on general state and healing of wounds and trophic ulcers in 57 patients with obliterating atherosclerosis of lower extremities, chronic venous insufficiency of extremities, purulent postoperative complications, purulent-septic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus was analyzed. Main mechanisms of the polarized light action in "Bioptron" apparatus were enlighted, effective schemes of its usage were determined.

  15. Measurement of Charmonium Polarization with the LHCb Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yanxi

    In particle physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory used to describe the interaction of colored particles. Heavy quarkonium is the bound state of heavy quark and its anti-quark, and its production cross section and polarization can be used to test the theory models in the framework of QCD. The computation of the heavy quarkonium production cross section by color singlet mechanism (CSM) underestimates the experimental measurements, while results from the calculation of non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD) can describe experimental data very well. However, the NRQCD predicts that the $S$ wave heavy quarkonium is heavily transversely polarized in the large transverse momentum region, which is contrary to experimental observations. LHCb, dedicated for precision measurement in bottom and charm physics, is one of the experiments located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHCb detector, which is a forward region spectrometer covering the pseudo rapidity range 2-5, has fine particle reconstruction and identi...

  16. Ionization detector, electrode configuration and single polarity charge detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z.

    1998-07-07

    An ionization detector, an electrode configuration and a single polarity charge detection method each utilize a boundary electrode which symmetrically surrounds first and second central interlaced and symmetrical electrodes. All of the electrodes are held at a voltage potential of a first polarity type. The first central electrode is held at a higher potential than the second central or boundary electrodes. By forming the first and second central electrodes in a substantially interlaced and symmetrical pattern and forming the boundary electrode symmetrically about the first and second central electrodes, signals generated by charge carriers are substantially of equal strength with respect to both of the central electrodes. The only significant difference in measured signal strength occurs when the charge carriers move to within close proximity of the first central electrode and are received at the first central electrode. The measured signals are then subtracted and compared to quantitatively measure the magnitude of the charge. 10 figs.

  17. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.

    2016-10-01

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  18. Design of a device for sky light polarization measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xiaoping; Lian, Junxiang; Zhang, Lilian; Xian, Zhiwen; Ma, Tao

    2014-08-14

    Sky polarization patterns can be used both as indicators of atmospheric turbidity and as a sun compass for navigation. The objective of this study is to improve the precision of sky light polarization measurements by optimal design of the device used. The central part of the system is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera; a fish-eye lens and a linear polarizer. Algorithms for estimating parameters of the polarized light based on three images are derived and the optimal alignments of the polarizer are analyzed. The least-squares estimation is introduced for sky light polarization pattern measurement. The polarization patterns of sky light are obtained using the designed system and they follow almost the same patterns of the single-scattering Rayleigh model. Deviations of polarization angles between observation and the theory are analyzed. The largest deviations occur near the sun and anti-sun directions. Ninety percent of the deviations are less than 5° and 40% percent of them are less than 1°. The deviations decrease evidently as the degree of polarization increases. It also shows that the polarization pattern of the cloudy sky is almost identical as in the blue sky.

  19. Anatomical Reconstruction and Functional Imaging Reveal an Ordered Array of Skylight Polarization Detectors in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Peter T; Henze, Miriam J; Bleul, Christiane; Baumann-Klausener, Franziska; Labhart, Thomas; Dickinson, Michael H

    2016-05-11

    Many insects exploit skylight polarization as a compass cue for orientation and navigation. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, photoreceptors R7 and R8 in the dorsal rim area (DRA) of the compound eye are specialized to detect the electric vector (e-vector) of linearly polarized light. These photoreceptors are arranged in stacked pairs with identical fields of view and spectral sensitivities, but mutually orthogonal microvillar orientations. As in larger flies, we found that the microvillar orientation of the distal photoreceptor R7 changes in a fan-like fashion along the DRA. This anatomical arrangement suggests that the DRA constitutes a detector for skylight polarization, in which different e-vectors maximally excite different positions in the array. To test our hypothesis, we measured responses to polarized light of varying e-vector angles in the terminals of R7/8 cells using genetically encoded calcium indicators. Our data confirm a progression of preferred e-vector angles from anterior to posterior in the DRA, and a strict orthogonality between the e-vector preferences of paired R7/8 cells. We observed decreased activity in photoreceptors in response to flashes of light polarized orthogonally to their preferred e-vector angle, suggesting reciprocal inhibition between photoreceptors in the same medullar column, which may serve to increase polarization contrast. Together, our results indicate that the polarization-vision system relies on a spatial map of preferred e-vector angles at the earliest stage of sensory processing. The fly's visual system is an influential model system for studying neural computation, and much is known about its anatomy, physiology, and development. The circuits underlying motion processing have received the most attention, but researchers are increasingly investigating other functions, such as color perception and object recognition. In this work, we investigate the early neural processing of a somewhat exotic sense, called

  20. Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhart, Thomas

    2016-12-15

    The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a manner similar to that of humans perceiving spectral stimuli as specific hues. To analyze e-vector orientation, the signals of at least three polarization-sensitive sensors (analyzer channels) with different e-vector tuning axes must be compared. The object-based, imaging polarization vision systems of cephalopods and crustaceans, as well as the water-surface detectors of flying backswimmers, use just two analyzer channels. Although this excludes the perception of specific e-vector orientations, a two-channel system does provide a coarse, categoric analysis of polarized light stimuli, comparable to the limited color sense of dichromatic, 'color-blind' humans. The celestial compass of insects employs three or more analyzer channels. However, that compass is multimodal, i.e. e-vector information merges with directional information from other celestial cues, such as the solar azimuth and the spectral gradient in the sky, masking e-vector information. It seems that invertebrate organisms take no interest in the polarization details of visual stimuli, but polarization vision grants more practical benefits, such as improved object detection and visual communication for cephalopods and crustaceans, compass readings to traveling insects, or the alert 'water below!' to water-seeking bugs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Tau Polarization Measurement in the L3 Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Polarization asymmetry (A p ) measurement can be obtained from the energy spectra of the tau lepton (tau) decay products. This measurement provides a precise determination of the weak mixing angel (sin''2 tilde char theta w ), one of the Standard Model fundamental parameters. Tau leptons are produced at LEP in e''+e''-yields tilde char f interactions at a center of mass energy of the order of the Z boson mass. In order to get A p we have calculated the analytical formulae of the tau decay products energy spectra, including radiative corrections, for all of the one prong tau decay channels. We have also extended this analytical formalism to the detector level, including the selection criteria effectsand the detector resolution (calibration) in the analytical expressions.Detailed studies have been performed concerning our measurement using this formalism. From the data collected with the L3 detector between 1991 and 1994, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 118.8 pb''1 at a center of mass energy of the order of the Z mass, we have identified and selected the following tau decay channel samples: tau yields e nu tilde char nu, tau yields mu nu tilde char nu, tau yields pi/K nu y tau yields p/K*nu. From the analysis of these samples we get the tau polarization asymmetry measurement: A p =3D0.143+-0.014+-0.010, which corresponds to a value of sin''2 tilde char theta w =3D0.2320+-0.0018+-0.0013. (Author) 24 refs

  2. Polarization Patterns of Transmitted Celestial Light under Wavy Water Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to describe the polarization patterns of celestial light, which includes sunlight and skylight, when refracted by wavy water surfaces. The polarization patterns and intensity distribution of refracted light through the wave water surface were calculated. The model was validated by underwater experimental measurements. The experimental and theoretical values agree well qualitatively. This work provides a quantitative description of the repolarization and transmittance of celestial light transmitted through wave water surfaces. The effects of wind speed and incident sources on the underwater refraction polarization patterns are discussed. Scattering skylight dominates the polarization patterns while direct solar light is the dominant source of the intensity of the underwater light field. Wind speed has an influence on disturbing the patterns under water.

  3. A Simplified, Low-Cost Method for Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Richard J.; Buapetch, Wanchana; Silamut, Kamolrat

    2009-01-01

    Malaria pigment is an intracellular inclusion body that appears in blood and tissue specimens on microscopic examination and can help in establishing the diagnosis of malaria. In simple light microscopy, it can be difficult to discern from cellular background and artifacts. It has long been known that if polarized light microscopy is used, malaria pigment can be much easier to distinguish. However, this technique is rarely used because of the need for a relatively costly polarization microscope. We describe a simple and economical technique to convert any standard light microscope suitable for examination of malaria films into a polarization microscope. PMID:19861611

  4. Control of electric field in CdZnTe radiation detectors by above-bandgap light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franc, J.; Dědič, V.; Rejhon, M.; Zázvorka, J.; Praus, P.; Touš, J.; Sellin, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the possibility of above bandgap light induced depolarization of CdZnTe planar radiation detector operating under high flux of X-rays by Pockels effect measurements. In this contribution, we show a similar influence of X-rays at 80 kVp and LED with a wavelength of 910 nm irradiating the cathode on polarization of the detector due to an accumulation of a positive space charge of trapped photo-generated holes. We have observed the depolarization of the detector under simultaneous cathode-site illumination with excitation LED at 910 nm and depolarization above bandgap LED at 640 nm caused by trapping of drifting photo-generated electrons. Although the detector current is quite high during this depolarization, we have observed that it decreases relatively fast to its initial value after switching off the depolarizing light. In order to get detailed information about physical processes present during polarization and depolarization and, moreover, about associated deep levels, we have performed the Pockels effect infrared spectral scanning measurements of the detector without illumination and under illumination in polarized and optically depolarized states

  5. Control of electric field in CdZnTe radiation detectors by above-bandgap light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franc, J.; Dědič, V.; Rejhon, M.; Zázvorka, J.; Praus, P. [Institute of Physics of Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Touš, J. [Crytur Ltd., Turnov (Czech Republic); Sellin, P. J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-28

    We have studied the possibility of above bandgap light induced depolarization of CdZnTe planar radiation detector operating under high flux of X-rays by Pockels effect measurements. In this contribution, we show a similar influence of X-rays at 80 kVp and LED with a wavelength of 910 nm irradiating the cathode on polarization of the detector due to an accumulation of a positive space charge of trapped photo-generated holes. We have observed the depolarization of the detector under simultaneous cathode-site illumination with excitation LED at 910 nm and depolarization above bandgap LED at 640 nm caused by trapping of drifting photo-generated electrons. Although the detector current is quite high during this depolarization, we have observed that it decreases relatively fast to its initial value after switching off the depolarizing light. In order to get detailed information about physical processes present during polarization and depolarization and, moreover, about associated deep levels, we have performed the Pockels effect infrared spectral scanning measurements of the detector without illumination and under illumination in polarized and optically depolarized states.

  6. Application of polarization information to a light-controlling-light technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J C; Wang, H C

    2017-09-15

    Nonlinear effects of photo-induced waveguides based on isomerization photochemistry are investigated. It is found that polarization information of the controlling light can be used to control the propagation of the signal light in all-optical waveguides, and an accurate and convenient light-controlling-light scheme is proposed, that is, controlling propagation of the signal light by synergic use of the intensity information and polarization information of the controlling light. The polarization dependence of optical nonlinearity is expected to enrich the connotation of the optical nonlinear effects and has theoretical significance and practical value.

  7. Polarized light modulates light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muheim, Rachel; Sjöberg, Sissel; Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoreception of the light-dependent magnetic compass in birds is suggested to be mediated by a radical-pair mechanism taking place in the avian retina. Biophysical models on magnetic field effects on radical pairs generally assume that the light activating the magnetoreceptor molecules is nondirectional and unpolarized, and that light absorption is isotropic. However, natural skylight enters the avian retina unidirectionally, through the cornea and the lens, and is often partially polarized. In addition, cryptochromes, the putative magnetoreceptor molecules, absorb light anisotropically, i.e., they preferentially absorb light of a specific direction and polarization, implying that the light-dependent magnetic compass is intrinsically polarization sensitive. To test putative interactions between the avian magnetic compass and polarized light, we developed a spatial orientation assay and trained zebra finches to magnetic and/or overhead polarized light cues in a four-arm “plus” maze. The birds did not use overhead polarized light near the zenith for sky compass orientation. Instead, overhead polarized light modulated light-dependent magnetic compass orientation, i.e., how the birds perceive the magnetic field. Birds were well oriented when tested with the polarized light axis aligned parallel to the magnetic field. When the polarized light axis was aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, the birds became disoriented. These findings are the first behavioral evidence to our knowledge for a direct interaction between polarized light and the light-dependent magnetic compass in an animal. They reveal a fundamentally new property of the radical pair-based magnetoreceptor with key implications for how birds and other animals perceive the Earth’s magnetic field. PMID:26811473

  8. A large area silicon UCN detector with the analysis of UCN polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasakov, M.S.; Serebrov, A.P.; Khusainov, A.Kh.; Pustovoit, A.; Borisov, Yu.V.; Fomin, A.K.; Geltenbort, P.; Kon'kov, O.I.; Kotina, I.M.; Shablii, A.I.; Solovei, V.A.; Vasiliev, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    A silicon UCN detector with an area of 45cm 2 and with a 6 LiF converter was developed at PNPI. The spectral efficiency of the silicon UCN detector was measured by means of a gravitational spectrometer at ILL. The sandwich-type detector from two silicon plates with a 6 LiF converter placed between them was also studied. Using this type of technology the UCN detector with analysis of polarization was developed and tested. The analyzing power of this detector assembly reaches up to 75% for the main part of UCN spectrum. This UCN detector with analysis of UCN polarization can be used in the new EDM spectrometer

  9. Light box for investigation of characteristics of optoelectronics detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szreder, Agnieszka; Mazikowski, Adam

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a light box for investigation of characteristics of optoelectronic detectors is described. The light box consists of an illumination device, an optical power sensor and a mechanical enclosure. The illumination device is based on four types of high-power light emitting diodes (LED): white light, red, green and blue. The illumination level can be varied for each LED independently by the driver and is measured by optical power sensor. The mechanical enclosure provides stable mounting points for the illumination device, sensor and the examined detector and protects the system from external light, which would otherwise strongly influence the measurement results. Uniformity of illumination distribution provided by the light box for all colors is good, making the measurement results less dependent on the position of the examined detector. The response of optoelectronic detectors can be investigated using the developed light box for each LED separately or for any combination of up to four LED types. As the red, green and blue LEDs are rather narrow bandwidth sources, spectral response of different detectors can be examined for these wavelength ranges. The described light box can be used for different applications. Its primary use is in a student laboratory setup for investigation of characteristics of optoelectronic detectors. Moreover, it can also be used in various colorimetric or photographic applications. Finally, it will be used as a part of demonstrations from the fields of vision and color, performed during science fairs and outreach activities increasing awareness of optics and photonics.

  10. Organic light emitting diodes with spin polarized electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Dediu, V.; Loi, M.A.; Muccini, M.; Murgia, M.; Ruani, G.; Taliani, C.; Zamboni, R.

    2003-01-01

    Electrical and optical properties of Alq3 based organic light emitting diodes with normal and spin polarized electrodes are presented. Epitaxial semitransparent highly spin polarized La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 were used as hole injector, substituting the traditional indium tin oxide electrode. A comparison of

  11. Using Polarization features of visible light for automatic landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W. de; Schavemaker, J.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the usage of polarization features of visible light for automatic landmine detection. The first section gives an introduction to land-mine detection and the usage of camera systems. In section 2 detection concepts and methods that use polarization features are described.

  12. Do cephalopods communicate using polarized light reflections from their skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Shashar, Nadav; Hanlon, Roger T

    2009-07-01

    Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish and octopus) are probably best known for their ability to change color and pattern for camouflage and communication. This is made possible by their complex skin, which contains pigmented chromatophore organs and structural light reflectors (iridophores and leucophores). Iridophores create colorful and linearly polarized reflective patterns. Equally interesting, the photoreceptors of cephalopod eyes are arranged in a way to give these animals the ability to detect the linear polarization of incoming light. The capacity to detect polarized light may have a variety of functions, such as prey detection, navigation, orientation and contrast enhancement. Because the skin of cephalopods can produce polarized reflective patterns, it has been postulated that cephalopods could communicate intraspecifically through this visual system. The term 'hidden' or 'private' communication channel has been given to this concept because many cephalopod predators may not be able to see their polarized reflective patterns. We review the evidence for polarization vision as well as polarization signaling in some cephalopod species and provide examples that tend to support the notion--currently unproven--that some cephalopods communicate using polarized light signals.

  13. The effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Neglecting polarized light as an adjuvant therapy for pressure ulcers and methodology distinctions in the trials engaging polarized light are the reasons for many dilemmas and contradictions. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing. Methods. This prospective randomized single-blind study involved 40 patients with stage I-III of pressure ulcer. The patients in the experimental group (E were subjected, besides polarized light therapy, to standard wound cleaning and dressing. Standard wound cleaning and dressing were the only treatment used in the control group (C. A polarized light source was a Bioptron lamp. Polarized light therapy was applied for six min daily, five times a week, four weeks. The Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH was used in the assessment of outcome. Statistic analysis included Mann Whitney Test, Fisher Exact Test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Results. There were significant differences between the groups at the end of the treatment regarding the surface of pressure ulcer (E: 10.80±19.18; C: 22,97±25,47; p = 0.0005, rank of pressure ulcer (E: 5.90±2.48; C: 8.6±1.05; p = 0.0005 and total PUSH score (E: 7.35±3.17; C: 11.85±2.35; p = 0,0003. The patients in the experimental group had significantly better values of the parameters monitored than the patients in the control group. Conclusion. After a four-week polarized light therapy 20 patients with stage I-III ulcer had significant improvement in pressure ulcer healing, so it could be useful to apply polarized light in the treatment of pressure ulcers.

  14. The effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durović, Aleksandar; Marić, Dragan; Brdareski, Zorica; Jevtić, Miodrag; Durdević, Slavisa

    2008-12-01

    Neglecting polarized light as an adjuvant therapy for pressure ulcers and methodology distinctions in the trials engaging polarized light are the reasons for many dilemmas and contradictions. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing. This prospective randomized single-blind study involved 40 patients with stage I-III of pressure ulcer. The patients in the experimental group (E) were subjected, besides polarized light therapy, to standard wound cleaning and dressing. Standard wound cleaning and dressing were the only treatment used in the control group (C). A polarized light source was a Bioptron lamp. Polarized light therapy was applied for six min daily, five times a week, four weeks. The Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) was used in the assessment of outcome. Statistic analysis included Mann Whitney Test, Fisher Exact Test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. There were significant differences between the groups at the end of the treatment regarding the surface of pressure ulcer (E: 10.80 +/- 19.18; C: 22,97 +/- 25,47; p = 0.0005), rank of pressure ulcer (E: 5.90 +/- 2.48; C: 8.6 +/- 1.05; p = 0.0005) and total PUSH score (E: 7.35 +/- 3.17; C: 11.85 +/- 2.35; p = 0,0003). The patients in the experimental group had significantly better values of the parameters monitored than the patients in the control group. After a four-week polarized light therapy 20 patients with stage I-III ulcer had significant improvement in pressure ulcer healing, so it could be useful to apply polarized light in the treatment of pressure ulcers.

  15. Robust reflective ghost imaging against different partially polarized thermal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Guo; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Rui-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Liu, Hong-Chao; Li, Zong-Guo; Xiong, Jun

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study the influence of degree of polarization (DOP) of thermal light on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the reflective ghost imaging (RGI), which is a novel and indirect imaging modality. An expression for the CNR of RGI with partially polarized thermal light is carefully derived, which suggests a weak dependence of CNR on the DOP, especially when the ratio of the object size to the speckle size of thermal light has a large value. Different from conventional imaging approaches, our work reveals that RGI is much more robust against the DOP of the light source, which thereby has advantages in practical applications, such as remote sensing.

  16. Single photon light detector for deep ocean applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, S.; Babson, J.; Learned, J.G.; O'Connor, D.; Grieder, P.K.F.; Wilson, C.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a single photon sensitive light detector module which can be operated in the ocean to a depth of 5000 m. It was designed primarily to be used as a Cherenkov light detector in conjunction with the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detector) experiment. After calibration in the laboratory, seven detectors, assembled in a vertical string geometry, have been operated simultaneously in the deep ocean off the coast of the island of Hawaii. Cosmic ray muons have been recorded successfully at dephts ranging from 2000 to 4000 m. The results have demonstrated the capability of the detector; it fulfills the specifications required for the modules to be used in a deep ocean muon and neutrino detector. (orig.)

  17. CMOS-compatible plenoptic detector for LED lighting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Alexander; Ghasemi, Javad; Nezhadbadeh, Shima; Nie, Xiangyu; Zarkesh-Ha, Payman; Brueck, S R J

    2015-09-07

    LED lighting systems with large color gamuts, with multiple LEDs spanning the visible spectrum, offer the potential of increased lighting efficiency, improved human health and productivity, and visible light communications addressing the explosive growth in wireless communications. The control of this "smart lighting system" requires a silicon-integrated-circuit-compatible, visible, plenoptic (angle and wavelength) detector. A detector element, based on an offset-grating-coupled dielectric waveguide structure and a silicon photodetector, is demonstrated with an angular resolution of less than 1° and a wavelength resolution of less than 5 nm.

  18. A study of light collection efficiency in scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoguang, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A group of computer programs was set up to study the light collection efficiency in scintillation detectors with rectangular cross sections. The input conditions can be chosen arbitrarily, including: the size, light attenuation length and refraction index of the scintillator and light guide, the refraction index of the coupling medium, the reflection characteristics of the walls, and the position of light sources. A few examples are discussed in this article. (orig.)

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF POLARIZED LIGHT INFLUENCE ON PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. О. Gulyar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are presented experimental evidences of BIOPTRON device polarized light influence on the acupuncture points and pain locus. It is proved that PILER-light can induce analgesia which depends on the choice of the application zone, exposure and nature of pain (tonic, acute or visceral. Analgesic response has systemic character and is accompanied by participation of opioidergic nociceptive system

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF POLARIZED LIGHT INFLUENCE ON PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    S. О. Gulyar; Z. А. Tamarova

    2016-01-01

    There are presented experimental evidences of BIOPTRON device polarized light influence on the acupuncture points and pain locus. It is proved that PILER-light can induce analgesia which depends on the choice of the application zone, exposure and nature of pain (tonic, acute or visceral). Analgesic response has systemic character and is accompanied by participation of opioidergic nociceptive system

  1. Propagation of polarized light through azobenzene polyester films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelchev, L; Matharu, A; Nikolova, Ludmila

    2002-01-01

    When elliptically polarized light of appropriate wavelength Corresponding to trans-cis-trans isomerisation process is incident on thin films of azobenzene polyesters, a helical structure is induced. We investigate the propagation of the exciting light beam (self-induced) as well as a probe light...... beam outside the absorption band through the polyester films. Investigations are carried out in one amorphous and one liquid crystalline polyester. We show that amorphous polyester after irradiation behaves like classical helical material....

  2. Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Sabbah, Shai; Erlick, Carynelisa; Shashar, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    Certain terrestrial animals use sky polarization for navigation. Certain aquatic species have also been shown to orient according to a polarization stimulus, but the correlation between underwater polarization and Sun position and hence the ability to use underwater polarization as a compass for navigation is still under debate. To examine this issue, we use theoretical equations for per cent polarization and electric vector (e-vector) orientation that account for the position of the Sun, refraction at the air–water interface and Rayleigh single scattering. The polarization patterns predicted by these theoretical equations are compared with measurements conducted in clear and semi-turbid coastal sea waters at 2 m and 5 m depth over sea floors of 6 m and 28 m depth. We find that the per cent polarization is correlated with the Sun's elevation only in clear waters. We furthermore find that the maximum value of the e-vector orientation angle equals the angle of refraction only in clear waters, in the horizontal viewing direction, over the deeper sea floor. We conclude that navigation by use of underwater polarization is possible under restricted conditions, i.e. in clear waters, primarily near the horizontal viewing direction, and in locations where the sea floor has limited effects on the light's polarization. PMID:21282170

  3. Global positioning method based on polarized light compass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yang, Jiangtao; Wang, Yubo; Tang, Jun; Shen, Chong

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a global positioning method based on a polarized light compass system. A main limitation of polarization positioning is the environment such as weak and locally destroyed polarization environments, and the solution to the positioning problem is given in this paper which is polarization image de-noising and segmentation. Therefore, the pulse coupled neural network is employed for enhancing positioning performance. The prominent advantages of the present positioning technique are as follows: (i) compared to the existing position method based on polarized light, better sun tracking accuracy can be achieved and (ii) the robustness and accuracy of positioning under weak and locally destroyed polarization environments, such as cloudy or building shielding, are improved significantly. Finally, some field experiments are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed global positioning technique. The experiments have shown that our proposed method outperforms the conventional polarization positioning method, the real time longitude and latitude with accuracy up to 0.0461° and 0.0911°, respectively.

  4. Alteration in non-classicality of light on passing through a linear polarization beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Namrata; Prakash, Ranjana

    2016-06-01

    We observe the polarization squeezing in the mixture of a two mode squeezed vacuum and a simple coherent light through a linear polarization beam splitter. Squeezed vacuum not being squeezed in polarization, generates polarization squeezed light when superposed with coherent light. All the three Stokes parameters of the light produced on the output port of polarization beam splitter are found to be squeezed and squeezing factor also depends upon the parameters of coherent light.

  5. Light-weight spherical mirrors for Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Crateri, R; Cusanno, F; De Leo, R; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Giuliani, F; Gricia, M; Iodice, M; Iommi, R; Lagamba, L; Lucentini, M; Mostarda, A; Nappi, E; Pierangeli, L; Santavenere, F; Urciuoli, G M; Vernin, P

    2003-01-01

    Light-weight spherical mirrors have been appositely designed and built for the gas threshold Cherenkov detectors of the two Hall A spectrometers. The mirrors are made of a 1 mm thick aluminized plexiglass sheet, reinforced by a rigid backing consisting of a phenolic honeycomb sandwiched between two carbon fiber mats epoxy glued. The produced mirrors have a thickness equivalent to 0.55% of radiation length, and an optical slope error of about 5.5 mrad. These characteristics make these mirrors suitable for the implementation in Cherenkov threshold detectors. Ways to improve the mirror features are also discussed in view of their possible employment in RICH detectors.

  6. Chiral Plasmonic Nanostructures Fabricated by Circularly Polarized Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Koichiro; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2018-05-09

    The chirality of materials results in a wide variety of advanced technologies including image display, data storage, light management including negative refraction, and enantioselective catalysis and sensing. Here, we introduce chirality to plasmonic nanostructures by using circularly polarized light as the sole chiral source for the first time. Gold nanocuboids as precursors on a semiconductor were irradiated with circularly polarized light to localize electric fields at specific corners of the cuboids depending on the handedness of light and deposited dielectric moieties as electron oscillation boosters by the localized electric field. Thus, plasmonic nanostructures with high chirality were developed. The present bottom-up method would allow the large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of chiral materials and further applications to functional materials and devices.

  7. The Light-Emitting Diode as a Light Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Hack, W. Nathan; Tran, Kiet; Vira, Zeeshan; Pickett, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A light-emitting diode (LED) and operational amplifier can be used as an affordable method to provide a digital output indicating detection of an intense light source such as a laser beam or high-output LED. When coupled with a microcontroller, the combination can be used as a multiple photogate and timer for under $50. A similar circuit is used…

  8. Polarized light improves cutaneous healing on diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Oliveira, Priscila Chagas; Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; Barbosa Pinheiro, Antonio L.

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of 3rd degree burn on diabetic rats submitted or not to treatment with Polarized Light. Diabetes mellitus (Streptozotocin, 60mg/kg) was induced on 45 male Wistar albinus rats and a third degree burn (1.5× 1.5cm) was created in the dorsum of each animal under general anesthesia. After a regular quarantine period, the animals were randomly distributed into three groups as follows: G1: control (no treatment, n =15); G2: Polarized Light (λ=400-2000nm, 20J/cm2) and G3: Polarized Light (λ=400-2000nm, 40J/cm2). The phototherapy performed on group G2 was Polarized Light dose 20J/cm2 and G3 was Polarized Light dose 40J/cm2 (Bioptron®, λ400-2000 nm, 40mW; 2.4J/cm2 per minute; Φ +/- 5.5 cm; Bioptron AG, Monchaltorf, Switzerland). The phototherapy started immediately post-burning and was repeated daily until the day before the animal death. The energy was applied transcutaneously respecting the focal distance of 10cm as recommended by the manufacturer. The dose was 20 or 40J/cm2 (4min 15s or 8min.and 30s). At each time point chosen (7, 14, and 21 days post-burning) and following macroscopic examination, each animal was killed by an overdose of general anesthesia. Slides were stained with HE, Sirius Red, and CK AE1/AE3 antibody. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses were performed under light microscopy. The animals submitted to phototherapy (20J/cm2) showed significant differences on regards revascularization and epithelialization. The use of 20J/cm2 was effective on improving the healing of third degree buns on diabetic animals at both early and late stages of the repair.

  9. Data acquisition for the HILI [Heavy Ion Light Ion] detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, K.M.; Shapira, D.; McConnell, J.W.; Kim, H.; Novotny, R.

    1987-01-01

    A large acceptance, multi-segmented detector system capable of the simultaneous detection of heavy and light ions has been constructed. The heavy ions are detected with a segmented gas ionization chamber and a multiwire proportional counter while the light ions are detected with a 192 element plastic phoswich hodoscope. Processing the large number of signals is accomplished through a combination of CAMAC and FASTBUS modules and preprocessors, and a Host minicomputer. Details of the data acquisition system and the reasons for adopting a dual standards system are discussed. In addition, a technique for processing signals from an individual hodoscope detector is presented. 4 refs., 3 figs

  10. Surface magnetism studied by polarized light emission after He+ scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manske, J; Dirska, M; Lubinski, G; Schleberger, M; Narmann, A; Hoekstra, R

    Surface magnetism is studied by means of an ion beam of low energy (2-15 keV) scattered off the surface under grazing incidence conditions. During the scattering, a small fraction of the ions is neutralized into excited states which decay subsequently by light emission. The circular polarization of

  11. The Polarization of Light and Malus' Law Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Martín; Stari, Cecilia; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.

    2017-01-01

    Originally an empirical law, nowadays Malus' law is seen as a key experiment to demonstrate the transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, as well as the intrinsic connection between optics and electromagnetism. In this work, a simple and inexpensive setup is proposed to quantitatively verify the nature of polarized light. A flat computer screen…

  12. Reflection and transmission of polarized light by planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooij, W.A. de.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis the reflection and transmission of sunlight by planetary atmospheres is studied, taking full account of the polarization of light. The atmospheres are treated as being locally plane-parallel, and are assumed to consist of a number of homogeneous layers, the lowest one being either a ground surface or a semi-infinite homogeneous layer. (Auth.)

  13. Scintillation light detectors with Neganov-Luke amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaila, C. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: cisaila@ph.tum.de; Boslau, O. [Ketek GmbH, Gustav Heinemann Ring 125, 81739 Munich (Germany); Coppi, C. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Feilitzsch, F. von [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Goldstrass, P. [Ketek GmbH, Gustav Heinemann Ring 125, 81739 Munich (Germany); Jagemann, T. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Jochum, J. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Kemmer, J. [Ketek GmbH, Gustav Heinemann Ring 125, 81739 Munich (Germany); Lachenmaier, T. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lanfranchi, J.-C. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pahlke, A. [Ketek GmbH, Gustav Heinemann Ring 125, 81739 Munich (Germany); Potzel, W. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Rau, W. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Stark, M. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wernicke, D. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); VeriCold Technologies GmbH, Bahnhofstrasse 21, 85737 Ismaning (Germany); Westphal, W. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    For an active suppression of the gamma and electron background in the Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) dark matter experiment both phonons and scintillation light generated in a CaWO{sub 4} crystal are detected simultaneously. The phonon signal is read out by a transition edge sensor (TES) on the CaWO{sub 4} crystal. For light detection a silicon absorber equipped with a TES is employed. An efficient background discrimination requires very sensitive light detectors. The threshold can be improved by applying an electric field to the silicon crystal leading to an amplification of the thermal signal due to the Neganov-Luke effect. Measurements showing the improved sensitivity of the light detectors as well as future steps for reducing the observed extra noise will be presented.

  14. Scintillation light detectors with Neganov-Luke amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaila, C.; Boslau, O.; Coppi, C.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goldstrass, P.; Jagemann, T.; Jochum, J.; Kemmer, J.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Pahlke, A.; Potzel, W.; Rau, W.; Stark, M.; Wernicke, D.; Westphal, W.

    2006-01-01

    For an active suppression of the gamma and electron background in the Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) dark matter experiment both phonons and scintillation light generated in a CaWO 4 crystal are detected simultaneously. The phonon signal is read out by a transition edge sensor (TES) on the CaWO 4 crystal. For light detection a silicon absorber equipped with a TES is employed. An efficient background discrimination requires very sensitive light detectors. The threshold can be improved by applying an electric field to the silicon crystal leading to an amplification of the thermal signal due to the Neganov-Luke effect. Measurements showing the improved sensitivity of the light detectors as well as future steps for reducing the observed extra noise will be presented

  15. Hyperchaotic Dynamics for Light Polarization in a Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, Cristian

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that a highly randomlike behavior of light polarization states in the output of a free-running laser diode, covering the whole Poincaré sphere, arises as a result from a fully deterministic nonlinear process, which is characterized by a hyperchaotic dynamics of two polarization modes nonlinearly coupled with a semiconductor medium, inside the optical cavity. A number of statistical distributions were found to describe the deterministic data of the low-dimensional nonlinear flow, such as lognormal distribution for the light intensity, Gaussian distributions for the electric field components and electron densities, Rice and Rayleigh distributions, and Weibull and negative exponential distributions, for the modulus and intensity of the orthogonal linear components of the electric field, respectively. The presented results could be relevant for the generation of single units of compact light source devices to be used in low-dimensional optical hyperchaos-based applications.

  16. Scalable Background-Limited Polarization-Sensitive Detectors for mm-wave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostem, Karwan; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe A.; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin L.; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Marriage, Tobias A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report on the status and development of polarization-sensitive detectors for millimeter-wave applications. The detectors are fabricated on single-crystal silicon, which functions as a low-loss dielectric substrate for the microwave circuitry as well as the supporting membrane for the Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. The orthomode transducer (OMT) is realized as a symmetric structure and on-chip filters are employed to define the detection bandwidth. A hybridized integrated enclosure reduces the high-frequency THz mode set that can couple to the TES bolometers. An implementation of the detector architecture at Q-band achieves 90% efficiency in each polarization. The design is scalable in both frequency coverage, 30-300 GHz, and in number of detectors with uniform characteristics. Hence, the detectors are desirable for ground-based or space-borne instruments that require large arrays of efficient background-limited cryogenic detectors.

  17. Polarization of sky light from a canopy atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H

    2004-01-01

    Light from the clear sky is produced by the scattering of unpolarized sunlight by molecules of the atmosphere and is partially linearly polarized in the process. Singly scattered light, for instance, is fully polarized in viewing directions perpendicular to the sun direction and less and less so towards the parallel and antiparallel directions, where it is unpolarized. The true, multiple, scattering is much less tractable, but importantly different, changing the polarization pattern's topology by splitting the unpolarized directions into pairs. The underlying cause of this 'symmetry breaking' is that the atmosphere is 'wider' than it is deep. Simplifying as much as possible while retaining this feature leads to the caricature atmosphere analysed here: a flattened sheet atmosphere in the sky, a canopy. The multiple scattering is fully tractable and leads to a simple polarization pattern in the sky: the ellipses and hyperbolas of standard confocal ellipsoidal coordinates. The model realizes physically a mathematical pattern of polarization in terms of a complex function proposed by Berry, Dennis and Lee (2004 New J. Phys.6 162) as the simplest one which captures the topology

  18. Polarized light use in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Lemesle, Corentin; Cheng, Ken

    2017-08-01

    Solitary foraging ants have a navigational toolkit, which includes the use of both terrestrial and celestial visual cues, allowing individuals to successfully pilot between food sources and their nest. One such celestial cue is the polarization pattern in the overhead sky. Here, we explore the use of polarized light during outbound and inbound journeys and with different home vectors in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas . We tested foragers on both portions of the foraging trip by rotating the overhead polarization pattern by ±45°. Both outbound and inbound foragers responded to the polarized light change, but the extent to which they responded to the rotation varied. Outbound ants, both close to and further from the nest, compensated for the change in the overhead e-vector by about half of the manipulation, suggesting that outbound ants choose a compromise heading between the celestial and terrestrial compass cues. However, ants returning home compensated for the change in the e-vector by about half of the manipulation when the remaining home vector was short (1-2 m) and by more than half of the manipulation when the remaining vector was long (more than 4 m). We report these findings and discuss why weighting on polarization cues change in different contexts.

  19. Occulting Light Concentrators in Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Cabrera, Anatael; Dusini, Stefano; Grassi, Marco; He, Miao; Wu, Wenjie

    2017-09-01

    The experimental efforts characterizing the era of precision neutrino physics revolve around collecting high-statistics neutrino samples and attaining an excellent energy and position resolution. Next generation liquid-based neutrino detectors, such as JUNO, HyperKamiokande, etc, share the use of a large target mass, and the need of pushing light collection to the edge for maximal calorimetric information. Achieving high light collection implies considerable costs, especially when considering detector masses of several kt. A traditional strategy to maximize the effective photo-coverage with the minimum number of PMTs relies on Light Concentrators (LC), such as Winston Cones. In this paper, the authors introduce a novel concept called Occulting Light Concentrators (OLC), whereby a traditional LC gets tailored to a conventional PMT, by taking into account its single-photoelectron collection efficiency profile and thus occulting the worst performing portion of the photocathode. Thus, the OLC shape optimization takes into account not only the optical interface of the PMT, but also the maximization of the PMT detection performances. The light collection uniformity across the detector is another advantage of the OLC system. By considering the case of JUNO, we will show OLC capabilities in terms of light collection and energy resolution.

  20. A high throughput liquid crystal light shutter for unpolarized light using polymer polarization gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanduri, Ravi K.; Lawler, Kris F.; Escuti, Michael J.

    2011-05-01

    We report on a broadband, diffractive, light shutter with the ability to modulate unpolarized light. This polarizer-free approach employs a conventional liquid crystal (LC) switch, combined with broadband Polarization Gratings (PGs) formed with polymer LC materials. The thin-film PGs act as diffractive polarizing beam-splitters, while the LC switch operates on both orthogonal polarization states simultaneously. As an initial experimental proof-of- concept for unpolarized light with +/-7° aperture, we utilize a commercial twisted-nematic LC switch and our own polymer PGs to achieve a peak transmittance of 80% and peak contrast ratio of 230:1. We characterize the optoelectronic performance, discuss the limitations, and evaluate its use in potential nonmechanical shutter applications (imaging and non-imaging).

  1. Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light?

    OpenAIRE

    Labhart, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a ...

  2. Local polarization phenomena in In-doped CdTe x-ray detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshiyuki; Sato, Kenji; Ishida, Shinichiro; Kiri, Motosada; Hirooka, Megumi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Kanamori, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    Local polarization phenomena have been studied in detector arrays with the detector element size of 500 microm x 500 microm, which are fabricated from high-resistivity In-doped CdTe crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman technique. It has been found for the first time that a polarization effect, which is characterized by a progressive decrease of the pulse counting rate with increasing photon fluence, strongly depends on the detector elements, that is, the portion of crystals used. The influence of several parameters, such as the applied electric field strength, time, and temperature, on this local polarization effect is also investigated. From the photoluminescence measurements of the inhomogeneity of In dopant, it is concluded that the local polarization effect observed here originates from a deep level associated with In dopant in CdTe crystals

  3. Circular polarization measurements with a Ge(Li) detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, J.; Warming, Inge Elisabeth

    1969-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained in measurements of the degree of circular polarization of gamma transitions to bound states of 33S, 36Cl, 49Ti, 56Mn, 57Fe, 60Co and 64Cu following the capture of polarized thermal neutrons. Spin values have been determined on the basis of these results....

  4. Robust sky light polarization detection with an S-wave plate in a light field camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Cao, Yu; Liu, Haibo; Liu, Zejin

    2016-05-01

    The sky light polarization navigator has many advantages, such as low cost, no decrease in accuracy with continuous operation, etc. However, current celestial polarization measurement methods often suffer from low performance when the sky is covered by clouds, which reduce the accuracy of navigation. In this paper we introduce a new method and structure based on a handheld light field camera and a radial polarizer, composed of an S-wave plate and a linear polarizer, to detect the sky light polarization pattern across a wide field of view in a single snapshot. Each micro-subimage has a special intensity distribution. After extracting the texture feature of these subimages, stable distribution information of the angle of polarization under a cloudy sky can be obtained. Our experimental results match well with the predicted properties of the theory. Because the polarization pattern is obtained through image processing, rather than traditional methods based on mathematical computation, this method is less sensitive to errors of pixel gray value and thus has better anti-interference performance.

  5. Reversible Shaping of Microwells by Polarized Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Pirani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, stimuli-responsive polymeric materials have attracted great interest, due to their low cost and ease of structuration over large areas combined with the possibility to actively manipulate their properties. In this work, we propose a polymeric pattern of soft-imprinted microwells containing azobenzene molecules. The shape of individual elements of the pattern can be controlled after fabrication by irradiation with properly polarized light. By taking advantage of the light responsivity of the azobenzene compound, we demonstrate the possibility to reversibly modulate a contraction-expansion of wells from an initial round shape to very narrow slits. We also show that the initial shape of the microconcavities can be restored by flipping the polarization by 90°. The possibility to reversibly control the final shape of individual elements of structured surfaces offers the opportunity to engineer surface properties dynamically, thus opening new perspectives for several applications.

  6. FEL polarization control studies on Dalian coherent light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tong; Deng Haixiao; Wang Dong; Zhao Zhentang; Zhang Weiqing; Wu Guorong; Dai Dongxu; Yang Xueming

    2013-01-01

    The polarization switch of a free-electron laser (FEL) is of great importance to the user scientific community. In this paper, we investigate the generation of controllable polarization FEL from two well-known approaches for Dalian coherent light source, i.e., crossed planar undulator and elliptical permanent undulator. In order to perform a fair comparative study, a one-dimensional time-dependent FEL code has been developed, in which the imperfection effects of an elliptical permanent undulator are taken into account. Comprehensive simulation results indicate that the residual beam energy chirp and the intrinsic FEL gain may contribute to the degradation of the polarization performance for the crossed planar undulator. The elliptical permanent undulator is not very sensitive to the undulator errors and beam imperfections. Meanwhile, with proper configurations of the main planar undulators and additional elliptical permanent undulator section, circular polarized FEL with pulse energy exceeding 100 μJ could be achieved at Dalian coherent light source. (authors)

  7. CALDER: Cryogenic light detectors for background-free searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardani, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica - Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma - Italy and Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica - Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN - Sezione di Roma, Roma - Italy (Italy); Castellano, M. G. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Roma - Italy (Italy); Colantoni, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica - Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, Genova - Italy and INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova - Italy (Italy); Tomei, C. [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Roma - Italy (Italy)

    2015-08-17

    The development of background-free detectors is essential for experiments searching for rare events. Bolometers, that are among the most competitive devices for the study of neutrino-less double beta decay (0νDBD) and Dark Matter interactions, suffer from the absence of techniques that allow to identify the nature of the interacting particles. This limit can be overcome by coupling the bolometer to an independent device for the measurement of the light emitted by interactions, as the combined read-out of the bolometric and light signals allows to identify and reject particles different from those of interest. CUORE, the most advanced bolometric experiment for 0νDBD searches, could disentangle the electrons produced by 0νDBD from the dangerous background due to α particles, by measuring the (tiny) Cherenkov light emitted by electrons and not by α’s. LUCIFER, a project based on ZnSe scintillating bolometers for the study of {sup 82}Se 0νDBD, would be competitive also in the search of Dark Matter interactions if equipped with light detectors that allow to distinguish and reject the background due to electrons and γ’s. These advances require cryogenic detectors characterized by noise lower than 20 eV, large active area, wide temperature range of operation, high radio-purity and ease in fabricating hundreds of channels. The CALDER collaboration aims to develop such detectors by exploiting the superb energy resolution and natural multiplexed read-out provided by Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  8. Trinary optical logic processors using shadow casting with polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amal K.; Basuray, A.

    1990-10-01

    An optical implementation is proposed of the modified trinary number (MTN) system (Datta et al., 1989) in which any binary number can have arithmetic operations performed on it in parallel without the need for carry and borrow steps. The present method extends the lensless shadow-casting technique of Tanida and Ichioka (1983, 1985). Three kinds of spatial coding are used for encoding the trinary input states, whereas in the decoding plane three states are identified by no light and light with two orthogonal states of polarization.

  9. Arbitrary helicity control of circularly polarized light from lateral-type spin-polarized light-emitting diodes at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Nozomi; Aoyama, Masaki; Roca, Ronel C.; Nishibayashi, Kazuhiro; Munekata, Hiro

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate arbitrary helicity control of circularly polarized light (CPL) emitted at room temperature from the cleaved side facet of a lateral-type spin-polarized light-emitting diode (spin-LED) with two ferromagnetic electrodes in an antiparallel magnetization configuration. Driving alternate currents through the two electrodes results in polarization switching of CPL with frequencies up to 100 kHz. Furthermore, tuning the current density ratio in the two electrodes enables manipulation of the degree of circular polarization. These results demonstrate arbitrary electrical control of polarization with high speed, which is required for the practical use of lateral-type spin-LEDs as monolithic CPL light sources.

  10. Light scattering by microstructures in plastic nuclear track detector plane surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipasuramonton, O.

    1985-01-01

    The angular distributions of light elastically scattered by finite dielectric conical and cylindrical microstructures in plastic nuclear track detector plane surfaces have been measured. These microstructures are the chemically etched tracks of various nuclei, viz., protons, neutrons, 3 He, alphas, and 56 Fe. The base diameters of the structures are larger than twice the wavelength of the incident light. The results show the dependence of the scattering patterns on shape, size, orientation, and refractive index of the structures as well as the polarization of the incident light. It is also observed that in the single and independent scattering regime, the intensity at the intermediate angular region exhibits linear proportionality to the number of the microstructures per unit area. 84 refs., 96 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Multi detector input and function generator for polarized neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Blois, J.; Beunes, A.J.H.; Ende, P. v.d.; Osterholt, E.A.; Rekveldt, M.T.; Schipper, M.N.; Velthuis, S.G.E. te

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a VME module is described for static or stroboscopic measurements with a neutron scattering instrument, consisting essentially of a series of up to 64 3 He neutron detectors around a sample environment. Each detector is provided with an amplifier and a discriminator to separate the neutrons from noise. To reduce the wiring, the discriminator outputs are connected to the module by coding boxes. Two 16-inputs to one-output coding boxes generate serial output codes on a fiber optic connection. This basically fast connection reduces the dead time introduced by the coding, and the influence of environmental noise. With stroboscopic measurements a periodic function is used to affect the sample surrounded by a field coil. Each detected neutron is labeled with a data label containing the detector number and the time of detection with respect to a time reference. The data time base can be programmed on a linear or a nonlinear scale. An external source or an attribute of the periodic function may generate the time reference pulse. A 12-bit DAC connected to the output of an 8 K, 16-bits memory, where the pattern of the current has been stored before, generates the function. The function memory is scanned by the programmable function time base. Attributes are set by the four remaining bits of the memory. One separate detector input connects a monitor detector in the neutron beam with a 32-bit counter/timer that provides measuring on a preset count, preset time or preset frame. (orig.)

  12. Multisector scintillation detector with fiber-optic light collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampilogov, N. V.; Denisov, S. P.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Prokopenko, N. N.; Shulzhenko, I. A.; Unatlokov, I. B.; Yashin, I. I.

    2017-07-01

    A new type of scintillation detector for the use in high energy physics is described. The octagonal detector consists of eight triangular scintillator sectors with total area of 1 m2. Each sector represents two plates of 2 cm thick plastic scintillator. Seven 1 mm thick WLS fibers are laid evenly between the plates. The space between the fibers is filled with silicone compound to provide better light collection. Fiber ends from all eight sectors are gathered in the central part of the detector into a bunch and docked to the cathode of a FEU-115m photomultiplier. The read-out of the counter signals is carried out from 7th and 12th dynodes, providing a wide dynamic range up to about 10000 particles. The front-end electronics of the detector is based on the flash-ADC with a sampling frequency of 200 MHz. The features of detecting and recording systems of the multisector scintillation detector (MSD) and the results of its testing are discussed.

  13. Three-dimensional polarization states of monochromatic light fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2011-11-01

    The 3×1 generalized Jones vectors (GJVs) [E(x) E(y) E(z)](t) (t indicates the transpose) that describe the linear, circular, and elliptical polarization states of an arbitrary three-dimensional (3-D) monochromatic light field are determined in terms of the geometrical parameters of the 3-D vibration of the time-harmonic electric field. In three dimensions, there are as many distinct linear polarization states as there are points on the surface of a hemisphere, and the number of distinct 3-D circular polarization states equals that of all two-dimensional (2-D) polarization states on the Poincaré sphere, of which only two are circular states. The subset of 3-D polarization states that results from the superposition of three mutually orthogonal x, y, and z field components of equal amplitude is considered as a function of their relative phases. Interesting contours of equal ellipticity and equal inclination of the normal to the polarization ellipse with respect to the x axis are obtained in 2-D phase space. Finally, the 3×3 generalized Jones calculus, in which elastic scattering (e.g., by a nano-object in the near field) is characterized by the 3-D linear transformation E(s)=T E(i), is briefly introduced. In such a matrix transformation, E(i) and E(s) are the 3×1 GJVs of the incident and scattered waves and T is the 3×3 generalized Jones matrix of the scatterer at a given frequency and for given directions of incidence and scattering.

  14. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella; Carron, Sebastian; Dragone, Angelo; Freytag, Dietrich; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Hasi, Jasmine; Herbst, Ryan; Herrmann, Sven; Kenney, Chris; Markovic, Bojan; Nishimura, Kurtis; Osier, Shawn; Pines, Jack; Reese, Benjamin; Segal, Julie; Tomada, Astrid; Weaver, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of area detectors developed for use at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) with particular emphasis on their impact on science. The experimental needs leading to the development of second-generation cameras for LCLS are discussed and the new detector prototypes are presented. Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a new generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced

  15. Edge states and phase diagram for graphene under polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang, E-mail: wangyixiang@jiangnan.edu.cn [School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Li, Fuxiang [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the topological phase transitions in graphene under the modulation of circularly polarized light, by analyzing the changes of edge states and its topological structures. A full phase diagram, with several different topological phases, is presented in the parameter space spanned by the driving frequency and light strength. We find that the high-Chern number behavior is very common in the driven system. While the one-photon resonance can create the chiral edge states in the π-gap, the two-photon resonance will induce the counter-propagating edge modes in the zero-energy gap. When the driving light strength is strong, the number and even the chirality of the edge states may change in the π-gap. The robustness of the edge states to disorder potential is also examined. We close by discussing the feasibility of experimental proposals.

  16. Switchable polarization rotation of visible light using a plasmonic metasurface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart K. Earl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A metasurface comprising an array of silver nanorods supported by a thin film of the phase change material vanadium dioxide is used to rotate the primary polarization axis of visible light at a pre-determined wavelength. The dimensions of the rods were selected such that, across the two phases of vanadium dioxide, the two lateral localized plasmon resonances (in the plane of the metasurface occur at the same wavelength. Illumination with linearly polarized light at 45° to the principal axes of the rod metasurface enables excitation of both of these resonances. Modulating the phase of the underlying substrate, we show that it is possible to reversibly switch which axis of the metasurface is resonant at the operating wavelength. Analysis of the resulting Stokes parameters indicates that the orientation of the principal linear polarization axis of the reflected signal is rotated by 90° around these wavelengths. Dynamic metasurfaces such as these have the potential to form the basis of an ultra-compact, low-energy multiplexer or router for an optical signal.

  17. Understanding interference experiments with polarized light through photon trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, A.S.; Davidovic, M.; Bozic, M.; Miret-Artes, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bohmian mechanics allows to visualize and understand the quantum-mechanical behavior of massive particles in terms of trajectories. As shown by Bialynicki-Birula, Electromagnetism also admits a hydrodynamical formulation when the existence of a wave function for photons (properly defined) is assumed. This formulation thus provides an alternative interpretation of optical phenomena in terms of photon trajectories, whose flow yields a pictorial view of the evolution of the electromagnetic energy density in configuration space. This trajectory-based theoretical framework is considered here to study and analyze the outcome from Young-type diffraction experiments within the context of the Arago-Fresnel laws. More specifically, photon trajectories in the region behind the two slits are obtained in the case where the slits are illuminated by a polarized monochromatic plane wave. Expressions to determine electromagnetic energy flow lines and photon trajectories within this scenario are provided, as well as a procedure to compute them in the particular case of gratings totally transparent inside the slits and completely absorbing outside them. As is shown, the electromagnetic energy flow lines obtained allow to monitor at each point of space the behavior of the electromagnetic energy flow and, therefore, to evaluate the effects caused on it by the presence (right behind each slit) of polarizers with the same or different polarization axes. This leads to a trajectory-based picture of the Arago-Fresnel laws for the interference of polarized light.

  18. Multiangular hyperspectral investigation of polarized light in case 2 waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonizzo, A.; Zhou, J.; Gilerson, A.; Chowdhary, J.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S.

    2009-09-01

    The focus of this work is on the dependence of in situ hyperspectral and multiangular polarized data on the size distribution and refractive index of the suspended particles. Underwater polarization measurements were obtained using a polarimeter developed at the Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory of the City College of New York, NY. The degree of polarization (DOP) of the underwater light field in coastal environments was measured and the water-leaving polarized radiance was derived. In-water optical properties were also measured with an ac-9 (WET Labs). Absorption and attenuation spectra are then used to derive information on the dissolved and suspend components in the water medium which are used in a vector radiative transfer code which provides the upwelling radiance. The model was run for various values of the refractive index of mineral particles until the modeled DOP matched the measured one. The relationship between the intensity of the maximum of the DOP and both the refractive index of the mineral particles and the shapes of their size distributions is analyzed in detail.

  19. High Precision Stokes Polarimetry for Scattering Light using Wide Dynamic Range Intensity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Stokes polarimetry for scattering light from a sample surface. To achieve a high accuracy measurement two approaches of an intensity detector and analysis algorism of a Stokes parameter were proposed. The dynamic range of this detector can achieve up to 1010 by combination of change of neutral-density (ND filters having different density and photon counting units. Stokes parameters can be measured by dual rotating of a retarder and an analyzer. The algorism of dual rotating polarimeter can be calibrated small linear diattenuation and linear retardance error of the retarder. This system can measured Stokes parameters from −20° to 70° of its scattering angle. It is possible to measure Stokes parameters of scattering of dust and scratch of optical device with high precision. This paper shows accuracy of this system, checking the polarization change of scattering angle and influence of beam size.

  20. Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, N.C.R.; Nikolova, L.; Norris, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    Azobenzenes can serve as model compounds for the study of trans-cis isomerization in more complex molecules. We have performed time-resolved spectroscopy in solutions containing free azobenzene chromophores and diols with a view to obtaining the energy levels and lifetimes of the excited states....... A transition route based on experimental results for the theoretically calculated energy level scheme is proposed. Physical observations of surface relief in thin films of azobenzene polymers when irradiated with polarized light are reported. These include two beam polarization holographic observations...... and single beam transmission measurements through a mask, followed by atomic force microscope and profiler investigations. It is concluded that none of the prevalent theories can explain all the observed facts....

  1. Photonic Heterostructures with Properties of Ferroelectrics and Light Polarizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P., E-mail: palto@online.ru; Draginda, Yu A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    The optical and electro-optical properties of a new type of photonic heterostructure composed of alternating ferroelectric molecular layers and optically anisotropic layers of another material are considered. A numerical simulation of the real prototype of this heterostructure, which can be prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett method from layers of a ferroelectric copolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) and an azo dye with photoinduced optical anisotropy, has been performed. It is shown that this heterostructure has pronounced polarization optical properties and yields a significant change in the polarization state of light at the photonic band edges in the ranges of the maximum density of photon states. The latter property can be used to obtain an enhanced electro-optic effect at small spectral shifts of the photonic band (the latter can be provided by the piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric layers).

  2. Polarization phenomena in Al/p-CdTe/Pt X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Principato, F., E-mail: fabio.principato@unipa.it; Turturici, A.A.; Gallo, M.; Abbene, L.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decades, CdTe detectors are widely used for the development of room temperature X-ray and gamma ray spectrometers. Typically, high resolution CdTe detectors are fabricated with blocking contacts (indium and aluminum) ensuring low leakage currents and high electric field for optimum charge collection. As well known, time instability under bias voltage (termed as polarization) is the major drawback of CdTe diode detectors. Polarization phenomena cause a progressive degradation of the spectroscopic performance with time, due to hole trapping and detrapping from deep acceptors levels. In this work, we studied the polarization phenomenon on new Al/p-CdTe/Pt detectors, manufactured by Acrorad (Japan), through electrical and spectroscopic approaches. In particular, we investigated on the time degradation of the spectroscopic response of the detectors at different temperatures, voltages and energies. Current transient measurements were also performed to better understand the properties of the deep acceptor levels and their correlation with the polarization effect.

  3. Experimentally determined characteristics of the degree of polarization of backscattered light from polystyrene sphere suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ping; Ma, Yongchao; Xu, Chengwei; Sun, Xiaochun; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The degree of polarization (DOP) can be used to characterize the polarization-maintaining ability of a beam of polarized light propagating through a turbid medium. Experiments on polystyrene (PST) sphere suspensions show that, the linearly polarized light propagating through the PST sphere suspension of Rayleigh scatterers has better polarization-maintaining ability, whereas the circularly polarized light propagating through the PST sphere suspension of Mie scatterers has better polarization-maintaining ability. Moreover, helicity flipping occurs to the circularly polarized light propagating in the extremely weak PST sphere suspensions or on the surface of suspensions. In addition, the DOP is dependent on the wavelength of incident light. The results can be helpful to image in turbid media by use of diffuse backscattered light. (paper)

  4. Effect of refraction index and light sharing on detector element identification for 2D detector modules in Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornai, M.P.; Hoffman, E.J.; Cherry, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    Relationships among indices of refraction (n) of scintillation detectors, light sharing among discrete detector elements and accuracy of detector element identification in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 2-D detector arrays were examined with theory and experiment. Mismatches between the index of refraction of scintillators and the glass of photomultipliers (PMT) were seen to lead to nonlinear relationships between crystal position and ratio (positioning) signals derived from PMTs. Insight is provided into the empirically derived use of light sharing among elements of the crystals in PET 2-D array detectors to compensate for this nonlinear response. ((orig.))

  5. Instrumentations in x-ray plasma polarization spectroscopy. Crystal spectrometer, polarimeter and detectors for astronomical observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baronova, Elena O.; Stepanenko, Mikhail M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jakubowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Tsunemi, Hiroshi [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Science, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    This report discusses the various problems which are encountered when a crystal spectrometer is used for the purpose of observing polarized x-ray lines. A polarimeter is proposed based on the novel idea of using two series of equivalent atomic planes in a single crystal. The present status of the astronomical x-ray detection techniques are described with emphasis on two dimensional detectors which are polarization sensitive. (author)

  6. Polarization of silicon detectors by minimum ionizing particles

    CERN Document Server

    Dezillie, B; Li, Z; Verbitskaya, E

    2000-01-01

    This work presents quantitative predictions of the properties of highly irradiated (e.g. by high-energy particles, up to an equivalent fluence of 1x10 sup 1 sup 4 n cm sup - sup 2) silicon detectors operating at cryogenic temperature. It is shown that the exposure to the Minimum Ionising Particle (MIP) with counting rates of about 10 sup 6 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 can influence the electric field distribution in the detector's sensitive volume. This change in the electric field distribution and its effect on the charge collection efficiency are discussed in the frame of a model based on trapping of carriers generated by MIPs. The experiment was performed at 87 K with an infrared (1030 nm) laser to simulate MIPs.

  7. Submicron scale tissue multifractal anisotropy in polarized laser light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Dey, Rajib; Chakraborty, Semanti; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Meglinski, Igor; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2018-03-01

    The spatial fluctuations of the refractive index within biological tissues exhibit multifractal anisotropy, leaving its signature as a spectral linear diattenuation of scattered polarized light. The multifractal anisotropy has been quantitatively assessed by the processing of relevant Mueller matrix elements in the Fourier domain, utilizing the Born approximation and subsequent multifractal analysis. The differential scaling exponent and width of the singularity spectrum appear to be highly sensitive to the structural multifractal anisotropy at the micron/sub-micron length scales. An immediate practical use of these multifractal anisotropy parameters was explored for non-invasive screening of cervical precancerous alterations ex vivo, with the indication of a strong potential for clinical diagnostic purposes.

  8. Handling high data rate detectors at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, U. K.; Rees, N.; Basham, M.; Ferner, F. J. K.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing number of area detectors, in use at Diamond Light Source, produce high rates of data. In order to capture, store and process this data High Performance Computing (HPC) systems have been implemented. This paper will present the architecture and usage for handling high rate data: detector data capture, large volume storage and parallel processing. The EPICS area Detector frame work has been adopted to abstract the detectors for common tasks including live processing, file format and storage. The chosen data format is HDF5 which provides multidimensional data storage and NeXuS compatibility. The storage system and related computing infrastructure include: a centralised Lustre based parallel file system, a dedicated network and a HPC cluster. A well defined roadmap is in place for the evolution of this to meet demand as the requirements and technology advances. For processing the science data the HPC cluster allow efficient parallel computing, on a mixture of ×86 and GPU processing units. The nature of the Lustre storage system in combination with the parallel HDF5 library allow efficient disk I/O during computation jobs. Software developments, which include utilising optimised parallel file reading for a variety of post processing techniques, are being developed in collaboration as part of the Pan-Data EU Project (www.pan-data.eu). These are particularly applicable to tomographic reconstruction and processing of non crystalline diffraction data.

  9. New application of superconductors: High sensitivity cryogenic light detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardani, L., E-mail: laura.cardani@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Physics Department, Princeton University, Washington Road, 08544 Princeton, NJ (United States); Bellini, F.; Casali, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy (Italy); Castellano, M.G. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie – CNR, Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy); Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy (Italy); D' Addabbo, A. [INFN – Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) 67010 (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [INFN – Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Martinez, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy (Italy); Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Tomei, C. [INFN – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    In this paper we describe the current status of the CALDER project, which is developing ultra-sensitive light detectors based on superconductors for cryogenic applications. When we apply an AC current to a superconductor, the Cooper pairs oscillate and acquire kinetic inductance, that can be measured by inserting the superconductor in a LC circuit with high merit factor. Interactions in the superconductor can break the Cooper pairs, causing sizable variations in the kinetic inductance and, thus, in the response of the LC circuit. The continuous monitoring of the amplitude and frequency modulation allows to reconstruct the incident energy with excellent sensitivity. This concept is at the basis of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) that are characterized by natural aptitude to multiplexed read-out (several sensors can be tuned to different resonant frequencies and coupled to the same line), resolution of few eV, stable behavior over a wide temperature range, and ease in fabrication. We present the results obtained by the CALDER collaboration with 2×2 cm{sup 2} substrates sampled by 1 or 4 Aluminum KIDs. We show that the performances of the first prototypes are already competitive with those of other commonly used light detectors, and we discuss the strategies for a further improvement.

  10. New application of superconductors: High sensitivity cryogenic light detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardani, L.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M.G.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe the current status of the CALDER project, which is developing ultra-sensitive light detectors based on superconductors for cryogenic applications. When we apply an AC current to a superconductor, the Cooper pairs oscillate and acquire kinetic inductance, that can be measured by inserting the superconductor in a LC circuit with high merit factor. Interactions in the superconductor can break the Cooper pairs, causing sizable variations in the kinetic inductance and, thus, in the response of the LC circuit. The continuous monitoring of the amplitude and frequency modulation allows to reconstruct the incident energy with excellent sensitivity. This concept is at the basis of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) that are characterized by natural aptitude to multiplexed read-out (several sensors can be tuned to different resonant frequencies and coupled to the same line), resolution of few eV, stable behavior over a wide temperature range, and ease in fabrication. We present the results obtained by the CALDER collaboration with 2×2 cm"2 substrates sampled by 1 or 4 Aluminum KIDs. We show that the performances of the first prototypes are already competitive with those of other commonly used light detectors, and we discuss the strategies for a further improvement.

  11. Detecting spin polarization of nano-crystalline manganese doped zinc oxide thin film using circular polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, H.M., E-mail: h_m_elsaid@hotmail.com

    2016-02-01

    The presence of spin polarization in Mn-doped ZnO thin film is very important for spintronic applications. Spin polarization was detected using simple method. This method depends on measuring the optical transmittance using circular polarized light in visible and near infra-red region. It was found that, there is a difference in the optical energy gap of the film for circular left and circular polarized light. For temperatures > 310 K the difference in energy gap is vanished. This result is confirmed by measuring the magnetic hysteresis of the film. This work introduces a promising method for measuring the ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors. - Highlights: • Highly oriented c-axis of Mn-ZnO thin film doped with nitrogen is prepared. • The optical energy gap depends on the state of circularly polarized light. • The presence of spin polarization is confirmed using simple optical method. • Magnetic measurements are consistent with the results of the optical method.

  12. Spin-polarized light-emitting diodes based on organic bipolar spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeny, Zeev Valentine; Nguyen, Tho Duc; Ehrenfreund, Eitan Avraham

    2017-10-25

    Spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes are provided. Such spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes incorporate ferromagnetic electrodes and show considerable spin-valve magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-conductivity responses, with voltage and temperature dependencies that originate from the bipolar spin-polarized space charge limited current.

  13. Long-distance transmission of light in a scintillator-based radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Jonathan L.; Talbott, Dale V.; Hehlen, Markus P.

    2017-07-11

    Scintillator-based radiation detectors capable of transmitting light indicating the presence of radiation for long distances are disclosed herein. A radiation detector can include a scintillator layer and a light-guide layer. The scintillator layer is configured to produce light upon receiving incident radiation. The light-guide layer is configured to receive light produced by the scintillator layer and either propagate the received light through the radiation detector or absorb the received light and emit light, through fluorescence, that is propagated through the radiation detector. A radiation detector can also include an outer layer partially surrounding the scintillator layer and light-guide layer. The index of refraction of the light-guide layer can be greater than the index of refraction of adjacent layers.

  14. The possibilities of constructing a very big Cherenkov detector with usage of a light spectrum shifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, Yu.K.

    1980-01-01

    A version of Cherenkov detector (V approximately 10 4 tonns) for nuclear instability searches and for neutrino investigations is suggested. The detector has a 4π-anticoincidence screen and is characterized by a relatively uniform sensitivity at a moderate number of photomultipliers. For light collecting the wavelength shifters are used which absorb blue light and reemit it in the green light. Wavelength shifters provide almost a one-order increase of light collecting. Detector possibilities are discussed [ru

  15. Determination of electron beam polarization using electron detector in Compton polarimeter with less than 1% statistical and systematic uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Amrendra [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Q-weak experiment aims to measure the weak charge of proton with a precision of 4.2%. The proposed precision on weak charge required a 2.5% measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron - proton scattering. Polarimetry was the largest experimental contribution to this uncertainty and a new Compton polarimeter was installed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab to make the goal achievable. In this polarimeter the electron beam collides with green laser light in a low gain Fabry-Perot Cavity; the scattered electrons are detected in 4 planes of a novel diamond micro strip detector while the back scattered photons are detected in lead tungstate crystals. This diamond micro-strip detector is the first such device to be used as a tracking detector in a nuclear and particle physics experiment. The diamond detectors are read out using custom built electronic modules that include a preamplifier, a pulse shaping amplifier and a discriminator for each detector micro-strip. We use field programmable gate array based general purpose logic modules for event selection and histogramming. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations and data acquisition simulations were performed to estimate the systematic uncertainties. Additionally, the Moller and Compton polarimeters were cross calibrated at low electron beam currents using a series of interleaved measurements. In this dissertation, we describe all the subsystems of the Compton polarimeter with emphasis on the electron detector. We focus on the FPGA based data acquisition system built by the author and the data analysis methods implemented by the author. The simulations of the data acquisition and the polarimeter that helped rigorously establish the systematic uncertainties of the polarimeter are also elaborated, resulting in the first sub 1% measurement of low energy (?1 GeV) electron beam polarization with a Compton electron detector. We have demonstrated that diamond based micro-strip detectors can be used for tracking in a

  16. Simulation of light collection in calcium tungstate scintillation detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Danevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to high operational properties, the oxide scintillators are perspective for cryogenic scintillation experiments with aim of study rare nuclear processes. In order to optimize light yield and the energy resolution we performed calculations of the efficiency of light collection for different geometries of scintillation detector with CaWO4 crystal by Monte-Carlo method using Litrani, Geant4 and Zemax packages. The calculations were compared with experimental data in the same configurations, depending on the crystal shape, surface treatment, material and shape of the reflector and presence of optical contact. The best results were obtained with crystals shaped as the right prism with triangle base, with completely diffused surfaces, using mirror reflector shaped as a truncated cone. Simulations by using Litrani have shown the best agreement with experimental results.

  17. Measuring polarization dependent dispersion of non-polarizing beam splitter cubes with spectrally resolved white light interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csonti, K.; Hanyecz, V.; Mészáros, G.; Kovács, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    In this work we have measured the group-delay dispersion of an empty Michelson interferometer for s- and p-polarized light beams applying two different non-polarizing beam splitter cubes. The interference pattern appearing at the output of the interferometer was resolved with two different spectrometers. It was found that the group-delay dispersion of the empty interferometer depended on the polarization directions in case of both beam splitter cubes. The results were checked by inserting a glass plate in the sample arm of the interferometer and similar difference was obtained for the two polarization directions. These results show that to reach high precision, linearly polarized white light beam should be used and the residual dispersion of the empty interferometer should be measured at both polarization directions.

  18. Direct Detection of Polarized, Scattered Light from Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory

    We propose to radically advance the state of exoplanet characterization, which lags dramatically behind exoplanet discovery. We propose to directly detect scattered light from the atmospheres of close-in, highly eccentric, and extended/non-spherical exoplanets and thereby determine the following: orbital inclination (and therefore masses free of the M sin i mass ambiguity), geometric albedo, presence or lack of hazes and cloud layers, and scattering particle size and composition. Such measurements are crucial to the understanding of exoplanet atmospheres, because observations with NASA s Hubble, Spitzer, and Kepler space telescopes present the following questions: 1) Do exoplanets have highly reflective haze layers? 2) How does the upper atmospheric composition differ between exoplanets with and without thermal inversions? 3) What are the optical manifestations of the extreme heating of highly eccentric exoplanets? 4) Are the atmospheres of certain exoplanets truly escaping their Roche lobes? Using the POLISH2 polarimeter developed by the Postdoctoral Associate (Wiktorowicz) for the Lick 3-m telescope, we propose to monitor the linear polarization state of exoplanet host stars at the part per million level. POLISH2 consistently delivers nearly photon shot noise limited measurements with this precision. In addition, the simultaneous full-Stokes measurements of POLISH2 and the equatorial mount of the Lick 3-m telescope ensure that systematic effects are mitigated to the part per million level. Indeed, we find the accuracy of the POLISH2 polarimeter to be 0.1 parts per million. This instrument and telescope represent the highest precision polarimeter in the world for exoplanet research. We present potential detection of polarized, scattered light from the HD 189733b, Tau Boo b, and WASP-12b exoplanets. We propose to observe hot Jupiters on circular orbits, highly eccentric exoplanets, exoplanets with extended or non-spherical scattering surfaces, and 55 Cnc e, the

  19. Theory and analysis of a large field polarization imaging system with obliquely incident light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaotian; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Li; Wang, Xia; Qiu, Su; Liu, Jing

    2018-02-05

    Polarization imaging technology provides information about not only the irradiance of a target but also the polarization degree and angle of polarization, which indicates extensive application potential. However, polarization imaging theory is based on paraxial optics. When a beam of obliquely incident light passes an analyser, the direction of light propagation is not perpendicular to the surface of the analyser and the applicability of the traditional paraxial optical polarization imaging theory is challenged. This paper investigates a theoretical model of a polarization imaging system with obliquely incident light and establishes a polarization imaging transmission model with a large field of obliquely incident light. In an imaging experiment with an integrating sphere light source and rotatable polarizer, the polarization imaging transmission model is verified and analysed for two cases of natural light and linearly polarized light incidence. Although the results indicate that the theoretical model is consistent with the experimental results, the theoretical model distinctly differs from the traditional paraxial approximation model. The results prove the accuracy and necessity of the theoretical model and the theoretical guiding significance for theoretical and systematic research of large field polarization imaging.

  20. Polarization effect of CdZnTe imaging detector based on high energy γ source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Miao; Xiao Shali; Wang Xi; Shen Min; Zhang Liuqiang; Cao Yulin; Chen Yuxiao

    2011-01-01

    The inner electric potential distribution of CdZnTe detector was derived by applying poisson equation with the first type boundary condition, and the polarization effect of CdZnTe pixellated detector for imaging 137 Cs γ source was investigated. The results of numerical calculation and experiment indicate that electric potential distribution is mainly influenced by applied bias for low charge density in CdZnTe crystal and, in turn, there is linear relationship between electric potential distribution and applied bias that induces uniform electric field under low irradiated flux. However, the electric potential appears polarization phenomenon, and the electric field in CdZnTe crystal is distorted when CdZnTe detector is under high irradiated flux. Consequently, charge carriers in CdZnTe crystal drift towards the edge pixels of irradiated region, and hence, the shut-off central pixels are surrounded by a ring of low counting pixels. The polarization effect indeed deteriorates the performance of CdZnTe detector severely and the event counts of edge pixels for irradiated region reduce about 70%. (authors)

  1. Slim planar apparatus for converting LED light into collimated polarized light uniformly emitted from its top surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Tun-Chien; Tseng, Li-Wei

    2014-10-20

    This study proposes a slim planar apparatus for converting nonpolarized light from a light-emitting diode (LED) into an ultra-collimated linearly polarized beam uniformly emitted from its top surface. The apparatus was designed based on a folded-bilayer configuration comprising a light-mixing collimation element, polarization conversion element, and polarization-preserving light guide plate (PPLGP) with an overall thickness of 5 mm. Moreover, the apparatus can be extended transversally by connecting multiple light-mixing collimation elements and polarization conversion elements in a side-by-side configuration to share a considerably wider PPLGP, so the apparatus can have theoretically unlimited width. The simulation results indicate that the proposed apparatus is feasible for the maximal backlight modules in 39-inch liquid crystal panels. In the case of an apparatus with a 480 × 80 mm emission area and two 8-lumen LED light sources, the average head-on polarized luminance and spatial uniformity over the emission area was 5000 nit and 83%, respectively; the vertical and transverse angular distributions of the emitting light were only 5° and 10°, respectively. Moreover, the average degree of polarization and energy efficiency of the apparatus were 82% and 72%, respectively. As compared with the high-performance ultra-collimated nonpolarized backlight module proposed in our prior work, not only did the apparatus exhibit outstanding optical performance, but also the highly polarized light emissions actually increased the energy efficiency by 100%.

  2. EOSCOR: a light weight, microprocessor controlled solar neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.; Albats, P.; Frye, G.M. Jr.; Schindler, S.M.; Denehy, B.V.; Hopper, V.D.; Mace, O.B.

    1979-01-01

    A light weight high energy neutron detector with vertical detection efficiency of 0.005 at 40 MeV and 1.4 m 2 sensitive area has been developed for long duration super-pressure balloon flight observations of solar neutrons and gamma rays. It consists of two sets of four plastic scintillator hodoscopes separated by a 1 m time-of-flight path to observe n-p, C(n,p), and C(n,d) interactions. The neutron interactions are separated from gamma ray events through TOF measurements. For a large flare, the signal from solar neutrons is expected to be an order of magnitude greater than that of the atmospheric background. The microprocessor controls the data acquisition, accumulation of histograms, and the encoding of data for the telemetry systems. A test flight of the detector was made with a zero-pressure balloon. The expected many-week duration of a super-pressure balloon flight would significantly increase the probability of observing 20-150 MeV neutrons from a medium or large flare. (Auth.)

  3. Developing Detectors for Scintillation Light in Liquid Argon for DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Bruce [Fermilab

    2016-12-22

    The Deep Underground Neutrino experiment will conduct a broad program of physics research by studying a beam of neutrinos from Fermilab, atmospheric neutrinos, neutrinos from potential supernovae, and potential nucleon decay events. In pursuit of these studies, the experiment will deploy four 10kt fiducial mass liquid argon time projection chambers underground in Lead, South Dakota. Liquid argon time projection chambers allow high-resolution tracking and energy measurements. A precise timing signal is needed to provide the necessary time stamp to localize events in the drift direction. As liquid argon is a natural scintillator, a photon detection system will be deployed to provide such a signal, especially for non-beam events. In the baseline design for the single-phase time projection chamber, the detectors are contained within the anode plane assemblies. The design of two prototypes utilizing wavelength shifters and light guides are presented, and aspects of the research and development program are discussed.

  4. Search for lightly ionizing particles with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bisi, V; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; De Cataldo, M A A; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J E; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Gray, L; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, Enzo; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E T; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Mikheyev, S P; Miller, L; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Okada, C; Osteria, G; Ouchrif, M; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Satriano, C; Satta, L; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, Lawrence R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Vilela, E; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2000-01-01

    A search for lightly ionizing particles has been performed with the MACRO detector. This search was sensitive to particles with charges between 1/5 e and close to the charge of an electron, with beta between approximately 0.25 and 1.0. Unlike previous searches both single track events and tracks buried within high multiplicity muon showers were examined. In a period of approximately one year no candidates were observed. Assuming an isotropic flux, for the single track sample this corresponds to a 90% C.L. upper flux limit Phi

  5. Search for light top squarks with the D OE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, S.

    1995-07-01

    We present preliminary results of a search for pair produced top squarks, the supersymmetric partners to the top quark, under the assumption that the two-body decay bar t 1 → b bar W 1 and three-body decay bar t 1 → bW bar Z 1 are kinematically forbidden. This scenario is realized if bar t 1 is considerably lighter than all other squarks as well as bar W 1 , all bar vs, and the top quark. Such light top squarks will dominantly decay via bar t 1 → c bar Z 1 yielding a signal of two acollinear jets with (E) T . The data reported here were taken during the 1992-1993 run of the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p bar p collider operating at √s = 1.8 TeV

  6. Top quark polarization in t-channel single top-quark events with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chitishvili, Mariam

    2017-01-01

    This summary presents the measurement of the top‐quark polarization in t-channel single top quarks with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Monte Carlo simulated events are used. Selected events contain one lepton, large missing transverse momentum and exactly two jets, with one of them identified as b-jet. Selection cuts are used to identify the t-channel topology at reconstruction level. The polarization is measured, from an asymmetry in an angular distribution, at parton level by correcting the reconstructed angular distribution for detector effects. This project provides an overview on how a "standard" physics analysis is performed within ATLAS. The analysis is performed in ROOT. Simulation data is reconstructed to perform an unfolded measurement of a given property of a fundamental particle within the Standard Model. Finally results are compared with theoretical predictions.

  7. Material and device studies for the development of ultra-violet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) along polar, non-polar and semi-polar directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Ramya

    Over the past few years, significant effort was dedicated to the development of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for a variety of applications. Such applications include chemical and biological detection, water purification and solid-state lighting. III-Nitride LEDs based on multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown along the conventional [0001] (polar) direction suffer from the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE), due to the existence of strong electric fields that arise from spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization. Thus, there is strong motivation to develop MQW-based III-nitride LED structures grown along non-polar and semi-polar directions. The goal of this dissertation is to develop UV-LEDs along the [0001] polar and [11 2¯ 0] non-polar directions by the method of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). The polar and non-polar LEDs were grown on the C-plane and R-plane sapphire substrates respectively. This work is a combination of materials science studies related to the nucleation, growth and n- and p-type doping of III-nitride films on these two substrates, as well as device studies related to fabrication and characterization of UV-LEDs. It was observed that the crystallographic orientation of the III-nitride films grown on R-plane sapphire depends strongly on the kinetic conditions of growth of the Aluminum Nitride (AIN) buffer. Specifically, growth of the AIN buffer under group III-rich conditions leads to nitride films having the (11 2¯ 0) non polar planes parallel to the sapphire surface, while growth of the buffer under nitrogen rich conditions leads to nitride films with the (11 2¯ 6) semi-polar planes parallel to the sapphire surface. The electron concentration and mobility for the films grown along the polar, non-polar and semi-polar directions were investigated. P-type doping of Gallium Nitride (GaN) films grown on the nonpolar (11 2¯ 0) plane do not suffer from polarity inversion and thus the material was doped p-type with a hole concentration

  8. Dielectric polarization and electric field distortion due to heavy ions impinging on silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlog, M.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Parlog, M.; Hamrita, H.; Borderie, B.; Lavergne, L.; Rivet, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The polarization of the electron-hole pairs induced by 80 MeV 12 C in a silicon detector was considered and connected to the relative dielectric permittivity, locally increased. The exact coordinate dependence of the modified electric field - inside and outside the ion range - was found as the solution of the one dimension Poisson's equation for the electric potential in this inhomogeneous medium. The improvement of the signal simulation is encouraging, as compared to an undisturbed electric field case. (authors)

  9. SENSITIVITY OF STACKED IMAGING DETECTORS TO HARD X-RAY POLARIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muleri, Fabio; Campana, Riccardo, E-mail: fabio.muleri@iaps.inaf.it [INAF-IAPS, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    The development of multi-layer optics which allow to focus photons up to 100 keV and more promises an enormous jump in sensitivity in the hard X-ray energy band. This technology is already planned to be exploited by future missions dedicated to spectroscopy and imaging at energies >10 keV, e.g., Astro-H and NuSTAR. Nevertheless, our understanding of the hard X-ray sky would greatly benefit from carrying out contemporaneous polarimetric measurements, because the study of hard spectral tails and of polarized emission are often two complementary diagnostics of the same non-thermal and acceleration processes. At energies above a few tens of keV, the preferred technique to detect polarization involves the determination of photon directions after a Compton scattering. Many authors have asserted that stacked detectors with imaging capabilities can be exploited for this purpose. If it is possible to discriminate those events which initially interact in the first detector by Compton scattering and are subsequently absorbed by the second layer, then the direction of scattering is singled out from the hit pixels in the two detectors. In this paper, we give the first detailed discussion of the sensitivity of such a generic design to the X-ray polarization. The efficiency and the modulation factor are calculated analytically from the geometry of the instruments and then compared with the performance as derived by means of Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Tau Polarization Measurement in the L3 Detector; Medida de la polarizacion del Tau en el detector L3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, P

    1996-06-01

    The Polarization asymmetry (A{sub p}) measurement can be obtained from the energy spectra of the tau lepton (tau) decay products. This measurement provides a precise determination of the weak mixing angel (sin``2 tilde char theta{sub w}), one of the Standard Model fundamental parameters. Tau leptons are produced at LEP in e``+e``-yields tilde char f interactions at a center of mass energy of the order of the Z boson mass. In order to get A{sub p} we have calculated the analytical formulae of the tau decay products energy spectra, including radiative corrections, for all of the one prong tau decay channels. We have also extended this analytical formalism to the detector level, including the selection criteria effects and the detector resolution (calibration) in the analytical expressions. Detailed studies have been performed concerning our measurement using this formalism. From the data collected with the L3 detector between 1991 and 1994, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 118.8 pb``1 at a center of mass energy of the order of the Z mass, we have identified and selected the following tau decay channel samples: tau yields e nu tilde char nu, tau yields mu nu tilde char nu, tau yields pi/K nu y tau yields p/K*nu. From the analysis of these samples we get the tau polarization asymmetry measurement: A{sub p}=0.143+-0.014+-0.010, which corresponds to a value of sin``2 tilde char theta{sub w}=0.2320+-0.0018+-0.0013. (Author) 24 refs

  11. Highly polarized light emission by isotropic quantum dots integrated with magnetically aligned segmented nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uran, Can; Erdem, Talha; Guzelturk, Burak; Perkgöz, Nihan Kosku; Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept system for generating highly polarized light from colloidal quantum dots (QDs) coupled with magnetically aligned segmented Au/Ni/Au nanowires (NWs). Optical characterizations reveal that the optimized QD-NW coupled structures emit highly polarized light with an s-to p-polarization (s/p) contrast as high as 15:1 corresponding to a degree of polarization of 0.88. These experimental results are supported by the finite-difference time-domain simulations, which demonstrate the interplay between the inter-NW distance and the degree of polarization.

  12. Optical parametric amplification of arbitrarily polarized light in periodically poled LiNbO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guang-hao; Song, Xiao-shi; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2012-08-13

    Optical parametric amplification (OPA) of arbitrarily polarized light is proposed in a multi-section periodically poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN). External electric field is applied on selected sections to induce the polarization rotation of involved lights, thus the quasi-phase matched optical parametric processes exhibit polarization insensitivity under suitable voltage. In addition to the amplified signal wave, an idler wave with the same polarization is generated simultaneously. As an example, a ~10 times OPA showing polarization independency is simulated. Applications of this technology are also discussed.

  13. Numerical method to optimize the polar-azimuthal orientation of infrared superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Mária; Sipos, Áron; Najafi, Faraz; Hu, Xiaolong; Berggren, Karl K

    2011-11-01

    A finite-element method for calculating the illumination-dependence of absorption in three-dimensional nanostructures is presented based on the radio frequency module of the Comsol Multiphysics software package (Comsol AB). This method is capable of numerically determining the optical response and near-field distribution of subwavelength periodic structures as a function of illumination orientations specified by polar angle, φ, and azimuthal angle, γ. The method was applied to determine the illumination-angle-dependent absorptance in cavity-based superconducting-nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) designs. Niobium-nitride stripes based on dimensions of conventional SNSPDs and integrated with ~ quarter-wavelength hydrogen-silsesquioxane-filled nano-optical cavity and covered by a thin gold film acting as a reflector were illuminated from below by p-polarized light in this study. The numerical results were compared to results from complementary transfer-matrix-method calculations on composite layers made of analogous film-stacks. This comparison helped to uncover the optical phenomena contributing to the appearance of extrema in the optical response. This paper presents an approach to optimizing the absorptance of different sensing and detecting devices via simultaneous numerical optimization of the polar and azimuthal illumination angles. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  14. Overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors for XAFS experiments at diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterji, S.; Dennis, G. J.; Dent, A.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Cibin, G.; Tartoni, N.; Helsby, W. I.

    2016-01-01

    An overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors being used at the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beam lines at Diamond Light Source (DLS) is being reported. The hardware details and a summary of the performance of these detectors have also been provided. Recent updates about various ongoing projects being worked on to improve the performance of these detectors are summarized.

  15. Overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors for XAFS experiments at diamond light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterji, S.; Dennis, G. J.; Dent, A.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Cibin, G.; Tartoni, N. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Helsby, W. I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    An overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors being used at the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beam lines at Diamond Light Source (DLS) is being reported. The hardware details and a summary of the performance of these detectors have also been provided. Recent updates about various ongoing projects being worked on to improve the performance of these detectors are summarized.

  16. Determination of sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT surfactant with liquid chromatography: Comparative study of evaporative light scattering detector, ultraviolet detector and conductivity detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ryul Ryu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents comparison of performance of ultraviolet (UV detector, conductivity detector (CD and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD in terms of quantitative analysis of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate using liquid chromatography. The employed chromatographic condition, including an acetonitrile/water (45:55, v/v isocratic eluent system, is suitable for the three different detectors, and the figures of merits obtained by building up calibration plots are compared. The sensitivities of the detectors are in the order of ELSD ≈ CD >> UV detector. The linear range for quantification of AOT depends on the type of detector: the lower limits are in the order of UV detector (207 ㎍ mL-1 < CD (310 ㎍ mL-1 << ELSD (930 ㎍ mL-1, while the upper limits are 3720 ㎍ mL-1 for all the detectors (the maximum concentration of injected standard solution. The detection limits are 155 ㎍ mL-1 for ELSD, 78 ㎍ mL-1 for UV detector and 13 ㎍ mL-1 for CD, respectively. The figures of merit for each detector could be a guideline in choosing a detector in quantization of AOT. Furthermore, application of the chromatographic method to two commercial products is demonstrated.

  17. Polarization holograms allow highly efficient generation of complex light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, U; Pagliusi, P; Provenzano, C; Volke-Sepúlveda, K; Cipparrone, Gabriella

    2013-03-25

    We report a viable method to generate complex beams, such as the non-diffracting Bessel and Weber beams, which relies on the encoding of amplitude information, in addition to phase and polarization, using polarization holography. The holograms are recorded in polarization sensitive films by the interference of a reference plane wave with a tailored complex beam, having orthogonal circular polarizations. The high efficiency, the intrinsic achromaticity and the simplicity of use of the polarization holograms make them competitive with respect to existing methods and attractive for several applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.

  18. Magnetic field generation by circularly polarized laser light and inertial plasma confinement in a miniature 'Magnetic Bottle' induced by circularly polarized laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolka, E.

    1993-07-01

    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested in this work. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss. In this configuration the circularly polarized laser light is used to get confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The poloidal magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser and the efficiency of laser absorption by the plasma are calculated in this work. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces and the Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n=5*10 21 cm -3 and confinement time τ= 20 nsec. The laser and the plasma parameters required to get an energetic gain are calculated. (authors)

  19. Multiple scattering of elliptically polarized light in two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodnichev, E. E., E-mail: gorodn@theor.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    For elliptically polarized light incident on a two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities, the Stokes parameters of scattered waves are calculated. Multiple scattering is assumed to be sharply anisotropic. The degree of polarization of scattered radiation is shown to be a nonmonotonic function of depth when the incident wave is circularly polarized or its polarization vector is not parallel to the symmetry axis of the inhomogeneities.

  20. Light higgsinos at the ILC. Precision measurements and detector requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sert, Hale

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is based on a study of Natural Supersymmetry (SUSY) scenarios at the International Linear Collider (ILC). These scenarios are motivated by naturalness, which requires the mu parameter to be at the electroweak scale. The considered Natural SUSY scenario contains three light higgsino-like charginos and neutralinos, χ 1 ± , χ 1 0 and χ 2 0 with a mass splitting of a few GeV or even sub-GeV, while all other supersymmetric particles are heavy in the multi-TeV scale. Due to the small mass difference of a few GeV, the final state consists of a large missing energy and a few very soft visible particles. Therefore, the analysis of such scenarios is extremely challenging for the LHC as well as the ILC. In order to investigate the feasibility of observing light higgsinos at the ILC, an analysis has been performed using both fast detector simulation and full detector simulation for International Large Detector (ILD). The fast simulation results have indicated that the key observables of the higgsinos can be reconstructed with an uncertainty of a few percent. It has been shown that the results enable determining the lower limits and allowed regions for the mass parameters of the bino M 1 and the wino M 2 , as well as determining the higgsino mass parameter μ to the accuracy of a few percent. The full simulation analysis has provided information about detector requirements, such as the identification of low momentum electrons and muons. The electron identification can be studied by using the ionisation energy loss of the particles per length, dE/dx, which can be obtained from the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of ILD. The identification of low momentum muons has been studied in the context of the thesis by using the calorimeter cluster shape differences between muons and pions. As a result, a method has been developed for particles with momentum lower than 2 GeV, and its impact on the higgsino analysis has been investigated. It has been found that assuming the

  1. Possibility of gravitational wave detector production on the base of light diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segizboev, T.I.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitational wave detector based on the light diffraction is proposed. Under the gravitation wave incidence on an elastic rod standing acoustic oscillations are excited in it, which are then used as a diffraction grating for the light scattering. A detailed mathematical analysis of this detector is given. 1 ref

  2. A compact magnetic detector for μ+-μ/sup /minus// asymmetry measurements and longitudinal polarization utilization at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camerini, U.; Cline, D.B.; Learned, J.G.; Resvanis, L.K.; Wanderer, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    A compact-spherically symmetric detector designed to observe single and dimuon final states is described. The detector is sufficiently compact to fit into the interaction region for which longitudinally and transversely polarized beams will be available. The usefulness of the detector to successfully search for asymmetry resulting from weak-electromagnetic interference and from higher order electromagnetic processes is studied with Monte Carlo simulated experimental data. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  3. The effect of polarized light on the organization of collagen secreted by fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilbekova, Dana; Boddupalli, Anuraag; Bratlie, Kaitlin M

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of low-power lasers and polarized light on wound healing, inflammation, and the treatment of rheumatologic and neurologic disorders. The overall effect of laser irradiation treatment is still controversial due to the lack of studies on the biochemical mechanisms and the optimal parameters for the incident light that should be chosen for particular applications. Here, we study how NIH/3T3 fibroblasts respond to irradiation with linearly polarized light at different polarization angles. In particular, we examined vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, differentiation to myofibroblasts, and collagen organization in response to 800 nm polarized light at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° with a power density of 40 mW/cm 2 for 6 min every day for 6 days. Additional experiments were conducted in which the polarization angle of the incident was changed every day to induce an isotropic distribution of collagen. The data presented here shows that polarized light can upregulate VEGF production, myofibroblast differentiation, and induce different collagen organization in response to different polarization angles of the incident beam. These results are encouraging and demonstrate possible methods for controlling cell response through the polarization angle of the laser light, which has potential for the treatment of wounds.

  4. Use of polarization to separate on-axis scattered and unscattered light in red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Nemati, Babak; Barrera, Frederick J.

    1991-06-01

    The separation of on-axis scattered and unscattered transmission through turbid media has been a difficult experimental task in recent years. This study suggests the use of a polarimeter to filter out the contribution of scattered light to the net on-axis transmission. Red blood cells (RBC) were used to produce the scattering effect. The scattering level was varied by: (1) altering the distance of the detector from the sample, (2) using erythrocytes from three different species, e.g., the dog, goat, and human, which are know to have different RBC sizes, and (3) allowing the RBCs from each species to shrink and swell osmotically. An He-Ne laser was used as the source of the radiation so that data were obtained at a wavelength in the spectral region used in oximetry and hemoglobinometry. In each case, the difference in the scattering cross sections obtained for each sample, with and without polarization filtering, gave us a measure of the filtered scattered light. The results obtained were in close agreement with the expected contribution of scattered radiation to the net axial transmission. This method may be used effectively for all studies involving measurements of on-axis transmission through turbid media, such as biological tissue.

  5. Light polarization management via reflection from arrays of sub-wavelength metallic twisted bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, M.; Haberko, J.; Zinkiewicz, Ł.; Wasylczyk, P.

    2017-12-01

    With constant progress of nano- and microfabrication technologies, photolithography in particular, a number of sub-wavelength metallic structures have been demonstrated that can be used to manipulate light polarization. Numerical simulations of light propagation hint that helical twisted bands can have interesting polarization properties. We use three-dimensional two-photon photolithography (direct laser writing) to fabricate a few-micrometer-thick arrays of twisted bands and coat them uniformly with metal. We demonstrate that circular polarization can be generated from linear polarization upon reflection from such structures over a broad range of frequencies in the mid infrared.

  6. Synchrotron applications of pixel and strip detectors at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, J.; Tartoni, N.; Nave, C.

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of position-sensitive X-ray detectors have been commissioned on the synchrotron X-ray beamlines operating at the Diamond Light Source in UK. In addition to mature technologies such as image-plates, CCD-based detectors, multi-wire and micro-strip gas detectors, more recent detectors based on semiconductor pixel or strip sensors coupled to CMOS read-out chips are also in use for routine synchrotron X-ray diffraction and scattering experiments. The performance of several commercial and developmental pixel/strip detectors for synchrotron studies are discussed with emphasis on the image quality achieved with these devices. Examples of pixel or strip detector applications at Diamond Light Source as well as the status of the commissioning of these detectors on the beamlines are presented. Finally, priorities and ideas for future developments are discussed.

  7. Absorption of scintillation light in a 100l liquid xenon γ-ray detector and expected detector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Doke, T.; Grassi, M.; Grebenuk, A.A.; Grigoriev, D.N.; Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Kikuchi, J.; Maki, A.; Mashimo, T.; Mihara, S.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mori, T.; Nicolo, D.; Nishiguchi, H.; Ootani, W.; Ozone, K.; Papa, A.; Pazzi, R.; Ritt, S.; Sawada, R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Signorelli, G.; Suzuki, S.; Terasawa, K.; Yamashita, M.; Yamashita, S.; Yoshimura, T.; Yuri, Yu.

    2005-01-01

    An 800l liquid xenon scintillation γ-ray detector is being developed for the MEG experiment which will search for μ + ->e + γdecay at the Paul Scherrer Institut. Absorption of scintillation light of xenon by impurities might possibly limit the performance of such a detector. We used a 100l prototype with an active volume of 372x372x496mm 3 to study the scintillation light absorption. We have developed a method to evaluate the light absorption, separately from elastic scattering of light, by measuring cosmic rays and α sources. By using a suitable purification technique, an absorption length longer than 100cm has been achieved. The effects of the light absorption on the energy resolution are estimated by Monte Carlo simulation

  8. Light in Condensed Matter in the Upper Atmosphere as the Origin of Homochirality: Circularly Polarized Light from Rydberg Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-08-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM.

  9. Light in condensed matter in the upper atmosphere as the origin of homochirality: circularly polarized light from Rydberg matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM.

  10. Optical CDMA with Embedded Spectral-Polarization Coding over Double Balanced Differential-Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Fa; Yen, Chih-Ta; Chen, Bo-Hau

    A spectral-polarization coding (SPC) optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) configuration structured over arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) router is proposed. The polarization-division double balanced detector is adopted to execute difference detection and enhances system performance. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived by taking the effect of PIIN into account. The result indicates that there would be up to 9-dB SNR improvement than the conventional spectral-amplitude coding (SAC) structures with Walsh-Hadamard codes. Mathematical deriving results of the SNR demonstrate the system embedded with the orthogonal state of polarization (SOP) will suppress effectively phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN). In addition, we will analyze the relations about bit error rate (BER) vs. the number of active users under the different encoding schemes and compare them with our proposed scheme. The BER vs. the effective power under the different encoding scheme with the same number of simultaneous active user conditions are also revealed. Finally, the polarization-matched factor and the difference between simulated and experimental values are discussed.

  11. Polarized light sensitivity and orientation in coral reef fish post-larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igal Berenshtein

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the larvae of coral-reef fishes reveal that these tiny vertebrates possess remarkable swimming capabilities, as well as the ability to orient to olfactory, auditory, and visual cues. While navigation according to reef-generated chemicals and sounds can significantly affect dispersal, the effect is limited to the vicinity of the reef. Effective long-distance navigation requires at least one other capacity-the ability to maintain a bearing using, for example, a sun compass. Directional information in the sun's position can take the form of polarized-light related cues (i.e., e-vector orientation and percent polarization and/or non-polarized-light related cues (i.e., the direct image of the sun, and the brightness and spectral gradients. We examined the response to both types of cues using commercially-reared post-larvae of the spine-cheeked anemonefish Premnas biaculeatus. Initial optomotor trials indicated that the post-larval stages are sensitive to linearly polarized light. Swimming directionality was then tested using a Drifting In-Situ Chamber (DISC, which allowed us to examine the response of the post-larvae to natural variation in light conditions and to manipulated levels of light polarization. Under natural light conditions, 28 of 29 post-larvae showed significant directional swimming (Rayleigh's test p<0.05, R = 0.74±0.23, but to no particular direction. Swimming directionality was positively affected by sky clarity (absence of clouds and haze, which explained 38% of the observed variation. Moreover, post-larvae swimming under fully polarized light exhibited a distinct behavior of tracking the polarization axis, as it rotated along with the DISC. This behavior was not observed under partially-polarized illumination. We view these findings as an indication for the use of sun-related cues, and polarized light signal in specific, by orienting coral-reef fish larvae.

  12. Polarized light sensitivity and orientation in coral reef fish post-larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenshtein, Igal; Kiflawi, Moshe; Shashar, Nadav; Wieler, Uri; Agiv, Haim; Paris, Claire B

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of the larvae of coral-reef fishes reveal that these tiny vertebrates possess remarkable swimming capabilities, as well as the ability to orient to olfactory, auditory, and visual cues. While navigation according to reef-generated chemicals and sounds can significantly affect dispersal, the effect is limited to the vicinity of the reef. Effective long-distance navigation requires at least one other capacity-the ability to maintain a bearing using, for example, a sun compass. Directional information in the sun's position can take the form of polarized-light related cues (i.e., e-vector orientation and percent polarization) and/or non-polarized-light related cues (i.e., the direct image of the sun, and the brightness and spectral gradients). We examined the response to both types of cues using commercially-reared post-larvae of the spine-cheeked anemonefish Premnas biaculeatus. Initial optomotor trials indicated that the post-larval stages are sensitive to linearly polarized light. Swimming directionality was then tested using a Drifting In-Situ Chamber (DISC), which allowed us to examine the response of the post-larvae to natural variation in light conditions and to manipulated levels of light polarization. Under natural light conditions, 28 of 29 post-larvae showed significant directional swimming (Rayleigh's test p<0.05, R = 0.74±0.23), but to no particular direction. Swimming directionality was positively affected by sky clarity (absence of clouds and haze), which explained 38% of the observed variation. Moreover, post-larvae swimming under fully polarized light exhibited a distinct behavior of tracking the polarization axis, as it rotated along with the DISC. This behavior was not observed under partially-polarized illumination. We view these findings as an indication for the use of sun-related cues, and polarized light signal in specific, by orienting coral-reef fish larvae.

  13. Electron and nuclear spin system polarization in semiconductors by light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenya, B; Flejsher, V

    1981-02-01

    Discussed are the principles of optical electron spin orientation, dynamic polarization and cooling of nuclear spin systems in optical electron orientation, and behavioural characteristics of bound electron and nuclear spin systems of a semiconductor in the optical orientation situation.

  14. Optical asymmetric cryptography based on amplitude reconstruction of elliptically polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianjun; Shen, Xueju; Lei, Ming

    2017-11-01

    We propose a novel optical asymmetric image encryption method based on amplitude reconstruction of elliptically polarized light, which is free from silhouette problem. The original image is analytically separated into two phase-only masks firstly, and then the two masks are encoded into amplitudes of the orthogonal polarization components of an elliptically polarized light. Finally, the elliptically polarized light propagates through a linear polarizer, and the output intensity distribution is recorded by a CCD camera to obtain the ciphertext. The whole encryption procedure could be implemented by using commonly used optical elements, and it combines diffusion process and confusion process. As a result, the proposed method achieves high robustness against iterative-algorithm-based attacks. Simulation results are presented to prove the validity of the proposed cryptography.

  15. Circularly polarized light to study linear magneto-optics for ferrofluids: θ-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangshen; Huang, Yan; He, Zhenghong; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Decai; Li, Jian; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Circularly polarized light can be divided into two vertically linearly polarized light beams with  ±π/2 phase differences. In the presence of an external magnetic field, when circularly polarized light travels through a ferrofluid film, whose thickness is no more than that of λ/4 plate, magneto-optical, magnetic birefringence and dichroism effects cause the transmitted light to behave as elliptically polarized light. Using angular scan by a continuously rotating polarizer as analyzer, the angular (θ) distribution curve of relative intensity (T) corresponding to elliptically polarized light can be measured. From the T  ‑  θ curve having ellipsometry, the parameters such as the ratio of short to long axis, and angular orientation of the long axis to the vertical field direction can be obtained. Thus, magnetic birefringence and dichroism can be probed simultaneously by measuring magneto-optical, positive or negative birefringence and dichroism features from the transmission mode. The proposed method is called θ-scan technique, and can accurately determine sample stability, magnetic field direction, and cancel intrinsic light source ellipticity. This study may be helpful to further research done to ferrofluids and other similar colloidal samples with anisotropic optics.

  16. Segmented focal plane detector for light and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfs, F.L.H.; Bryan, D.C.; Kurz, K.L.; Herrick, D.M.; Perera, P.A.A.; White, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    A segmented focal plane detector for an Enge split-pole spectrograph has been developed for the study of breakup reactions at very low relative energies. It consists of a 61 cm long segmented position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter backed by a large Bragg curve detector. A segmented plastic scintillator is mounted behind the anode of the Bragg curve detector and is used for particle identification of low-ionizing particles. The dead space between the two sections of the focal plane detector is 2.5 mm. The intrinsic position resolution of the detector is 1 mm. The intrinsic energy resolution depends on the energy of the incident ion and can be as good as 0.55%. The nuclear charge and mass resolutions are 0.3 e and 0.3 u, respectively. (orig.)

  17. Evaluating State-of-the-art Object Detector on Challenging Traffic Light Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    -of-the-art, real-time object detection system You Only Look Once, (YOLO) on the public LISA Traffic Light dataset available through the VIVA-challenge, which contain a high number of annotated traffic lights, captured in varying light and weather conditions. The YOLO object detector achieves an AUC of impres...

  18. Central-moment description of polarization for quantum states of light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björk, G.; Söderholm, J.; Kim, Y.-S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a moment expansion for the systematic characterization of the polarization properties of quantum states of light. Specifically,we link the method to themeasurements of the Stokes operator in different directions on the Poincar´e sphere and provide a scheme for polarization tomography w...

  19. Measurement of electron beam polarization produced by photoemission from bulk GaAs using twisted light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayburn, Nathan; Dreiling, Joan; McCarter, James; Ryan, Dominic; Poelker, Matt; Gay, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    GaAs photocathodes produce spin polarized electron beams when illuminated with circularly polarized light with photon energy approximately equal to the bandgap energy [1, 2]. A typical polarization value obtained with bulk GaAs and conventional circularly polarized light is 35%. This study investigated the spin polarization of electron beams emitted from GaAs illuminated with ``twisted light,'' an expression that describes a beam of light having orbital angular momentum (OAM). In the experiment, 790nm laser light was focused to a near diffraction-limited spot size on the surface of the GaAs photocathode to determine if OAM might couple to valence band electron spin mediated by the GaAs lattice. Our polarization measurements using a compact retarding-field micro-Mott polarimeter [3] have established an upper bound on the polarization of the emitted electron beam of 2.5%. [4pt] [1] D.T. Pierce, F. Meier, P. Zurcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26 670 (1975).[0pt] [2] C.K. Sinclair, et al., PRSTAB 10 023501 (2007).[0pt] [3] J.L. McCarter, M.L. Stutzman, K.W. Trantham, T.G. Anderson, A.M. Cook, and T.J. Gay Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A (2010).

  20. Haemozoin Detection in Mouse Liver Histology Using Simple Polarized Light Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    DWI RAMADHANI; SITI NURHAYATI; TUR RAHARDJO

    2014-01-01

    The presence of malarial pigment (haemozoin) due to Plasmodium infection is a common histopathological effect in mouse liver. Previous research showed that by using a polarized light microscope, researchers were better able to detect haemozoin in mouse liver histology section. Thus, the aim of this research was to compare the haemozoin area observed by a conventional vs. simple polarized light microscope by using image processing analysis. A total of 40 images produced from both conventional ...

  1. Centralized light-source optical access network based on polarization multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Fulvio; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a centralized light source optical access network based on optical polarization multiplexing technique. By using two optical sources emitting light orthogonally polarized in the Central Node for downstream and upstream operations, the Remote Node is kept source-free. EVM values below telecommunication standard requirements have been measured experimentally when bidirectional digital signals have been transmitted over 10 km of SMF employing subcarrier multiplexing technique in the electrical domain.

  2. A novel autonomous real-time position method based on polarized light and geomagnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yinlong; Chu, Jinkui; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhiwen

    2015-01-01

    Many animals exploit polarized light in order to calibrate their magnetic compasses for navigation. For example, some birds are equipped with biological magnetic and celestial compasses enabling them to migrate between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. The Vikings' ability to derive true direction from polarized light is also widely accepted. However, their amazing navigational capabilities are still not completely clear. Inspired by birds' and Vikings' ancient navigational skills. Here we...

  3. Photoemission of Bi_{2}Se_{3} with Circularly Polarized Light: Probe of Spin Polarization or Means for Spin Manipulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez-Barriga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Topological insulators are characterized by Dirac-cone surface states with electron spins locked perpendicular to their linear momenta. Recent theoretical and experimental work implied that this specific spin texture should enable control of photoelectron spins by circularly polarized light. However, these reports questioned the so far accepted interpretation of spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. We solve this puzzle and show that vacuum ultraviolet photons (50–70 eV with linear or circular polarization indeed probe the initial-state spin texture of Bi_{2}Se_{3} while circularly polarized 6-eV low-energy photons flip the electron spins out of plane and reverse their spin polarization, with its sign determined by the light helicity. Our photoemission calculations, taking into account the interplay between the varying probing depth, dipole-selection rules, and spin-dependent scattering effects involving initial and final states, explain these findings and reveal proper conditions for light-induced spin manipulation. Our results pave the way for future applications of topological insulators in optospintronic devices.

  4. Light-mediated polarization of the PIN3 auxin transporter for the phototropic response in Arabidopsis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Zhaojun; Galván-Ampudia Carlos S; Demarsy Emilie; Langowski Lukasz; Kleine-Vehn Jürgen; Fan Yuanwei; Morita Miyo T; Tasaka Masao; Fankhauser Christian; Offringa Remko; Friml Jirí

    2011-01-01

    Phototropism is an adaptation response through which plants grow towards the light. It involves light perception and asymmetric distribution of the plant hormone auxin. Here we identify a crucial part of the mechanism for phototropism revealing how light perception initiates auxin redistribution that leads to directional growth. We show that light polarizes the cellular localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN3 in hypocotyl endodermis cells resulting in changes in auxin distribution and d...

  5. Full Alignment of Molecules Using Elliptically Polarized Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Juul; Hald, Kasper; Seideman, Tamar

    When a molecule with an anisotropic polarizability is placed in a strong nonresonant laser field the interaction occurs through the induced dipole moment. The outcome is that the molecule experiences an angular dependent potential energy. It is now well established that a linearly polarized laser...... field can be used to align molecules along their axis of highest polarizability. Here we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, that an elliptically polarized laser field can be used to simultaneously force two axes of a molecule into alignment through the same mechanism. Due to the rigidity...

  6. Optical properties of polarization-dependent geometrical phase elements with partially polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetski, Y.; Biener, G.; Niv, A.; Kleiner, V.; Hasman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The behavior of geometrical phase elements illuminated with partially polarized monochromatic beams is being theoretically as well as experimentally investigated. The element discussed in this paper is composed of wave plates with retardation and space-variant orientation angle. We found that a beam emerging from such an element comprises two polarization orders of right and left-handed circularly polarized states with conjugate geometrical phase modification. This phase equals twice the orientation angle of the space-variant wave plate comprising the element. Apart from the two polarization orders, the emerging beam coherence polarization matrix comprises a matrix termed as the vectorial interference matrix. This matrix contains the information concerning the correlation between the two orthogonal circularly polarized portions of the incident beam. In this paper we measure this correlation by a simple interference experiment. Furthermore, we found that the equivalent mutual intensity of the emerging beam is being modulated according to the geometrical phase induced by the element. Other interesting phenomena along propagation will be discussed theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. We demonstrate experimentally our analysis by using a spherical geometrical phase element, which is realized by use of space-variant sub wavelength grating and illuminated with a CO 2 laser radiation of 10.6μm wavelength

  7. Light-induced spin polarizations in quantum rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joibari, F.K.; Blanter, Y.M.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2014-01-01

    Nonresonant circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation can exert torques on magnetizations by the inverse Faraday effect (IFE). Here, we discuss the enhancement of IFE by spin-orbit interactions. We illustrate the principle by studying a simple generic model system, i.e., the

  8. Electron and nuclear spin system polarization in semiconductors by light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharchenya, B.; Flejsher, V.

    1981-01-01

    Discussed are the principles of optical electron spin orientation, dynamic polarization and cooling of nuclear spin systems in optical electron orientation, and behavioural characteristics of bound electron and nuclear spin systems of a semiconductor in the optical orientation situation. (J.P.)

  9. The HIP 79977 debris disk in polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, N.; Schmid, H. M.; Thalmann, Ch.; Boccaletti, A.; Bazzon, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Claudi, R.; Costille, A.; Desidera, S.; Dohlen, K.; Dominik, C.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Ginski, C.; Gisler, D.; Girard, J. H.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Hubin, N.; Janson, M.; Kasper, M.; Kral, Q.; Langlois, M.; Lagadec, E.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Milli, J.; Mouillet, D.; Olofsson, J.; Pavlov, A.; Pragt, J.; Puget, P.; Quanz, S. P.; Roelfsema, R.; Salasnich, B.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Sissa, E.; Suarez, M.; Szulagyi, J.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Debris disks are observed around 10 to 20% of FGK main-sequence stars as infrared excess emission. They are important signposts for the presence of colliding planetesimals and therefore provide important information about the evolution of planetary systems. Direct imaging of such disks reveals their geometric structure and constrains their dust-particle properties. Aims: We present observations of the known edge-on debris disk around HIP 79977 (HD 146897) taken with the ZIMPOL differential polarimeter of the SPHERE instrument. We measure the observed polarization signal and investigate the diagnostic potential of such data with model simulations. Methods: SPHERE-ZIMPOL polarimetric data of the 15 Myr-old F star HIP 79977 (Upper Sco, 123 pc) were taken in the Very Broad Band (VBB) filter (λc = 735 nm, Δλ = 290 nm) with a spatial resolution of about 25 mas. Imaging polarimetry efficiently suppresses the residual speckle noise from the AO system and provides a differential signal with relatively small systematic measuring uncertainties. We measure the polarization flux along and perpendicular to the disk spine of the highly inclined disk for projected separations between 0.2'' (25 AU) and 1.6'' (200 AU). We perform model calculations for the polarized flux of an optically thin debris disk which are used to determine or constrain the disk parameters of HIP 79977. Results: We measure a polarized flux contrast ratio for the disk of (Fpol)disk/F∗ = (5.5 ± 0.9) × 10-4 in the VBB filter. The surface brightness of the polarized flux reaches a maximum of SBmax = 16.2 mag arcsec-2 at a separation of 0.2''-0.5'' along the disk spine with a maximum surface brightness contrast of 7.64 mag arcsec-2. The polarized flux has a minimum near the star 1''. This can be explained by a radial blow-out of small grains. The data are modelled as a circular dust belt with a well defined disk inclination I = 85( ± 1.5)° and a radius between r0 = 60 and 90 AU. The radial

  10. Design and Calibration of a Novel Bio-Inspired Pixelated Polarized Light Compass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Han

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals, such as Savannah sparrows and North American monarch butterflies, are able to obtain compass information from skylight polarization patterns to help them navigate effectively and robustly. Inspired by excellent navigation ability of animals, this paper proposes a novel image-based polarized light compass, which has the advantages of having a small size and being light weight. Firstly, the polarized light compass, which is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD camera, a pixelated polarizer array and a wide-angle lens, is introduced. Secondly, the measurement method of a skylight polarization pattern and the orientation method based on a single scattering Rayleigh model are presented. Thirdly, the error model of the sensor, mainly including the response error of CCD pixels and the installation error of the pixelated polarizer, is established. A calibration method based on iterative least squares estimation is proposed. In the outdoor environment, the skylight polarization pattern can be measured in real time by our sensor. The orientation accuracy of the sensor increases with the decrease of the solar elevation angle, and the standard deviation of orientation error is 0 . 15 ∘ at sunset. Results of outdoor experiments show that the proposed polarization navigation sensor can be used for outdoor autonomous navigation.

  11. A novel fibrous duct structure discovered in the brain meninges by using polarized light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Min-Ho; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Lim, Jaekwan; Seo, Eunseok; Lim, Jun; Baek, Miok; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-05-01

    We have previously reported the discovery of a novel fibrous structure (NFS) consisting of unidirectionally arranged collagen fibers in the spinal pia mater. Due to its unique structure, it was easily detected using polarized light microscopy. In the current study, we describe the discovery of a similar NFS in the brain meninges of rats by using polarized light microscopy. This NFS is located beneath the superior sagittal sinus. Initially, we systemically analyzed the polarization properties of the NFS. The change in the light intensity of the NFS, with respect to the polarization angle, was eight times greater than that of blood vessels, showing that the collagen fibers are oriented in a particular direction with almost perfect parallelism (0.99). The orientation angle of the polarization ellipse confirmed the orientation of the collagen fibers in the NFS. Histological studies further confirmed that the unidirectionally arranged collagen fibers were responsible for this distinct polarization property. Surprisingly, X-ray microtomography and 3D confocal imaging revealed that the NFS contains within it a duct structure, a putative primo vessel. In conclusion, we report a NFS in the brain meninges, detected by using polarized light microscopy, that provides space for a putative primo vessel, not a blood vessel.

  12. Retrieving the polarization information for satellite-to-ground light communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Qiangqiang; Guo, Zhongyi; Xu, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Jiao, Weiyan; Wang, Xinshun; Qu, Shiliang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the reconstruction of the polarization states (degree of polarization (DoP) and angle of polarization (AoP)) of the incident light which passed through a 10 km atmospheric medium between the satellite and the Earth. Here, we proposed a more practical atmospheric model in which the 10 km atmospheric medium is divided into ten layers to be appropriate for the Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Based on this model, the polarization retrieve (PR) method can be used for reconstructing the initial polarization information effectively, and the simulated results demonstrate that the mean errors of the retrieved DoP and AoP are very close to zero. Moreover, the results also show that although the atmospheric medium system is fixed, the Mueller matrices for the downlink and uplink are completely different, which shows that the light transmissions in the two links are irreversible in the layered atmospheric medium system. (paper)

  13. Circularly polarized light emission in scanning tunneling microscopy of magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apell, S.P.; Penn, D.R.; Johansson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Light is produced when a scanning tunneling microscope is used to probe a metal surface. Recent experiments on cobalt utilizing a tungsten tip found that the light is circularly polarized; the sense of circular polarization depends on the direction of the sample magnetization, and the degree of polarization is of order 10%. This raises the possibility of constructing a magnetic microscope with very good spatial resolution. We present a theory of this effect for iron and cobalt and find a degree of polarization of order 0.1%. This is in disagreement with the experiments on cobalt as well as previous theoretical work which found order of magnitude agreement with the experimental results. However, a recent experiment on iron showed 0.0±2%. We predict that the use of a silver tip would increase the degree of circular polarization for a range of photon energies

  14. Control the polarization state of light with symmetry-broken metallic metastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Hu, Yu-Hui; Wang, Zheng-Han; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the polarization state, the transmission direction, the amplitude and the phase of light in a very limited space is essential for the development of on-chip photonics. Over the past decades, numerous sub-wavelength metallic microstructures have been proposed and fabricated to fulfill these demands. In this article, we review our efforts in achieving negative refractive index, controlling the polarization state, and tuning the amplitude of light with two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. We designed an assembly of stacked metallic U-shaped resonators that allow achieving negative refraction for pure magnetic and electric responses respectively at the same frequency by selecting the polarization of incident light. Based on this, we tune the permittivity and permeability of the structure, and achieve negative refractive index. Further, by control the excitation and radiation of surface electric current on a number of 2D and 3D asymmetric metallic metastructures, we are able to control the polarization state of light. It is also demonstrated that with a stereostructured metal film, the whole metal surfaces can be used to construct either polarization-sensitive or polarization-insensitive prefect absorbers, with the advantage of efficient heat dissipation and electric conductivity. Our practice shows that metamaterials, including metasurface, indeed help to master light in nanoscale, and are promising in the development of new generation of photonics

  15. Possibility of producing the event-ready two-photon polarization entangled state with normal photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangbin

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to produce the maximally two-photon polarization entangled state with single-photon sources and the passive linear optics devices. In particular, our scheme only requires the normal photon detectors which distinguish the vacuum and non-vacuum Fock number states. A sophisticated photon detector distinguishing between one-photon state and two-photon state is unnecessary in the scheme

  16. Selective Deflection of Polarized Light Via Coherently Driven Four-Level Atoms in a Double-Λ Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yu

    2010-01-01

    We study the interaction of a weak probe field, having two circular polarized components, i.e., σ - and σ + polarization, with an optically dense medium of four-level atoms in a double-Λ configuration, which is mediated by the electromagnetically induced transparency with a polarized control light with spatially inhomogeneous profile. We analyse the deflection of the polarized probe light and we find that we can selectively determine which circular component will be deflected after the polarized probe light enters the atom medium via adjusting the polarization and detuning of the control field. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  17. Computational simulations of hydrogen circular migration in protonated acetylene induced by circularly polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H. Bernhard, E-mail: hbs@chem.wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C{sub 2} core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H{sub 2}CCH{sup +} ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +} has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2} and 3.15 × 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +}. The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C{sub 2} core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C{sub 2} core of protonated acetylene.

  18. Detecting Super-Thin Clouds With Polarized Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Videen, Gorden; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel method for detecting cloud particles in the atmosphere. Solar radiation backscattered from clouds is studied with both satellite data and a radiative transfer model. A distinct feature is found in the angle of linear polarization of solar radiation that is backscattered from clouds. The dominant backscattered electric field from the clear-sky Earth-atmosphere system is nearly parallel to the Earth surface. However, when clouds are present, this electric field can rotate significantly away from the parallel direction. Model results demonstrate that this polarization feature can be used to detect super-thin cirrus clouds having an optical depth of only 0.06 and super-thin liquid water clouds having an optical depth of only 0.01. Such clouds are too thin to be sensed using any current passive satellite instruments.

  19. Angular momentum of circularly polarized light in dielectric media

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-01-01

    A circularly polarized plane-wave is known to have no angular momentum when examined through Maxwell's equations. This, however, contradicts the experimentally observed facts, where finite segments of plane waves are known to be capable of imparting angular momentum to birefringent platelets. Using a superposition of four plane-waves propagating at slightly different angles to a common direction, we derive an expression for the angular momentum density of a single plane-wave in the limit when...

  20. Polarized light scattering as a probe for changes in chromosome structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Daniel Benjamin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Measurements and calculations of polarized light scattering are applied to chromosomes. Calculations of the Mueller matrix, which completely describes how the polarization state of light is altered upon scattering, are developed for helical structures related to that of chromosomes. Measurements of the Mueller matrix are presented for octopus sperm heads, and dinoflagellates. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made. A working theory of polarized light scattering from helices is developed. The use of the first Born approximation vs the coupled dipole approximation are investigated. A comparison of continuous, calculated in this work, and discrete models is also discussed. By comparing light scattering measurements with theoretical predictions the average orientation of DNA in an octopus sperm head is determined. Calculations are made for the Mueller matrix of DNA plectonemic helices at UV, visible and X-ray wavelengths. Finally evidence is presented that the chromosomes of dinoflagellates are responsible for observed differential scattering of circularly-polarized light. This differential scattering is found to vary in a manner that is possibly correlated to the cell cycle of the dinoflagellates. It is concluded that by properly choosing the wavelength probe polarized light scattering can provide a useful tool to study chromosome structure.

  1. Characterization of highly scattering media by measurement of diffusely backscattered polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mourant, Judith R.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for recording spatially dependent intensity patterns of polarized light that is diffusely backscattered from highly scattering media are described. These intensity patterns can be used to differentiate different turbid media, such as polystyrene-sphere and biological-cell suspensions. Polarized light from a He-Ne laser (.lambda.=543 nm) is focused onto the surface of the scattering medium, and a surface area of approximately 4.times.4 cm centered on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. A variety of intensity patterns may be observed by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and changing the analyzer configuration to detect different polarization components of the backscattered light. Experimental results for polystyrene-sphere and Intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor, g, of the particles constituting the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological cell suspensions show that intensity patterns can be used to differentiate between suspensions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Introduction of the Mueller-matrix for diffusely backscattered light, permits the selection of a subset of measurements which comprehensively describes the optical properties of backscattering media.

  2. Flying Drosophilamelanogaster maintain arbitrary but stable headings relative to the angle of polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Timothy L; Weir, Peter T; Dickinson, Michael H

    2018-05-11

    Animals must use external cues to maintain a straight course over long distances. In this study, we investigated how the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster selects and maintains a flight heading relative to the axis of linearly polarized light, a visual cue produced by the atmospheric scattering of sunlight. To track flies' headings over extended periods, we used a flight simulator that coupled the angular velocity of dorsally presented polarized light to the stroke amplitude difference of the animals' wings. In the simulator, most flies actively maintained a stable heading relative to the axis of polarized light for the duration of 15 min flights. We found that individuals selected arbitrary, unpredictable headings relative to the polarization axis, which demonstrates that D . melanogaster can perform proportional navigation using a polarized light pattern. When flies flew in two consecutive bouts separated by a 5 min gap, the two flight headings were correlated, suggesting individuals retain a memory of their chosen heading. We found that adding a polarized light pattern to a light intensity gradient enhanced flies' orientation ability, suggesting D . melanogaster use a combination of cues to navigate. For both polarized light and intensity cues, flies' capacity to maintain a stable heading gradually increased over several minutes from the onset of flight. Our findings are consistent with a model in which each individual initially orients haphazardly but then settles on a heading which is maintained via a self-reinforcing process. This may be a general dispersal strategy for animals with no target destination. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION OF POLARIZED LIGHT IN THE Λ-TYPE MULTI-TERM POLARIZED ATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, R. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Sainz, R. Manso [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-06-20

    We study the effects of Rayleigh and Raman scattering on the formation of polarized spectral lines in a Λ-type multi-term atom. We fully take into account the partial redistribution of frequency and the presence of atomic polarization in the lower states of the atomic model. Problems that can be modeled with this formalism include, for example, the formation of the Ca ii H–K and IR triplet, the analogous system of Ba ii, and the Ly β –H α system of hydrogenic ions.

  4. Omnidirectional narrow optical filters for circularly polarized light in a nanocomposite structurally chiral medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, Carlos G; Palomares, Laura O

    2018-04-20

    We consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves throughout a nanocomposite structurally chiral medium consisting of metallic nanoballs randomly dispersed in a structurally chiral material whose dielectric properties can be represented by a resonant effective uniaxial tensor. It is found that an omnidirectional narrow pass band and two omnidirectional narrow band gaps are created in the blue optical spectrum for right and left circularly polarized light, as well as narrow reflection bands for right circularly polarized light that can be controlled by varying the light incidence angle and the filling fraction of metallic inclusions.

  5. Universal holonomic single quantum gates over a geometric spin with phase-modulated polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Naoki; Nakamura, Takaaki; Tanaka, Touta; Mishima, Shota; Kano, Hiroki; Kuroiwa, Ryota; Sekiguchi, Yuhei; Kosaka, Hideo

    2018-05-15

    We demonstrate universal non-adiabatic non-abelian holonomic single quantum gates over a geometric electron spin with phase-modulated polarized light and 93% average fidelity. This allows purely geometric rotation around an arbitrary axis by any angle defined by light polarization and phase using a degenerate three-level Λ-type system in a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Since the control light is completely resonant to the ancillary excited state, the demonstrated holonomic gate not only is fast with low power, but also is precise without the dynamical phase being subject to control error and environmental noise. It thus allows pulse shaping for further fidelity.

  6. Haemozoin Detection in Mouse Liver Histology Using Simple Polarized Light Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI RAMADHANI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of malarial pigment (haemozoin due to Plasmodium infection is a common histopathological effect in mouse liver. Previous research showed that by using a polarized light microscope, researchers were better able to detect haemozoin in mouse liver histology section. Thus, the aim of this research was to compare the haemozoin area observed by a conventional vs. simple polarized light microscope by using image processing analysis. A total of 40 images produced from both conventional light microscope and simple polarized light microscope were collected. All images were analyzed using ImageJ 1.47 software to measure the haemozoin areas. Our results showed that non birefringent haemozoin and birefringent haemozoin area was significantly different. This was because when using conventional light microscope the brown area that contained images of non birefringent haemozoin images also contained Kupffer cells which appeared as the same brown color as haemozoin. In contrast, haemozoin gave bright effect and can be easily differentiated with Kupffer cells in the birefringent haemozoin images. This study concluded that haemozoin detection in mouse liver histology using a simple polarized light microscope was more accurate compared to that of conventional light microscope.

  7. Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids in Polarized Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, V. L.; Ipatov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    We report the results of position, photometric, and polarimetric observations of two near-Earth asteroids made with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 1.2-hour measurements of the photometric variations of the asteroid 2009 DL46 made onMarch 8, 2016 (approximately 20m at a distance of about 0.23 AU from the Earth) showed a 0.m2-amplitude flash with a duration of about 20 minutes. During this time the polarization degree increased from the average level of 2-3% to 14%. The angle of the polarization plane and the phase angle were equal to 113° ± 1° and 43°, respectively. Our result indicates that the surface of the rotating asteroid (the rotation period of about 2.5 hours) must be non-uniformly rough. Observations of another asteroid—1994 UG—whose brightness was of about 17m and which was located at a geocentric distance of 0.077 AU, were carried out during the night of March 6/7, 2016 in two modes: photometric and spectropolarimetric. According to the results of photometric observations in Johnson's B-, V-, and R-band filters, over one hour the brightness of the asteroid remained unchanged within the measurement errors (about 0.m02). Spectropolarimetric observations in the 420-800 nm wavelength interval showed the polarization degree to decrease from 8% in the blue part of the spectrum to 2% in the red part with the phase angle equal to 44°, which is typical for S-type near-Earth asteroids.

  8. Dinosaur demise in light of their alleged perennial polar residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy, Zeev

    2017-10-01

    The end-Cretaceous biological crisis is represented by the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs. However, most crucial biologically was the elimination of the photosynthesizing marine phyto- and zooplankton forming the base of the marine food chain. Their abrupt demise attests to sunlight screening darkening the atmosphere for a few years. Alvarez et al. (Science 208:1095-1108, 1980. doi: 10.1126/science.208.44) noticed in deep marine end-Cretaceous sediments an anomalous rise in the chemical element iridium (Ir), which is rare on planet Earth and thus suggests an extraterrestrial origin through an impact of a large asteroid. This impact would have ejected enormous quantities of particles and aerosols, shading the solar illumination as attested to by the elimination of the marine photosynthesizing plankton. Such a dark period must have affected life on land. The apparent cold-blooded non-avian dinosaurs, which were used to living in open terrains to absorb the solar illumination, became inactive during the dark period and were incapable of withstanding predators. This was in contrast to cold-blooded crocodilians, turtles and lizards that could hide in refuge sites on land and in the water. Dinosaur relics discovered in Cretaceous Polar Regions were attributed to perennial residents, surviving the nearly half-year-long dark winter despite their ability to leave. The polar concentrations of disarticulated dinosaur bones were suggested as having resulted from a catastrophic burial of a population by floods. However, this should have fossilized complete skeletons. Alternatively, herds of dinosaurs living in high latitudes might have been sexually driven to spend the half year of continuously illuminated polar summer for mating rather than for nourishment, in which the lower latitudes provided as well. The aggressive mating competitions would have left victims among the rivals and of young ones incidentally trampled over, all being consumed and their skeletons

  9. Quantitative analysis of polarization phenomena in CdTe radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Hiroyuki; Higa, Akira; Yamazato, Masaaki; Maehama, Takehiro; Toguchi, Minoru; Ohno, Ryoichi

    2006-01-01

    Polarization phenomena in a Schottky-type CdTe radiation detector were studied. We evaluated the distribution of electric field in a biased CdTe detector by measuring the progressive change of Schottky barrier lowering with time. The parameters of deep acceptors such as detrapping time, concentration, and the depth of the energy level were quantitatively evaluated. In the case of applying the conventional model of charge accumulation, the obtained result shows that the CdTe bulk is never undepleted. We modified the charge accumulation model by taking account of the occupation state of the deep acceptor level. When a modified model is applied, the time that the depletion width in the bulk begins to diminish closely fits the time that the photopeak position begins to shift in radiation measurements. In this paper, we present a distribution of electric field during biasing and a simple method for the evaluation of the parameters of deep acceptors in CdTe bulk. (author)

  10. Application of the Neganov-Luke effect to low-threshold light detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, M.; Boslau, O.; Feilitzsch, F.v.; Goldstrass, P.; Jochum, J.; Kemmer, J.; Potzel, W.; Rau, W.

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of a temperature signal and scintillation light of a CaWO 4 crystal can be used for background rejection in cryogenic dark matter experiments. In our case the light is measured with a cryogenic detector that consists of a silicon absorber with a superconducting phase transition thermometer. Due to the Neganov-Luke effect the thermal signal is enhanced when a voltage is applied to the silicon absorber. First results with the application of this effect to our low-threshold light detectors will be discussed in this paper

  11. Optically polarized atoms understanding light-atom interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Auzinsh, Marcis; Rochester, Simon M

    2010-01-01

    This book is addressed at upper-level undergraduate and graduate students involved in research in atomic, molecular, and optical Physics. It will also be useful to researchers practising in this field. It gives an intuitive, yet sufficiently detailed and rigorous introduction to light-atom interactions with a particular emphasis on the symmetry aspects of the interaction, especially those associated with the angular momentum of atoms and light. The book will enable readers to carryout practical calculations on their own, and is richly illustrated with examples drawn from current research topic

  12. Gravitational wave detector on the basis of light diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segizboev, T.I.; Uzhinskij, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    A method for detection of gravitational waves by means of light diffraction at the first maximum on oscillations in optically transparent matter under effect of gravitational waves is considered. Intensity of light flux scattering on oscillations of elastic rod is calculated. A possibility of using the diffraction method for detection of gravitational waves is disclosed

  13. Extinction of polarized light in ferrofluids with different magnetic particle concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socoliuc, V.; Popescu, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic field intensity and nanoparticle concentration dependence of the polarized light extinction in a ferrofluid made of magnetite particles stabilized with technical grade oleic acid dispersed in transformer oil was experimentally investigated. The magnetically induced optical anisotropy, i.e. the dichroism divided by concentration, was found to decrease with increasing sample concentration from 2% to 8%. The magnetically induced change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74 o with respect to the magnetic field direction was found to be positive for the less concentrated sample (2%) and negative for the samples with 4% and 8% magnetic nanoparticle concentrations, the more negative the higher the concentration and field intensity. Based on the theoretically proven fact that the particle orientation mechanism has no effect on the extinction of light polarized at 54.74 o with respect to the field direction, we analyzed the experimental findings in the frames of the agglomeration and long-range pair correlations theories for the magnetically induced optical anisotropy in ferrofluids. We developed a theoretical model in the approximation of single scattering for the optical extinction coefficient of a ferrofluid with magnetically induced particle agglomeration. The model predicts the existence of a polarization independent component of the optical extinction coefficient that is experimentally measurable at 54.74 o polarization angle. The change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74 o is positive if only the formation of straight n-particle chains is considered and may become negative in the hypothesis that the longer chains degenerate to more isotropic structures (polymer-like coils, globules or bundles of chains). The model for the influence on the light absorption of the long-range pair correlations, published elsewhere, predicts that the change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74 o is always negative, the more

  14. Practical demonstration of the theory of the principle of reflection and refraction of light polarized lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Diaz, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Using an optical system comprising a light source to semiconductor, two collimating lenses, one rotating polarizer, two focusing lenses and an electronic circuit mounted amplifiers based on operational, two pulse outputs of variable width is obtained according to the orientation of the plane of polarized light incident on the lenses coplanar standing together with the electronic circuit inside the optoelectronic head. The difference between the width of both pulses is equivalent to the amount has rotated the plane of polarization and is calculated by the use and programming of a PIC and displayed on an alphanumeric LCD. the result of the measurements are shown performed well plates that you can see the change in the value on the LCD to rotate the polarizer. (Author)

  15. Optical asymmetric cryptography based on elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Wang, Zhisong; Zhao, Cheng

    2014-06-20

    We demonstrate a novel optical asymmetric cryptosystem based on the principle of elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique. The device of an array of linear polarizers is introduced to achieve linear truncation on the spatially resolved elliptical polarization distribution during image encryption. This encoding process can be characterized as confusion-based optical cryptography that involves no Fourier lens and diffusion operation. Based on the Jones matrix formalism, the intensity transmittance for this truncation is deduced to perform elliptical polarized light reconstruction based on two intensity measurements. Use of a quick response code makes the proposed cryptosystem practical, with versatile key sensitivity and fault tolerance. Both simulation and preliminary experimental results that support theoretical analysis are presented. An analysis of the resistance of the proposed method on a known public key attack is also provided.

  16. X-ray light valve (XLV): a novel detectors' technology for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovici, Sorin; Sukhovatkin, Vlad; Oakham, Peter

    2014-03-01

    A novel method, based on X-ray Light Valve (XLV) technology, is proposed for making good image quality yet inexpensive flat panel detectors for digital mammography. The digital mammography markets, particularly in the developing countries, demand quality machines at substantially lower prices than the ones available today. Continuous pressure is applied on x-ray detectors' manufacturers to reduce the flat panel detectors' prices. XLV presents a unique opportunity to achieve the needed price - performance characteristics for direct conversion, x-ray detectors. The XLV based detectors combine the proven, superior, spatial resolution of a-Se with the simplicity and low cost of liquid crystals and optical scanning. The x-ray quanta absorbed by a 200 μm a-Se produce electron - hole pairs that move under an electric field to the top and bottom of a-Se layer. This 2D charge distribution creates at the interface with the liquid crystals a continuous (analog) charge image corresponding to the impinging radiation's information. Under the influence of local electrical charges next to them, the liquid crystals twist proportionally to the charges and vary their light reflectivity. A scanning light source illuminates the liquid crystals while an associated, pixilated photo-detector, having a 42 μm pixel size, captures the light reflected by the liquid crystals and converts it in16 bit words that are transmitted to the machine for image processing and display. The paper will describe a novel XLV, 25 cm x 30 cm, flat panel detector structure and its underlying physics as well as its preliminary performance measured on several engineering prototypes. In particular, the paper will present the results of measuring XLV detectors' DQE, MTF, dynamic range, low contrast resolution and dynamic behavior. Finally, the paper will introduce the new, low cost, XLV detector based, digital mammography machine under development at XLV Diagnostics Inc.

  17. A focal plane detector for both light and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ophel, T.R.; Johnston, A.

    1978-05-01

    The characteristics of a multi-element, ionization-type focal plane detector with an effective length of 53 cm have been evaluated for various ions ranging between protons and 32 S. The position resolution obtained is typically 1 mm. Excellent energy (0.49% for 16 O) and angular resolution (0.2 degrees with respect to beam direction for 7 Li) have been obtained enabling clean separation of ion species at essentially full angular acceptance of a split-pole spectrograph

  18. Vacuum Polarization Tensor for QED in the Light Front Gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.T.; Soriano, L.A.; Bolzan, J.D.; Sales, J.H.O.

    2012-01-01

    The use of light front coordinates in quantum field theories (QFT) always brought some problems and controversies. In this work we explore some aspects of its formalism with respect to the employment of dimensional regularization in the computation of the photon's self-energy at the one-loop level and how the fermion propagator has an important role in the outcoming results. (author)

  19. A fast method for optical simulation of flood maps of light-sharing detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Han; Du, Dong; Xu, JianFeng; Moses, William W.; Peng, Qiyu

    2015-01-01

    Optical simulation of the detector module level is highly desired for Position Emission Tomography (PET) system design. Commonly used simulation toolkits such as GATE are not efficient in the optical simulation of detector modules with complicated light-sharing configurations, where a vast amount of photons need to be tracked. We present a fast approach based on a simplified specular reflectance model and a structured light-tracking algorithm to speed up the photon tracking in detector modules constructed with polished finish and specular reflector materials. We simulated conventional block detector designs with different slotted light guide patterns using the new approach and compared the outcomes with those from GATE simulations. While the two approaches generated comparable flood maps, the new approach was more than 200–600 times faster. The new approach has also been validated by constructing a prototype detector and comparing the simulated flood map with the experimental flood map. The experimental flood map has nearly uniformly distributed spots similar to those in the simulated flood map. In conclusion, the new approach provides a fast and reliable simulation tool for assisting in the development of light-sharing-based detector modules with a polished surface finish and using specular reflector materials.

  20. Reconfigurable terahertz grating with enhanced transmission of TE polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an optically reconfigurable grating with enhanced transmission of TE-polarized waves in the terahertz (THz waveband. This kind of grating is realized by projecting a grating image onto a thin Si wafer with a digital micromirror device (DMD. The enhanced transmission is caused by a resonance of the electromagnetic fields between the photoexcited strips. The position of the transmission peak shifts with the variation of the period and duty cycle of the photoinduced grating, which can be readily controlled by the DMD. Furthermore, a flattened Gaussian model was applied to describe the distribution of the photoexcited free carriers in the Si wafer, and the simulated transmittance spectra are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. In future, the photoexcited carriers could also be used to produce THz diffractive elements with reconfigurable functionality.

  1. Evaluation of light detector surface area for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Ayaz, Hasan; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Onaral, Banu

    2017-10-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuroimaging technique that utilizes near infrared light to detect cortical concentration changes of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin non-invasively. Using light sources and detectors over the scalp, multi-wavelength light intensities are recorded as time series and converted to concentration changes of hemoglobin via modified Beer-Lambert law. Here, we describe a potential source for systematic error in the calculation of hemoglobin changes and light intensity measurements. Previous system characterization and analysis studies looked into various fNIRS parameters such as type of light source, number and selection of wavelengths, distance between light source and detector. In this study, we have analyzed the contribution of light detector surface area to the overall outcome. Results from Monte Carlo based digital phantoms indicated that selection of detector area is a critical system parameter in minimizing the error in concentration calculations. The findings here can guide the design of future fNIRS sensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On-chip synthesis of circularly polarized emission of light with integrated photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Li, Mo

    2014-05-01

    The helicity of circularly polarized (CP) light plays an important role in the light-matter interaction in magnetic and quantum material systems. Exploiting CP light in integrated photonic circuits could lead to on-chip integration of novel optical helicity-dependent devices for applications ranging from spintronics to quantum optics. In this Letter, we demonstrate a silicon photonic circuit coupled with a 2D grating emitter operating at a telecom wavelength to synthesize vertically emitting, CP light from a quasi-TE waveguide mode. Handedness of the emitted circular polarized light can be thermally controlled with an integrated microheater. The compact device footprint enables a small beam diameter, which is desirable for large-scale integration.

  3. Polarized scattered light from self-luminous exoplanets. Three-dimensional scattering radiative transfer with ARTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolker, T.; Min, M.; Stam, D. M.; Mollière, P.; Dominik, C.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Direct imaging has paved the way for atmospheric characterization of young and self-luminous gas giants. Scattering in a horizontally-inhomogeneous atmosphere causes the disk-integrated polarization of the thermal radiation to be linearly polarized, possibly detectable with the newest generation of high-contrast imaging instruments. Aims: We aim to investigate the effect of latitudinal and longitudinal cloud variations, circumplanetary disks, atmospheric oblateness, and cloud particle properties on the integrated degree and direction of polarization in the near-infrared. We want to understand how 3D atmospheric asymmetries affect the polarization signal in order to assess the potential of infrared polarimetry for direct imaging observations of planetary-mass companions. Methods: We have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code (ARTES) for scattered light simulations in (exo)planetary atmospheres. The code is applicable to calculations of reflected light and thermal radiation in a spherical grid with a parameterized distribution of gas, clouds, hazes, and circumplanetary material. A gray atmosphere approximation is used for the thermal structure. Results: The disk-integrated degree of polarization of a horizontally-inhomogeneous atmosphere is maximal when the planet is flattened, the optical thickness of the equatorial clouds is large compared to the polar clouds, and the clouds are located at high altitude. For a flattened planet, the integrated polarization can both increase or decrease with respect to a spherical planet which depends on the horizontal distribution and optical thickness of the clouds. The direction of polarization can be either parallel or perpendicular to the projected direction of the rotation axis when clouds are zonally distributed. Rayleigh scattering by submicron-sized cloud particles will maximize the polarimetric signal whereas the integrated degree of polarization is significantly reduced with micron

  4. Injection and detection of a spin-polarized current in a light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiederling, R.; Keim, M.; Reuscher, G.; Ossau, W.; Schmidt, G.; Waag, A.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    1999-12-01

    The field of magnetoelectronics has been growing in practical importance in recent years. For example, devices that harness electronic spin-such as giant-magnetoresistive sensors and magnetoresistive memory cells-are now appearing on the market. In contrast, magnetoelectronic devices based on spin-polarized transport in semiconductors are at a much earlier stage of development, largely because of the lack of an efficient means of injecting spin-polarized charge. Much work has focused on the use of ferromagnetic metallic contacts, but it has proved exceedingly difficult to demonstrate polarized spin injection. More recently, two groups have reported successful spin injection from an NiFe contact, but the observed effects of the spin-polarized transport were quite small (resistance changes of less than 1%). Here we describe a different approach, in which the magnetic semiconductor BexMnyZn1-x-ySe is used as a spin aligner. We achieve injection efficiencies of 90% spin-polarized current into a non-magnetic semiconductor device. The device used in this case is a GaAs/AlGaAs light-emitting diode, and spin polarization is confirmed by the circular polarization state of the emitted light.

  5. POLARIZED LIGHT APPLICATION AT CHRONIC INSOMNIA AND HABIT OF SMOKING

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tubič; M. Skorbič

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of patients with situational neurosis, which for years suffered from insomnia, we used a BIOPTRON-2 device. After 10 everyday evening sessions, the process of falling asleep was normalized, and night sleep was maintained with no additional drugs. A group of 30 patients with a chronic habit of intensive smoking was subjected to applications of BIOPTRON-2 generated PILER light for 10 days. In a considerable part of the tested persons, we noticed a decrease in the inclination fo...

  6. Effect of light polarization on the efficiency of photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinomas: an in vitro cellular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JalalKamali, M; Nematollahi-Mahani, S N; Shojaei, M; Shamsoddini, A; Arabpour, N

    2018-02-01

    In an in vitro study, the effect of light polarization on the efficiency of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT) of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was investigated. Three states of light polarization (non-polarized, linearly polarized, and circularly polarized) were considered. Cells were exposed to green (532 pm 20 nm) irradiation from light emitting diodes. Cell survival was measured by the colorimetric assay (WST-1) and Trypan blue staining. The colorimetric assay showed a pronounced decrease in the cell viability (up to 30%) using polarized light compared to the non-polarized one in the wavelength region used. Similar results were obtained by the cell counting method (20-30% increase in cell death). The observed effect was dependent on the concentration of photosensitizer. The effect is more expressed in the case of linearly polarized light compared to the circularly polarized one. Results show that the use of polarized light increases the efficiency of in vitro ALA-PDT of BCC. Utilizing polarized light, it is possible to obtain the same effect from PDT by lower concentrations of photosensitizer. Additionally, the concentration dependency of PDT response and photo-bleaching is also reduced.

  7. Sensing system with USB camera for experiments of polarization of the light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Fabris

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows a sensor system for educational experiments, composed of a USB camera and a software developed and provided by the authors. The sensor system is suitable for the purpose of studying phenomena related to the polarization of the light. The system was tested in experiments performed to verify the Malus’ Law and the spectral efficiency of polarizers. Details of the experimental setup are shown. The camera captures the light in the visible spectral range from a LED that illuminates a white screen after passing through two polarizers. The software uses the image captured by the camera to provide the relative intensity of the light. With the use of two rotating H-sheet linear polarizers, a linear fitting of the Malus’s Law to the transmitted light intensity data resulted in correlation coefficients R larger than 0.9988. The efficiency of the polarizers in different visible spectral regions was verified with the aid of color filters added to the experimental setup. The system was also used to evaluate the intensity time stability of a white LED.

  8. Light reflection by the cuticle of C. aurigans scarabs: a biological broadband reflector of left handed circularly polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, E.; Azofeifa, D. E.; Hernández-Jiménez, M.; Barboza-Aguilar, C.; Solís, A.; García-Aguilar, I.; Arce-Marenco, L.; Hernández, A.; Vargas, W. E.

    2014-08-01

    Measured reflection spectra from elytra of Chrysina aurigans scarabs are reported. They show a broad reflection band for wavelengths from 0.525 to 1.0 μm with a sequence of maxima and minima reflection values superimposed on a mean value of around 40% for the high reflection band. Different mechanisms contributing to the reflection spectra have been considered, with the dominant effect, reflection of left handed circularly polarized light, being produced by a laminated left handed twisted structure whose pitch changes with depth through the procuticle in a more complex way than that characterizing broad band circular polarizers based on cholesteric liquid crystals.

  9. Light reflection by the cuticle of C. aurigans scarabs: a biological broadband reflector of left handed circularly polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, E; Azofeifa, D E; Hernández-Jiménez, M; García-Aguilar, I; Arce-Marenco, L; Hernández, A; Vargas, W E; Barboza-Aguilar, C; Solís, A

    2014-01-01

    Measured reflection spectra from elytra of Chrysina aurigans scarabs are reported. They show a broad reflection band for wavelengths from 0.525 to 1.0 μm with a sequence of maxima and minima reflection values superimposed on a mean value of around 40% for the high reflection band. Different mechanisms contributing to the reflection spectra have been considered, with the dominant effect, reflection of left handed circularly polarized light, being produced by a laminated left handed twisted structure whose pitch changes with depth through the procuticle in a more complex way than that characterizing broad band circular polarizers based on cholesteric liquid crystals. (fast track communication)

  10. Angular momentum of circularly polarized light in dielectric media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2005-07-01

    A circularly polarized plane-wave is known to have no angular momentum when examined through Maxwell’s equations. This, however, contradicts the experimentally observed facts, where finite segments of plane waves are known to be capable of imparting angular momentum to birefringent platelets. Using a superposition of four plane-waves propagating at slightly different angles to a common direction, we derive an expression for the angular momentum density of a single plane-wave in the limit when the propagation directions of the four beams come into alignment. We proceed to use this four-beam technique to analyze the conservation of angular momentum when a plane-wave enters a dielectric slab from the free space. The angular momentum of the beam is shown to decrease upon entering the dielectric medium, by virtue of the fact that the incident beam exerts a torque on the slab surface at the point of entry. When the beam leaves the slab, it imparts an equal but opposite torque to the exit facet, thus recovering its initial angular momentum upon re-emerging into the free-space. Along the way, we derive an expression for the outward-directed force of a normally incident, finite-diameter beam on a dielectric surface; the possible relationship between this force and the experimentally observed bulging of a liquid surface under intense illumination is explored.

  11. POLARIZED LIGHT APPLICATION AT CHRONIC INSOMNIA AND HABIT OF SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tubič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of patients with situational neurosis, which for years suffered from insomnia, we used a BIOPTRON-2 device. After 10 everyday evening sessions, the process of falling asleep was normalized, and night sleep was maintained with no additional drugs. A group of 30 patients with a chronic habit of intensive smoking was subjected to applications of BIOPTRON-2 generated PILER light for 10 days. In a considerable part of the tested persons, we noticed a decrease in the inclination for smoking and an increase in the wish for final putting an end to smoke.

  12. Impact of geometry on light collection efficiency of scintillation detectors for cryogenic rare event searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danevich, F.A.; Kobychev, V.V.; Kobychev, R.V.; Kraus, H.; Mikhailik, V.B.; Mokina, V.M.; Solsky, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of photon propagation in scintillation detectors were performed with the aim to find the optimal scintillator geometry, surface treatment, and shape of external reflector in order to achieve maximum light collection efficiency for detector configurations that avoid direct optical coupling, a situation that is commonly found in cryogenic scintillating bolometers in experimental searches for double beta decay and dark matter. To evaluate the light collection efficiency of various geometrical configurations we used the ZEMAX ray-tracing software. It was found that scintillators in the shape of a triangular prism with an external mirror shaped as truncated cone gives the highest light collection efficiency. The results of the simulations were confirmed by carrying out measurements of the light collection efficiencies of CaWO 4 crystal scintillators. A comparison of simulated and measured values of light output shows good agreement

  13. Comparison of Atom Interferometers and Light Interferometers as Space-Based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of proposed gravitational wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, non-inertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nearly identical way by intrinsic phase noise and that both require similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple arm instruments) to reach interesting sensitivities. The sensitivity limit from motion of the light sources is slightly different and favors the atom interferometers in the low-frequency limit, although the limit in both cases is severe.

  14. Comparative Sensitivities of Gravitational Wave Detectors Based on Atom Interferometers and Light Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.; Thorpe, J. I.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of proposed gravitational wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, non-inertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nearly identical way by intrinsic phase noise and that both require similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple arm instruments) to reach interesting sensitivities. The sensitivity limit from motion of the light sources is slightly different and favors the atom interferometers in the low-frequency limit, although the limit in both cases is severe. Whether this potential advantage outweighs the additional complexity associated with including atom interferometers will require further study.

  15. Photonic Crystals: Enhancing the Light Output of Scintillation Based Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Knapitsch, Arno Richard

    A scintillator is a material which emits light when excited by ionizing radiation. Such materials are used in a diverse range of applications; From high energy particle physics experiments, X-ray security, to nuclear cameras or positron emission tomography. Future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments as well as next generation medical imaging applications are more and more pushing towards better scintillation characteristics. One of the problems in heavy scintillating materials is related to their high index of refraction. As a consequence, most of the scintillation light produced in the bulk material is trapped inside the crystal due to total internal reflection. The same problem also occurs with light emitting diodes (LEDs) and has for a long time been considered as a limiting factor for their overall efficiency. Recent developments in the area of nanophotonics were showing now that those limitations can be overcome by introducing a photonic crystal (PhC) slab at the outcoupling surface of the substrate. P...

  16. Control of emitted light polarization in a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to circularly polarized optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharthi, S. S., E-mail: ssmalh@essex.ac.uk; Hurtado, A.; Al Seyab, R. K.; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC), Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-11-03

    We experimentally demonstrate the control of the light polarization emitted by a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) at room temperature. This is achieved by means of a combination of polarized optical pumping and polarized optical injection. Without external injection, the polarization of the optical pump controls that of the spin-VCSEL. However, the addition of the externally injected signal polarized with either left- (LCP) or right-circular polarization (RCP) is able to control the polarization of the spin-VCSEL switching it at will to left- or right-circular polarization. A numerical model has been developed showing a very high degree of agreement with the experimental findings.

  17. Developing Light Collection Enhancements and Wire Tensioning Methods for LArTPC Neutrino Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagliardi, Fabio [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-01

    Liquid argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are becoming widely used as neutrino detectors because of their image-like event reconstruction which enables precision neutrino measurements. They primarily use ionisation charge to reconstruct neutrino events. It has been shown, however, that the scintillation light emitted by liquid argon could be exploited to improve their performance. As the neutrino measurements planned in the near future require large-scale experiments, their construction presents challenges in terms of both charge and light collection. In this dissertation we present solutions developed to improve the performance in both aspects of these detectors. We present a new wire tensioning measurement method that allows a remote measurement of the tension of the large number wires that constitute the TPC anode. We also discuss the development and installation of WLS-compound covered foils for the SBND neutrino detector at Fermilab, which is a technique proposed t o augment light collection in LArTPCs. This included preparing a SBND-like mesh cathode and testing it in the Run III of LArIAT, a test beam detector also located at Fermilab. Finally, we present a study aimed at understanding late scintillation light emitted by recombining positive argon ions using LArIAT data, which could affect large scale surface detectors.

  18. Arrays of Segmented, Tapered Light Guides for Use With Large, Planar Scintillation Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Vaigneur, Keith; Stolin, Alexander V.; Jaliparthi, Gangadhar

    2015-06-01

    Metabolic imaging techniques can potentially improve detection and diagnosis of cancer in women with radiodense and/or fibrocystic breasts. Our group has previously developed a high-resolution positron emission tomography imaging and biopsy device (PEM-PET) to detect and guide the biopsy of suspicious breast lesions. Initial testing revealed that the imaging field-of-view (FOV) of the scanner was smaller than the physical size of the detector's active area, which could hinder sampling of breast areas close to the chest wall. The purpose of this work was to utilize segmented, tapered light guides for optically coupling the scintillator arrays to arrays of position-sensitive photomultipliers to increase both the active FOV and identification of individual scintillator elements. Testing of the new system revealed that the optics of these structures made it possible to discern detector elements from the complete active area of the detector face. In the previous system the top and bottom rows and left and right columns were not identifiable. Additionally, use of the new light guides increased the contrast of individual detector elements by up to 129%. Improved element identification led to a spatial resolution increase by approximately 12%. Due to attenuation of light in the light guides the detector energy resolution decreased from 18.5% to 19.1%. Overall, these improvements should increase the field-of-view and spatial resolution of the dedicated breast-PET system.

  19. A waveshifter light collector for a water Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, R.; Sulak, L.; Ciocio, A.; Stone, J.L.; Seidel, S.; Casper, D.; Bionta, R.M.; Park, H.S.; Wuest, C.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.; Dye, S.T.; Learned, J.G.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.; Gajewski, W.; Matthews, J.; Sinclair, D.; Thornton, G.; Van Der Velde, J.C.; Ganezer, K.S.; Haines, T.J.; Kropp, W.R.; Price, L.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.W.; Svoboda, R.; Goldhaber, M.; Jones, T.W.; Kielczewska, D.; Losecco, J.M.; Shumard, E.

    1987-01-01

    A device has been developed which is capable of doubling the light collection capability of a 5 inch hemispherical photomultiplier tube. Known as a 'waveshifter plate', its geometry is adaptable to various applications. Its marginal cost is small with respect to that of a phototube, it is readily removable, and it has minimum effect upon dark noise and timing resolution. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of the photon transmission efficiency of light guides used in scintillation detectors using LightTools code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Dong Sung; Park, Ki Hyun; Park, Chan Jong; Han, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    To optimize the photon transmission efficiency of light guides used in scintillation detectors, LightTools code, which can construct and track light, was used to analyze photon transmission effectiveness with respect to light guides thickness. This analysis was carried out using the commercial light guide, N-BK 7 Optical Glass by SCHOTT, as a model for this study. The luminous exitance characteristic of the LYSO scintillator was used to analyze the photon transmission effectiveness according to the thickness of the light guide. The results of the simulations showed the effectiveness of the photon transmission according to the thickness of the light guide, which was found to be distributed from 13.38% to 33.57%. In addition, the photon transmission efficiency was found to be the highest for light guides of 4 mm of thickness and a receiving angle of 49 .deg. . Through such simulations, it is confirmed that photon transmission efficiency depends on light guide thickness and subsequent changes in the internal angle of reflection. The aim is to produce an actual light guide based on these results and to evaluate its performance

  1. Design and Fabrication of the Second-Generation KID-Based Light Detectors of CALDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantoni, I.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cruciani, A.; Bellini, F.; Castellano, M. G.; Cosmelli, C.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the cryogenic wide-area light detectors with excellent resolution project is the development of light detectors with large active area and noise energy resolution smaller than 20 eV RMS using phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). The detectors are developed to improve the background suppression in large-mass bolometric experiments such as CUORE, via the double readout of the light and the heat released by particles interacting in the bolometers. In this work we present the fabrication process, starting from the silicon wafer arriving to the single chip. In the first part of the project, we designed and fabricated KID detectors using aluminum. Detectors are designed by means of state-of-the-art software for electromagnetic analysis (SONNET). The Al thin films (40 nm) are evaporated on high-quality, high-resistivity (> 10 kΩ cm) Si(100) substrates using an electron beam evaporator in a HV chamber. Detectors are patterned in direct-write mode, using electron beam lithography (EBL), positive tone resist poly-methyl methacrylate and lift-off process. Finally, the chip is diced into 20 × 20 mm2 chips and assembled in a holder OFHC (oxygen-free high conductivity) copper using PTFE support. To increase the energy resolution of our detectors, we are changing the superconductor to sub-stoichiometric TiN (TiN x ) deposited by means of DC magnetron sputtering. We are optimizing its deposition by means of DC magnetron reactive sputtering. For this kind of material, the fabrication process is subtractive and consists of EBL patterning through negative tone resist AR-N 7700 and deep reactive ion etching. Critical temperature of TiN x samples was measured in a dedicated cryostat.

  2. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light): a preliminary, prospective, open clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinopoulos, D; Stasinopoulos, I; Johnson, M I

    2005-04-01

    Our aim was to assess the efficacy of polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light) in the treatment of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compression neuropathy, but no satisfactory conservative treatment is available at present. An uncontrolled experimental study was conducted in patients who visited our clinic from mid-2001 to mid-2002. A total of 25 patients (22 women and three men) with unilateral idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, mild to moderate nocturnal pain, and paraesthesia lasting >3 months participated in the study. The average age of the patients was 47.4 years and the average duration of patients' symptoms was 5.2 months. Polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light) was administered perpendicular to the carpal tunnel area. The irradiation time for each session was 6 min at an operating distance of 5-10 cm from the carpal tunnel area, three times weekly for 4 weeks. Outcome measures used were the participants' global assessments of nocturnal pain and paraesthesia, respectively, at 4 weeks and 6 months. At 4 weeks, two patients (8%) had no change in nocturnal pain, six (24%) were in slightly less nocturnal pain, 12 (48%) were much better in regard to nocturnal pain and five (20%) were pain-free. At 6 months, three patients (12%) were slightly better in regard to nocturnal pain, 13 (52%) were much better regarding nocturnal pain, and nine patients (36%) were pain-free. At 4 weeks, four patients (16%) had no change in paraesthesia, five (20%) were slightly better, 13 patients (52%) were much better, and three patients (12%) were without paraesthesia. At 6 months, two patients (8%) had no change in paraesthesia, two (8%) were slightly better, 14 (56%) were much better, and seven (28%) were without paraesthesia. Nocturnal pain and paraesthesia associated with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome improved during polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light) treatment. Controlled

  3. A gravitational wave detector operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit: Squeezed light in application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnabel Roman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews our recent progress on the generation of squeezed light [1], and also the recent squeezed-light enhancement of the gravitational wave detector GEO 600 [2]. GEO 600 is currently the only GW observatory operated by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in its search for gravitational waves. With the help of squeezed states of light it now operates with its best ever sensitivity, which not only proves the qualification of squeezed light as a key technology for future gravitational wave astronomy but also the usefulness of quantum entanglement.

  4. New shapes of light-cone distributions of the transversely polarized ρ-mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhajlov, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    The leading twist light-cone distributions for transversely polarized ρ-, ρ ' - and b 1 mesons are reanalyzed in the framework of QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates. Using different kinds of sum rules to obtain reliable predictions, we estimate the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-th moments for transversely polarized ρ- and ρ ' -meson distributions and reestimate tensor couplings f ρ,ρ ' ,b 1 T . It is stressed that the results of standard sum rules also support our estimation of the second moment of the transversely polarized ρ-meson distribution. New models for light-cone distributions are briefly discussed. Our results are compared with those found by Ball and Braun (1996), and the latter is shown to be incomplete

  5. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products.

  6. arXiv Black hole superradiance and polarization-dependent bending of light

    CERN Document Server

    Plascencia, Alexis D.

    2018-04-27

    An inhomogeneous pseudo-scalar field configuration behaves like an optically active medium. Consequently, if a light ray passes through an axion cloud surrounding a Kerr black hole, it may experience a polarization-dependent bending. We explore the size and relevance of such effect considering both the QCD axion and a generic axion-like particle.

  7. Modeling optical behavior of birefringent biological tissues for evaluation of quantitative polarized light microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative polarized light microscopy (qPLM) is a popular tool for the investigation of birefringent architectures in biological tissues. Collagen, the most abundant protein in mammals, is such a birefringent material. Interpretation of results of qPLM in terms of collagen network architecture and

  8. Contribution of spontaneous polarization and its fluctuations to refraction of light in ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markovin, P.A.; Trepakov, Vladimír; Tagantsev, A. K.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Andreev, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2016), 134-139 ISSN 1063-7834 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13778S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : contribution * spontaneous polarization * fluctuations * refraction * light * ferroelectrics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2016

  9. arXiv Black hole superradiance and polarization-dependent bending of light

    CERN Document Server

    Plascencia, Alexis D.

    2017-01-01

    An inhomogeneous pseudo-scalar field configuration behaves like an optically active medium. Consequently, if a light ray passes through an axion cloud surrounding a Kerr black hole, it may experience a polarization-dependent bending. We explore the size and relevance of such effect considering both the QCD axion and a generic axion-like particle.

  10. Myth polar light. Why sky bands, herring lightnings, and solar winds fascinate; Mythos Polarlicht. Warum Himmelsbaender, Heringsblitze und Sonnenwinde faszinieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunnekuhl, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The actual state of knowledge of the polar-light research is in this illustrated volume as entertainingly as scientific-foundedly presented. The pecularities of pola lights beyond the polar-light zones as for instance in Germany are thematized and the conditions and periods, in which it there occurs, explained. Michael Hunnekuhl succeeds to mediate the fascination and emotion and simultaneously to explain the phenomena according to the latest state of science generally understandably. Which very old interpretations and descriptions are transmitted, which imaginations had men of polar lights long before the science could them explain? Hunnekuhl takes the reader along with into the world of legends and myths around the polar light. An experience report from the deeply snowed up wideness of Lapland lets everybody closely participate at a polar-light observation and feel the emotion, which it can fan. Above 70 polar-light pictures of high value and further explaining graphics show the continuously changing play of colors, supplement the explanations, and make the fascination comprehensible. Spectacular polar-light films from the international space station ISS, photographs from sun-observation satellites, as well as a polar-light film in real time are bound in the book via QR codes and make the time dimension and the dynamics of this fascinating natural spectacle alively comprehensible.

  11. Optical concentrators for Čerenkov light detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    RICH1 (Ring Imaging Cherenkov) detector is an important part of COMPASS particle physics experiment in CERN. Its central area photon detection part is being upgraded from wire chambers with CsI layers to very fast UV extended Hamamatsu MAPMTs (Multi Anode Photo Multiplier Tubes) array. MAPMTs have approx. 3 times smaller active area than the covered region, thus optical concentrators transforming image from old system focal plane to the new photocathode were needed. System was expected to be efficient from 200 to 600nm with best performance at 300nm and with angular acceptance including all interesting physics processes. Several design types (including i.e. a hollow waveguide) were investigated and the “telescopic” two lens aspherical design concept was selected for its proven functionality in HERA-B experiment. Chosen material was UV grade fused silica. System consists of a field lens placed in the focal plane of the RICH mirrors and a condenser lens downstream. Designing procedure started with a high op...

  12. Investigation of Avalanche Photodiodes and Multipixel Photon Counters as Light Detectors for Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Jaime; Saavedra, Arthur; Ramos, Roxana; Tavares, Pablo; Wade, Marcus; Fan, Sewan; Haag, Brooke

    2013-04-01

    Through the Research Scholars Institute, students of Hartnell Community College experimented with the application of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) as cosmic ray detectors during the summer of 2012. An APD detector was coupled with a 10 meter long wavelength shifting fiber (WSF) wrapped around a cylindrical plastic scintillator to maximize signal detection. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) was used in conjunction to detect the same scintillation light caused by incoming cosmic rays. Two APD detectors were evaluated to confirm the viability of the setup. In addition, a similar setup was recently utilized to implement multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs) as readout detectors. Under this configuration, a high gain preamplifier was used to amplify the signals for both the MPPC and APD detectors. We report on our results characterizing the MPPC and discuss its overall performance. Compared to the APD, our findings suggest that the MPPC detector has greater sensitivity in detecting weak light signals, and can be used in place of the PMT for certain counting applications.

  13. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C.; Di Domizio, S.; Castellano, M. G.; Tomei, C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm 2 are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm 2 silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σ E  = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency

  14. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardani, L., E-mail: laura.cardani@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Physics Department, Princeton University, Washington Road, 08544, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Castellano, M. G. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy); Tomei, C. [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2015-08-31

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm{sup 2} are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σ{sub E} = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  15. Large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic TES detectors for CMB measurements with the SPT-3G receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Chrystian M.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Anderson, Adam J.; Avva, Jessica; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Arnold, Kam S.; Austermann, Jason; Bender, Amy N.; Benson, Bradford A.; Bleem, Lindsey; Byrum, Karen; Carlstrom, John E.; Carter, Faustin W.; Chang, Clarence; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Cukierman, Ari; Czaplewski, David A.; Ding, Junjia; Divan, Ralu N. S.; de Haan, Tijmen; Dobbs, Matt; Dutcher, Daniel; Everett, Wenderline; Gannon, Renae N.; Guyser, Robert J.; Halverson, Nils W.; Harrington, Nicholas L.; Hattori, Kaori; Henning, Jason W.; Hilton, Gene C.; Holzapfel, William L.; Huang, Nicholas; Irwin, Kent D.; Jeong, Oliver; Khaire, Trupti; Korman, Milo; Kubik, Donna L.; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Lee, Adrian T.; Leitch, Erik M.; Lendinez Escudero, Sergi; Meyer, Stephan S.; Miller, Christina S.; Montgomery, Joshua; Nadolski, Andrew; Natoli, Tyler J.; Nguyen, Hogan; Novosad, Valentyn; Padin, Stephen; Pan, Zhaodi; Pearson, John E.; Rahlin, Alexandra; Reichardt, Christian L.; Ruhl, John E.; Saliwanchik, Benjamin; Shirley, Ian; Sayre, James T.; Shariff, Jamil A.; Shirokoff, Erik D.; Stan, Liliana; Stark, Antony A.; Sobrin, Joshua; Story, Kyle; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tang, Qing Yang; Thakur, Ritoban B.; Thompson, Keith L.; Tucker, Carole E.; Vanderlinde, Keith; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Wang, Gensheng; Whitehorn, Nathan; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Yoon, Ki Won

    2016-07-01

    Detectors for cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments are now essentially background limited, so a straightforward alternative to improve sensitivity is to increase the number of detectors. Large arrays of multichroic pixels constitute an economical approach to increasing the number of detectors within a given focal plane area. Here, we present the fabrication of large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers for the South Pole Telescope third-generation CMB receiver (SPT-3G). The complete SPT-3G receiver will have 2690 pixels, each with six detectors, allowing for individual measurement of three spectral bands (centered at 95 GHz, 150 GHz and 220 GHz) in two orthogonal polarizations. In total, the SPT-3G focal plane will have 16140 detectors. Each pixel is comprised of a broad-band sinuous antenna coupled to a niobium microstrip transmission line. In-line filters are used to define the different band-passes before the millimeter-wavelength signal is fed to the respective Ti/Au TES sensors. Detectors are read out using a 64x frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) scheme. The microfabrication of the SPT-3G detector arrays involves a total of 18 processes, including 13 lithography steps. Together with the fabrication process, the effect of processing on the Ti/Au TES's Tc is discussed. In addition, detectors fabricated with Ti/Au TES films with Tc between 400 mK 560 mK are presented and their thermal characteristics are evaluated. Optical characterization of the arrays is presented as well, indicating that the response of the detectors is in good agreement with the design values for all three spectral bands (95 GHz, 150 GHz, and 220 GHz). The measured optical efficiency of the detectors is between 0.3 and 0.8. Results discussed here are extracted from a batch of research of development wafers used to develop the baseline process for the fabrication of the arrays of detectors to be deployed with the SPT-3G receiver. Results from

  16. Results on light dark matter particles with a low-threshold CRESST-II detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angloher, G.; Iachellini, N.F.; Hauff, D.; Kiefer, M.; Petricca, F.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.; Strauss, R.; Tanzke, A.; Wuestrich, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bento, A. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Gorla, P.; Pagliarone, C.; Schaeffner, K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Defay, X.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Muenster, A.; Potzel, W.; Schoenert, S.; Trinh Thi, H.H.; Ulrich, A.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zoeller, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Erb, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Walther-Meissner-Institut fuer Tieftemperaturforschung, Garching (Germany); Guetlein, A.; Kluck, H.; Schieck, J.; Tuerkoglu, C. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien (Austria); Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Wien (Austria); Jochum, J.; Loebell, J.; Strandhagen, C.; Uffinger, M.; Usherov, I. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Kraus, H. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Reindl, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The CRESST-II experiment uses cryogenic detectors to search for nuclear recoil events induced by the elastic scattering of dark matter particles in CaWO{sub 4} crystals. Given the low energy threshold of our detectors in combination with light target nuclei, low mass dark matter particles can be probed with high sensitivity. In this letter we present the results from data of a single detector module corresponding to 52 kg live days. A blind analysis is carried out. With an energy threshold for nuclear recoils of 307 eV we substantially enhance the sensitivity for light dark matter. Thereby, we extend the reach of direct dark matter experiments to the sub- GeV/c{sup 2} region and demonstrate that the energy threshold is the key parameter in the search for low mass dark matter particles. (orig.)

  17. Building blocks for future detectors: Silicon test masses and 1550 nm laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, R; Britzger, M; Burmeister, O; Danzmann, K; Duck, J; Eberle, T; Friedrich, D; Luck, H; Mehmet, M; Steinlechner, S; Willke, B; Brueckner, F; Nawrodt, R

    2010-01-01

    Current interferometric gravitational wave detectors use the combination of quasi-monochromatic, continuous-wave laser light at 1064 nm and fused silica test masses at room temperature. Detectors of the third generation, such as the Einstein-Telescope, will involve a considerable sensitivity increase. The combination of 1550 nm laser radiation and crystalline silicon test masses at low temperatures might be important ingredients in order to achieve the sensitivity goal. Here we compare some properties of the fused silica and silicon test mass materials relevant for decreasing the thermal noise in future detectors as well as the recent technology achievements in the preparation of laser radiation at 1064 nm and 1550 nm relevant for decreasing the quantum noise. We conclude that silicon test masses and 1550 nm laser light have the potential to form the future building blocks of gravitational wave detection.

  18. Background suppression in TeO2 bolometers with Neganov-Luke amplified cryogenic light detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willers, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic detectors based on non-scintillating TeO 2 crystals are used in the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay, presently one of the most important fields of research in neutrino and astroparticle physics. Within this work, the application of Neganov-Luke amplified cryogenic light detectors for the background suppression in TeO 2 crystals is investigated. Alpha-induced background events can be discriminated from signal-like electron/gamma events via the detection of Cherenkov radiation produced by highly energetic electrons within the TeO 2 crystal. Using Neganov-Luke light detectors, it could be shown for the first time that a highly efficient event-by-event discrimination between alpha and electron/gamma-induced events can be achieved.

  19. Lateral refraction and reflection of light polarized lenses principle. Coplanar lens systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, L.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the behavior of the linearly polarized light to impact a lens and in the lens itself, resulted in the discovery of a physical principle of optics, not mentioned or used so far. This phenomenon is very useful in practice. Perhaps the manifestation of the phenomenon occurs in the plane perpendicular to the road or optical axis, is due the reason that was not seen before, but it has always been there when polarized light passes through a lens. Known and mastered the principle has been manipulated for better research results, using for the first time a planar lens system, which according to the placement of the lens allows for accurate lags between the light beams ar the exits the system. (Author)

  20. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancuso M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% – 35% and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  1. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Giuliani, A.; Dumoulin, L.; Olivieri, E.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.; Tenconi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers) consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% - 35%) and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  2. Neptunium detector using fiber-optic light guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, W.A.; Killeen, T.E.; Herold, T.R.

    1981-01-01

    A colorimeter has been constructed and installed to detect neptunium (IV) on-line as it elutes from an ion exchange column in a plant process stream. Because of the high radiation and corrosive atmosphere at the monitoring location, the instrument was designed using remote electronics and glass fiber optic cables. The five-foot cables transmit pulsed white light into a glass monitoring window in a containment box and return the transmitted portion to a photosensor. A simple spring clamp was designed to couple the cables to the monitoring window without modifying existing processes. Details of the design, installation, and operational problems are discussed. Other applications and modifications of the present colorimeter for other actinides, as well as preliminary results on a fiber optic spectrophotometer, are presented

  3. Development of ultracold neutron detectors and a polarization analyzing system for the measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogel, Gwendal

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was performed in the context of a project aiming to measure the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Two aspects have been studied: The detection and the polarization analysis of ultracold neutrons. Three types of detectors have been tested at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL): The Cascade-U (GEM technology), the "3He gas detector and "6Li-doped glass scintillators (GS family). Their detection efficiency and their background sensitivity have been measured. The GS10 scintillator is competitive with the "3He gas detector under the conditions realized with the EDM spectrometer. A GS3/GS20 scintillator stack has enabled to improve the neutron/gamma discrimination. It has been found 20% less efficient than the "3He gas detector under the EDM spectrometer. The Cascade-U detector has been observed to be 20% less efficient than a 500 microns thick GS10 glass as confirmed by simulations. A new system for simultaneous spin analysis is presented. It consists of two independent detection systems (arms) which are each made of an adiabatic spin flipper, a spin analyzer, and a detector. The arms detect opposite spin components, allowing the simultaneous counting of both neutron spin orientations. A prototype mounted in horizontal configuration has been tested at ILL. The analyzing power of both arms has been measured to be 80%. The transmission of the system without spin analyzers has been found to be 50%. (author) [fr

  4. Model of the negative polarization of light of cosmic bodies deprived by atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkuratov, Yu.G.

    1982-01-01

    The formulae are obtained describing the polarization of light scattered by planets deprived of atmospheres, for small phase angles (up to 30 deg). It is suggested that the negative polarization is due to a combination of the shadow effect with single and double noncoplanar Fresnel reflections from microfacets of particles. Theoretical calculations are compared with the experimental data obtained by Lio and Dollfus during Moon observation as well as Zellner and others during 324 Bamberga asteroid observation. In the case with the Moon the best agreement with the experiment is obtained when the actual part of the refractive index n=1.60 and for asteroid n=1.78

  5. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, E. C.; Bencok, P.; Dobrynin, A.; Rial, E. C. M.; Rose, A.; Steadman, P.; Thompson, C.; Thomson, A.; Wang, H.

    2013-03-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  6. Optical image encryption method based on incoherent imaging and polarized light encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Xiong, D.; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.

    2018-05-01

    We propose an incoherent encoding system for image encryption based on a polarized encoding method combined with an incoherent imaging. Incoherent imaging is the core component of this proposal, in which the incoherent point-spread function (PSF) of the imaging system serves as the main key to encode the input intensity distribution thanks to a convolution operation. An array of retarders and polarizers is placed on the input plane of the imaging structure to encrypt the polarized state of light based on Mueller polarization calculus. The proposal makes full use of randomness of polarization parameters and incoherent PSF so that a multidimensional key space is generated to deal with illegal attacks. Mueller polarization calculus and incoherent illumination of imaging structure ensure that only intensity information is manipulated. Another key advantage is that complicated processing and recording related to a complex-valued signal are avoided. The encoded information is just an intensity distribution, which is advantageous for data storage and transition because information expansion accompanying conventional encryption methods is also avoided. The decryption procedure can be performed digitally or using optoelectronic devices. Numerical simulation tests demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme.

  7. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, E C; Bencok, P; Dobrynin, A; Rial, E C M; Rose, A; Steadman, P; Thompson, C; Thomson, A; Wang, H

    2013-01-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  8. Electronic-Optical Amplifier in the measurement of light polarization plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Diaz, Lazaro

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the behavior of the output response of two electronic-optical amplifiers with constant amplitude and phase variable, in which photodiodes each them are arranged spatially 90th each other and both with their faces detection parallel to the axis of light transmission. Outward both amplifiers are going to a digital circuit that compares the fronts outputs to the front of the pulse signal that feeds the light source, to finally obtain the difference in time when fronts of light capture the photodiodes. This configuration permit to analyze the influence of the geometric arrangement of the system optical and understand the principle of why the diodes with their faces parallel to the axis of light transmission are capable of capturing variations of this, and even detect the rotation of the plane of light polarized. (Author)

  9. A hemispherical photoelectron spectrometer with 2-dimensional delay-line detector and integrated spin-polarization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plucinski, L.; Oelsner, A.; Matthes, F.; Schneider, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Photoelectron spectrometers usually allow detection of either spin-resolved energy-distribution curves (EDCs) at single emission angle, or 2D angle-vs.-energy images without spin-resolution. We have combined the two detection schemes into one spectrometer system which permits simultaneous detection of a 1D spin-resolved EDC and a 2D angular map. A state-of-the-art hemispherical analyzer is used as an energy filter. Its original scintillator detector has been replaced by a delay-line-detector (DLD), and part of the electron beam is allowed to pass through to reach the spin-polarized low energy electron diffraction (SPLEED) spin-detector mounted subsequently. The electron-optics between DLD and SPLEED contains a 90 o deflector to feature simultaneous detection of in-plane and out-of-plane spin components. These electron-optics have been optimized for high transmission to reduce acquisition times in the spin-resolved mode.

  10. In vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using polarized and multiple scattered light spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Matthew Allen

    This thesis research presents the development of a non-invasive diagnostic technique for distinguishing between skin cancer, moles, and normal skin using polarized and multiple scattered light spectroscopy. Polarized light incident on the skin is single scattered by the epidermal layer and multiple scattered by the dermal layer. The epidermal light maintains its initial polarization while the light from the dermal layer becomes randomized and multiple scattered. Mie theory was used to model the epidermal light as the scattering from the intercellular organelles. The dermal signal was modeled as the diffusion of light through a localized semi-homogeneous volume. These models were confirmed using skin phantom experiments, studied with in vitro cell cultures, and applied to human skin for in vivo testing. A CCD-based spectroscopy system was developed to perform all these experiments. The probe and the theory were tested on skin phantoms of latex spheres on top of a solid phantom. We next extended our phantom study to include in vitro cells on top of the solid phantom. Optical fluorescent microscope images revealed at least four distinct scatterers including mitochondria, nucleoli, nuclei, and cell membranes. Single scattering measurements on the mammalian cells consistently produced PSD's in the size range of the mitochondria. The clinical portion of the study consisted of in vivo measurements on cancer, mole, and normal skin spots. The clinical study combined the single scattering model from the phantom and in vitro cell studies with the diffusion model for multiple scattered light. When parameters from both layers were combined, we found that a sensitivity of 100% and 77% can be obtained for detecting cancers and moles, respectively, given the number of lesions examined.

  11. Photon polarization tensor in the light front field theory at zero and finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Charles da Rocha; Perez, Silvana; Strauss, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, light front quantized field theories have been successfully generalized to finite temperature. The light front frame was introduced by Dirac , and the quantization of field theories on the null-plane has found applications in many branches of physics. In order to obtain the thermal contribution, we consider the hard thermal loop approximation. This technique was developed by Braaten and Pisarski for the thermal quantum field theory at equal times and is particularly useful to extract the leading thermal contributions to the amplitudes in perturbative quantum field theories. In this work, we consider the light front quantum electrodynamics in (3+1) dimensions and evaluate the photon polarization tensor at one loop for both zero and finite temperatures. In the first case, we apply the dimensional regularization method to extract the finite contribution and find the transverse structure for the amplitude in terms of the light front coordinates. The result agrees with one-loop covariant calculation. For the thermal corrections, we generalize the hard thermal loop approximation to the light front and calculate the dominant temperature contribution to the polarization tensor, consistent with the Ward identity. In both zero as well as finite temperature calculations, we use the oblique light front coordinates. (author)

  12. Trends in the development of large area photon detectors for Cherenkov light imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nappi, E

    2003-01-01

    Since the successful operations of hi-tech devices at OMEGA, DELPHI and SLD, the technique of Cherenkov light imaging has gone through an impressive and fruitful evolution driven by the conception of novel large area photon detectors. The well-assessed potentialities of thin CsI films, employed as reflective photoconverters in gas counters operated at atmospheric pressure, will be compared with the promising features of hybrid and multianode vacuum photomultipliers. Recently proposed single-photon gaseous detectors based on GEMs will also be reviewed.

  13. Spectral and spatial properties of polarized light reflections from the arms of squid (Loligo pealeii) and cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Cronin, Thomas W

    2007-10-01

    On every arm of cuttlefish and squid there is a stripe of high-reflectance iridophores that reflects highly polarized light. Since cephalopods possess polarization vision, it has been hypothesized that these polarized stripes could serve an intraspecific communication function. We determined how polarization changes when these boneless arms move. By measuring the spectral and polarizing properties of the reflected light from samples at various angles of tilt and rotation, we found that the actual posture of the arm has little or no effect on partial polarization or the e-vector angle of the reflected light. However, when the illumination angle changed, the partial polarization of the reflected light also changed. The spectral reflections of the signals were also affected by the angle of illumination but not by the orientation of the sample. Electron microscope samples showed that these stripes are composed of several groups of multilayer platelets within the iridophores. The surface normal to each group is oriented at a different angle, which produces essentially constant reflection of polarized light over a range of viewing angles. These results demonstrate that cuttlefish and squid could send out reliable polarization signals to a receiver regardless of arm orientation.

  14. Coding and decoding in a point-to-point communication using the polarization of the light beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehvash, Z; Massoumian, F

    2008-05-10

    A new technique for coding and decoding of optical signals through the use of polarization is described. In this technique the concept of coding is translated to polarization. In other words, coding is done in such a way that each code represents a unique polarization. This is done by implementing a binary pattern on a spatial light modulator in such a way that the reflected light has the required polarization. Decoding is done by the detection of the received beam's polarization. By linking the concept of coding to polarization we can use each of these concepts in measuring the other one, attaining some gains. In this paper the construction of a simple point-to-point communication where coding and decoding is done through polarization will be discussed.

  15. A simulation of the optical attenuation of TPB coated light-guide detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B J P

    2013-01-01

    This note is provided as a supplementary section to accompany the paper [1] which has been included in these proceedings. It describes some simple simulations which were performed in order to understand the attenuation behaviors of acrylic light-guides operated in air and argon, which were characterized in [2]. Whilst these simulations are only at the level of sophistication of a toy model, they illustrate interesting non-exponential light attenuation effects and the differences between operating light-guide based detectors in argon and air environments. We investigate the effects of surface absorption, surface roughness and wavelength dependence, and use a model tuned on the light-guide attenuation curve measured in air to make a prediction of the light-guide attenuation curve in argon. This curve is compared with data from a liquid argon test stand, and an improvement over a simple exponential model is observed

  16. Electrically switchable photonic liquid crystal devices for routing of a polarized light wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushnova, Irina I.; Melnikova, Elena A.; Tolstik, Alexei L.; Muravsky, Alexander A.

    2018-04-01

    The new mode of LC alignment based on photoalignment AtA-2 azo dye where the refractive interface between orthogonal orientations of the LC director exists without voltage and disappeared or changed with critical voltage has been proposed. The technology to fabricate electrically controlled liquid crystal elements for spatial separation and switching of linearly polarized light beams on the basis of the total internal reflection effect has been significantly improved. Its distinctive feature is the application of a composite alignment material comprising two sublayers of Nylon-6 and AtA-2 photoalignment azo dye offering patterned liquid crystal director orientation with high alignment quality value q = 0 . 998. The fabricated electrically controlled spatially structured liquid crystal devices enable implementation of propagation directions separation for orthogonally polarized light beams and their switching with minimal crosstalk.

  17. Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circularly polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamova, Olga; Costache, Florenta; Reif, Juergen; Bestehorn, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Surface ripples generation upon femtosecond laser ablation is attributed to self-organized structure formation from instability. We report that linear arrangements are observed not only for linearly polarized light but also for ablation with circularly polarized light. Long ordered chains of spherical nanoparticles, reminding of bead-strings are almost parallel but exhibit typical non-linear dynamics features such as bifurcations. In a first attempt to understand the self-assembly, we rely on models recently developed for the description of similar structures upon ion beam erosion and for the simulation of instabilities in thin liquid films. Our picture describes an unstable surface layer, non-uniformly eroded through Coulomb repulsion between individual positive charges

  18. Multiple scattering of polarized light: comparison of Maxwell theory and radiative transfer theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, Florian; Hohmann, Ansgar; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin

    2012-04-01

    For many research areas in biomedical optics, information about scattering of polarized light in turbid media is of increasing importance. Scattering simulations within this field are mainly performed on the basis of radiative transfer theory. In this study a polarization sensitive Monte Carlo solution of radiative transfer theory is compared to exact Maxwell solutions for all elements of the scattering Müller matrix. Different scatterer volume concentrations are modeled as a multitude of monodisperse nonabsorbing spheres randomly positioned in a cubic simulation volume which is irradiated with monochromatic incident light. For all Müller matrix elements effects due to dependent scattering and multiple scattering are analysed. The results are in overall good agreement between the two methods with deviations related to dependent scattering being prominent for high volume concentrations and high scattering angles.

  19. Imaging and modeling of collagen architecture in living tissue with polarized light transfer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Stoff, Susan; Chue-Sang, Joseph; Bai, Yuqiang

    2016-03-01

    The extra-cellular space in connective tissue of animals and humans alike is comprised in large part of collagen. Monitoring of collagen arrangement and cross-linking has been utilized to diagnose a variety of medical conditions and guide surgical intervention. For example, collagen monitoring is useful in the assessment and treatment of cervical cancer, skin cancer, myocardial infarction, and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. We have developed a suite of tools and models based on polarized light transfer for the assessment of collagen presence, cross-linking, and orientation in living tissue. Here we will present some example of such approach applied to the human cervix. We will illustrate a novel Mueller Matrix (MM) imaging system for the study of cervical tissue; furthermore we will show how our model of polarized light transfer through cervical tissue compares to the experimental findings. Finally we will show validation of the methodology through histological results and Second Harmonic imaging microscopy.

  20. Method for measuring retardation of infrared wave-plate by modulated-polarized visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Song, Feijun

    2012-11-01

    A new method for precisely measuring the optical phase retardation of wave-plates in the infrared spectral region is presented by using modulated-polarized visible light. An electro-optic modulator is used to accurately determine the zero point by the frequency-doubled signal of the Modulated-polarized light. A Babinet-Soleil compensator is employed to make the phase delay compensation. Based on this method, an instrument is set up to measure the retardations of the infrared wave-plates with visible region laser. Measurement results with high accuracy and sound repetition are obtained by simple calculation. Its measurement precision is less than and repetitive precision is within 0.3%.

  1. Quantitative Light Fluorescence (QLF and Polarized White Light (PWL assessments of dental fluorosis in an epidemiological setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pretty Iain A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine if a novel dual camera imaging system employing both polarized white light (PWL and quantitative light induced fluorescence imaging (QLF is appropriate for measuring enamel fluorosis in an epidemiological setting. The use of remote and objective scoring systems is of importance in fluorosis assessments due to the potential risk of examiner bias using clinical methods. Methods Subjects were recruited from a panel previously characterized for fluorosis and caries to ensure a range of fluorosis presentation. A total of 164 children, aged 11 years (±1.3 participated following consent. Each child was examined using the novel imaging system, a traditional digital SLR camera, and clinically using the Dean’s and Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF Indices on the upper central and lateral incisors. Polarized white light and SLR images were scored for both Dean’s and TF indices by raters and fluorescence images were automatically scored using software. Results Data from 164 children were available with a good distribution of fluorosis severity. The automated software analysis of QLF images demonstrated significant correlations with the clinical examinations for both Dean’s and TF index. Agreement (measured by weighted Kappa’s between examiners scoring clinically, from polarized photographs and from SLR images ranged from 0.56 to 0.92. Conclusions The study suggests that the use of a digital imaging system to capture images for either automated software analysis, or remote assessment by raters is suitable for epidemiological work. The use of recorded images enables study archiving, assessment by multiple examiners, remote assessment and objectivity due to the blinding of subject status.

  2. Low crosstalk waveguide intersections in honeycomb lattice photonic crystals for TM-polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, P; Jäckel, H

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of a low crosstalk, high throughput waveguide intersection for transverse-magnetic-polarized light. The design is based on two orthogonal photonic crystal waveguides and a resonant photonic crystal cavity in honeycomb lattice geometry. The results of our numerical simulation validate the concept of the design and demonstrate a crosstalk smaller than 0.1% and throughput transmission of more than 80% for both orthogonal waveguide branches

  3. THE EFFECT OF GRAVITATION ON THE POLARIZATION STATE OF A LIGHT RAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Tanay; Sen, A. K. [Department of Physics Assam University, Silchar-788011, Assam (India)

    2016-12-10

    In the present work, detailed calculations have been carried out on the rotation of the polarization vector of an electromagnetic wave due to the presence of a gravitational field of a rotating body. This has been done using the general expression of Maxwell’s equation in curved spacetime. Considering the far-field approximation (i.e., the impact parameter is greater than the Schwarzschild radius and rotation parameter), the amount of rotation of the polarization vector as a function of impact parameter has been obtained for a rotating body (considering Kerr geometry). The present work shows that the rotation of the polarization vector cannot be observed in the case of Schwarzschild geometry. This work also calculates the rotational effect when considering prograde and retrograde orbits for the light ray. Although the present work demonstrates the effect of rotation of the polarization vector, it confirms that there would be no net polarization of an electromagnetic wave due to the curved spacetime geometry in a Kerr field.

  4. Interferometric characterization of the structured polarized light beam produced by the conical refraction phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Alba; Turpin, Alex; Iemmi, Claudio; Márquez, Andrés; Kalkandjiev, Todor K; Mompart, Jordi; Campos, Juan

    2015-07-13

    The interest on the conical refraction (CR) phenomenon in biaxial crystals has revived in the last years due to its prospective for generating structured polarized light beams, i.e. vector beams. While the intensity and the polarization structure of the CR beams are well known, an accurate experimental study of their phase structure has not been yet carried out. We investigate the phase structure of the CR rings by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer while applying the phase-shifting interferometric technique to measure the phase at the focal plane. In general the two beams interfering correspond to different states of polarization (SOP) which locally vary. To distinguish if there is an additional phase added to the geometrical one we have derived the appropriate theoretical expressions using the Jones matrix formalism. We demonstrate that the phase of the CR rings is equivalent to that one introduced by an azimuthally segmented polarizer with CR-like polarization distribution. Additionally, we obtain direct evidence that the Poggendorff dark ring is an annular singularity, with a π phase change between the inner and outer bright rings.

  5. Effect of SiO2 coating in bolometric Ge light detectors for rare event searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeman, J.W.; Gentils, A.; Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.

    2013-01-01

    In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO 2 anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25–35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ∼630nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope 82 Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO 2 coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials

  6. Effect of SiO2 coating in bolometric Ge light detectors for rare event searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, J. W.; Gentils, A.; Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.

    2013-05-01

    In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO2 anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25-35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ˜630 nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope 82Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO2 coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials.

  7. [Suppression of visceral pain by action of the low intensity polarized light on acupuncture antinociceptive points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P; Tamarova, Z A; Huliar, S O

    2003-01-01

    In experiments on mice, statistically authentic weakening of visceral pain has been shown after an action of low intensity polarized light from a device Bioptron on antinociceptive acupuncture points (AP). Pain was caused by an intraperitoneal injection of 2% acetic acid (0.1 ml/10 g). The intensity of pain was judged on duration and frequency of painful behavioral reactions (writhing, licking of abdomen), as well as on duration of sleep, eating and motor activity. In animals which immediately after injections of acetic acid were exposed to polarized light of low intensity for 10 min, applied on any of antinociceptive APs (E-36, E-43, VC-8, RP-6), the duration of painful behavioral reaction was determined to be reduced, while that of non-painful one increased. The comparison of the total duration of the writhing at control and experimental mice showed that an activation of AP E-43 induced the greatest analgesic effect (76.5%), from AP VC-8 it was 76.3%, from RP-6--46.8%, and from E-36--41.4%. We have concluded that the effect of polarized light of low intensity on APs was a convenient non-pharmacological method of treating visceral pain.

  8. Development and characterisation of a visible light photon counting imaging detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Barnstedt, J

    2002-01-01

    We report on the development of a visible light photon counting imaging detector system. The detector concept is based on standard 25 mm diameter microchannel plate image intensifiers made by Proxitronic in Bensheim (Germany). Modifications applied to these image intensifiers are the use of three microchannel plates instead of two and a high resistance ceramics plate used instead of the standard phosphor output screen. A wedge and strip anode mounted directly behind the high resistance ceramics plate was used as a read out device. This wedge and strip anode picks up the image charge of electron clouds emerging from the microchannel plates. The charge pulses are fed into four charge amplifiers and subsequently into a digital position decoding electronics, achieving a position resolution of up to 1024x1024 pixels. Mounting the anode outside the detector tube is a new approach and has the great advantage of avoiding electrical feedthroughs from the anode so that the standard image intensifier fabrication process...

  9. Light Readout for a 1 ton Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Boccone, Vittorio; Baudis, Laura; Otyugova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for dark matter (DM) has been reported using astronomical observations in systems such as the Bullet cluster. Weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs), in particular the lightest neutralino, are the most popular DM candidates within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Many groups in the world are focussing their attention on the direct detection of DM in the laboratory. The detectors should have large target masses and excellent noise rejection capabilities because of the small cross section between DM and ordinary matter (σWIMP−nucleon < 4 · 10−8 pb). Noble liquids are today considered to be one of the best options for large-size DM experiments, as they have a relatively low ionization energy, good scintillation properties and long electron lifetime. Moreover noble liquid detectors are easily scalable to large masses. This thesis deals with the development of a large (1 ton) LAr WIMP detector (ArDM) which could measure simultaneously light and charge from the scintilla...

  10. Study of light detection and sensitivity for a ton-scale liquid xenon dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y; Lin, Q; Xiao, X; Ni, K

    2013-01-01

    Ton-scale liquid xenon detectors operated in two-phase mode are proposed and being constructed recently to explore the favored parameter space for the Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) dark matter. To achieve a better light collection efficiency while limiting the number of electronics channels compared to the previous generation detectors, large-size photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) such as the 3-inch-diameter R11410 from Hamamatsu are suggested to replace the 1-inch-square R8520 PMTs. In a two-phase xenon dark matter detector, two PMT arrays on the top and bottom are usually used. In this study, we compare the performance of two different ton-scale liquid xenon detector configurations with the same number of either R11410 (config.1) or R8520 (config.2) for the top PMT array, while both using R11410 PMTs for the bottom array. The self-shielding of liquid xenon suppresses the background from the PMTs and the dominant background is from the pp solar neutrinos in the central fiducial volume. The light collection efficiency for the primary scintillation light is largely affected by the xenon purity and the reflectivity of the reflectors. In the optimistic situation with a 10 m light absorption length and a 95% reflectivity, the light collection efficiency is 43%(34%) for config.1(config.2). In the conservative situation with a 2.5 m light absorption length and a 85% reflectivity, the value is only 18%(13%) for config.1(config.2). The difference between the two configurations is due to the larger PMT coverage on the top for config.1. The slightly different position resolutions for the two configurations have a negligible effect on the sensitivity. Based on the above considerations, we estimate the sensitivity reach of the two detector configurations. Both configurations can reach a sensitivity of 2 ∼ 3 × 10 −47 cm 2 for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section for 100 GeV/c 2 WIMPs after two live-years of operation. The one with R8520 PMTs for the top

  11. Reflectance measurements of PTFE, Kapton, and PEEK for xenon scintillation light for the LZ detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, M.; Batista, E.; Haefner, J.; Lorenzon, W.; Morton, D.; Neff, A.; Okunawo, M.; Pushkin, K.; Sander, A.; Stephenson, S.; Wang, Y.; LZ Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    LZ (LUX-Zeplin) is an international collaboration that will look for dark matter candidates, WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), through direct detection by dual-phase time projection chamber (TPC) using liquid xenon. The LZ detector will be located nearly a mile underground at SURF, South Dakota, shielded from cosmic background radiation. Seven tons active mass of liquid xenon will be used for detecting the weak interaction of WIMPs with ordinary matter. Over three years of operation it is expected to reach the ultimate sensitivity of 2x10-48 cm2 for a WIMP mass of 50 GeV. As for many other rare event searches, high light collection efficiency is essential for LZ detector. Moreover, in order to achieve greater active volume for detection as well as reduce potential backgrounds, thinner detector walls without significant loss in reflectance are desired. Reflectance measurements of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Kapton, and PEEK for xenon scintillation light (178 nm), conducted at the University of Michigan using the Michigan Xenon Detector (MiX) will be presented. The University of Michigan, LZ Collaboration, The US Department of Energy.

  12. Sensitization by UV light of α-Al2O3:C polycrystalline detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meira B, L. C.; Rubio F, H.; Neres de A, E.; Santos, A.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes an increase in sensitivity to gamma and beta radiation on α-Al 2 O 3 :C polycrystalline detector, which has been produced by a sol-gel process, following previous exposure to ultraviolet light. The increased sensitivity of the detector as a function of the exposure time and ultraviolet wavelength was studied. Since the main luminescent centers have emission peaks at different wavelengths, selective measurements of thermoluminescent emission intensity were done, in order to investigate the possible conversion of centers as a result of the exposition to ultraviolet light. Experimental results indicate that the nature and parameters of the luminescent centers in α-Al 2 O 3 :C sol-gel material can be very different of those in α-Al 2 O 3 :C single crystal. (author)

  13. Review of the hybrid photo diode tube (HPD) an advanced light detector for physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzivino, G.; Baillon, P.; Benetti, P.; Boskma, L.; Burger, P.; Contin, A.; DeSalvo, R.; Gorodetzky, P.; Grassi, D.; Hao, W.; He, H.; Liu, L.; Lundin, M.; Mondardini, M.R.; Paolucci, S.; Rossella, M.; Santiard, J.C.; Schomaker, R.; You, K.; Wang, K.; Wang, Y.; Xia, X.; Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Zhao, M.

    1995-01-01

    The HPD is a nonmultiplicative light detector with typical gain of 1000 to 5000. Its development project, mainly supported by the CERN LAA project and by the INFN group V, was originally intended to find a replacement for the photo multiplier (PM) tubes for scintillating fibre calorimeter readout. After five years of development the HPD has become a versatile light detector, commercially available for everyday use, that can outperform PM tubes in photon counting efficiency and resolution, multi tesla magnetic field operation, uniformity of response, fast pulse dynamic range, and gain stability. The HPD has also a wide edge on PMs on pixelization potential and it is getting more and more competitive on timing properties. A review of the HPD performances and its latest advances are reported. (orig.)

  14. Review of the hybrid photo diode tube (HPD) an advanced light detector for physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzivino, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati; Arnaudon, H. [Universite` L. Pasteur, 4, rue B. Pascal, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Baillon, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Benetti, P. [INFN Sezione di Pavia and Universita` di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Boskma, L. [DEP, P.O. box 60, NL-9300 AB Roden (Netherlands); Burger, P. [Canberra, Lammerdries 25, B-2250 Olen (Belgium); Contin, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[INFN Sezione di Bologna and Universita` di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); DeSalvo, R. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gorodetzky, P. [CNRS, Strasbourg (France); Grassi, D. [INFN Sezione di Pavia and Universita` di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Hao, W. [IHEP, Beijing (China); He, H. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Liu, L. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Lundin, M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Mondardini, M.R. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Paolucci, S. [INFN Sezione di Pavia and Universita` di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Rossella, M. [INFN Sezione di Pavia and Universita` di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Santiard, J.C. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Schomaker, R. [DEP, P.O. box 60, NL-9300 AB Roden (Netherlands); You, K. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Wang, K. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Wang, Y. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Xia, X. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Xu, C. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Yang, C. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Zhao, M. [IHEP, Beijing (China)

    1995-11-01

    The HPD is a nonmultiplicative light detector with typical gain of 1000 to 5000. Its development project, mainly supported by the CERN LAA project and by the INFN group V, was originally intended to find a replacement for the photo multiplier (PM) tubes for scintillating fibre calorimeter readout. After five years of development the HPD has become a versatile light detector, commercially available for everyday use, that can outperform PM tubes in photon counting efficiency and resolution, multi tesla magnetic field operation, uniformity of response, fast pulse dynamic range, and gain stability. The HPD has also a wide edge on PMs on pixelization potential and it is getting more and more competitive on timing properties. A review of the HPD performances and its latest advances are reported. (orig.).

  15. Production of a diffuse very high reflectivity material for light collection in nuclear detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pichler, B J; Mirzoyan, R; Weiss, L; Ziegler, S I

    2000-01-01

    A diffuse very high reflectivity material, based on polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) for optimization of light-collection efficiency has been developed. PTFE powder was used to produce reflector block material. The powder was pressed with 525 kPa in a form and sintered at 375 deg. C. The reflectivity was above 98% within the spectral range from 350 to 1000 nm. The blocks of this material are machinable with saws, drilling and milling machines. The reflector is used as a housing for scintillating crystals in a nuclear medicine application (small animal positron emission tomograph). It is also used as a light collector in very high-energy gamma-ray astrophysicas experiments, HEGRA and MAGIC. The application of this inexpensive, easy to make diffuse reflector may allow the optimization of light collection in a wide range of low-level light-detector configurations.

  16. Analysis of output currents of self-powered detectors polarized by an external potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, K; Glowacki, S

    1980-01-01

    During measurement of self-powered detector current the electrical potential is induced between the emitter and collector caused by the input resistivity of measuring device. The detector current dependence on the emitter potential has been analyzed. The experimental results confirm the theoretical model of electronic processes within the insulator and also give the requirements that measuring device should fulfil.

  17. A Large-Acceptance Detector System for Electron Scattering from Polarized Internal targets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, E.; Bouwhuis, M.; Choi, S.; Zhou, Z.L.; Alarcon, R.; Anghinolfi, M.; Botto, T.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Dimitroyannis, D.; Doets, M.; Ent, R.; Ferro Luzzi, M.M.E.; Higinbotham, D.W.; de Jager, C.W.; Lang, J.; de Lange, D.J.; Nikolenko, D.; Nooren, G.J.; Papadakis, N.; Passchier, I.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.; Ripani, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Taiuti, M.; Vodinas, N.; de Vries, H.

    1997-01-01

    The design and the performance of a non-magnetic detector setup for internal target physics at the NIKHEF electron-scattering facility is described. The detector setup, used in the first internal-target experiment at the AmPS ring, measures the spin dependence in the elastic and break-up reaction

  18. A Simple, Small-Scale Lego Colorimeter with a Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Used as Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asheim, Jonas; Kvittingen, Eivind V.; Kvittingen, Lise; Verley, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to construct a simple, inexpensive, and robust colorimeter from a few Lego bricks, in which one light-emitting diode (LED) is used as a light source and a second LED as a light detector. The colorimeter is suited to various grades and curricula.

  19. Calibration system with cryogenically-cooled loads for cosmic microwave background polarization detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, M; Tajima, O; Chinone, Y; Hazumi, M; Ishidoshiro, K; Nagai, M

    2011-05-01

    We present a novel system to calibrate millimeter-wave polarimeters for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements. This technique is an extension of the conventional metal mirror rotation approach, however, it employs cryogenically-cooled blackbody absorbers. The primary advantage of this system is that it can generate a slightly polarized signal (∼100 mK) in the laboratory; this is at a similar level to that measured by ground-based CMB polarization experiments observing a ∼10 K sky. It is important to reproduce the observing condition in the laboratory for reliable characterization of polarimeters before deployment. In this paper, we present the design and principle of the system and demonstrate its use with a coherent-type polarimeter used for an actual CMB polarization experiment. This technique can also be applied to incoherent-type polarimeters and it is very promising for the next-generation CMB polarization experiments.

  20. Nanomagnetic behavior of fullerene thin films in Earth magnetic field in dark and under polarization light influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruga, Djuro; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Mihajlović, Spomenko; Matija, Lidija

    2005-10-01

    In this paper magnetic fields intensity of C60 thin films of 60 nm and 100 nm thickness under the influence of polarization lights are presented. Two proton magnetometers were used for measurements. Significant change of magnetic field intensity in range from 2.5 nT to 12.3 nT is identified as a difference of dark and polarization lights of 60 nm and 100 nm thin films thickness, respectively. Specific power density of polarization light was 40 mW/cm2. Based on 200 measurement data average value of difference between magnetic intensity of C60 thin films, with 60 nm and 100 nm thickness, after influence of polarization light, were 3.9 nT and 9.9 nT respectively.

  1. Evaluation of signal energy calculation methods for a light-sharing SiPM-based PET detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qingyang [School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Industrial Spectrum Imaging, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ma, Tianyu; Xu, Tianpeng; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gu, Yu, E-mail: guyu@ustb.edu.cn [School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-03-11

    Signals of a light-sharing positron emission tomography (PET) detector are commonly multiplexed to three analog pulses (E, X, and Y) and then digitally sampled. From this procedure, the signal energy that are critical to detector performance are obtained. In this paper, different signal energy calculation strategies for a self-developed SiPM-based PET detector, including pulse height and different integration methods, are evaluated in terms of energy resolution and spread of the crystal response in the flood histogram using a root-mean-squared (RMS) index. Results show that integrations outperform the pulse height. Integration using the maximum derivative value of the pulse E as the landmark point and 28 integrated points (448 ns) has the best performance in these evaluated methods for our detector. Detector performance in terms of energy and position is improved with this integration method. The proposed methodology is expected to be applicable for other light-sharing PET detectors.

  2. Simultaneously improving optical absorption of both transverse-electric polarized and transverse-magnetic polarized light for organic solar cells with Ag grating used as transparent electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbing Long

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical simulations are performed to investigate optical performance of organic solar cells with Ag grating electrode. It is demonstrated that optical absorption for both transverse-electric (TE polarized and transverse-magnetic(TM polarized light is simultaneously improved when compared with that for the device without the Ag grating. The improvement is respectively attributed to the resonance and the surface plasmon polaritons within the device. After an additional WO3 layer is capped on the Ag grating, absorption of TE-polarized light is further improved due to resonance of double microcavities within the device, and absorption of TM-polarized light is improved by the combined effects of the microcavity resonance and the surface plasmon polaritons. Correspondingly, the short current density for randomly polarized light is improved by 18.1% from that of the device without the Ag grating. Finally, it is demonstrated that high transmission may not be an essential prerequisite for metallic gratings when they are used as transparent electrode since absorption loss caused by low transmission can be compensated by using a capping layer to optimize optical resonance of the WMC structure within the device.

  3. Room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes with a single ferromagnetic electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Baofu, E-mail: b.ding@ecu.edu.au; Alameh, Kamal, E-mail: k.alameh@ecu.edu.au [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027 Australia (Australia); Song, Qunliang [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2014-05-19

    In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of a room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diode (Spin-OLED) structure based on (i) the deposition of an ultra-thin p-type organic buffer layer on the surface of the ferromagnetic electrode of the Spin-OLED and (ii) the use of oxygen plasma treatment to modify the surface of that electrode. Experimental results demonstrate that the brightness of the developed Spin-OLED can be increased by 110% and that a magneto-electroluminescence of 12% can be attained for a 150 mT in-plane magnetic field, at room temperature. This is attributed to enhanced hole and room-temperature spin-polarized injection from the ferromagnetic electrode, respectively.

  4. Nuclear-charge polarization at scission in fission from moderately excited light-actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishinaka, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Fragment mass yields and the average neutron multiplicity in the proton-induced fission of 232 Th and 238 U were measured by a double time-of-flight method. The most probable charges of secondary fragments were evaluated from the fragment mass yields measured by the double time-of-flight method and the fractional cumulative and independent yields reported in literature. The nuclear-charge polarization of primary fragments at scission was obtained by correcting the most probable charge of secondary fragments for neutron evaporation. The results show that the nuclear-charge polarization at scission is associated with the liquid-drop properties of nuclei and the proton shell effect with Z = 50 of heavy fragments and that it is practically insensitive to mass and excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus in the region of light-actinide nuclei. (author)

  5. Light trapping and circularly polarization at a Dirac point in 2D plasma photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Hu, Lei; Mao, Qiuping; Jiang, Haiming; Hu, Zhijia; Xie, Kang; Wei, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Light trapping at the Dirac point in 2D plasma photonic crystal has been obtained. The new localized mode, Dirac mode, is attributable to neither photonic bandgap nor total internal reflection. It exhibits a unique algebraic profile and possesses a high-Q factor resonator of about 105. The Dirac point could be modulated by tuning the filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency, respectively. When a magnetic field parallel to the wave vector is applied, Dirac modes for right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves could be obtained at different frequencies, and the Q factor could be tuned. This property will add more controllability and flexibility to the design and modulation of novel photonic devices. It is also valuable for the possibilities of Dirac modes in photonic crystal containing other kinds of metamaterials.

  6. Highly polarized light from stable ordered magnetic fields in GRB 120308A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, C G; Kopač, D; Arnold, D M; Steele, I A; Gomboc, A; Kobayashi, S; Harrison, R M; Smith, R J; Guidorzi, C; Virgili, F J; Melandri, A; Japelj, J

    2013-12-05

    After the initial burst of γ-rays that defines a γ-ray burst (GRB), expanding ejecta collide with the circumburst medium and begin to decelerate at the onset of the afterglow, during which a forward shock travels outwards and a reverse shock propagates backwards into the oncoming collimated flow, or 'jet'. Light from the reverse shock should be highly polarized if the jet's magnetic field is globally ordered and advected from the central engine, with a position angle that is predicted to remain stable in magnetized baryonic jet models or vary randomly with time if the field is produced locally by plasma or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. Degrees of linear polarization of P ≈ 10 per cent in the optical band have previously been detected in the early afterglow, but the lack of temporal measurements prevented definitive tests of competing jet models. Hours to days after the γ-ray burst, polarization levels are low (P < 4 per cent), when emission from the shocked ambient medium dominates. Here we report the detection of P =28(+4)(-4) per cent in the immediate afterglow of Swift γ-ray burst GRB 120308A, four minutes after its discovery in the γ-ray band, decreasing to P = 16(+5)(-4) per cent over the subsequent ten minutes. The polarization position angle remains stable, changing by no more than 15 degrees over this time, with a possible trend suggesting gradual rotation and ruling out plasma or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. Instead, the polarization properties show that GRBs contain magnetized baryonic jets with large-scale uniform fields that can survive long after the initial explosion.

  7. Dual aerosol detector based on forward light scattering with a single laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, B.J.; Custer, R.A.; Powers, F.L.; Kovach, A.

    1985-01-01

    The in-place leak testing of HEPA filter banks using a single detector can lead to some error in the measurement due to the fluctuation of the aerosol concentration while the single detector is being switched from the upstream to downstream sampling. The time duration of the test also can cause unnecessarily high DOP loading of the HEPA filters and in some cases higher radiation exposure to the testing personnel. The new forward light scattering detector uses one 632.8 nm laser beam for aerosol detection in a dual chamber sampling and detecting aerosol concentration simultaneously both upstream and downstream. This manner of operation eliminates the errors caused by concentration variations between upstream and downstream sample points while the switching takes place. The new detector uses large area silicone photodiodes with a hole in the center, to permit uninterrupted passage of the laser beam through the downstream sample chamber. The nonlinearity due to the aerosol over population of the laser beam volume is calculated to be less than 1% using a Poisson distribution method to determine the average distance of the particles. A simple pneumatic system prevents mixing of the upstream and downstream samples even in wide pressure variations of the duct system

  8. Spectroscopic study of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene for liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Zhenyu [Wuhan University, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan (China); Liu, Qian; Zheng, Yangheng [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Han, Junbo [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Yayun; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-11-15

    We have set up a light scattering spectrometer to study the depolarization of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene. The scattering spectra show that the depolarized part of light scattering is due to Rayleigh scattering. The additional depolarized Rayleigh scattering can make the effective transparency of linear alkylbenzene much better than expected. Therefore, sufficient scintillation photons can transmit through large liquid scintillator detector, such as that of the JUNO experiment. Our study is crucial to achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 3 %/√(E(MeV)) required for the JUNO experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The spectroscopic method can also be used to examine the depolarization of other organic solvents used in neutrino experiments. (orig.)

  9. Spectroscopic study of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene for liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: xiangzhou@whu.edu.cn [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan (China); Liu, Qian, E-mail: liuqian@ucas.ac.cn [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Han, Junbo [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Zhenyu [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Yayun [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Zheng, Yangheng [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China)

    2015-11-21

    We have set up a light scattering spectrometer to study the depolarization of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene. The scattering spectra show that the depolarized part of light scattering is due to Rayleigh scattering. The additional depolarized Rayleigh scattering can make the effective transparency of linear alkylbenzene much better than expected. Therefore, sufficient scintillation photons can transmit through large liquid scintillator detector, such as that of the JUNO experiment. Our study is crucial to achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 3 %/√(E(MeV)) required for the JUNO experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The spectroscopic method can also be used to examine the depolarization of other organic solvents used in neutrino experiments.

  10. Study and optimization of the light-yield of a triple-GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Campagnola, Roberto; Mazzitelli, Giovanni

    The high-resolution tracking of low energy release particles had a remarkable development in recent years and will give a crucial contribution in different fields, from medical uses to those in dark matter search. Characteristics, such as high space and time resolution, low material budget, large volumes, low costs, make gas detectors ideal candidates for this type of devices. A very promising technique involves the optical reading of the light produced by the de-excitation of gas molecules during the processes of electron multiplication. This type of detector has been made possible thanks to the great progresses achieved in last years in the performance in micro pattern gas detector and in the evolution of the CMOS technology which led to the production of sensors able of offering high sensitivity and granularity combined with a very low noise level. In this thesis the performance of a prototype where the light is produced through the multiplication of electrons in a triple GEM structure and acquired by a c...

  11. Simulation study of light transport in laser-processed LYSO:Ce detectors with single-side readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläckberg, L; El Fakhri, G; Sabet, H

    2017-10-19

    A tightly focused pulsed laser beam can locally modify the crystal structure inside the bulk of a scintillator. The result is incorporation of so-called optical barriers with a refractive index different from that of the crystal bulk, that can be used to redirect the scintillation light and control the light spread in the detector. We here systematically study the scintillation light transport in detectors fabricated using the laser induced optical barrier technique, and objectively compare their potential performance characteristics with those of the two mainstream detector types: monolithic and mechanically pixelated arrays. Among countless optical barrier patterns, we explore barriers arranged in a pixel-like pattern extending all-the-way or half-way through a 20 mm thick LYSO:Ce crystal. We analyze the performance of the detectors coupled to MPPC arrays, in terms of light response functions, flood maps, line profiles, and light collection efficiency. Our results show that laser-processed detectors with both barrier patterns constitute a new detector category with a behavior between that of the two standard detector types. Results show that when the barrier-crystal interface is smooth, no DOI information can be obtained regardless of barrier refractive index (RI). However, with a rough barrier-crystal interface we can extract multiple levels of DOI. Lower barrier RI results in larger light confinement, leading to better transverse resolution. Furthermore we see that the laser-processed crystals have the potential to increase the light collection efficiency, which could lead to improved energy resolution and potentially better timing resolution due to higher signals. For a laser-processed detector with smooth barrier-crystal interfaces the light collection efficiency is simulated to  >42%, and for rough interfaces  >73%. The corresponding numbers for a monolithic crystal is 39% with polished surfaces, and 71% with rough surfaces, and for a mechanically

  12. Optical Polarization of Light from a Sorghum Canopy Measured Under Both a Clear and an Overcast Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Biehl, Larry; Dahlgren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We tested the hypothesis that the optical polarization of the light reflected by a sorghum canopy is due to a Fresnel-type redirection, by sorghum leaf surfaces, of light from an unpolarized light source, the sun or overcast sky, toward the measuring sensor. If it can be shown that the source of the polarization of the light scattered by the sorghum canopy is a first surface, Fresnel-type reflection, then removing this surface reflected light from measurements of canopy reflectance presumably would allow better insight into the biochemical processes such as photosynthesis and metabolism that occur in the interiors of sorghum canopy leaves. Methods: We constructed a tower 5.9m tall in the center of a homogenous sorghum field. We equipped two Barnes MMR radiometers with polarization analyzers on the number 1, 3 and 7 Landsat TM wavelength bands. Positioning the radiometers atop the tower, we collected radiance data in 44 view directions on two days, one day with an overcast sky and the other, clear and sunlit. From the radiance data we calculated the linear polarization of the reflected light for each radiometer wavelength channel and view direction. Results and Discussion: Our experimental results support our hypothesis, showing that the amplitude of the linearly polarized portion of the light reflected by the sorghum canopy varied dramatically with view azimuth direction under a point source, the sun, but the amplitude varied little with view azimuth direction under the hemispherical source, the overcast sky. Under the clear sky, the angle of polarization depended upon the angle of incidence of the sunlight on the leaf, while under the overcast sky the angle of polarization depended upon the zenith view angle. These results support a polarized radiation transport model of the canopy that is based upon a first surface, Fresnel reflection from leaves in the sorghum canopy.

  13. Miniature magnetic bottle confined by circularly polarized laser light and measurements of the inverse Faraday effect in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.; Paiss, Y.; Horovitz, Y.; Henis, Z.

    1997-01-01

    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss, depending on the laser intensity. In this configuration the circularly polarized light is used to obtain confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces. The Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n = 5*10 21 cm -3 and confinement time τ= 20 ns. The laser and plasma parameters required to obtain an energetic gain are calculated. Experiments and preliminary calculations were performed to study the feasibility of the above scheme. Measurements of the axial magnetic field induced by circularly polarized laser light, the so called inverse Faraday effect, and of the absorption of circularly polarized laser light in plasma, are reported. The experiments were performed with a circularly polarized Nd:YAG laser, having a wavelength of 1.06 τm and a pulse duration of 7 ns, in a range of irradiances from 10 9 to 10 14 W/cm 2 . Axial magnetic fields from 500 Gauss to 2 megagauss were measured. Up to 5*10 13 W/cm 3 the results are in agreement with a nonlinear model of the inverse Faraday effect dominated by the ponderomotive force. For the laser irradiance studied here, 9*10 13 - 2.5*10 14 W/cm 2 , the absorption of circularly polarized light was 14% higher relative to the absorption of linear polarized light

  14. Analytical Solutions of Temporal Evolution of Populations in Optically-Pumped Atoms with Circularly Polarized Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Ryoul Noh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an analytical calculation of temporal evolution of populations for optically pumped atoms under the influence of weak, circularly polarized light. The differential equations for the populations of magnetic sublevels in the excited state, derived from rate equations, are expressed in the form of inhomogeneous second-order differential equations with constant coefficients. We present a general method of analytically solving these differential equations, and obtain explicit analytical forms of the populations of the ground state at the lowest order in the saturation parameter. The obtained populations can be used to calculate lineshapes in various laser spectroscopies, considering transit time relaxation.

  15. Collisional redistribution of circularly polarized light in barium perturbed by argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, W.J.; Andersen, N.; Belsley, M.; Cooper, J.; Warrington, D.M.; Burnett, K.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the orientation of the Ba 6p 1 P level produced by collision-induced excitation from the ground state by circularly polarized light. The detuning dependence of the far-wing excited state orientation can be interpreted in terms of reorientation of molecular orbitals which occur during the collision. Effects due to rotational coupling are seen to occure at large blue wing detunings. We have also determined the collisional rate for destruction of orientation by measuring the pressure dependence of the excited state orientation. (orig.)

  16. Influence of refraction of p-polarized light on photoemission from metallic surface states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, A.; Barrera, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    The refraction of p-polarized light at a metal surface leads, under certain circumstances, to a large peak in the spatial distribution of the normal component of the electric field near the surface. The origin of this peak is explained both in terms of a classical correspondence and in terms of a theory based on the non-local dielectric response of the metal surface. The significance of the large magnitude and rapid variation of the surface electric field in exciting photoelectrons from surface states is discussed [pt

  17. Light-free magnetic resonance force microscopy for studies of electron spin polarized systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelekhov, Denis V.; Selcu, Camelia; Banerjee, Palash; Chung Fong, Kin; Chris Hammel, P.; Bhaskaran, Harish; Schwab, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy is a scanned probe technique capable of three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Its excellent sensitivity opens the possibility for magnetic resonance studies of spin accumulation resulting from the injection of spin polarized currents into a para-magnetic collector. The method is based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance which requires low noise detection of cantilever displacement; so far, this has been accomplished using optical interferometry. This is undesirable for experiments on doped silicon, where the presence of light is known to enhance spin relaxation rates. We report a non-optical displacement detection scheme based on sensitive microwave capacitive readout

  18. [The possibility for using the phenomenon of polarized light interference in treating amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, V G; Vakurina, A E; Kashchenko, T P; Pargina, N M

    1996-01-01

    A new method for treating amblyopia is proposed, making use of the phenomenon of polarized light interference. It helps act simultaneously on the brightness, contrast frequency, and color sensitivity in response to patterns. The method was used in the treatment of 36 children. In group 1 (n = 20) it was combined with the traditional methods. Such treatment was more effective than in controls treated routinely. Group 2 consisted of 16 children in whom previous therapy was of no avail. Visual function was improved in 7 of them.

  19. Lamp-lit bridges as dual light-traps for the night-swarming mayfly, Ephoron virgo: interaction of polarized and unpolarized light pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denes Szaz

    Full Text Available Ecological photopollution created by artificial night lighting can alter animal behavior and lead to population declines and biodiversity loss. Polarized light pollution is a second type of photopollution that triggers water-seeking insects to ovisposit on smooth and dark man-made objects, because they simulate the polarization signatures of natural water bodies. We document a case study of the interaction of these two forms of photopollution by conducting observations and experiments near a lamp-lit bridge over the river Danube that attracts mass swarms of the mayfly Ephoron virgo away from the river to oviposit on the asphalt road of the bridge. Millions of mayflies swarmed near bridge-lights for two weeks. We found these swarms to be composed of 99% adult females performing their upstream compensatory flight and were attracted upward toward unpolarized bridge-lamp light, and away from the horizontally polarized light trail of the river. Imaging polarimetry confirmed that the asphalt surface of the bridge was strongly and horizontally polarized, providing a supernormal ovipositional cue to Ephoron virgo, while other parts of the bridge were poor polarizers of lamplight. Collectively, we confirm that Ephoron virgo is independently attracted to both unpolarized and polarized light sources, that both types of photopollution are being produced at the bridge, and that spatial patterns of swarming and oviposition are consistent with evolved behaviors being triggered maladaptively by these two types of light pollution. We suggest solutions to bridge and lighting design that should prevent or mitigate the impacts of such scenarios in the future. The detrimental impacts of such scenarios may extend beyond Ephoron virgo.

  20. Lamp-lit bridges as dual light-traps for the night-swarming mayfly, Ephoron virgo: interaction of polarized and unpolarized light pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaz, Denes; Horvath, Gabor; Barta, Andras; Robertson, Bruce A; Farkas, Alexandra; Egri, Adam; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Racz, Gergely; Kriska, Gyorgy

    2015-01-01

    Ecological photopollution created by artificial night lighting can alter animal behavior and lead to population declines and biodiversity loss. Polarized light pollution is a second type of photopollution that triggers water-seeking insects to ovisposit on smooth and dark man-made objects, because they simulate the polarization signatures of natural water bodies. We document a case study of the interaction of these two forms of photopollution by conducting observations and experiments near a lamp-lit bridge over the river Danube that attracts mass swarms of the mayfly Ephoron virgo away from the river to oviposit on the asphalt road of the bridge. Millions of mayflies swarmed near bridge-lights for two weeks. We found these swarms to be composed of 99% adult females performing their upstream compensatory flight and were attracted upward toward unpolarized bridge-lamp light, and away from the horizontally polarized light trail of the river. Imaging polarimetry confirmed that the asphalt surface of the bridge was strongly and horizontally polarized, providing a supernormal ovipositional cue to Ephoron virgo, while other parts of the bridge were poor polarizers of lamplight. Collectively, we confirm that Ephoron virgo is independently attracted to both unpolarized and polarized light sources, that both types of photopollution are being produced at the bridge, and that spatial patterns of swarming and oviposition are consistent with evolved behaviors being triggered maladaptively by these two types of light pollution. We suggest solutions to bridge and lighting design that should prevent or mitigate the impacts of such scenarios in the future. The detrimental impacts of such scenarios may extend beyond Ephoron virgo.

  1. Quantum mechanical modeling the emission pattern and polarization of nanoscale light emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rulin; Zhang, Yu; Bi, Fuzhen; Frauenheim, Thomas; Chen, GuanHua; Yam, ChiYung

    2016-07-21

    Understanding of the electroluminescence (EL) mechanism in optoelectronic devices is imperative for further optimization of their efficiency and effectiveness. Here, a quantum mechanical approach is formulated for modeling the EL processes in nanoscale light emitting diodes (LED). Based on non-equilibrium Green's function quantum transport equations, interactions with the electromagnetic vacuum environment are included to describe electrically driven light emission in the devices. The presented framework is illustrated by numerical simulations of a silicon nanowire LED device. EL spectra of the nanowire device under different bias voltages are obtained and, more importantly, the radiation pattern and polarization of optical emission can be determined using the current approach. This work is an important step forward towards atomistic quantum mechanical modeling of the electrically induced optical response in nanoscale systems.

  2. A Spin-Light Polarimeter for Multi-GeV Longitudinally Polarized Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal [Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS (United States); Dutta, Dipangkar [Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The physics program at the upgraded Jefferson Lab (JLab) and the physics program envisioned for the proposed electron-ion collider (EIC) include large efforts to search for interactions beyond the Standard Model (SM) using parity violation in electroweak interactions. These experiments require precision electron polarimetry with an uncertainty of < 0.5 %. The spin dependent Synchrotron radiation, called "spin-light," can be used to monitor the electron beam polarization. In this article we develop a conceptual design for a "spin-light" polarimeter that can be used at a high intensity, multi-GeV electron accelerator. We have also built a Geant4 based simulation for a prototype device and report some of the results from these simulations.

  3. Transfer of polarized light in planetary atmospheres basic concepts and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hovenier, Joop W; Domke, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The principal elements of the theory of polarized light transfer in planetary atmospheres are expounded in a systematic but concise way. Basic concepts and practical methods are emphasized, both for single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic radiation by molecules and particles in the atmospheres of planets in the Solar System, including the Earth, and beyond. A large part of the book is also useful for studies of light scattering by particles in comets, the interplanetary and interstellar medium, circumstellar disks, reflection nebulae, water bodies like oceans and suspensions of particles in a gas or liquid in the laboratory. Throughout the book symmetry principles, such as the reciprocity principle and the mirror symmetry principle, are employed. In this way the theory is made more transparent and easier to understand than in most papers on the subject. In addition, significant computational reductions, resulting from symmetry principles, are presented. Hundreds of references to relevant literature ...

  4. Enhancement of sensitivity and bandwidth of gravitational wave detectors using fast-light-based white light cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salit, M; Shahriar, M S

    2010-01-01

    The effect of gravitational waves (GWs) has been observed indirectly, by monitoring the change in the orbital frequency of neutron stars in a binary system as they lose energy via gravitational radiation. However, GWs have not yet been observed directly. The initial LIGO apparatus has not yet observed GWs. The advanced LIGO (AdLIGO) will use a combination of improved techniques in order to increase the sensitivity. Along with power recycling and a higher power laser source, the AdLIGO will employ signal recycling (SR). While SR would increase sensitivity, it would also reduce the bandwidth significantly. Previously, we and others have investigated, theoretically and experimentally, the feasibility of using a fast-light-based white light cavity (WLC) to circumvent this constraint. However, in the previous work, it was not clear how one would incorporate the white light cavity effect. Here, we first develop a general model for Michelson-interferometer-based GW detectors that can be easily adapted to include the effects of incorporating a WLC into the design. We then describe a concrete design of a WLC constructed as a compound mirror, to replace the signal recycling mirror. This design is simple, robust, completely non-invasive, and can be added to the AdLIGO system without changing any other optical elements. We show a choice of parameters for which the signal sensitivity as well as the bandwidth are enhanced significantly over what is planned for the AdLIGO, covering the entire spectrum of interest for gravitational waves

  5. Analysis of Dragon's Breath and Scattered Light Detector Anomalies on WFC3/UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Julia; Markwardt, Larissa; Bourque, Matthew; Anderson, Jay

    2017-02-01

    We summarize the examination of the light anomalies known as Dragon's Breath and Scattered Light for the UVIS channel of Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We present three methods for WFC3 users to help avoid these effects during observation planning. We analyzed all of the full-frame wide and long pass filters with exposure times ≥ 300 seconds, comprising ∼13% of WFC3/UVIS on-orbit data (∼20% of all full-frame data, and ∼35% of all full-frame ≥300 second exposures.) We find that stars producing Dragon's Breath peak at specific orientations to the detector and V-band magnitudes. The bulk of these stars fall along the vertical and horizontal edges, within ∼490 pixels of the image frame. The corners of the detector show significantly fewer instances of Dragon's Breath and Scattered Light, though still a few occurrences. Furthermore, matching stars outside the field of the image to V-band magnitude data from the Hubble Guide Star Catalog II (GSC-II) shows that stars causing the anomaly consistently peak around a V-band magnitude of 11.9 or 14.6, whereas the general trend of objects lying outside the field instead peaks around a magnitude of 16.5 within our exposure time and filter selection.

  6. On interstellar light polarization by diamagnetic silicate and carbon dust in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoular, R.

    2018-04-01

    The motion of diamagnetic dust particles in interstellar magnetic fields is studied numerically with several different sets of parameters. Two types of behaviour are observed, depending on the value of the critical number R, which is a function of the grain inertia, the magnetic susceptibility of the material and of the strength of rotation braking. If R ≤ 10, the grain ends up in a static state and perfectly aligned with the magnetic field, after a few braking times. If not, it goes on precessing and nutating about the field vector for a much longer time. Usual parameters are such that the first situation can hardly be observed. Fortunately, in the second and more likely situation, there remains a persistent partial alignment that is far from negligible, although it decreases as the field decreases and as R increases. The solution of the complete equations of motion of grains in a field helps understanding the details of this behaviour. One particular case of an ellipsoidal forsterite silicate grain is studied in detail and shown to polarize light in agreement with astronomical measurements of absolute polarization in the infrared. Phonons are shown to contribute to the progressive flattening of extinction and polarization towards long wavelengths. The measured dielectric properties of forsterite qualitatively fit the Serkowski peak in the visible.

  7. Comparison of two superconducting elliptical undulators for generating circularly polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Hwang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of two planar superconducting elliptical undulators—a vertically wound racetrack coil structure and a staggered array structure—to generate a circularly polarized hard x-ray source was investigated. The magnetic poles and wires of the up and down magnet arrays were rotated in alternating directions on the horizontal plane, an elliptical field is generated to provide circularly polarized light in the electron-storage ring and the energy-recovery linac accelerator. Rapid switching between right- and left-circularly polarized radiations is performed using two undulators with oppositely rotated wires and poles. Given a periodic length of 15 mm and a gap of 5 mm, the magnetic-flux densities in the elliptical undulator are B_{z}=1.2   T (B_{x}=0.6   T and B_{z}=0.35   T (B_{x}=0.15   T in the planar vertically wound racetrack coil and the staggered structure with poles rotated by 35° and 25°, respectively. In maximizing the merit of the flux and the width of the effective field region in the two superconducting elliptical undulators, the trade-off rotation angles of the coils and poles are 20° and 5°, for vertically wound racetrack coil and staggered undulators, respectively.

  8. Manipulation and control of the interfacial polarization in organic light-emitting diodes by dipolar doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Jäger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the commonly used electron transporting materials in organic light-emitting diodes exhibit interfacial polarization resulting from partially aligned permanent dipole moments of the molecules. This property modifies the internal electric field distribution of the device and therefore enables an earlier flat band condition for the hole transporting side, leading to improved charge carrier injection. Recently, this phenomenon was studied with regard to different materials and degradation effects, however, so far the influence of dilution has not been investigated. In this paper we focus on dipolar doping of the hole transporting material 4,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-N-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB with the polar electron transporting material tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate aluminum (Alq3. Impedance spectroscopy reveals that changes of the hole injection voltage do not scale in a simple linear fashion with the effective thickness of the doped layer. In fact, the measured interfacial polarization reaches a maximum value for a 1:1 blend. Taking the permanent dipole moment of Alq3 into account, an increasing degree of dipole alignment is found for decreasing Alq3 concentration. This observation can be explained by the competition between dipole-dipole interactions leading to dimerization and the driving force for vertical orientation of Alq3 dipoles at the surface of the NPB layer.

  9. Manipulation and control of the interfacial polarization in organic light-emitting diodes by dipolar doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Lars; Schmidt, Tobias D.; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Most of the commonly used electron transporting materials in organic light-emitting diodes exhibit interfacial polarization resulting from partially aligned permanent dipole moments of the molecules. This property modifies the internal electric field distribution of the device and therefore enables an earlier flat band condition for the hole transporting side, leading to improved charge carrier injection. Recently, this phenomenon was studied with regard to different materials and degradation effects, however, so far the influence of dilution has not been investigated. In this paper we focus on dipolar doping of the hole transporting material 4,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) with the polar electron transporting material tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate) aluminum (Alq3). Impedance spectroscopy reveals that changes of the hole injection voltage do not scale in a simple linear fashion with the effective thickness of the doped layer. In fact, the measured interfacial polarization reaches a maximum value for a 1:1 blend. Taking the permanent dipole moment of Alq3 into account, an increasing degree of dipole alignment is found for decreasing Alq3 concentration. This observation can be explained by the competition between dipole-dipole interactions leading to dimerization and the driving force for vertical orientation of Alq3 dipoles at the surface of the NPB layer.

  10. Ex-vivo evaluation of an early caries detector based on integrated OCT and polarized Raman spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamouche, Guy; Padioleau, Christian; Hewko, Mark; Smith, Michael S. D.; Schattka, Bernie J.; Fulton, Crystal; Gauthier, Bruno; Beauchesne, André; Ko, Alex C.; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Sowa, Michael G.

    2017-02-01

    Early detection of incipient caries would allow dentists to provide more effective measures to delay or to reverse caries' progression at earlier stage. Such earlier intervention could lead to improved oral health for the patients and reduced burden to the health system. Previously, we have demonstrated that the combination of morphological and biochemical information furnished by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS), respectively, provided a unique tool for dental caries management. In this study we will report the first pre-clinical caries detection system that includes a hand-held probe with a size slightly larger than a tooth brush. This probe presents a novel platform combining both OCT and PRS optics in a very tight space ideal for clinical practice. OCT cross-sectional images of near-surface enamel morphology are obtained with miniaturized MEMS scanning device and are processed in real-time to identify culprit regions. These regions are sequentially analyzed with polarized Raman spectroscopy for further confirmation. PRS is performed using 830nm laser line and four detection channels in order to obtain polarized Raman spectroscopic data, i.e. depolarization ratio of the hydroxyapatite Raman band at 960 cm-1. A detailed description of this hand-held caries detector and ex-vivo/in-vivo test results will be presented.

  11. Near-IR Polarized Scattered Light Imagery of the DoAr 28 Transitional Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Evan A.; Wisiniewski, John P.; Mayama, Satoshi; Brandt, Timothy D.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Espaillat, Catherine; Serabyn, Eugene; Grady, Carol A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We present the first spatially resolved polarized scattered light H-band detection of the DoAr 28 transitional disk. Our two epochs of imagery detect the scattered light disk from our effective inner working angle of 0 double prime.10 (13 AU) out to 0double prime.50 (65 AU). This inner working angle is interior to the location of the system's gap inferred by previous studies using spectral energy distribution modeling (15 AU). We detected a candidate point source companion 1 double prime.08 northwest of the system; however, our second epoch of imagery strongly suggests that this object is a background star. We constructed a grid of Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer models of the system, and our best fit models utilize a modestly inclined (50 degrees), 0.01 solar mass disk that has a partially depleted inner gap from the dust sublimation radius out to approximately 8 AU. Subtracting this best fit, axi-symmetric model from our polarized intensity data reveals evidence for two small asymmetries in the disk, which could be attributable to a variety of mechanisms.

  12. Microbunch Instability Observations from a THz Detector at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W.; Bartolini, R.; Boorman, G.; Karataev, P.; Lyapin, A.; Puntree, J.; Rehm, G.

    2012-05-01

    Diamond Light source is a third generation synchrotron facility dedicated to producing radiation of outstanding brightness, ranging from infra-red to x-rays. The short electron bunches that are accelerated around the storage ring are susceptible to the phenomenon of microbunching instabilities when the bunch charge exceeds a threshold. The primary feature of the microbunch instabilities is the onset of bursts of radiation in the THz range. The high frequencies involved in the emissions make detection and analysis challenging. A 60-90 GHz Schottky Barrier Diode detector was installed to investigate turn by turn evolution of the instabilities.

  13. Microbunch Instability Observations from a THz Detector at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, W; Boorman, G; Karataev, P; Lyapin, A; Bartolini, R; Rehm, G; Puntree, J

    2012-01-01

    Diamond Light source is a third generation synchrotron facility dedicated to producing radiation of outstanding brightness, ranging from infra-red to x-rays. The short electron bunches that are accelerated around the storage ring are susceptible to the phenomenon of microbunching instabilities when the bunch charge exceeds a threshold. The primary feature of the microbunch instabilities is the onset of bursts of radiation in the THz range. The high frequencies involved in the emissions make detection and analysis challenging. A 60-90 GHz Schottky Barrier Diode detector was installed to investigate turn by turn evolution of the instabilities.

  14. Neutrons and light nuclei detectors realization for the 4π multidetector amphora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, C.

    1987-01-01

    Detection of light charged particles emitted in reactions induced by heavy ions has been studied. Several types of detectors are presented as phoswiches of scintillators, single scintillators or combinations of scintillators having different functions (either detection of charged particles only or detection of charged particles and neutrons). The AMPHORA 4 π detection array has been designed and built as a set of 140 of these cells. Il covers a solid angle of 82 % out of 4 π around a target bombarded by ion beams delivered by the SARA facility in Grenoble [fr

  15. Solid State pH Sensor Based on Light Emitting Diodes (LED) As Detector Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, R.; Diamond, Danny; Diamond, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    A low-power, high sensitivity, very low-cost light emitting diode (LED)-based device developed for low-cost sensor networks was modified with bromocresol green membrane to work as a solid-state pH sensor. In this approach, a reverse-biased LED functioning as a photodiode is coupled with a second LED configured in conventional emission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in microsecond) it takes for the photocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from lo...

  16. Development of ultra-light pixelated ladders for an ILC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chon-Sen, N.; Claus, G.; De Masi, R.; Deveaux, M.; Dulinski, W.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Imhoff, M.; Muntz, C.; Nomerotski, A.; Santos, C.; Schrader, C.; Specht, M.; Stroth, J.; Winter, M.

    2010-01-01

    The development of ultra-light pixelated ladders is motivated by the requirements of the ILD vertex detector at ILC. This paper summarizes three projects related to system integration. The PLUME project tackles the issue of assembling double-sided ladders. The SERWIETE project deals with a more innovative concept and consists in making single-sided unsupported ladders embedded in an extra thin plastic enveloppe. AIDA, the last project, aims at building a framework reproducing the experimental running conditions where sets of ladders could be tested.

  17. Simulating polarized light scattering in terrestrial snow based on bicontinuous random medium and Monte Carlo ray tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Chuan; Shi, Jiancheng

    2014-01-01

    To date, the light scattering models of snow consider very little about the real snow microstructures. The ideal spherical or other single shaped particle assumptions in previous snow light scattering models can cause error in light scattering modeling of snow and further cause errors in remote sensing inversion algorithms. This paper tries to build up a snow polarized reflectance model based on bicontinuous medium, with which the real snow microstructure is considered. The accurate specific surface area of bicontinuous medium can be analytically derived. The polarized Monte Carlo ray tracing technique is applied to the computer generated bicontinuous medium. With proper algorithms, the snow surface albedo, bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and polarized BRDF can be simulated. The validation of model predicted spectral albedo and bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) using experiment data shows good results. The relationship between snow surface albedo and snow specific surface area (SSA) were predicted, and this relationship can be used for future improvement of snow specific surface area (SSA) inversion algorithms. The model predicted polarized reflectance is validated and proved accurate, which can be further applied in polarized remote sensing. -- Highlights: • Bicontinuous random medium were used for real snow microstructure modeling. • Photon tracing technique with polarization status tracking ability was applied. • SSA–albedo relationship of snow is close to that of sphere based medium. • Validation of albedo and BRDF showed good results. • Validation of polarized reflectance showed good agreement with experiment data

  18. Metasurface integrated high energy efficient and high linearly polarized InGaN/GaN light emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Xu, Fuyang; Lin, Yu; Cao, Bing; Chen, Linghua; Wang, Chinhua; Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Ke

    2017-07-06

    We proposed and demonstrated an integrated high energy efficient and high linearly polarized InGaN/GaN green LED grown on (0001) oriented sapphire with combined metasurface polarizing converter and polarizer system. It is different from those conventional polarized light emissions generated with plasmonic metallic grating in which at least 50% high energy loss occurs inherently due to high reflection of the transverse electric (TE) component of an electric field. A reflecting metasurface, with a two dimensional elliptic metal cylinder array (EMCA) that functions as a half-wave plate, was integrated at the bottom of a LED such that the back-reflected TE component, that is otherwise lost by a dielectric/metal bi-layered wire grids (DMBiWG) polarizer on the top emitting surface of the LED, can be converted to desired transverse magnetic (TM) polarized emission after reflecting from the metasurface. This significantly enhances the polarized light emission efficiency. Experimental results show that extraction efficiency of the polarized emission can be increased by 40% on average in a wide angle of ±60° compared to that with the naked bottom of sapphire substrate, or 20% compared to reflecting Al film on the bottom of a sapphire substrate. An extinction ratio (ER) of average value 20 dB within an angle of ±60° can be simultaneously obtained directly from an InGaN/GaN LED. Our results show the possibility of simultaneously achieving a high degree of polarization and high polarization extraction efficiency at the integrated device level. This advances the field of GaN LED toward energy efficiency, multi-functional applications in illumination, display, medicine, and light manipulation.

  19. Radiochromic film and polarization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.K.N.; Cheung, T.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW; Inwood, D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A new high sensitivity radiochromic film has been tested for its polarization properties. Gafchromic HS film has been shown to produce a relatively small (less than 3%) variation in measured optical density measured at 660nm wavelength when the light source is fully linear polarized and the film is rotated through 360 deg angle. Similar variations are seen when the detector is linearly polarized. If both light source and detector is linearly polarised variations in measured optical density can reach 15% when the film is rotated through 360 deg angle. This seems to be due to a phase shift in polarised light caused by the radiochromic film resulting in the polarised light source becoming out of phase with the polarised detector. Gafchromic HS radiochromic film produces a minimal polarization response with varying angle of rotation however we recommend that a polarization test be performed on a densitometry system to establish the extent of its polarization properties before accuracy dosimetry is performed with radiochromic HS film. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  20. Research on photodiode detector-based spatial transient light detection and processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meiying; Wang, Hu; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Hui; Nan, Meng

    2016-10-01

    In order to realize real-time signal identification and processing of spatial transient light, the features and the energy of the captured target light signal are first described and quantitatively calculated. Considering that the transient light signal has random occurrence, a short duration and an evident beginning and ending, a photodiode detector based spatial transient light detection and processing system is proposed and designed in this paper. This system has a large field of view and is used to realize non-imaging energy detection of random, transient and weak point target under complex background of spatial environment. Weak signal extraction under strong background is difficult. In this paper, considering that the background signal changes slowly and the target signal changes quickly, filter is adopted for signal's background subtraction. A variable speed sampling is realized by the way of sampling data points with a gradually increased interval. The two dilemmas that real-time processing of large amount of data and power consumption required by the large amount of data needed to be stored are solved. The test results with self-made simulative signal demonstrate the effectiveness of the design scheme. The practical system could be operated reliably. The detection and processing of the target signal under the strong sunlight background was realized. The results indicate that the system can realize real-time detection of target signal's characteristic waveform and monitor the system working parameters. The prototype design could be used in a variety of engineering applications.

  1. $W$ boson polarization measurement in the $t\\bar{t}$ dilepton channel using the CDF II Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U. /Fermilab; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M

    2012-05-01

    We present a measurement of W boson polarization in top-quark decays in t{bar t} events with decays to dilepton final states using 5.1 fb{sup -1} integrated luminosity in p{bar p} collisions collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron. A simultaneous measurement of the fractions of longitudinal (f{sub 0}) and right-handed (f{sub +}) W bosons yields the results f{sub 0} = 0.71{sub -0.17}{sup +0.18}(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst) and f{sub +} = -0.07 {+-} 0.09(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst). Combining this measurement with our previous result based on single lepton final states, we obtain f{sub 0} = 0.84 {+-} 0.09(stat) {+-} 0.05(syst) and f{sub +} = -0.16 {+-} 0.05(stat) {+-} 0.04(syst). The results are consistent with standard model expectation.

  2. The effect of polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (bioptron) therapy on patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Rezaei, Sajad; Sedighipour, Leyla; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Eliaspour, Dariush; Karimzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of Polarized Polychromatic Noncoherent Light (Bioptron) therapy on patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. Forty four patients with mild or moderate CTS (confirmed by clinical and electrodiagnostic studies) were assigned randomly into two groups (intervention and control goups). At the beginning of the study, both groups received wrist splinting for 8 weeks. Bioptron light was applied for the intervention group (eight sessions, for 3/weeks). Bioptron was applied perpendicularly to the wrist from a 10 centimeter sdistance. Pain severity and electrodiagnostic measurements were compared from before to 8 weeks after initiating each treatment. Eight weeks after starting the treatments, the mean of pain severity based on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores decreased significantly in both groups. Median Sensory Nerve Action Potential (SNAP) latency decreased significantly in both groups. However, other electrophysiological findings (median Compound Motor Action Potential (CMAP) latency and amplitude, also SNAP amplitude) did not change after the therapy in both groups. There was no meaningful difference between two groups regarding the changes in the pain severity. Bioptron with the above mentioned parameters led to therapeutic effects equal to splinting alone in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. However, applying Bioptron with different therapeutic protocols and light parameters other than used in this study, perhaps longer duration of therapy and long term assessment may reveal different results favoring Bioptron therapy.

  3. Degrees of polarization of reflected light eliciting polarotaxis in dragonflies (Odonata), mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and tabanid flies (Tabanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriska, György; Bernáth, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Horváth, Gábor

    2009-12-01

    With few exceptions insects whose larvae develop in freshwater possess positive polarotaxis, i.e., are attracted to sources of horizontally polarized light, because they detect water by means of the horizontal polarization of light reflected from the water surface. These insects can be deceived by artificial surfaces (e.g. oil lakes, asphalt roads, black plastic sheets, dark-coloured cars, black gravestones, dark glass surfaces, solar panels) reflecting highly and horizontally polarized light. Apart from the surface characteristics, the extent of such a 'polarized light pollution' depends on the illumination conditions, direction of view, and the threshold p* of polarization sensitivity of a given aquatic insect species. p* means the minimum degree of linear polarization p of reflected light that can elicit positive polarotaxis from a given insect species. Earlier there were no quantitative data on p* in aquatic insects. The aim of this work is to provide such data. Using imaging polarimetry in the red, green and blue parts of the spectrum, in multiple-choice field experiments we measured the threshold p* of ventral polarization sensitivity in mayflies, dragonflies and tabanid flies, the positive polarotaxis of which has been shown earlier. In the blue (450nm) spectral range, for example, we obtained the following thresholds: dragonflies: Enallagma cyathigerum (0%

  4. Spectral properties of polarized light from semipolar grown InGaN quantum wells at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, L.; Schwarz, U.T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics IAF, Freiburg (Germany); Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg (Germany); Wernicke, T.; Ploch, S. [Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Berlin (Germany); Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The polarization dependent photoluminescence at low temperatures of strained semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells was studied as a function of the emission wavelength. We found for semipolar QWs that the maximum of the spectral resolved optical polarization is either red- or blue-shifted with respect to the maximum of the emission. In contrast, the nonpolar emission exhibits no clear maximum. We assign all effects to an inhomogeneous broadening of the emission caused by indium fluctuations and explain this behavior here in the light of the optical polarization switching. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Influence of the parameters of supplying pulses and polarization voltage on the signal and shape of current characteristics of the electron capture detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.; Sliwka, I.; Drozdowicz, B.

    1989-01-01

    The paper contains results of measurements of current characteristics and of the signal for the constant concentration of freon F-11 of the ECD supplied with pulse voltage of changeable time of pulse duration t p , amplitude U 1 and the time of pulse repetition t r . In the course of measurements the detector worked at temperature 573 K with the additional constant polarization voltage. The polarization voltage has been observed to cause the effect of hypercoulometry. The presented mathematical analysis helps to determine the values of the coefficient of efficiency of electron capture p, the coefficient of electron loss k D , the coefficient of collecting of electric charges by the anode k' 3 and the coefficient of collecting of electric charges by the detector cathode k u . The coefficients are determined on the basis of experimental measurements. An attempt of physical interpretation of calculated values of these coefficients and their dependence on the parameters of the pulses supplying the detector has been presented. This interpretation requires the assumption that in some pulse periods t r the concentration of positive ions in the detector considerably exceeds concentration n 0 + = √a xα e /V, where a is an efficiency of the carrier gas ionization, α e is the coefficient of the electron-ion recombination and V is the detector volume. This statement helping to describe the effects observed in the electron capture polarized by voltage U a contradicts the recognized concept that the concentration of positive ions in the detector does not exceed the concentration n 0 + . The paper shows that the detector of the cylindrical construction, supplied with a pulse voltage can be used for coulometric measurements and the voltage polarizing the cathode can cause an effect of hypercoulometry. 33 figs., 9 refs. (author)

  6. Identification of crystals in Hanford nuclear waste using polarized light microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    The use of polarized light microscopy for identifying crystals encountered in Rockwell Hanford Operations chemical studies is described. Identifying characteristics and full-color photographs are presented for crystals commonly found in Hanford Site nuclear waste, including sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium aluminate, sodium phosphate, sodium fluoride, ammonium heptafluorozirconate, sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate, and ammonium nitrate. These characteristics are described in terms of birefringence, extinction position, interference figure, sign of elongation, optic sign, and crystal morphology. Background information on crystal optics is presented so that these traits can be understood by the nonmicroscopist. Detailed operational instructions are given so that the novice microscope user can make the proper adjustments of the instrument to search for and observe the identifying features of the crystals

  7. A New Code SORD for Simulation of Polarized Light Scattering in the Earth Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkin, Sergey; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Holben, Brent

    2016-01-01

    We report a new publicly available radiative transfer (RT) code for numerical simulation of polarized light scattering in plane-parallel atmosphere of the Earth. Using 44 benchmark tests, we prove high accuracy of the new RT code, SORD (Successive ORDers of scattering). We describe capabilities of SORD and show run time for each test on two different machines. At present, SORD is supposed to work as part of the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) inversion algorithm. For natural integration with the AERONET software, SORD is coded in Fortran 90/95. The code is available by email request from the corresponding (first) author or from ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/skorkin/SORD/.

  8. THE PDS 66 CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AS SEEN IN POLARIZED LIGHT WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Schuyler G.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Perrin, Marshall; Hines, Dean C.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Wang, Jason; Dong, Ruobing; Duchêne, Gaspard; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Draper, Zachary H.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Hung, Li-Wei; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Grady, Carol A.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    We present H- and K-band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.″12 inner working angle (IWA) in the H band, almost three times closer to the star than the previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.″35 effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the east side of the disk that is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the south possibly due to shadowing from material within the IWA. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging

  9. THE PDS 66 CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AS SEEN IN POLARIZED LIGHT WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Schuyler G.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Perrin, Marshall; Hines, Dean C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Nielsen, Eric L. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Wang, Jason; Dong, Ruobing; Duchêne, Gaspard; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cardwell, Andrew [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Room 552, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chilcote, Jeffrey [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Draper, Zachary H. [University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Hung, Li-Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goodsell, Stephen J. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale, E-mail: swolff9@jh.edu [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); and others

    2016-02-10

    We present H- and K-band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.″12 inner working angle (IWA) in the H band, almost three times closer to the star than the previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.″35 effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the east side of the disk that is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the south possibly due to shadowing from material within the IWA. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging.

  10. Effect of refraction index and thickness of the light guide in the position-sensitive gamma-ray detector using compact PS-PMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Saito, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Hyodo, T.; Nagai, Y.; Muramatsu, S.; Nagai, S.

    2000-01-01

    We constructed a position-sensitive gamma-ray detector consisting of an array of BGO scintillators, a light guide and compact PS-PMTs. The effects of refractive index and thickness of the light guide of a glass plate on the detector performance were investigated. A light guide with higher refractive index and smaller thickness is found better for a good spatial resolution.

  11. Microstructural analysis of human white matter architecture using Polarized Light Imaging (PLI: Views from neuroanatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus eAxer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are several methods for mapping connectivity, ranging from the macroscopic to molecular scales. However, it is difficult to integrate this multiply-scaled data into one concept. Polarized light imaging (PLI is a method to quantify fiber orientation in gross histological brain sections based on the birefringent properties of the myelin sheaths. The method is capable of imaging fiber orientation of larger-scale architectural patterns with higher detail than diffusion MRI of the human brain. PLI analyses light transmission through a gross histological section of a human brain under rotation of a polarization filter combination. Estimates of the angle of fiber direction and the angle of fiber inclination are automatically calculated at every point of the imaged section. Multiple sections can be assembled into a 3D volume. We describe the principles of PLI and present several studies of fiber anatomy in the human brain: 6 brainstems were serially sectioned, imaged with PLI, and 3D reconstructed. Pyramidal tract and lemniscus medialis were segmented in the PLI datasets. PLI data from the internal capsule was related to results from confocal laser scanning microscopy, which is a method of smaller scale fiber anatomy. PLI fiber architecture of the extreme capsule was compared to macroscopical dissection, which represents a method of larger scale anatomy. The microstructure of the anterior human cingulum bundle was analyzed in serial sections of 6 human brains. PLI can generate highly-resolved 3D datsets of fiber orientation of the human brain and has, therefore, a high comparability to diffusion MR. To get additional information regarding axon structure and density, PLI can also be combined with classical histological stains. It brings the directional aspects of diffusion MRI into the range of histology and may represent a promising tool to close the gap between larger scale diffusion orientation and microstructural histological analysis

  12. A measurement of τ polarization using the VENUS detector at TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, H.

    1995-01-01

    Using 216 pb -1 of data collected at √s = 58 GeV, we have measured momentum distributions of τ decay particles in the decay modes, τ → eνν-bar, τ → μνν-bar, τ → πν and τ → ρν. The average τ polarization, which is derived from these momentum distributions, and its forward-backward asymmetry are obtained to be -0.012 ± 0.052 and -0.018 ± 0.088, respectively. (author)

  13. Detection of nitro-based and peroxide-based explosives by fast polarity-switchable ion mobility spectrometer with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Haiyang

    2015-05-29

    Ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has been widely deployed for on-site detection of explosives. The common nitro-based explosives are usually detected by negative IMS while the emerging peroxide-based explosives are better detected by positive IMS. In this study, a fast polarity-switchable IMS was constructed to detect these two explosive species in a single measurement. As the large traditional Faraday detector would cause a trailing reactant ion peak (RIP), a Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity was developed by reducing the detector radius to 3.3 mm and increasing the voltage difference between aperture grid and its front guard ring to 591 V, which could remove trailing peaks from RIP without loss of signal intensity. This fast polarity-switchable IMS with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector was employed to detect a mixture of 10 ng 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 50 ng hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) by polarity-switching, and the result suggested that [TNT-H](-) and [HMTD+H](+) could be detected in a single measurement. Furthermore, the removal of trailing peaks from RIP by the Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity also promised the accurate identification of KClO4, KNO3 and S in common inorganic explosives, whose product ion peaks were fairly adjacent to RIP.

  14. Solid State pH Sensor Based on Light Emitting Diodes (LED) As Detector Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, R.; Diamond, Danny; Diamond, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    A low-power, high sensitivity, very low-cost light emitting diode (LED)-based device developed for low-cost sensor networks was modified with bromocresol green membrane to work as a solid-state pH sensor. In this approach, a reverse-biased LED functioning as a photodiode is coupled with a second LED configured in conventional emission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in microsecond) it takes for the photocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from logic 1 (+5 V) to logic 0 (+1.7 V). The entire instrument provides an inherently digital output of light intensity measurements for a few cents. A light dependent resistor (LDR) modified with similar sensor membrane was also used as a comparison method. Both the LED sensor and the LDR sensor responded to various pH buffer solutions in a similar way to obtain sigmoidal curves expected of the dye. The pKa value obtained for the sensors was found to agree with the literature value.

  15. Topological insulator infrared pseudo-bolometer with polarization sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Peter Anand

    2017-10-25

    Topological insulators can be utilized in a new type of infrared photodetector that is intrinsically sensitive to the polarization of incident light and static magnetic fields. The detector isolates single topological insulator surfaces and allows light collection and exposure to static magnetic fields. The wavelength range of interest is between 750 nm and about 100 microns. This detector eliminates the need for external polarization selective optics. Polarization sensitive infrared photodetectors are useful for optoelectronics applications, such as light detection in environments with low visibility in the visible wavelength regime.

  16. Detector optimization studies and light Higgs decay into muons at CLIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Christian

    2013-09-15

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a concept for a future e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with a center-of-mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The design of a CLIC experiment is driven by the requirements related to the physics goals, as well as by the experimental conditions. For example, the short time between two bunch crossings of 0.5 ns and the backgrounds due to beamstrahlung have direct impact on the design of a CLIC experiment. The Silicon Detector (SiD) is one of the concepts currently being discussed as a possible detector for the International Linear Collider (ILC). In this thesis we develop a modified version of the SiD simulation model for CLIC, taking into account the specific experimental conditions. In addition, we developed a software tool to investigate the impact of beam-related backgrounds on the detector by overlaying events from different simulated event samples. Moreover, we present full simulation studies, determining the performance of the calorimeter and tracking systems. We show that the track reconstruction in the all-silicon tracker of SiD is robust in the presence of the backgrounds at CLIC. Furthermore, we investigate tungsten as a dense absorber material for the hadronic calorimeter, which allows for the construction of a compact hadronic calorimeter that fulfills the requirements on the energy resolution and shower containment without a significant increase of the coil radius. Finally, the measurement of the decays of light Higgs bosons into two muons is studied in full simulation. We find that with an integrated luminosity of 2 ab{sup -1}, corresponding to 4 years of data taking at CLIC, the respective Higgs branching ratio can be determined with a statistical uncertainty of approximately 15%.

  17. Detector optimization studies and light Higgs decay into muons at CLIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefe, Christian

    2013-09-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a concept for a future e + e - linear collider with a center-of-mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The design of a CLIC experiment is driven by the requirements related to the physics goals, as well as by the experimental conditions. For example, the short time between two bunch crossings of 0.5 ns and the backgrounds due to beamstrahlung have direct impact on the design of a CLIC experiment. The Silicon Detector (SiD) is one of the concepts currently being discussed as a possible detector for the International Linear Collider (ILC). In this thesis we develop a modified version of the SiD simulation model for CLIC, taking into account the specific experimental conditions. In addition, we developed a software tool to investigate the impact of beam-related backgrounds on the detector by overlaying events from different simulated event samples. Moreover, we present full simulation studies, determining the performance of the calorimeter and tracking systems. We show that the track reconstruction in the all-silicon tracker of SiD is robust in the presence of the backgrounds at CLIC. Furthermore, we investigate tungsten as a dense absorber material for the hadronic calorimeter, which allows for the construction of a compact hadronic calorimeter that fulfills the requirements on the energy resolution and shower containment without a significant increase of the coil radius. Finally, the measurement of the decays of light Higgs bosons into two muons is studied in full simulation. We find that with an integrated luminosity of 2 ab -1 , corresponding to 4 years of data taking at CLIC, the respective Higgs branching ratio can be determined with a statistical uncertainty of approximately 15%.

  18. QCD analysis of light charged Higgs production through polarized top quark decay in two different frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, S. Mohammad Moosavi [Faculty of Physics, Yazd University,P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbaspour, S. [Faculty of Physics, Yazd University,P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-09

    Light and heavy charged Higgs bosons are predicted by many models with an extended Higgs sector such as the two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM). Searches for the charged Higgs bosons have been done by the ATLAS and the CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in proton-proton collision. However, a definitive search of charged Higgs bosons still has to be carried out by the LHC experiments. The experimental observation of charged Higgs bosons would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model. In the present work we study the O(α{sub s}) correction to the energy spectrum of the inclusive bottom-flavored mesons (X{sub b}) in polarized top quark decays into a light charged Higgs boson (m{sub H{sup +}}

  19. Circularly Polarized Light with Sense and Wavelengths To Regulate Azobenzene Supramolecular Chirality in Optofluidic Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laibing; Yin, Lu; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xiulin; Fujiki, Michiya

    2017-09-20

    Circularly polarized light (CPL) as a massless physical force causes absolute asymmetric photosynthesis, photodestruction, and photoresolution. CPL handedness has long been believed to be the determining factor in the resulting product's chirality. However, product chirality as a function of the CPL handedness, irradiation wavelength, and irradiation time has not yet been studied systematically. Herein, we investigate this topic using achiral polymethacrylate carrying achiral azobenzene as micrometer-size aggregates in an optofluidic medium with a tuned refractive index. Azobenzene chirality with a high degree of dissymmetry ratio (±1.3 × 10 -2 at 313 nm) was generated, inverted, and switched in multiple cycles by irradiation with monochromatic incoherent CPL (313, 365, 405, and 436 nm) for 20 s using a weak incoherent light source (≈ 30 μW·cm -2 ). Moreover, the optical activity was retained for over 1 week in the dark. Photoinduced chirality was swapped by the irradiating wavelength, regardless of whether the CPL sense was the same. This scenario is similar to the so-called Cotton effect, which was first described in 1895. The tandem choice of both CPL sense and its wavelength was crucial for azobenzene chirality. Our experimental proof and theoretical simulation should provide new insight into the chirality of CPL-controlled molecules, supramolecules, and polymers.

  20. The nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl) detectors in the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasco, B.C., E-mail: crasco@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, PL-02093 Warszawa (Poland); Rykaczewski, K.P. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wolińska-Cichocka, M. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw PL-02-093 (Poland); Grzywacz, R.; Goetz, K.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37966 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    A new detector array, the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS), was commissioned at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). Total absorption gamma spectra measured with MTAS are expected to improve beta-feeding patterns and beta strength functions in fission products. MTAS is constructed out of hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors with a unique central module surrounded by 18 identical crystals assembled in three rings. The total NaI(Tl) mass of MTAS is over 1000 kg. The response of the central and other 18 MTAS modules to γ-radiation was simulated using the GEANT4 toolkit modified to analyze the nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl). A detailed description of the GEANT4 modifications made is discussed. Simulated energy resolution of MTAS modules is found to agree well with the measurements for single γ transitions of 662 keV ({sup 137}Cs) with 8.2% full width half maximum (FWHM), 835 keV ({sup 54}Mn) with FWHM of 7.5% FWHM, and 1115 keV ({sup 65}Zn) with FWHM of 6.5%. Simulations of single and multiple γ-rays from {sup 60}Co are also discussed.

  1. Sound of Dark Matter: Searching for Light Scalars with Resonant-Mass Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Van Tilburg, Ken

    2016-01-22

    The fine-structure constant and the electron mass in string theory are determined by the values of scalar fields called moduli. If the dark matter takes on the form of such a light modulus, it oscillates with a frequency equal to its mass and an amplitude determined by the local dark-matter density. This translates into an oscillation of the size of a solid that can be observed by resonant-mass antennas. Existing and planned experiments, combined with a dedicated resonant-mass detector proposed in this Letter, can probe dark-matter moduli with frequencies between 1 kHz and 1 GHz, with much better sensitivity than searches for fifth forces.

  2. Surface roughness studies with DALLAS-detector array for laser light angular scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Teague, E. C.; Scire, F. E.; Mclay, M. J.; Gilsinn, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to develop a better mathematical description of optical scattering phenomena, in order to construct an optical scattering apparatus for reliable and routine measurements of roughness parameters without resorting to comparator standards. After a brief outline of optical scattering theory, a description is presented of an experimental instrument for measuring surface roughness which incorporates optical scattering principles. The instrument has a He-Ne laser which illuminates the test surface at a variable angle of incidence. Scattered light distribution is detected by an array of 87 fiber-optic sensors positioned in a rotating semicircular yoke. The output from the detector is digitized and analyzed in a laboratory computer. For a comparison with experimental data, theoretical distributions are calculated by substituting the roughness profiles into the operand of and integral equation for electromagnetic scattering developed by Beckmann and Spizzichino (1963). A schematic diagram of the instrument is provided and the general implications of the experimental results are discussed.

  3. Development of the fast and efficient gamma detector using Cherenkov light for TOF-PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canot, C.; Alokhina, M.; Abbon, P.; Bard, J. P.; Tauzin, G.; Yvon, D.; Sharyy, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we present two configurations of innovative gamma detectors using Cherenkov light for time-of-flight—Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The first uses heavy crystals as a Cherenkov radiator to develop a demonstrator for a whole body PET scanner with high detection efficiency. We demonstrated a 30% detection efficiency and a 180 ps (FWHM) time resolution, mainly limited by the time transit spread of the photomultiplier. The second configuration uses an innovative liquid, the TriMethyl Bismuth, to develop a high precision brain-scanning PET device with time-of-flight capability. According to Geant4 simulation, we expect to reach a precision of 150 ps (FWHM) and an efficiency of about 25%.

  4. IR detectors for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument payload for the METOP-1 ESA polar platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Michel; Lorans, Dominique; Bischoff, Isabelle; Giotta, Dominique; Wolny, Michel

    1994-12-01

    IASI is an Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer devoted to the operational meteorology and to atmospheric studies and is to be installed on board the second ESA Polar Platform called METOP-1, planned to be launched in the year 2000. The main purpose of this high performance instrument is to record temperature and humidity profiles. The required lifetime is 4 years. This paper presents the characteristics of the LW IR detection arrays for the IASI spectrometer which consist of HgCdTe de- tectors. SAT has to develop the Engineering Model, Qualification Model and Fight Models of detectors, each having 4 pixels and AR-coated microlenses in a dedicated space housing equipped with a flexible line and a connector. An array is composed of HgCdTe photoconductive detectors. For this long wavelength the array is sensitive from 8.26 micrometers to 15.5 micrometers . The detectors, with sensitive areas of 900 x 900 micrometers 2, are 100 K operating with passive cooling. High quality HgCdTe material is a key feature for the manufacturing of high performance photoconductive detectors. Therefore epitaxial HgCdTe layers are used in this project. These epilayers are grown at CEA/LETI on lattice matched CdZnTe substrates, by Te-rich liquid phase epitaxy, based on a slider technique. The Cd content in the layer is carefully adjusted to meet the required cut off wavelength on the devices. After growth of the epilayers, the samples are annealed under Hg pressure in order to convert them into N type mate- rials. The electrical transport properties of the liquid phase epitaxied wafers are, at 100 K, mobility (mu) over 150,000 cm2/V.s and electrical concentration N of 1.5 1015 cm-3, the residual doping level being 1014 cm-3 at low temperature. On these materials the feasibility study of long wavelength HgCdTe photoconductors has been achieved with the following results: the responsivity is 330 V/W. The bias voltage is Vp=300 mV for a 4 mW limitation of power for each element. The

  5. Light output optimization for the Cherenkov strips of the Barrel detector of FOPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovici, M; Gobbi, A; Hildenbrand, K D [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kirejczyk, M; Sikora, B [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Chelepov, V; Dulin, M; Frolov, S; Judentsov, A; Krylov, V; Nikitin, A; Smolyankin, V; Zhilin, A [Institute for Theoretical and Expermental Physics - ITEP, B. Chermushkinskaya ulitsa 25, RU-117 259 Moskva, (Russian Federation); Mgebrishvili, G; Vasiliev, M [I.V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Ulitsa Kurchatova 46, RU-123 182 Moskva, (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Available as short communication only. A systematic study on how to increase the number of the photoelectrons (PE) in the phototubes at the end of the bent light guides has been undertaken prior to the final assembly of the Cherenkov strips of the Barrel detector for the 4{pi} facility FOPI at GSI-Darmstadt. This was motivated by the observation that with the mass-produced strips only 0.8 PE were found for cosmic rays incident at the center of the 240 cm long strips, a value too low to ensure a decent detection of even {beta}=1 particles. The method used was based on a careful calibration of the amplitude spectra by means of measuring single-electron peaks in the attached tubes. As the consequence of these studies the wave-length shifter (amino G salt) concentration in the distilled water of strips was optimized and a cell of 1000 mm with a mirror on one side has been used. These changes brought a improvement factor of 9 in the number of PE at 85 cm distance from the light guide. This results led to the decision of changing the former design of the Cherenkov layer. In addition during production of these final modules it has been observed that variances between different strips in terms of the number of PE could be minimized by an outer polishing of the plexiglas cells. Finally, during mounting of the detectors the used phototubes were selected according to their performance in peak to valley ratio of the single electron peaks spectrum. (Author) 3 Figs., 2 Refs.

  6. A Planar, Chip-Based, Dual-Beam Refractometer Using an Integrated Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Light Source and Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Erin L.; Veneman, P. Alex; Simmonds, Adam; Zacher, Brian; Huebner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple chip-based refractometer with a central organic light emitting diode (OLED) light source and two opposed organic photovoltaic (OPV) detectors on an internal reflection element (IRE) substrate, creating a true dual-beam sensor platform. For first-generation platforms, we demonstrate the use of a single heterojunction OLED based on electroluminescence emission from an Alq3/TPD heterojunction (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine) and light detection with planar heterojunction pentacene/C60 OPVs. The sensor utilizes the considerable fraction of emitted light from conventional thin film OLEDs that is coupled into guided modes in the IRE instead of into the forward (display) direction. A ray-optics description is used to describe light throughput and efficiency-limiting factors for light coupling from the OLED into the substrate modes, light traversing through the IRE substrate, and light coupling into the OPV detectors. The arrangement of the OLED at the center of the chip provides for two sensing regions, a “sample” and “reference” channel, with detection of light by independent OPV detectors. This configuration allows for normalization of the sensor response against fluctuations in OLED light output, stability, and local fluctuations (temperature) which might influence sensor response. The dual beam configuration permits significantly enhanced sensitivity to refractive index changes relative to single-beam protocols, and is easily integrated into a field-portable instrumentation package. Changes in refractive index (ΔR.I.) between 10−2 and 10−3 R.I. units could be detected for single channel operation, with sensitivity increased to ΔR.I. ≈ 10−4 units when the dual beam configuration is employed. PMID:20218580

  7. Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Reich@tu-berlin.de; Guttmann, Martin; Wernicke, Tim; Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Feneberg, Martin; Goldhahn, Rüdiger [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Universitätsplatz 2, Magdeburg 39106 (Germany); Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Knauer, Arne; Kueller, Viola; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2015-10-05

    The optical polarization of emission from ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on (0001)-oriented Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) has been studied by simulations and electroluminescence measurements. With increasing aluminum mole fraction in the quantum well x, the in-plane intensity of transverse-electric (TE) polarized light decreases relative to that of the transverse-magnetic polarized light, attributed to a reordering of the valence bands in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N. Using k ⋅ p theoretical model calculations, the AlGaN MQW active region design has been optimized, yielding increased TE polarization and thus higher extraction efficiency for bottom-emitting LEDs in the deep UV spectral range. Using (i) narrow quantum wells, (ii) barriers with high aluminum mole fractions, and (iii) compressive growth on patterned aluminum nitride sapphire templates, strongly TE-polarized emission was observed at wavelengths as short as 239 nm.

  8. Photobiomodulation with polarized light in the treatment of cutaneous and mucosal ulcerative lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, S E; Grassi, F R; Nardi, G; Lotti, J; Mereghetti, G; Canavesi, E; Equizi, E; Puccio, A M; Lotti, T

    In recent decades, regenerative medicine has achieved an important evolution at both a conceptual level and scientific production, which explains the current and future possibilities of therapy and daily clinical practice. The main aim of regenerative medicine is the complex system of repair/regeneration. The current literature on the subject demonstrates the advantage of visible light therapy for skin injuries and diseases with the photobiomodulation in which light at low energy levels modulates intra- and extra-cellular photoreceptors by molecular and cellular processes that can stimulate both anti-inflammatory mechanisms and cell proliferative response. The irradiation effects are activated soon after exposure. The anti-inflammatory action on some classes of cytokines and cells (e.g. mast cells and macrophages) is completed with the stimulation of the nitric oxide production, which has an anti-inflammatory and vasodilation action, and gives analgesic relief. Our attention focused on photobiomodulator medical device emitting polarized light. 30 patients (19 women and 11 men) were enrolled in the present study. They were treated for chronic lesions using Bioptron® Light Therapy System device. Patients were initially subjected to Bioptron® light for 20 min after cleansing of the lesion. The operating protocol provides 24 sessions: twice per week for 12 weeks. Twenty patients have been studied for symptoms, histological samples and ulcer characteristics. After 2 months, a reduction of 50% of the lesions was recorded in 18 patients (60%), while in the remaining patients a slower healing was observed. The total wound healing was achieved after 3 months in 13 patients (43%). The examined parameters of the symptom were exudation, pain and signs of infection. Results at 1 and 3 months were, Exudation: at 1 month reduction and positive modulation was observed in 16 patients (53%) and in 25 patients at 3 months; Pain: (evaluated with Vas scale), decreased in 21 patients

  9. Polarization-multiplexing ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongfeng, Shi; Jiamin, Zhang; Jian, Huang; Yingjian, Wang; Kee, Yuan; Kaifa, Cao; Chenbo, Xie; Dong, Liu; Wenyue, Zhu

    2018-03-01

    A novel technique for polarization-multiplexing ghost imaging is proposed to simultaneously obtain multiple polarimetric information by a single detector. Here, polarization-division multiplexing speckles are employed for object illumination. The light reflected from the objects is detected by a single-pixel detector. An iterative reconstruction method is used to restore the fused image containing the different polarimetric information by using the weighted sum of the multiplexed speckles based on the correlation coefficients obtained from the detected intensities. Next, clear images of the different polarimetric information are recovered by demultiplexing the fused image. The results clearly demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  10. Study on Brazil law type twinning in amethyst from Bahia (Brazil) by the X-ray topography and polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Brazil law type twinning is very common in quartz. Generally is not observed in normal petrographic thin section but it is possible to study this kind of twinning under polarized light in thicker sections. X-ray topography will be another powerfull method to study and it was applied for the amethytst of the Mina Cabeluda of the state of Bahia. (author) [pt

  11. The use of charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage in polar organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züfle, Simon; Altazin, Stéphane; Hofmann, Alexander; Jäger, Lars; Neukom, Martin T.; Schmidt, Tobias D.; Brütting, Wolfgang; Ruhstaller, Beat

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate the application of the CELIV (charge carrier extraction by linearly increasing voltage) technique to bilayer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) in order to selectively determine the hole mobility in N,N0-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N0-diphenyl-1,10-biphenyl-4,40-diamine (α-NPD). In the CELIV technique, mobile charges in the active layer are extracted by applying a negative voltage ramp, leading to a peak superimposed to the measured displacement current whose temporal position is related to the charge carrier mobility. In fully operating devices, however, bipolar carrier transport and recombination complicate the analysis of CELIV transients as well as the assignment of the extracted mobility value to one charge carrier species. This has motivated a new approach of fabricating dedicated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices, where the extraction current contains signatures of only one charge carrier type. In this work, we show that the MIS-CELIV concept can be employed in bilayer polar OLEDs as well, which are easy to fabricate using most common electron transport layers (ETLs), like Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3). Due to the macroscopic polarization of the ETL, holes are already injected into the hole transport layer below the built-in voltage and accumulate at the internal interface with the ETL. This way, by a standard CELIV experiment only holes will be extracted, allowing us to determine their mobility. The approach can be established as a powerful way of selectively measuring charge mobilities in new materials in a standard device configuration.

  12. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ENDFACES POLISHING ANGLE FOR ANISOTROPIC WAVEGUIDES ON STATE CONVERSION OF LIGHT POLARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Shulepov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with optical scheme for research of polarization state transformation at the junction of anisotropic waveguides. It consists of a light source, polarization controller, multifunctional integrated optical scheme (MIOS, single-mode fiber for input and output of optical radiation in MIOS and the polarization scanning Michelson interferometer. Optical radiation from the source of the plant comes through the polarization controller in one of the MIOS ports. Further, in one of the opposite ports the radiation is received by different fibers, polished at the angles of 19.5˚, 10.5˚ and 0˚. After that, the optical radiation gets into polarization Michelson interferometer. With that, the picture visibility is analyzed at different displacement of one arm upon which the value has been determined in the polarization conversion point connections. At the course of work it was obtained that the polarization state conversion at a splicing point rises with the slant angle deviation from its optimal value. Anisotropic waveguides splicing is one of the main tasks during fabrication of any fiber-optic sensor with integrated optical elements. The results of this work are of great interest for the wide range of specialists in the optical waveguides application field.

  13. Solid State pH Sensor Based on Light Emitting Diodes (LED As Detector Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermot Diamond

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A low-power, high sensitivity, very low-cost light emitting diode (LED-baseddevice developed for low-cost sensor networks was modified with bromocresol greenmembrane to work as a solid-state pH sensor. In this approach, a reverse-biased LEDfunctioning as a photodiode is coupled with a second LED configured in conventionalemission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in microsecond it takes for thephotocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from logic 1 ( 5 Vto logic 0 ( 1.7 V. The entire instrument provides an inherently digital output of lightintensity measurements for a few cents. A light dependent resistor (LDR modified withsimilar sensor membrane was also used as a comparison method. Both the LED sensor andthe LDR sensor responded to various pH buffer solutions in a similar way to obtainsigmoidal curves expected of the dye. The pKa value obtained for the sensors was found toagree with the literature value.

  14. Quarkonium production and polarization in pp collisions with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Argiro, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the production of heavy quarkonium states are very important to improve our understanding of QCD and hadron formation, given that the heavy quark masses allow the application of theoretical tools less sensitive to nonperturbative effects.Thanks to a dedicated dimuon trigger strategy, combined with the record-level energy and luminosity provided by the LHC, the CMS experiment could collect large samples of pp collisions at 7 and 8 TeV, including quarkonium states decaying in the dimuon channel. This allowed the CMS collaboration to perform a series of systematic measurements in quarkonium production physics, including double-differential cross sections and polarizations, as a function of rapidity and pT, for five S-wave quarkonia J/psi, psi(2S), Y(1S), Y(2S), and Y(3S). Some of these measurements extend well above pT ~ 50 GeV, probing regions of very high pT/mass, where the theory calculations are supposed to be the most reliable. Thanks to its high-granularity silicon tracker, CMS can reconstruct...

  15. A measurement of the (τ) polarization at the Z resonance with the DELPHI detector at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Antonio Wong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The polarization of τ leptons produced in the reaction e+e- → τ+τ- near the peak of the Z° resonance has been measured using a sample of 24904 τ+τ- events, with an estimated background of 1.5%. We have selected 4562 τ → ev$\\bar{v}$ 2218 τ → πv and 5133 τ→ ρv candidates. The mean value obtained is Pτ = -0.176 ± 0.029. This corresponds to a ratio of the neutral current vector to the axial-vector coupling constants of the τ lepton of gV/gAτ = 0.088 ± 0.014. This leads to a value of the electroweak mixing angle of sin2θW = 0.2280 ± 0.0036. This result is in good agreement with previous measurements of the weak mixing angle from the study of the Z° lineshape and the forward-backward asymmetries in the processes Z° → l+l- and Z° → q$\\bar{q}$.

  16. Standardization of heparins by means of high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a low angle laser light scattering detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennink, W.E.; van den Berg, J.W.A.; Feijen, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This study shows that HPLC-LALLS (high performance liquid chromatography with a light-scattering detector) is a convenient and reliable method for the characterization of standard heparin samples, provided that polyelectrolyte artefacts are suppressed by a suitable dialysis procedure. The method has

  17. Substrate dependence of TM-polarized light emission characteristics of BAlGaN/AlN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seoung-Hwan; Ahn, Doyeol

    2018-06-01

    To study the substrate dependence of light emission characteristics of transverse-magnetic (TM)-polarized light emitted from BAlGaN/AlN quantum wells (QWs) grown on GaN and AlN substrates were investigated theoretically. It is found that the topmost valence subband for QW structures grown on AlN substrate, is heavy hole state (HH1) while that for QW structures grown on GaN substrate is crystal-field split off light hole state (CL1), irrespective of the boron content. Since TM-polarized light emission is associated with the light hole state, the TM-polarized emission peak of BAlGaN/AlN QW structures grown on GaN substrate is expected to be much larger than that of the QW structure grown on AlN substrate. Also, both QW structures show that the spontaneous emission peak of BAlGaN/AlN QW structures would be improved with the inclusion of the boron. However, it rapidly begins to decrease when the boron content exceeds a critical value.

  18. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of Spectralon white reflectance standard illuminated by incoherent unpolarized and plane-polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Anak; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øvynd; Zhao, Lu; Stamnes, Jakob J; Kildemo, Morten

    2011-06-01

    A Lambert surface would appear equally bright from all observation directions regardless of the illumination direction. However, the reflection from a randomly scattering object generally has directional variation, which can be described in terms of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). We measured the BRDF of a Spectralon white reflectance standard for incoherent illumination at 405 and 680 nm with unpolarized and plane-polarized light from different directions of incidence. Our measurements show deviations of the BRDF for the Spectralon white reflectance standard from that of a Lambertian reflector that depend both on the angle of incidence and the polarization states of the incident light and detected light. The non-Lambertian reflection characteristics were found to increase more toward the direction of specular reflection as the angle of incidence gets larger.

  19. Photo-orientation of azobenzene side chain polymers parallel or perpendicular to the polarization of red HeNe light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, Christian; Rutloh, Michael; Stumpe, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism of the light-induced orientation process of azobenzene-containing polymers caused by irradiation with linearly polarized red light is investigated. This process is surprising because there is almost no absorption at 633 nm. Depending on the photochemical pre-treatment and the exposure time, the azobenzene moieties can undergo two different orientation processes resulting in either a parallel or a perpendicular orientation with respect to the electric field vector of the incident light. The fast orientation of the photochromic groups with their long axis in the direction of the light polarization requires a photochemical pre-treatment in which non-polarized UV light generates Z-isomers. Due to this procedure the film becomes 'photochemically activated' for the subsequent polarized irradiation with red light. But on continued exposure a second, much slower reorientation process occurs which establishes an orientation of the azobenzene groups perpendicular to the electric field vector. The fast mechanism is probably caused by an angle-selective photo-isomerization of the Z-isomers to the E-isomers, while the subsequent slow reorientation process is caused by the well-known conventional photo-orientation taking place via the accumulation of a number of photoselection steps and the rotational diffusion minimizing the absorbance of the E-isomer. This process occurs in the steady state but at this wavelength with a very small concentration of Z-isomers. The competing mechanisms take place in the same polymer film under almost identical irradiation conditions, differing only in the actual concentration of the Z-isomers

  20. Broadband measurements of electron cyclotron emission in TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] using a quasi-optical light collection system and a polarizing Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, F.J.; Boyd, D.A.; Cutler, R.C.; Diesso, M.; McCarthy, M.P.; Montague, J.; Rocco, R.

    1988-04-01

    For the past three years, a Fourier transform spectrometer diagnostic system, employing a fast-scanning polarizing Michelson interferometer, has been operating on the TFTR tokamak at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It is used to measure the electron cyclotron emission spectrum over the range 2.5 to 18 cm/sup /minus/1/ (75-540 GHz) with a resolution of 0.123 cm/sup /minus/1/(3.7 GHz), at a rate of 72 spectra per second. The quasi-optical system for collecting the light and transporting it through the interferometer to the detector has been designed using the concepts of both Gaussian and geometrical optics in order to produce a system that is efficient over the entire spectral range. The commerical Michelson interferometer was custom-made for this project and is at the state of the art for this type of specialized instrument. Various pre-installation and post-installation tests of the optical system and the interferometer were performed and are reported here. An error propagation analysis of the absolute calibration process is given. Examples of electron cyclotron emission spectra measured in two polarization directions are given, and electron temperature profiles derived from each of them are compared. 34 refs., 17 figs

  1. Polarized light microscopy for 3-dimensional mapping of collagen fiber architecture in ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Brazile, Bryn; Voorhees, Andrew; Lathrop, Kira L; Sigal, Ian A

    2018-04-06

    Collagen fibers play a central role in normal eye mechanics and pathology. In ocular tissues, collagen fibers exhibit a complex 3-dimensional (3D) fiber orientation, with both in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OP) orientations. Imaging techniques traditionally applied to the study of ocular tissues only quantify IP fiber orientation, providing little information on OP fiber orientation. Accurate description of the complex 3D fiber microstructures of the eye requires quantifying full 3D fiber orientation. Herein, we present 3dPLM, a technique based on polarized light microscopy developed to quantify both IP and OP collagen fiber orientations of ocular tissues. The performance of 3dPLM was examined by simulation and experimental verification and validation. The experiments demonstrated an excellent agreement between extracted and true 3D fiber orientation. Both IP and OP fiber orientations can be extracted from the sclera and the cornea, providing previously unavailable quantitative 3D measures and insight into the tissue microarchitecture. Together, the results demonstrate that 3dPLM is a powerful imaging technique for the analysis of ocular tissues. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effects of Linear-Polarized Near-Infrared Light Irradiation on Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the efficacy of linear-polarized near-infrared light irradiation (LPNIR on relieving chronic pain in conjunction with nerve block (NB or local block (LB, a 3-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the pre- and post-therapy pain intensity. Visual analogue scales (VASs were measured in all patients before and 6 months after therapy visiting the pain clinic during the period of August 2007 to January 2008. A total of 52 patients with either shoulder periarthritis or myofascial pain syndrome or lateral epicondylitis were randomly assigned into two groups by drawing lots. Patients in Group I were treated with NB or LB plus LPNIR; Group II patients, for their part, were treated with the same procedures as in Group I, but not using LPNIR. In both groups, the pain intensity (VAS score decreased significantly immediately after therapy as compared to therapy. There was a significant difference between the test and control groups immediately after therapy (P<0.05, while no effect 6 months later. No side effects were observed. It is concluded that LPNIR is an effective and safe modality to treat various chronic pains, which has synergic effects with NB or LB.

  3. Stochastic theory of polarized light in nonlinear birefringent media: An application to optical rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Satoshi; Kuratsuji, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    A stochastic theory is developed for the light transmitting the optical media exhibiting linear and nonlinear birefringence. The starting point is the two-component nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). On the basis of the ansatz of “soliton” solution for the NLSE, the evolution equation for the Stokes parameters is derived, which turns out to be the Langevin equation by taking account of randomness and dissipation inherent in the birefringent media. The Langevin equation is converted to the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the probability distribution by employing the technique of functional integral on the assumption of the Gaussian white noise for the random fluctuation. The specific application is considered for the optical rotation, which is described by the ellipticity (third component of the Stokes parameters) alone: (i) The asymptotic analysis is given for the functional integral, which leads to the transition rate on the Poincaré sphere. (ii) The FP equation is analyzed in the strong coupling approximation, by which the diffusive behavior is obtained for the linear and nonlinear birefringence. These would provide with a basis of statistical analysis for the polarization phenomena in nonlinear birefringent media.

  4. Connective Tissue Characteristics around Healing Abutments of Different Geometries: New Methodological Technique under Circularly Polarized Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael Arcesio; Calvo-Guirado, Jose Luis; Abboud, Marcus; Ramirez-Fernandez, Maria Piedad; Maté-Sánchez de Val, José Eduardo; Negri, Bruno; Gomez-Moreno, Gerardo; Markovic, Aleksa

    2015-08-01

    To describe contact, thickness, density, and orientation of connective tissue fibers around healing abutments of different geometries by means of a new method using coordinates. Following the bilateral extraction of mandibular premolars (P2, P3, and P4) from six fox hound dogs and a 2-month healing period, 36 titanium implants were inserted, onto which two groups of healing abutments of different geometry were screwed: Group A (concave abutments) and Group B (wider healing abutment). After 3 months the animals were sacrificed and samples extracted containing each implant and surrounding soft and hard tissues. Histological analysis was performed without decalcifying the samples by means of circularly polarized light under optical microscope and a system of vertical and horizontal coordinates across all the connective tissue in an area delimited by the implant/abutment, epithelium, and bone tissue. In no case had the connective tissue formed a connection to the healing abutment/implant in the internal zone; a space of 35 ± 10 μm separated the connective tissue fibers from the healing abutment surface. The total thickness of connective tissue in the horizontal direction was significantly greater in the medial zone in Group B than in Group A (p connective tissue thickness. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Action of red polarized light on the acupuncture point E-36 increases analgesic effect of corvitin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarova, Z A; Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P; Kostiuk, O I; Mitruzaeva, V A; Lymans'ka, L I

    2010-01-01

    In experiments on mice of lines C57BL/6J and CBA/CaLac, the possibility of strengthening of analgesic effect of corvitin by the action of red polarized light (PL) on the acupoint (AP) E-36 was studied. The pain behavioral response (licking of the painful area) was caused by injection of 5% formalin in hind limb (0.25 microl subcutaneously). The duration of pain response was studied before and after systemic introduction of corvitin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or joint use of corvitin and red PL (10 minute session). It is established, that after application of red PL on the antinociceptive AP E-36 in all animals an authentic strengthening of antinociceptive effect of corvitin takes place. In C57BL/6J mice, application of corvitin alone weakened the pain response by 29.7% and during combined use of red PL and corvitin, it grew up to 53.1%. Mice of line CBA/CaLac were less sensitive both to corvitin, and PL. In this line, corvitin used alone reduced the duration of pain response by 14%, and by 32.4% during combined use with red PL. Non-traumatic, without side effects, the method of influence by low-intensive PL can be recommended to patients accepting corvitin for strengthening its efficiency.

  6. [Polarized light microscopy for evaluation of oocytes as a prognostic factor in the evolution of a cycle in assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortega, C; Cancino-Villarreal, P; Alonzo-Torres, V E; Martínez-Robles, I; Pérez-Peña, E; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, A M

    2016-04-01

    Identification of the best embryos to transfer is a key element for success in assisted reproduction. In the last decade, several morphological criteria of oocytes and embryos were evaluated with regard to their potential for predicting embryo viability. The introduction of polarization light microscopy systems has allowed the visualization of the meiotic spindle and the different layers of the zona pellucida in human oocytes on the basis of birefringence in a non-destructive way. Conflicting results have been reported regarding the predictive value in ICSI cycles. To assess the predictive ability of meiotic spindle and zona pellucida of human oocytes to implant by polarized microscopy in ICSI cycles. Prospective and observational clinical study. 903 oocytes from 94 ICSI cycles were analyzed with polarized microscopy. Meiotic spindle visualization and zona pellucida birefringence values by polarized microscopy were correlated with ICSI cycles results. Meiotic spindle visualization and birefringence values of zona pellucida decreased in a direct basis with increasing age. In patients aged over the 35 years, the percentage of a visible spindle and mean zona pellucida birefringence was lower than in younger patients. Fertilization rate were higher in oocytes with visible meiotic spindle (81.3% vs. 64%; p vs. 39%; p=0.01). Fertilization rate was higher in oocytes with positive values of birefringence (77.5 % vs. 68.5% p=0.005) with similar embryo quality. Conception cycles showed oocytes with higher mean value of zona birefringence and visible spindle vs. no-conception cycles (pPolarized light microscopy improves oocyte selection, which significantly impacts in the development of embryos with greater implantation potential. The use of polarized light microscopy with sperm selection methods, blastocyst culture and deferred embryo transfers will contribute to transfer fewer embryos without diminishing rates of live birth and single embryo transfer will be more feasible.

  7. Powder agglomeration study in RF silane plasmas by in situ polarization-sensitive laser light scattering and TEM measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courteille, C; Hollenstein, C; Dorier, J L; Gay, P; Schwarzenbach, W; Howling, A A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Bertran, E; Viera, G [Barcelona Univ., Dep. de de Fisica Aplicada I Electronica, Barcelona (Spain); Martins, R; Macarico, A [FCTUNL, Materials Science Dep., Monte de Caparica (Portugal)

    1966-03-01

    To determine self-consistently the time evolution of particle size and their number density in situ multi-angle polarization laser light scattering was used. Cross-polarization intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with opposite polarization) measured at 135{sup o} and ex-situ TEM analysis demonstrate the existence of non-spherical agglomerates during the early phase of agglomeration. Later in the particle time development both techniques reveal spherical particles again. The presence of strong cross-polarization intensities is accompanied by low frequency instabilities detected on the scattered light intensities and plasma emission. It is found that the particle radius and particle number density during the agglomeration phase can be well described by the Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model. Application of this neutral particle coagulation model is justified by calculation of the particle charge whereby it is shown that particles of a few tens of nanometer can be considered as neutral under our experimental conditions. The measured particle dispersion can be well described by a Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model including a log-normal particle size distribution. (author) 11 figs., 48 refs.

  8. Powder agglomeration study in RF silane plasmas by in situ polarization-sensitive laser light scattering and TEM measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteille, C.; Hollenstein, C.; Dorier, J.L.; Gay, P.; Schwarzenbach, W.; Howling, A.A.; Bertran, E.; Viera, G.; Martins, R.; Macarico, A.

    1966-03-01

    To determine self-consistently the time evolution of particle size and their number density in situ multi-angle polarization laser light scattering was used. Cross-polarization intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with opposite polarization) measured at 135 o and ex-situ TEM analysis demonstrate the existence of non-spherical agglomerates during the early phase of agglomeration. Later in the particle time development both techniques reveal spherical particles again. The presence of strong cross-polarization intensities is accompanied by low frequency instabilities detected on the scattered light intensities and plasma emission. It is found that the particle radius and particle number density during the agglomeration phase can be well described by the Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model. Application of this neutral particle coagulation model is justified by calculation of the particle charge whereby it is shown that particles of a few tens of nanometer can be considered as neutral under our experimental conditions. The measured particle dispersion can be well described by a Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model including a log-normal particle size distribution. (author) 11 figs., 48 refs

  9. Four-layer DOI PET detectors using a multi-pixel photon counter array and the light sharing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) provide many advantages for PET detectors, such as their high internal gain, high photon detection efficiency and insensitivity to magnetic fields. The number of detectable scintillation photons of SiPMs, however, is limited by the number of microcells. Therefore, pulse height of PET detectors using SiPMs is saturated when large numbers of scintillation photons enter the SiPM pixels. On the other hand, we previously presented a depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding method that is based on the light sharing method. Since our encoding method detects scintillation photons with multiple readout pixels, the saturation effect can be suppressed. We constructed two prototype four-layer DOI detectors using a SiPM array and evaluated their performances. The two prototype detectors consisted of four layers of a 6×6 array of Lu 2(1−x) Y 2x SiO 5 (LYSO) crystals and a SiPM (multi-pixel photon detector, MPPC, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) array of 4×4 pixels. The size of each LYSO crystal element was 1.46 mm×1.46 mm×4.5 mm and all surfaces of the crystal elements were chemically etched. We used two types of MPPCs. The first one had 3600 microcells and high photon detection efficiency (PDE). The other one had 14,400 microcells and lower PDE. In the evaluation experiment, all the crystals of the detector using the MPPC which had the high PDE were clearly identified. The respective energy and timing resolutions of lower than 15% and 1.0 ns were achieved for each crystal element. No saturation of output signals was observed in the 511 keV energy region due to suppression of the saturation effect by detecting scintillation photons with several MPPC pixels by the light sharing method. -- Highlights: •We constructed and evaluated four-layer DOI detectors by the light sharing method using a MPPC array. •The detectors using two types of the MPPC array were compared. •The energy and timing resolutions of lower than 15% and 1.0 ns were achieved for

  10. Four-layer DOI PET detectors using a multi-pixel photon counter array and the light sharing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko, E-mail: funis@nirs.go.jp; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-11-21

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) provide many advantages for PET detectors, such as their high internal gain, high photon detection efficiency and insensitivity to magnetic fields. The number of detectable scintillation photons of SiPMs, however, is limited by the number of microcells. Therefore, pulse height of PET detectors using SiPMs is saturated when large numbers of scintillation photons enter the SiPM pixels. On the other hand, we previously presented a depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding method that is based on the light sharing method. Since our encoding method detects scintillation photons with multiple readout pixels, the saturation effect can be suppressed. We constructed two prototype four-layer DOI detectors using a SiPM array and evaluated their performances. The two prototype detectors consisted of four layers of a 6×6 array of Lu{sub 2(1−x)}Y{sub 2x}SiO{sub 5} (LYSO) crystals and a SiPM (multi-pixel photon detector, MPPC, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) array of 4×4 pixels. The size of each LYSO crystal element was 1.46 mm×1.46 mm×4.5 mm and all surfaces of the crystal elements were chemically etched. We used two types of MPPCs. The first one had 3600 microcells and high photon detection efficiency (PDE). The other one had 14,400 microcells and lower PDE. In the evaluation experiment, all the crystals of the detector using the MPPC which had the high PDE were clearly identified. The respective energy and timing resolutions of lower than 15% and 1.0 ns were achieved for each crystal element. No saturation of output signals was observed in the 511 keV energy region due to suppression of the saturation effect by detecting scintillation photons with several MPPC pixels by the light sharing method. -- Highlights: •We constructed and evaluated four-layer DOI detectors by the light sharing method using a MPPC array. •The detectors using two types of the MPPC array were compared. •The energy and timing resolutions of lower than 15% and 1.0 ns were

  11. A depth-encoding PET detector that uses light sharing and single-ended readout with silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Zhonghua; Yang, Qian; Wang, Xiaohui; Fu, Xin; Ren, Ning; Sang, Ziru; Wu, San; Zheng, Yunfei; Zhang, Xianming; Hu, Zhanli; Du, Junwei; Liang, Dong; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Yang, Yongfeng

    2018-02-01

    Detectors with depth-encoding capability and good timing resolution are required to develop high-performance whole-body or total-body PET scanners. In this work, depth-encoding PET detectors that use light sharing between two discrete crystals and single-ended readout with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were manufactured and evaluated. The detectors consisted of two unpolished 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 LYSO crystals with different coupling materials between them and were read out by Hamamatsu 3  ×  3 mm2 SiPMs with one-to-one coupling. The ratio of the energy of one SiPM to the total energy of two SiPMs was used to measure the depth of interaction (DOI). Detectors with different coupling materials in-between the crystals were measured in the singles mode in an effort to obtain detectors that can provide good DOI resolution. The DOI resolution and energy resolution of three types of detector were measured and the timing resolution was measured for the detector with the best DOI and energy resolution. The optimum detector, with 5 mm optical glue, a 9 mm triangular ESR and a 6 mm rectangular ESR in-between the unpolished crystals, provides a DOI resolution of 2.65 mm, an energy resolution of 10.0% and a timing resolution of 427 ps for events of E  >  400 keV. The detectors simultaneously provide good DOI and timing resolution, and show great promise for the development of high-performance whole-body and total-body PET scanners.

  12. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Shih-Wei; Liao, Po-Hsun; Leung, Benjamin; Han, Jung; Yang, Fann-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED

  13. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shih-Wei, E-mail: swfeng@nuk.edu.tw; Liao, Po-Hsun [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, No. 700, Kaohsiung University Rd., Nan Tzu Dist., 811 Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Leung, Benjamin; Han, Jung [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Yang, Fann-Wei [Department of Electronic Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsiang-Chen [Graduate Institute of Opto-Mechatronics and Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-Tech Innovations (AIM-HI), National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-28

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED.

  14. Absorbance detector for high performance liquid chromatography based on a deep-UV light-emitting diode at 235nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Petruci, João Flavio; Liebetanz, Michael G; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Hauser, Peter C

    2017-08-25

    In this communication, we describe a flow-through optical absorption detector for HPLC using for the first time a deep-UV light-emitting diode with an emission band at 235nm as light source. The detector is also comprised of a UV-sensitive photodiode positioned to enable measurement of radiation through a flow-through cuvette with round aperture of 1mm diameter and optical path length of 10mm, and a second one positioned as reference photodiode; a beam splitter and a power supply. The absorbance was measured and related to the analyte concentration by emulating the Lambert-Beer law with a log-ratio amplifier circuitry. This detector showed noise levels of 0.30mAU, which is comparable with our previous LED-based detectors employing LEDs at 280 and 255nm. The detector was coupled to a HPLC system and successfully evaluated for the determination of the anti-diabetic drugs pioglitazone and glimepiride in an isocratic separation and the benzodiazepines flurazepam, oxazepam and clobazam in a gradient elution. Good linearities (r>0.99), a precision better than 0.85% and limits of detection at sub-ppm levels were achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The application of multispectral light detectors to gauge detonative events by means of their emitted light signature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, Marius

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that reacting explosives emit light of varying intensity across the light spectrum. Measurement of this emitted light could have many applications, i.a. the creation of a database of characteristic light signatures at specific...

  16. The TUS space fluorescence detector for study of UHECR and other phenomena of variable fluorescence light in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrashkin, V.; Alexandrov, V.; Arakcheev, Y.; Bitkin, E.; Cordero, A.; Eremin, S.; Finger, M.; Garipov, G.; Grebenyuk, V.; Kalmykov, N.; Khrenov, B.; Koval, V.; Martinez, O.; Matyushkin, A.; Moreno, E.; Naumov, D.; Olshevsky, A.; Panasyuk, M.; Park, I.; Robledo, C.; Rubinstein, I.; Sharakin, S.; Silaev, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Tulupov, V.; Tyukaev, R.; Sabirov, B.; Salazar, H.; Saprykin, O.; Syromyatnikov, V.; Urmantsev, F.; Villasenor, L.; Yashin, I.; Zaikin, N.; Zepeda, A.

    The Tracking Ultraviolet Set Up (TUS) instrument has been designed to observe from space the fluorescence light in the atmosphere when Extensive Air Shower (EAS) or other phenomena such as meteors or dust grains traverse it. The TUS design concepts will allow us to construct the next generation of fluorescence detectors with increasing light collection power and higher resolution. The KLYPVE instrument with collection power 5 times larger of the TUS will be the next space detector. Light collection is obtained with the help of segmented “low frequency Fresnel type” mirrors. Photo receiver retina in the focal consists of modules of PM tubes. For stable performance in conditions of variable light noise and variable temperature the tube type with a multi-alcali cathode was chosen. Voltage supplies for PMT in one module were designed for keeping the performance of photo receiver retina uniform when the tube gain change. From every tube the signal amplitude is recorded in time bins of 400 ns. The digital data are kept and analyzed in the module FPGA connected to the central FPGA controlling all data. The RAM memory is large, capable to record events with different duration of the light signal (up to several seconds). The preliminary event data are analyzed in the triggering system of the central FPGA. The trigger criteria have several options for events of different origin (different pixel signal duration). The trigger integration time is controlled from the space mission center. The performances of the detector were simulated and zenith angle dependent trigger efficiencies were calculated. The TUS detector will be efficient in recording “horizontal” EAS (zenith angles more than 60°), developed to their maximum above the cloud cover. The EAS Cherenkov light, back scattered from the cloud cover, will be recorded and will improve data on the EAS direction and position of maximum. For better accuracy in physical parameters of the events and for the experimental

  17. Comparison of effects of Cyriax physiotherapy, a supervised exercise programme and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light (Bioptron light) for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Stasinopoulos, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of Cyriax physiotherapy, a supervised exercise programme, and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light (Bioptron light) in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Controlled clinical trial. Rheumatology and rehabilitation centre. This study was carried out with 75 patients who had lateral epicondylitis. They were allocated to three groups by sequential allocation. Group A (n = 25) was treated with Cyriax physiotherapy. A supervised exercise programme was given to group B (n = 25). Group C (n = 25) received polarized polychromatic non-coherent light (Bioptron light). All patients received three treatments per week for four weeks. Pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale and function using a visual analogue scale and pain-free grip strength at the end of the four-week course of treatment (week 4), one month (week 8), three months (week 16) and six months (week 28) after the end of treatment. The supervised exercise programme produced the largest effect in the reduction of pain and in the improvement of function at the end of the treatment (PBioptron light) may be suitable.

  18. Micro-pulse polarization lidar at 1.5  μm using a single superconducting nanowire single-photon detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiawei; Xia, Haiyun; Shangguan, Mingjia; Dou, Xiankang; Li, Manyi; Wang, Chong; Shang, Xiang; Lin, Shengfu; Liu, Jianjiang

    2017-11-01

    An all-fiber, eye-safe and micro-pulse polarization lidar is demonstrated with a polarization-maintaining structure, incorporating a single superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) at 1.5 μm. The time-division multiplexing technique is used to achieve a calibration-free optical layout. A single piece of detector is used to detect the backscatter signals at two orthogonal states in an alternative sequence. Thus, regular calibration of the two detectors in traditional polarization lidars is avoided. The signal-to-noise ratio of the lidar is guaranteed by using an SNSPD, providing high detection efficiency and low dark count noise. The linear depolarization ratio (LDR) of the urban aerosol is observed horizontally over 48 h in Hefei [N31°50'37'', E117°15'54''], when a heavy air pollution is spreading from the north to the central east of China. Phenomena of LDR bursts are detected at a location where a building is under construction. The lidar results show good agreement with the data detected from a sun photometer, a 532 nm visibility lidar, and the weather forecast information.

  19. Erosion Potential of Tooth Whitening Regimens as Evaluated with Polarized Light Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambert, Patrick; Qian, Fang; Kwon, So Ran

    2015-11-01

    Tooth whitening is a widely utilized esthetic treatment in dentistry. With increased access to over-the-counter (OTC) systems concerns have been raised as to potential adverse effects associated with overuse of whitening materials. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate enamel erosion due to different whitening regimens when used in excess of recommended guidelines. Extracted human teeth (n = 66) were randomly divided into 11 groups (n = 6/group). Specimens were exposed to OTC products: Crest Whitestrips and 5-minute natural white and a do-it-yourself (DIY) strawberry whitening recipe. Within each regimen, groups were further divided per exposure time: specimens receiving the recommended product dosage; 5 times the recommended dosage; and 10 times the recommended dosage. Negative and positive controls were treated with grade 3 water and 1.0% citric acid, respectively. Specimens were nail-varnished to limit application to a 1 × 4 mm window. Following treatment, specimens were sectioned and erosion (drop in μm) measured using polarized light microscopy. Two-sample t-test was used to detect difference in amount of enamel erosion between negative and positive groups, while one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by post hoc Dunnett's test was used to detect difference between set of treatment groups and negative control groups or among all experimental groups. There was significant difference in mean amount of enamel erosion (p enamel erosion for positive control group was significantly greater than that for negative control group (23.50 vs 2.65 μm). There was significant effect for type of treatments on enamel erosion [F(9,50) = 25.19; p 0.05 for all instances), except for Natural White_10 times treatment group (p enamel erosion. Enamel erosion due to the overuse of whitening products varies for different modalities and products. Therefore, caution is advised when using certain over-the-counter products beyond recommended guidelines, as there is potential

  20. Linearly polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN quantum well structure with high indium composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hooyoung; Kim, Eun Kyu; Han, Il Ki; Lee, Sung-Ho; Hwang, Sung-Min

    2011-10-01

    We fabricated yellow (575 nm) emitting a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode (LED). Microstructure and stress relaxation of the InGaN well layer were observed from the images of dark field transmission electron microscopy. The LED chip was operated at 3.7 V, 20 mA, and the polarization-free characteristic in nonpolar InGaN layer was confirmed from a small blue-shift of approximaely 1.7 nm with increase of current density. The high photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of 30.4% showed that this non-polar InGaN layer has a potential of application to green-red long wavelength light emitters. The PL polarization ratio at 290 K was 0.25 and the energy difference between two subbands was estimated to be 40.2 meV. The low values of polarization and energy difference were due to the stress relaxation of InGaN well layer.

  1. A spin-optoelectronic detector for the simultaneous measurement of the degree of circular polarization and intensity of a laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamari, Shailesh K.; Porwal, S.; Oak, S. M.; Sharma, T. K.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of the degree of circular polarization and intensity of a laser beam is essential in advanced photonic applications. However, it is not feasible with conventional helicity dependent detectors where an additional detector is needed to measure the intensity. Here, we report the development of a spin-optoelectronic detector that can measure the degree of circular polarization and the intensity of a laser beam simultaneously. The principle of operation of device is based on the two independent fundamental phenomena occurring in Au/InP hybrid structures, namely, Inverse Spin Hall Effect (ISHE) and the Photo-Voltaic (PV) Effect. The magnitude of ISHE and PV signals is simultaneously measured across the two pairs of contacts that are made on the top of device. No cross talk is observed between the two detectors made on the same chip. The all-electronic compact device is fast, operates at room temperature, and opens up the possibility of many applications in an integrated optoelectronic platform

  2. Biological Response to the Dynamic Spectral-Polarized Underwater Light Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    by studying a homogeneous turbid medium. The diffuse reflection is produced by incoherent multiple scattering and is solved through radiative...polarization manipulation experiments revealed that polarization reflectance in Atlantic needlefish is controlled at the periphery (Fig 28). 6 19...with camouflage researchers on isopod and kelp crab camouflage against algae and seagrasses at several different west coast universities (Dierssen

  3. Effect of SiO{sub 2} coating in bolometric Ge light detectors for rare event searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gentils, A. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nuclaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Giuliani, A., E-mail: andrea.giuliani@csnsm.in2p3.fr [Centre de Spectrométrie Nuclaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Università dell' Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, 22100 Como, Italy, (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Mancuso, M. [Università dell' Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, 22100 Como, Italy, (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Pessina, G. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, and INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Plantevin, O. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nuclaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Rusconi, C. [Università dell' Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, 22100 Como, Italy, (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO{sub 2} anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25–35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ∼630nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope {sup 82}Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO{sub 2} coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials.

  4. Impact of light polarization on photoluminescence intensity and quantum efficiency in AlGaN and AlInGaN layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, C.; Knauer, A.; Weyers, M.

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed emission intensity, quantum efficiency, and emitted light polarization of c-plane AlGaN and AlInGaN layers (λ = 320-350 nm) by temperature dependent photoluminescence. Low indium content in AlInGaN structures causes a significant intensity increase by change of the polarization of the emitted light. Polarization changes from E ⊥ c to E ‖ c with increasing aluminum content. It switches back to E ⊥ c with the incorporation of indium. The polarization degree decreases with temperature. This temperature dependence can corrupt internal quantum efficiency determination by temperature dependent photoluminescence.

  5. Polarization Switching and Light-Enhanced Piezoelectricity in Lead Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Mariona; Gomez, Andrés; Mas-Marza, Elena; Almora, Osbel; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Bisquert, Juan

    2015-04-16

    We investigate the ferroelectric properties of photovoltaic methylammonium lead halide CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite using piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) and macroscopic polarization methods. The electric polarization is clearly observed by amplitude and phase hysteresis loops. However, the polarization loop decreases as the frequency is lowered, persisting for a short time only, in the one second regime, indicating that CH3NH3PbI3 does not exhibit permanent polarization at room temperature. This result is confirmed by macroscopic polarization measurement based on a standard capacitive method. We have observed a strong increase of piezoelectric response under illumination, consistent with the previously reported giant photoinduced dielectric constant at low frequencies. We speculate that an intrinsic charge transfer photoinduced dipole in the perovskite cage may lie at the origin of this effect.

  6. MEDEA: A multi element detector array for gamma ray and light charged particle detection at the LNS-Catania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, E.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Raia, G.; Sapienza, P.; Bellia, G.

    1992-01-01

    A 4π highly granular Multi Element Detector Array (MEDEA) for γ-rays and light charged particles is described. Its basic configuration consists of 180 barium fluoride scintillator crystals, arranged in the shape of a ball, plus a forward angle wall of 120 phoswich detectors. The inner radius of the ball (22 cm) and the distance of the wall from the target (55 cm) allow the placement of other detectors in the inner volume. The whole detection system operates under vacuum inside a large scattering chamber. Dedicated electronics has been designed and realized. It includes a powerful hardware second level trigger and preanalysis system, which allows on-line event selection, and a modular VME-bus based data acquisition system. In-beam performances of the system are also described. (orig.)

  7. Phototaxis and polarotaxis hand in hand: night dispersal flight of aquatic insects distracted synergistically by light intensity and reflection polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Pál; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György; Blahó, Miklós; Csabai, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Based on an earlier observation in the field, we hypothesized that light intensity and horizontally polarized reflected light may strongly influence the flight behaviour of night-active aquatic insects. We assumed that phototaxis and polarotaxis together have a more harmful effect on the dispersal flight of these insects than they would have separately. We tested this hypothesis in a multiple-choice field experiment using horizontal test surfaces laid on the ground. We offered simultaneously the following visual stimuli for aerial aquatic insects: (1) lamplit matte black canvas inducing phototaxis alone, (2) unlit shiny black plastic sheet eliciting polarotaxis alone, (3) lamplit shiny black plastic sheet inducing simultaneously phototaxis and polarotaxis, and (4) unlit matte black canvas as a visually unattractive control. The unlit matte black canvas trapped only a negligible number (13) of water insects. The sum (16,432) of the total numbers of water beetles and bugs captured on the lamplit matte black canvas (7,922) and the unlit shiny black plastic sheet (8,510) was much smaller than the total catch (29,682) caught on the lamplit shiny black plastic sheet. This provides experimental evidence for the synergistic interaction of phototaxis (elicited by the unpolarized direct lamplight) and polarotaxis (induced by the strongly and horizontally polarized plastic-reflected light) in the investigated aquatic insects. Thus, horizontally polarizing artificial lamplit surfaces can function as an effective ecological trap due to this synergism of optical cues, especially in the urban environment.

  8. Quantitative analysis with advanced compensated polarized light microscopy on wavelength dependence of linear birefringence of single crystals causing arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanabe, Akifumi; Tanaka, Masahito; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Asahi, Toru

    2014-07-01

    To improve our ability to identify single crystals causing arthritis, we have developed a practical measurement system of polarized light microscopy called advanced compensated polarized light microscopy (A-CPLM). The A-CPLM system is constructed by employing a conventional phase retardation plate, an optical fibre and a charge-coupled device spectrometer in a polarized light microscope. We applied the A-CPLM system to measure linear birefringence (LB) in the visible region, which is an optical anisotropic property, for tiny single crystals causing arthritis, i.e. monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The A-CPLM system performance was evaluated by comparing the obtained experimental data using the A-CPLM system with (i) literature data for a standard sample, MgF2, and (ii) experimental data obtained using an established optical method, high-accuracy universal polarimeter, for the MSUM. The A-CPLM system was found to be applicable for measuring the LB spectra of the single crystals of MSUM and CPPD, which cause arthritis, in the visible regions. We quantitatively reveal the large difference in LB between MSUM and CPPD crystals. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the A-CPLM system for distinguishing the crystals causing arthritis.

  9. Solving structure in the CP29 light harvesting complex with polarization-phased 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2011-01-01

    The CP29 light harvesting complex from green plants is a pigment-protein complex believed to collect, conduct, and quench electronic excitation energy in photosynthesis. We have spectroscopically determined the relative angle between electronic transition dipole moments of its chlorophyll excitation energy transfer pairs in their local protein environments without relying on simulations or an X-ray crystal structure. To do so, we measure a basis set of polarized 2D electronic spectra and isolate their absorptive components on account of the tensor relation between the light polarization sequences used to obtain them. This broadly applicable advance further enhances the acuity of polarized 2D electronic spectroscopy and provides a general means to initiate or feed back on the structural modeling of electronically-coupled chromophores in condensed phase systems, tightening the inferred relations between the spatial and electronic landscapes of ultrafast energy flow. We also discuss the pigment composition of CP29 in the context of light harvesting, energy channeling, and photoprotection within photosystem II. PMID:21321222

  10. Formation of polar surfaces in microstructured ZnO by doping with Cu and applications in photocatalysis using visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, Rajendra C.; Choi, Da-Hyun; Lee, Jai-Sung; Lee, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of copper-doped zinc oxide microstructures with a large amount of polar surfaces using a single-step facile chemical method by collecting powders of zinc oxide (ZnO) microstructures. It was found that rod-like morphology of ZnO transformed into disk and sphere-like structure with nanosheets. Hollow disk-like structures were formed due to the surface etching properties of Cl − ions in the copper chloride precursor. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes was measured under irradiation with visible light using the structures as catalysts. The Cu-doped ZnO exhibited better photodegradation properties than did undoped ZnO. The enhanced performance is attributed to the existence of (001) polar surfaces, oxygen vacancies, and increased optical absorbance at visible wavelengths, which is consistent with the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and optical absorbance measurements. These favorable photocatalytic properties of the doped microstructures demonstrate their potential for use in wastewater treatment. - Graphical abstract: Graphical abstract shows the electron transfer mechanism under visible light for Cu-doped ZnO microstructures and the photocatalytic degradation of dye. - Highlights: • Cu induced microstructures of ZnO with polar surfaces. • Methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. • Room temperature ferromagnetism due to oxygen vacancies in ZnO. • 7% Cu–ZnO has highest photocatalytic activity

  11. Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in pregnancy with Polarized Polychromatic Non-coherent Light (Bioptron Light): A Preliminary, Prospective, Open Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos; Stasinopoulos, Loannis

    2017-12-31

    The aim of this trial was to assess the efficacy of polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light) in the treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) in pregnancy. An uncontrolled experimental study was conducted in pregnant patients with CTS who visited our clinic from January 2006 to January 2010. Bioptron light (480-3400 nm; 95% polarization; 40 mW/cm 2 ; and 2.4 J/cm 2 ) was administered perpendicular to the carpal tunnel area. The irradiation time for each session was 6 min at an operating distance of 5-10 cm from the carpal tunnel area, twice each day, five days per week for 2 weeks. Pain and paraesthesia using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and finger pinch strength were evaluated at the end of treatment (week 2) and 1-month (week 6) after the end of treatment. The Student'sttest was used and p values Bioptron light is a reliable, safe, and effective treatment option in pregnant patients with CTS. Controlled clinical trials are needed to establish the absolute and relative effectiveness of this intervention.

  12. Directional Sensitivity in Light-Mass Dark Matter Searches with Single-Electron-Resolution Ionization Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadribasic, Fedja; Mirabolfathi, Nader; Nordlund, Kai; Sand, Andrea E.; Holmström, Eero; Djurabekova, Flyura

    2018-03-01

    We propose a method using solid state detectors with directional sensitivity to dark matter interactions to detect low-mass weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) originating from galactic sources. In spite of a large body of literature for high-mass WIMP detectors with directional sensitivity, no available technique exists to cover WIMPs in the mass range semiconductor detectors allow for directional sensitivity once properly calibrated. We examine the commonly used semiconductor material response to these low-mass WIMP interactions.

  13. Ultra-light and stable composite structure to support and cool the ATLAS pixel detector barrel electronics modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olcese, M.; Caso, C.; Castiglioni, G.; Cereseto, R.; Cuneo, S.; Dameri, M.; Gemme, C.; Glitza, K.-W.; Lenzen, G.; Mora, F.; Netchaeva, P.; Ockenfels, W.; Piano, E.; Pizzorno, C.; Puppo, R.; Rebora, A.; Rossi, L.; Thadome, J.; Vernocchi, F.; Vigeolas, E.; Vinci, A.

    2004-01-01

    The design of an ultra light structure, the so-called 'stave', to support and cool the sensitive elements of the Barrel Pixel detector, the innermost part of the ATLAS detector to be installed on the new Large Hadron Collider at CERN (Geneva), is presented. Very high-dimensional stability, minimization of the material and ability of operating 10 years in a high radiation environment are the key design requirements. The proposed solution consists of a combination of different carbon-based materials (impregnated carbon-carbon, ultra high modulus carbon fibre composites) coupled to a thin aluminum tube to form a very light support with an integrated cooling channel. Our design has proven to successfully fulfil the requirements. The extensive prototyping and testing program to fully qualify the design and release the production are discussed

  14. Sensitization by UV light of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C polycrystalline detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meira B, L. C.; Rubio F, H.; Neres de A, E. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CNEN, Laboratorio de Dosimetria Termoluminicente, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Campus UFMG, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Santos, A., E-mail: hrf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CNEN, Laboratorio de Microesferas Gel, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Campus UFMG, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    This paper describes an increase in sensitivity to gamma and beta radiation on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C polycrystalline detector, which has been produced by a sol-gel process, following previous exposure to ultraviolet light. The increased sensitivity of the detector as a function of the exposure time and ultraviolet wavelength was studied. Since the main luminescent centers have emission peaks at different wavelengths, selective measurements of thermoluminescent emission intensity were done, in order to investigate the possible conversion of centers as a result of the exposition to ultraviolet light. Experimental results indicate that the nature and parameters of the luminescent centers in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C sol-gel material can be very different of those in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C single crystal. (author)

  15. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  16. Paired emitter-detector light emitting diodes for the measurement of lead(II) and cadmium(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, K.-T. [Adaptive Sensors Group, National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)]. E-mail: kim.lau@dcu.ie; McHugh, Eimear [Adaptive Sensors Group, National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Baldwin, Susan [Adaptive Sensors Group, National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Diamond, Dermot [Adaptive Sensors Group, National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)]. E-mail: Dermot.diamond@dcu.ie

    2006-05-31

    A transmittance mode optical device based on using a reverse biased light emitting diode (LED) as light detector has been developed for colorimetric analysis. This new optical device was validated with bromocresol green dye for absorbance measurements before being employed for detecting cadmium(II) and lead(II) in water. Results show that the performance of this LED-based device is comparable to much more expensive bench top UV-vis instruments, but with the advantages of being low cost, low power and simple to operate.

  17. Paired emitter-detector light emitting diodes for the measurement of lead(II) and cadmium(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.-T.; McHugh, Eimear; Baldwin, Susan; Diamond, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    A transmittance mode optical device based on using a reverse biased light emitting diode (LED) as light detector has been developed for colorimetric analysis. This new optical device was validated with bromocresol green dye for absorbance measurements before being employed for detecting cadmium(II) and lead(II) in water. Results show that the performance of this LED-based device is comparable to much more expensive bench top UV-vis instruments, but with the advantages of being low cost, low power and simple to operate

  18. Search for light charged Higgs bosons in hadronic {tau} final states with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrich, Thies

    2010-07-07

    Charged Higgs bosons are predicted in theories with a non-minimal Higgs sector like the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). At the LHC, light charged Higgs Bosons might be produced in on-shell top quark decays t{yields} H{sup +}b, if m{sub H{sup {+-}}}detector for charged Higgs boson searches in t anti t events. Leptons from the decay chain of the second top quark allow for efficient triggering. A search strategy is developed and estimates of signal significances and exclusion limits in the MSSM m{sub h}-max scenario are presented based on Monte Carlo simulations. For an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}, the discovery of charged Higgs bosons is possible for tan{beta}>32. Exclusion limits are given for values of tan{beta}>17, significantly improving the current best limits from the Tevatron. The most important systematic uncertainties were found to be the errors on the jet energy scale and the missing transverse energy, resulting in a total systematic uncertainty of 40% on the signal. To reduce the systematic uncertainty for the most important Standard Model background, t anti t production, emphasis is put on estimating this background using data instead of Monte Carlo simulations. The t anti t background consists of two contributions, one with a correctly identified {tau}-jet in the final state, which is irreducible, and one where the hadronic {tau} decay is faked by a light parton jet. For each background a method has been developed to estimate its contribution with minimal use of Monte Carlo simulations. In this way, the systematic uncertainty on the background can be significantly reduced. (orig.)

  19. Correlations of light particles with the INDRA 4{pi} detector; Correlations de particules legeres avec le detector 4{pi} INDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourio, D.; Ardouin, D.; Reposeur, T.; Assenard, M.; Eudes, P.; Germain, M.; Lautridou, P.; Laville, J.L.; Lebrun, C.; Metivier, V.; Rahmani, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees - SUBATECH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France); INDRA Collaboration

    1997-10-01

    Light particle correlation functions have been measured with the INDRA multidetector. For the first time the study has been done using a 4 {pi} as a correlator and as an event filter. The combination of these two tools in the field of interferometry, is used for the first time here for the determination of the emission mean time of the light particles. The analysis was concentrated on the Xe + Sn system at 45 and 50 MeV/A. Due to the global event-by-event analysis it was possible to assign the origin of the particles to three emission zones: quasi-projectile, quasi-target and the intermediate zone. INDRA has also permitted to select the collision violence by using the total transverse energy of the light particles. The analysis of the proton-deuteron and deuteron-deuteron correlations indicates a decrease of the emission time with the increase of excitation energy. However in average the deuterons are emitted prior to the protons. Sequential decay of the excited fragments occurred in the additional structures at low relative momenta in the case of the proton-proton and proton-deuteron functions. These structures are evidenced particularly due to the adopted selections 3 refs.

  20. Optimization of an aerogel cerenkov detector having a mirror light collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, K.E.; Aakesson, T.; Norrby, J.

    1979-01-01

    Cerenkov detectors with silica aerogel of refractive indec 1.03 as the radiator have been tested in a particle beam at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. With a detector surface of 22 x 50 cm 2 and 9 cm thickness of aerogel, the number of photoelectrons was found to be 6.5 for β = 1 particles. (author)

  1. Anisotropic Babinet-Invertible Metasurfaces to Realize Transmission-Reflection Switching for Orthogonal Polarizations of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yosuke; Urade, Yoshiro; Okimura, Kunio; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Miyamaru, Fumiaki; Takeda, Mitsuo Wada; Kitano, Masao

    2016-10-01

    The electromagnetic properties of an extremely thin metallic checkerboard drastically change from resonant reflection (transmission) to resonant transmission (reflection) when the local electrical conductivity at the interconnection points of the checkerboard is switched. To date, such critical transitions of metasurfaces have been applied only when they have fourfold rotational symmetry, and their application to polarization control, which requires anisotropy, has been unexplored. To overcome this applicability limitation and open up alternative pathways for dynamic deep-subwavelength polarization control by utilizing critical transitions of checkerboardlike metasurfaces, we introduce a universal class of anisotropic Babinet-invertible metasurfaces enabling transmission-reflection switching for each orthogonally polarized wave. As an application of anisotropic Babinet-invertible metasurfaces, we experimentally realize a reconfigurable terahertz polarizer whose transmitting axis can be dynamically rotated by 90°.

  2. Tautomerism and isomerism in some antitrichinellosis active benzimidazoles: Morphological study in polarized light, quantum chemical computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anichina, Kameliya; Mavrova, Anelia; Yancheva, Denitsa; Tsenov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Rasho

    2017-12-01

    The morphology of the crystal structure of some antitrichinellosis active benzimidazole derivatives including (1H-benzimidazol-2-ylthio)acetic acids, [1,3]thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-ones, 1H-benzimidazol-2-ylthioacetylpiperazines and starting 2-mercapto benzimidazoles, was studied by the use of Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM). Characterization of the crystal phase was complimented by Differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) and spectroscopic data. DFT computations were performed in order to investigate the prototropic tautomerism and the geometry of the molecule of the synthesized compounds. One distinct type of crystal structure for each one of 5 or 6-methyl-(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylthio)acetic acid 6 was observed by PLM - dendritic and needle-shaped formations. Compound 14, containing a methyl substituent in the benzimidazole ring crystallized also into two phases; while for the unsubstituted compound 13 a separation of phases does not take place. The influence of the both solvents - chloroform and ethanol on the phase separation and the formation of the crystalline structure of compound 14 was investigated. The morphological study showed that the cyclization of 6 in the presence of acetic anhydride in pyridine medium led to a mixture of 6-methyl-[1,3]tiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one (10a) and 7-methyl-[1,3]thiazolo[3,2-a]-benzimidazole-3(2H)-one (10b), which crystallized in the form of fibrils and spherulites respectively. It was found that a difference in the crystal structures of substituted and unsubstituted benzimidazol-2-thiones, respectively benzimidazol-2-thiol derivatives exists, which may be due not only to the thiol-thione tautomerism but to the prototropic properties of the hydrogen atom in first position of the ring. The calculation results indicated that the thione form is more stable than the thiol tautomer by 51-55 kJ mol-1. But at the same time ΔG for the two thiol tautomers is below 0.5 kJ mol-1. In solid phase the 5

  3. Effect of linear polarized near-infrared light irradiation on flexibility of shoulder and ankle joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, S; Yamaji, S; Ikemoto, Y

    2002-12-01

    There is a possibility that heat stimulus by linear polarized near-infrared light irradiation (PL: Super Lizer HA-30, Tokyo Medical Laboratory) improves the range of joint motion, because the flexibility of soft-part tissues, such as a muscle or a tendon, is improved by increasing the muscle temperature. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of PL-irradiation on the ranges of shoulder and ankle motions. 30 healthy young adults (15 males: mean+/-SD, age 19.1+/-0.8 yrs, height 173.3+/-4.6 cm, body mass 68.5+/-8.0 kg and 15 females: mean+/-SD, age 19.2+/-0.7 yrs, height 162.3+/-4.5 cm, body mass 58.1+/-6.6 kg) participated in the experiment under PL-irradiation and no-irradiation (placebo) conditions. the angles of shoulder and ankle joint motions were measured twice, before and after the PL- and placebo-irradiations. The angle of a motion was defined as the angle connecting 3 points at linearity as follows: for the shoulder, the greater trochanter, acromion, and caput ulnare, and for the ankle, the knee joint, fassa of lateral malleolus and metacarpal bone. Each angle was measured when a subject extended or flexed maximally without support. The trial-to-trial reliability of each range of joint motion was very high. All parameters in PL-irradiation were significantly larger in postirradiation than pre-irradiation, and the value of postirradiation in PL-irradiation was significantly greater than that for placebo. The ranges of shoulder and ankle motions in placebo-irradiation were also significantly greater in postirradiation than pre-irradiation. Moreover, the change rate for each range of joint motion between pre- and postirradiations was significantly greater in PL-irradiation in both joints. In PL-irradiation, most subject's motions were greater in postirradiation than pre-irradiation, but not in the placebo-irradiation. The effect of PL-irradiation tended to be greater on subjects with a small range of a joint motion. It is considered from the

  4. VIIRS-J1 Polarization Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluschka, Eugene; McCorkel, Joel; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; McAndrew, Brendan; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith; Butler, James; Meister, Gerhard; Thome, Kurtis J.

    2015-01-01

    The VIS/NIR bands polarization sensitivity of Joint Polar Satellite Sensor 1 (JPSS1) Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was measured using a broadband source. While polarization sensitivity for bands M5-M7, I1, and I2 was less than 2.5%, the maximum polarization sensitivity for bands M1, M2, M3, and M4 was measured to be 6.4%, 4.4%, 3.1%, and 4.3%, respectively with a polarization characterization uncertainty of less than 0.3%. A detailed polarization model indicated that the large polarization sensitivity observed in the M1 to M4 bands was mainly due to the large polarization sensitivity introduced at the leading and trailing edges of the newly manufactured VISNIR bandpass focal plane filters installed in front of the VISNIR detectors. This was confirmed by polarization measurements of bands M1 and M4 bands using monochromatic light. Discussed are the activities leading up to and including the instruments two polarization tests, some discussion of the polarization model and the model results, the role of the focal plane filters, the polarization testing of the Aft-Optics-Assembly, the testing of the polarizers at Goddard and NIST and the use of NIST's T-SIRCUS for polarization testing and associated analyses and results.

  5. Tailoring of polarization in electron blocking layer for electron confinement and hole injection in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yu-Hsuan; Pilkuhn, Manfred H.; Fu, Yi-Keng; Chu, Mu-Tao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin; Wang, Kang L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL) with graded aluminum composition on electron confinement and hole injection in AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated. The light output power of LED with graded AlGaN EBL was markedly improved, comparing to LED with conventional EBL. In experimental results, a high increment of 86.7% can be obtained in light output power. Simulation analysis shows that via proper modification of the barrier profile from the last barrier of the active region to EBL, not only the elimination of electron overflow to p-type layer can be achieved but also the hole injection into the active region can be enhanced, compared to a conventional LED structure. The dominant factor to the performance improvement is shown to be the modulation of polarization field by the graded Al composition in EBL

  6. Tailoring of polarization in electron blocking layer for electron confinement and hole injection in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yu-Hsuan; Pilkuhn, Manfred H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Microelectronics and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yi-Keng; Chu, Mu-Tao [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan (China); Huang, Shyh-Jer, E-mail: yksu@mail.ncku.edu.tw, E-mail: totaljer48@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Microelectronics and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Su, Yan-Kuin, E-mail: yksu@mail.ncku.edu.tw, E-mail: totaljer48@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Microelectronics and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, Kun-Shan University, Tainan 71003, Taiwan (China); Wang, Kang L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    The influence of the AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL) with graded aluminum composition on electron confinement and hole injection in AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated. The light output power of LED with graded AlGaN EBL was markedly improved, comparing to LED with conventional EBL. In experimental results, a high increment of 86.7% can be obtained in light output power. Simulation analysis shows that via proper modification of the barrier profile from the last barrier of the active region to EBL, not only the elimination of electron overflow to p-type layer can be achieved but also the hole injection into the active region can be enhanced, compared to a conventional LED structure. The dominant factor to the performance improvement is shown to be the modulation of polarization field by the graded Al composition in EBL.

  7. New air Cherenkov light detectors to study mass composition of cosmic rays with energies above knee region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunesada, Yoshiki, E-mail: tsunesada@cr.phys.titech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 Japan (Japan); Katsuya, Ryoichi, E-mail: katsuya@cr.phys.titech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 Japan (Japan); Mitsumori, Yu; Nakayama, Keisuke; Kakimoto, Fumio; Tokuno, Hisao [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 Japan (Japan); Tajima, Norio [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Miranda, Pedro; Salinas, Juan; Tavera, Wilfredo [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2014-11-01

    We have installed a hybrid detection system for air showers generated by cosmic rays with energies greater than 3×10{sup 15}eV at Mount Chacaltaya (5200 m above the sea level), in order to study the mass composition of cosmic rays above the knee region. This detection system comprises an air shower array with 49 scintillation counters in an area of 500 m×650 m, and seven new Cherenkov light detectors installed in a radial direction from the center of the air shower array with a separation of 50 m. It is known that the longitudinal development of a particle cascade in the atmosphere strongly depends on the type of the primary nucleus, and an air shower initiated by a heavier nucleus develops faster than that by a lighter primary of the same energy, because of the differences in the interaction cross-section and the energy per nucleon. This can be measured by detecting the Cherenkov radiation emitted from charged particles in air showers at higher altitudes. In this paper we describe the design and performance of our new non-imaging Cherenkov light detectors at Mount Chacaltaya that are operated in conjunction with the air shower array. The arrival directions and energies of air showers are determined by the shower array, and information about the primary masses is obtained from the Cherenkov light data including the time profiles and lateral distributions. The detector consists of photomultiplier tube (PMT), high-speed ADCs, other control modules, and data storage device. The Cherenkov light signals from an air shower are typically 10–100 ns long, and the waveforms are digitized with a sampling frequency of 1 GHz and recorded in situ without long-distance analog signal transfers. All the Cherenkov light detectors record their time-series data by receiving a triggering signal transmitted from the trigger module of the air shower array, which is fired by a coincidence of shower signals in four neighboring scintillation counters. The optical characteristics of the

  8. Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.F. de; Milner, T.E.; Nelson, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was used to characterize completely the polarization state of light backscattered from turbid media. Using a low-coherence light source, one can determine the Stokes parameters of backscattered light as a function of optical path in turbid media. To demonstrate the application of this technique we determined the birefringence and the optical axis in fibrous tissue (rodent muscle) and in vivo rodent skin. PS-OCT has potentially useful applications in biomedical optics by imaging simultaneously the structural properties of turbid biological materials and their effects on the polarization state of backscattered light. This method may also find applications in material science for investigation of polarization properties (e.g., birefringence) in opaque media such as ceramics and crystals. copyright 1999 Optical Society of America

  9. Noninvasive assessment of articular cartilage surface damage using reflected polarized light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Ruby N.; Nehmetallah, George; Raub, Christopher B.

    2017-06-01

    Articular surface damage occurs to cartilage during normal aging, osteoarthritis, and in trauma. A noninvasive assessment of cartilage microstructural alterations is useful for studies involving cartilage explants. This study evaluates polarized reflectance microscopy as a tool to assess surface damage to cartilage explants caused by mechanical scraping and enzymatic degradation. Adult bovine articular cartilage explants were scraped, incubated in collagenase, or underwent scrape and collagenase treatments. In an additional experiment, cartilage explants were subject to scrapes at graduated levels of severity. Polarized reflectance parameters were compared with India ink surface staining, features of histological sections, changes in explant wet weight and thickness, and chondrocyte viability. The polarized reflectance signal was sensitive to surface scrape damage and revealed individual scrape features consistent with India ink marks. Following surface treatments, the reflectance contrast parameter was elevated and correlated with image area fraction of India ink. After extensive scraping, polarized reflectance contrast and chondrocyte viability were lower than that from untreated explants. As part of this work, a mathematical model was developed and confirmed the trend in the reflectance signal due to changes in surface scattering and subsurface birefringence. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of polarized reflectance microscopy to sensitively assess surface microstructural alterations in articular cartilage explants.

  10. submitter Phase transition observations and discrimination of small cloud particles by light polarization in expansion chamber experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nichman, Leonid; Järvinen, Emma; Ignatius, Karoliina; Höppel, Niko Florian; Dias, Antonio; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Tröstl, Jasmin; Wagner, Andrea Christine; Wagner, Robert; Williamson, Christina; Yan, Chao; Connolly, Paul James; Dorsey, James Robert; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Hoyle, Christopher Robert; Kristensen, Thomas Bjerring; Steiner, Gerhard; McPherson Donahue, Neil; Flagan, Richard; Gallagher, Martin William; Kirkby, Jasper; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, António

    2016-01-01

    Cloud microphysical processes involving the ice phase in tropospheric clouds are among the major uncertainties in cloud formation, weather, and general circulation models. The detection of aerosol particles, liquid droplets, and ice crystals, especially in the small cloud particle-size range below 50 μm, remains challenging in mixed phase, often unstable environments. The Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarization (CASPOL) is an airborne instrument that has the ability to detect such small cloud particles and measure the variability in polarization state of their backscattered light. Here we operate the versatile Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to produce controlled mixed phase and other clouds by adiabatic expansions in an ultraclean environment, and use the CASPOL to discriminate between different aerosols, water, and ice particles. In this paper, optical property measurements of mixed-phase clouds and viscous secondary ...

  11. Multiple stable states of a periodically driven electron spin in a quantum dot using circularly polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2011-06-01

    The periodical modulation of circularly polarized light with a frequency close to the electron spin resonance frequency induces a sharp change of the single electron spin orientation. Hyperfine interaction provides a feedback, thus fixing the precession frequency of the electron spin in the external and the Overhauser field near the modulation frequency. The nuclear polarization is bidirectional and the electron-nuclear spin system (ENSS) possesses a few stable states. The same physics underlie the frequency-locking effect for two-color and mode-locked excitations. However, the pulsed excitation with mode-locked laser brings about the multitudes of stable states in ENSS in a quantum dot. The resulting precession frequencies of the electron spin differ in these states by the multiple of the modulation frequency. Under such conditions ENSS represents a digital frequency converter with more than 100 stable channels.

  12. Analysis of the effect of polarization traps and shallow impurities on the interlevel light absorption of quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Boichuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A spherical quantum dot (QD heterosystem CdS/SiO2 has been studied. Each QD has a hydrogen-like impurity in its center. Besides that, it has been accounted that a polarization trap for electron exists at the interfaces due to the difference between the QD and matrix dielectric permittivity. It has been defined that for small QD radii there are surface electron states. For different radii, partial contributions of the surface states into the electron energy caused by the electron-ion and electron-polarization charges interaction have been defined. The linear light absorption coefficient of noninteracting QDs has been calculated taking into account the QD dispersion by the size. It is shown that the surface states can be observed into different ranges of an electromagnetic spectrum.

  13. Circular polarization of light by planet Mercury and enantiomorphism of its surface minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Thiemann, Wolfram H P; Barbier, Bernard; Brack, André; Alcaraz, Christian; Nahon, Laurent; Wolstencroft, Ray

    2002-04-01

    Different mechanisms for the generation of circular polarization by the surface of planets and satellites are described. The observed values for Venus, the Moon, Mars, and Jupiter obtained by photo-polarimetric measurements with Earth based telescopes, showed accordance with theory. However, for planet Mercury asymmetric parameters in the circular polarization were measured that do not fit with calculations. For BepiColombo, the ESA cornerstone mission 5 to Mercury, we propose to investigate this phenomenon using a concept which includes two instruments. The first instrument is a high-resolution optical polarimeter, capable to determine and map the circular polarization by remote scanning of Mercury's surface from the Mercury Planetary Orbiter MPO. The second instrument is an in situ sensor for the detection of the enantiomorphism of surface crystals and minerals, proposed to be included in the Mercury Lander MSE.

  14. Velocity measurements and identification of the flow pattern of vertical air-water flows with light-beam detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebbesmeyer, D.; Leoni, B.

    1980-07-01

    A new detector for measuring fluid velocities in two-phase flows by means of Noise-Analysis (especially Transient-Cross-Correlation-technique) has been developed. The detector utilizes a light-beam which is modulated by changes in the transparency of the two-phase flow. The results of nine measurements for different flow-regimes of vertical air/water-flows are shown. A main topic of these investigations was to answer the question if it is possible to identify the flow-pattern by looking at the shape of different 'Noise-Analytical-functions' (like APSD, CPSD, CCF etc.). The results prove that light-beam sensors are good detectors for fluid-velocity measurements in different flow regimes and in a wide range of fluid velocities starting with values of about 0.08 m/s up to values of 40 m/s. With respect to flow-pattern identification only the time-signals and the shape of the cross-power-density-function (CPSD) seem to be useful. (Auth.)

  15. POLARIZED-LIGHT EMISSION IN KEV HE2++NA(3S) COLLISIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BODUCH, P; VANBUCHEM, J; BLIEK, FW; HOEKSTRA, R; MORGENSTERN, R; OLSON, RE

    1995-01-01

    We investigated l and m-distributions of He II (n = 4) states formed during 2-13.3 keV amu(-1) He2+ + Na(3s) collisions by measuring profiles and the linear polarization of the He II (4 --> 3) emission. We found that at these energies capture into He+(4f) dominates over capture into other He+(4l)

  16. Influence of polar solvents on the enhancement of light-ends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil 'micelle' can be dispersed into fuels, oil and resin/asphalthene components using some hydrocarbon solvents. This can be adapted towards influencing/enhancing its product slates during the processing of crude oils. This research was carried out to investigate the effect of polar solvents (ethanol and acetone) in ...

  17. Methods for polarized light emission from CdSe quantum dot based monolithic pillar microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfried, Moritz; Kalden, Joachim; Sebald, Kathrin; Gutowski, Juergen; Kruse, Carsten; Hommel, Detlef [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A lifting of the polarization degeneracy of the fundamental cavity mode in pillar microcavities (MCs) would allow for controlling the polarization state of the emitted photons. Therefore, monolithic VCSEL structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy containing either one CdSe/ZnSSe quantum dot layer or three quantum well layers as active material. By using focused-ion-beam etching, MC pillars with different geometries were prepared out of the planar samples. Among these are circularly shaped pillar MCs with diameters in the range from 500 nm up to 4 {mu}m and quality factors of up to 7860, elliptically shaped MCs, and so-called photonic molecules consisting of circular pillar MCs which are connected by small bars. Polarization dependent photoluminescence investigations of the fundamental cavity mode reveal a lifting of the polarization degeneracy for all three types of MCs. The energy splitting of up to 0.42 meV in the circularly shaped pillar MCs is probably caused by anisotropic strain conditions within the sample and directly dependent on the pillar diameter, whereas the larger energy splitting of up to 0.72 meV for the photonic molecules or even 4.5 meV for the elliptically shaped MC is based on their asymmetric cross sections.

  18. Measurement of top quark polarization in top-antitop events from proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coelli, Simone; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Damiani, Daniel; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliot, Frederic; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Dwuznik, Michal; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koenig, Sebastian; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-12-04

    This Letter presents measurements of the polarization of the top quark in top–antitop quark pair events, using 4.7 fb$^{¯1}$ of proton–proton collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at √s = 7 TeV. Final states containing one or two isolated leptons (electrons or muons) and jets are considered. Two measurements of $\\alpha_l P$, the product of the leptonic spin-analyzing power and the top quark polarization, are performed assuming that the polarization is introduced by either a CP conserving (CPC) or a CP violating (CPV) production process. The measurements obtained, $\\alpha_l P_{CPC} = −0.035± 0.014(stat) ± 0.037(syst)$ and $\\alpha_l P_{CPV} = 0.020 ± 0.016(stat)^{+0.013} _{-0.017}(syst)$, are in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction of negligible top quark polarization.

  19. Beyond conventional c-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes: A systematic exploration of LEDs on semi-polar orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavarian, Morteza

    Despite enormous efforts and investments, the efficiency of InGaN-based green and yellow-green light emitters remains relatively low, and that limits progress in developing full color display, laser diodes, and bright light sources for general lighting. The low efficiency of light emitting devices in the green-to-yellow spectral range, also known as the "Green Gap", is considered a global concern in the LED industry. The polar c-plane orientation of GaN, which is the mainstay in the LED industry, suffers from polarization-induced separation of electrons and hole wavefunctions (also known as the "quantum confined Stark effect") and low indium incorporation efficiency that are the two main factors that contribute to the Green Gap phenomenon. One possible approach that holds promise for a new generation of green and yellow light emitting devices with higher efficiency is the deployment of nonpolar and semi-polar crystallographic orientations of GaN to eliminate or mitigate polarization fields. In theory, the use of other GaN planes for light emitters could also enhance the efficiency of indium incorporation compared to c-plane. In this thesis, I present a systematic exploration of the suitable GaN orientation for future lighting technologies. First, in order to lay the groundwork for further studies, it is important to discuss the analysis of processes limiting LED efficiency and some novel designs of active regions to overcome these limitations. Afterwards, the choice of nonpolar orientations as an alternative is discussed. For nonpolar orientation, the (1100)-oriented (mo-plane) structures on patterned Si (112) and freestanding m-GaN are studied. The semi-polar orientations having substantially reduced polarization field are found to be more promising for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) owing to high indium incorporation efficiency predicted by theoretical studies. Thus, the semi-polar orientations are given close attention as alternatives for future LED technology

  20. arXiv The Future of RICH Detectors through the Light of the LHCb RICH

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C.; Easo, S.; Petrolini, A.; Ullaland, O.

    2017-12-21

    The limitations in performance of the present RICH system in the LHCb experiment are given by the natural chromatic dispersion of the gaseous Cherenkov radiator, the aberrations of the optical system and the pixel size of the photon detectors. Moreover, the overall PID performance can be affected by high detector occupancy as the pattern recognition becomes more difficult with high particle multiplicities. This paper shows a way to improve performance by systematically addressing each of the previously mentioned limitations. These ideas are applied in the present and future upgrade phases of the LHCb experiment. Although applied to specific circumstances, they are used as a paradigm on what is achievable in the development and realisation of high precision RICH detectors.

  1. Exciplex fluorescence emission from simple organic intramolecular constructs in non-polar and highly polar media as model systems for DNA-assembled exciplex detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichenkova, Elena V; Sardarian, Ali R; Wilton, Amanda N; Bonnet, Pascal; Bryce, Richard A; Douglas, Kenneth T

    2006-01-21

    Organic intramolecular exciplexes, N-(4-dimethylaminobenzyl)-N-(1-pyrenemethyl)amine (1) and N'-4-dimethylaminonaphthyl-N-(1-pyrenemethyl)amine (2), were used as model systems to reveal major factors affecting their exciplex fluorescence, and thus lay the basis for developing emissive target-assembled exciplexes for DNA-mounted systems in solution. These models with an aromatic pyrenyl hydrocarbon moiety as an electron acceptor appropriately connected to an aromatic dimethylamino electron donor component (N,N-dimethylaminophenyl or N,N-dimethylaminonaphthyl) showed strong intramolecular exciplex emission in both non-polar and highly polar solvents. The effect of dielectric constant on the maximum wavelength for exciplex emission was studied, and emission was observed for 1 and 2 over the full range of solvent from non-polar hydrocarbons up to N-methylformamide with a dielectric constant of 182. Quantum yields were determined for these intramolecular exciplexes in a range of solvents relative to that for Hoechst 33,258. Conformational analysis of 1 was performed both computationally and via qualitative 2D NMR using (1)H-NOESY experiments. The results obtained indicated the contribution of pre-folded conformation(s) to the ground state of 1 conducive to exciplex emission. This research provides the initial background for design of self-assembled, DNA-mounted exciplexes and underpins further development of exciplex-based hybridisation bioassays.

  2. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Blaho

    Full Text Available The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids. (ii Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries than matt black finish. (iii The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  3. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaho, Miklos; Herczeg, Tamas; Kriska, Gyorgy; Egri, Adam; Szaz, Denes; Farkas, Alexandra; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Czinke, Laszlo; Barta, Andras; Horvath, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt) surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i) The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt) and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids). (ii) Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries) than matt black finish. (iii) The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a) matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b) these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  4. TH-CD-201-04: A Study of Cherenkov Light Generated and Collected in Plastic Scintillation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, L [CHUQ Pavillon Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Papaconstadopoulos, P [McGill Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, QC (Canada); Seuntjens, J [McGill Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, QC (Canada); McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bouchard, H [CHUM-Hospital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study Cherenkov light emission in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) from a theoretical point of view to identify situations that may arise where the calibration coefficient obtained in one condition is not applicable to another condition. By identifying problematic situations, we hope to provide guidance on how to confidently use PSDs. Methods: Cherenkov light emission in PSD was modelled using basic physical principles. In particular, changes in refractive index as a function of wavelength were accounted for using the Sellmeier empirical equation. Both electron and photon beams were considered. For photons, realistic distributions of secondary charged particles were calculated using Klein-Nishina’s formula. Cherenkov production and collection in PSDs were studied for a range of parameters including beam energy, charged particle momentum distribution, detector orientation and material composition. Finally, experimental validation was made using a commercial plastic scintillation detector. Results: In specific situations, results show that the Cherenkov spectrum coupled in the PSD can deviate from its expected behaviour (i.e. one over the square of the wavelength). In these cases were the model is realistic it is possible to see a peak wavelength instead of a monotonically decreasing function. Consequences of this phenomenon are negligible when the momentum of charged particle is distributed randomly, but in some clinically relevant cases, such as an electron beam at depth close to R50 or for photon beams with minimal scatter component, the value of the calibration coefficient can be altered. Experimental tests with electron beams showed changes in the Cherenkov light ratio, the parameter used in the calibration of PSDs, up to 2–3% depending on the PSD orientation. Conclusion: This work is the first providing a physical explanation for apparent change in PSD calibration coefficient. With this new information at hand, it will be possible to

  5. Forward scattering of polarized light from a turbid slab: theory and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Soichi

    2016-12-20

    It is proved that if reciprocity and mirror symmetry hold for single scattering by a particle, they also hold for multiple scattering in turbid slab media. Monte Carlo simulations generate a reduced effective Mueller matrix for forward scattering, which satisfies reciprocity and mirror symmetry, but satisfies only reciprocity if the medium contains chiral components. The scattering matrix was factorized by using the Lu-Chipman polar decomposition, which affords the polarization parameters as a function of the radial distance from the center. The depolarization coefficients decrease with increasing distance, whereas the scattering-induced linear diattenuation and retardance become larger in the middle-distance range. The optical rotation for a chiral medium increases with increasing distance.

  6. Reflecting metallic metasurfaces designed with stochastic optimization as waveplates for manipulating light polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberko, Jakub; Wasylczyk, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate that a stochastic optimization algorithm with a properly chosen, weighted fitness function, following a global variation of parameters upon each step can be used to effectively design reflective polarizing optical elements. Two sub-wavelength metallic metasurfaces, corresponding to broadband half- and quarter-waveplates are demonstrated with simple structure topology, a uniform metallic coating and with the design suited for the currently available microfabrication techniques, such as ion milling or 3D printing.

  7. Plasmon mediated non-photochemical nucleation of nanoparticles by circularly polarized light

    OpenAIRE

    Karpov, Victor G.; Grigorchuk, Nicholas I.

    2014-01-01

    We predict nucleation of pancake shaped metallic nanoparticles having plasmonic frequencies in resonance with a non-absorbed circularly polarized electromagnetic field. We show that the same field can induce nucleation of randomly oriented needle shaped particles. The probabilities of these shapes are estimated vs. field frequency and strength, material parameters, and temperature. This constitutes a quantitative model of non-photochemical laser induced nucleation (NPLIN) consistent with the ...

  8. On the role of strong gravity in polarization from scattering of light in relativistic flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Jiří; Karas, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 365, č. 3 (2006), s. 813-826 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300030510; GA ČR GA205/03/0902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : polarization * black hole physics * relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.057, year: 2006

  9. Comparison of acrylic polymer adhesive tapes and silicone optical grease in light sharing detectors for positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Elburg, Devin J; Noble, Scott D; Hagey, Simone; Goertzen, Andrew L

    2018-02-26

    Optical coupling is an important factor in detector design as it improves optical photon transmission by mitigating internal reflections at light-sharing boundaries. In this work we compare optical coupling materials, namely double-sided acrylic polymer tapes and silicone optical grease (SiG), in the context of positron emission tomography. Four double-sided tapes from 3 M of varying thicknesses (0.229 mm-1.016 mm) and adhesive materials ('100MP', 'A100', and 'GPA') were characterized with spectrophotometer measurements as well as photopeak amplitude and energy resolution measurements using lutetium-yttrium oxy-orthosilicate (LYSO) coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Transmission spectra from the spectrophotometer showed over 80% transmission for all tapes at 420 nm and above, with 89.6% and 88.8% transmission for the 0.508 mm and 1.016 mm thick GPA tapes, respectively, at 420 nm. Measurements with single-pixel LYSO-PMT and 4  ×  4 array (one-to-one coupled) LYSO-SiPM setups determined that SiG had the greatest photopeak amplitude, with tapes showing 2.1%-14.8% reduction in photopeak amplitude with respect to SiG. Energy resolution changed by less than 4% on a relative basis between tapes and SiG with PMT measurements, however for the SiPM array measurements the energy resolution improved from 15.6%  ±  2.7% full-width at half-maximum to 11.4%  ±  1.2% for SiG and 1 mm GPA respectively. Data acquired with dual-layer offset LYSO arrays (light sharing detector designs) demonstrated that a detector coupled with 1 mm thick GPA tape produced equivalent detector flood histograms to those from a design coupled with SiG and a 1 mm thick glass lightguide. No significant degradation in photopeak amplitude and energy resolution was observed over five months of measurements, indicating the tapes maintain their coupling integrity over several months. Though minimal photopeak amplitude degradation

  10. Comparison of acrylic polymer adhesive tapes and silicone optical grease in light sharing detectors for positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Elburg, Devin J.; Noble, Scott D.; Hagey, Simone; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2018-03-01

    Optical coupling is an important factor in detector design as it improves optical photon transmission by mitigating internal reflections at light-sharing boundaries. In this work we compare optical coupling materials, namely double-sided acrylic polymer tapes and silicone optical grease (SiG), in the context of positron emission tomography. Four double-sided tapes from 3 M of varying thicknesses (0.229 mm-1.016 mm) and adhesive materials (‘100MP’, ‘A100’, and ‘GPA’) were characterized with spectrophotometer measurements as well as photopeak amplitude and energy resolution measurements using lutetium-yttrium oxy-orthosilicate (LYSO) coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Transmission spectra from the spectrophotometer showed over 80% transmission for all tapes at 420 nm and above, with 89.6% and 88.8% transmission for the 0.508 mm and 1.016 mm thick GPA tapes, respectively, at 420 nm. Measurements with single-pixel LYSO-PMT and 4  ×  4 array (one-to-one coupled) LYSO-SiPM setups determined that SiG had the greatest photopeak amplitude, with tapes showing 2.1%-14.8% reduction in photopeak amplitude with respect to SiG. Energy resolution changed by less than 4% on a relative basis between tapes and SiG with PMT measurements, however for the SiPM array measurements the energy resolution improved from 15.6%  ±  2.7% full-width at half-maximum to 11.4%  ±  1.2% for SiG and 1 mm GPA respectively. Data acquired with dual-layer offset LYSO arrays (light sharing detector designs) demonstrated that a detector coupled with 1 mm thick GPA tape produced equivalent detector flood histograms to those from a design coupled with SiG and a 1 mm thick glass lightguide. No significant degradation in photopeak amplitude and energy resolution was observed over five months of measurements, indicating the tapes maintain their coupling integrity over several months. Though minimal photopeak amplitude

  11. A portable liquid crystal-based polarized light system for the detection of organophosphorus nerve gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng Jie; Liu, Hui Long; Chen, Long Cong; Xiong, Xing Liang

    2018-03-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)-based sensors have the advantageous properties of being fast, sensitive, and label-free, the results of which can be accessed directly only through the naked eye. However, the inherent disadvantages possessed by LC sensors, such as relying heavily on polarizing microscopes and the difficulty to quantify, have limited the possibility of field applications. Herein, we have addressed these issues by constructing a portable polarized detection system with constant temperature control. This system is mainly composed of four parts: the LC cell, the optics unit, the automatic temperature control unit, and the image processing unit. The LC cell was based on the ordering transitions of LCs in the presence of analytes. The optics unit based on the imaging principle of LCs was designed to substitute the polarizing microscope for the real-time observation. The image processing unit is expected to quantify the concentration of analytes. The results have shown that the presented system can detect dimethyl methyl phosphonate (a stimulant for organophosphorus nerve gas) within 25 s, and the limit of detection is about 10 ppb. In all, our portable system has potential in field applications.

  12. [A non-invasive glucose measurement method based on orthogonal twin-polarized light and its pilot experimental investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Baoming; Liu, Ding

    2010-04-01

    In order to overcome the existing shortcomings of the non-invasive blood glucose polarized light measurement methods of optical heterodyne detection and direct detection, we present in this paper a new orthogonal twin-polarized light (OTPL) non-invasive blood glucose measurement method, which converts the micro-angle rotated by an optical active substance such as glucose to the energy difference of OTPL, amplifies the signals by the high-sensitivity lock-in amplifier made of relevant principle, controls Faraday coil current to compensate the changes in deflection angle caused by blood glucose, and makes use of the linear relationship between blood glucose concentration and Faraday coil current to calculate blood glucose concentration. In our comparative experiment using the data measured by LX-20 automatic biochemical analyzer as a standard, a 0.9777 correlation coefficient is obtained in glucose concentration experiment, and a 0.952 in serum experiment. The result shows that this method has higher detection sensitivity and accuracy and lays a foundation for the development of practical new type of non-invasive blood glucose tester for diabetic patients.

  13. An optical investigation of dentinal discoloration due to commonly endodontic sealers, using the transmitted light polarizing microscopy and spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Ioana; Ionescu, Ecaterina; Dimitriu, Bogdan Alexandru; Bartok, Ruxandra Ioana; Moldoveanu, Georgiana Florentina; Gheorghiu, Irina Maria; Suciu, Ileana; Ciocîrdel, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the degree of tooth crown staining by commonly used endodontic sealers. Crown discolorations by tooth canal sealers [AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey Gmbh, Konstanz, Germany); Endofill (Produits Dentaires SA, Vevey, Switzerland); Apexit (Dentsply DeTrey Gmbh, Konstanz, Germany); and MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil)] were tested on extracted human premolars. The samples were divided into five groups of five samples each, after root canal sealing. Five teeth were used as control groups. The spectrophotometric method was performed in order to quantify in terms of color change of the coronal part (it was also recorded a track on how the color changes over time). For the microscopic study of the extracted dental specimens subjected to this study, polarized transmitted light microscopy was used. This method involves the development of special microscopic preparations, called "thin sections". In our case, the thin section was performed on 20 prepared and obturated recently extracted teeth. The degree of discoloration was determined after one week and three months using spectrophotometry and polarized light microscopy. All sealers usually cause some degree of discoloration on the cervical aspect of the crowns that increases in time. AH Plus and Endofill caused the greatest discoloration, followed by Apexit and MTA Fillapex.

  14. Extensive tests of Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPD) used to collect Cherenkov light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsato, E.; Buccheri, A.; DalCorso, F.; Ferroni, F.; Iacovella, F.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Morandin, M.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Posocco, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Stroili, R.; Torassa, E.; Voci, C.

    1997-01-01

    The principle of operation of a newly developed proximity focused Hybrid Photon Detector is described. The HPD characteristics, performance and calibration are reported. Results from beam tests of aerogel threshold counters read out by HPD and the particle identification performance are presented. (orig.)

  15. Merger of the DIAMANT Light Charge Particle Detector into the AFRODITE Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, S.H.T.; Mullins, S.M.; Bark, R.A.; Gueorguieva, E.; Lawrie, J.J.; Pilcher, J.V.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Gal, J.; Kalinka, G.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Molnar, L.; Nyako, B. M.; Timar, J.; Zolnai, L.; Hlatshwayo, T.; Juhasz, K.; Komati, F.S.; Malwela, T.; Ntshangase, S.; Shirinda, O.

    2005-01-01

    The Chessboard section of the DIAMANT CsI detector array has been merged into the AFRODITE γ-ray spectrometer acquisition system. The details of the data acquisition merging is explained together with how consistency is maintained and ensured between the two distinct systems

  16. Semi-autonomous inline water analyzer: design of a common light detector for bacterial, phage, and immunological biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Elodie C T; Meunier, Damien; Brutesco, Catherine; Prévéral, Sandra; Franche, Nathalie; Bazin, Ingrid; Miclot, Bertrand; Larosa, Philippe; Escoffier, Camille; Fantino, Jean-Raphael; Garcia, Daniel; Ansaldi, Mireille; Rodrigue, Agnès; Pignol, David; Cholat, Pierre; Ginet, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The use of biosensors as sensitive and rapid alert systems is a promising perspective to monitor accidental or intentional environmental pollution, but their implementation in the field is limited by the lack of adapted inline water monitoring devices. We describe here the design and initial qualification of an analyzer prototype able to accommodate three types of biosensors based on entirely different methodologies (immunological, whole-cell, and bacteriophage biosensors), but whose responses rely on the emission of light. We developed a custom light detector and a reaction chamber compatible with the specificities of the three systems and resulting in statutory detection limits. The water analyzer prototype resulting from the COMBITOX project can be situated at level 4 on the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale and this technical advance paves the way to the use of biosensors on-site.

  17. Development of a diamond detector for temporal profile measurements of intense, short ion bunches within the LIGHT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Diana [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Traeger, Michael; Kis, Mladen [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In the context of the Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport (LIGHT) research project at GSI, laser-driven ion acceleration and beam shaping are explored, combining a target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) proton source with conventional accelerator technology. In the LIGHT experimental campaign in 2015, protons were accelerated via the TNSA mechanism, an energy of 7.8 MeV was selected and collimated with a pulsed solenoid and injected into a rf cavity. Through phase focusing, temporally compressed proton bunches were generated to a pulse length of <240 ps (FWHM) with up to 5 x 10{sup 8} particles in a single bunch at a distance of 6 m from the source. An ultrafast diamond detector has been specially developed to measure the temporal profile of these bunches and will be presented.

  18. UVSiPM: A light detector instrument based on a SiPM sensor working in single photon counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sottile, G.; Russo, F.; Agnetta, G. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Belluso, M.; Billotta, S. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Biondo, B. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Bonanno, G. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Catalano, O.; Giarrusso, S. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Grillo, A. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Impiombato, D.; La Rosa, G.; Maccarone, M.C.; Mangano, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Marano, D. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Mineo, T.; Segreto, A.; Strazzeri, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Timpanaro, M.C. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    UVSiPM is a light detector designed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the 320–900 nm wavelength range. It has been developed in the framework of the ASTRI project whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end Small Size class Telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The UVSiPM instrument is composed by a multipixel Silicon Photo-Multiplier detector unit coupled to an electronic chain working in single photon counting mode with 10 nanosecond double pulse resolution, and by a disk emulator interface card for computer connection. The detector unit of UVSiPM is of the same kind as the ones forming the camera at the focal plane of the ASTRI prototype. Eventually, the UVSiPM instrument can be equipped with a collimator to regulate its angular aperture. UVSiPM, with its peculiar characteristics, will permit to perform several measurements both in lab and on field, allowing the absolute calibration of the ASTRI prototype.

  19. Planar Poincare chart - A planar graphic representation of the state of light polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Hunter, William W., Jr.; Ocheltree, Stewart L.

    1989-01-01

    The planar Poincare chart, which represents the complete planar equivalence of the Poincare sphere, is proposed. The four sets of basic lines are drawn on two separate charts for the generalization and convenience of reading the scale. The chart indicates the rotation of the principal axes of linear birefringent material. The relationships between parameters of the two charts are given as 2xi-2phi (orientation angle of the major axis-ellipticity angle) pair and 2alpha-delta (angle of amplitude ratio-phase difference angle) pair. The results are useful for designing and analyzing polarization properties of optical components with birefringent properties.

  20. The use of light detectors to discriminate between detonation and deflagration of explosive charges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that reacting explosives emit light of varying intensity across the spectrum. Measurement of this light emission could have many applications, i.a. the local or stand-off discrimination between full detonation and deflagration...

  1. State preparation and detector effects in quantum measurements of rotation with circular polarization-entangled photons and photon counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Longzhu; Zhang, Zijing; Zhang, Jiandong; Li, Shuo; Sun, Yifei; Yan, Linyu; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Circular polarization-entangled photons can be used to obtain an enhancement of the precision in a rotation measurement. In this paper, the method of entanglement transformation is used to produce NOON states in circular polarization from a readily generated linear polarization-entangled photon source. Detection of N -fold coincidences serves as the postselection and N -fold superoscillating fringes are obtained simultaneously. A parity strategy and conditional probabilistic statistics contribute to a better fringe, saturating the angle sensitivity to the Heisenberg limit. The impact of imperfect state preparation and detection is discussed both separately and jointly. For the separated case, the influence of each system imperfection is pronounced. For the joint case, the feasibility region for surpassing the standard quantum limit is given. Our work pushes the state preparation of circular polarization-entangled photons to the same level as that in the case of linear polarization. It is also confirmed that entanglement can be transformed into different frames for specific applications, serving as a useful scheme for using entangled sources.

  2. Measurement and optimization of the light collection uniformity in strongly tapered PWO crystals of the PANDA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Stefan; Bremer, Daniel; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Dormenev, Valery; Eissner, Tobias; Novotny, Rainer W.; Rosenbaum, Christoph; Zaunick, Hans-Georg; PANDA Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    The uniformity of the light collection is a crucial parameter for detectors based on inorganic scintillation crystals to guarantee a response proportional to the deposited energy. Especially in case of tapered crystals, like they are widely used to realize a 4π geometry of electromagnetic calorimeters (EMC) in high energy physics experiments, a strong non-uniformity is introduced by an additional focusing of the scintillation light due to the tapered geometry. The paper will discuss the determination and the reduction of the non-uniformity in strongly tapered lead tungstate crystals as used for the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). Among different concepts for an uniformization a single de-polished lateral side face provided the optimum result with a remaining non-uniformity below 5% in good agreement with similar studies for the CMS ECAL at LHC. The impact on the achievable energy resolution in the energy regime of photons below 800 MeV is discussed in detail in comparison to GEANT4 simulations. The comparison of the response of two arrays with polished and de-polished crystals, respectively, shows in the latter case a significant improvement of the constant term of the parametrization of the energy resolution down to 0.5% accompanied by only very slight increase of the statistical term.

  3. Measurement and optimization of the light collection uniformity in strongly tapered PWO crystals of the PANDA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Stefan; Bremer, Daniel; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Dormenev, Valery; Eissner, Tobias; Novotny, Rainer W.; Rosenbaum, Christoph; Zaunick, Hans-Georg

    2017-06-11

    The uniformity of the light collection is a crucial parameter for detectors based on inorganic scintillation crystals to guarantee a response proportional to the deposited energy. Especially in case of tapered crystals, like they are widely used to realize a 4π geometry of electromagnetic calorimeters (EMC) in high energy physics experiments, a strong non-uniformity is introduced by an additional focusing of the scintillation light due to the tapered geometry. The paper will discuss the determination and the reduction of the non-uniformity in strongly tapered lead tungstate crystals as used for the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). Among different concepts for an uniformization a single de-polished lateral side face provided the optimum result with a remaining non-uniformity below 5% in good agreement with similar studies for the CMS ECAL at LHC. The impact on the achievable energy resolution in the energy regime of photons below 800 MeV is discussed in detail in comparison to GEANT4 simulations. The comparison of the response of two arrays with polished and de-polished crystals, respectively, shows in the latter case a significant improvement of the constant term of the parametrization of the energy resolution down to 0.5% accompanied by only very slight increase of the statistical term.

  4. Characterization of Si detectors, search for vertex and potentiality of detecting a light charged Higgs boson in the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estre, N.

    2004-01-01

    The CMS (compact muon solenoid) detector that will be set on the future LHC (large hadron collider) accelerator will enable us to continue our search for the Higgs boson as well as to look for any hint for a new physics beyond the standard model. CMS is composed of an efficient muon detector, an electromagnetic calorimeter and of a tracker with high spatial resolution, this tracker is the topic of this thesis. The tracker will allow an accurate reconstruction of charged-particles trajectories and the reconstruction of the primary interaction vertex. The tracker's technology is based on micro-strip Si detectors, tests performed with the SPS particle beam show that these detectors have an impact reconstruction efficiency greater than 98% and a piling-up rate limited to 6%. The spatial resolution concerning particle trajectories is about 45 μm for an interval of 183 μm between 2 strips. The simulation for the search for a light charged Higgs boson show that an excess of τν τ + bb-bar + qq-bar' events is possible to be observed for any value of tan(β) up to M A = 122 GeV/c 2 during the first year of operation and up to 136 GeV/c 2 afterwards. With the assumption that this event excess is due to the decay of charged Higgs bosons we can state that the assessment of its mass will be possible till m H = 150 GeV/c 2 with an accuracy of 15 GeV/c 2 . (A.C.)

  5. Light composite mirrors for RICH detectors Production, characterisation and stability tests

    CERN Document Server

    Bellunato, T F; Calvi, M; Chignoli, F; D'Ambrosio, C; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Perego, D L

    2005-01-01

    The production of lightweight composite mirror prototypes suitable for application in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors is described. The goal is the use of such mirrors whenever material budget is a concern. The manufacturing technique is described in detail, together with the achieved results in terms of optical quality. Several ageing tests have been performed on some of the prototypes. The results of these tests are reported.

  6. Intrinsic fluorescence for cervical precancer detection using polarized light based in-house fabricated portable device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Bharat Lal; Singh, Pankaj; Sah, Amar Nath; Pandey, Kiran; Agarwal, Asha; Pantola, Chayanika; Pradhan, Asima

    2018-01-01

    An in-house fabricated portable device has been tested to detect cervical precancer through the intrinsic fluorescence from human cervix of the whole uterus in a clinical setting. A previously validated technique based on simultaneously acquired polarized fluorescence and polarized elastic scattering spectra from a turbid medium is used to extract the intrinsic fluorescence. Using a diode laser at 405 nm, intrinsic fluorescence of flavin adenine dinucleotide, which is the dominant fluorophore and other contributing fluorophores in the epithelium of cervical tissue, has been extracted. Different grades of cervical precancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; CIN) have been discriminated using principal component analysis-based Mahalanobis distance and linear discriminant analysis. Normal, CIN I and CIN II samples have been discriminated from one another with high sensitivity and specificity at 95% confidence level. This ex vivo study with cervix of whole uterus samples immediately after hysterectomy in a clinical environment indicates that the in-house fabricated portable device has the potential to be used as a screening tool for in vivo precancer detection using intrinsic fluorescence.

  7. Molecular frame photoemission: a probe of electronic/nuclear photo-dynamics and polarization state of the ionizing light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veyrinas, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This is thesis is dedicated to the study and the use of the remarkable properties of the molecular frame photoelectron angular distribution (MFPAD). This observable is a very sensitive probe of both the photoionization (PI) processes in small molecules, through the determination of the magnitudes and relative phases of the dipole matrix elements, and the polarization state of the ionizing light, which is entirely encoded in the MFPAD in terms of the Stokes parameters (s1, s2, s3). MFPAD measurements take advantage of dissociative photoionization (DPI) processes by combining an electron-ion 3D momentum spectroscopy technique with the use of different radiation facilities: SOLEIL synchrotron (DESIRS and PLEIADES beamlines) and the XUV PLFA beamline (SLIC, LIDyL Attophysics group, CEA Saclay) based on the interaction of a strong laser field with a gaseous target called high harmonic generation (HHG). The first part of the thesis is devoted to the complete characterization of the polarization state of an incoming radiation. In this context, an original 'molecular polarimetry' method is introduced and demonstrated by comparison with a VUV optical polarimeter available on the DESIRS beamline. Using this method to determine the full polarization ellipse of HHG radiation generated in different conditions on the XUV PLFA facility leads to original results that include the challenging disentanglement of the circular and unpolarized components of the studied radiation. The second part deals with the study of DPI of the H 2 , D 2 and HD molecules induced by circularly polarized light at resonance with the doubly excited states Q1 and Q2. In this energy region (30-35 eV) where direct ionization, autoionization and dissociation compete on a femtosecond timescale, the photonic excitation gives rise to complex ultrafast electronic and nuclear coupled dynamics. The remarkable asymmetries observed in the circular dichroism in the molecular frame, compared to quantum

  8. Linear and circular polarized tunable slow light in Bragg-spaced graphene layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiang-Tao, E-mail: jtliu@semi.ac.cn [Nanoscale Science and Technology Laboratory, Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Liu, Nian-Hua [Nanoscale Science and Technology Laboratory, Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Hai [Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100037 (China); Wang, Tong-Biao [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Li, Xiao-Jing [College of Physics and Energy, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)

    2014-11-01

    The light pulse delay in Bragg-spaced graphene layers (BSGs) combined with a magnetic field is investigated theoretically. BSGs can slow down the group velocity of light more effectively than traditional Bragg-spaced quantum wells due to the large binding energy and strong dipole oscillator strength of the magnetic-exciton of graphene. The group velocity can be tuned by varying the pulse frequency, the Bragg frequency, and the magnetic field. Especially, by tuning the occupation number of the Landau level the group velocity in BSGs shows strong tunable circular dichroism. Our findings could have applications in photonic integrated circuits and quantum computation.

  9. Polarized Light Scattering from Perfect and Perturbed Surfaces and Fundamental Scattering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-29

    ob- one frequency, an extension of it to multiple-field interac- served in the elastically scattered light emitted from glass tions would follow the...that 8. V CeIll . A. A. Maradudin, A. M. Marvin, and A. R. McGurn, can explain only gross scattering features. It is inde "Some aspects of light...and a surface of index n a 10.0 - 0.01. Such a surface could be made with a series of 1/4-wave dielectric layers on a glass substrate. It Is more

  10. A Light Universal Detector for the Study of Correlations between Photons and Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The WA93 experiment combines two essential means of quark matter diagnosis: \\item a)~~~~the measurement of photon production rates relative to charged particles or $ \\pi ^0 ^{a}pos $s \\item b)~~~~the measurement of transverse momenta of charged and neutral particles and their correlations. \\end{enumerate} \\\\ \\\\ The experimental setup consists of highly segmented lead glass arrays (3780~modules) at a distance of 9~m from the target covering the range 2~$<$~y~$<$~3. The detector allows to reconstruct the transverse momentum of $ \\pi ^0 ^{a}pos $s and $ \\eta ^{a}pos $s. A preshower detector which can be operated in a hadron-blind mode complements the photon measurement in the range 3~$<$~y~$<$~5.5. The detector yields the number of photons and,~-~to a limited extend~-, information on the total electromagnetic transverse energy. Charged particle tracking is achieved by a set of newly developed multistep avalanche chambers read out by CCD cameras downstream of the GOLIATH vertex magnet. Bose-Einstein c...

  11. The potential of Neganov-Luke amplified cryogenic light detectors and the scintillation-light quenching mechanism in CaWO4 single crystals in the context of the dark matter search experiment CRESST-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Sabine B.

    2013-01-01

    The matter in universe is dominated by currently unknown elementary particles, the dark matter. Within the CRESST collaboration, it is attempted to directly detect dark matter for the first time. The interaction of this unknown kind of matter in the detector material creates phonons and light and allows, thus, for the detection and identification of these unknown particles. Within the present work, a new method for detecting the created light was investigated and a microscopic theory of the light creation in the detector material was developed as well as confirmed by experiments.

  12. Light Collection in the High Energy X-ray Detector with the Pixelated CdWO4 Scintillator using Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chang Hwy; Moon, Myung-Kook; Lee, Suhyun; Kim, Jongyul; Kim, Jeongho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Won [Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The performance of indirect detectors, which use the scintillator as CdWO{sub 4}, BGO, CsI, NaI, etc., are effected by optical properties of scintillator and geometrical condition of scintillator. Some of generated lights by interaction between x-ray photons and scintillator are collected at the photo-sensor and others are absorbed in scintillator or escape out of detector. In order to make the high performance image detector, detector should be able to gather the generated lights as much as possible. To minimize the loss of generated lights, thickness of scintillator is to be chosen appropriately. Therefore, the quality of the image detector using the pixelated scintillator is determined by scintillator size, reflectance of scintillator surface, electric noise, etc. In this study, we carried out a study the correlation between the number of collected light and the change of thickness of scintillator using Monte Carlo method. As shown in results, the optimal thickness of a scintillator should be properly selected depending on the incident x-ray energy. In case of without reflector, the scintillator thickness range for x-ray detection is thinner than other cases (with reflector). In the case of a scintillator with reflector, number of collected light and the optima thickness of a scintillator is higher and thicker than scintillator without reflector.

  13. Stereo photograph of atomic arrangement by circularly-polarized-light two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daimon, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    A stereo photograph of atomic arrangement was obtained for the first time. The stereo photograph was displayed directly on the screen of display-type spherical-mirror analyzer without any computer-aided conversion process. This stereo photography was realized taking advantage of the phenomenon of circular dichroism in photoelectron angular distribution due to the reversal of orbital angular momentum of photoelectrons. The azimuthal shifts of forward focusing peaks in a photoelectron angular distribution pattern taken with left and right helicity light in a special arrangement are the same as the parallaxes in a stereo view of atoms. Hence a stereoscopic recognition of three-dimensional atomic arrangement is possible, when the left eye and the right eye respectively view the two images obtained by left and right helicity light simultaneously. (author)

  14. Simultaneous determination of bioactive constituents in Danggui Buxue Tang for quality control by HPLC coupled with a diode array detector, an evaporative light scattering detector and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ling; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping; Ma, Yi-Han; Luo, Yong-Jing; Li, Hai-Yun

    2007-09-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a classical traditional Chinese formula comprising Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS) and Radix Astragali (RA), has been widely used to treat menopausal irregularity in Chinese women for nearly 800 years. In this study, a comprehensive analytical method of simultaneously determining the main types of bioactive constituents, eighteen in all from the formula, involving flavonoids, saponins, organic acid and some volatile compounds, was developed. This method was based on HPLC coupled to a diode array and evaporative light scattering detectors (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) on a common reverse-phase C(18) column. Liquid chromatography coupled with on-line electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was also used to further validate and analyze the constituents. It was found that 0.3% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile was the optimum mobile phase for gradient elution. This method, which showed good precision and accuracy, was successfully used to quantify the bioactive constituents in six products. As a result, the validated HPLC method, together with the LC-ESI-MS analysis, provided a new basis for assessing the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal compound preparations (TCMCPs) consisting of many bioactive components.

  15. Unified approach to the study of light and heavy mesons in the frameworkof the vacuum-polarization-corrected potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.; Jena, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Phenomenological evidence from meson spectroscopy is presented to support the view that a unified description of bound light- and heavy-quark systems is possible within the scope of a nonrelativistic-potential-model approach. The vacuum-polarization-corrected potential with its confinement part in the form of an approximately equal admixture of vector and scalar components is found to be a suitable one for the purpose. The overall systematics of the predictions based on this potential model for the meson masses, fine-hyperfine splittings, leptonic decay widths, and the Regge slopes are observed to be consistent with the premise that the forces between quarks and antiquarks are independent of the quark flavors

  16. High-Wattage Pulsed Irradiation of Linearly Polarized Near-Infrared Light to Stellate Ganglion Area for Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply high-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to the stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome (BMS and to assess the efficacy of the stellate ganglion area irradiation (SGR on BMS using differential time-/frequency-domain parameters (D parameters. Three patients with BMS received high-wattage pulsed SGR; the response to SGR was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS representing the intensity of glossalgia and D parameters used in heart rate variability analysis. High-wattage pulsed SGR significantly decreased the mean value of VAS in all cases without any adverse event such as thermal injury. D parameters mostly correlated with clinical condition of BMS. High-wattage pulsed SGR was safe and effective for the treatment of BMS; D parameters are useful for assessing efficacy of SGR on BMS.

  17. Analysis of peripheral thermal damage after laser irradiation of dentin using polarized light microscopy and synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, Alfredo; Sarma, Anupama V.; Le, Charles Q.; Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    It is necessary to minimize peripheral thermal damage during laser irradiation, since thermal damage to collagen and mineral compromises the bond strength to restorative materials in dentin and inhibits healing and osteointegration in bone. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lasers resonant to the specific absorption of water, collagen, and hydroxyapatite with pulse durations less than the thermal relaxation times at each respective laser wavelength will efficiently remove dentin with minimal peripheral thermal damage. Precise incisions were produced in 3 x 3 mm2 blocks of human dentin using CO2 (9.6 μm), Er:YSGG (2.79 μm), and Nd:YAG (355 nm) lasers with and without a computer controlled water spray. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography was used to obtain optical cross-sections of each incision to determine the rate and efficiency of ablation. The peripheral thermal damage zone around each incision was analyzed using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Synchrotron-Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectro-microscopy (SR-FTIR). Thermally induced chemical changes to both mineral and the collagen matrix was observed with SR-FTIR with a 10-μm spatial resolution and those changes were correlated with optical changes observed with PLM. Minimal (alveolar bone.

  18. Use of silicon drift detectors for the detection of medium-light elements in PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, R.; Bjeoumikhov, A.; Grassi, N.; Guazzoni, C.; Klatka, T.; Longoni, A.; Quattrone, A.

    2008-01-01

    In order to fully exploit in PIXE the superior performance of silicon drift detectors especially for the detection of low- and medium-energy X-rays, avoiding in particular the negative effects of backscattered particles, we developed a custom spectrometer based on a 10 mm 2 chip with a thermoelectric Peltier cooler and home-designed front-end electronics, coupled to a weakly focusing polycapillary lens. This paper briefly describes the detector + lens assembly and reports the results of first tests carried out at an external beam line of the LABEC laboratory in Florence. Excellent energy resolution is achieved under real operating conditions in a PIXE run (measured FWHM at 1 keV is 81 eV with a count-rate of 480 cps) and also the lineshapes are very good (FW1/10M over FWHM ratio is 2.1). As a whole, our preliminary tests gave encouraging results and also helped to point out some aspects which it is worthwhile to investigate further (e.g. how X-ray peak intensity ratios may be affected by inaccurate lens alignment), in order to profit fully from such a good performance of the spectrometer

  19. Evaluation of various planar gaseous detectors with CsI photocathodes for the detection of primary scintillation light from noble gases

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Carlson, P J; Francke, T; Iacobaeus, C; Pavlopoulos, P; Pietropaolo, F; Sokolova, T

    2003-01-01

    Noble gases and liquids are excellent scintillators and this opens a unique opportunity to directly detect the primary scintillation light produced in these media by photons or particles. This signal can be used for several purposes, for example as a start signal for TPCs or for particles identification. Usually photomultipliers (PMs) are used for the detection of the scintillation light. In our previous work we have demonstrated that costly PMs could be replaced by gaseous detectors with CsI photocathodes . Such detectors have the same quantum efficiency as the best PMs but at the same time are cheap, simple and have high position and time resolutions. The aim of this work is to evaluate various planar type gaseous detectors with CsI photocahodes in order to choose the best one for the detection of the primary scintillation light from noble gases and liquids.

  20. Study of J/psi polarization in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Batista Camejo, Arianna; Rosnet, Philippe

    The main purpose of the ALICE experiment is the study and characterization of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), a state of nuclear matter in which quarks and gluons are deconfined. Quarkonia (bound states of a heayvy quark Q and its anti-quark Q) constitute one of the most interesting probes of the QGP. Besides this motivation, the study of quarkonium production is very interesting since it can contribute to our understanding of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. The formation of quarkonium states in hadronic collisions is not yet completely understood. The two main theoretical approaches to describe the production of quarkonium states, the Color Singlet Model and the Non-Relativistic QCD framework (NRQCD), have historically presented problems to simultaneously describe the production cross section and polarization of such states. On the experimental side, quarkonium polarization measurements have not always been complete and consistent between them. So, neither from the theoretical nor fr...

  1. Detailed Structure of the Outer Disk Around HD 169142 with Polarized Light in H-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Munetake; Morita, Ayaka; Fukagawa, Misato; Muto, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Taku; Hashimoto, Jun; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Kanagawa, Kazuhiro D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Coronagraphic imagery of the circumstellar disk around HD 169142 in H-band polarized intensity (PI) with Subaru/HiCIAO is presented. The emission scattered by dust particles at the disk surface in 0.''2=r=1.''2, or 29=r=174 AU, is successfully detected. The azimuthally-averaged radial profile of the PI shows a double power-law distribution, in which the PIs in r = 29-52 AU and r = 81.2-145 AU respectively show r-3-dependence. These two power-law regions are connected smoothly with a transition zone (TZ), exhibiting an apparent gap in r = 40-70 AU. The PI in the inner power-law region shows a deep minimum whose location seems to coincide with the point source at lambda = 7 mm. This can be regarded as another sign of a protoplanet in TZ. The observed radial profile of the PI is reproduced by a minimally flaring disk with an irregular surface density distribution or with an irregular temperature distribution or with the combination of both. The depletion factor of surface density in the inner power-law region (r <50 AU) is derived to be =0.16 from a simple model calculation. The obtained PI image also shows small scale asymmetries in the outer power-law region. Possible origins for these asymmetries include corrugation of the scattering surface in the outer region, and shadowing effect by a puffed up structure in the inner power-law region.

  2. Multipoint alignment monitoring with amorphous silicon position detectors in a complex light path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A., E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.e [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    This document presents an application of the new generation of amorphous silicon position detecting (ASPD) sensors to multipoint alignment. Twelve units are monitored along a 20 m long laser beam, where the light path is deflected by 90{sup o} using a pentaprism.

  3. Multipoint alignment monitoring with amorphous silicon position detectors in a complex light path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents an application of the new generation of amorphous silicon position detecting (ASPD) sensors to multipoint alignment. Twelve units are monitored along a 20 m long laser beam, where the light path is deflected by 90 o using a pentaprism.

  4. Photonic crystals: A novel approach to enhance the light output of scintillation based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Auffray, E; Fabjan, C W

    2011-01-01

    Future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments as well as next generation medical imaging applications are more and more pushing towards better scintillation characteristics. One of the problems in heavy scintillating materials is related to their high electronic density, resulting in a large index of refraction. As a consequence, most of the scintillation light produced in the bulk material is trapped inside the crystal due to total internal reflection. The same problem also occurs with light emitting diodes (LEDs) and has for a long time been considered as a limiting factor for their overall efficiency. Recent studies have shown that those limits can be overcome by means of light scattering effects of photonic crystals (PhCs). In our simulations we could show light yield improvements between 90\\% and 110\\% when applying PhC structures to different scintillator materials. To evaluate the results, a PhC modified scintillator was produced in cooperation with the NIL (Nanotechnology Institute of Lyon). By using s...

  5. Arctic Riverine CDOM and its effects on the Polar Marine Light Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orandle, Zoe Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weijer, Wilbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Elliott, Scott M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Shanlin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    It is well-known that CDOM (Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter) can have a significant effect on biological activity in the photic zones of aquatic ecosystems. However, the extent of CDOM’s interference with biological activity is not well-known. We examined this issue in great detail in the mixed surface layer of the Arctic Ocean. We studied the impacts of CDOM’s light attenuation on Arctic phytoplankton populations to discover if riverine CDOM’s presence in the Arctic ocean could inhibit and possibly prevent local phytoplankton populations from performing photosynthesis. We incorporated biogeochemistry concepts and data with oceanographic models and calculations to approach the problem. The results showed that riverine CDOM can indeed significantly impact the productivity of phytoplankton populations during the spring and summer months near the major Arctic river mouths we chose to examine. Although our study was detailed and inclusive of many variables, the issue of CDOM’s light attenuation and its effects on phytoplankton populations must be explored on a global scale to help understand if riverine CDOM could prove disastrous for phytoplankton populations.

  6. arXiv Evidence for light-by-light scattering in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; 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Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; 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Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; 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Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; 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Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kravchenko, Anton; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McPherson, Robert; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo Jean; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; 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Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pi