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Sample records for polarized cars signal

  1. Effect of scattering on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C; De Vito, Giuseppe; Piazza, Vincenzo; Potma, Eric O; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2017-04-17

    We develop a computational framework to examine the factors responsible for scattering-induced distortions of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signals in turbid samples. We apply the Huygens-Fresnel wave-based electric field superposition (HF-WEFS) method combined with the radiating dipole approximation to compute the effects of scattering-induced distortions of focal excitation fields on the far-field CARS signal. We analyze the effect of spherical scatterers, placed in the vicinity of the focal volume, on the CARS signal emitted by different objects (2μm diameter solid sphere, 2μm diameter myelin cylinder and 2μm diameter myelin tube). We find that distortions in the CARS signals arise not only from attenuation of the focal field but also from scattering-induced changes in the spatial phase that modifies the angular distribution of the CARS emission. Our simulations further show that CARS signal attenuation can be minimized by using a high numerical aperture condenser. Moreover, unlike the CARS intensity image, CARS images formed by taking the ratio of CARS signals obtained using x- and y-polarized input fields is relatively insensitive to the effects of spherical scatterers. Our computational framework provide a mechanistic approach to characterizing scattering-induced distortions in coherent imaging of turbid media and may inspire bottom-up approaches for adaptive optical methods for image correction.

  2. Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A J; Poland, S P; Girkin, J M; Freudiger, C W; Evans, C L; Xie, X S

    2007-12-24

    We report the use of adaptive optics with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for label-free deep tissue imaging based on molecular vibrational spectroscopy. The setup employs a deformable membrane mirror and a random search optimization algorithm to improve signal intensity and image quality at large sample depths. We demonstrate the ability to correct for both system and sample-induced aberrations in test samples as well as in muscle tissue in order to enhance the CARS signal. The combined system and sample-induced aberration correction increased the signal by an average factor of approximately 3x for the test samples at a depth of 700 microm and approximately 6x for muscle tissue at a depth of 260 microm. The enhanced signal and higher penetration depth offered by adaptive optics will augment CARS microscopy as an in vivo and in situ biomedical imaging modality.

  3. An extended car-following model at signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2014-08-01

    To simulate car-following behaviors better when the traffic light is red, three successive car-following data at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were collected by using a new proposed data acquisition method and then analyzed to select input variables of the extended car-following model. An extended car-following model considering two leading cars' accelerations was proposed, calibrated and verified with field data obtained on the basis of the full velocity difference model and then a comparative model used for comparative research was also proposed and calibrated in the light of the GM model. The results indicate that the extended car-following model could fit measured data well, and that the fitting precision of the extended model is prior to the comparative model, whose mean absolute error is reduced by 22.83%. Finally a theoretical car-following model considering multiple leading cars' accelerations was put forward which has potential applicable to vehicle automation system and vehicle safety early warning system, and then the linear stability analysis and numerical simulations were conducted to analyze some observed physical features existing in the realistic traffic.

  4. M-CARS and EFISHG study of the influence of a static electric field on a non-polar molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitaine, E.; Louot, C.; Ould-Moussa, N.; Lefort, C.; Kaneyasu, J. F.; Kano, H.; Pagnoux, D.; Couderc, V.; Leproux, P.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of a static electric field on a non-polar molecule has been studied by means of multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (M-CARS). A parallel measurement of electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) has also been led. Both techniques suggest a reorientation of the molecule due to the presence of an electric field. This phenomenon can be used to increase the chemical selectivity and the signal to non-resonant background ratio, namely, the sensitivity of the M-CARS spectroscopy.

  5. Symmetry breaking signaling mechanisms during cell polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruurs, LJM

    2017-01-01

    Breaking of cellular symmetry in order to establish an apico-basal polarity axis initiates de novo formation of cell polarity. However, symmetry breaking provides a formidable challenge from a signaling perspective, because by definition no spatial cues are present to instruct axis establishment.

  6. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Blaho

    Full Text Available The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids. (ii Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries than matt black finish. (iii The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  7. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaho, Miklos; Herczeg, Tamas; Kriska, Gyorgy; Egri, Adam; Szaz, Denes; Farkas, Alexandra; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Czinke, Laszlo; Barta, Andras; Horvath, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt) surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i) The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt) and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids). (ii) Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries) than matt black finish. (iii) The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a) matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b) these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  8. Polarization Signals of Common Spacecraft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravseth, Ian; Culp, Robert D.; King, Nicole

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report documenting the results of the polarization testing of near-planar objects with various reflectance properties. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the portion of the reflected signal which is polarized for materials commonly used in space applications. Tests were conducted on several samples, with surface characteristics ranging from highly reflective to relatively dark. The measurements were obtained by suspending the test object in a beam of collimated light. The amount of light falling on the sample was controlled by a circular aperture placed in the light field. The polarized reflectance at various phase angles was then measured. A nonlinear least squares fitting program was used for analysis. For the specular test objects, the reflected signals were measured in one degree increments near the specular point. Otherwise, measurements were taken every five degrees in phase angle. Generally, the more diffuse surfaces had lower polarized reflectances than their more specular counterparts. The reflected signals for the more diffuse surfaces were spread over a larger phase angle range, while the signals from the more specular samples were reflected almost entirely within five degrees of angular deviation from the specular point. The method used to test all the surfaces is presented. The results of this study will be used to support the NASA Orbital Debris Optical Signature Tests. These tests are intended to help better understand the reflectance properties of materials often used in space applications. This data will then be used to improve the capabilities for identification and tracking of space debris.

  9. Wnt signaling and polarity in freshwater sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor Reid, Pamela J; Matveev, Eugueni; McClymont, Alexandra; Posfai, Dora; Hill, April L; Leys, Sally P

    2018-02-02

    The Wnt signaling pathway is uniquely metazoan and used in many processes during development, including the formation of polarity and body axes. In sponges, one of the earliest diverging animal groups, Wnt pathway genes have diverse expression patterns in different groups including along the anterior-posterior axis of two sponge larvae, and in the osculum and ostia of others. We studied the function of Wnt signaling and body polarity formation through expression, knockdown, and larval manipulation in several freshwater sponge species. Sponge Wnts fall into sponge-specific and sponge-class specific subfamilies of Wnt proteins. Notably Wnt genes were not found in transcriptomes of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes vastus. Wnt and its signaling genes were expressed in archaeocytes of the mesohyl throughout developing freshwater sponges. Osculum formation was enhanced by GSK3 knockdown, and Wnt antagonists inhibited both osculum development and regeneration. Using dye tracking we found that the posterior poles of freshwater sponge larvae give rise to tissue that will form the osculum following metamorphosis. Together the data indicate that while components of canonical Wnt signaling may be used in development and maintenance of osculum tissue, it is likely that Wnt signaling itself occurs between individual cells rather than whole tissues or structures in freshwater sponges.

  10. Resonance Polarization and Phase-Mismatched CARS of Pheophytin b Excited in the Qy Band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boeij, W.P.; Lucassen, G.W.; Lucassen, Gerald; Otto, Cornelis; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Resonance polarization and phase-mismatched coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements were performed on pheophytin b dissolved in acetone excited in the Qy absorption band, where strong broad fluorescence makes spontaneous Raman spectroscopy impossible. The phase-mismatching

  11. Determining optimum operating conditions of the polarization-maintaining fiber with two far-lying zero dispersion wavelengths for CARS microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Majid; Murugkar, Sangeeta; Anis, Hanan

    2014-05-05

    Single femtosecond laser-based coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) pumped in the near-IR to generate a supercontinuum for the Stokes source, is rapidly being adopted as a cost-effective approach. A PCF with two closely-lying zero dispersion wavelengths is a popular choice for the Stokes source, but it is often limited to imaging lipids. A polarization-maintaining PCF with two far-lying zero dispersion wavelengths offers important advantages for polarization CARS microscopy, and for CARS imaging in the fingerprint region. This PCF fiber, though commercially available, has limited use for CARS microscopy in the C-H bond region. The main problem is that the supercontinuum from this fiber is typically noisier than that from a standard PCF with two closely-lying zero dispersion wavelengths. To overcome this, we determined the optimum operating conditions for generating a low-noise supercontinuum out of a PCF with two far-lying zero dispersion wavelengths, in terms of the input parameters of the excitation pulse. We measured the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the Stokes and the corresponding CARS signal as a function of the input laser parameters in this fiber. We showed that the results of CARS imaging using this alternate fiber are comparable to those achieved using the standard fiber, for input laser pulse conditions of low average power, narrow pulse width with slightly positive chirp, and polarization direction parallel to the slow axis of the selected fiber.

  12. The Molecular Interaction of CAR and JAML Recruits the Central Cell Signal Transducer PI3K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdino, Petra; Witherden, Deborah A.; Havran, Wendy L.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

    2010-11-15

    Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the primary cellular receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and most adenovirus serotypes and plays a crucial role in adenoviral gene therapy. Recent discovery of the interaction between junctional adhesion molecule-like protein (JAML) and CAR uncovered important functional roles in immunity, inflammation, and tissue homeostasis. Crystal structures of JAML ectodomain (2.2 angstroms) and its complex with CAR (2.8 angstroms) reveal an unusual immunoglobulin-domain assembly for JAML and a charged interface that confers high specificity. Biochemical and mutagenesis studies illustrate how CAR-mediated clustering of JAML recruits phosphoinositide 3-kinase (P13K) to a JAML intracellular sequence motif as delineated for the {alpha}{beta} T cell costimulatory receptor CD28. Thus, CAR and JAML are cell signaling receptors of the immune system with implications for asthma, cancer, and chronic nonhealing wounds.

  13. Lunar skylight polarization signal polluted by urban lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyba, C. C. M.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F.

    2011-12-01

    On clear moonlit nights, a band of highly polarized light stretches across the sky at a 90 degree angle from the moon, and it was recently demonstrated that nocturnal organisms are able to navigate based on it. Urban skyglow is believed to be almost unpolarized, and is therefore expected to dilute this unique partially linearly polarized signal. We found that urban skyglow has a greater than expected degree of linear polarization (p = 8.6 ± 0.3%), and confirmed that its presence diminishes the natural lunar polarization signal. We also observed that the degree of linear polarization can be reduced as the moon rises, due to the misalignment between the polarization angles of the skyglow and scattered moonlight. Under near ideal observing conditions, we found that the lunar polarization signal was clearly visible (p = 29.2 ± 0.8%) at a site with minimal light pollution 28 km from Berlin's center, but was reduced (p = 11.3 ± 0.3%) within the city itself. Daytime measurements indicate that without skyglow p would likely be in excess of 50%. These results indicate that nocturnal animal navigation systems based on perceiving polarized scattered moonlight likely fail to operate properly in highly light-polluted areas, and that future light pollution models must take polarization into account.

  14. Distinct Signaling of Coreceptors Regulates Specific Metabolism Pathways and Impacts Memory Development in CAR T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalekar, Omkar U; O'Connor, Roddy S; Fraietta, Joseph A; Guo, Lili; McGettigan, Shannon E; Posey, Avery D; Patel, Prachi R; Guedan, Sonia; Scholler, John; Keith, Brian; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Snyder, Nathaniel; Blair, Ian A; Blair, Ian; Milone, Michael C; June, Carl H

    2016-02-16

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) redirect T cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells, providing a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. Despite extensive clinical use, the attributes of CAR co-stimulatory domains that impact persistence and resistance to exhaustion of CAR-T cells remain largely undefined. Here, we report the influence of signaling domains of coreceptors CD28 and 4-1BB on the metabolic characteristics of human CAR T cells. Inclusion of 4-1BB in the CAR architecture promoted the outgrowth of CD8(+) central memory T cells that had significantly enhanced respiratory capacity, increased fatty acid oxidation and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. In contrast, CAR T cells with CD28 domains yielded effector memory cells with a genetic signature consistent with enhanced glycolysis. These results provide, at least in part, a mechanistic insight into the differential persistence of CAR-T cells expressing 4-1BB or CD28 signaling domains in clinical trials and inform the design of future CAR T cell therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A speed guidance strategy for multiple signalized intersections based on car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yi, Zhi-Yan; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Tao; Leng, Jun-Qiang

    2018-04-01

    Signalized intersection has great roles in urban traffic system. The signal infrastructure and the driving behavior near the intersection are paramount factors that have significant impacts on traffic flow and energy consumption. In this paper, a speed guidance strategy is introduced into a car-following model to study the driving behavior and the fuel consumption in a single-lane road with multiple signalized intersections. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can reduce the fuel consumption and the average stop times. The findings provide insightful guidance for the eco-driving strategies near the signalized intersections.

  16. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  17. Co-stimulatory signaling determines tumor antigen sensitivity and persistence of CAR T cells targeting PSCA+ metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priceman, Saul J; Gerdts, Ethan A; Tilakawardane, Dileshni; Kennewick, Kelly T; Murad, John P; Park, Anthony K; Jeang, Brook; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Yang, Xin; Urak, Ryan; Weng, Lihong; Chang, Wen-Chung; Wright, Sarah; Pal, Sumanta; Reiter, Robert E; Wu, Anna M; Brown, Christine E; Forman, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    Advancing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered adoptive T cells for the treatment of solid cancers is a major focus in the field of immunotherapy, given impressive recent clinical responses in hematological malignancies. Prostate cancer may be amenable to T cell-based immunotherapy since several tumor antigens, including prostate stem-cell antigen (PSCA), are widely over-expressed in metastatic disease. While antigen selectivity of CARs for solid cancers is crucial, it is problematic due to the absence of truly restricted tumor antigen expression and potential safety concerns with "on-target off-tumor" activity. Here, we show that the intracellular co-stimulatory signaling domain can determine a CAR's sensitivity for tumor antigen expression. A 4-1BB intracellular co-stimulatory signaling domain in PSCA-CARs confers improved selectivity for higher tumor antigen density, reduced T cell exhaustion phenotype, and equivalent tumor killing ability compared to PSCA-CARs containing the CD28 co-stimulatory signaling domain. PSCA-CARs exhibit robust in vivo anti-tumor activity in patient-derived bone-metastatic prostate cancer xenograft models, and 4-1BB-containing CARs show superior T cell persistence and control of disease compared with CD28-containing CARs. Our study demonstrates the importance of co-stimulation in defining an optimal CAR T cell, and also highlights the significance of clinically relevant models in developing solid cancer CAR T cell therapies.

  18. Co-stimulatory signaling determines tumor antigen sensitivity and persistence of CAR T cells targeting PSCA+ metastatic prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priceman, Saul J.; Gerdts, Ethan A.; Tilakawardane, Dileshni; Kennewick, Kelly T.; Murad, John P.; Park, Anthony K.; Jeang, Brook; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Urak, Ryan; Weng, Lihong; Chang, Wen-Chung; Wright, Sarah; Pal, Sumanta; Reiter, Robert E.; Brown, Christine E.; Forman, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Advancing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered adoptive T cells for the treatment of solid cancers is a major focus in the field of immunotherapy, given impressive recent clinical responses in hematological malignancies. Prostate cancer may be amenable to T cell-based immunotherapy since several tumor antigens, including prostate stem-cell antigen (PSCA), are widely over-expressed in metastatic disease. While antigen selectivity of CARs for solid cancers is crucial, it is problematic due to the absence of truly restricted tumor antigen expression and potential safety concerns with “on-target off-tumor” activity. Here, we show that the intracellular co-stimulatory signaling domain can determine a CAR's sensitivity for tumor antigen expression. A 4-1BB intracellular co-stimulatory signaling domain in PSCA-CARs confers improved selectivity for higher tumor antigen density, reduced T cell exhaustion phenotype, and equivalent tumor killing ability compared to PSCA-CARs containing the CD28 co-stimulatory signaling domain. PSCA-CARs exhibit robust in vivo anti-tumor activity in patient-derived bone-metastatic prostate cancer xenograft models, and 4-1BB-containing CARs show superior T cell persistence and control of disease compared with CD28-containing CARs. Our study demonstrates the importance of co-stimulation in defining an optimal CAR T cell, and also highlights the significance of clinically relevant models in developing solid cancer CAR T cell therapies. PMID:29308300

  19. Polarization of Narrowband VLF Transmitter Signals as an Ionospheric Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, N. C.; Cohen, M. B.; Said, R. K.; Gołkowski, M.

    2018-01-01

    Very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) transmitter remote sensing has long been used as a simple yet useful diagnostic for the D region ionosphere (60-90 km). All it requires is a VLF radio receiver that records the amplitude and/or phase of a beacon signal as a function of time. During both ambient and disturbed conditions, the received signal can be compared to predictions from a theoretical model to infer ionospheric waveguide properties like electron density. Amplitude and phase have in most cases been analyzed each as individual data streams, often only the amplitude is used. Scattered field formulation combines amplitude and phase effectively, but does not address how to combine two magnetic field components. We present polarization ellipse analysis of VLF transmitter signals using two horizontal components of the magnetic field. The shape of the polarization ellipse is unchanged as the source phase varies, which circumvents a significant problem where VLF transmitters have an unknown source phase. A synchronized two-channel MSK demodulation algorithm is introduced to mitigate 90° ambiguity in the phase difference between the horizontal magnetic field components. Additionally, the synchronized demodulation improves phase measurements during low-SNR conditions. Using the polarization ellipse formulation, we take a new look at diurnal VLF transmitter variations, ambient conditions, and ionospheric disturbances from solar flares, lightning-ionospheric heating, and lightning-induced electron precipitation, and find differing signatures in the polarization ellipse.

  20. The Use of Adaptive Traffic Signal Systems Based on Floating Car Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Astarita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple concept which has not been, up to now, thoroughly explored in scientific research: the use of information coming from the network of Internet connected mobile devices (on vehicles to regulate traffic light systems. Three large-scale changes are going to shape the future of transportation and could lead to the regulation of traffic signal system based on floating car data (FCD: (i the implementation of Internet connected cars with global navigation satellite (GNSS system receivers and the autonomous car revolution; (ii the spreading of mobile cooperative Web 2.0 and the extension to connected vehicles; (iii an increasing need for sustainability of transportation in terms of energy efficiency, traffic safety, and environmental issues. Up to now, the concept of floating car data (FCD has only been extensively used to obtain traffic information and estimate traffic parameters. Traffic lights regulation based on FCD technology has not been fully researched since the implementation requires new ideas and algorithms. This paper intends to provide a seminal insight into the important issue of adaptive traffic light based on FCD by presenting ideas that can be useful to researchers and engineers in the long-term task of developing new algorithms and systems that may revolutionize the way traffic lights are regulated.

  1. Cyclist kinematics in car impacts reconstructed in simulations and full scale testing with Polar dummy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Rodarius, C.; Fredriksson, R.

    2012-01-01

    For the development of effective vehicle-related safety solutions to improve cyclist and pedestrian protection, essential information on impact locations, impact situations and cyclist and pedestrian kinematics in impacts with passenger cars is fundamental. Accidentology research showed that

  2. Delay-based Passenger Car Equivalent at Signalized Intersections in Iran

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    Habibollah Nassiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their different sizes and operational characteristics, vehicles other than passenger cars have a different influence on traffic operations especially at intersections. The passenger car equivalent (PCE is the parameter that shows how many passenger cars must be substituted for a specific heavy vehicle to represent its influence on traffic operation. PCE is commonly estimated using headway-based methods that consider the excess headway utilized by heavy vehicles. In this research, the PCE was estimated based on the delay parameter at three signalized intersections in Tehran, Iran. The data collected were traffic volume, travel time for each movement, signalization, and geometric design information. These data were analysed and three different models, one for each intersection, were constructed and calibrated using TRAF-NETSIM simulation software for unsaturated traffic conditions. PCE was estimated under different scenarios and the number of approach movements at each intersection. The results showed that for approaches with only one movement, PCE varies from 1.1 to 1.65. Similarly, for approaches with two and three movements, the PCE varies from 1.07 to 1.99 and from 0.76 to 3.6, respectively. In addition, a general model was developed for predicting PCE for intersections with all of the movements considered. The results obtained from this model showed that the average PCE of 1.5 is similar to the value recommended by the HCM (Highway Capacity Manual 1985. However, the predicted PCE value of 1.9 for saturated threshold is closer to the PCE value of 2 which was recommended by the HCM 2000 and HCM 2010.

  3. Polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals in a silicon polarization diversity circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Ding, Yunhong; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion of a 40 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) data signal is demonstrated using four-wave mixing (FWM) in a silicon nanowire circuit. Polarization independence is achieved using a diversity circuit based on polarization...... rotators and splitters, which is fabricated by a simple process on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. Error-free performance is achieved with only 0.5 dB of power penalty compared to the wavelength conversion of a signal with well optimized input polarization. Additionally, data transmission over 161...

  4. Simultaneous Polarization Demultiplexing and Demodulation of PolMux-DPSK Signals in a Silicon Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Bo; Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous polarization demultiplexing and demodulation of PolMux-DPSK signals is demonstrated using a polarization splitter and rotator together with a single microring resonator on a silicon chip. System experimental results validate the concept.......Simultaneous polarization demultiplexing and demodulation of PolMux-DPSK signals is demonstrated using a polarization splitter and rotator together with a single microring resonator on a silicon chip. System experimental results validate the concept....

  5. CREB pathway links PGE2 signaling with macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Bing; Yoon, Young-Sil; Le Lay, John; Kaestner, Klaus H; Hedrick, Susan; Montminy, Marc

    2015-12-22

    Obesity is thought to promote insulin resistance in part via activation of the innate immune system. Increases in proinflammatory cytokine production by M1 macrophages inhibit insulin signaling in white adipose tissue. In contrast, M2 macrophages have been found to enhance insulin sensitivity in part by reducing adipose tissue inflammation. The paracrine hormone prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enhances M2 polarization in part through activation of the cAMP pathway, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we show that PGE2 stimulates M2 polarization via the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB)-mediated induction of Krupple-like factor 4 (KLF4). Targeted disruption of CREB or the cAMP-regulated transcriptional coactivators 2 and 3 (CRTC2/3) in macrophages down-regulated M2 marker gene expression and promoted insulin resistance in the context of high-fat diet feeding. As re-expression of KLF4 rescued M2 marker gene expression in CREB-depleted cells, our results demonstrate the importance of the CREB/CRTC pathway in maintaining insulin sensitivity in white adipose tissue via its effects on the innate immune system.

  6. PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENT (PCE OF THROUGH VEHICLES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS IN DHAKA METROPOLITAN CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha SAHA

    2009-01-01

    PCE currently used in Bangladesh is based on the values given in Geometric Design of Highways (MoC, 2001, which is the modification of the values given by Webster (1958 on the study performed in the United Kingdom in the 50's and 60's. But now-a-days, the situation is far different both for traffic and road user as the characteristics have changed from that time. Hence, in this paper an empirical study was carried out to determine the PCE of different types of vehicle that reflect the actual traffic conditions of Dhaka Metropolitan City. Data were collected from ten signalized intersections and the headway ratio method was used to estimate the PCE of different types of vehicle. The main vehicle compositions observed during the study period consist of passenger cars, auto-rickshaws, mini-buses and buses. The PCE obtained in this study were compared to the values established earlier. It was found that the estimated PCE are smaller than those being used in Bangladesh.

  7. Enhancement of molecular NMR signal induced by polarization transfer from laser-polarized 129Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xianping

    2001-01-01

    There is a large non-equilibrium nuclear polarization and a longer relaxation time in the laser-polarized 129 Xe produced by means of optical pumping and spin exchange. The characteristics of the laser-polarized 129 Xe permit the transfer of the polarization to enhance the atomic nuclear spin in liquid, solid and surface of solid molecules. Therefore, the sensitivity in nuclear magnetic resonance measurements for the molecules is enhanced and applications in the investigations of materials and surface sciences are expanded. The progress in the investigations of materials and surface sciences are expanded. The progress in the investigations of the polarization transfer between laser-polarized 129 Xe and the atomic nuclei in the molecules, the relative physics and the measurement of some parameters are introduced

  8. An extended car-following model at un-signalized intersections under V2V communication environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Li, Peng

    2018-01-01

    An extended car-following model is proposed in this paper to analyze the impacts of V2V (vehicle to vehicle) communication on the micro driving behavior at the un-signalized intersection. A four-leg un-signalized intersection with twelve streams (left-turn, through movement, and right turn from each leg) is used. The effect of the guidance strategy on the reduction of the rate of stops and total delay is explored by comparing the proposed model and the traditional FVD car-following model. The numerical results illustrate that potential conflicts between vehicles can be predicted and some stops can be avoided by decelerating in advance. The driving comfort and traffic efficiency can be improved accordingly. More benefits could be obtained under the long communication range, low to medium traffic density, and simple traffic pattern conditions. PMID:29425243

  9. EGFR signalling controls cellular fate and pancreatic organogenesis by regulating apicobasal polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löf-Öhlin, Zarah M; Nyeng, Pia; Bechard, Matthew E

    2017-01-01

    Apicobasal polarity is known to affect epithelial morphogenesis and cell differentiation, but it remains unknown how these processes are mechanistically orchestrated. We find that ligand-specific EGFR signalling via PI(3)K and Rac1 autonomously modulates apicobasal polarity to enforce...

  10. The Probing Radio Signal Polarization Effect on Separation Efficiency of Surface Target Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pinchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was a quantitative analysis of the level of interference with radar monitoring characteristics of surface targets, caused by the scattered electromagnetic field, arising due to the interaction between radio waves and sea surface, which is a study aspect a radiooceanography encompasses. Backscatter signal, arising from the interaction of radio waves and sea surface, extends in a direction opposite the probing radar signal of spread marine and coastal radar stations.With radar sounding of sea surface at high incidence angles of radio waves, a basic physical mechanism to form the received signal is resonant (Bragg scattering, and at small incidence angles of radio waves it is quasi-specular reflection. Consequently, the energy of electromagnetic radiation, backscattered by the sea surface, depends on the type of wave polarization: for horizontal polarization it is less than for vertical one.The paper presents a mathematical model, which describes dependence of interference level caused by interaction between radio waves and sea surface, on the radio wave polarization for the case when the same polarization is used to sent-out and receive a radio wave.To determine the noise reduction to be achievable with radar monitoring the surface targets by selecting the polarization of the probing radar signal, a signal/noise ratio is analyzed for its different polarizations.It is shown that in order to reduce the noise level caused by the interaction between radio waves and sea surface, it is possible to use the differences in the level of scattered radio signals of different polarization: with horizontally-polarized radar operation at incidence angles of 75°- 85° a signal/noise ratio is by 20-35 dB higher than that of vertically- polarized one.

  11. Cell polarity signaling in the plasticity of cancer cell invasiveness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gandalovičová, A.; Vomastek, Tomáš; Rosel, D.; Brábek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 18 (2016), s. 25022-25049 ISSN 1949-2553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06405S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : polarity * invasion * plasticity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.168, year: 2016

  12. Differences in passenger car and large truck involved crash frequencies at urban signalized intersections: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunjiao; Clarke, David B; Richards, Stephen H; Huang, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of intersection features on safety has been examined extensively because intersections experience a relatively large proportion of motor vehicle conflicts and crashes. Although there are distinct differences between passenger cars and large trucks-size, operating characteristics, dimensions, and weight-modeling crash counts across vehicle types is rarely addressed. This paper develops and presents a multivariate regression model of crash frequencies by collision vehicle type using crash data for urban signalized intersections in Tennessee. In addition, the performance of univariate Poisson-lognormal (UVPLN), multivariate Poisson (MVP), and multivariate Poisson-lognormal (MVPLN) regression models in establishing the relationship between crashes, traffic factors, and geometric design of roadway intersections is investigated. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the unknown parameters of these models. The evaluation results suggest that the MVPLN model possesses most of the desirable statistical properties in developing the relationships. Compared to the UVPLN and MVP models, the MVPLN model better identifies significant factors and predicts crash frequencies. The findings suggest that traffic volume, truck percentage, lighting condition, and intersection angle significantly affect intersection safety. Important differences in car, car-truck, and truck crash frequencies with respect to various risk factors were found to exist between models. The paper provides some new or more comprehensive observations that have not been covered in previous studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flux and polarization signals of spatially inhomogeneous gaseous exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karalidi, T.; Stam, D.M.; Guirado, D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We present numerically calculated, disk-integrated, spectropolarimetric signals of starlight that is reflected by vertically and horizontally inhomogeneous gaseous exoplanets. We include various spatial features that are present on Solar System’s gaseous planets: belts and zones, cyclonic

  14. THE HANLE AND ZEEMAN POLARIZATION SIGNALS OF THE SOLAR Ca II 8542 Å LINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štěpán, Jiri [Astronomical Institute ASCR, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Bueno, Javier Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-07-20

    We highlight the main results of a three-dimensional (3D) multilevel radiative transfer investigation about the solar disk-center polarization of the Ca ii 8542 Å line. First, through the use of a 3D model of the solar atmosphere, we investigate the linear polarization that occurs due to the atomic level polarization produced by the absorption and scattering of anisotropic radiation, taking into account the symmetry-breaking effects caused by its thermal, dynamic, and magnetic structure. Second, we study the contribution of the Zeeman effect to the linear and circular polarization. Finally, we show examples of the Stokes profiles produced by the joint action of the atomic level polarization and the Hanle and Zeeman effects. We find that the Zeeman effect tends to dominate the linear polarization signals only in the localized patches of opposite magnetic polarity, where the magnetic field is relatively strong and slightly inclined; outside such very localized patches, the linear polarization is often dominated by the contribution of atomic level polarization. We demonstrate that a correct modeling of this last contribution requires taking into account the symmetry-breaking effects caused by the thermal, dynamic, and magnetic structure of the solar atmosphere, and that in the 3D model used the Hanle effect in forward-scattering geometry (disk-center observation) mainly reduces the polarization corresponding to the zero-field case. We emphasize that, in general, a reliable modeling of the linear polarization in the Ca ii 8542 Å line requires taking into account the joint action of atomic level polarization and the Hanle and Zeeman effects.

  15. Changes of quantum state of polarization in coexistence scheme of quantum-classical signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun Wen; Li, Yun Xia; Shi, Lei; Xue, Yang

    2017-10-01

    State of polarization(SOP) of single photon is the information carrier of polarization encoding BB84 protocol. SOP of quantum must be interrupted when quantum key distribution(QKD) propagates with classical signal in the same fiber. Coexistence schemes of quantum-classical signal based on two-channel and four-channel have been built respectively on Optisystem in this paper. The influence on SOP of quantum signal in BB84 protocol from different classical optical signal channel has been analyzed and compared by Stokes vector method and Poincare sphere method. SOP of 100 photons in QKD have been simulated. The results show that more channels will increase the bit error rate of QKD, and this paper has described the SOP changes well in coexistence scheme of quantum-classical signal based on wavelength division multiplexing.

  16. Wavelength Conversion of DP-QPSK Signals in a Silicon Polarization Diversity Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Schroeder, Jochen; Ding, Yunhong

    2015-01-01

    Multichannel wavelength conversion is experimentally demonstrated for high-speed 128 Gb/s dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift keying signals using four-wave mixing in a polarization diversity circuit with silicon nanowires as nonlinear elements. The wavelength conversion performance is inves...... is investigated for both single-and three-channel input signals, showing quality factors well >9.8 dB (corresponding to bit-error-ratios better than 10(-3)) and with a negligible power penalty compared with the back-to-back case....

  17. LKB1 and AMPK Family Signaling: The Intimate Link Between Cell Polarity and Energy Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Marnix; ten Klooster, Jean Paul; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Clevers, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Jansen M, ten Klooster JP, Offerhaus GJ, Clevers H. LKB1 and AMPK Family Signaling: The Intimate Link Between Cell Polarity and Energy Metabolism. Physiol Rev 89: 777-798, 2009; doi:10.1152/physrev.00026.2008. Research on the LKB1 tumor suppressor protein mutated in cancer-prone Peutz-Jeghers

  18. Geometric effects on the flux and polarization signals of Jupiter-sized exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer (student TUDelft), Chris; Rossi, L.C.G.; Stam, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    The direct detection of reflected starlight from exoplanets marks the beginning of a new era in the characterization of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. The flux and in particular the linear polarization signals from such planets are sensitive to atmospheric structure and composition, but other

  19. Polarization of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal due to electron pressure anisotropy in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibullin, I.; Komarov, S.; Churazov, E.; Schekochihin, A.

    2018-02-01

    We describe polarization of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect associated with electron pressure anisotropy likely present in the intracluster medium (ICM). The ICM is an astrophysical example of a weakly collisional plasma where the Larmor frequencies of charged particles greatly exceed their collision frequencies. This permits formation of pressure anisotropies, driven by evolving magnetic fields via adiabatic invariance, or by heat fluxes. SZ polarization arises in the process of Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons off the thermal ICM electrons due to the difference in the characteristic thermal velocities of the electrons along two mutually orthogonal directions in the sky plane. The signal scales linearly with the optical depth of the region containing large-scale correlated anisotropy, and with the degree of anisotropy itself. It has the same spectral dependence as the polarization induced by cluster motion with respect to the CMB frame (kinematic SZ effect polarization), but can be distinguished by its spatial pattern. For the illustrative case of a galaxy cluster with a cold front, where electron transport is mediated by Coulomb collisions, we estimate the CMB polarization degree at the level of 10-8 (˜10 nK). An increase of the effective electron collisionality due to plasma instabilities will reduce the effect. Such polarization, therefore, may be an independent probe of the electron collisionality in the ICM, which is one of the key properties of a high-β weakly collisional plasma from the point of view of both astrophysics and plasma theory.

  20. Mathematical modeling of planar cell polarity signaling in the Drosophila melanogaster wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling refers to the coordinated polarization of cells within the plane of various epithelial tissues to generate sub-cellular asymmetry along an axis orthogonal to their apical-basal axes. For example, in the Drosophila wing, PCP is seen in the parallel orientation of hairs that protrude from each of the approximately 30,000 epithelial cells to robustly point toward the wing tip. Through a poorly understood mechanism, cell clones mutant for some PCP signaling components, including some, but not all alleles of the receptor frizzled, cause polarity disruptions of neighboring, wild-type cells, a phenomenon referred to as domineering nonautonomy. Previous models have proposed diffusible factors to explain nonautonomy, but no such factors have yet been found. This dissertation describes the mathematical modeling of PCP in the Drosophila wing, based on a contact dependent signaling hypothesis derived from experimental results. Intuition alone is insufficient to deduce that this hypothesis, which relies on a local feedback loop acting at the cell membrane, underlies the complex patterns observed in large fields of cells containing mutant clones, and others have argued that it cannot account for observed phenotypes. Through reaction-diffusion, partial differential equation modeling and simulation, the feedback loop is shown to fully reproduce PCP phenotypes, including domineering nonautonomy. The sufficiency of this model and the experimental validation of model predictions argue that previously proposed diffusible factors need not be invoked to explain PCP signaling and reveal how specific protein-protein interactions lead to autonomy or domineering nonautonomy. Based on these results, an ordinary differential equation model is derived to study the relationship of the feedback loop with upstream signaling components. The cadherin Fat transduces a cue to the local feedback loop, biasing the polarity direction of each cell toward the wing tip

  1. Dual Polarized Monopole Patch Antennas for UWB Applications with Elimination of WLAN Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, fabrication and measurement of dual polarized microstrip patch antennas for ultra wideband (UWB applications with notch at 5-6 GHz band. The proposed antenna rejects the wireless local area network (WLAN signals and work properly in the entire remaining ultra-wideband. Two antennas are designed for two different frequency bands of ultra wideband and both antennas together produce the entire ultra wideband with notch at 5-6 GHz band. The antennas are fed by a 50 coaxial probe and the entire design is optimized using CST Microwave Studio. The bandwidth of 3.1-5 GHz is achieved by the optimized design of Antenna-1 and the bandwidth of 6 -10.6 GHz is achieved by the optimized design of Antenna-2. The bandwidth of the optimized combined antenna is 3.1-10.6 GHz with elimination of the 5-6 GHz band. Both antennas are simulated, developed and measured. The simulated and measured results are presented. The two designed dual polarized antennas i.e. Antenna-1 and Antenna-2 can be used for 3.1-5 GHz band and 6-10.6 GHz band dual polarized applications, respectively, and the combined antenna structure can be used for UWB dual polarized applications with elimination of 5-6 GHz band signals.

  2. Contribution of the polarization moments of different rank to the integral CPT signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskova, E.; Alipieva, E.; Todorov, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we investigate the relation of the polarization moments having different ranks with the tensor components which form the observable integral CPT signal, in the presence of a stray magnetic field. A numerical experiment with parameters close to the real ones is performed, using a program based on the irreducible tensor operator formalism1. The integral fluorescent signal is calculated for the non-polarized fluorescence at different laser power excitation. Detailed analysis of the numerical solutions for all tensor components which describe population and alignment allows visualizing the dynamics of their behavior in dependence on the experimental geometry and laboratory magnetic field B'. The dependence of population f00, longitudinal f02 and transverse f22 alignment in the presence of transverse magnetic field is investigated. The shape and sign of the resonance change with laser power.

  3. Long-distance delivery of multi-channel polarization signals in nuclear fusion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jinseok; Chung, Jinil; Lee, Kyuhang

    2017-04-01

    A polarization-preserving optical system that includes a dual photoelastic modulator (PEM) has been designed and fabricated for the motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system which measures internal magnetic field structures inside the tokamak for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. The collection optics located outside the vacuum window is composed of four lenses, a dielectric coated mirror, and a dichroic beam splitter in addition to the PEM and a polarizer. The fiber dissector is designed based on the focal plane that aligns 25 lines of sight, each of which constitutes a bundle of 19 600-μm fibers. The fibers run about 40 m from the front optics in the tokamak vacuum vessel to the detector in the diagnostic area remote from the tokamak hall. This takes the advantage of the fact that the polarization information is intensity-modulated once going through the PEM and the polarizer. The polarization signals measured by the MSE diagnostic successfully demonstrates its proof-of-principle physics that is critical in the stable and steady-state operation of the tokamak plasmas.

  4. A Two Dimensional Overlapped Subaperture Polar Format Algorithm Based on Stepped-chirp Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinhua; Zhu, Daiyin; Nie, Xin; Zhu, Zhaoda

    2008-05-26

    In this work, a 2-D subaperture polar format algorithm (PFA) based on steppedchirp signal is proposed. Instead of traditional pulse synthesis preprocessing, the presented method integrates the pulse synthesis process into the range subaperture processing. Meanwhile, due to the multi-resolution property of subaperture processing, this algorithm is able to compensate the space-variant phase error caused by the radar motion during the period of a pulse cluster. Point target simulation has validated the presented algorithm.

  5. A Two Dimensional Overlapped Subaperture Polar Format Algorithm Based on Stepped-chirp Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoda Zhu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a 2-D subaperture polar format algorithm (PFA based on steppedchirp signal is proposed. Instead of traditional pulse synthesis preprocessing, the presented method integrates the pulse synthesis process into the range subaperture processing. Meanwhile, due to the multi-resolution property of subaperture processing, this algorithm is able to compensate the space-variant phase error caused by the radar motion during the period of a pulse cluster. Point target simulation has validated the presented algorithm.

  6. A Two Dimensional Overlapped Subaperture Polar Format Algorithm Based on Stepped-chirp Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Xinhua; Zhu, Daiyin; Nie, Xin; Zhu, Zhaoda

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a 2-D subaperture polar format algorithm (PFA) based on stepped-chirp signal is proposed. Instead of traditional pulse synthesis preprocessing, the presented method integrates the pulse synthesis process into the range subaperture processing. Meanwhile, due to the multi-resolution property of subaperture processing, this algorithm is able to compensate the space-variant phase error caused by the radar motion during the period of a pulse cluster. Point target simulation has valid...

  7. Blind equalization for dual-polarization two-subcarrier coherent QPSK-OFDM signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying

    2014-01-15

    Dual-polarization two-subcarrier coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) transmission and reception is successfully demonstrated with blind equalization. A two-subcarrier quadrature phase shift keyed OFDM (QPSK-OFDM) signal can be equalized as a 9-ary quadrature amplitude modulation signal in the time domain with the cascaded multimodulus algorithm equalization method. The nonlinear effect resistance and transmission distance can be enhanced compared with the traditional CO-OFDM transmission system based on frequency equalization with training sequence.

  8. Relieving the Impact of Transit Signal Priority on Passenger Cars through a Bilevel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit signal priority (TSP is an effective control strategy to improve transit operations on the urban network. However, the TSP may sacrifice the right-of-way of vehicles from side streets which have only few transit vehicles; therefore, how to minimize the negative impact of TSP strategy on the side streets is an important issue to be addressed. Concerning the typical mixed-traffic flow pattern and heavy transit volume in China, a bilevel model is proposed in this paper: the upper-level model focused on minimizing the vehicle delay in the nonpriority direction while ensuring acceptable delay variation in transit priority direction, and the lower-level model aimed at minimizing the average passenger delay in the entire intersection. The parameters which will affect the efficiency of the bilevel model have been analyzed based on a hypothetical intersection. Finally, a real-world intersection has been studied, and the average vehicle delay in the nonpriority direction decreased 11.28 s and 22.54 s (under different delay variation constraint compared to the models that only minimize average passenger delay, while the vehicle delay in the priority direction increased only 1.37 s and 2.87 s; the results proved the practical applicability and efficiency of the proposed bilevel model.

  9. Wavelength conversion of a 128 Gbit/s DP-QPSK signal in a silicon polarization diversity circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Schroeder, Jochen; Ding, Yunhong

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength conversion of a 128 Gbit/s DP-QPSK signal is demonstrated using FWM in a polarization diversity circuit with silicon nanowires as nonlinear elements. Error-free performances are achieved with a negligible power penalty.......Wavelength conversion of a 128 Gbit/s DP-QPSK signal is demonstrated using FWM in a polarization diversity circuit with silicon nanowires as nonlinear elements. Error-free performances are achieved with a negligible power penalty....

  10. Expanding signaling-molecule wavefront model of cell polarization in the Drosophila wing primordium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Juliana C; Nahmad, Marcos; Zhang, Peng Cheng; Lander, Arthur D; Yu, Clare C

    2017-07-01

    In developing tissues, cell polarization and proliferation are regulated by morphogens and signaling pathways. Cells throughout the Drosophila wing primordium typically show subcellular localization of the unconventional myosin Dachs on the distal side of cells (nearest the center of the disc). Dachs localization depends on the spatial distribution of bonds between the protocadherins Fat (Ft) and Dachsous (Ds), which form heterodimers between adjacent cells; and the Golgi kinase Four-jointed (Fj), which affects the binding affinities of Ft and Ds. The Fj concentration forms a linear gradient while the Ds concentration is roughly uniform throughout most of the wing pouch with a steep transition region that propagates from the center to the edge of the pouch during the third larval instar. Although the Fj gradient is an important cue for polarization, it is unclear how the polarization is affected by cell division and the expanding Ds transition region, both of which can alter the distribution of Ft-Ds heterodimers around the cell periphery. We have developed a computational model to address these questions. In our model, the binding affinity of Ft and Ds depends on phosphorylation by Fj. We assume that the asymmetry of the Ft-Ds bond distribution around the cell periphery defines the polarization, with greater asymmetry promoting cell proliferation. Our model predicts that this asymmetry is greatest in the radially-expanding transition region that leaves polarized cells in its wake. These cells naturally retain their bond distribution asymmetry after division by rapidly replenishing Ft-Ds bonds at new cell-cell interfaces. Thus we predict that the distal localization of Dachs in cells throughout the pouch requires the movement of the Ds transition region and the simple presence, rather than any specific spatial pattern, of Fj.

  11. Epidermal wound repair is regulated by the planar cell polarity signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddy, Jacinta; Wilanowski, Tomasz; Darido, Charbel; Dworkin, Sebastian; Ting, Stephen B.; Zhao, Quan; Rank, Gerhard; Auden, Alana; Srivastava, Seema; Papenfuss, Tony A.; Murdoch, Jennifer N.; Humbert, Patrick O.; Boulos, Nidal; Weber, Thomas; Zuo, Jian; Cunningham, John M.; Jane, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The mammalian PCP pathway regulates diverse developmental processes requiring coordinated cellular movement, including neural tube closure and cochlear stereociliary orientation. Here, we show that epidermal wound repair is regulated by PCP signaling. Mice carrying mutant alleles of PCP genes Vangl2, Celsr1, PTK7, and Scrb1, and the transcription factor Grhl3, interact genetically, exhibiting failed wound healing, neural tube defects and disordered cochlear polarity. Using phylogenetic analysis, ChIP, and gene expression in Grhl3−/− mice, we identified RhoGEF19, a homologue of a RhoA activator involved in PCP signaling in Xenopus, as a direct target of GRHL3. Knockdown of Grhl3 or RhoGEF19 in keratinocytes induced defects in actin polymerisation, cellular polarity and wound healing, and re-expression of RhoGEF19 rescued these defects in Grhl3-kd cells. These results define a role for Grhl3 in PCP signaling, and broadly implicate this pathway in epidermal repair. PMID:20643356

  12. Differences between signal currents for both polarities of applied voltages on cavity ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, N.

    2000-01-01

    It is necessary to obtain precise values of signal currents for the measurement of exposure rates for gamma rays with cavity ionization chambers. Signal currents are usually expected to have the same absolute values for both polarities of applied voltages. In the case of cylindrical cavity ionization chambers, volume recombination loss of ion pairs depends on the polarity of the applied voltage. This is because the values of mobility are different for positive and negative ions. It was found, however, that values of signal currents from a cylindrical ionization chamber change slightly more with a negative than with a positive applied voltage, even after being corrected for volume recombination loss. Moreover, absolute values of saturation currents, which are obtained by extrapolation of correction of initial recombination and diffusion loss, were larger for the negative than for the positive applied voltage. It is known from an experiment with parallel plate ionization chambers that when negative voltage is applied to the repeller electrode, the saturated signal current decreases with an increase in the applied voltage. This is because secondary electrons are accelerated and the stopping power of air for these electrons decreases. When positive voltage is applied, the reverse is true. The effects of acceleration and deceleration of secondary electrons by the electric field thus seem to cause a tendency opposite to the experimental results on the signal currents from cylindrical ionization chambers. The experimental results for the cylindrical ionization chamber can be explained as follows. When negative voltage is applied, secondary electrons are attracted to the central (collecting) electrode. Consequently, the path length of the trajectories of these secondary electrons in the ionization volume increases and signal current increases. The energy gain from the electric field by secondary electrons which stop in the ionization chamber also contributes to the

  13. A Density-Dependent Switch Drives Stochastic Clustering and Polarization of Signaling Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilkine, Alexandra; Angenent, Sigurd B.; Wu, Lani F.; Altschuler, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Positive feedback plays a key role in the ability of signaling molecules to form highly localized clusters in the membrane or cytosol of cells. Such clustering can occur in the absence of localizing mechanisms such as pre-existing spatial cues, diffusional barriers, or molecular cross-linking. What prevents positive feedback from amplifying inevitable biological noise when an un-clustered “off” state is desired? And, what limits the spread of clusters when an “on” state is desired? Here, we show that a minimal positive feedback circuit provides the general principle for both suppressing and amplifying noise: below a critical density of signaling molecules, clustering switches off; above this threshold, highly localized clusters are recurrently generated. Clustering occurs only in the stochastic regime, suggesting that finite sizes of molecular populations cannot be ignored in signal transduction networks. The emergence of a dominant cluster for finite numbers of molecules is partly a phenomenon of random sampling, analogous to the fixation or loss of neutral mutations in finite populations. We refer to our model as the “neutral drift polarity model.” Regulating the density of signaling molecules provides a simple mechanism for a positive feedback circuit to robustly switch between clustered and un-clustered states. The intrinsic ability of positive feedback both to create and suppress clustering is a general mechanism that could operate within diverse biological networks to create dynamic spatial organization. PMID:22102805

  14. A density-dependent switch drives stochastic clustering and polarization of signaling molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Jilkine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Positive feedback plays a key role in the ability of signaling molecules to form highly localized clusters in the membrane or cytosol of cells. Such clustering can occur in the absence of localizing mechanisms such as pre-existing spatial cues, diffusional barriers, or molecular cross-linking. What prevents positive feedback from amplifying inevitable biological noise when an un-clustered "off" state is desired? And, what limits the spread of clusters when an "on" state is desired? Here, we show that a minimal positive feedback circuit provides the general principle for both suppressing and amplifying noise: below a critical density of signaling molecules, clustering switches off; above this threshold, highly localized clusters are recurrently generated. Clustering occurs only in the stochastic regime, suggesting that finite sizes of molecular populations cannot be ignored in signal transduction networks. The emergence of a dominant cluster for finite numbers of molecules is partly a phenomenon of random sampling, analogous to the fixation or loss of neutral mutations in finite populations. We refer to our model as the "neutral drift polarity model." Regulating the density of signaling molecules provides a simple mechanism for a positive feedback circuit to robustly switch between clustered and un-clustered states. The intrinsic ability of positive feedback both to create and suppress clustering is a general mechanism that could operate within diverse biological networks to create dynamic spatial organization.

  15. Polarization-based enhancement of ocean color signal for estimating suspended particulate matter: radiative transfer simulations and laboratory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; He, Xianqiang; Liu, Jiahang; Bai, Yan; Wang, Difeng; Chen, Tieqiao; Wang, Yihao; Zhu, Feng

    2017-04-17

    Absorption and scattering by molecules, aerosols and hydrosols, and the reflection and transmission over the sea surface can modify the original polarization state of sunlight. However, water-leaving radiance polarization, containing embedded water constituent information, has largely been neglected. Here, the efficiency of the parallel polarization radiance (PPR) for enhancing ocean color signal of suspended particulate matter is examined via vector radiative transfer simulations and laboratory experiments. The simulation results demonstrate that the PPR has a slightly higher ocean color signal at the top-of-atmosphere as compared with that of the total radiance. Moreover, both the simulations and laboratory measurements reveal that, compared with total radiance, PPR can effectively enhance the normalized ocean color signal for a large range of observation geometries, wavelengths, and suspended particle concentrations. Thus, PPR has great potential for improving the ocean color signal detection from satellite.

  16. Zebrafish models of non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity signalling: fishing for valuable insight into vertebrate polarized cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussila, Maria; Ciruna, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) coordinates the uniform orientation, structure and movement of cells within the plane of a tissue or organ system. It is beautifully illustrated in the polarized arrangement of bristles and hairs that project from specialized cell surfaces of the insect abdomen and wings, and pioneering genetic studies using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have defined a core signalling network underlying PCP. This core PCP/non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway is evolutionarily conserved, and studies in zebrafish have helped transform our understanding of PCP from a peculiarity of polarized epithelia to a more universal cellular property that orchestrates a diverse suite of polarized cell behaviors that are required for normal vertebrate development. Furthermore, application of powerful genetics, embryonic cell-transplantation, and live-imaging capabilities afforded by the zebrafish model have yielded novel insights into the establishment and maintenance of vertebrate PCP, over the course of complex and dynamic morphogenetic events like gastrulation and neural tube morphogenesis. Although key questions regarding vertebrate PCP remain, with the emergence of new genome-editing technologies and the promise of endogenous labeling and Cre/LoxP conditional targeting strategies, zebrafish remains poised to deliver fundamental new insights into the function and molecular dynamic regulation of PCP signalling from embryonic development through to late-onset phenotypes and adult disease states. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e267. doi: 10.1002/wdev.267 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The RWP-RK factor GROUNDED promotes embryonic polarity by facilitating YODA MAP kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sangho; Palmer, Travis M; Lukowitz, Wolfgang

    2011-08-09

    The division of plant zygotes is typically asymmetric, generating daughter cells with different developmental fates. In Arabidopsis, the apical daughter cell produces the proembryo, whereas the basal daughter cell forms the mostly extraembryonic suspensor. Establishment of apical and basal fates is known to depend on the YODA (YDA) mitogen-associated protein (MAP) kinase cascade and WUSCHEL-LIKE HOMEOBOX (WOX) homeodomain transcription factors. Mutations in GROUNDED (GRD) cause anatomical defects implying a partial loss of developmental asymmetry in the first division. Subsequently, suspensor-specific WOX8 expression disappears while proembryo-specific ZLL expression expands in the mutants, revealing that basal fates are confounded. GRD encodes a small nuclear protein of the RWP-RK family and is broadly transcribed in the early embryo. Loss of GRD eliminates the dominant effects of hyperactive YDA variants, indicating that GRD is required for YDA-dependent signaling in the embryo. However, GRD function is not regulated via direct phosphorylation by MAP kinases, and forced expression of GRD does not suppress the effect of yda mutations. In a strong synthetic interaction, grd;wox8;wox9 triple mutants arrest as zygotes or one-cell embryos lacking apparent polarity. The predicted transcription factor GRD acts cooperatively with WOX homeodomain proteins to establish embryonic polarity in the first division. Like YDA, GRD promotes zygote elongation and basal cell fates. GRD function is required for YDA-dependent signaling but apparently not regulated by the YDA MAP kinase cascade. Similarity of GRD to Chlamydomonas MID suggests a conserved role for small RWP-RK proteins in regulating the transcriptional programs of generative cells and the zygote. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Head Neck & Nervous System > Car Sickness Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Car Sickness Page Content ...

  19. CLAMP/Spef1 regulates planar cell polarity signaling and asymmetric microtubule accumulation in the Xenopus ciliated epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun K; Zhang, Siwei; Werner, Michael E; Brotslaw, Eva J; Mitchell, Jennifer W; Altabbaa, Mohamed M; Mitchell, Brian J

    2018-03-07

    Most epithelial cells polarize along the axis of the tissue, a feature known as planar cell polarity (PCP). The initiation of PCP requires cell-cell signaling via the noncanonical Wnt/PCP pathway. Additionally, changes in the cytoskeleton both facilitate and reflect this polarity. We have identified CLAMP/Spef1 as a novel regulator of PCP signaling. In addition to decorating microtubules (MTs) and the ciliary rootlet, a pool of CLAMP localizes at the apical cell cortex. Depletion of CLAMP leads to the loss of PCP protein asymmetry, defects in cilia polarity, and defects in the angle of cell division. Additionally, depletion of CLAMP leads to a loss of the atypical cadherin-like molecule Celrs2, suggesting that CLAMP facilitates the stabilization of junctional interactions responsible for proper PCP protein localization. Depletion of CLAMP also affects the polarized organization of MTs. We hypothesize that CLAMP facilitates the establishment of cell polarity and promotes the asymmetric accumulation of MTs downstream of the establishment of proper PCP. © 2018 Kim et al.

  20. Design of an intelligent car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  1. Non-canonical Wnt signaling regulates cell polarity in female reproductive tract development via van gogh-like 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    vandenBerg, Alysia L.; Sassoon, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Wnt signaling effectors direct the development and adult remodeling of the female reproductive tract (FRT); however, the role of non-canonical Wnt signaling has not been explored in this tissue. The non-canonical Wnt signaling protein van gogh-like 2 is mutated in loop-tail (Lp) mutant mice (Vangl2Lp), which display defects in multiple tissues. We find that Vangl2Lp mutant uterine epithelium displays altered cell polarity, concommitant with changes in cytoskeletal actin and scribble (scribbled, Scrb1) localization. The postnatal mutant phenotype is an exacerbation of that seen at birth, exhibiting more smooth muscle and reduced stromal mesenchyme. These data suggest that early changes in cell polarity have lasting consequences for FRT development. Furthermore, Vangl2 is required to restrict Scrb1 protein to the basolateral epithelial membrane in the neonatal uterus, and an accumulation of fibrillar-like structures observed by electron microscopy in Vangl2Lp mutant epithelium suggests that mislocalization of Scrb1 in mutants alters the composition of the apical face of the epithelium. Heterozygous and homozygous Vangl2Lp mutant postnatal tissues exhibit similar phenotypes and polarity defects and display a 50% reduction in Wnt7a levels, suggesting that the Vangl2Lp mutation acts dominantly in the FRT. These studies demonstrate that the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity through non-canonical Wnt signaling are required for FRT development. PMID:19363157

  2. Curcumin Modulates Macrophage Polarization Through the Inhibition of the Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression and its Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoyao Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curcumin, the active ingredient in curcuma rhizomes, has a wide range of therapeutic effects. However, its atheroprotective activity in human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells remains unclear. We investigated the activity and molecular mechanism of action of curcumin in polarized macrophages. Methods: Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA-treated THP-1 cells were differentiated to macrophages, which were further polarized to M1 cells by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 µg/ml and interferon (IFN-γ (20 ng/ml and treated with varying curcumin concentrations. [3H]thymidine (3H-TdR incorporation assays were utilized to measure curcumin-induced growth inhibition. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-12B (p40 were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Macrophage polarization and its mechanism were evaluated by flow cytometry and western blot. Additionally, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 small interfering RNA and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors were used to further confirm the molecular mechanism of curcumin on macrophage polarization. Results: Curcumin dose-dependently inhibited M1 macrophage polarization and the production of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-12B (p40. It also decreased TLR4 expression, which regulates M1 macrophage polarization. Furthermore, curcumin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, p38, and nuclear factor (NF-γB. In contrast, SiTLR4 in combination with p-JNK, p-ERK, and p-p38 inhibition reduced the effect of curcumin on polarization. Conclusions: Curcumin can modulate macrophage polarization through TLR4-mediated signaling pathway inhibition, indicating that its effect on macrophage polarization is related to its anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective effects. Our data suggest that curcumin could be used as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerosis.

  3. Carbon nanotube signal amplification for ultrasensitive fluorescence polarization detection of DNA methyltransferase activity and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Limin; Zhao, Shulin; Hu, Kun; Chen, Zheng-Feng; Chen, Jia; Liang, Hong

    2014-04-15

    A versatile sensing platform based on multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) signal amplification and fluorescence polarization (FP) is developed for the simple and ultrasensitive monitoring of DNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity and inhibition in homogeneous solution. This method uses a dye-labeled DNA probe that possess a doubled-stranded DNA (dsDNA) part for Mtase and its corresponding restriction endonuclease recognition, and a single-stranded DNA part for binding MWCNTs. In the absence of MTase, the dye-labeled DNA is cleaved by restriction endonuclease, and releases very short DNA carrying the dye that cannot bind to MWCNTs, which has relatively small FP value. However, in the presence of MTase, the specific recognition sequence in the dye-labeled DNA probe is methylated and not cleaved by restriction endonuclease. Thus, the dye-labeled methylated DNA product is adsorbed onto MWCNTs via strong π-π stacking interactions, which leads to a significant increase in the FP value due to the enlargement of the molecular volume of the dye-labeled methylated DNA/MWCNTs complex. This provides the basic of a quantitative measurement of MTase activity. By using the MWCNT signal amplification approach, the detection sensitivity can be significantly improved by two orders of magnitude over the previously reported methods. Moreover, this method also has high specificity and a wide dynamic range of over five orders of magnitude. Additionally, the suitability of this sensing platform for MTase inhibitor screening has also been demonstrated. This approach may serve as a general detection platform for sensitive assay of a variety of DNA MTases and screening potential drugs. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Polarization of macrophages in the tumor microenvironment is influenced by EGFR signaling within colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weina; Chen, Lechuang; Ma, Kai; Zhao, Yahui; Liu, Xianghe; Wang, Yu; Liu, Mei; Liang, Shufang; Zhu, Hongxia; Xu, Ningzhi

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a target of colon cancer therapy, but the effects of this therapy on the tumor microenvironment remain poorly understood. Our in vivo studies showed that cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, effectively inhibited AOM/DSS-induced, colitis-associated tumorigenesis, downregulated M2-related markers, and decreased F4/80+/CD206+ macrophage populations. Treatment with conditioned medium of colon cancer cells increased macrophage expression of the M2-related markers arginase-1 (Arg1), CCL17, CCL22, IL-10 and IL-4. By contrast, conditioned medium of EGFR knockout colon cancer cells inhibited expression of these M2-related markers and induced macrophage expression of the M1-related markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-12, TNF-α and CCR7. EGFR knockout in colon cancer cells inhibited macrophage-induced promotion of xenograft tumor growth. Moreover, colon cancer-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased Arg1 expression, and treatment with the IGF1R inhibitor AG1024 inhibited that increase. These results suggest that inhibition of EGFR signaling in colon cancer cells modulates cytokine secretion (e.g. IGF-1) and prevents M1-to-M2 macrophage polarization, thereby inhibiting cancer cell growth. PMID:27683110

  5. Loss of polarity alters proliferation and differentiation in low-grade endometrial cancers by disrupting Notch signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Williams

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion and apicobasal polarity together maintain epithelial tissue organization and homeostasis. Loss of adhesion has been described as a prerequisite for the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. However, what role misregulation of apicobasal polarity promotes tumor initiation and/or early progression remains unclear. We find that human low-grade endometrial cancers are associated with disrupted localization of the apical polarity protein Par3 and Ezrin while, the adhesion molecule E-cadherin remains unchanged, accompanied by decreased Notch signaling, and altered Notch receptor localization. Depletion of Par3 or Ezrin, in a cell-based model, results in loss of epithelial architecture, differentiation, increased proliferation, migration and decreased Notch signaling. Re-expression of Par3 in endometrial cancer cell lines with disrupted Par3 protein levels blocks proliferation and reduces migration in a Notch dependent manner. These data uncover a function for apicobasal polarity independent of cell adhesion in regulating Notch-mediated differentiation signals in endometrial epithelial cells.

  6. Real-time photonic sampling with improved signal-to-noise and distortion ratio using polarization-dependent modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Zhang, Zhiyao; Liu, Yong; Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Wei; Tan, Qinggui

    2018-04-01

    A real-time photonic sampling structure with effective nonlinearity suppression and excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance is proposed. The key points of this scheme are the polarization-dependent modulators (P-DMZMs) and the sagnac loop structure. Thanks to the polarization sensitive characteristic of P-DMZMs, the differences between transfer functions of the fundamental signal and the distortion become visible. Meanwhile, the selection of specific biases in P-DMZMs is helpful to achieve a preferable linearized performance with a low noise level for real-time photonic sampling. Compared with the quadrature-biased scheme, the proposed scheme is capable of valid nonlinearity suppression and is able to provide a better SNR performance even in a large frequency range. The proposed scheme is proved to be effective and easily implemented for real time photonic applications.

  7. Single-molecule tracking of small GTPase Rac1 uncovers spatial regulation of membrane translocation and mechanism for polarized signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sulagna; Yin, Taofei; Yang, Qingfen; Zhang, Jingqiao; Wu, Yi I.; Yu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Polarized Rac1 signaling is a hallmark of many cellular functions, including cell adhesion, motility, and cell division. The two steps of Rac1 activation are its translocation to the plasma membrane and the exchange of nucleotide from GDP to GTP. It is, however, unclear whether these two processes are regulated independent of each other and what their respective roles are in polarization of Rac1 signaling. We designed a single-particle tracking (SPT) method to quantitatively analyze the kinetics of Rac1 membrane translocation in living cells. We found that the rate of Rac1 translocation was significantly elevated in protrusions during cell spreading on collagen. Furthermore, combining FRET sensor imaging with SPT measurements in the same cell, the recruitment of Rac1 was found to be polarized to an extent similar to that of the nucleotide exchange process. Statistical analysis of single-molecule trajectories and optogenetic manipulation of membrane lipids revealed that Rac1 membrane translocation precedes nucleotide exchange, and is governed primarily by interactions with phospholipids, particularly PI(3,4,5)P3, instead of protein factors. Overall, the study highlights the significance of membrane translocation in spatial Rac1 signaling, which is in addition to the traditional view focusing primarily on GEF distribution and exchange reaction. PMID:25561548

  8. Harmful intrusion detection algorithm of optical fiber pre-warning system based on correlation of orthogonal polarization signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Fukun; Feng, Chong; Qu, Hongquan; Zheng, Tong; Wang, Chonglei

    2017-09-01

    At present, advanced researches of optical fiber intrusion measurement are based on the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) algorithm. Although these conventional methods overcome the interference of non-stationary random signals, there are still a large number of false alarms in practical applications. This is because there is no specific study on orthogonal polarization signals of false alarm and intrusion. In order to further reduce false alarms, we analyze the correlation of optical fiber signals using birefringence of single-mode fiber. This paper proposes the harmful intrusion detection algorithm based on the correlation of two orthogonal polarization signals. The proposed method uses correlation coefficient to distinguish false alarms and intrusions, which can decrease false alarms. Experiments on real data, which are collected from the practical environment, demonstrate that the difference in correlation is a robust feature. Furthermore, the results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce the false alarms and ensure the detection performance when it is used in optical fiber pre-warning system (OFPS).

  9. Bioinspired Polarization Imaging Sensors: From Circuits and Optics to Signal Processing Algorithms and Biomedical Applications: Analysis at the focal plane emulates nature's method in sensors to image and diagnose with polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Timothy; Powell, Samuel B; Gao, Shengkui; Kahan, Lindsey; Charanya, Tauseef; Saha, Debajit; Roberts, Nicholas W; Cronin, Thomas W; Marshall, Justin; Achilefu, Samuel; Lake, Spencer P; Raman, Baranidharan; Gruev, Viktor

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present recent work on bioinspired polarization imaging sensors and their applications in biomedicine. In particular, we focus on three different aspects of these sensors. First, we describe the electro-optical challenges in realizing a bioinspired polarization imager, and in particular, we provide a detailed description of a recent low-power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) polarization imager. Second, we focus on signal processing algorithms tailored for this new class of bioinspired polarization imaging sensors, such as calibration and interpolation. Third, the emergence of these sensors has enabled rapid progress in characterizing polarization signals and environmental parameters in nature, as well as several biomedical areas, such as label-free optical neural recording, dynamic tissue strength analysis, and early diagnosis of flat cancerous lesions in a murine colorectal tumor model. We highlight results obtained from these three areas and discuss future applications for these sensors.

  10. Planar polarization of Vangl2 in the vertebrate neural plate is controlled by Wnt and Myosin II signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ossipova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate neural tube forms as a result of complex morphogenetic movements, which require the functions of several core planar cell polarity (PCP proteins, including Vangl2 and Prickle. Despite the importance of these proteins for neurulation, their subcellular localization and the mode of action have remained largely unknown. Here we describe the anteroposterior planar cell polarity (AP-PCP of the cells in the Xenopus neural plate. At the neural midline, the Vangl2 protein is enriched at anterior cell edges and that this localization is directed by Prickle, a Vangl2-interacting protein. Our further analysis is consistent with the model, in which Vangl2 AP-PCP is established in the neural plate as a consequence of Wnt-dependent phosphorylation. Additionally, we uncover feedback regulation of Vangl2 polarity by Myosin II, reiterating a role for mechanical forces in PCP. These observations indicate that both Wnt signaling and Myosin II activity regulate cell polarity and cell behaviors during vertebrate neurulation.

  11. An improved car-following model accounting for the preceding car's taillight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Shao-Wei

    2018-02-01

    During the deceleration process, the preceding car's taillight may have influences on its following car's driving behavior. In this paper, we propose an extended car-following model with consideration of the preceding car's taillight. Two typical situations are used to simulate each car's movement and study the effects of the preceding car's taillight on the driving behavior. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis of the model parameter is in detail discussed. The numerical results show that the proposed model can improve the stability of traffic flow and the traffic safety can be enhanced without a decrease of efficiency especially when cars pass through a signalized intersection.

  12. Compressive Parameter Estimation for Sparse Translation-Invariant Signals Using Polar Interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Duarte, Marco F.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2015-01-01

    We propose new compressive parameter estimation algorithms that make use of polar interpolation to improve the estimator precision. Our work extends previous approaches involving polar interpolation for compressive parameter estimation in two aspects: (i) we extend the formulation from real non...... to attain good estimation precision and keep the computational complexity low. Our numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithms outperform existing approaches that either leverage polynomial interpolation or are based on a conversion to a frequency-estimation problem followed by a super...... interpolation increases the estimation precision....

  13. Inositol Trisphosphate-Induced Ca2+ Signaling Modulates Auxin Transport and PIN Polarity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, J.; Vanneste, S.; Brewer, P. B.; Michniewicz, M.; Grones, P.; Kleine-Vehn, J.; Löfke, Ch.; Teichmann, T.; Bielach, A.; Cannoot, B.; Hoyerová, Klára; Chen, X.; Xue, H. W.; Benková, E.; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 6 (2011), s. 855-866 ISSN 1534-5807 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PIN polarity * auxin distribution * Inositol trisphosphate Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 14.030, year: 2011

  14. CONCEPTION OF USE VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNALS AND NEURAL NETWORKS FOR DIAGNOSING OF CHOSEN ELEMENTS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN CAR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr CZECH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently used diagnostics systems are not always efficient and do not give straightforward results which allow for the assessment of the technological condition of the engine or for the identification of the possible damages in their early stages of development. Growing requirements concerning durability, reliability, reduction of costs to minimum and decrease of negative influence on the natural environment are the reasons why there is a need to acquire information about the technological condition of each of the elements of a vehicle during its exploitation. One of the possibilities to achieve information about technological condition of a vehicle are vibroacoustic phenomena. Symptoms of defects, achieved as a result of advanced methods of vibroacoustic signals processing can serve as models which can be used during construction of intelligent diagnostic system based on artificial neural networks. The work presents conception of use artificial neural networks in the task of combustion engines diagnosis.

  15. Quantifying microbe-mineral interactions leading to remotely detectable induced polarization signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Moysey, Stephen; Dean, Delphine

    2013-11-14

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column-scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain-scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high-quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process-based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for

  16. Quantifying Microbe-Mineral Interactions Leading to Remotely Detectable Induced Polarization Signals (Final Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moysey, Stephen [Clemson University; Dean, Delphine [Clemson University; Dimitrios, Ntarlagiannis [Rutgers University

    2013-11-13

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column-scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain-scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high-quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process-based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for

  17. Dual-polarization wavelength conversion of 16-QAM signals in a single silicon waveguide with a lateral p-i-n diode [Invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Gajda, Andrzej; Liebig, Erik

    2018-01-01

    with an optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty below 0.7 dB. High-quality converted signals are generated thanks to the low polarization dependence (≤0.5 dB) and the high conversion efficiency (CE) achievable. The strong Kerr nonlinearity in silicon and the decrease of detrimental free-carrier absorption due......A polarization-diversity loop with a silicon waveguide with a lateral p-i-n diode as a nonlinear medium is used to realize polarization insensitive four-wave mixing. Wavelength conversion of seven dual-polarization 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals at 16 GBd is demonstrated...... to the reverse-biased p-i-n diode are key in ensuring high CE levels....

  18. The Hanle and Zeeman Polarization Signals of the Solar Ca II 8542 angstromLine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Jiří; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 826, č. 1 (2016), L10/1-L10/6 ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-16861S Grant - others:COST Action(XE) MP1104 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : line profiles * polarization * radiative transfer Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.522, year: 2016

  19. 110 km transmission of 160 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK signals by midspan polarization-insensitive optical phase conjugation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, R.; Ludwig, R.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate 160Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential quarternary phase-shift keying (DQPSK) signal transmission over a 110km single-mode fiber by taking advantage of mid-span optical phase conjugation (OPC). The technique is based on nonlinear wavelength conversion by cascaded second harmonic...... and difference frequency generation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide. Error-free operation with a negligible optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty for the signal after the OPC transmission without and with polarization scrambling was achieved. The results also show the polarization insensitivity of the OPC system using...

  20. Estrogen Signaling Contributes to Sex Differences in Macrophage Polarization during Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Aleksander; Fang, Xi; White, Preston B; Heller, Nicola M

    2017-09-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic Th2 inflammation in the lungs that constricts the airways and presents as coughing and wheezing. Asthma mostly affects boys in childhood and women in adulthood, suggesting that shifts in sex hormones alter the course of the disease. Alveolar macrophages have emerged as major mediators of allergic lung inflammation in animal models as well as humans. Whether sex differences exist in macrophage polarization and the molecular mechanism(s) that drive differential responses are not well understood. We found that IL-4-stimulated bone marrow-derived and alveolar macrophages from female mice exhibited greater expression of M2 genes in vitro and after allergen challenge in vivo. Alveolar macrophages from female mice exhibited greater expression of the IL-4Rα and estrogen receptor (ER) α compared with macrophages from male mice following allergen challenge. An ERα-specific agonist enhanced IL-4-induced M2 gene expression in macrophages from both sexes, but more so in macrophages from female mice. Furthermore, IL-4-stimulated macrophages from female mice exhibited more transcriptionally active histone modifications at M2 gene promoters than did macrophages from male mice. We found that supplementation of estrogen into ovariectomized female mice enhanced M2 polarization in vivo upon challenge with allergen and that macrophage-specific deletion of ERα impaired this M2 polarization. The effects of estrogen are long-lasting; bone marrow-derived macrophages from ovariectomized mice implanted with estrogen exhibited enhanced IL-4-induced M2 gene expression compared with macrophages from placebo-implanted littermates. Taken together, our findings suggest that estrogen enhances IL-4-induced M2 gene expression and thereby contributes to sex differences observed in asthma. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Ca2+ influx and phosphoinositide signalling are essential for the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity in monospores from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Saga, Naotsune; Mikami, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetrical distribution of F-actin directed by cell polarity has been observed during the migration of monospores from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis. The significance of Ca2+ influx and phosphoinositide signalling during the formation of cell polarity in migrating monospores was analysed pharmacologically. The results indicate that the inhibition of the establishment of cell polarity, as judged by the ability of F-actin to localize asymmetrically, cell wall synthesis, and development into germlings, occurred when monospores were treated with inhibitors of the Ca2+ permeable channel, phospholipase C (PLC), diacylglycerol kinase, and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. Moreover, it was also found that light triggered the establishment of cell polarity via photosynthetic activity but not its direction, indicating that the Ca2+ influx and PLC activation required for the establishment of cell polarity are light dependent. By contrast, inhibition of phospholipase D (PLD) prevented the migration of monospores but not the asymmetrical localization of F-actin. Taken together, these findings suggest that there is functional diversity between the PLC and PLD signalling systems in terms of the formation of cell polarity; the former being critical for the light-dependent establishment of cell polarity and the latter playing a role in the maintenance of established cell polarity.

  2. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  3. Traces of exomoons in flux and polarization signals of starlight reflected by exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berzosa Molina (student TUDelft), Javier; Stam, D.M.; Rossi, L.C.G.

    2017-01-01

    The detection of moons around extrasolar planets is one of the main focuses of current and future observatories. These silent companions contribute to the planets' observed signals but are barely detectable with current methods. Numerous gaseous exoplanets are known to orbit in the habitable zones

  4. Amplitude and dynamics of polarization-plane signaling in the central complex of the locust brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockhorst, Tobias; Homberg, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    The polarization pattern of skylight provides a compass cue that various insect species use for allocentric orientation. In the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, a network of neurons tuned to the electric field vector (E-vector) angle of polarized light is present in the central complex of the brain. Preferred E-vector angles vary along slices of neuropils in a compasslike fashion (polarotopy). We studied how the activity in this polarotopic population is modulated in ways suited to control compass-guided locomotion. To this end, we analyzed tuning profiles using measures of correlation between spike rate and E-vector angle and, furthermore, tested for adaptation to stationary angles. The results suggest that the polarotopy is stabilized by antagonistic integration across neurons with opponent tuning. Downstream to the input stage of the network, responses to stationary E-vector angles adapted quickly, which may correlate with a tendency to steer a steady course previously observed in tethered flying locusts. By contrast, rotating E-vectors corresponding to changes in heading direction under a natural sky elicited nonadapting responses. However, response amplitudes were particularly variable at the output stage, covarying with the level of ongoing activity. Moreover, the responses to rotating E-vector angles depended on the direction of rotation in an anticipatory manner. Our observations support a view of the central complex as a substrate of higher-stage processing that could assign contextual meaning to sensory input for motor control in goal-driven behaviors. Parallels to higher-stage processing of sensory information in vertebrates are discussed. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Biophysical Attributes of CpG Presentation Control TLR9 Signaling to Differentially Polarize Systemic Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardin A. Leleux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is currently unknown whether and how mammalian pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs respond to biophysical patterns of pathogen-associated molecular danger signals. Using synthetic pathogen-like particles (PLPs that mimic physical properties of bacteria or large viruses, we have discovered that the quality and quantity of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 signaling by CpG in mouse dendritic cells (mDCs are uniquely dependent on biophysical attributes; specifically, the surface density of CpG and size of the presenting PLP. These physical patterns control DC programming by regulating the kinetics and magnitude of MyD88-IRAK4 signaling, NF-κB-driven responses, and STAT3 phosphorylation, which, in turn, controls differential T cell responses and in vivo immune polarization, especially T helper 1 (Th1 versus T helper 2 (Th2 antibody responses. Our findings suggest that innate immune cells can sense and respond not only to molecular but also pathogen-associated physical patterns (PAPPs, broadening the tools for modulating immunity and helping to better understand innate response mechanisms to pathogens and develop improved vaccines.

  6. Suppression of Quasiparticle Scattering Signals in Bilayer Graphene Due to Layer Polarization and Destructive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolie, Wouter; Lux, Jonathan; Pörtner, Mathias; Dombrowski, Daniela; Herbig, Charlotte; Knispel, Timo; Simon, Sabina; Michely, Thomas; Rosch, Achim; Busse, Carsten

    2018-03-01

    We study chemically gated bilayer graphene using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy complemented by tight-binding calculations. Gating is achieved by intercalating Cs between bilayer graphene and Ir(111), thereby shifting the conduction band minima below the chemical potential. Scattering between electronic states (both intraband and interband) is detected via quasiparticle interference. However, not all expected processes are visible in our experiment. We uncover two general effects causing this suppression: first, intercalation leads to an asymmetrical distribution of the states within the two layers, which significantly reduces the scanning tunneling spectroscopy signal of standing waves mainly present in the lower layer; second, forward scattering processes, connecting points on the constant energy contours with parallel velocities, do not produce pronounced standing waves due to destructive interference. We present a theory to describe the interference signal for a general n -band material.

  7. PlGF/VEGFR-1 Signaling Promotes Macrophage Polarization and Accelerated Tumor Progression in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incio, Joao; Tam, Josh; Rahbari, Nuh N; Suboj, Priya; McManus, Dan T; Chin, Shan M; Vardam, Trupti D; Batista, Ana; Babykutty, Suboj; Jung, Keehoon; Khachatryan, Anna; Hato, Tai; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Krop, Ian E; Puchner, Stefan B; Schlett, Christopher L; Hoffmman, Udo; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Shibuya, Masabumi; Carmeliet, Peter; Soares, Raquel; Duda, Dan G; Jain, Rakesh K; Fukumura, Dai

    2016-06-15

    Obesity promotes pancreatic and breast cancer progression via mechanisms that are poorly understood. Although obesity is associated with increased systemic levels of placental growth factor (PlGF), the role of PlGF in obesity-induced tumor progression is not known. PlGF and its receptor VEGFR-1 have been shown to modulate tumor angiogenesis and promote tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) recruitment and activity. Here, we hypothesized that increased activity of PlGF/VEGFR-1 signaling mediates obesity-induced tumor progression by augmenting tumor angiogenesis and TAM recruitment/activity. We established diet-induced obese mouse models of wild-type C57BL/6, VEGFR-1 tyrosine kinase (TK)-null, or PlGF-null mice, and evaluated the role of PlGF/VEGFR-1 signaling in pancreatic and breast cancer mouse models and in human samples. We found that obesity increased TAM infiltration, tumor growth, and metastasis in pancreatic cancers, without affecting vessel density. Ablation of VEGFR-1 signaling prevented obesity-induced tumor progression and shifted the tumor immune environment toward an antitumor phenotype. Similar findings were observed in a breast cancer model. Obesity was associated with increased systemic PlGF, but not VEGF-A or VEGF-B, in pancreatic and breast cancer patients and in various mouse models of these cancers. Ablation of PlGF phenocopied the effects of VEGFR-1-TK deletion on tumors in obese mice. PlGF/VEGFR-1-TK deletion prevented weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet, but exacerbated hyperinsulinemia. Addition of metformin not only normalized insulin levels but also enhanced antitumor immunity. Targeting PlGF/VEGFR-1 signaling reprograms the tumor immune microenvironment and inhibits obesity-induced acceleration of tumor progression. Clin Cancer Res; 22(12); 2993-3004. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Photonics-based multi-function analog signal processor based on a polarization division multiplexing Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yamei; Pan, Shilong

    2017-12-01

    A photonics-based multi-function analog signal processor based on an optical polarization division multiplexing dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and demonstrated, which can implement simultaneously photonic microwave phase shifting, upconversion/downconversion and filtering with excellent tunability. An experiment is carried out. Downconverted and upconverted phase shifters with phases continuously tuned from -180 to 180 deg over 0-11 and 11-33 GHz are implemented. Based on the frequency-mixed phase shifter, a four-tap microwave photonic filter that has the capability to select a frequency-mixed component is built. The proposed approach features multi-function, scalable independent channels, a wide bandwidth, and high tunability, which can find applications in beamforming networks, radio frequency frontends, and radio over fiber systems.

  9. Attractant Binding Induces Distinct Structural Changes to the Polar and Lateral Signaling Clusters in Bacillus subtilis Chemotaxis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kang; Walukiewicz, Hanna E.; Glekas, George D.; Ordal, George W.; Rao, Christopher V.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria employ a modified two-component system for chemotaxis, where the receptors form ternary complexes with CheA histidine kinases and CheW adaptor proteins. These complexes are arranged in semi-ordered arrays clustered predominantly at the cell poles. The prevailing models assume that these arrays are static and reorganize only locally in response to attractant binding. Recent studies have shown, however, that these structures may in fact be much more fluid. We investigated the localization of the chemotaxis signaling arrays in Bacillus subtilis using immunofluorescence and live cell fluorescence microscopy. We found that the receptors were localized in clusters at the poles in most cells. However, when the cells were exposed to attractant, the number exhibiting polar clusters was reduced roughly 2-fold, whereas the number exhibiting lateral clusters distinct from the poles increased significantly. These changes in receptor clustering were reversible as polar localization was reestablished in adapted cells. We also investigated the dynamic localization of CheV, a hybrid protein consisting of an N-terminal CheW-like adaptor domain and a C-terminal response regulator domain that is known to be phosphorylated by CheA, using immunofluorescence. Interestingly, we found that CheV was localized predominantly at lateral clusters in unstimulated cells. However, upon exposure to attractant, CheV was found to be predominantly localized to the cell poles. Moreover, changes in CheV localization are phosphorylation-dependent. Collectively, these results suggest that the chemotaxis signaling arrays in B. subtilis are dynamic structures and that feedback loops involving phosphorylation may regulate the positioning of individual proteins. PMID:21098025

  10. Attractant binding induces distinct structural changes to the polar and lateral signaling clusters in Bacillus subtilis chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kang; Walukiewicz, Hanna E; Glekas, George D; Ordal, George W; Rao, Christopher V

    2011-01-28

    Bacteria employ a modified two-component system for chemotaxis, where the receptors form ternary complexes with CheA histidine kinases and CheW adaptor proteins. These complexes are arranged in semi-ordered arrays clustered predominantly at the cell poles. The prevailing models assume that these arrays are static and reorganize only locally in response to attractant binding. Recent studies have shown, however, that these structures may in fact be much more fluid. We investigated the localization of the chemotaxis signaling arrays in Bacillus subtilis using immunofluorescence and live cell fluorescence microscopy. We found that the receptors were localized in clusters at the poles in most cells. However, when the cells were exposed to attractant, the number exhibiting polar clusters was reduced roughly 2-fold, whereas the number exhibiting lateral clusters distinct from the poles increased significantly. These changes in receptor clustering were reversible as polar localization was reestablished in adapted cells. We also investigated the dynamic localization of CheV, a hybrid protein consisting of an N-terminal CheW-like adaptor domain and a C-terminal response regulator domain that is known to be phosphorylated by CheA, using immunofluorescence. Interestingly, we found that CheV was localized predominantly at lateral clusters in unstimulated cells. However, upon exposure to attractant, CheV was found to be predominantly localized to the cell poles. Moreover, changes in CheV localization are phosphorylation-dependent. Collectively, these results suggest that the chemotaxis signaling arrays in B. subtilis are dynamic structures and that feedback loops involving phosphorylation may regulate the positioning of individual proteins.

  11. Chemical signals of past climate and environment from polar ice cores and firn air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Eric W

    2012-10-07

    Chemical and isotopic records obtained from polar ice cores have provided some of the most iconic datasets in Earth system science. Here, I discuss how the different records are formed in the ice sheets, emphasising in particular the contrast between chemistry held in the snow/ice phase, and that which is trapped in air bubbles. Air diffusing slowly through the upper firn layers of the ice sheet can also be sampled in large volumes to give more recent historical information on atmospheric composition. The chemical and geophysical issues that have to be solved to interpret ice core data in terms of atmospheric composition and emission changes are also highlighted. Ice cores and firn air have provided particularly strong evidence about recent changes (last few decades to centuries), including otherwise inaccessible data on increases in compounds that are active as greenhouse gases or as agents of stratospheric depletion. On longer timescales (up to 800,000 years in Antarctica), ice cores reveal major changes in biogeochemical cycling, which acted as feedbacks on the very major changes in climate between glacial and interglacial periods.

  12. Evolutionary adaptations of plant AGC kinases: from light signaling to cell polarity regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Hendrik Rademacher

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Signaling and trafficking over membranes involves a plethora of transmembrane proteins that control the flow of compounds or relay specific signaling events. Next to external cues internal stimuli can modify the activity or abundance of these proteins at the plasma membrane. One such regulatory mechanism is protein phosphorylation by membrane-associated kinases and phosphatases. The AGC kinase family is one of seven kinase families that are conserved in all eukaryotic genomes. In plants evolutionary adaptations introduced specific structural changes within the plant AGC kinases that most likely allow for sensing of external stimuli (i.e. light through controlled modification of kinase activity.Starting from the well-defined structural basis common to all AGC kinases we review the current knowledge on the structure-function relationship in plant AGC kinases. Nine of the 39 Arabidopsis AGC kinases have now been shown to be involved in the regulation of auxin transport. In particular, AGC kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the auxin transporters ABCB1 and ABCB19 has been shown to regulate their activity, while auxin transporters of the PIN family are located to different positions at the plasma membrane depending on their phosphorylation status, which is a result of counteracting AGC kinase and PP2A phosphatase activities. We therefore focus on regulation of AGC kinase activity in this context. Identified structural adaptations of the involved AGC kinases may provide new insight into AGC kinase functionality and demonstrate their position as central hubs in the cellular network controlling plant development and growth.

  13. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Document Server

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  14. Regulation of Microglia and Macrophage Polarization via Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Silencing after Ischemic/Hypoxic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Yeong Cheon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is implicated in ischemic stroke and is involved in abnormal homeostasis. Activation of the immune system leads to breakdown of the blood–brain barrier and, thereby, infiltration of immune cells into the brain. Upon cerebral ischemia, infiltrated macrophages and microglia (resident CNS immune cell are activated, change their phenotype to M1 or M2 based on the microenvironment, migrate toward damaged tissue, and are involved in repair or damage. Those of M1 phenotype release pro-inflammatory mediators, which are associated with tissue damage, while those of M2 phenotype release anti-inflammatory mediators, which are related to tissue recovery. Moreover, late inflammation continually stimulates immune cell infiltration and leads to brain infarction. Therefore, regulation of M1/M2 phenotypes under persistent inflammatory conditions after cerebral ischemia is important for brain repair. Herein, we focus on apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1, which is involved in apoptotic cell death, brain infarction, and production of inflammatory mediators after cerebral ischemia. We hypothesized that ASK1 is involved in the polarization of M1/M2 phenotype and the function of microglia and macrophage during the late stage of ischemia/hypoxia. We investigated the effects of ASK1 in mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and on BV2 microglia and RAW264.7 macrophage cell lines subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Our results showed that ASK1 silencing effectively reduced Iba-1 or CD11b-positive cells in ischemic areas, suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased anti-inflammatory mediator levels at 7 days after cerebral ischemia. In cultured microglia and macrophages, ASK1 inhibition, induced by NQDI-1 drug, decreased the expression and release of M1-associated factors and increased those of M2-associated factors after hypoxia/reperfusion (H/R. At the gene level, ASK1 inhibition suppressed M1-associated genes and

  15. M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages facilitated migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of HCC cells via the TLR4/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Rong-Rong; Li, Jing-Huan; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Rong-Xin; Wang, Yan-Hong

    2018-01-16

    M2-polarized macrophages are tumor-associated-macrophages (TAMs), which are important contents of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a molecular biomarker of tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have important roles in the immune system and M2-polarized macrophages. However, the effects of TLR4 on M2-polarized macrophages in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unknown. Here, TLR4 expressed on HCC cells mediates the pro-tumor effects and mechanisms of M2-polarized macrophages. THP-1 cells were induced to differentiate into M2-like macrophages through treatments with IL-4, IL-13, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). We used the HCC cell lines SMMC-7721 and MHCC97-H cultured in conditioned medium from M2-like macrophages (M2-CM) to investigate the migration potential of HCC cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated molecular genetics. Signaling pathways that mediated M2-CM-promoted HCC migration were detected using western blotting. HCC cells cultured with M2-CM displayed a fibroblast-like morphology, an increased metastatic capability, and expression of EMT markers. TLR4 expression was markedly increased in M2-CM-treated HCC cells. TLR4 overexpression promoted HCC cell migration, and a TLR4-neutralizing antibody markedly inhibited HCC EMT in cells cultured with M2-CM. Furthermore, the TLR4/(signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway contributed to the effects of M2-CM on HCC cells. Taken together, M2-polarized macrophages facilitated the migration and EMT of HCC cells via the TLR4/STAT3 signaling pathway, suggesting that TLR4 may be a novel therapeutic target. These results improve our understanding of M2-polarized macrophages.

  16. Car Seat Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  17. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  18. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  19. Active Electro-Location of Objects in the Underwater Environment Based on the Mixed Polarization Multiple Signal Classification Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lili; Qi, Junwei; Xue, Wei

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes a novel active localization method based on the mixed polarization multiple signal classification (MP-MUSIC) algorithm for positioning a metal target or an insulator target in the underwater environment by using a uniform circular antenna (UCA). The boundary element method (BEM) is introduced to analyze the boundary of the target by use of a matrix equation. In this method, an electric dipole source as a part of the locating system is set perpendicularly to the plane of the UCA. As a result, the UCA can only receive the induction field of the target. The potential of each electrode of the UCA is used as spatial-temporal localization data, and it does not need to obtain the field component in each direction compared with the conventional fields-based localization method, which can be easily implemented in practical engineering applications. A simulation model and a physical experiment are constructed. The simulation and the experiment results provide accurate positioning performance, with the help of verifying the effectiveness of the proposed localization method in underwater target locating. PMID:29439495

  20. Identification of the arabidopsis RAM/MOR signalling network: adding new regulatory players in plant stem cell maintenance and cell polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zermiani, Monica; Begheldo, Maura; Nonis, Alessandro; Palme, Klaus; Mizzi, Luca; Morandini, Piero; Nonis, Alberto; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The RAM/MOR signalling network of eukaryotes is a conserved regulatory module involved in co-ordination of stem cell maintenance, cell differentiation and polarity establishment. To date, no such signalling network has been identified in plants. Methods Genes encoding the bona fide core components of the RAM/MOR pathway were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis) by sequence similarity searches conducted with the known components from other species. The transcriptional network(s) of the arabidopsis RAM/MOR signalling pathway were identified by running in-depth in silico analyses for genes co-regulated with the core components. In situ hybridization was used to confirm tissue-specific expression of selected RAM/MOR genes. Key Results Co-expression data suggested that the arabidopsis RAM/MOR pathway may include genes involved in floral transition, by co-operating with chromatin remodelling and mRNA processing/post-transcriptional gene silencing factors, and genes involved in the regulation of pollen tube polar growth. The RAM/MOR pathway may act upstream of the ROP1 machinery, affecting pollen tube polar growth, based on the co-expression of its components with ROP-GEFs. In silico tissue-specific co-expression data and in situ hybridization experiments suggest that different components of the arabidopsis RAM/MOR are expressed in the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem and may be involved in the fine-tuning of stem cell maintenance and cell differentiation. Conclusions The arabidopsis RAM/MOR pathway may be part of the signalling cascade that converges in pollen tube polarized growth and in fine-tuning stem cell maintenance, differentiation and organ polarity. PMID:26078466

  1. Loss of the Drosophila cell polarity regulator Scribbled promotes epithelial tissue overgrowth and cooperation with oncogenic Ras-Raf through impaired Hippo pathway signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grusche Felix A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial neoplasias are associated with alterations in cell polarity and excessive cell proliferation, yet how these neoplastic properties are related to one another is still poorly understood. The study of Drosophila genes that function as neoplastic tumor suppressors by regulating both of these properties has significant potential to clarify this relationship. Results Here we show in Drosophila that loss of Scribbled (Scrib, a cell polarity regulator and neoplastic tumor suppressor, results in impaired Hippo pathway signaling in the epithelial tissues of both the eye and wing imaginal disc. scrib mutant tissue overgrowth, but not the loss of cell polarity, is dependent upon defective Hippo signaling and can be rescued by knockdown of either the TEAD/TEF family transcription factor Scalloped or the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie in the eye disc, or reducing levels of Yorkie in the wing disc. Furthermore, loss of Scrib sensitizes tissue to transformation by oncogenic Ras-Raf signaling, and Yorkie-Scalloped activity is required to promote this cooperative tumor overgrowth. The inhibition of Hippo signaling in scrib mutant eye disc clones is not dependent upon JNK activity, but can be significantly rescued by reducing aPKC kinase activity, and ectopic aPKC activity is sufficient to impair Hippo signaling in the eye disc, even when JNK signaling is blocked. In contrast, warts mutant overgrowth does not require aPKC activity. Moreover, reducing endogenous levels of aPKC or increasing Scrib or Lethal giant larvae levels does not promote increased Hippo signaling, suggesting that aPKC activity is not normally rate limiting for Hippo pathway activity. Epistasis experiments suggest that Hippo pathway inhibition in scrib mutants occurs, at least in part, downstream or in parallel to both the Expanded and Fat arms of Hippo pathway regulation. Conclusions Loss of Scrib promotes Yorkie/Scalloped-dependent epithelial tissue

  2. Essential Function for PDLIM2 in Cell Polarization in Three-Dimensional Cultures by Feedback Regulation of the β1-Integrin–RhoA Signaling Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran Deevi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available PDLIM2 is a cytoskeletal and nuclear PDZ-LIM domain protein that regulates the stability of Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NFκB and other transcription factors, and is required for polarized cell migration. PDLIM2 expression is suppressed by methylation in different cancers, but is strongly expressed in invasive breast cancer cells that have undergone an Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT. PDLIM2 is also expressed in non-transformed breast myoepithelial MCF10A cells and here we asked whether it is important for maintaining the polarized, epithelial phenotype of these cells. Suppression of PDLIM2 in MCF10A cells was sufficient to disrupt cell polarization and acini formation with increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis in the luminal space compared to control acini with hollow lumina. Spheroids with suppressed PDLIM2 exhibited increased expression of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion proteins including beta 1 (β1 integrin. Interestingly, levels of the Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1 R and Receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1, which scaffolds IGF-1R to β1 integrin, were also increased, indicating a transformed phenotype. Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK and cofilin phosphorylation, and RhoA Guanosine Triphosphatase (GTPase activity were all enhanced in these spheroids compared to control acini. Importantly, inhibition of either FAK or Rho Kinase (ROCK was sufficient to rescue the polarity defect. We conclude that PDLIM2 expression is essential for feedback regulation of the β1-integrin-RhoA signalling axis and integration of cellular microenvironment signals with gene expression to control the polarity of breast epithelial acini structures. This is a mechanism by which PDLIM2 could mediate tumour suppression in breast epithelium.

  3. SIRT1/Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase α Signaling Enhances Macrophage Polarization to an Anti-inflammatory Phenotype in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Youn Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Macrophages of the M1 phenotype act as pro-inflammatory mediators in synovium, whereas those of the M2 phenotype suppress inflammation and promote tissue repair. SIRT1 is a class 3 histone deacetylase with anti-inflammatory characteristics. However, the role played by SIRT1 in macrophage polarization has not been defined in RA. We investigated whether SIRT1 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by modulating M1/M2 polarization in macrophages from RA patients. In this study, SIRT1 activation promoted the phosphorylation of an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK α/acetyl-CoA carboxylase in macrophages exposed to interleukin (IL-4, and that this resulted in the expressions of M2 genes, including MDC, FcεRII, MrC1, and IL-10, at high levels. Furthermore, these expressions were inhibited by sirtinol (an inhibitor of SIRT1 and compound C (an inhibitor of AMPK. Moreover, SIRT1 activation downregulated LPS/interferon γ-mediated NF-κB activity by inhibiting p65 acetylation and the expression of M1 genes, such as CCL2, iNOS, IL-12 p35, and IL-12 p40. Macrophages from SIRT1 transgenic (Tg-mice exhibited enhanced polarization of M2 phenotype macrophages and reduced polarization of M1 phenotype macrophages. In line with these observations, SIRT1-Tg mice showed less histological signs of arthritis, that is, lower TNFα and IL-1β expressions and less severe arthritis in the knee joints, compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, the study shows activation of SIRT1/AMPKα signaling exerts anti-inflammatory activities by regulating M1/M2 polarization, and thereby reduces inflammatory responses in RA. Furthermore, it suggests that SIRT1 signaling be viewed as a therapeutic target in RA.

  4. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  5. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  6. CAR models: next-generation CAR modifications for enhanced T-cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abate-Daga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available T cells genetically targeted with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to B-cell malignancies have demonstrated tremendous clinical outcomes. With the proof in principle for CAR T cells as a therapy for B-cell malignancies being established, current and future research is being focused on adapting CAR technology to other cancers, as well as enhancing its efficacy and/or safety. The modular nature of the CAR, extracellular antigen-binding domain fused to a transmembrane domain and intracellular T-cell signaling domains, allows for optimization by replacement of the various components. These modifications are creating a whole new class of therapeutic CARs. In this review, we discuss the recent major advances in CAR design and how these modifications will impact its clinical application.

  7. Drosophila tensin plays an essential role in cell migration and planar polarity formation during oogenesis by mediating integrin-dependent extracellular signals to actin organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, In Jun; Lee, Jang Ho; Cho, Kyoung Sang; Lee, Sung Bae

    2017-03-11

    Oogenesis in Drosophila involves very dynamic cellular changes such as cell migration and polarity formation inside an ovary during short period. Previous studies identified a number of membrane-bound receptors directly receiving certain types of extracellular inputs as well as intracellular signalings to be involved in the regulation of these dynamic cellular changes. However, yet our understanding on exactly how these receptor-mediated extracellular inputs lead to dynamic cellular changes remains largely unclear. Here, we identified Drosophila tensin encoded by blistery (by) as a novel regulator of cell migration and planar polarity formation and characterized the genetic interaction between tensin and integrin during oogenesis. Eggs from by mutant showed decreased hatching rate and morphological abnormality, a round-shape, compared to the wild-type eggs. Further analyses revealed that obvious cellular defects such as defective border cell migration and planar polarity formation might be primarily associated with the decreased hatching rate and the round-shape phenotype of by mutant eggs, respectively. Moreover, by mutation also induced marked defects in F-actin organization closely associated with both cell migration and planar polarity formation during oogenesis of Drosophila. Notably, all these defective phenotypes observed in by mutant eggs became much severer by reduced level of integrin, indicative of a close functional association between integrin and tensin during oogenesis. Collectively, our findings suggest that tensin acts as a crucial regulator of dynamic cellular changes during oogenesis by bridging integrin-dependent extracellular signals to intracellular cytoskeletal organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  9. On the Inversion of the Scattering Polarization and the Hanle Effect Signals in the Hydrogen Lyalpha Line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ishikawa, R.; Ramos, A.A.; Belluzzi, L.; Manso Sainz, R.; Štěpán, Jiří; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Goto, M.; Tsuneta, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 787, č. 2 (2014), 159/1-159/11 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP209/12/P741 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetic fields * polarization * scattering Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014

  10. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  11. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Pollak, P.; Vopicka, J.; Hanzl, V.; Sovka, Pavel

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo) speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  12. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  13. Exendin-4 Induces Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Migration Through Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages Polarization via PKA-STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The synthesis and degradation processes involved in bone remodeling are critically regulated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The GLP-1 receptor agonist Exendin-4 is beneficial for osteoblast differentiation and increases the number of osteoblasts. Methods: We constructed an ovariectomized model to evaluate the impact of Exendin-4 on bone formation in osteoporosis. A macrophage-depleted model was also created to investigate the effect of macrophages on bone formation. Thirty-two female WT C57BL/6 mice (aged 3 months were randomly assigned to a normal control group and four ovariectomized (OVX subgroups: OVX + vehicle group, OVX + Exendin-4 (4.2 µg/kg/day group, OVX + chloride phosphate liposome group and OVX + chloride phosphate liposome + Exendin-4 group. Results: In this study, we found that Exendin-4 not only increased the number of osteoblasts and decreased the number of osteoclasts, but also increased the number of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs at the bone surface. Moreover, we found that OVX mice treated with Exendin-4 increased TGF-β1 levels at the bone surface compared with that in OVX mice. Besides, Exendin-4 promoted the polarization of bone marrow-derived macrophages into M2 subtype and increased TGF-β1 secretion by the M2 subtype. Finally, we found that Exendin-4 induced macrophage polarization via the cAMP-PKA-STAT3 signaling pathway. Conclusion: Exendin-4 promotes bone marrow-derived macrophage polarization to the M2 subtype and induces BMSC migration to the bone surface via PKA-STAT3 signaling.

  14. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  15. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  16. Evidence for involvement of Wnt signalling in body polarities, cell proliferation, and the neuro-sensory system in an adult ctenophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Muriel; Dayraud, Cyrielle; Mialot, Antoine; Quéinnec, Eric; le Guyader, Hervé; Manuel, Michaël

    2013-01-01

    Signalling through the Wnt family of secreted proteins originated in a common metazoan ancestor and greatly influenced the evolution of animal body plans. In bilaterians, Wnt signalling plays multiple fundamental roles during embryonic development and in adult tissues, notably in axial patterning, neural development and stem cell regulation. Studies in various cnidarian species have particularly highlighted the evolutionarily conserved role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in specification and patterning of the primary embryonic axis. However in another key non-bilaterian phylum, Ctenophora, Wnts are not involved in early establishment of the body axis during embryogenesis. We analysed the expression in the adult of the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus of 11 orthologues of Wnt signalling genes including all ctenophore Wnt ligands and Fz receptors and several members of the intracellular β-catenin pathway machinery. All genes are strongly expressed around the mouth margin at the oral pole, evoking the Wnt oral centre of cnidarians. This observation is consistent with primary axis polarisation by the Wnts being a universal metazoan feature, secondarily lost in ctenophores during early development but retained in the adult. In addition, local expression of Wnt signalling genes was seen in various anatomical structures of the body including in the locomotory comb rows, where their complex deployment suggests control by the Wnts of local comb polarity. Other important contexts of Wnt involvement which probably evolved before the ctenophore/cnidarian/bilaterian split include proliferating stem cells and progenitors irrespective of cell types, and developing as well as differentiated neuro-sensory structures.

  17. On the inversion of the scattering polarization and the Hanle effect signals in the hydrogen Lyα line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, R. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Belluzzi, L. [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno (IRSOL), via Patocchi, 6605 Locarno Monti (Switzerland); Štěpán, J. [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Goto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsuneta, S., E-mail: ryoko.ishikawa@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic field measurements in the upper chromosphere and above, where the gas-to-magnetic pressure ratio β is lower than unity, are essential for understanding the thermal structure and dynamical activity of the solar atmosphere. Recent developments in the theory and numerical modeling of polarization in spectral lines have suggested that information on the magnetic field of the chromosphere-corona transition region could be obtained by measuring the linear polarization of the solar disk radiation at the core of the hydrogen Lyα line at 121.6 nm, which is produced by scattering processes and the Hanle effect. The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) sounding rocket experiment aims to measure the intensity (Stokes I) and the linear polarization profiles (Q/I and U/I) of the hydrogen Lyα line. In this paper, we clarify the information that the Hanle effect can provide by applying a Stokes inversion technique based on a database search. The database contains all theoretical Q/I and U/I profiles calculated in a one-dimensional semi-empirical model of the solar atmosphere for all possible values of the strength, inclination, and azimuth of the magnetic field vector, though this atmospheric region is highly inhomogeneous and dynamic. We focus on understanding the sensitivity of the inversion results to the noise and spectral resolution of the synthetic observations as well as the ambiguities and limitation inherent to the Hanle effect when only the hydrogen Lyα is used. We conclude that spectropolarimetric observations with CLASP can indeed be a suitable diagnostic tool for probing the magnetism of the transition region, especially when complemented with information on the magnetic field azimuth that can be obtained from other instruments.

  18. UV exposure in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  19. Design of two wheel self balancing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chun-hong; Ren, Bin

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a design scheme of the two-wheel self-balancing dolly, the integration of the gyroscope and accelerometer MPU6050 constitutes the car position detection device.System selects 32-bit MCU stmicroelectronics company as the control core, completed the processing of sensor signals, the realization of the filtering algorithm, motion control and human-computer interaction. Produced and debugging in the whole system is completed, the car can realize the independent balance under the condition of no intervention. The introduction of a suitable amount of interference, the car can adjust quickly to recover and steady state. Through remote control car bluetooth module complete forward, backward, turn left and other basic action..

  20. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  1. Collaborative Car Pooling System

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira; Paulo Trigo; Porfírio Filipe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.

  2. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  3. An Automatic Car Counting System Using OverFeat Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Debojit; Su, Hongbo; Wang, Chengyi; Blankenship, Jason; Stevanovic, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Automatic car counting is an important component in the automated traffic system. Car counting is very important to understand the traffic load and optimize the traffic signals. In this paper, we implemented the Gaussian Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework to count cars. OverFeat Framework is a combination of Convolution Neural Network (CNN) and one machine learning classifier (like Support Vector Machines (SVM) or Logistic Regression). With this study, we showed another poss...

  4. Autonomous and nonautonomous regulation of axis formation by antagonistic signaling via 7-span cAMP receptors and GSK3 in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, G T; Kimmel, A R

    1997-08-15

    Early during Dictyostelium development a fundamental cell-fate decision establishes the anteroposterior (prestalk/prespore) axis. Signaling via the 7-transmembrane cAMP receptor CAR4 is essential for creating and maintaining a normal pattern; car4-null alleles have decreased levels of prestalk-specific mRNAs but enhanced expression of prespore genes. car4- cells produce all of the signals required for prestalk differentiation but lack an extracellular factor necessary for prespore differentiation of wild-type cells. This secreted factor decreases the sensitivity of prespore cells to inhibition by the prestalk morphogen DIF-1. At the cell autonomous level, CAR4 is linked to intracellular circuits that activate prestalk but inhibit prespore differentiation. The autonomous action of CAR4 is antagonistic to the positive intracellular signals mediated by another cAMP receptor, CAR1 and/or CAR3. Additional data indicate that these CAR-mediated pathways converge at the serine/threonine protein kinase GSK3, suggesting that the anterior (prestalk)/posterior (prespore) axis of Dictyostelium is regulated by an ancient mechanism that is shared by the Wnt/Fz circuits for dorsoventral patterning during early Xenopus development and establishing Drosophila segment polarity.

  5. RESONANCE CARS IN BR2 MOLECULES AND BR-ATOMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aben, I.; Levelt, P.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Hogervorst, W.

    1991-01-01

    Resonance-enhanced CARS processes were studied in molecular bromine. On the basis of the known spectroscopic constants of the two electronic states involved, the features in the spectra could be identified. CARS signals from Br-atoms produced from dissociation of Br2 were obtained by tuning (omega-1

  6. Evidence for involvement of Wnt signalling in body polarities, cell proliferation, and the neuro-sensory system in an adult ctenophore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Jager

    Full Text Available Signalling through the Wnt family of secreted proteins originated in a common metazoan ancestor and greatly influenced the evolution of animal body plans. In bilaterians, Wnt signalling plays multiple fundamental roles during embryonic development and in adult tissues, notably in axial patterning, neural development and stem cell regulation. Studies in various cnidarian species have particularly highlighted the evolutionarily conserved role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in specification and patterning of the primary embryonic axis. However in another key non-bilaterian phylum, Ctenophora, Wnts are not involved in early establishment of the body axis during embryogenesis. We analysed the expression in the adult of the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus of 11 orthologues of Wnt signalling genes including all ctenophore Wnt ligands and Fz receptors and several members of the intracellular β-catenin pathway machinery. All genes are strongly expressed around the mouth margin at the oral pole, evoking the Wnt oral centre of cnidarians. This observation is consistent with primary axis polarisation by the Wnts being a universal metazoan feature, secondarily lost in ctenophores during early development but retained in the adult. In addition, local expression of Wnt signalling genes was seen in various anatomical structures of the body including in the locomotory comb rows, where their complex deployment suggests control by the Wnts of local comb polarity. Other important contexts of Wnt involvement which probably evolved before the ctenophore/cnidarian/bilaterian split include proliferating stem cells and progenitors irrespective of cell types, and developing as well as differentiated neuro-sensory structures.

  7. Folic Acid Is Able to Polarize the Inflammatory Response in LPS Activated Microglia by Regulating Multiple Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cianciulli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of folic acid to modulate the inflammatory responses of LPS activated BV-2 microglia cells and the signal transduction pathways involved. To this aim, the BV-2 cell line was exposed to LPS as a proinflammatory response inducer, in presence or absence of various concentrations of folic acid. The production of nitric oxide (NO was determined by the Griess test. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, and IL-10 were determined by ELISA. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS, nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65, MAPKs protein, and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS1 and SOCS3 were analyzed by western blotting. TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as iNOS dependent NO production, resulted significantly inhibited by folic acid pretreatment in LPS-activated BV-2 cells. We also observed that folic acid dose-dependently upregulated both SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression in BV-2 cells, leading to an increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Finally, p-IκBα, which indirectly reflects NF-κB complex activation, and JNK phosphorylation resulted dose-dependently downregulated by folic acid pretreatment of LPS-activated cells, whereas p38 MAPK phosphorylation resulted significantly upregulated by folic acid treatment. Overall, these results demonstrated that folic acid was able to modulate the inflammatory response in microglia cells, shifting proinflammatory versus anti-inflammatory responses through regulating multiple signaling pathways.

  8. T-cells fighting B-cell lymphoproliferative malignancies: the emerging field of CD19 CAR T-cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, D. M.; Kater, A. P.; Hazenberg, M. D.; Hagenbeek, A.; Kersten, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    CAR T-cells are autologous T-cells transduced with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The CAR contains an antigen recognition part (originating from an antibody), a T-cell receptor transmembrane and cytoplasmic signalling part, and one or more co-stimulatory domains. While CAR T-cells can be

  9. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based......It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... to do so, car use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car use habits act as an obstacle to the transformation of intentions to commute by public transportation into action....

  10. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  11. Distortionary company car taxation: deadweight losses through increased car ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household car consumption for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate that for about 20 % of households company car possession increases car ownership. The annual welfare loss of

  12. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  13. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  14. Construction of coherent antistokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Jazmati, A.

    2007-01-01

    Coherent Antistokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) has been built. It consists of a Raman cell, which is filled with CO 2 gas at 5 atm pressure and a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser pumped dye laser. The two beams are focused by means of a bi-convex lens into Raman cell. The Antistokes signals (CARS signals) are generated due to Four-wave mixing process. The antistokes signals were directed to monochrometer entrance slit by prism . The signals are detected by photomultiplier detector which is fixed on the exit slit and connected to data acquisition card located inside the computed case. The dye laser frequency has to be tuned to satisfy the energy difference between the ν 1 beam (Nd- YAG laser beam) and the ν 2 beam (the stokes beam or the dye laser beam) exactly corresponds to a vibrational - rotational Raman resonance (ν 2 - ν 1 = ν M ) in the 12 CO 2 or 13 CO 2 molecule, then the antistokes signals (ν 3 ) will be generated. The spectra of the CARS signals have been recorded to determine the isotope shift of 12 CO 2 , 13 CO 2 , which is 18.3 cm -1 . (author)

  15. Signals involved in the early TH1/TH2 polarization of an immune response depending on the type of antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinghausen, I; Brand, U; Enk, A H; Knop, J; Saloga, J

    1999-02-01

    The early production of distinct cytokines by epidermal cells (ECs) in response to antigen exposure may govern the development of TH1 -like immune responses, such as contact sensitivity, or TH2 -like immune responses, such as IgE-dependent allergies of the immediate type, depending on the type of antigen. The aim of this study was to compare the signals induced by protein allergens with those induced by haptens in ECs and subsequently in local draining lymph node cells (LNCs) or splenocytes. BALB/c mice were primed in vivo with the protein allergens ovalbumin or birch pollen or the haptens 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene or trinitrochlorbenzene, respectively, and cytokine and immunoglobulin secretions of responding splenocytes were measured by ELISA after in vitro coculture with ECs. Induction of cytokine mRNA expression in ECs and LNCs was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-PCR. In the presence of protein allergens, ECs enhance the induction of a TH2 immune response (IL-4 and IgE production of splenocytes), whereas a TH1 immune response (IFN-gamma and IgG2a production) was only induced in the context of haptens. Heat inactivation of ovalbumin did not diminish the development of a TH2 immune response. One direct effect of antigen on ECs was the earlier expression of IL-10 mRNA after stimulation with protein allergens (30 minutes) than with haptens (2 hours) in vitro. By using an in vivo approach, sensitization of the skin with trinitrochlorbenzene, but not with ovalbumin, resulted in an early induction of IL-1beta, IL-12p40, and IFN-gamma mRNA in LNCs, whereas IL-18 was induced by both. These data indicate that the type of antigen strongly influences the type of immune response by eliciting distinct signals already in the epithelium.

  16. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  17. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  18. Interaction of the phosphorylated DNA-binding domain in nuclear receptor CAR with its ligand-binding domain regulates CAR activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizu, Ryota; Min, Jungki; Sobhany, Mack; Pedersen, Lars C; Mutoh, Shingo; Negishi, Masahiko

    2018-01-05

    The nuclear protein constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR or NR1I3) regulates several liver functions such as drug and energy metabolism and cell growth or death, which are often involved in the development of diseases such as diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma. CAR undergoes a conversion from inactive homodimers to active heterodimers with retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), and phosphorylation of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) at Thr-38 in CAR regulates this conversion. Here, we uncovered the molecular mechanism by which this phosphorylation regulates the intramolecular interaction between CAR's DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD), enabling the homodimer-heterodimer conversion. Phosphomimetic substitution of Thr-38 with Asp increased co-immunoprecipitation of the CAR DBD with CAR LBD in Huh-7 cells. Isothermal titration calorimetry assays also revealed that recombinant CAR DBD-T38D, but not nonphosphorylated CAR DBD, bound the CAR LBD peptide. This DBD-LBD interaction masked CAR's dimer interface, preventing CAR homodimer formation. Of note, EGF signaling weakened the interaction of CAR DBD T38D with CAR LBD, converting CAR to the homodimer form. The DBD-T38D-LBD interaction also prevented CAR from forming a heterodimer with RXRα. However, this interaction opened up a CAR surface, allowing interaction with protein phosphatase 2A. Thr-38 dephosphorylation then dissociated the DBD-LBD interaction, allowing CAR heterodimer formation with RXRα. We conclude that the intramolecular interaction of phosphorylated DBD with the LBD enables CAR to adapt a transient monomer configuration that can be converted to either the inactive homodimer or the active heterodimer.

  19. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  20. Nonlinear polarization rotation in a dispersion-flattened photonic-crystal fiber for ultrawideband (> 100 nm) all-optical wavelength conversion of 10 Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, C.H.; Chow, C.W.; Tsang, H.K.

    2006-01-01

    We study the conversion bandwidth of the cross-polarization-modulation (YPoIM)-based wavelength conversion scheme with a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber for signals with a nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) modulation format. Both theoretical and experimental results show...... that the conversion bandwidth can be extended to cover a very wide band, including S-, C-, and L-bands for 10 Gbit/s NRZ signals (a total bandwidth of 120 nm is experimentally demonstrated). We also study the theoretical bandwidth limit for 40 Gbit/s NRZ signals. A significant extension of the conversion bandwidth...

  1. Characteristics of volume polarization holography with linear polarization light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jinliang; Wu, An'an; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jue; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Volume polarization holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) photopolymer with linear polarized light is obtained. The characteristics of the volume polarization hologram are experimentally investigated. It is found that beyond the paraxial approximation the polarization states of the holographic reconstruction light are generally different from the signal light. Based on vector wave theoretical analyses and material properties, the special exposure condition for correctly holographic reconstruction is obtained and experimentally demonstrated.

  2. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  3. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboven, F.

    1999-01-01

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  4. Misuse of car safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Gerhart, S

    1988-01-01

    Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The infant died of hemorrhage and shock secondary to liver laceration which resulted from excessive pressure over the abdomen sustained on impact. Surveys of car seat use for small children prior to and following a child restraint law are also reported. Observers noted types of car seats and specific forms of misuse. Survey results suggest that parents are more likely to misuse car seats for infants than toddlers. Medical professionals can reinforce the importance of proper car seat use by incorporating specific car seat use questions into the patient interview and by providing educational materials.

  5. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating

  6. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  7. Design optimization for car compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastic, T.; Schoofs, A.J.G.; Mooi, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays traffic safety and occupant protection get a lot of attention due to the large number of fatalities and injuries in car accidents. The occupant protection in two-vehicle crashes can be improved by car-to-car compatibility, which means well balanced crashworthiness characteristics of both

  8. Compatibility optimization of passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastic, T.; Schoofs, A.J.G.; Mooi, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays traffic safety and occupant protection get a lot of attention due to the large number of fatalities and injuries in car accidents. The occupant protection in two-vehicle crashes can be improved by car-to-car compatibility, which means well balanced crashworthiness characteristics of both

  9. Simple CARS measurement point traversing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckbreth, A. C.; Stufflebeam, J. H.

    1985-05-01

    The present simple optical scheme employing fixed field lenses permits large measurement point translations for small changes in the separation of Galilean telescopes. For the case of an intensity-dependent process, such as CARS, these translations are accomplished at a constant focusing solid angle, thereby yielding constant focal zone intensity. This will eliminate any signal variation with position which is implicitly due to measurement location.

  10. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  11. CuseCar--community car-sharing program : car sharing lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    CuseCar of Syracuse launched services in December 2008 with 3 Toyota Prius Hybrids. CuseCar initially, due to : concerns about availability, limited membership to Origination Sponsor Locations, which in turn developed few : members. In 2009 CuseCar o...

  12. Are cars the new tobacco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Margaret J; Watkins, Stephen J; Gorman, Dermot R; Higgins, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Public health must continually respond to new threats reflecting wider societal changes. Ecological public health recognizes the links between human health and global sustainability. We argue that these links are typified by the harms caused by dependence on private cars. We present routine data and literature on the health impacts of private car use; the activities of the 'car lobby' and factors underpinning car dependence. We compare these with experience of tobacco. Private cars cause significant health harm. The impacts include physical inactivity, obesity, death and injury from crashes, cardio-respiratory disease from air pollution, noise, community severance and climate change. The car lobby resists measures that would restrict car use, using tactics similar to the tobacco industry. Decisions about location and design of neighbourhoods have created environments that reinforce and reflect car dependence. Car ownership and use has greatly increased in recent decades and there is little public support for measures that would reduce this. Car dependence is a potent example of an issue that ecological public health should address. The public health community should advocate strongly for effective policies that reduce car use and increase active travel.

  13. Discovery of two new bright magnetic B stars: i Car and Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, Coralie; Buysschaert, Bram; Oksala, Mary E.; Blazère, Aurore

    2015-11-01

    The BRITE (BRIght Target Explorer) constellation of nanosatellites performs seismology of bright stars via high-precision photometry. In this context, we initiated a high-resolution, high signal-to-noise, high-sensitivity, spectropolarimetric survey of all stars brighter than V = 4. The goal of this survey is to detect new bright magnetic stars and provide prime targets for both detailed magnetic studies and asteroseismology with BRITE. Circularly polarized spectra were acquired with Narval at TBL (Bernard Lyot Telescope, France) and HARPSpol at ESO (European Southern Observatory) in La Silla (Chile). We discovered two new magnetic B stars: the B3V star i Car and the B8V component of the binary star Atlas. Each star was observed twice to confirm the magnetic detections and check for variability. These bright magnetic B stars are prime targets for asteroseismology and for flux-demanding techniques, such as interferometry.

  14. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  15. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  16. Visualizing Resonances in the Complex Plane with Vibrational Phase Contrast Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurna, M.; Garbacik, E.T.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Otto, Cornelis; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2010-01-01

    In coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), the emitted signal carries both amplitude and phase information of the molecules in the focal volume. Most CARS experiments ignore the phase component, but its detection allows for two advantages over intensity-only CARS. First, the pure resonant

  17. Carboxylic acid reductase enzymes (CARs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Margit

    2018-04-01

    Carboxylate reductases (CARs) are emerging as valuable catalysts for the selective one-step reduction of carboxylic acids to their corresponding aldehydes. The substrate scope of CARs is exceptionally broad and offers potential for their application in diverse synthetic processes. Two major fields of application are the preparation of aldehydes as end products for the flavor and fragrance sector and the integration of CARs in cascade reactions with aldehydes as the key intermediates. The latest applications of CARs are dominated by in vivo cascades and chemo-enzymatic reaction sequences. The challenge to fully exploit product selectivity is discussed. Recent developments in the characterization of CARs are summarized, with a focus on aspects related to the domain architecture and protein sequences of CAR enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  19. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  20. Product declaration for cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO 2 -emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed

  1. Determination of the electric field strength of filamentary DBDs by CARS-based four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, P.; Kettlitz, M.; Brandenburg, R.; Höft, H.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2016-10-01

    It is demonstrated that a four-wave mixing technique based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) can determine the electric field strength of a pulsed-driven filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) of 1 mm gap, using hydrogen as a tracer medium in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The measurements are presented for a hydrogen admixture of 10%, but even 5% H2 admixture delivers sufficient infrared signals. The lasers do not affect the discharge by photoionization or by other radiation-induced processes. The absolute values of the electric field strength can be determined by the calibration of the CARS setup with high voltage amplitudes below the ignition threshold of the arrangement. This procedure also enables the determination of the applied breakdown voltage. The alteration of the electric field is observed during the internal polarity reversal and the breakdown process. One advantage of the CARS technique over emission-based methods is that it can be used independently of emission, e.g. in the pre-phase and in between two consecutive discharges, where no emission occurs at all.

  2. Proton - Malaysia's national car project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods.......The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods....

  3. Evaluation of Intracellular Signaling Downstream Chimeric Antigen Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Karlsson

    Full Text Available CD19-targeting CAR T cells have shown potency in clinical trials targeting B cell leukemia. Although mainly second generation (2G CARs carrying CD28 or 4-1BB have been investigated in patients, preclinical studies suggest that third generation (3G CARs with both CD28 and 4-1BB have enhanced capacity. However, little is known about the intracellular signaling pathways downstream of CARs. In the present work, we have analyzed the signaling capacity post antigen stimulation in both 2G and 3G CARs. 3G CAR T cells expanded better than 2G CAR T cells upon repeated stimulation with IL-2 and autologous B cells. An antigen-driven accumulation of CAR+ cells was evident post antigen stimulation. The cytotoxicity of both 2G and 3G CAR T cells was maintained by repeated stimulation. The phosphorylation status of intracellular signaling proteins post antigen stimulation showed that 3G CAR T cells had a higher activation status than 2G. Several proteins involved in signaling downstream the TCR were activated, as were proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell adhesion and exocytosis. In conclusion, 3G CAR T cells had a higher degree of intracellular signaling activity than 2G CARs which may explain the increased proliferative capacity seen in 3G CAR T cells. The study also indicates that there may be other signaling pathways to consider when designing or evaluating new generations of CARs.

  4. Background free CARS imaging by phase sensitive heterodyne CARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurna, M.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Otto, Cornelis; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we show that heterodyne CARS, based on a controlled and stable phase-preserving chain, can be used to measure amplitude and phase information of molecular vibration modes. The technique is validated by a comparison of the imaginary part of the heterodyne CARS spectrum to the

  5. An Automatic Car Counting System Using OverFeat Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debojit; Su, Hongbo; Wang, Chengyi; Blankenship, Jason; Stevanovic, Aleksandar

    2017-06-30

    Automatic car counting is an important component in the automated traffic system. Car counting is very important to understand the traffic load and optimize the traffic signals. In this paper, we implemented the Gaussian Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework to count cars. OverFeat Framework is a combination of Convolution Neural Network (CNN) and one machine learning classifier (like Support Vector Machines (SVM) or Logistic Regression). With this study, we showed another possible application area for the OverFeat Framework. The advantages and shortcomings of the Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework were analyzed using six individual traffic videos with different perspectives, such as camera angles, weather conditions and time of the day. In addition, we compared the two algorithms above with manual counting and a commercial software called Placemeter. The OverFeat Framework showed significant potential in the field of car counting with the average accuracy of 96.55% in our experiment.

  6. [Current Status and Challenges of CAR-T Immunotherapy in Hematologic Malignancies -Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin; Wang, Ya-Jie; Feng, Shuai; Wu, Ya-Yun; Yang, Tong-Hua; Lai, Xun

    2018-04-01

    The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has gradually became a new trend in the treatment of refractory and relapsed hematologic malignancies by developing for 30 years. With the exciting development of genetic engineering, CAR-T technology has subjected to 4 generations of innovation. Structure of CAR-T started from a single signal molecule to 2 or more than 2 co-stimulatory molecules, and then coding the CAR gene or promoter. CAR-T can specifically recognize tumor antigens, and does not be restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC), thus making a breakthrough in clinical treatment. In this review, the history, structure and mechanism of action of CAR-T, as well as the current status and challenges of CAR-T immunotherapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and multiple myeloma are summarized.

  7. Substitution between cars within the household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borger, B.; Mulalic, I.; Rouwendal, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate - for each car owned by the household

  8. Vibrational phase contrast CARS microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurna, M.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes a new technique that improves specificity, selectivity and sensitivity in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. CARS microscopy is a nonlinear optical technique that utilizes specific bonds of molecules, sometimes referred to as the `fingerprint' of a

  9. Shopping for a safer car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This brochure provides some helpful tips on what to look for when shopping for a safer car. Automakers are increasingly advertising the safety features of their cars. The problem is sorting out their claims and zeroing in on the safety features that ...

  10. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  11. Initial heating in cold cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Hoogh, I.M. de

    2012-01-01

    During the initial minutes after entering a cold car, people feel uncomfortably cold. Six different warming systems were investigated in a small car in order to find out how to improve the feeling of comfort using 16 volunteers. The methods were: no additional warming next to a standard heating

  12. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  13. The attractiveness of car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind car use is necessary for the development of effective transport policies. The high door-to-door speed of the car in comparison with other travel modes forms its main attractiveness. And speed is the main engine for mobility growth, which is not easy to curb.

  14. FUEL PRICES AND CAR SALES

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Cârstea

    2008-01-01

    Automotive industry is a very important economic sector that is highly responsive to changes in the world economy. The fuel price is the biggest enemy of car manufacturers. This is a compared analysis between Europe and Romania regarding new car registrations.

  15. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  16. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  17. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with the...

  18. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  19. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn De Munter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR. High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  20. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munter, Stijn; Ingels, Joline; Goetgeluk, Glenn; Bonte, Sarah; Pille, Melissa; Weening, Karin; Kerre, Tessa; Abken, Hinrich; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2018-01-30

    Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv) is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR). High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  1. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  2. CERN CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...

  3. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  4. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  5. Stimulated Emission Pumping Enablling Sub-Diffraction-Limited Spatial Resolution in CARS Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleff, C.; Gross, P.; Fallnich, C.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Kruse, K.; Beeker, W.P; Beeker, W.P.; Lee, Christopher James; Boller, Klaus J.; Dobner, S.

    2012-01-01

    Suppression of CARS signal generation is demonstrated by equalization of the ground and Raman states via a control state in a theoretical investigation. Using donut-shaped control light fields for population transfer results in sub-diffraction-limited spatial resolution CARS microscopy.

  6. Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... experiences related to commuting. The findings will be discussed using theoretical inspiration from Sheller (2004), Bull (2003) and Thrift (2004) and we will suggest that the various emotional experiences of the commuters are of great importance for their ability to use of the car as a dwelling place....

  7. IRF5 and IRF5 Disease-Risk Variants Increase Glycolysis and Human M1 Macrophage Polarization by Regulating Proximal Signaling and Akt2 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedl, Matija; Yan, Jie; Abraham, Clara

    2016-08-30

    Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) regulates inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization, and disease-associated IRF5 genetic variants regulate pattern-recognition-receptor (PRR)-induced cytokines. PRR-stimulated macrophages and M1 macrophages exhibit enhanced glycolysis, a central mediator of inflammation. We find that IRF5 is needed for PRR-enhanced glycolysis in human macrophages and in mice in vivo. Upon stimulation of the PRR nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) in human macrophages, IRF5 binds RIP2, IRAK1, and TRAF6. IRF5, in turn, is required for optimal Akt2 activation, which increases expression of glycolytic pathway genes and HIF1A as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines and M1 polarization. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines and glycolytic pathways co-regulate each other. Rs2004640/rs2280714 TT/TT IRF5 disease-risk-carrier cells demonstrate increased IRF5 expression and increased PRR-induced Akt2 activation, glycolysis, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and M1 polarization relative to GG/CC carrier macrophages. Our findings identify that IRF5 disease-associated polymorphisms regulate diverse immunological and metabolic outcomes and provide further insight into mechanisms contributing to the increasingly recognized important role for glycolysis in inflammation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica L; Streuli, Charles H

    2014-08-01

    Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell-matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical-basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. From acoustic descriptors to evoked quality of car door sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezat, Marie-Céline; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Roussarie, Vincent; Ystad, Sølvi

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the first part of a study aiming at adapting the mechanical car door construction to the drivers' expectancies in terms of perceived quality of cars deduced from car door sounds. A perceptual cartography of car door sounds is obtained from various listening tests aiming at revealing both ecological and analytical properties linked to evoked car quality. In the first test naive listeners performed absolute evaluations of five ecological properties (i.e., solidity, quality, weight, closure energy, and success of closure). Then experts in the area of automobile doors categorized the sounds according to organic constituents (lock, joints, door panel), in particular whether or not the lock mechanism could be perceived. Further, a sensory panel of naive listeners identified sensory descriptors such as classical descriptors or onomatopoeia that characterize the sounds, hereby providing an analytic description of the sounds. Finally, acoustic descriptors were calculated after decomposition of the signal into a lock and a closure component by the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method. A statistical relationship between the acoustic descriptors and the perceptual evaluations of the car door sounds could then be obtained through linear regression analysis.

  10. Frontline Science: Functionally impaired geriatric CAR-T cells rescued by increased α5β1 integrin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Prajna; Cunetta, Marissa; Somasundar, Ponnandai; Espat, N Joseph; Junghans, Richard P; Katz, Steven C

    2017-08-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor expressing T cells (CAR-T) are a promising form of immunotherapy, but the influence of age-related immune changes on CAR-T production remains poorly understood. We showed that CAR-T cells from geriatric donors (gCAR-T) are functionally impaired relative to CAR-T from younger donors (yCAR-T). Higher transduction efficiencies and improved cell expansion were observed in yCAR-T cells compared with gCAR-T. yCAR-T demonstrated significantly increased levels of proliferation and signaling activation of phosphorylated (p)Erk, pAkt, pStat3, and pStat5. Furthermore, yCAR-T contained higher proportions of CD4 and CD8 effector memory (EM) cells, which are known to have enhanced cytolytic capabilities. Accordingly, yCAR-T demonstrated higher levels of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxicity compared with gCAR-T. Enhanced tumor killing by yCAR-T correlated with increased levels of perforin and granzyme B. yCAR-T had increased α5β1 integrin expression, a known mediator of retroviral transduction. We found that treatment with M-CSF or TGF-β1 rescued the impaired transduction efficiency of the gCAR-T by increasing the α5β1 integrin expression. Neutralization of α5β1 confirmed that this integrin was indispensable for CAR expression. Our study suggests that the increase of α5β1 integrin expression levels enhances CAR expression and thereby improves tumor killing by gCAR-T. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  11. Microwave-gated dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornet, Aurélien; Pinon, Arthur; Jhajharia, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) has become a method of choice to enhance signals in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Recently, we have proposed to combine cross-polarization (CP) with D-DNP to provide high polarization P((13)C) in short build-up times. In this paper, we show...

  12. MicroRNA 26a (miR-26a)/KLF4 and CREB-C/EBPβ regulate innate immune signaling, the polarization of macrophages and the trafficking of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to lysosomes during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sanjaya Kumar; Kumar, Manish; Chakraborty, Sohini; Banerjee, Srijon Kaushik; Kumar, Ranjeet; Gupta, Pushpa; Jana, Kuladip; Gupta, Umesh D; Ghosh, Zhumur; Kundu, Manikuntala; Basu, Joyoti

    2017-05-01

    For efficient clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), macrophages tilt towards M1 polarization leading to the activation of transcription factors associated with the production of antibacterial effector molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). At the same time, resolution of inflammation is associated with M2 polarization with increased production of arginase and cytokines such as IL-10. The transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that govern the balance between M1 and M2 polarization, and bacteria-containing processes such as autophagy and trafficking of Mtb to lysosomes, are incompletely understood. Here we report for the first time, that the transcription factor KLF4 is targeted by microRNA-26a (miR-26a). During Mtb infection, downregulation of miR-26a (observed both ex vivo and in vivo) facilitates upregulation of KLF4 which in turn favors increased arginase and decreased iNOS activity. We further demonstrate that KLF4 prevents trafficking of Mtb to lysosomes. The CREB-C/EBPβ signaling axis also favors M2 polarization. Downregulation of miR-26a and upregulation of C/ebpbeta were observed both in infected macrophages as well as in infected mice. Knockdown of C/ebpbeta repressed the expression of selected M2 markers such as Il10 and Irf4 in infected macrophages. The importance of these pathways is substantiated by observations that expression of miR-26a mimic or knockdown of Klf4 or Creb or C/ebpbeta, attenuated the survival of Mtb in macrophages. Taken together, our results attribute crucial roles for the miR-26a/KLF4 and CREB-C/EBPβsignaling pathways in regulating the survival of Mtb in macrophages. These studies expand our understanding of how Mtb hijacks host signaling pathways to survive in macrophages, and open up new exploratory avenues for host-targeted interventions.

  13. MicroRNA 26a (miR-26a/KLF4 and CREB-C/EBPβ regulate innate immune signaling, the polarization of macrophages and the trafficking of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to lysosomes during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaya Kumar Sahu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For efficient clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, macrophages tilt towards M1 polarization leading to the activation of transcription factors associated with the production of antibacterial effector molecules such as nitric oxide (NO and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α. At the same time, resolution of inflammation is associated with M2 polarization with increased production of arginase and cytokines such as IL-10. The transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that govern the balance between M1 and M2 polarization, and bacteria-containing processes such as autophagy and trafficking of Mtb to lysosomes, are incompletely understood. Here we report for the first time, that the transcription factor KLF4 is targeted by microRNA-26a (miR-26a. During Mtb infection, downregulation of miR-26a (observed both ex vivo and in vivo facilitates upregulation of KLF4 which in turn favors increased arginase and decreased iNOS activity. We further demonstrate that KLF4 prevents trafficking of Mtb to lysosomes. The CREB-C/EBPβ signaling axis also favors M2 polarization. Downregulation of miR-26a and upregulation of C/ebpbeta were observed both in infected macrophages as well as in infected mice. Knockdown of C/ebpbeta repressed the expression of selected M2 markers such as Il10 and Irf4 in infected macrophages. The importance of these pathways is substantiated by observations that expression of miR-26a mimic or knockdown of Klf4 or Creb or C/ebpbeta, attenuated the survival of Mtb in macrophages. Taken together, our results attribute crucial roles for the miR-26a/KLF4 and CREB-C/EBPβsignaling pathways in regulating the survival of Mtb in macrophages. These studies expand our understanding of how Mtb hijacks host signaling pathways to survive in macrophages, and open up new exploratory avenues for host-targeted interventions.

  14. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  15. Engineering CAR-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhong, Jiang F; Zhang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells (CAR-T cells) have achieved inspiring outcomes in patients with B cell malignancies, and are now being investigated in other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. CAR-T cells are generated by the T cells from patients' or donors' blood. After the T cells are expanded and genetically modified, they are reinfused into the patients. However, many challenges still need to be resolved in order for this technology to gain widespread adoption. In this review, we first discuss the structure and evolution of chimeric antigen receptors. We then report on the tools used for production of CAR-T cells. Finally, we address the challenges posed by CAR-T cells.

  16. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signa...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice.......This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  17. Integration of the CAR Interface module for the RRS of Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang Hoon; Baang, Dane; Park, Gee Yong; Choi, Young San; Kim, Young Ki

    2011-01-01

    In a research reactor, a CAR(Control Absorber Rod) interface module which receives the control information from the RRS(Reactor Regulating System) control computer and transfer control signal to a step motor in a CAR has been composed of an interface card, an indexer card and a driver card. Due to such separated interface components, the additional interface for each component was inevitable. That is, a CAR interface was more complicated and its corresponding communication ports, drivers and signal cables were unnecessarily required. To simplify this stuff, the interface card and indexer card are integrated to one module and integrated communication network including a step motor driver card can be established through backplane network. The CAR interface module has not been redundant because power operation excluding a CAR by a failure in CAR could be available thanks to remained CARs. But, actually in spite of one CAR failure, operation with remained CARs normally is likely impossible to keep track of rapid dynamics. To solve this problem, the modular redundant structure is introduced herein and this method will let us anticipate the high reliability

  18. Polarization-beam-splitter-less integrated dual-polarization coherent receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ramos, C; Reyes-Iglesias, P J; Ortega-Moñux, A; Pérez-Galacho, D; Halir, R; Molina-Fernández, I

    2014-08-01

    Conventional dual-polarization coherent receivers require polarization beam splitters for either the signal or the local oscillator path. This severely hinders monolithic integration, since integrated polarization splitting devices often exhibit stringent fabrication tolerances. Here we propose a dual-polarization monolithically integrated coherent receiver architecture that completely avoids the use of polarization splitting elements. Polarization management is instead achieved by adequately engineering the birefringence of the interconnecting waveguides. The resultant receiver is highly tolerant to fabrication deviations and thus offers a completely new route for monolithic integration of dual-polarization receivers without any type of active tuning.

  19. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars. [57 FR 54334, Nov. 18, 1992] ...

  20. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for...

  1. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless...

  2. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than 50...

  3. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  4. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy (CARS): Instrumentation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaker, Nadia; Lenne, Pierre-Francois; Marguet, Didier; Colonna, Anne; Hadjur, Christophe; Rigneault, Herve

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in laser physics have permitted the development of a new kind of microscopy based on stimulated Raman scattering. This new technique known as Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy allows vibrational imaging with high sensitivity, high spectral resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capabilities. We review recent advances in CARS microscopy, with applications to chemical and biological systems. We also present an application of CARS microscopy with high optical resolution and spectral selectivity, in resolving structures in surface ex vivo stratum corneum by looking at the CH 2 stretching vibrational band. A strong CARS signal is backscattered from an intense forward generated CARS signal in thick samples. This makes noninvasive imaging of deep structures possible, without labeling or chemical treatments

  5. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  6. Substrate-mediated sub-diffraction guiding of optical signals through a linear chain of metal nanoparticles : Polarization dependence and the role of the dispersion relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaijen, P.J.; Malyshev, V.A.; Knoester, J.

    We theoretically investigate the efficiency of transmitting optical signals through a linear chain consisting of identical and equidistantly spaced silver nanoparticles in the presence of a reflecting substrate. The energy exchange between surface plasmon polaritons of the chain and the substrate

  7. Design review of gondola car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To ensure the constantly growing volume of freight transportations it is necessary to introduce the innovation rolling stock. It should have the best technical and economic parameters in comparison with the existing fleet. Gondola car is the most popular type of railway freight car. Designs of the modern gondolas are based on many years of operating experience and numerous tests carried out by design and research organizations in the field of car building. To improve the body structure of gondolas it is necessary to perform a review of the existing structures and to identify the trends in their improvement. Methodology. The works on improvement the designs of produced gondolas are held by many engineering organizations in almost all industrialized countries. Analysis of the existing body designs of gondola cars is possible by analyzing the research in the field of transport engineering, namely patents, scientific articles, producers catalogues and so on. Findings. When analyzing it was determined that there are gondolas of different designs, but the most common are the gondolas with a solid floor and unloading hatches, the covers of which form the floor of gondola design. An effective method for reducing the gondola empty weight and increasing the body volume is also the use of aluminum alloy instead of steel. Results of the improvement analysis of the gondola bodies` designs showed that the creation of the modern gondola car requires from designers and scientists the implementation of scientific and technical solutions providing the increase of carrying capacity and the body volume, reduction of the gondolas empty weight, increase in repair intervals while improving the strength and dynamic qualities at the same time. Originality. For the first time the gondolas designs were analyzed, their advantages and disadvantages were considered and the trends in improvement of the given structures of gondola cars were determined. Practical value

  8. CARS Spectral Fitting with Multiple Resonant Species using Sparse Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Magnotti, Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    The dual pump CARS technique is often used in the study of turbulent flames. Fast and accurate algorithms are needed for fitting dual-pump CARS spectra for temperature and multiple chemical species. This paper describes the development of such an algorithm. The algorithm employs sparse libraries, whose size grows much more slowly with number of species than a conventional library. The method was demonstrated by fitting synthetic "experimental" spectra containing 4 resonant species (N2, O2, H2 and CO2), both with noise and without it, and by fitting experimental spectra from a H2-air flame produced by a Hencken burner. In both studies, weighted least squares fitting of signal, as opposed to least squares fitting signal or square-root signal, was shown to produce the least random error and minimize bias error in the fitted parameters.

  9. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Minagawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.

  10. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Kentaro; Zhou, Xiaoou; Mineishi, Shin; Di Stasi, Antonio

    2015-05-08

    T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.

  11. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  12. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  13. Quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury using circularly polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kideog; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2017-08-01

    We report the quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury using the circularly polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CP-CARS) technique together with Stokes parameters in the Poincaré sphere. The pump and Stokes excitation beams are circularly polarized to suppress both the linear polarization-dependent artifacts and the nonresonant background of tissue CARS imaging, enabling quantitative CP-CARS image analysis. This study shows that CP-CARS imaging uncovers significantly increased phase retardance of injured spinal cord tissue as compared to normal tissue, suggesting that CP-CARS is an appealing label-free imaging tool for determining the degree of tissue phase retardance, which could serve as a unique diagnostic parameter associated with nervous tissue injury.

  14. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  15. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  16. The simulation of emergent dispatch of cars for intelligent driving autos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ziao

    2018-03-01

    It is widely acknowledged that it is important for the development of intelligent cars to be widely accepted by the majority of car users. While most of the intelligent cars have the system of monitoring itself whether it is on the good situation to drive, it is also clear that studies should be performed on the way of cars for the emergent rescue of the intelligent vehicles. In this study, writer focus mainly on how to derive a separate system for the car caring teams to arrive as soon as they get the signal sent out by the intelligent driving autos. This simulation measure the time for the rescuing team to arrive, the cost it spent on arriving on the site of car problem happens, also how long the queue is when the rescuing auto is waiting to cross a road. This can be definitely in great use when there are a team of intelligent cars with one car immediately having problems causing it's not moving and can be helpful in other situations. Through this way, the interconnection of cars can be a safety net for the drivers encountering difficulties in any time.

  17. The comparing analysis of simulation of emergent dispatch of cars for intelligent driving autos in crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ziao

    2018-03-01

    It is widely acknowledged that it is important for the development of intelligent cars to be widely accepted by the majority of car users. While most of the intelligent cars have the system of monitoring itself whether it is on the good situation to drive, it is also clear that studies should be performed on the way of cars for the emergent rescue of the intelligent vehicles. In this study, writer focus mainly on how to derive a separate system for the car caring teams to arrive as soon as they get the signal sent out by the intelligent driving autos. This simulation measure the time for the rescuing team to arrive, the cost it spent on arriving on the site of car problem happens, also how long the queue is when the rescuing auto is waiting to cross a road. This can be definitely in great use when there are a team of intelligent cars with one car immediately having problems causing its not moving and can be helpful in other situations. Through this way, the interconnection of cars can be a safety net for the drivers encountering difficulties in any time.

  18. Political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  19. Political polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2007-05-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  20. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  1. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  2. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  3. Simultaneous acquisition of pure rotational and vibrational nitrogen spectra using three-laser CARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucht, R.P.; Maris, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The author used three-laser coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering to acquire simultaneously the pure rotational and vibrational spectra from the nitrogen molecule. The energy level schematic for the three-laser CARS process is shown in this paper. Frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser radiation at frequency ω/sub 1/ is used to pump a broadband dye laser which lasers at a range of frequencies ω/sub s/ and a narrowband dye laser with frequency ω/sub 2/. The three-beams are focused to a common CARS probe volume using a three-dimensional phase-matching geometry. A CARS polarization is established when the frequency difference ω/sub 1/ - ω/sub s/ corresponds to a vibrational Raman resonance. The vibrational polarization scatters the incident ω/sub 2/ beam to produce anti-Stokes radiation at frequency ω/sub 1/ - ω/sub s/ + ω/sub 2/. In a similar fashion, a CARS polarization is also established when the frequency difference ω/sub 2/ - ω/sub s/ is equal to a pure rotational Raman resonance. The pure rotational polarization scatters the Nd:YAG laser radiation at ω/sub 1/ to produce anti-Stokes radiation at ω/sub 2/ - ω/sub s/ + ω/sub 1/

  4. HAWC+/SOFIA Instrumental Polarization Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Joseph M.; Chuss, David; Dowell, Charles D.; Santos, Fabio; Siah, Javad; Vaillancourt, John; HAWC+ Instrument Team

    2018-01-01

    HAWC+ is a new far-infrared polarimeter for the NASA/DLR SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) telescope. HAWC+ has the capability to measure the polarization of astronomical sources with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution in four bands from 50-250 microns. Using data obtained during commissioning flights, we implemented a calibration strategy that separates the astronomical polarization signal from the induced instrumental polarization. The result of this analysis is a map of the instrumental polarization as a function of position in the instrument's focal plane in each band. The results show consistency between bands, as well as with other methods used to determine preliminary instrumental polarization values.

  5. Transit Car Performance Comparison, State-of-the-Art Car vs. PATCO Transit Car, NYCTA R-46, MBTA Silverbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    The first phase of this contract authorized the design, development, and demonstration of two State-Of-The-Art Cars (SOAC). This document reports on the gathering of comparative test data on existing in-service transit cars. The three transit cars se...

  6. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim; Mohd Hafzi Md Isa; Yahaya Ahmad; Intan Osman; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP). Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers' car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers' purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were dis...

  7. CAR SECURITY ENHANCEMENT IN PARKING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    NANYONGA BERINDA; AYESIGA LINDSEY PATRA; BYEKWASO FAISAL; NATULINDA LADAN

    2017-01-01

    Over time, car thefts have been reported within Kampala parking areas. This has been majorly due to inefficient security measures of the available parking systems which focus mainly on the car and not the driver, making parking management a challenge. The focus of this survey was to explore the requirements of a new system called Car to Driver Matching Security System to enhance security of cars in Kampala, in particular, from the experience of 15 people. The data collected was then analyzed ...

  8. The principal-agent problem and transport energy use: Case study of company lease cars in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graus, Wina; Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Barriers exist for improvement of energy efficiency, of which the principal-agent problem is considered an important one. The principal-agent problem is a potential barrier for energy policies based on economic instruments, as the decision maker may be partially insulated from the price signal given by such policies. We estimate the size and the impact of the principal-agent problem for cars provided by companies as a benefit to employees in the Netherlands. Of all passenger cars in the Netherlands, 11% is classified as company cars, which consume 21% of the total energy consumption by passenger cars. As company cars are newer, operate more diesel engines, but are also larger, the fuel efficiency is slightly worse than that of private cars. Company cars seem to drive longer distances for commuting than the national average of private cars. Together, this might result in a net 1-7% increase of all fuel use of passenger cars in the Netherlands. This indicates that there is potential to reduce energy consumption of company cars and a need for policies aimed at improving energy efficiency of company cars

  9. Exploiting natural killer group 2D receptors for CAR T-cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Benjamin; Cook, W James; Murad, Joana; Graber, David J; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Lonez, Caroline; Gilham, David E; Sentman, Charles L; Agaugue, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are genetically engineered proteins that combine an extracellular antigen-specific recognition domain with one or several intracellular T-cell signaling domains. When expressed in T cells, these CARs specifically trigger T-cell activation upon antigen recognition. While the clinical proof of principle of CAR T-cell therapy has been established in hematological cancers, CAR T cells are only at the early stages of being explored to tackle solid cancers. This special report discusses the concept of exploiting natural killer cell receptors as an approach that could broaden the specificity of CAR T cells and potentially enhance the efficacy of this therapy against solid tumors. New data demonstrating feasibility of this approach in humans and supporting the ongoing clinical trial are also presented.

  10. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Part II Department of Commerce 48 CFR Chapter 13 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Final Rule... Acquisition Regulation (CAR) AGENCY: Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the... updates the entire CAR through FAC 2005- 21. DATES: This rule is effective April 7, 2010. ADDRESSES: The...

  11. Active deceleration support in car following

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Pauwelussen, J.J.A.; Paassen, M.M. van; Mulder, M.; Abbink, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A haptic gas pedal feedback system is developed that provides car-following information via haptic cues from the gas pedal. During normal car-following situations, the haptic feedback (HF) cues were sufficient to reduce control activity and improve car-following performance. However, in more

  12. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed. ...

  13. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Sugiura, S.; Shinoda, S.; Daigo, Y.; Fujihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  14. Regulation of cell polarity by cell adhesion receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebnet, Klaus; Kummer, Daniel; Steinbacher, Tim; Singh, Amrita; Nakayama, Masanori; Matis, Maja

    2017-07-22

    The ability of cells to polarize is an intrinsic property of almost all cells and is required for the devlopment of most multicellular organisms. To develop cell polarity, cells integrate various signals derived from intrinsic as well as extrinsic sources. In the recent years, cell-cell adhesion receptors have turned out as important regulators of cellular polarization. By interacting with conserved cell polarity proteins, they regulate the recruitment of polarity complexes to specific sites of cell-cell adhesion. By initiating intracellular signaling cascades at those sites, they trigger their specific subcellular activation. Not surprisingly, cell-cell adhesion receptors regulate diverse aspects of cell polarity, including apico-basal polarity in epithelial and endothelial cells, front-to-rear polarity in collectively migrating cells, and planar cell polarity during organ development. Here, we review the recent developments highlighting the central roles of cell-cell adhesion molecules in the development of cell polarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. One-Quarter-Car Active SuspensionModel Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyniova Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspension system influences both the comfort and safety of the passengers. In the paper, energy recuperation and management in automotive suspension systems with linear electric motors that are controlled by a designed H∞ controller to generate a variable mechanical force for a car damper is presented. Vehicle shock absorbers in which forces are generated in response to feedback signals by active elements obviously offer increased design flexibility compared to the conventional suspensions with passive elements (springs and dampers. The main advantage of the proposed solution that uses a linear AC motor is the possibility to generate desired forces acting between the unsprung (wheel and sprung (one-quarter of the car body mass masses of the car, providing good insulation of the car sprung mass from the road surface roughness and load disturbances. As shown in the paper, under certain circumstances linear motors as actuators enable to transform mechanical energy of the vertical car vibrations to electrical energy, accumulate it, and use it when needed. Energy flow control enables to reduce or even eliminate the demands on the external power source. In particular, the paper is focused on experiments with active shock absorber that has been taken on the designed test bed and the way we developed an appropriate input signal for the test bed that as real road disturbance acts upon the vibration absorber and the obtained results are evaluated at the end. Another important point the active suspension design should satisfy is energy supply control that is made via standard controller modification, and which allows changing amount of energy required by the system. Functionality of the designed controller modification was verified taking various experiments on the experiment stand as mentioned in the paper.

  16. SMART SECURITY SYSTEM FOR CARS

    OpenAIRE

    Akshay V. Balki*, Ankit A. Ramteke, Akshay Dhankar, Prof. Nilesh S. Panchbudhe

    2017-01-01

    This propose work is an attempt to model design an smart advance vehicle security system that uses biometric scanner and RFID card reader to give ignition pulse using two main module and to prevent theft. The system contains biometric scanner, RFID card reader, alcohol sensor, vibration sensor, GSM module, microcontroller (8051), relay switch, high voltage mesh..The safety of car is exceptionally essential. It provides pulse to ignition system by synchronizing driver’s data from license and t...

  17. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  18. Solar Powered Heat Control System for Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Abin John; Jithin Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It takes times for an air-conditioner to effectively start cooling the passenger compartment in the car. So the passenger of the car will feel the heat in the car extremely before the air-conditioner fully cooling the interior of the car. Excessive heat can also damage an automobile's interior as well as personal property kept in the passenger compartment. So, a system to reduce this excessive heat by pumping out hot air and allowing cooler ambient air to enter the car by mean...

  19. Effect of CAR activation on selected metabolic pathways in normal and hyperlipidemic mouse livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezen, Tadeja; Tamasi, Viola; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Björkhem, Ingemar; Meyer, Urs A; Rozman, Damjana

    2009-08-19

    Detoxification in the liver involves activation of nuclear receptors, such as the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), which regulate downstream genes of xenobiotic metabolism. Frequently, the metabolism of endobiotics is also modulated, resulting in potentially harmful effects. We therefore used 1,4-Bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) to study the effect of CAR activation on mouse hepatic transcriptome and lipid metabolome under conditions of diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Using gene expression profiling with a dedicated microarray, we show that xenobiotic metabolism, PPARalpha and adipocytokine signaling, and steroid synthesis are the pathways most affected by TCPOBOP in normal and hyperlipidemic mice. TCPOBOP-induced CAR activation prevented the increased hepatic and serum cholesterol caused by feeding mice a diet containing 1% cholesterol. We show that this is due to increased bile acid metabolism and up-regulated removal of LDL, even though TCPOBOP increased cholesterol synthesis under conditions of hyperlipidemia. Up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis was not accompanied by an increase in mature SREBP2 protein. As determined by studies in CAR -/- mice, up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis is however CAR-dependent; and no obvious CAR binding sites were detected in promoters of cholesterogenic genes. TCPOBOP also affected serum glucose and triglyceride levels and other metabolic processes in the liver, irrespective of the diet. Our data show that CAR activation modulates hepatic metabolism by lowering cholesterol and glucose levels, through effects on PPARalpha and adiponectin signaling pathways, and by compromising liver adaptations to hyperlipidemia.

  20. Development of the CARS method for measurement of pressure and temperature gradients in centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeltmann, A.H.; Valentini, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    These experiments evaluated the feasibility of applying the CARS technique to the measurement of UF 6 concentrations and pressure gradients in a gas centrifuge. The resultant CARS signals were properly related to system parameters as suggested by theory. The results have been used to guide design of an apparatus for making CARS measurements in a UF 6 gas centrifuge. Ease of measurement is expected for pressures as low as 0.1 torr. Temperature gradients can be measured by this technique with changes in the data acquisition method. 16 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  1. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  2. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  3. Armored CAR T-cells: utilizing cytokines and pro-inflammatory ligands to enhance CAR T-cell anti-tumour efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yeku, Oladapo O.; Brentjens, Renier J.

    2016-01-01

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells are T-cells that have been genetically modified to express an artificial construct consisting of a synthetic T-cell receptor (TCR) targeted to a predetermined antigen expressed on a tumour. Coupling the T-cell receptor to a CD3ζ signalling domain paved the way for first generation CAR T-cells that were efficacious against cluster of differentiation (CD)19-expressing B-cell malignancies. Optimization with additional signalling domains such as CD28 or 4-...

  4. Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles of Company Car Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; Hoen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Costs of car ownership for company cars drivers and private car owners are very different. Car use, car choice decisions and preferences for car characteristics may therefore differ substantially between these two markets. In this paper, we present results of a study on the preferences of company

  5. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion of...

  6. An Automatic Car Counting System Using OverFeat Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojit Biswas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic car counting is an important component in the automated traffic system. Car counting is very important to understand the traffic load and optimize the traffic signals. In this paper, we implemented the Gaussian Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework to count cars. OverFeat Framework is a combination of Convolution Neural Network (CNN and one machine learning classifier (like Support Vector Machines (SVM or Logistic Regression. With this study, we showed another possible application area for the OverFeat Framework. The advantages and shortcomings of the Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework were analyzed using six individual traffic videos with different perspectives, such as camera angles, weather conditions and time of the day. In addition, we compared the two algorithms above with manual counting and a commercial software called Placemeter. The OverFeat Framework showed significant potential in the field of car counting with the average accuracy of 96.55% in our experiment.

  7. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Architectures and assessment of next-generation CMB polarization instruments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cosmological inflation predicts a background of gravitational waves that imprint a characteristic polarized pattern on the CMB. This signal is degraded by...

  9. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end...

  10. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazear, Justin; Benford, D.; Chuss, D.; Fixsen, D.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Mosely, H.; Staguhn, J.; Wollack, E.; Weston, A.; Vlahacos, K.; Bennett, C.; Eimer, J.; Halpern, M.; Irwin, K.; Dotson, J.; Ade, P.; Tucker, C.

    2011-05-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 100 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.

  11. Auditory signal design for automatic number plate recognition system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydra, C.G.; Jansen, R.J.; Van Egmond, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an auditory signal for the Automatic Number Plate Recognition system of Dutch national police. The auditory signal is designed to alert police officers of suspicious cars in their proximity, communicating priority level and location of the suspicious car and

  12. Simultaneous rotational and vibrational CARS generation through a multiple-frequency combination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alden, M.; Bengtsson, P.E.; Edner, H.

    1987-01-01

    One most promising laser technique for probing combustion processes is coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), which due to its coherent nature and signal strength is applied in several real-world applications. Until today almost all CARS experiments are based on probing the population of molecular vibrational energy levels. However, there are several reasons rotational CARS, i.e. probing of rotational energy levels, may provide a complement to or even a better choice than vibrational CARS. Recently an alternative way to produce rotational CARS spectra is proposed, which is based on a multiple-frequency combination technique. The energy-level diagram for this process is presented. Two dye laser beams at ω/sub r/, and one fix frequency laser beam at ω/sub g/ are employed. ω/sub r,1/ and ω/sub r,2/ are two frequencies of many possible pairs with a frequency difference matching a rotational transition in a molecule. The excitation induced by ω/sub r,1/ and ω/sub r,2/ is then scattered by the narrowband ω/sub g/ beam resulting in a CARS beam ω/sub g/ at ω/sub g/ + ω/sub r,1/ - ω/sub r,2/. An interesting feature with this technique is that it is possible to generate simultaneously a rotational and vibrational CARS spectrum by using a double-folded boxcars phase matching approach. The authors believe that the proposed technique for producing rotational and vibration CARS spectra could be of interest, e.g., when measuring in highly turbulent flows. In this case the rotational CARS spectra could use for temperature measurements in the cooler parts, whereas vibrational CARS are to be preferred when measuring in the hotter parts

  13. Driving CAR T-cells forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hollie J.; Rafiq, Sarwish; Brentjens, Renier J.

    2017-01-01

    The engineered expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on the surface of T cells enables the redirection of T-cell specificity. Early clinical trials using CAR T cells for the treatment of patients with cancer showed modest results, but the impressive outcomes of several trials of CD19-targeted CAR T cells in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies have generated an increased enthusiasm for this approach. Important lessons have been derived from clinical trials of CD19-specific CAR T cells, and ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in haematological and solid malignancies. In this Review, we discuss these trials and present strategies that can increase the antitumour efficacy and safety of CAR T-cell therapy. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, we only discuss studies with direct translational application currently or soon-to-be tested in the clinical setting. PMID:27000958

  14. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  15. Slower, smaller and lighter urban cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, P.; Honnery, D. [Monash Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Caulfield East (Australia)

    1999-01-01

    Rising global car ownership levels generate a variety of problems, including traffic congestion, oil depletion, air pollution and traffic accidents. These problems are usually most severe in urban areas. This paper examines the potential for large reductions in maximum speed, size and mass of urban cars to ameliorate these problems. It is found that cutting maximum speed would significantly lower the frequency and severity of traffic accidents, especially in the third world, where fatality rates per vehicle are very high. If cars carried a maximum of two to four persons, car length and width could be reduced. Such cars would require smaller lane widths and less parking space, thus helping to ease traffic congestion. The combination of smaller and slower vehicles means that car mass can also be greatly reduced, which in turn reduces fuel use and, with it, urban air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions. (Author)

  16. Prediction of future car forms based on historical trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cars are one of the most important products that affects our daily life. Manufacturers of cars are inclined to know factors that affect the sales of cars and how to influence them. Car is a very competitive product whose technology is already matured. Thus, purchase decisions of a car depend on factors such as, aesthetics, ergonomics, features available and price. Exterior form and colour of a car are the most important factors that influence likeness of the car. We did a case study on car aesthetics (form, colour, shape, and user focus with more than 500 car advertisements over the past 70 years, appearing in various car magazines. Results show that form of cars has changed from sharp to smooth over the years, and white colour cars are becoming more popular. Additionally, car size is becoming smaller and increasingly focused towards family. Thus, manufacturers are recommended to develop compact, efficient and hybrid cars.

  17. Comparison of respiratory physiologic features when infants are placed in car safety seats or car beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, T Bernard; Murphy, Joan; Bass, Joel L; Corwin, Michael J

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory physiologic features of healthy term infants placed in either a car bed or a car safety seat. Within the first 1 week of life, 67 healthy term infants were recruited and assigned randomly to be monitored in either a car bed (33 infants) or a car safety seat (34 infants). Physiologic data, including oxygen saturation and frequency and type of apnea, were obtained and analyzed in a blinded manner. The groups spent similar amounts of time in the devices (car bed: 71.6 minutes; car seat: 74.2 minutes). The mean oxygen saturation values were not different between the groups (car bed: 97.1%; car seat: 97.3%). The percentages of time with oxygen saturation of car bed: 11.8[corrected]%; car seat: 18.3[corrected]%). In both groups, a number of infants spent high percentages of study time with oxygen saturation of car safety seat group (54%-63% of study time). Values for the 6 infants in the car bed group with the most time at this level were lower (20%-42%). This difference in the duration of oxygen saturation of features of infants in the 2 car safety devices were observed to be similar. Of note, substantial periods of time with oxygen saturation of < 95% were surprisingly common in both groups.

  18. Identification of Dynamics Modal Parameter for Car Chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, M S M; Rahman, M M; Noor, M M; Kadirgama, K; Izham, M H N

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores and investigates the dynamic characteristics of car chassis structure by using experimental modal analysis (EMA) method and modal testing. Dynamic characteristics are divided into three parameters include natural frequency, damping factor and mode shape. In this study, modal testing was performed on the car chassis including the impact hammer and shaker test. Data analyzer was used to convert the response signal from the sensor, which was in the time domain to frequency domain. Result obtained from both methods, is compared on each axis (X, Y and Z axis). However, small discrepancy was observed in terms of natural frequency, which is within the range of 5%. Based on the results, interpretation and comparison were made for both methods.

  19. Should Diesel cars in Europe be discouraged?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale for the different tax treatment of gasoline and diesel cars currently observed in Europe. First, we analyse possible justifications for a different tax treatment: pure tax revenue considerations, externality cons0iderations and constraints on the tax instruments used for cars and trucks. Next, an applied general equilibrium model is used to assess the welfare effects of revenue neutral changes in the vehicle and fuel taxes on diesel and gasoline cars. The mod...

  20. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell–mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T...

  1. DARTS: Deceiving Autonomous Cars with Toxic Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Sitawarin, Chawin; Bhagoji, Arjun Nitin; Mosenia, Arsalan; Chiang, Mung; Mittal, Prateek

    2018-01-01

    Sign recognition is an integral part of autonomous cars. Any misclassification of traffic signs can potentially lead to a multitude of disastrous consequences, ranging from a life-threatening accident to a large-scale interruption of transportation services relying on autonomous cars. In this paper, we propose and examine realistic security attacks against sign recognition systems for Deceiving Autonomous caRs with Toxic Signs (we call the proposed attacks DARTS). Leveraging the concept of ad...

  2. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    OpenAIRE

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based on a neural network approach. The aim of this research is to assess the relative merit of both approaches to describe human learning behavior in car driving specifically and in operating dynamic sys...

  3. Alcohol Fuel in Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the effects of combustion of high-percentage mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on the output parameters of a passenger car engine. The car engine has not been structurally modified for the combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content. The mixture used consisted of E85 summer blend and Natural 95 gasoline in a ratio of 50:50. The parameters monitored during the experiment included the air-fuel ratio in exhaust gasses, the power output and torque of the engine and also the specific energy consumption and efficiency of the engine. As is apparent from the results, E85+N95 (50:50 mixture combustion results in lean-burn (λ > 1 due to the presence of oxygen in bioethanol. The lean-burn led to a slight decrease in torque and power output of the engine. However, due to the positive physicochemical properties of bioethanol, the decrease has not been as significant as would normally be expected from the measured air-fuel ratio. These findings are further confirmed by the calculated energy required to produce 1 kWh of energy, and by the higher efficiency of the engine during the combustion of a 50% bioethanol mixture.

  4. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-03-20

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  5. Precessing deuteron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Plis, Yu.A.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the acceleration in the Nuclotron of deuterons polarized in the horizontal plane is considered. This horizontal polarization is named precessing polarization. The effects of the main magnetic field and synchrotron oscillations are included. The precessing polarization is supposed to be used in studying the polarization parameters of the elastic dp back-scattering and other experiments

  6. Development of dual-broadband rotational CARS for combustion diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bood, Joakim

    2000-06-01

    The present thesis concerns development and application of dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (DB-RCARS) for temperature and species concentration measurements in combustion processes. Both fundamental development of the technique, including experimental as well as modelling results, and measurements in practical combustion devices were conducted. A code for calculation of rotational CARS spectra of pure acetylene as well as mixtures of acetylene and nitrogen was developed. Using this code, temperatures and relative acetylene to nitrogen concentrations were evaluated from DB-RCARS measurements in pure acetylene and different acetylene/nitrogen mixtures. Moreover, rotational CARS spectra of dimethyl-ether (DME) have been analyzed. A powerful tool for simultaneous temperature and multiple species concentration measurements was developed by combining rotational CARS with vibrational CARS. The concept was demonstrated for measurements of temperature, oxygen, and carbon monoxide concentrations simultaneously in a premixed sooting ethene/air flame. Rotational CARS spectra of nitrogen at very high pressures (0.1-44 MPa) at room temperature were investigated. The experimental spectra were compared with calculated spectra using different Raman linewidth models. The results indicate some shortcomings in the present model, basically the density calculation and neglecting overlapping effects between adjacent spectral lines. A new method for CARS measurements in several spatially separated points simultaneously was developed. By using DB-RCARS the method was demonstrated for quantitative measurements of profiles of temperatures and oxygen concentrations. An atomic filter for rejection of stray light was developed. The filter was shown to efficiently reject stray light from the narrowband laser without affecting the shape of the rotational CARS spectrum or causing any signal losses. Within an interdisciplinary project intended to increase the

  7. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim Nor Haslina; Zayadi Nadzirah

    2016-01-01

    The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the st...

  8. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  9. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Golubovskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy––a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4+ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh and CD8+ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.; intracellular markers (FOXP3; epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic; and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4+ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors.

  10. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-03-15

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy--a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4⁺ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8⁺ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4⁺ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors.

  11. Polare maskuliniteter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Anne Hauan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper my aim is to read and understand the journal of Gerrit de Veer from the last journey of William Barents to the Arctic Regions in 1596 and the journal of captain Junge on his hunting trip from Tromsø to Svalbard in 1834.It is nearly 240 years between this to voyages. The first journal is known as the earliest report from the arctic era. Gerrit de Veer adds instructive copper engravings to his text and give us insight in the crews meeting with this new land. Captain Junges journal is found together with his dead crew in a house in a fjord nearby Ny-Ålesund and has no drawings, but word. Both of these journals may be read as sources of the knowledge and understanding of the polar region. They might also unveil the ideas of how to deal with and survive under the challenges that is given. In addition one can ask if the sources can tell us more about how men describe their challenges. Can the way they expressed themselves in the journals give us an understanding of masculinity? And not least help us to create good questions of the change in the ideas of masculinities which is said to follow the change in understanding of the wilderness.

  12. System for measuring of proton polarization in polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkach, A.Ya.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kuz'menko, V.S.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement system of proton polarization in the target, which uses the method of nuclear magnetic resonance is described. To record the signal of NMR-absorption a parallel Q-meter of voltage with analogous subtraction of resonance characteristics of measurement circuit is used. To obtain gradual sensitivity of the system to polarization state in the whole volume of the target the measurement coils is made of tape conductor. The analysis and mathematical modelling of Q-meter are carried out. Corrections for nonlinearity and dispersion are calculated. Key diagrams of the main electron blocks of Q-meter are presented. The system described operates on line with the M6000 computer. Total error of measurement of polarization value of free protons in the target does not exceed 6% [ru

  13. System of measurement of proton polarization in a polarized target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnaukov, I.M.; Chechetenko, V.F.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with high sensitivity. The signal of NMR absorption is recorded by a Q-meter with a series circuit and a circuit for compensation of the resonance characteristic of the measuring circuit. In order to ensure uniform sensitivity of the system to the state of polarization throughout the volume of the target and to enhance the S/N ration the measuring coil is made of a flat conductor. The polarization-measuring system works on-line with an M-6000 computer. The total error of measurement of the polarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of the working substance under irradiation with an intense photon beam is less than or equal to 6%.

  14. Femtosecond Time-Resolved Resonance-Enhanced CARS of Gaseous Iodine at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Fan, Rong-Wei; Xia, Yuan-Qin; Yu, Xin; Yao, Yong; Chen, De-Ying

    2011-04-01

    Time-resolved resonance-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is applied to investigate molecular dynamics in gaseous iodine. 40 fs laser pulses are applied to create and monitor the high vibrational states of iodine at room temperature (corresponding to a vapor pressure as low as about 35 Pa) by femtosecond time-resolved CARS. Depending on the time delay between the probe pulse and the pump/Stokes pulse pairs, the high vibrational states both on the electronically ground states and the excited states can be detected as oscillations in the CARS transient signal. It is proved that the femtosecond time-resolved CARS technique is a promising candidate for investigating the molecular dynamics of a low concentration system and can be applied to environmental and atmospheric monitoring measurements.

  15. CERN car stickers for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The stickers on your vehicles will cease to be valid at the end of 2013. We kindly request that you inform us as soon as possible if you no longer own a vehicle that is in our records. In particular, please inform the CERN Registration Service (Building 55, first floor) if you receive a sticker for a vehicle that you no longer own.   Stickers for 2014 are valid immediately and can be displayed as soon as you receive them. The Guards Service will continue to allow cars displaying a 2013 sticker into the CERN site until no later than 31 January 2014. After that date, the Guards Service will be obliged to deny access to any vehicles not displaying a valid sticker. Please see Operational Circular No. 2 for more details. We wish you a pleasant day and happy holidays, GS/DI security and access control service

  16. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains shall...

  17. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used...

  18. Cars diagnostics for combustion and plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckbreth, A.C.; Stufflebeam, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is an analysis approach for nonintrusive temperature and species measurements in hostile environments. Widely utilized in combustion, it may be able to significantly impact materials processing research. CARS is described. Its applications to combustion and plasma process environments are reviewed and contrasted

  19. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  20. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based

  2. The Hungarian car insurance cartel saga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.

    2013-01-01

    his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car

  3. Gates Auto Door Car With Lights Modulated

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Carolina; Luyung Dinani, Skom, MMSi

    2002-01-01

    In scientific writing wi ll be explained about automatic gates with modulated headlights, where to find the car lights were adjusted by the relative frequency darker because of this background that the author alleviate human task in performing daily activities by using an automatic gate with the car lights modulated.

  4. Automated Coal-Mine Shuttle Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Cable-guided car increases efficiency in underground coal mines. Unmanned vehicle contains storage batteries in side panels for driving traction motors located in wheels. Batteries recharged during inactive periods or slid out as unit and replaced by fresh battery bank. Onboard generator charges batteries as car operates.

  5. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T cell efficacy. Their studies have uncovered the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the inhibition of CAR T cell functions, revealed a critical role for the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in CAR T cell exhaustion within the tumor microenvironment, and demonstrated improved antitumor effects with a CAR T cell-intrinsic PD-1 blockade strategy using a dominant negative form of PD-1. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for further evaluation of mechanisms underlying CAR T cell immune evasion within the tumor microenvironment for the improvement of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors.

  6. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  7. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-17

    "More than a million people die in car accidents each year, and most of those accidents are the result of human errorヤ Alexandru Budisteanu is 23 years old and owns a group of startups including Autonomix, an Artificial Intelligence software for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car\\'s roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount of data, Alexandru employed Artificial Intelligence algorithms to extract information from the visual data and plot a safe route for the car. Then, he built a manufacturing facility in his garage from Romania to assembly affordable VisionBot Pick and Place robots that are used to produce electronics. During this lecture, Alexandru will talk about this autonomous self-driving car prototype, for which he received the grand prize of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, and was nominated by TIME magazine as one of the worldメs most influential teens of 2013.

  8. Environmental impact of scrapping old cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wee, Bert van; Moll, Henri C.; Dirks, Jessica

    Many countries introduced scrapping programs in the 90s, partly legitimated by environmental impact reductions. However, reducing the age of the current car fleet may result in an increase of life-cycle CO2 emissions. This will probably also be true for cars to be produced in future unless fuel

  9. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less than...

  10. The Green City Car. A holistic approach for NVH abatement of city cars

    OpenAIRE

    Bein, Thilo; Mayer, Dirk; Elliott, Steve; Ferrali, Leonardo; Casella, Mauro; Saemann, Ernst-Ulrich; Kropp, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Finn Kryger; Meschke, Jens; Pisano, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the different passive and active concepts in a holistic approach, the FP7 project Green City Car demonstrates the feasibility of applying active systems to NVH-related problems light city cars from a system point-of view. During the project, a city car equipped with a small engine has been considered equipped with the latest technology in terms of safety aspects related to pedestrian’s impact and car-to-car compatibility, which are of major importance in an urban environment. The noi...

  11. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  12. Flex cars and the alcohol price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Alex Luiz; Da Silveira, Jaylson Jair; De Almeida Prado, Fernando Pigeard

    2009-01-01

    We build a model that incorporates the effect of the innovative 'flex' car, an automobile that is able to run with either gasoline or alcohol, on the dynamics of fuel prices in Brazil. Our model shows that differences regarding fuel prices will now depend on the proportions of alcohol, gasoline and flex cars in the total stock. Conversely, the demand for each type of car will also depend on the expected future prices of alcohol and gasoline (in addition to the car prices). The model reflects our findings that energy prices are tied in the long run and that causality runs stronger from gasoline to alcohol. The estimated error correction parameter is stable, implying that the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium remains unchanged. The latter result is probably due to a still small fraction of flex cars in the total stock (approx. 5%), despite the fact that its sales nearly reached 100% in 2006. (author)

  13. Modeling optical and UV polarization of AGNs. IV. Polarization timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Lobos, P. A.; Goosmann, R. W.; Marin, F.; Savić, D.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Optical observations cannot resolve the structure of active galactic nuclei (AGN), and a unified model for AGN was inferred mostly from indirect methods, such as spectroscopy and variability studies. Optical reverberation mapping allowed us to constrain the spatial dimension of the broad emission line region and thereby to measure the mass of supermassive black holes. Recently, reverberation was also applied to the polarized signal emerging from different AGN components. In principle, this should allow us to measure the spatial dimensions of the sub-parsec reprocessing media. Aim. We conduct numerical modeling of polarization reverberation and provide theoretical predictions for the polarization time lag induced by different AGN components. The model parameters are adjusted to the observational appearance of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. Methods: We modeled scattering-induced polarization and tested different geometries for the circumnuclear dust component. Our tests included the effects of clumpiness and different dust prescriptions. To further extend the model, we also explored the effects of additional ionized winds stretched along the polar direction, and of an equatorial scattering ring that is responsible for the polarization angle observed in pole-on AGN. The simulations were run using a time-dependent version of the STOKES code. Results: Our modeling confirms the previously found polarization characteristics as a function of the observer`s viewing angle. When the dust adopts a flared-disk geometry, the lags reveal a clear difference between type 1 and type 2 AGN. This distinction is less clear for a torus geometry where the time lag is more sensitive to the geometry and optical depth of the inner surface layers of the funnel. The presence of a scattering equatorial ring and ionized outflows increased the recorded polarization time lags, and the polar outflows smooths out dependence on viewing angle, especially for the higher optical depth of the

  14. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks. 180.519 Section 180.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car...

  15. Modelling and optimization of car-to-car compatibility - Modellierung und optimierung von pkw-pkw-kompatibilität

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Nastic, T.; Huibers, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper simple and more detailed MADYMO multibody models were used to simulate the car structure for improving the car-to-car compatibility of the whole car fleet. As a first step, survey studies were performed to develop a method for the optimization of car design with respect to frontal and

  16. Surface-enhanced FAST CARS: en route to quantum nano-biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronine, Dmitri V.; Zhang, Zhenrong; Sokolov, Alexei V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum nano-biophotonics as the science of nanoscale light-matter interactions in biological systems requires developing new spectroscopic tools for addressing the challenges of detecting and disentangling weak congested optical signals. Nanoscale bio-imaging addresses the challenge of the detection of weak resonant signals from a few target biomolecules in the presence of the nonresonant background from many undesired molecules. In addition, the imaging must be performed rapidly to capture the dynamics of biological processes in living cells and tissues. Label-free non-invasive spectroscopic techniques are required to minimize the external perturbation effects on biological systems. Various approaches were developed to satisfy these requirements by increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of biomolecular detection. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopies provide many orders of magnitude enhancement of chemically specific Raman signals. Femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for CARS (FAST CARS) were developed to suppress the nonresonant background and optimize the efficiency of the coherent optical signals. This perspective focuses on the application of these techniques to nanoscale bio-imaging, discussing their advantages and limitations as well as the promising opportunities and challenges of the combined coherence and surface enhancements in surface-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SECARS) and tip-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (TECARS) and the corresponding surface-enhanced FAST CARS techniques. Laser pulse shaping of near-field excitations plays an important role in achieving these goals and increasing the signal enhancement.

  17. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingshan Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.

  18. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingshan; Song, Yongping; Liu, Delong

    2017-10-23

    Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.

  19. First results from car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure radio channel measurements at 5.2GHZ

    OpenAIRE

    Paier, Alexander; Kåredal, Johan; Czink, Nicolai; Hofstetter, Helmut; Dumard, Charlotte; Zemen, Thomas; Tufvesson, Fredrik; Mecklenbräuker, Christoph; Molisch, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure (henceforth called C2X) communications are constantly gaining importance for road-safety and other applications. In order to design efficient C2X systems, an understanding of realistic C2X propagation channels is required, but currently, only few measurements have been published. This paper presents a description of an extensive measurement campaign recently conducted in an urban scenario, a rural scenario, and on a highway. We focused on 4 ÿ 4 multiple-in...

  20. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  1. Femtosecond time-resolved ERE-CARS of PM650

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Fan, Rongwei; Chen, Deying; Li, Xiaohui; Xia, Yuanqin; Yu, Xin; Wang, Jialing; Jiang, Yugang

    2012-07-01

    We utilize femtosecond time-resolved electronic resonance-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (ERE-CARS) to investigate new information for pyrromethene 650 (PM650) dye molecules. For this purpose, the vibrational properties of PM650 are registered in diluted solutions of several organisms. We observe a strong Raman vibrational mode with a wavenumber difference of about 48 cm- 1 in its organic solutions. This may be linked to the intramolecular electron transfer (ICT) process from the aromatic ring to the cyano group in PM650. The influence of the solvent effects on the vibrational dynamics of PM650 is also investigated. The vibrational properties of PM650 dye molecules diluted in polar organic solutions are light solvent-dependent.

  2. Emergency information systems for cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, M.; Vani Manasa, N.; Kumar, K. Rajesh; Sundar, S.

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this work is to create a Health Care monitoring and Guidance system for persons who are travelling in outdoor environments like cars. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies are separately and combined today in many applications in our day to day life. The GSM module will send a message along with the GPS location to the end user through text, and a call is initiated to the user for further instructions. The Global Positioning System (GPS) will give the location of the interested vehicle. This system helps the doctor or anyone to monitor the accident who is outdoor and has less help. This will help the hospital to monitor the accident as well as guide the injured through difficult situations. Using a buzzer, the persons nearby will come to know that the person is in danger or in poor health conditions. This project provides a good two-way communication with the injured and the hospital to assist them to give first aid before an ambulance arrives. So, this paper devices a novel technique to assist the people who just met with accident through GPS and GSM.

  3. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  4. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  5. Electric cars as mobile power storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of electric cars as a means of optimising the use of renewable energy sources. Charging the cars' batteries during periods when cheap electricity prices prevail and then using excess capacity to supply the mains with electricity during periods of peak demand is discussed. The possible use of wind for power generation is discussed and a system proposed by a leading supplier of electrical apparatus and systems is examined. Two examples of electric cars and associated power chains are looked at and tests in everyday practice are described

  6. THEORETICAL BASIS OF MOTOR CAR QUALITY EVALUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bazhinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment of the quality of cars, which is based on the integral parameters of comfort, reliability, safety, environmental and technical solutions are considered and defined. The amount of parameters that define the quality level of the car use throughout the country is defined. Mathematical formulas and quality indicators of the integral index are developed. The integral quality index of vehicles allows comparing the vehicles of different classes based on external operating conditions. The numerical values of the integral index determines the quality of the car.

  7. Augmentation of Antitumor Immunity by Human and Mouse CAR T Cells Secreting IL-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biliang Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of transgenically encoded human and mouse IL-18 on T cell proliferation and its application in boosting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cells are presented. Robust enhancement of proliferation of IL-18-secreting human T cells occurred in a xenograft model, and this was dependent on TCR and IL-18R signaling. IL-18 augmented IFN-γ secretion and proliferation of T cells activated by the endogenous TCR. TCR-deficient, human IL-18-expressing CD19 CAR T cells exhibited enhanced proliferation and antitumor activity in the xenograft model. Antigen-propelled activation of cytokine helper ensemble (APACHE CAR T cells displayed inducible expression of IL-18 and enhanced antitumor immunity. In an intact mouse tumor model, CD19-IL-18 CAR T cells induced deeper B cell aplasia, significantly enhanced CAR T cell proliferation, and effectively augmented antitumor effects in mice with B16F10 melanoma. These findings point to a strategy to develop universal CAR T cells for patients with solid tumors.

  8. A High-Efficiency 4x45W Car Audio Power Amplifier using Load Current Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, C.H.J.; Mensink, C.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Mostert, F.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.

    2010-01-01

    A 4x45W (EIAJ) monolithic car audio power amplifier is presented that achieves a power dissipation decrease of nearly 2x over standard class AB operation by sharing load currents between loudspeakers. Output signals are conditioned using a common-mode control loop to allow switch placement between

  9. The origin of radio pulsar polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyks, J.

    2017-12-01

    Polarization of radio pulsar profiles involves a number of poorly understood, intriguing phenomena, such as the existence of comparable amounts of orthogonal polarization modes (OPMs), strong distortions of polarization angle (PA) curves into shapes inconsistent with the rotating vector model (RVM), and the strong circular polarization V which can be maximum (instead of zero) at the OPM jumps. It is shown that the comparable OPMs and large V result from a coherent addition of phase-delayed waves in natural propagation modes, which are produced by a linearly polarized emitted signal. The coherent mode summation implies opposite polarization properties to those known from the incoherent case, in particular, the OPM jumps occur at peaks of V, whereas V changes sign at a maximum linear polarization fraction L/I. These features are indispensable to interpret various observed polarization effects. It is shown that statistical properties of emission and propagation can be efficiently parametrized in a simple model of coherent mode addition, which is successfully applied to complex polarization phenomena, such as the stepwise PA curve of PSR B1913+16 and the strong PA distortions within core components of pulsars B1933+16 and B1237+25. The inclusion of coherent mode addition opens the possibility for a number of new polarization effects, such as inversion of relative modal strength, twin minima in L/I coincident with peaks in V, 45° PA jumps in weakly polarized emission, and loop-shaped core PA distortions. The empirical treatment of the coherency of mode addition makes it possible to advance the understanding of pulsar polarization beyond the RVM model.

  10. Polarization tracking system for free-space optical communication, including quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Hughes, Richard John

    2018-01-09

    Quantum communication transmitters include beacon lasers that transmit a beacon optical signal in a predetermined state of polarization such as one of the states of polarization of a quantum communication basis. Changes in the beacon polarization are detected at a receiver, and a retarder is adjusted so that the states of polarization in a received quantum communication optical signal are matched to basis polarizations. The beacon and QC signals can be at different wavelengths so that the beacon does not interfere with detection and decoding of the QC optical signal.

  11. Polar transport in plants mediated by membrane transporters: focus on mechanisms of polar auxin transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naramoto, Satoshi

    2017-12-01

    Directional cell-to-cell transport of functional molecules, called polar transport, enables plants to sense and respond to developmental and environmental signals. Transporters that localize to plasma membranes (PMs) in a polar manner are key components of these systems. PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers, which are the most studied polar-localized PM proteins, are implicated in the polar transport of auxin that in turn regulates plant development and tropic growth. In this review, the regulatory mechanisms underlying polar localization of PINs, control of auxin efflux activity, and PIN abundance at PMs are considered. Up to date information on polar-localized nutrient transporters that regulate directional nutrient movement from soil into the root vasculature is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Systemic treatment with CAR-engineered T cells against PSCA delays subcutaneous tumor growth and prolongs survival of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillerdal, Victoria; Ramachandran, Mohanraj; Leja, Justyna; Essand, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has successfully been used to treat both chronic and acute lymphocytic leukemia as well as other hematological cancers. Experimental therapy with CAR-engineered T cells has also shown promising results on solid tumors. The prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a protein expressed on the surface of prostate epithelial cells as well as in primary and metastatic prostate cancer cells and therefore a promising target for immunotherapy of prostate cancer. We developed a third-generation CAR against PSCA including the CD28, OX-40 and CD3 ζ signaling domains. T cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding the PSCA-CAR and evaluated for cytokine production (paired Student’s t-test), proliferation (paired Student’s t-test), CD107a expression (paired Student’s t-test) and target cell killing in vitro and tumor growth and survival in vivo (Log-rank test comparing Kaplan-Meier survival curves). PSCA-CAR T cells exhibit specific interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 secretion and specific proliferation in response to PSCA-expressing target cells. Furthermore, the PSCA-CAR-engineered T cells efficiently kill PSCA-expressing tumor cells in vitro and systemic treatment with PSCA-CAR-engineered T cells significantly delays subcutaneous tumor growth and prolongs survival of mice. Our data confirms that PSCA-CAR T cells may be developed for treatment of prostate cancer

  13. Comments on ``CARS probe of RDX decomposition''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stufflebeam, J. H.; Eckbreth, A. C.

    1984-08-01

    Recent CARS data from a solid propellant flame that purported to show resonances from the bending modes of HCN are analyzed to demonstrate that the spectral features in question are vibrational transitions of CO 2.

  14. Papers on vehicle size : cars and trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    The four papers in this volume describe analyses of car size : trends and truck occupant injuries and fatalities. All four were : written between June 1985 and December 1987. The topics : addressed include where heavy truck accidents occur, injury an...

  15. How to Buy a Car 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Charity A.

    2006-01-01

    This article elaborates on the basics of problem-based learning units and tips for implementation. The problem-based learning unit described focuses on the course of action involved in purchasing a new car. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Computer Security: your car, my control

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed the Internet of Things (IoT) and its security implications already in past issues of the CERN Bulletin, for example in “Today’s paranoia, tomorrow’s reality” (see here). Unfortunately, tomorrow has come. At this years's Black Hat conference researchers presented their findings on how easily your car can be hacked and controlled remotely. Sigh.   While these researchers have just shown that they can wirelessly hijack a Jeep Cherokee, others have performed similar studies with SmartCars, Fords, a Tesla, a Corvette, BMWs, Chryslers and Mercedes! With the increasing computerisation of cars, the engine management system, air conditioning, anti-lock braking system, electronic stability programme, etc. are linked to the infotainment, navigation and communication systems, opening the door for these vehicles to be hacked remotely. The now prevalent Bluetooth connection with smartphones is one entry vector to attack your car remotely...

  17. CARs in the Lead Against Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormhøj, Maria; Bedoya, Felipe; Frigault, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    The recent clinical success of CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in chronic and acute leukemia has led to increased interest in broadening this technology to other hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Now, advances are being made using CAR T cell technology...... to target myeloma antigens such as B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), CD138, and kappa-light chain as well as CD19 on putative myeloma stem cells. To date, only a limited number of multiple myeloma patients have received CAR T cell therapy but preliminary results have been encouraging. In this review, we...... summarize the recently reported results of clinical trials conducted utilizing CAR T cell therapy in multiple myeloma (MM)....

  18. CARS diagnostics of high pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbusch, J.

    2001-01-01

    After a short description of the principles of the CARS, RECARS and POLCARS techniques and a discussion of setups for CARS experiments some experimental results are summarized. The results concern mainly plasma under atmospheric pressure, in particular the determination of temperature in a CO 2 laser-induced pyrolysis flame burning in a silane-acetylene gas mixture, the measurements of N 2 vibrational and rotational temperatures as well as the electron density by CARS and of an NO minority by POLCARS in an atmospheric microwave discharge, and finally RECARS experiments on indium iodide, Which is present in metal halide discharge lamps. Guided by these examples some problems and difficulties arising when performing CARS measurements are discussed

  19. Polarized proton target with horizontal spin orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, Eh.I.; Kiselev, Yu.F.; Kozlenko, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Proton target, the polarization vector of which may be arbitrary oriented in horizontal plane relatively to the beam, is developed and tested. 70% value of polarization is obtained. 0.6 K temperature is acquired through 3 He pumping out continuous cycle. 1.2-propylene glycol - Cr(V) was used as working medium. Magnetic system is made in the form of Helmholtz sperconducting coils with working curren close to critical one. Target polarization is measured by NMR technique using original system of proton signal processing

  20. Electrochemical regulation of budding yeast polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Haupt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs, which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization.

  1. IMPROVING CAR NAVIGATION WITH A VISION-BASED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The real-time acquisition of the accurate positions is very important for the proper operations of driver assistance systems or autonomous vehicles. Since the current systems mostly depend on a GPS and map-matching technique, they show poor and unreliable performance in blockage and weak areas of GPS signals. In this study, we propose a vision oriented car navigation method based on sensor fusion with a GPS and in-vehicle sensors. We employed a single photo resection process to derive the position and attitude of the camera and thus those of the car. This image georeferencing results are combined with other sensory data under the sensor fusion framework for more accurate estimation of the positions using an extended Kalman filter. The proposed system estimated the positions with an accuracy of 15 m although GPS signals are not available at all during the entire test drive of 15 minutes. The proposed vision based system can be effectively utilized for the low-cost but high-accurate and reliable navigation systems required for intelligent or autonomous vehicles.

  2. Improving Car Navigation with a Vision-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, K.; Lee, I.

    2015-08-01

    The real-time acquisition of the accurate positions is very important for the proper operations of driver assistance systems or autonomous vehicles. Since the current systems mostly depend on a GPS and map-matching technique, they show poor and unreliable performance in blockage and weak areas of GPS signals. In this study, we propose a vision oriented car navigation method based on sensor fusion with a GPS and in-vehicle sensors. We employed a single photo resection process to derive the position and attitude of the camera and thus those of the car. This image georeferencing results are combined with other sensory data under the sensor fusion framework for more accurate estimation of the positions using an extended Kalman filter. The proposed system estimated the positions with an accuracy of 15 m although GPS signals are not available at all during the entire test drive of 15 minutes. The proposed vision based system can be effectively utilized for the low-cost but high-accurate and reliable navigation systems required for intelligent or autonomous vehicles.

  3. CD19-Targeted CAR T Cells as Novel Cancer Immunotherapy for Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Davila, Marco L.; Brentjens, Renier J.

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy has demonstrated significant potential for the treatment of patients with chemotherapy-resistant hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. One type of immunotherapy involves the adoptive transfer of T cells that have been genetically modified with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to target a tumor. These hybrid proteins are composed of the antigen-binding domains of an antibody fused to T-cell receptor signaling machinery. CAR T cells that target CD19 recently have made the ju...

  4. CARS Diagnostics of High Pressure Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    e) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) J. H. Stufflebeam t JDAAG29- 79-C-0008J %A,, Shirley R,,. Hall 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10...also the work in N2 at elevated tem- perature up to 30 atmospheres. John H. Stufflebeam continued the high pressure CARS work under the contract...Spectroscopy, Bordeaux, France, September 1982. 12. J. H. Stufflebeam , J. F. Verdieck, and R. J. Hall: CARS Diagnostics of High Pressure and

  5. GLYCAN-DIRECTED CAR-T CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Migliorini, Denis; King, Tiffany R; Mandel, Ulla; June, Carl H; Posey, Avery D

    2018-01-23

    Cancer immunotherapy is rapidly advancing in the treatment of a variety of hematopoietic cancers, including pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B cell lymphoma, with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells. CARs are genetically encoded artificial T cell receptors that combine the antigen specificity of an antibody with the machinery of T cell activation. However, implementation of CAR technology in the treatment of solid tumors has been progressing much slower. Solid tumors are characterized by a number of challenges that need to be overcome, including cellular heterogeneity, immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), and, in particular, few known cancer-specific targets. Post-translational modifications that differentially occur in malignant cells generate valid cell surface, cancer-specific targets for CAR-T cells. We previously demonstrated that CAR-T cells targeting an aberrant O-glycosylation of MUC1, a common cancer marker associated with changes in cell adhesion, tumor growth, and poor prognosis, could control malignant growth in mouse models. Here, we discuss the field of glycan-directed CAR-T cells and review the different classes of antibodies specific for glycan-targeting, including the generation of high affinity O-glycopeptide antibodies. Finally, we discuss historic and recently investigated glycan targets for CAR-T cells and provide our perspective on how targeting the tumor glycoproteome and/or glycome will improve CAR-T immunotherapy. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Bluetooth based function control in a car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Sumanth, N.; Jude, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to show the various functions that can be controlled in a Car using the Wireless Bluetooth Technology. Due to the portable and wireless nature of this technology, it is easier for the end user to operate the functions in a car. The functions that are built into the system can be used from a distance of 10 meters. The Passive Keyless System and the Remote Keyless System methodologies are adopted. These are operated by the ATMEGA328P microcontroller.

  7. Sentiment Polarity Analysis based multi-dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian; Zhou, Yanquan

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for Chinese online reviews, which identifies sentiment polarity. To determine the sentence is negative or positive, we extracted opinion words and identified their opinion targets by CRFs and establish the absolute emotional dictionary (AbED), the relative emotional dictionary (ReED), the field of emotional dictionary (FiED) and the field of targets and opinion words dictionary (TfED). With those emotional dictionary, negative dictionary and modified dictionary, we achieved an effective algorithm to discriminate sentiment polarity by multi-string pattern matching algorithm. For evaluation, we used car online reviews, hotel online reviews and computer online reviews which annotated positive or negative. Experimental results show that our proposed method has made a higher precision and recall rate.

  8. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live......In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  9. Situations of car-to-pedestrian contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hitosugi, Masahito; Takahashi, Kunio; Doi, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the severity of injuries and the number of pedestrian deaths in traffic accidents, active safety devices providing pedestrian detection are considered effective countermeasures. The features of car-to-pedestrian collisions need to be known in detail to develop such safety devices. Because information on real-world accidents is limited, this study investigated near-miss situations captured by drive recorders installed in passenger cars. We showed similarities of the contact situation between near-miss incidents and real-world fatal pedestrian accidents in Japan. We analyzed the near-miss incident data via video capturing pedestrians crossing the road in front of forward-moving cars. Using a video frame captured by a drive recorder, the time to collision (TTC) was calculated from the car velocity and the distance between the car and pedestrian at the moment that the pedestrian initially appeared. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians were not using a pedestrian crossing was shorter than that in the cases where pedestrians were using a pedestrian crossing. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians emerged from behind obstructions was shorter than that in the cases where drivers had unobstructed views of the pedestrians. We propose that the specifications of the safety device for pedestrian detection and automatic braking should reflect the severe approach situation for a pedestrian and car including the TTC observed for near-miss incidents.

  10. Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with the second generation of CD19 CAR-T containing either CD28 or 4-1BB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiqi; Zhang, Jiasi; Wang, Meiling; Fu, Gang; Li, Yunyan; Pei, Li; Xiong, Zhouxing; Qin, Dabing; Zhang, Rui; Tian, Xiaobo; Wei, Zhihao; Chen, Run; Chen, Xuejiao; Wan, Jia; Chen, Jun; Wei, Xia; Xu, Yanmin; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Ping; Peng, Xi; Yang, Sainan; Shen, Junjie; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Jieping; Qian, Cheng

    2018-04-10

    T cells modified with anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing either CD28 or 4-1BB (also termed TNFRSF9, CD137) costimulatory signalling have shown great potential in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, the difference between CD28 and 4-1BB costimulatory signalling in CAR-T treatment has not been well elucidated in clinical trials. In this study, we treated 10 relapsed or refractory ALL patients with the second generation CD19 CAR-T. The first 5 patients were treated with CD28-CAR and the other 5 patients were treated with 4-1BB CAR-T. All the 10 patients were response-evaluable. Three patients achieved complete remission and 1 patient with extramedullary disease achieved partial response after CD28-CAR-T treatment. In the 4-1BB CAR-T treatment group, 3 patients achieved complete remission. Furthermore, FLT-3 ligand (FLT3LG) was highly correlated with response time and may serve as a prognosis factor. No severe adverse events were observed in these 10 treated patients. Our study showed that both CD28 CAR-T and 4-1BB CAR-T both worked for response but they differed in response pattern (peak reaction time, reaction lasting time and reaction degree), adverse events, cytokine secretion and immune-suppressive factor level. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel

  12. Car User Taxes, Quality Characteristics, and Fuel Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borger, B.; Rouwendal, J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of car user taxes on vehicle quality and demand for kilometres. First, holding car prices fixed, we find that a higher fuel tax leads households to choose cars of better fuel efficiency, provided that the demand for car use is inelastic. Surprisingly, a higher kilometre tax

  13. Car mass and fatality risk: has the relationship changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, L; Frick, M C

    1994-01-01

    The finding that the relative safety disadvantage of small compared with large cars is less for post-1980 cars than for pre-1980 cars has stimulated speculation that increasing fuel economy standards would increase fatalities less than previously expected. Fatal crashes between two cars of similar model year were examined to see whether this would be the case. Driver fatality risk in relation to car mass was examined with Fatal Accident Reporting System data for crashes between two cars of a specific model year. The relative risk for driver fatality in the lighter car compared with the other driver's risk in a car 50% heavier was as follows: for 1966 through 1979 cars, the risk was between 3.7 and 5.1; for 1984 cars, 2.6; and for 1990 cars, 4.1. The results suggest that the lesser mass effect observed for mid-1980s cars occurred because improved crashworthiness features appeared in small cars earlier than in large cars. As all cars are redesigned, the relationship between risk and mass can be expected to approach that observed earlier in pre-1980 cars. If so, future fatality increases from fuel economy increases will be greater than estimated on the basis of mid-1980 data.

  14. 49 CFR 231.9 - Tank cars without end sills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without end sills. 231.9 Section 231.9..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.9 Tank cars without end sills. (a...

  15. 49 CFR 231.7 - Tank cars with side platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars with side platforms. 231.7 Section 231.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.7 Tank cars with side platforms. (a...

  16. 49 CFR 231.11 - Caboose cars without platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caboose cars without platforms. 231.11 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.11 Caboose cars without...

  17. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...

  18. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a) of...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 57.19079 Section 57.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 57.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage. ...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 56.19079 Section 56.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage. ...

  1. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section... cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid may not be shipped unless it was loaded by, or with the consent of, the owner of the tank car. (2) The amount of...

  2. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled to...

  3. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars. ...

  4. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a...

  5. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  6. REMOTE CONTROLLED CAR HEATER USING A RASPBERRY PI

    OpenAIRE

    Loukola, Petrik

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the goal was to design and implement a technology with which the user can control the car heaters and monitor the car temperature via Wi-Fi network and web browser. The idea for this project came from the Finnish cold climate. Winters in Finland can be very cold and if the car owners want to drive their cars, it is recommended to preheat the car engine and interior before driving the car. This will make driving safer, the car will make less pollution, better for the engines li...

  7. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  8. Are Weeds Hitchhiking a Ride on Your Car? A Systematic Review of Seed Dispersal on Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars. PMID:24265803

  9. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  10. Simulation of Terahertz Frequency Sources. Polar-Optical Phonon Enhancement of Harmonic Generation in Schottky Diodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelmont, Boris

    2002-01-01

    ... polar optical vibration frequency When a high frequency input signal is applied to a frequency multiplier device polar-optical phonons can enhance the non-linearities inherent in this device, enabling...

  11. Macrophages interaction with pulmonary surfactant using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Minette; Telesford, Dana Marie; Allen, Heather

    2012-04-01

    Alveolar pulmonary surfactant, composed mostly of phospholipids, is essential for maintenance of normal lung function. However, increased production of lung surfactant can lead to many pulmonary inflammatory disorders. Alveolar macrophages are responsible for the degradation of the surfactant and exhibit increased lipid uptake in inflamated lungs. Owing to their limited clearance capability, excessive accumulation of surfactant may impair their phagocytic function. In this study, the interaction of the macrophages with different lipid components was studied using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. CARS microscopy, a nonlinear vibrational technique which combines spectroscopy and microscopy, allows noninvasive characterization and imaging of chemical species without preparation or labeling. A monolayer of THP-1 macrophages and palmitic acid-d31 on phosphate buffer solution was transferred to a coverslip using the Langmuir-Blodgett method and then imaged using CARS by mapping the CH2 stretch signal of the lipid membrane of the macrophage and C-D stretch signal from palmitic acid-d31. Preliminary results showed CARS images of the macrophage on the solid substrate and thermal degradation of the sample due to long exposure to high laser power. A contrast image is expected to be observed by mapping the CH2 and C-D signals, which can show the lipid interaction and phagocytosis of the macrophage.

  12. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  13. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  14. Forecasting U.S. Car Sales and Car Registrations in Japan: Rationality, Accuracy and Herding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Rülke, Jan; Pierdzioch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze forecasts of car sales in the U.S. and forecasts of car registrations in Japan. We document a substantial heterogeneity of forecasts, and we show that, based on traditional criteria, forecasts are neither rational nor unbiased. We also report that forecasters anti-herd, that is...

  15. Gasoline-powered series hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2012-02-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available series hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains in electric drivetrains (regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox) even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze life cycle GHG emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art plug-in battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available series hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that series hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer emissions (126g CO2eq per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2eq per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental emissions from plug-in battery cars due to losses during grid transmission and battery dis-/charging, and manufacturing larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  16. Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-04-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available serial hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that serial hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer life cycle GHG emissions (126g CO2e per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2e per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental life cycle emissions from battery cars from losses during grid transmission, battery dis-/charging, and larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  17. Advantages of cross-polarization endoscopic optical coherence tomography in diagnosis of bladder neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkova, N. D.; Zagaynova, E. V.; Streltsova, O. S.; Kiseleva, E. B.; Karabut, M. M.; Snopova, L. B.; Yunusova, E. E.; Tararova, E.; Gelikonov, V. M.

    2010-02-01

    We consider the cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) that is focused on comparison of images resulting from cross-polarization and co-polarization scattering simultaneously. This technique provides information about microstructural and biochemical alterations in depolarizing tissue components (collagen). We found that mature type I collagen gives a strong signal in orthogonal polarization. CP OCT images of benign inflammatory processes always feature signal in orthogonal polarization, with layers and borders persisting to be well defined. In the presence of precancerous alterations, signal in orthogonal polarization is available in the image but it is irregular, disappearing in some areas. A CP OCT image of bladder cancer in orthogonal polarization either shows no signal at all or a weak signal.

  18. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  19. The old-new car sticker

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    You have had the same car sticker for ten years and have been driving in and out of CERN every day. Suddenly one morning the guard stops you and tells you need a new one. Hmmm ?! “There were 60 000 stickers in circulation in Geneva and we could not control wether the sticker had been distributed to the right person”, saysa Claude Ducastel, responsible for Entrance Security. “So to solve this problem, last year DSU decided to change Operational Circular N°2 and introduce new car stickers that will be changed every year.” Three types of car stickers were introduced: blue, green and red. The blue one is for staff members whose contract is for one year or more. It indicates the plate number of the car. The green one is for staff members whose contract is for less than one year. It indicates the plate number of the car and the date the contract of the employee terminates. It also has a big L for "Limited". The red one is for enterprise subcontractors whose contracts finish at the end of the year. If ...

  20. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  1. Coherent population trapping with polarization modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Peter, E-mail: enxue.yun@obspm.fr; Guérandel, Stéphane; Clercq, Emeric de [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2016-06-28

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) is extensively studied for future vapor cell clocks of high frequency stability. In the constructive polarization modulation CPT scheme, a bichromatic laser field with polarization and phase synchronously modulated is applied on an atomic medium. A high contrast CPT signal is observed in this so-called double-modulation configuration, due to the fact that the atomic population does not leak to the extreme Zeeman states, and that the two CPT dark states, which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations, add constructively. Here, we experimentally investigate CPT signal dynamics first in the usual configuration, a single circular polarization. The double-modulation scheme is then addressed in both cases: one pulse Rabi interaction and two pulses Ramsey interaction. The impact and the optimization of the experimental parameters involved in the time sequence are reviewed. We show that a simple seven-level model explains the experimental observations. The double-modulation scheme yields a high contrast similar to the one of other high contrast configurations like push-pull optical pumping or crossed linear polarization scheme, with a setup allowing a higher compactness. The constructive polarization modulation is attractive for atomic clock, atomic magnetometer, and high precision spectroscopy applications.

  2. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  3. Transfer of polarization from the initial to the final state in deep inelastic lepton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, I.I.Y.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested to look for reactions of the type polarized lepton+nucleon→polarized baryon+anything or lepton+polarized nucleon→polarized baryon+anything in the deep inelastic region. The observation of such a transfer of polarization from the initial to the final (hadronic) state could yield information on the underlying dynamics; it also offers the possibility to find clear signals for the production of ''new'' hadrons like charmed baryons. (author)

  4. Enhancement of PSMA-Directed CAR Adoptive Immunotherapy by PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Serganova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy in hematologic malignancies has shown remarkable responses, but the same level of success has not been observed in solid tumors. A new prostate cancer model (Myc-CaP:PSMA(+ and a second-generation anti-hPSMA human CAR T cells expressing a Click Beetle Red luciferase reporter were used to study hPSMA targeting and assess CAR T cell trafficking and persistence by bioluminescence imaging (BLI. We investigated the antitumor efficacy of human CAR T cells targeting human prostate-specific membrane antigen (hPSMA, in the presence and absence of the target antigen; first alone and then combined with a monoclonal antibody targeting the human programmed death receptor 1 (anti-hPD1 mAb. PDL-1 expression was detected in Myc-CaP murine prostate tumors growing in immune competent FVB/N and immune-deficient SCID mice. Endogenous CD3+ T cells were restricted from the centers of Myc-CaP tumor nodules growing in FVB/N mice. Following anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1 treatment, the restriction of CD3+ T cells was reversed, and a tumor-treatment response was observed. Adoptive hPSMA-CAR T cell immunotherapy was enhanced when combined with PD-1 blockade, but the treatment response was of comparatively short duration, suggesting other immune modulation mechanisms exist and restrict CAR T cell targeting, function, and persistence in hPSMA expressing Myc-CaP tumors. Interestingly, an “inverse pattern” of CAR T cell BLI intensity was observed in control and test tumors, which suggests CAR T cells undergo changes leading to a loss of signal and/or number following hPSMA-specific activation. The lower BLI signal intensity in the hPSMA test tumors (compared with controls is due in part to a decrease in T cell mitochondrial function following T cell activation, which may limit the intensity of the ATP-dependent Luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence signal.

  5. Noise mapping inside a car cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Sjøj, Sidsel Marie Nørholm; Jacobsen, Finn

    The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay-and-sum beamform......The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay......-and-sum beamforming and spherical harmonics beamforming. These methods have a poor spatial esolution at low frequencies, and since much noise generated in cars is dominated by low frequencies the methods are not optimal. In the present paper the mapping is done by solving an inverse problem with a transfer matrix...

  6. Design Process Improvement for Electric CAR Harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Thiwarat; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    In an automobile parts design company, the customer satisfaction is one of the most important factors for product design. Therefore, the company employs all means to focus its product design process based on the various requirements of customers resulting in high number of design changes. The objective of this research is to improve the design process of the electric car harness that effects the production scheduling by using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as the main tools. FTA is employed for root cause analysis and FMEA is used to ranking a High Risk Priority Number (RPN) which is shows the priority of factors in the electric car harness that have high impact to the design of the electric car harness. After the implementation, the improvements are realized significantly since the number of design change is reduced from 0.26% to 0.08%.

  7. Car suspension system monitoring under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Kuznetsov, N. Y.; Lysenko, A. V.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes an advanced gyro-based measuring system comprising a CGV-4K central vertical gyro and a G-3M gyrocompass. The advanced system provides additional functions that help measure unsprung mass rotation angles about a vertical axis, rolling angles, trim angles and movements of the unsprung masses of the front (ap and al) and rear b axes when a car wheel hits a single obstruction. The paper also describes the operation of the system, which measures movements of unsprung masses about the body of a car when it hits a single obstruction. The paper presents the dependency diagrams ap = f(t) and al = f(t) for front and rear wheels respectively, as well as b = f(t) for a rear left wheel, which were determined experimentally. Test results for a car equipped with an advanced gyro-based measuring system moving around a circle can form a basis for developing a mathematical model of the process.

  8. CARS microscopy for the monitoring of lipid storage in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enejder, Annika; Brackmann, Christian; Axäng, Claes; Åkeson, Madeleine; Pilon, Marc

    2008-02-01

    After several years of proof-of-principle measurements and focus on technological development, it is timely to make full use of the capabilities of CARS microscopy within the biosciences. We have here identified an urgent biological problem, to which CARS microscopy provides unique insights and consequently may become a widely accepted experimental procedure. In order to improve present understanding of mechanisms underlying dysfunctional metabolism regulation reported for many of our most wide-spread diseases (obesity, diabetes, cardio-vascular diseases etc.), we have monitored genetic and environmental impacts on cellular lipid storage in the model organism C. elegans in vivo in a full-scale biological study. Important advantages of CARS microscopy could be demonstrated compared to present technology, i.e. fluorescence microscopy of labelled lipid stores. The fluorescence signal varies not only with the presence of lipids, but also with the systemic distribution of the fluorophore and the chemical properties of the surrounding medium. By instead probing high-density regions of CH bonds naturally occurring in the sample, the CARS process was shown to provide a consistent representation of the lipid stores. The increased accumulation of lipid stores in mutants with deficiencies in the insulin and transforming growth factor signalling pathways could hereby be visualized and quantified. Furthermore, spectral CARS microscopy measurements in the C-H bond region of 2780-2930 cm -1 provided the interesting observation that this accumulation comes with a shift in the ordering of the lipids from gel- to liquid phase. The present study illustrates that CARS microscopy has a strong potential to become an important instrument for systemic studies of lipid storage mechanisms in living organisms, providing new insights into the phenomena underlying metabolic disorders.

  9. 49 CFR 236.205 - Signal control circuits; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic... car, (b) When points of a switch are not closed in proper position, (c) When an independently operated...

  10. The end of the Dutch car tax?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besseling, P.J.; Lebouille, R.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the project 'Paying differently for mobility' an option that is considered is to switch the Dutch Tax on Motor cars and Vehicles (BPM) to a higher tariff for the future road pricing system. Due to some special characteristics of the BPM, this will be a highly complex financial operation. In this article, we explore three variants for their effect on the vehicle market and on the budget. We also explain the advantages and disadvantages for several groups of car owners. [nl

  11. Shady Car Dealings and Taxing Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The empirical focus of this article is a ten-month ethnography of a tax audit process led by the Danish Tax and Customs Administration. The tax audit concerns a number of shady car dealings from which taxable income is not reported. This article focuses on the process whereby the tax administration...... succeeds in making some of these car dealings visible. This article draws inspiration from interpretative tax studies that consider taxation as an organisational, institutional, social and cultural phenomenon. Complementing those studies’ approaches, the present study draws both on Latour’s concept...

  12. Online monitoring of torpedo car shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Romero A.; Calente, Aderaldo

    2001-03-01

    The on-line monitoring of temperature permits increasing the campaign and operational stability of the torpedo cars, as well as optimizing the consumption of refractory, thus reducing maintenance costs. It has become an indispensable tool in the productive process at Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao - CST. This technique was implemented in 1996 with the purpose of following up the evolution of refractory wear in the torpedo cars, using two fixed thermographic cameras (infrared sensors) with a scanning system. The system captures, records and transmits the thermal images of the body surfaces for analysis by computer, besides sounding the alarm when the temperature reaches pre- set values.

  13. Islamic Mobility : Car Culture in Modern Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In a modern and respectable middle-class suburb outside Kuala Lumpur, the overtness of cars evokes intense speculation about the nature of the make-up of covert middle-class homes and the formation of Malay Muslim identities more generally. I argue that the more ‘Islamic’ cultures of consumption assert themselves in modern Malaysia, the more the growing Malay Muslim middle class is split between desiring cars as positional commodities, on the one hand, and claims for piety through consumption...

  14. Development of car for Eco-marathon

    OpenAIRE

    Qviller, Aksel

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to develop the front suspension and certain parts of the in-wheel motor of NTNU’s new car for Shell Eco-marathon, as well as assisting other team members. NTNU has participated in the Urban Concept class in the European race every year since 2008, with one world record (2009), twice second place, and one failure (2010). The original PureChoice car (renamed DNV Fuel Fighter during the second year) was powered by hydrogen, but the power source was changed ...

  15. CARS temperature measurements in a hypersonic propulsion test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, O., Jr.; Smith, M. W.; Antcliff, R. R.; Northam, G. B.; Cutler, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Static-temperature measurements performed in a reacting vitiated air-hydrogen Mach-2 flow in a duct in Test Cell 2 at NASA LaRC by using a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system are discussed. The hypersonic propulsion Test Cell 2 hardware is outlined with emphasis on optical access ports and safety features in the design of the Test Cell. Such design considerations as vibration, noise, contamination from flow field or atmospheric-borne dust, unwanted laser- and electrically-induced combustion, and movement of the sampling volume in the flow are presented. The CARS system is described, and focus is placed on the principle and components of system-to-monochromator signal coupling. Contour plots of scramjet combustor static temperature in a reacting-flow region are presented for three stations, and it is noted that the measurements reveal such features in the flow as maximum temperature near the model wall in the region of the injector footprint.

  16. Design and Manufacturing Precise Wireless Car Engine's Speed Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mahyar Khorasani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Today sensors are used in different fields especially in vehicle and aerospace industry. This paper presents the design and manufacturing of car engine's speed sensors. By using this system one can transfers engine's speed sensors data with high frequency to rev counter. This system works with radio wave transmitter. Electronic motor and choke produce analog waves and converter circuit converts these waves to digital waves and sends them to transmitter, so a receiver can get these pulses. This system was test in different conditions like rainy weather and for distance amount 80 meters. Advantages of this system are reduction in wires and car weight, accurate data transmission, and engine noise does not effect out put signals. By virtue of using oscillator and suitable circuit such as a divider when speed increases or decreases by 2 rpm, the change is observable, which is more precise comparing similar systems that have sensitivity of 2.15 rpm. Also due to use high frequency transmitter and receiver engine’s and environment’s noise doesn’t have any effect on data transferring.

  17. VIBROACOUSTIC DIAGNOSING OF DISTURBANCES IN THE CAR IGNITION SYSTEM BY AMPLITUDE ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr CZECH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in vibroacoustic examination of engines is a correct interpretation of complex measured signals by applying property methods of their processing. The main tasks in diagnostics include: separation of a useful vibroacoustic signal and selection of characteristic, damage-sensitive features of the processed signal. The paper presents an attempt of detecting disturbances in the ignition system by measuring vibrations and noise. The object of the tests was a four-cylinder engine of a Volkswagen Polo car with swept capacity 1,0 dm3, adjusted to alternative power supply with the use of LPG gas fuel

  18. Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S M; El Haddad, I; Pieber, S M; Zardini, A A; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Clairotte, M; Daellenbach, K R; Huang, R-J; Slowik, J G; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Marchand, N; de Gouw, J; Jimenez, J L; Hayes, P L; Robinson, A L; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C; Prévôt, A S H

    2017-07-13

    Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments. Carbonaceous PM emission and SOA formation is markedly higher from gasoline than diesel particle filter (DPF) and catalyst-equipped diesel cars, more so at -7 °C, contrasting with nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Higher SOA formation from gasoline cars and primary emission reductions for diesels implies gasoline cars will increasingly dominate vehicular total carbonaceous PM, though older non-DPF-equipped diesels will continue to dominate the primary fraction for some time. Supported by state-of-the-art source apportionment of ambient fossil fuel derived PM, our results show that whether gasoline or diesel cars are more polluting depends on the pollutant in question, i.e. that diesel cars are not necessarily worse polluters than gasoline cars.

  19. Demand for mini cars and large cars; decay effects, and gasoline demand in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David; Schmitz, Klaus E.; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explains why: (a) consumers underinvest in new car fuel economy by opting to buy large vehicles; (b) macro shifts in vehicle classes have occurred in the last decades; and how (c) the effects of vehicle fuel economy and shifts in vehicle type influence the growth path of gasoline demand, which is the key to designing effective energy efficiency goals for transport. From 2008, 1.9 EXJ (Exajoules) of energy were consumed in Japan by private vehicles producing 124 MtCO 2 emissions. For the period 1980 to 2008, we estimated: (1) gasoline demand for three vehicle sizes; (2) vehicle sales; (3) new car fuel economy changes (the ‘real’ technical change); and (4) vehicle stocks. Using a data sample for 1980–2008 we found that: (a) in the short term consumers buy fuel economy, that is sales of mini and small cars increase, but this is not sustained in the long term: and (b) consumers increasingly traded in their cars for larger cars. A further finding was that gasoline demand is projected to increase to 2.3 EXJ by 2035, even with a growing number of mini cars. The policy implication is clear: Japan’s policy to reduce oil dependency to 80% by 2030 is in peril as long as buyers prefer larger cars and drive ever longer distances.

  20. Perancangan dan Implementasi Kontroler PID untuk Pengaturan Autonomous Car-Following Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Parluhutan Bonor Sinaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengiriman logistik ke daerah-daerah rawan bencana merupakan hal yang sangat sulit dilakukan, tentunya diperlukan pengetahuan mengenai kondisi medan jalan. Salah satu dampak yang utama adalah sulitnya melakukan manuver dalam pengendalian performansi  truk logistik yang pada umumnya berupa truk-truk gandeng. Untuk membantu pengemudi truk dalam berkendara pada kondisi tersebut, dirancang sebuah prototype mobil mandiri (Autonomous Car yang mampu melakukan manuver-manuver pergerakan secara sendirinya, salah satu manuver tersebut ialah Following Car.  Dalam Tugas Akhir ini perancangan sistem yang akan dilakukan dengan  memodelkan  dua buah kendaraan mobil RC (remote control yang bertindak sebagai  follower dan leader car. Pengoperasian dari  following car dilakukan dengan memodifikasi dari kendaraan RC-1, sedangkan RC-2 bertindak sebagai leader car yang dikondisikan secara manual. Dengan penerapan kontroler PID pada implementasi sistem didapatkan penurunan time settling menjadi 2,7 Detik dan peningkatan error steady state sebesar 2,44%. Pada implementasi diberikan kecepatan leader secara acak, dengan implementasi kontroler PID, kondisi jarak antara autonomous car dengan leader car masih dalam range keadaan ideal pada set point.

  1. The development of CAR design for tumor CAR-T cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; Jin, Guoliang; Chai, Dafei; Zhou, Xiaowan; Gu, Weiyu; Chong, Yanyun; Song, Jingyuan; Zheng, Junnian

    2018-03-02

    In recent years, the chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells (Chimeric antigen receptor T cells, CAR-T) immunotherapy has developed rapidly, which has been considered the most promising therapy. Efforts to enhance the efficacy of CAR-based anti-tumor therapy have been made, such as the improvement of structures of CAR-T cells, including the development of extracellular antigen recognition receptors, intracellular co-stimulatory molecules and the combination application of CARs and synthetic small molecules. In addition, effects on the function of the CAR-T cells that the space distance between the antigen binding domains and tumor targets and the length of the spacer domains have are also being investigated. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, it is necessary to make a summary of the development of CAR-T cells. In this review, we mainly focus on the present design strategies of CAR-T cells with the hope that they can provide insights to increase the anti-tumor efficacy and safety.

  2. Polarization division multiple access with polarization modulation for LOS wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Bin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we discuss a potential multiple access and modulation scheme based on polarized states (PS of electromagnetic (EM waves for line-of-sight (LOS communications. The proposed scheme is theoretic different from the existing polar modulation for EDGE and WCDMA systems. We propose the detailed bit representation (modulation and multiple access scheme using PS. Because of the inflexibility of polarization information in the time and frequency domains, as well as independence of frequency and space, the polarization information can be used independently for wireless communications, i.e., another independent resource domain that can be utilized. Due to the independence between the PS and the specific features of signals (such as waveform, bandwidth and data rate, the discussed polarization division multiple access (PDMA and polarization modulation (PM are expected to improve the spectrum utilization effectively. It is proved that the polarization filtering technique can be adopted in the PDMA-PM wireless communications to separate the multiuser signals and demodulate the bit information representing by PS for desired user. Some theoretical analysis is done to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme, and the simulation results are made to evaluate the performance of the suggested system.

  3. A Low-Complexity DOA and Polarization Method of Polarization-Sensitive Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Dong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a low-complexity method to estimate the direction of arrival and polarization based on the polarization sensitive array (PSA which is composed of cross-dipoles. We built a half-quaternions model through the Cayley–Dickson form to remove the redundant information. Then, the directions of arrival (DOAs were estimated via the root-MUSIC algorithm. Finally, the polarizations were estimated by generalized eigenvalue method. Unlike some existing searching algorithms, such as multiple signal classification (MUSIC, this method can avoid the peak searching and maintains high estimation accuracy. Moreover, we use the oblique projection operators to filter out the interference signals which are decoys of the target signal. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and favorable performance of the proposed method.

  4. 49 CFR 179.300 - General specifications applicable to multi-unit tank car tanks designed to be removed from car...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tank car tanks designed to be removed from car structure for filling and emptying (Classes DOT-106A and... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300 General specifications applicable to multi-unit tank car tanks designed to be removed from car structure...

  5. Increase of child car seat temperature in cars parked in the outpatient parking lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Tetsu; Suzue, Junji; Kamada, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukiko; Tananari, Yoshifumi; Maeno, Yasuki; Ito, Shinichi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Kakimoto, Noriko; Yamakawa, Rumi

    2011-12-01

    A guideline for the safe use of child car seats (CS) was published by the Japan Pediatric Society in 2008. There have been few studies of the increase of temperature of a CS in parked cars. The aim of this study was to determine the change in the temperature of the CS in cars parked in full sun. The temperature of CS was measured during summer (July and August) in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The CS used in this study (n= 50) were for children (≤ 6 years old) who were taken by car to Sugimura Children's Medical Clinic. Temperatures were only measured on sunny days. Measurements were performed from 09.00 to 17.00 hours. Thermochron (Thermochron i-Button: G type, Maxim Integrated Products, CA, USA) was used to measure the temperatures. The maximum temperatures of CS were compared in time at the clinic, taking into consideration seat colors, and car colors. Of the 50 cars, three cars were excluded due to being in the shade while the temperature was measured. A total of 47 cars were used for this study. The temperature of the CS ranged from 38.0 to 65.5°C (47.8 ± 5.8°C). Eighteen CS (38.3%) reached a temperature of 50°C or above. The maximum temperature of the 13.00-15.00-hours group was significantly higher than that of the 09.00-11.00-hours group (P= 0.035). The CS temperatures in the black car group were significantly higher than those of the white car group (P= 0.013). CS may become very hot while a car is parked in sun, especially if the car and the CS are black, so the CS should be cooled before a young child is placed in it. Guardians of small children should be aware of this risk. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2014-02-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  7. Polarization in Sagittarius A*

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize the current state of polarization observations of Sagittarius A*, the compact radio source and supermassive black hole candidate in the Galactic Center. These observations are providing new tools for understanding accretion disks, jets and their environments. Linear polarization observations have shown that Sgr A* is unpolarized at frequencies as high as 86 GHz. However, recent single-dish observations indicate that Sgr A* may have strong linear polarization at frequencies higher...

  8. Femtosecond-Laser-Pulse Characterization and Optimization for CARS Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Piazza

    Full Text Available We present a simple method and its experimental implementation to determine the pulse durations and linear chirps of the pump-and-probe pulse and the Stokes pulse in a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope at sample level without additional autocorrelators. Our approach exploits the delay line, ubiquitous in such microscopes, to perform a convolution of the pump-and-probe and Stokes pulses as a function of their relative delay and it is based on the detection of the photons emitted from an appropriate non-linear sample. The analysis of the non-resonant four-wave-mixing and sum-frequency-generation signals allows for the direct retrieval of the pulse duration on the sample and the linear chirp of each pulse. This knowledge is crucial in maximizing the spectral-resolution and contrast in CARS imaging.

  9. Beam Shaping for CARS Measurements in Turbulent Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique to mitigate the effect of beam steering on CARS measurements in turbulent, variable density environments. The new approach combines Planar BOXCARS phase-matching with elliptical shaping of one of the beams to generate a signal insensitive to beam steering, while keeping the same spatial resolution. Numerical and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. One set of experiments investigated the effect of beam shaping in the presence of a controlled and well quantified displacement of the beams at the focal plane. Another set of experiments, more qualitative, proved the effectiveness of the technique in the presence of severe beam steering due to turbulence.

  10. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  11. Gleaning and Dreaming on Car Park Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Croft

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores beachcombing and gleaning as practices that combine mobility with daydreaming and which allow us to experience our environment with the perception of ‘tactile nearness’ (Benjamin. Through eco-poetics shaped by ‘inconceivable analogies and connections’ (Benjamin, the author re-imagines a neglected space used as a short-cut on the way to work—the Liverpool Adelphi car park in Liverpool—as “Car Park Beach”. Inspired by the situationists’ slogan ‘Sous les pavés, la plage’, the author argues that Car Park Beach opens up imaginative possibilities for a different form of ecological encounter with our own precarity, one ushered in by a ‘close-up’ awareness of how waste transforms our world. Car Park Beach is a site that the author associates with the drift-like, distracted movements of both people and matter, and this article therefore attempts to deploy an equivalent method of analysis. Drawing on her own practice of gleaning photos and objects on the way to work, the author places a vocabulary of flotsam and jetsam at the axis of her discussion. Allusive, often layered, connections are followed between a diverse range of sources including beachcombing guides, literary memoirs, documentary films, eco-criticism, and auto-ethnography.

  12. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.A.H.M.; Faerber, E.; Cesari, D.; Hobbs, A.C.; Kampen, B. van; Paez, J.; Wykes, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  13. On the Car-Following Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Usenik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with bumper-to-bumper driving. A .systemicapproach to car-following (bumper-to-bumper drivingi.s described and the mathematical model has been developedand solved. With this approach an algorithm for analytical andnumerical solutions has been developed.

  14. Floating car data for traffic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses Floating Car Data (FCD) for both automatic and manual detection of queues in traffic. The system is developed under EU’s Tempo program. The systems consists of small hardware units placed in mobile traffic report units (we use taxis...

  15. Colleges Drive Research on Electric Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the General Motors Corporation shuts assembly plants and veers toward bankruptcy, the lonely remnants of one of its top technological achievements--the first modern mass-produced electric car--lie scattered across a few dozen American college campuses. GM produced and leased to customers more than 1,000 "EV1" automobiles beginning in 1996. In…

  16. Global car industry: options for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsavari, Ali; Taha, Yasser

    2003-01-01

    This paper traces the origins of the global car industry and charts its evolution during the 20th century. The focus is on the main drivers of the globalisation of the industry with emphasis on the position of developing countries in this process.

  17. Some Aspects of Car Pedestrian Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Varga

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of road accidents involving injuries and related mortality is a rather unfortunate but inevitable concomitant consequence of motorized traffic. Besides admitting this fact, among others, we have to endeavour to reveal the causes of car accidents at the same time, and also to introduce active and passive defensive methods suitable to decrease accident morbidity and mortality.

  18. Cars beyond Otto's Internal Combustion Engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Cars Beyond Otto's Internal Combustion Engines. A K Shukla. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 49-62. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/11/0049-0062 ...

  19. Toward (car)borane-based molecular magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oliva, J. M.; Alcoba, D. R.; Ona, O. B.; Torre, A.; Lain, L.; Michl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 2 (2015), 9/1-9/8 ISSN 1432-881X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : car boranes * spin population * Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian * Heisenberg coupling constatns Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2015

  20. Light Rail Transit Car Specification Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    This Light Rail Transit Car Specification Guide is not a procurement document in itself. It is intended to be used as a guide by light rail transit operators and purchasers of such equipment in the preparation of technical specifications. Because of ...

  1. Perceptions and attitudes of car owners on innovative automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pol, M.; Brunsting, S.

    2012-01-01

    To abate the detrimental effects of transport a transition is foreseen from the conventional fossil cars to energy-sustainable cars. A successful transition requires a major behavioral change of car consumers who need to make choices about new options for transport with uncertain costs and benefits compared to their current car. This paper examines consumers' perceptions about innovative cars and considerations for buying or not buying innovative cars (hybrid, electric, plug-in electric, hydrogen, flexifuel). In this study an on-line questionnaire on attitudes, interests and social norms regarding innovative cars was conducted among 339 Dutch respondents who recently bought a new car. To obtain in-depth understanding of the answers, a follow-up study was conducted consisting of two focus groups with a sample of survey participants. These focus groups respectively concentrated on respondents' perceptions of innovative cars, and on the personality traits of the 'typical' innovative car driver. The results of the survey shows that the attitude towards innovative cars are strongly influenced by affective aspects (such as comfort and pleasant) and to a (much) smaller extent by environmental considerations. The results of the focus groups confirm these findings. According to the participants the price of the car is decisive whereby environmental concerns play no role. The design and image of the car are important. In addition, it appears that the familiarity with (and thus the knowledge about) the innovative cars is still very limited (with the exception of the hybrid car). This point of view stresses the importance of the way in which innovative cars are positioned thereby affecting the image (social norms) people will have regarding these cars. [nl

  2. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  3. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  4. 49 CFR 173.314 - Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... trichloride Note 3 105, 106 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid Note 5 105 Chlorine Note 6 105 105J600I 125... tank cars manufactured from aluminum or nickel plate are not authorized. (k) Special requirements for...

  5. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    OpenAIRE

    GANDZHA S.A.; KIESSH I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  6. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    OpenAIRE

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written accident report. The CarSim system processes formal descriptions of accidents and creates corresponding 3D simulations. A planning component models the trajectories and temporal values of every vehicle ...

  7. Car crash and injury among young drivers: contribution of social, circumstantial and car attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, L; Vaez, M

    2007-03-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the independent contribution of individual, car and circumstantial features in severe and fatal car crashes involving young drivers. A prospective longitudinal, register-based cohort study was conducted at national level (in Sweden), in which people born in the years 1970-1972 (n = 334070) were followed up for the period 1988-2000 (aged 16-18 years in 1988) for their first two-car crashes leading to severe or fatal injury. Ten variables descriptive of the driver (sociodemographics), the car (safety level) and the crash have been analysed using multiple logistic regressions for male and female drivers separately, compiling crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. When controlling for other features, none of the variables descriptive of male and female drivers' socio-demographic characteristics impacts significantly on the odds of being severely injured or dying in a car-to-car crash. After adjustment, significant excess risks are observed for speed limits higher than the lowest one, type of crash other than rear end collision and road and light conditions other than favourable (dry and daylight), for both male and female drivers. For males only, cars from all car safety levels have significantly higher odds than those from the safest category. Among male and female young drivers, class differences in the risk of being severely injured in a traffic injury are substantial. Yet, despite this imbalance, crash characteristics (for males and females) and safety level of the vehicle driven (for males) remain the most determinant factors of crash severity. Understanding the social patterning of road traffic injuries is a challenge for public health and it seems that qualitative and quantitative differences in crash exposure offer part of the explanation. Young drivers from all social groups need, however, to be sensitized to the risk factors.

  8. CHANGE TRENDS IN THE USE OF PASSENGER CARS ON URBAN TRIPS: CAR-POOLING IN GDYNIA

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna HEBEL; Marcin WOŁEK

    2017-01-01

    The wide accessibility of European citizens to cars results in problems caused by their excessive use as a means of urban transport. Given this situation, it is necessary to find new solutions for the more efficient use of passenger cars in cities. This problem affects almost all European cities, including those in Poland. The paper analyses the level of motorization and modal split in Polish cities with county status, while selected European cities serve as a background to determine the scal...

  9. Mechanical properties of tank car steels retired from the fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-31

    As a consequence of several recent tank car accidents, the structural integrity of railroad tank cars has come under greater scrutiny, especially the older portion of the fleet fabricated prior to steel normalization requirements. The purpose of this...

  10. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  11. Improved tank car design development : ongoing studies on sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-02

    The Government and industry have a common interest in : improving the safety performance of railroad tank cars carrying : hazardous materials. Research is ongoing to develop strategies : to maintain the structural integrity of railroad tank cars carr...

  12. A longitudinal analysis of cars, transit, and employment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Access to cars and transit can influence individuals ability to reach opportunities such as jobs, health care, and other important : activities. While access to cars and public transit varies considerably across time, space, and across populations...

  13. Polarity Assignment to Causal Information Extracted from Financial Articles Concerning Business Performance of Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroyuki; Masuyama, Shigeru

    We propose a method of assigning polarity to causal information extracted from Japanese financial articles concerning business performance of companies. Our method assigns polarity (positive or negative) according to business performance to causal information, e.g. "zidousya no uriage ga koutyou: (Sales of cars are good)" (The polarity positive is assigned in this example.). First, our method classifies articles concerning business performance into positive articles and negative articles. Using this classified sets of articles, our method assigns polarity (positive or negative) to causal information extracted from the set of articles concerning business performance. We evaluated our method and it attained 75.3% precision and 47.9% recall of assigning polarity positive, and 77.0% precision and 58.5% recall of assigning polarity negative, respectively.

  14. 4-1BB Costimulation Ameliorates T Cell Exhaustion Induced by Tonic Signaling of Chimeric Antigen Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Adrienne H.; Haso, Waleed M.; Shern, Jack F.; Wanhainen, Kelsey M.; Murgai, Meera; Ingaramo, Maria; Smith, Jillian P.; Walker, Alec J.; Kohler, M. Eric; Venkateshwara, Vikas R.; Kaplan, Rosandra N.; Patterson, George H.; Fry, Terry J.; Orentas, Rimas J.; Mackall, Crystal L.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 have mediated dramatic anti-tumor responses in hematologic malignancies, but tumor regression has rarely occurred using CARs targeting other antigens. It remains unknown whether the impressive effects of CD19 CARs relate to greater susceptibility of hematologic malignancies to CAR therapies, or superior functionality of the CD19 CAR itself. We discovered that tonic CAR CD3ζ phosphorylation, triggered by antigen-independent clustering of CAR scFvs, can induce early exhaustion of CAR T cells that limits anti-tumor efficacy. Such activation is present to varying degrees in all CARs studied, with the exception of the highly effective CD19 CAR. We further identify that CD28 costimulation augments, while 4-1BB costimulation ameliorates, exhaustion induced by persistent CAR signaling. Our results provide biological explanations for the dramatic anti-tumor effects of CD19 CARs and for the observations that CD19.BBz CAR T cells are more persistent than CD19.28z CAR T cells in clinical trials. PMID:25939063

  15. Is this car looking at you? How anthropomorphism predicts fusiform face area activation when seeing cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R; Müller, Barbara C N; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts.

  16. Methodology of selecting the reference source for an active noise control system in a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Stankiewicz, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, a significant development in digital technologies of signal processing made it possible to apply active noise control methods in new domains. A proper selection of the reference signal source is a main problem in implementing such systems. This paper presents an estimation method based on an indicator of the coherent power level. It also presents a simple system of active noise control in a car, operating according to the proposed method of optimising the positioning of reference sources. This system makes it possible to considerably increase the comfort of work of drivers in various kinds of road transport without a great increase in cost. This is especially significant in the case of trucks and vans. Passive barriers are considerably more expensive in them, which results in a higher level of noise than in passenger cars.

  17. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP 4 . A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  18. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  19. Parents smoking in their cars with children present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi-Burza, Emara; Regan, Susan; Drehmer, Jeremy; Ossip, Deborah; Rigotti, Nancy; Hipple, Bethany; Dempsey, Janelle; Hall, Nicole; Friebely, Joan; Weiley, Victoria; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2012-12-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with strictly enforced smoke-free car policies among smoking parents. As part of a cluster, randomized controlled trial addressing parental smoking, exit interviews were conducted with parents whose children were seen in 10 control pediatric practices. Parents who smoked were asked about smoking behaviors in their car and receipt of smoke-free car advice at the visit. Parents were considered to have a "strictly enforced smoke-free car policy" if they reported having a smoke-free car policy and nobody had smoked in their car within the past 3 months. Of 981 smoking parents, 817 (83%) had a car; of these, 795 parents answered questions about their car smoking policy. Of these 795 parents, 29% reported having a smoke-free car policy, and 24% had a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. Of the 562 parents without a smoke-free car policy, 48% reported that smoking occurred with children present. Few parents who smoke (12%) were advised to have a smoke-free car. Multivariable logistic regression controlling for parent age, gender, education, and race showed that having a younger child and smoking ≤10 cigarettes per day were associated with having a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. The majority of smoking parents exposed their children to tobacco smoke in cars. Coupled with the finding of low rates of pediatricians addressing smoking in cars, this study highlights the need for improved pediatric interventions, public health campaigns, and policies regarding smoke-free car laws to protect children from tobacco smoke.

  20. The Analysis of Motivation Towards Luxury Car Consumption in Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Sutanto, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia has a big potential in automotive sales and automotive business. The number of car consumed by public is proven increased in drastic every year, as followed by the consumption of luxury car in Indonesia. According to the data, Mercedes Benz considered as the best automotive brand that provide and sold luxury car in Indonesia. This thing is very interesting to be analyzed considered the price offered is quite high for the luxury car and the competition is very stiff in Indonesia. Th...

  1. National car and customer loyalty: the Malaysian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Md Isa, Mohd Azwardi

    2017-01-01

    The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has facilitated the entrance of foreign cars into Malaysia’s passenger car market and consequently imported cars are posing a serious threat to domestic automotive companies. This can be seen by decreasing sales figures and the deteriorating market share for the Proton and Perodua (companies partly-owned by government). Driven by this situation, this study examines customer satisfaction and loyalty for the consumers who have purchased these cars. ...

  2. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bingshan Liu; Yongping Song; Delong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous...

  3. Dual-pump CARS of Air in a Heated Pressure Vessel up to 55 Bar and 1300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Luca; Gallo, Emanuela; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-pump Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements have been performed in a heated pressure vessel at NASA Langley Research Center. Each measurement, consisting of 500 single shot spectra, was recorded at a fixed location in dry air at various pressures and temperatures, in a range of 0.03-55×10(exp 5) Pa and 300-1373 K, where the temperature was varied using an electric heater. The maximum output power of the electric heater limited the combinations of pressures and temperatures that could be obtained. Charts of CARS signal versus temperature (at constant pressure) and signal versus pressure (at constant temperature) are presented and fit with an empirical model to validate the range of capability of the dual-pump CARS technique; averaged spectra at different conditions of pressure and temperature are also shown.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of convection in laser-polarized xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, R. W.; Tseng, C. H.; Wong, G. P.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the flow and diffusion of laser-polarized xenon (129Xe) gas undergoing convection above evaporating laser-polarized liquid xenon. The large xenon NMR signal provided by the laser-polarization technique allows more rapid imaging than one can achieve with thermally polarized gas-liquid systems, permitting shorter time-scale events such as rapid gas flow and gas-liquid dynamics to be observed. Two-dimensional velocity-encoded imaging shows convective gas flow above the evaporating liquid xenon, and also permits the measurement of enhanced gas diffusion near regions of large velocity variation.

  5. Polar Wavelet Transform and the Associated Uncertainty Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Firdous A.; Tantary, Azhar Y.

    2018-02-01

    The polar wavelet transform- a generalized form of the classical wavelet transform has been extensively used in science and engineering for finding directional representations of signals in higher dimensions. The aim of this paper is to establish new uncertainty principles associated with the polar wavelet transforms in L2(R2). Firstly, we study some basic properties of the polar wavelet transform and then derive the associated generalized version of Heisenberg-Pauli-Weyl inequality. Finally, following the idea of Beckner (Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 123, 1897-1905 1995), we drive the logarithmic version of uncertainty principle for the polar wavelet transforms in L2(R2).

  6. CHROMOSPHERIC POLARIZATION IN THE PHOTOSPHERIC SOLAR OXYGEN INFRARED TRIPLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pino Alemán, Tanausú; Trujillo Bueno, Javier [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-07-20

    We present multilevel radiative transfer modeling of the scattering polarization observed in the solar O i infrared triplet around 777 nm. We demonstrate that the scattering polarization pattern observed on the solar disk forms in the chromosphere, far above the photospheric region where the bulk of the emergent intensity profiles originate. We investigate the sensitivity of the polarization pattern to the thermal structure of the solar atmosphere and to the presence of weak magnetic fields (10{sup −2}–100 G) through the Hanle effect, showing that the scattering polarization signals of the oxygen infrared triplet encode information on the magnetism of the solar chromosphere.

  7. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  8. Terahertz polarization imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Van der Marel, W.A.M.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results:

  9. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  10. Polar Science Is Cool!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Children are fascinated by the fact that polar scientists do research in extremely cold and dangerous places. In the Arctic they might be viewed as lunch by a polar bear. In the Antarctic, they could lose toes and fingers to frostbite and the wind is so fast it can rip skin off. They camp on ice in continuous daylight, weeks from any form of…

  11. Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wan, Lili; Min, Daihwan

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis of this study lies in behavior change after using car apps that assist users in using their vehicles and establishing a process for examining the interrelationship between car app's persuasive characteristics and behavior change. A categorizing method was developed and 697 car apps were investigated and classified into eight…

  12. Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a school bus! But riding in cars or school buses comes with some responsibility: You need to ride safely. Luckily, it's not hard to do. Keep reading and you'll learn the rules of car and bus safety. Seatbelt Basics Whenever you ride in a car, ...

  13. Dynamics in car ownership: the role of entry into parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oakil, A.T.M.; Manting, D.; Nijland, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of entry into parenthood on changes in car ownership. If entry into parenthood affects changes in car ownership, then delay or offset of entry into parenthood might also be an important explanation of recent car travel trends of young adults. This study analysed

  14. Charging free floating shared cars in metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, Gijs; Tensen, Tim; van Goeverden, Tom; van den Hoed, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of two new developments: electrification and ‘free floating’ car sharing and their impact on public space. Contrary to station based shared cars, free floating cars do not have dedicated parking or charging stations. They therefore park at public parking spots and

  15. A Restitution Model of Two-car Collinear Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Batista

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper two-car collinear collisions are discussed usingNewton's law of mechanics, conservation of energy and linearconstitutive law connecting impact force and crush. Two waysof calculating the mutual restitution coefficient are given: onebased on car masses and one based on car stiffness. A numericalexample of an actual test is provided.

  16. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars to...

  17. 49 CFR 231.18 - Cars of special construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars of special construction. 231.18 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.18 Cars of special construction. Cars of construction not covered specifically in the foregoing sections in this part, relative to...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 57.14215 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then...

  19. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at minimum...

  20. 49 CFR 238.413 - End structures of trailer cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false End structures of trailer cars. 238.413 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.413 End structures of trailer cars. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the end structure of a trailer car shall be designed to include the following...

  1. The importance of timing for breaking commuters’ car driving habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2012-01-01

    A large sample of Copenhagen car drivers were randomly assigned to either receive a free month travel card for public transportation or serve as a control group. As predicted, the free travel card neutralized the negative effect of car driving habits and made the use of public transportation more...... alternatives to car-driving....

  2. An evaluation of the hybrid car technology for the Mexico Mega City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazcilevich, Aron D.; Reynoso, Agustin Garcia; Grutter, Michel; Delgado, Javier; Ayala, Ulises Diego; Lastra, Manuel Suarez; Zuk, Miriam; Oropeza, Rogelio Gonzalez; Lents, Jim; Davis, Nicole

    The introduction of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology in the private car fleet of Mexico City is evaluated in terms of private costs, energy, public health and CO 2 emission benefits. In addition to constructing plausible scenarios for urban expansion, emission, car fleet, and fuel consumption for year 2026 and comparing them with a 2004 base case, a time series is built to obtain accumulated economic benefits. Experimental techniques were used to build a vehicle library for a car simulator that included a Prius 2002, chosen as the HEV technology representative for this work. The simulator is used to estimate the emissions and fuel consumption of the car fleet scenarios. In the context of an urban scenario for year 2026, a complex air quality model obtains the concentrations of criterion pollutants corresponding to these scenarios. Using a technology penetration model, the hybridized fleet starts unfolding in year 2009 reaching to 20% in 2026. In this year, the hybridized fleet resulted in reductions of about 10% of CO 2 emissions, and yielded reductions in daytime mean concentrations of up to 7% in ozone and 3.4% in PM 2.5 compared to the 2004 base case. These reductions are concentrated in the densely populated areas of Mexico City. By building a time series of costs and benefits it is shown that, depending on fuel prices and using a 5% return rate, positive accumulated benefits (CO 2 benefits + energy benefits + public health benefits - private costs) will start generating in year 2015 reaching between 2.8 and 4.5 billion US Dlls in 2026. Another modernized private fleet consisting exclusively of Tier I and II cars did not yield appreciable results, signaling that a change in private car technology towards HEV's is needed to obtain significant accumulated benefits.

  3. Precision Polarization of Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Couture, Aaron; Crawford, Christopher; Chupp, Tim; Danagoulian, Areg; Estes, Mary; Hona, Binita; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andi; Penttila, Seppo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Determining polarization of a cold neutron beam to high precision is required for the next generation neutron decay correlation experiments at the SNS, such as the proposed abBA and PANDA experiments. Precision polarimetry measurements were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the goal of determining the beam polarization to the level of 10-3 or better. The cold neutrons from FP12 were polarized using optically polarized ^3He gas as a spin filter, which has a highly spin-dependent absorption cross section. A second ^ 3He spin filter was used to analyze the neutron polarization after passing through a resonant RF spin rotator. A discussion of the experiment and results will be given.

  4. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements. PMID:29503479

  5. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements.

  6. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  7. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazear, Justin Scott; Ade, Peter A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinderks, James; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on approximately 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales theta ? = approximately 0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32×40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 milli-Kelvin. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variabledelay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,0V) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

  8. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  9. Expectations while car following--the consequences for driving behaviour in a simulated driving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhrer, Elke; Vollrath, Mark

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the causes of driver errors in the context of rear-end crashes. When drivers move in traffic they generate an overall assessment of the driving situation and what will happen in the near future. Certain cues in the traffic environment may create an expectation that some specific action is required. The more relevant cues are present, the more the driver will expect that some kind of intervention may be required. In contrary, if hardly any or no relevant cues are present, the driver does not anticipate that an imminent reaction will be necessary. This idea is supported by results from accident analyses which showed that in many cases, rear-end crashes occur in situations which are usually easy to handle (e.g. straight roads, low traffic density). In these situations, drivers may not anticipate that the driver in front will brake and they are thus following too closely to be able to react in time when the front vehicle suddenly brakes or stops. In order to test this hypothesis experimentally, in a driving simulator experiment different expectations were generated by varying the behaviour of a lead car (different braking behaviour, signalling or not before a turn). Driver behaviour was examined after these variations. The analyses partially confirm the influence of different expectations generated by the lead car's behaviour in the first phase of the scenario. Drivers with a respective expectation reacted faster when the car in front suddenly braked and signalled their manoeuvre before turning right at an intersection. However, during a car following phase, drivers did not adapt their speed or distance depending on this expectation. These results can be used to adapt a driver assistance system in car following situations. This should warn and intervene, especially in cases when drivers do not foresee the need for action and therefore cannot react in time. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quaternary Polarization-Multiplexed Subsystem for High-Capacity IM/DD Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Porto da Silva, Edson

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time an intensitymodulated direct-detection link using four states of polarization. The four data-independent tributaries are each assigned distinct states of polarization to enable the receiver to separate the signals. Polarization rotation due to propagation over...

  11. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  12. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  13. Monitoring Car Drivers' Condition Using Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kazumasa; Yamamto, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Osami; Nakano, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Shin

    We have developed a car driver monitoring system for measuring drivers' consciousness, with which we aim to reduce car accidents caused by drowsiness of drivers. The system consists of the following three subsystems: an image capturing system with a pulsed infrared CCD camera, a system for detecting blinking waveform by the images using a neural network with which we can extract images of face and eye areas, and a system for measuring drivers' consciousness analyzing the waveform with a fuzzy inference technique and others. The third subsystem extracts three factors from the waveform first, and analyzed them with a statistical method, while our previous system used only one factor. Our experiments showed that the three-factor method we used this time was more effective to measure drivers' consciousness than the one-factor method we described in the previous paper. Moreover, the method is more suitable for fitting parameters of the system to each individual driver.

  14. Corporate ergonomics programme at Volvo Car Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck-Ulfsfält, Ulla; Falck, Annki; Forsberg, Anette; Dahlin, Christer; Eriksson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    One of Volvo Car Corporation's core values is "Environmental Care". Volvo Cars has a tradition of attention to the work environment and has over the years developed a working environment management system, an organisational strategy for the participation of everyone, a working environment policy, standards/specifications and methods for efficient practical performance. The Production Ergonomics Project is an example of this. In order to achieve results in ergonomics one has to work comprehensively, which means working with the product, the process, the workplace, the individuals and the work organisation. The key to success is to train all categories concerned in load ergonomics and to perform methodical ergonomic work through the whole chain from design to production.

  15. MicroCar 2003. Abstracts of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Mechatronics for automotive applications is an important trend, combining mechanics, electronics and information technology. Micro- and nanomechatronics, particularly innovative research disciplines, will help create, in combination with advanced solutions from microsystem technologies, e.g. the electronic packaging, a range of entirely new developments in automobiles. Under the umbrella of the Automotive Suppliers Fair Z2003, it is happening for the very first time now that a momentous scientific conference, such as the MicroCar 2003, brings together representatives from car manufacturers and the electronics industry, as well as a large number of experts from technical colleges, universities and research institutes to discuss the new potentials and possibilities presented by the use of micro and nanomaterials in Leipzig. With the presentation of 50 papers, speakers will inform about their latest research results as well as current trends in micro and nanotechnologies for automotives. This issue is publishing the abstracts of this scientific event.

  16. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The transfer of the two HF CMS detectors between Hall 186 and Point 5 (a convoy measuring 64 metres in length and weighing 440 tonnes) will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181 south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route OPPENHEIMER The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 2 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from Sunday 9 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July 2006.Route FEYNMAN is also expected to be closed to traffic from mid-morning on Monday 3 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from mid-morning on Monday 10 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July (possible deviation via route FERMI and route RUTHERFORD).Thank you for your cooperation. TS-IC GroupTel. 163380 - 164043

  17. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The transfer of the two HF CMS detectors between Hall 186 and Point 5 (a convoy measuring 64 metres in length and weighing 440 tonnes) will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181 south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route OPPENHEIMER The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 2 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from Sunday 9 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July 2006. Route FEYNMAN is also expected to be closed to traffic from mid-morning on Monday 3 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from mid-morning on Monday 10 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July (possible deviation via route FERMI and route RUTHERFORD). Thank you for your cooperation. TS-IC Group Tel. 163380 - 164043

  18. CD19-Targeted CAR T cells as novel cancer immunotherapy for relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marco L; Brentjens, Renier J

    2016-10-01

    Immunotherapy has demonstrated significant potential for the treatment of patients with chemotherapy-resistant hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. One type of immunotherapy involves the adoptive transfer of T cells that have been genetically modified with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to target a tumor. These hybrid proteins are composed of the antigen-binding domains of an antibody fused to T-cell receptor signaling machinery. CAR T cells that target CD19 recently have made the jump from the laboratory to the clinic, and the results have been remarkable. CD19-targeted CAR T cells have induced complete remissions of disease in up to 90% of patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), who have an expected complete response rate of 30% in response to chemotherapy. The high efficacy of CAR T cells in B-ALL suggests that regulatory approval of this therapy for this routinely fatal leukemia is on the horizon. We review the preclinical development of CAR T cells and their early clinical application for lymphoma. We also provide a comprehensive analysis of the use of CAR T cells in patients with B-ALL. In addition, we discuss the unique toxicities associated with this therapy and the management schemes that have been developed.

  19. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature

  20. Resonant CARS Detection of OH Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-31

    pp. 3819-3825. 13. Bloembergen, N., U.L. Lotem, and 4. Eckbreth, A.C., G.M. Dobbs, J.H. R.T. Lynch, "Llneshapes in Coherent Stufflebeam , and P.A...Combustion Engine," Aplied Oprics, VnI. 18, 15 November, 1979, pp. 3819-3825. i4 4Eckbreth, A.C., Dobbs, G.M., Stufflebeam , 1.11., .x , P.A., "CARS

  1. Archetypes and Mythical Narratives in Car Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara LÄMMLEIN

    2014-01-01

    This article represents an excerpt of the PhD thesis Branding & Advertising and Communication Strategies by the author. Within this thesis inter - disciplinary approaches for deciphering messages of selected car advertising were used. Multiple methods and paradigms such as cultural studies, media communication, sociology, anthropology, semiotics, and psychoanalysis, were applied in order to analyze TV spots and print advertisements from a variety of angles. The purpose of this strategy was to...

  2. Do Traffic Controllers Dream of Electric Cars?

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, N.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion is not a modern phenomenon, but the growth of motor traffic driven by the supply of petroleum is. This coincides with concern about climate change caused by carbon emissions to which transport makes a substantial and increasing contribution. It seems that private cars in particular cannot be useful without coming to dominate human activity and even whole economies, creating dependence, congestion and severance which paradoxically negate many of the benefits of mobility. Ele...

  3. Microcontroller-driven hydrogen fuel cell car

    OpenAIRE

    Queirós, Hugo; Lafuente, António; Sepúlveda, João; Esteves, João Sena

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fuel cell car with 8 minutes autonomy, capable of following a white line on a black track, using infrared sensors that detect white and black colors. A servomotor controls its direction. Guidelines to the servomotor are given by a system based on an 8051 microcontroller, according to the information it receives from the infrared sensors. The hydrogen needed by the fuel cell is produced by electrolysis, which requires an external power supply. The gas is retained on an is...

  4. Non-coherent continuum scattering as a line polarization mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pino Alemán, T.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J., E-mail: tanausu@iac.es, E-mail: rsainz@iac.es, E-mail: jtb@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-03-20

    Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering at neutral hydrogen and Thomson scattering at free electrons. Often a depolarization of the continuum results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non-coherent continuum scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non-coherence of the continuum scattering may modify the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns significantly, even yielding polarization signals above the continuum level in intrinsically unpolarizable lines.

  5. Aerodynamic analysis of formula student car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawan, Mohammad Arief; Ubaidillah, Nugraha, Arga Ahmadi; Wijayanta, Agung Tri; Naufal, Brian Aqif

    2018-02-01

    Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) is a contest between ungraduated students to create a high-performance formula student car that completes the regulation. Body and the other aerodynamic devices are significant because it affects the drag coefficient and the down force of the car. The drag coefficient is a measurement of the resistance of an object in a fluid environment, a lower the drag coefficient means it will have a less drag force. Down force is a force that pushes an object to the ground, in the car more down force means more grip. The objective of the research was to study the aerodynamic comparison between the race vehicle when attached to the wings and without it. These studies were done in three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation method using the Autodesk Flow Design software. These simulations were done by conducted in 5 different velocities. The results of those simulations are by attaching wings on race vehicle has drag coefficient 0.728 and without wings has drag coefficient 0.56. Wings attachment will decrease the drag coefficient about 23 % and also the contour pressure and velocity were known at these simulations.

  6. Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same road situation is interpreted differently by car drivers and motorcyclists in ways congruent with wider accident rates. Analysis of the structure and content of the semantic networks reveals a greater degree of cognitive compatibility on faster roads such as motorways, but evidence of more critical incompatibilities on country roads and junctions. Both of these road types are implicated in helping to activate cognitive schema which in turn generate stereotypical behaviors unfavourable to the anticipation of motorcyclists by car drivers. The results are discussed in terms of practical measures such as road signs which warn of events behind as well as in front, cross-mode training and the concept of route driveability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. CARS microscopy of Alzheimer's diseased brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enejder, Annika; Kiskis, Juris; Fink, Helen; Nyberg, Lena; Thyr, Jakob; Li, Jia-Yi

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder currently without cure, characterized by the presence of extracellular plaques surrounded by dystrophic neurites. In an effort to understand the underlying mechanisms, biochemical analysis (protein immunoblot) of plaque extracts reveals that they consist of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides assembled as oligomers, protofibrils and aggregates. Their spatial distribution has been confirmed by Thioflavin-S or immuno-staining with fluorescence microscopy. However, it is increasingly understood that the protein aggregation is only one of several mechanism that causes neuronal dysfunction and death. This raises the need for a more complete biochemical analysis. In this study, we have complemented 2-photon fluorescence microscopy of Thioflavin-S and Aβ immuno-stained human AD plaques with CARS microscopy. We show that the chemical build-up of AD plaques is more complex and that Aβ staining does not provide the complete picture of the spatial distribution or the molecular composition of AD plaques. CARS images provide important complementary information to that obtained by fluorescence microscopy, motivating a broader introduction of CARS microscopy in the AD research field.

  9. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, B.; Tremblay, G.; Davis, T.; Busch, G.; McElroy, R.; Neumann, J.; Urrutia, T.; Krumpe, M.; Scharwächter, J.; Powell, M.; Perez-Torres, M.; The CARS Team

    2017-09-01

    The role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the evolution of galaxies remains a mystery. The energy released by these accreting supermassive black holes can vastly exceed the entire binding energy of their host galaxies, yet it remains unclear how this energy is dissipated throughout the galaxy, and how that might couple to the galaxy's evolution. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS) is a multi-wavelength survey of a representative sample of luminous Type I AGN at redshifts 0.01 connection. These AGN are more luminous than very nearby AGN but are still close enough for spatially resolved mapping at sub-kpc scales with various state- of-the art facilities and instruments, such as VLT-MUSE, ALMA, JVLA, Chandra, SOFIA, and many more. In this article we showcase the power of CARS with examples of a multi-phase AGN outflow, diverse views on star formation activity and a unique changing-look AGN. CARS will provide an essential low-redshift reference sample for ongoing and forthcoming AGN surveys at high redshift.

  10. New Life For The Cable Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    NASA-Arnes' major recommendations involved ways of extending cable life in the interests of safety and economy. Other recommendations included redesign of the cablegripping device, substitution of modern braking mechanisms, improvements in cable pulleys and other components, and new inspection and repair procedures. Ames followed up by designing and installing new equipment to lengthen cable life, which averages only about two months. These cables-four of them for four different car routes--are endless belts, like ski lift cables, running from the downtown car barn to the end of each line. When a cable is installed, the loop is closed by splicing the ends together in a 72-footlong splice. The splice is the weakest part of the cable and a source of problems. When the car operator applies his grip while over a splice, the resulting friction sometimes causes the splice to "unbraid" and fail; this means shutting down the line until the splice can be repaired. Even when unbraiding does not occur, gripping a splice shortens cable life by friction wear. Worn cables are a safety hazard and must be replaced, which is expensive at $1.60 a foot for 10,000 to 20,000 feet of cable.

  11. Backset-stationary and during car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Björnstig, Ulf

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure and analyze backset, defined as the horizontal distance between the back of the occupant's head and a point located on the ventral/top aspect of the sewn rim of the head restraint, with the car stationary and during driving, in the driver's position in a modern car. A population of 65 subjects, 35 males and 30 females, was studied in a Volvo V70 car, model year 2007. The subjects were studied in the driver's position, in a self-selected posture. Stationary backset was measured with the technique described by Jonsson et al. (2007) and backset during driving with video analysis. Descriptive data were calculated, and variability and correlation analyses were performed. A t-test was used to test differences of means. Significance level was set to 0.05. In comparison to stationary backset, mean backset during driving was 43 mm greater in males and 41 mm greater in females. Driving backset was 44 mm larger in males than in females. Driving backset was moderately correlated (0.37-0.43) to stature, seated height, and seat back angle in males and moderately correlated (0.44-0.52) to hip width, waist circumference, and weight in females. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient for backset during driving was 0.81 (CI: 0.75-0.86). These results may be of use in designing future updates of test protocols/routines for geometric backset, such as RCAR and RCAR-IIWPG.

  12. Anaheim electric vehicle car-sharing project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, D. [City of Anaheim Transportation Programs Planner, Anaheim, CA (United States); Chase, B. [Costa Mesa Planning Center, Costa Mesa, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper described how the city of Anaheim in California is looking into a variety of clean transportation options for visitors, employees and residents in an effort to minimize air quality and congestion impacts. The city, which attracts approximately 24 million visitors annually, is looking into an electric vehicle (EV) car-sharing program that promotes EV use in multiple applications for both short- and long-term rental opportunities. There are two components to the program which provides eight 5-passenger electric Toyota RAV4 vehicles to both local employees and visitors. The electric RAV4s include nickel-hydride batteries which provide a range of 120 miles per charge. The city has already developed a network of public accessible EV charging stations and this project is a perfect extension of the city's continued efforts to seek opportunities to apply EV technologies within its jurisdictions. The Station Car Program provides flexibility for rail commuters to get from the rail station to their place of employment. On weekdays, the EVs are available to registered commuters at two rail stations to drive to and from work. A total of 32 commuters can benefit from the program at a cost of $40 per month. On weekends, the EVs are offered to visitors through Budget Rent-a-Car Agency at a rate comparable to gasoline-fueled vehicles. So far, participant feedback has been positive and the city is looking into expanding its efforts to provide clean transportation options. tab.

  13. Polarization at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z/sup 0/ mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A technique for measurement of vector and tensor polarization in solid spin one polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielhorn, W.F.

    1991-06-01

    Vector and tensor polarizations are explicitly defined and used to characterize the polarization states of spin one polarized targets, and a technique for extracting these polarizations from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is developed. This technique is independent of assumptions about spin temperature, but assumes the target's crystal structure induces a quadrupole interaction with the spin one particles. Analysis of the NMR signals involves a computer curve fitting algorithm implemented with a fast Fourier transform method which speeds and simplifies curve fitting algorithms used previously. For accurate curve fitting, the NMR electronic circuit must be modeled by the fitting algorithm. Details of a circuit, its model, and data collected from this circuit are given for a solid deuterated ammonia target. 37 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. A technique for measurement of vector and tensor polarization in solid spin one polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielhorn, W.F.

    1991-06-01

    Vector and tensor polarizations are explicitly defined and used to characterize the polarization states of spin one polarized targets, and a technique for extracting these polarizations from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is developed. This technique is independent of assumptions about spin temperature, but assumes the target's crystal structure induces a quadrupole interaction with the spin one particles. Analysis of the NMR signals involves a computer curve fitting algorithm implemented with a fast Fourier transform method which speeds and simplifies curve fitting algorithms used previously. For accurate curve fitting, the NMR electronic circuit must be modeled by the fitting algorithm. Details of a circuit, its model, and data collected from this circuit are given for a solid deuterated ammonia target. 37 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) contaminated well cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    In support of past operations, railcars were used to ship irradiated fuel from the 100 Area fuel storage basins to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility. There are two configurations for the packaging systems that transported the fuel: the Three-Well Cask Car, which is outfitted with three casks, and the taller, single well, New Production Reactor (NPR) Cask Car. In this document, these cask cars are referred to collectively as well cars. The purpose of this document is to evaluate and authorize the onsite transportation of well cars that contain significant levels of contamination. No irradiated fuel will be transported in the well cars. Neutron detection data confirmed that the well cars do not contain fuel. The intention is to move 14 retired well cars from their current locations in the 100 Area to a suitable storage location in the 200 Area. Each well car contains Type B quantities of radioactivity; so that the hazard of the transport operation is relatively low. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the contaminated well cars meet the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for Hazardous Material Shipments for an onsite packaging. The scope of this document addresses the preparation and transportation of the contaminated well cars

  17. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  18. Polarized scintillator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.

    2000-05-01

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as "live" polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  19. Polarized scintillator targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B. van den E-mail: vandenbrandt@psi.ch; Bunyatova, E.I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S

    2000-05-21

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as 'live' polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  20. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  1. Microglia Polarization, Gene-Environment Interactions and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling: Emerging Roles of Glia-Neuron and Glia-Stem/Neuroprogenitor Crosstalk for Dopaminergic Neurorestoration in Aged Parkinsonian Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca L'Episcopo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammatory processes are recognized key contributory factors in Parkinson's disease (PD physiopathology. While the causes responsible for the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA neuronal cell bodies in the subtantia nigra pars compacta are poorly understood, aging, genetics, environmental toxicity, and particularly inflammation, represent prominent etiological factors in PD development. Especially, reactive astrocytes, microglial cells, and infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages play dual beneficial/harmful effects, via a panel of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, neurotrophic and neurogenic transcription factors. Notably, with age, microglia may adopt a potent neurotoxic, pro-inflammatory “primed” (M1 phenotype when challenged with inflammatory or neurotoxic stimuli that hamper brain's own restorative potential and inhibit endogenous neurorepair mechanisms. In the last decade we have provided evidence for a major role of microglial crosstalk with astrocytes, mDA neurons and neural stem progenitor cells (NSCs in the MPTP- (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- mouse model of PD, and identified Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a pivotal morphogen for mDA neurodevelopment, neuroprotection, and neuroinflammatory modulation, as a critical actor in glia-neuron and glia-NSCs crosstalk. With age however, Wnt signaling and glia-NSC-neuron crosstalk become dysfunctional with harmful consequences for mDA neuron plasticity and repair. These findings are of importance given the deregulation of Wnt signaling in PD and the emerging link between most PD related genes, Wnt signaling and inflammation. Especially, in light of the expanding field of microRNAs and inflammatory PD-related genes as modulators of microglial-proinflammatory status, uncovering the complex molecular circuitry linking PD and neuroinflammation will permit the identification of new druggable targets for the cure of the disease. Here we summarize

  2. Car ownership and use taxes as pollution correcting instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Mulalic, Ismir

    There have been many attempts to alter the taxation of private vehicles to obtain more energy-efficient car transport. The last significant reform in Denmark was completed in 2007. The most important objective was to improve fuel efficiency and consequently to reduce emissions related to car...... transport. To analyse the effects of such a reform it is necessary to model both long term decision like car ownership and short term decision like car usage in a combined framework. The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent Danish households change their car ownership and their car use after...... a change in car taxes. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data to estimate the joint demand for vehicles and kilometres. The empirical results point at effects that have important implications....

  3. CARS 2009. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The CARS 2009 proceedings include contributions and poster sessions concerning different conferences and workshops: computer assisted radiology, 23rd international congress and exhibition, CARS clinical day, 13th annual conference of the international society for computer aided surgery, 10th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, 11th international workshop on computer-aided diagnosis, 15th computed maxillofacial imaging congress, CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery, 1st EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT, JICARS - Japanese institutes of CARS, 1st EuroNotes/CTAC/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge, 13th annual conference for computer aided surgery, 27th international EuroPACS meeting.

  4. Establishing guidelines for CAR-T cells: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Di-Yuan; Zhang, Bing-Lan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    T cells, genetically modified by chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T), are endowed with specificity to a desired antigen and are cytotoxic to cells expressing the targeted antigen. CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy is a promising therapy for curing hematological malignancy, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, and is promising for extending their efficacy to defeat solid tumors. To date, dozens of different CAR-T cells have been evaluated in clinical trials to treat tumors; this necessitates the establishment of guidelines for the production and application of CAR-T cells. However, it is challenging to standardize CAR-T cancer therapy because it involves a combination of gene therapy and cell therapy. In this review, we compare the existing guidelines for CAR-T cells and discuss the challenges and considerations for establishing guidance for CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Polarization measurement in the COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, K; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Matsuda, T

    2004-01-01

    Continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to determine the target polarization in the COMPASS experiment. The system is made of the so-called Liverpool Q-meters, Yale-cards, and VME modules for data taking and system controlling. In 2001 the NMR coils were embedded in the target material, while in 2002 and 2003 the coils were mounted on the outer surface of the target cells to increase the packing factor of the material. Though the error of the measurement became larger with the outer coils than with the inner coils, we have performed stable measurements throughout the COMPASS run time for 3 years. The maximum polarization was +57% and -53% as the average in the target cells.

  6. Emerging immunotherapeutics in adenocarcinomas: A focus on CAR-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanifar, Mahboubeh; Zhou, Ru; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2016-01-01

    More than 80% of all cancers arise from epithelial cells referred to as carcinomas. Adenocarcinomas are the most common type of carcinomas arising from the specialized epithelial cells that line the ducts of our major organs. Despite many advances in cancer therapies, metastatic and treatment-refractory cancers remain the 2 nd leading cause of death. Immunotherapy has offered potential opportunities with specific targeting of tumor cells and inducing remission in many cancer patients. Numerous therapies using antibodies as antagonists or checkpoint inhibitors/immune modulators, peptide or cell vaccines, cytokines, and adoptive T cell therapies have been developed. The most innovative immunotherapy approach so far has been the use of engineered T cell, also referred to as chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells). CAR-T cells are genetically modified naïve T cells that express a chimeric molecule which comprises of the antigen-recognition domains (scFv) of an anti-tumor antibody and one, two, or three intracellular signaling domains of the T cell receptor (TCR). When these engineered T cells recognize and bind to the tumor antigen target via the scFv fragment, a signal is sent to the intracellular TCR domains of the CAR, leading to activation of the T cells to become cytolytic against the tumor cells. CAR-T cell therapy has shown tremendous success for certain hematopoietic malignancies, but this success has not been extrapolated to adenocarcinomas. This is due to multiple factors associated with adenocarcinoma that are different from hematopoietic tumors. Although many advances have been made in targeting multiple cancers by CAR-T cells, clinical trials have shown adverse effects and toxicity related to this treatment. New strategies are yet to be devised to manage side effects associated with CAR-T cell therapies. In this review, we report some of the promising immunotherapeutic strategies being developed for treatment of most common adenocarcinomas with

  7. CHANGE TRENDS IN THE USE OF PASSENGER CARS ON URBAN TRIPS: CAR-POOLING IN GDYNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna HEBEL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide accessibility of European citizens to cars results in problems caused by their excessive use as a means of urban transport. Given this situation, it is necessary to find new solutions for the more efficient use of passenger cars in cities. This problem affects almost all European cities, including those in Poland. The paper analyses the level of motorization and modal split in Polish cities with county status, while selected European cities serve as a background to determine the scale of the problem. In the search of solutions in relation to Poland, an analysis of different documents outlining the directions of urban mobility was conducted. One of these documents concerned the promotion of car-pooling, the history of which dates back to the Second World War and the 1950s. Initially introduced in the USA, its increasing development in European cities has been witnessed in recent years. Research on the evaluation of real car-pooling in Polish cities was conducted in Gdynia by the authors of this study. The results of marketing research presented in the article have determined the degree to which participants in urban mobility are inclined to take part in car-pooling schemes in Polish cities.

  8. An improved car-following model with consideration of the lateral effect and its feedback control research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ya-Zhou; Zheng Peng-Jun; Ge Hong-Xia

    2014-01-01

    A car-following model is presented, in which the effects of non-motor vehicles on adjacent lanes are taken into account. A control signal including the velocity differences between the following vehicle and the target vehicle is introduced according to the feedback control theory. The stability condition for the new model is derived. Numerical simulation is used to demonstrate the advantage of the new model including the control signal; the results are consistent with the analytical ones. (general)

  9. Car Detection from Low-Altitude UAV Imagery with the Faster R-CNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzheng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UAV based traffic monitoring holds distinct advantages over traditional traffic sensors, such as loop detectors, as UAVs have higher mobility, wider field of view, and less impact on the observed traffic. For traffic monitoring from UAV images, the essential but challenging task is vehicle detection. This paper extends the framework of Faster R-CNN for car detection from low-altitude UAV imagery captured over signalized intersections. Experimental results show that Faster R-CNN can achieve promising car detection results compared with other methods. Our tests further demonstrate that Faster R-CNN is robust to illumination changes and cars’ in-plane rotation. Besides, the detection speed of Faster R-CNN is insensitive to the detection load, that is, the number of detected cars in a frame; therefore, the detection speed is almost constant for each frame. In addition, our tests show that Faster R-CNN holds great potential for parking lot car detection. This paper tries to guide the readers to choose the best vehicle detection framework according to their applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current framework to detect other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motorcycles, and bicycles.

  10. CAR-T cells and combination therapies: What's next in the immunotherapy revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramello, Maria C; Haura, Eric B; Abate-Daga, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Cancer immunotherapies are dramatically reshaping the clinical management of oncologic patients. For many of these therapies, the guidelines for administration, monitoring, and management of associated toxicities are still being established. This is especially relevant for adoptively transferred, genetically-modified T cells, which have unique pharmacokinetic properties, due to their ability to replicate and persist long-term, following a single administration. Furthermore, in the case of CAR-T cells, the use of synthetic immune receptors may impact signaling pathways involved in T cell function and survival in unexpected ways. We, herein, comment on the most salient aspects of CAR-T cell design and clinical experience in the treatment of solid tumors. In addition, we discuss different possible scenarios for combinations of CAR-T cells and other treatment modalities, with a special emphasis on kinase inhibitors, elaborating on the strategies to maximize synergism. Finally, we discuss some of the technologies that are available to explore the molecular events governing the success of these therapies. The young fields of synthetic and systems biology are likely to be major players in the advancement of CAR-T cell therapies, providing the tools and the knowledge to engineer patients' T lymphocytes into intelligent cancer-fighting micromachines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Calibration of the instrumental polarization in LEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    A method to calibrate the instrumental polarization of LEST (i.e., of the optics in front of the polarization and analysis package at the LEST secondary focus) is described and analysed. A laser sends a beam from the LEST observing room at ground level backwards through the telescope. The modulated return beam that has been reflected at the 2.4 m entrance window is received by the detector system at the end focus in the LEST observing room. Because of a wedge in the entrance window the reflections at the front and back window surfaces may be examined separately. The detected laser beam signals at the three AC frequencies are recorded as functions of the position angle of the modulator package at the LEST secondary focus. Aided by a theorem that is proven in the present paper, the information recorded by the detector system allows all unknowns of the instrumental polarization to be fully determined.

  12. Testing of Tools for Measurement Vibration in Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin JURÁNEK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is specialized on testing of several sensors for measurement vibration, that be applicable for measurement on vehicles also behind running. These sensors are connected to PC and universal mobile measuring system cRIO (National Instruments with analog I/O module for measurement vibration, that is described in diploma work: [JURÁNEK 2008]. This system has upped mechanical and heat imunity, small proportions and is therefore acceptable also measurement behind ride vehicles. It compose from two head parts. First is measuring part, composite from instruments cRIO. First part is controlled and monitored by PDA there is connected of wireless (second part hereof system. To system cRIO is possible connect sensors by four BNC connector or after small software change is possible add sensor to other analog modul cRIO. Here will be test several different types of accelerometers (USB sensor company Phidgets, MEMS sensor company Freescale, piezoresistiv and Delta Tron accelerometers company Brüel&Kjær. These sensors is attach to stiff board, board is attach to vibrator and excite by proper signal. Testing will realized with reference to using for measurement in cars. Results will be compared with professional signal analyser LabShop pulse from company Brüel&Kjær.

  13. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of a...

  14. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  15. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  16. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  17. Interaction of activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3) with LKB1, a serine/threonine kinase involved in cell polarity and cell cycle progression: phosphorylation of the G-protein regulatory (GPR) motif as a regulatory mechanism for the interaction of GPR motifs with Gi alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Joe B; Bernard, Michael L; Peterson, Yuri K; Nezu, Jun-ichi; Chung, Peter; Dunican, Dara J; Knoblich, Juergen A; Lanier, Stephen M

    2003-06-27

    Activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3) has a modular domain structure consisting of seven tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) and four G-protein regulatory (GPR) motifs. Each GPR motif binds to the alpha subunit of Gi/Go (Gialpha > Goalpha) stabilizing the GDP-bound conformation of Galpha and apparently competing with Gbetagamma for GalphaGDP binding. As an initial approach to identify regulatory mechanisms for AGS3-G-protein interactions, a yeast two-hybrid screen was initiated using the TPR and linker region of AGS3 as bait. This screen identified the serine/threonine kinase LKB1, which is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and polarity. Protein interaction assays in mammalian systems using transfected cells or brain lysate indicated the regulated formation of a protein complex consisting of LKB1, AGS3, and G-proteins. The interaction between AGS3 and LKB1 was also observed with orthologous proteins in Drosophila where both proteins are involved in cell polarity. LKB1 immunoprecipitates from COS7 cells transfected with LKB1 phosphorylated the GPR domains of AGS3 and the related protein LGN but not the AGS3-TPR domain. GPR domain phosphorylation was completely blocked by a consensus GPR motif peptide, and placement of a phosphate moiety within a consensus GPR motif reduced the ability of the peptide to interact with G-proteins. These data suggest that phosphorylation of GPR domains may be a general mechanism regulating the interaction of GPR-containing proteins with G-proteins. Such a mechanism may be of particular note in regard to localized signal processing in the plasma membrane involving G-protein subunits and/or intracellular functions regulated by heterotrimeric G-proteins that occur independently of a typical G-protein-coupled receptor.

  18. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  19. Ultracold Polar Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0005 Ultracold Polar Molecules Jeremy Hutson UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM Final Report 04/01/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-Jan-2010 to 14-Jul-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report on Grant FA8655-10-1-3033 on Ultracold Polar Molecules 5a...formation of ultracold 87RbCs molecules in their rovibrational ground state by magnetoassociation followed by STIRAP, resulting in 14 papers acknowledging

  20. External exposure dose of car mechanics during the maintenance of the cars from the risk cautionary area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hiroto; Yamada, Norikazu; Sasaki, Satoru; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2011-12-01

    At the request of the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters, JNES has estimated the effective external exposure dose of car mechanics during the maintenance of the cars from the risk cautionary area. JNES investigated the contamination of the cars from the risk cautionary area and of the average cars at Fukushima city cooperated by the Japan Automobile Dealers Association. Data of screed cars by the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters is also considered in. Effective external exposure dose of car mechanics treating the cars screened with the emergency situation screening level is estimated to be less than 1 mSv/y under the conservative conditions. This result shows that particular health concern isn't necessary for them. (author)