WorldWideScience

Sample records for polarization-based image understanding

  1. Image Understanding Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-31

    Numerlues en Sciences Physiques et Economiques , Collection Methode Mathematiques de l’Informatique, Dunod, 1976. 47 26. P. Saint-Pierre, "Etude Theorique et...overlap since adjacent linear features are being presented. References 1. S. Rubin, "The ARGOS Image Understanding System," Ph.D. thesis, Computer Science ...Techniques," TR 480, Computer Science Center, University of Maryland, September i979. 5. Davis, Larry S. and Azriel Rosenfeld, "Hierarchical Relaxation for

  2. Understanding Image Virality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-08

    1. Introduction What graphic should I use to make a new startup more eye-catching than Instagram ? Which image caption will help spread an under... Journal of Marketing Research, 2012. 2, 3, 4 [7] J. Berger and E. M. Schwartz. What drives immediate and ongoing word of mouth? Journal of Marketing

  3. Image Understanding Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    Reconnaissance des Formes et Intelligence Artificielle , Sept. 1981, Nancy, France. [11] T.C. Henderson and B. Bhanu, "Extraction of Planar Faces from...34Semantic Description of Aerial Images Using Stochastic Labeling," IEEE Trans. on Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence , Nov. 1981. [2] R. Ohlander...Tenenbaum, "MSYS: A System for Reasoning About Scenes," Tech. Note 121, Artificial Intelligence Center, SRI Intl., Menlo Park, CA, 1976. [7]. D. Marr

  4. 1x3 beam splitter for TE polarization based on self-imaging phenomena in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Min; Malureanu, Radu; Krüger, Asger Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on inspiration from multi-mode interference self-imaging and theoretical FDTD simulations, a 1x3 beam splitter was designed, fabricated and characterized. Measurements show that for TE-polarized incident light the power is distributed equally between the output ports within 1dB in the range...

  5. Understanding the image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the physical principles of radiology (i.e., why you see what you see), particularly as they apply to portable radiography; to illustrate the usefulness of positioning maneuvers to produce an optimal view of suspected pathology and altered physiology; to alert one to common pitfalls in interpretation, many of which are inherent in the portable technique; and to address the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of specific adult and pediatric diseases frequently encountered in the postoperative and intensive care setting

  6. Image understanding using sparse representations

    CERN Document Server

    Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J; Turaga, Pavan; Spanias, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Image understanding has been playing an increasingly crucial role in several inverse problems and computer vision. Sparse models form an important component in image understanding, since they emulate the activity of neural receptors in the primary visual cortex of the human brain. Sparse methods have been utilized in several learning problems because of their ability to provide parsimonious, interpretable, and efficient models. Exploiting the sparsity of natural signals has led to advances in several application areas including image compression, denoising, inpainting, compressed sensing, blin

  7. Biomedical image understanding methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Joo-Hwee; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to understanding and interpreting digital images in medical and functional applications Biomedical Image Understanding focuses on image understanding and semantic interpretation, with clear introductions to related concepts, in-depth theoretical analysis, and detailed descriptions of important biomedical applications. It covers image processing, image filtering, enhancement, de-noising, restoration, and reconstruction; image segmentation and feature extraction; registration; clustering, pattern classification, and data fusion. With contributions from ex

  8. Image Understanding and Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    with respect to the computer analysis of Image data (and especially multlspectral image data) from high-flying aircraft and earth- orbiting satellites...REAL AXIS 500 1.00:1 l.fOO 2,000 78 Figure \\k BOEING 707-320 2.000- l.OOO- 1.000- .etij to k S •wo ft - . EDO - •l .0.10 -i.eno

  9. Manifold-Based Image Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    3] employs a Texas Instruments digital micromirror device (DMD), which consists of an array of N electrostatically actuated micromirrors . The camera...image x) is reflected off a digital micromirror device (DMD) array whose mirror orientations are modulated in the pseudorandom pattern φm supplied by a

  10. Structural image and video understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we have discussed how to exploit the structures in several computer vision topics. The five chapters addressed five computer vision topics using the image structures. In chapter 2, we proposed a structural model to jointly predict the age, expression and gender of a face. By modeling

  11. Image understanding using geometric context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Liu, Chuancai

    2017-07-01

    A Gibbs Sampler based topic model for image annotation, which takes into account the interaction between visual geometric context and related topic, is presented. Most of the existing topic models for scene annotation use segmentation-based algorithm. However, topic models using segmentation algorithm alone sometimes can produce erroneous results when used to annotate real-life scene pictures. Therefore, our algorithm makes use of peaks of image surface instead of segmentation regions. Existing approaches use SIFT algorithm and treat the peaks as round blob features. In this paper, the peaks are treated as anisotropic blob features, which models low level visual elements more precisely. In order to better utilize visual features, our model not only takes into consideration visual codeword, but also considers influence of visual properties to topic formation, such as orientation, width, length and color. The basic idea is based on the assumption that different topics will produce distinct visual appearance, and different visual appearance is helpful to distinguish topics. During the learning stage, each topic will be associated with a set of distributions of visual properties, which depicts appearance of the topic. This paper considers more geometric properties, which will reduce topic uncertainty and learn the images better. Tested with Corel5K, SAIAPR-TC12 and Espgame100k Datasets, our method performs moderately better than some state of the arts methods.

  12. Understanding synthesis imaging dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, R.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a general framework for quantifying the many different contributions to the noise budget of an image made with an array of dishes or aperture array stations. Each noise contribution to the visibility data is associated with a relevant correlation timescale and frequency bandwidth so that the net impact on a complete observation can be assessed when a particular effect is not captured in the instrumental calibration. All quantities are parameterised as function of observing frequency and the visibility baseline length. We apply the resulting noise budget analysis to a wide range of existing and planned telescope systems that will operate between about 100 MHz and 5 GHz to ascertain the magnitude of the calibration challenges that they must overcome to achieve thermal noise limited performance. We conclude that calibration challenges are increased in several respects by small dimensions of the dishes or aperture array stations. It will be more challenging to achieve thermal noise limited performance using 15 m class dishes rather than the 25 m dishes of current arrays. Some of the performance risks are mitigated by the deployment of phased array feeds and more with the choice of an (alt,az,pol) mount, although a larger dish diameter offers the best prospects for risk mitigation. Many improvements to imaging performance can be anticipated at the expense of greater complexity in calibration algorithms. However, a fundamental limitation is ultimately imposed by an insufficient number of data constraints relative to calibration variables. The upcoming aperture array systems will be operating in a regime that has never previously been addressed, where a wide range of effects are expected to exceed the thermal noise by two to three orders of magnitude. Achieving routine thermal noise limited imaging performance with these systems presents an extreme challenge. The magnitude of that challenge is inversely related to the aperture array station diameter.

  13. Integrated oceanographic image understanding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybanon, Matthew; Peckinpaugh, Sarah H.; Holyer, Ronald J.; Cambridge, Vivian

    1991-04-01

    A system was assembled to study several aspects of locating ship targets from infrared imagery. The system was either placed on shore sites or installed on an aircraft to collect data on the scene. The primary sensor was an infrared camera which produced images of the scene at standard RS-l70 rates. Requirements that included real time operation dictated the use of a parallel architecture for this task. As no suitable commercial systems were avail able, a custom array of bit slice microprocessors was assembled for the task. Through extensive field tests strengths and limitations of the design have been identified. These lessons are being applied to the development of next generation systems. A gimbal mounted infrared camera with digitization circuitry presents a new 256 by 256 pixel image to the parallel pipelined array of 17 bit slice microprocessors thirty times a second. To extend processor performance beyond the standard commercial microprocessors. two basic bit slice designs were employed. The bit slice machines were highly tuned for the assigned tasks and algorithms. Unfortunately this restricted the desired flexibility to readily examine alternate algorithms. The fundamental architecture concept performed well quickly reducing the large array of data to manageable set of information. Real time operator displays were driven to monitor the progress of each test run. Results of the system operation were stored on video and digi tal recorders permitting more detailed analysis after each test. Non real time data reduction provided many insights into the system operation and to algorithm improvements. Substantial operator interaction. and data interpretation was required greatly slowing the post test analysis phase. Overwhelmed with data, the analysts focused on locating a few data segments of interest. Significant work remains in improving the interfaces between the field data and the powerful laboratory computers. Automation of the data analysis is also needed

  14. Introduction to the Special Theme Image Understanding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Kittler, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 95 (2013), s. 9-9 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG11009 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : image understanding * visual information recognition Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/haindl-0397628.pdf

  15. Teaching physics and understanding infrared thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2017-08-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a very rapidly evolving field. The latest trends are small smartphone IR camera accessories, making infrared imaging a widespread and well-known consumer product. Applications range from medical diagnosis methods via building inspections and industrial predictive maintenance etc. also to visualization in the natural sciences. Infrared cameras do allow qualitative imaging and visualization but also quantitative measurements of the surface temperatures of objects. On the one hand, they are a particularly suitable tool to teach optics and radiation physics and many selected topics in different fields of physics, on the other hand there is an increasing need of engineers and physicists who understand these complex state of the art photonics systems. Therefore students must also learn and understand the physics underlying these systems.

  16. Understanding X-ray cargo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gongyin

    2005-01-01

    Cargo imaging is the field of imaging large objects, usually cargo containers, trains, trucks or boats. Transmission imaging with photons, especially X-rays of up to 9 MV is the dominant current technique, providing compelling details of the contents of objects this large. This paper discusses the physics aspects of a good X-ray cargo imaging system. The basic performance requirements, such as penetration, contrast and resolution and the components of a cargo imaging system are introduced. The imaging process is divided in this paper into three stages: forming information (probing the object), recording information and presenting information (image display). Their impact on performance is analyzed

  17. Existential space understanding through digital image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Iñarra Abad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The logical way to learn from the architectural space and then be able to design and represent it is, undoubtedly, that of experiencing it through all the sensitive channels that the space wakes up us.  But since the last 30 years, much of our learning about space comes from images of architecture and not from the space itself. The art of architecture is drifting towards a visual art and moving away from its existential side. In digital images that have flooded the architectural media, digital photographs of existing spaces intermingle with non-existent space renderings (photographs with a virtual camera. The first ones represent existing places but can be altered to change the perception that  the observer of the image will have, the second ones speak to us about places that do not exist yet but they present reality portions through extracts from digital photography (textures, trees, people... that compose the image.

  18. Image understanding in terms of semiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharko, E.; Kaminsky, Roman M.; Shpytko, V.

    1995-06-01

    Human perception of pictorial visual information is investigated from iconical sign view-point and appropriate semiotical model is discussed. Image construction (syntactics) is analyzed as a complex hierarchical system and various types of pictorial objects, their relations, regular configurations are represented, studied, and modeled. Relations between image syntactics, its semantics, and pragmatics is investigated. Research results application to the problems of thematic interpretation of Earth surface remote imgages is illustrated.

  19. Medical Imaging for Understanding Sleep Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth

    2011-10-01

    Sleep is essential for the health of the nervous system. Lack of sleep has a profound negative effect on cognitive ability and task performance. During sustained military operations, soldiers often suffer from decreased quality and quantity of sleep, increasing their susceptibility to neurological problems and limiting their ability to perform the challenging mental tasks that their missions require. In the civilian sector, inadequate sleep and overt sleep pathology are becoming more common, with many detrimental impacts. There is a strong need for new, in vivo studies of human brains during sleep, particularly the initial descent from wakefulness. Our research team is investigating sleep using a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and electroencephalography (EEG). High resolution MRI combined with PET enables localization of biochemical processes (e.g., metabolism) to anatomical structures. MRI methods can also be used to examine functional connectivity among brain regions. Neural networks are dynamically reordered during different sleep stages, reflecting the disconnect with the waking world and the essential yet unconscious brain activity that occurs during sleep.[4pt] In collaboration with Linda Larson-Prior, Washington University; Alpay Ozcan, Virginia Tech; Seong Mun, Virginia Tech; and Zang-Hee Cho, Gachon University.

  20. Object localization in handheld thermal images for fireground understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Florian; Merci, Bart; Jalalvand, Azarakhsh; Verstockt, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Despite the broad application of the handheld thermal imaging cameras in firefighting, its usage is mostly limited to subjective interpretation by the person carrying the device. As remedies to overcome this limitation, object localization and classification mechanisms could assist the fireground understanding and help with the automated localization, characterization and spatio-temporal (spreading) analysis of the fire. An automated understanding of thermal images can enrich the conventional knowledge-based firefighting techniques by providing the information from the data and sensing-driven approaches. In this work, transfer learning is applied on multi-labeling convolutional neural network architectures for object localization and recognition in monocular visual, infrared and multispectral dynamic images. Furthermore, the possibility of analyzing fire scene images is studied and their current limitations are discussed. Finally, the understanding of the room configuration (i.e., objects location) for indoor localization in reduced visibility environments and the linking with Building Information Models (BIM) are investigated.

  1. Feeling for Meaning: The Making and Understanding of Image Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, David

    2017-01-01

    Using iconic images created by students in Belfast and Sarajevo of their respective cities, this paper will explore how emerging ideas in the field of cognitive science (e.g. Gallagher, S. 2005. "How the Body Shapes the Mind." Oxford: Clarendon Press) can help explain the making and understanding of Augusto Boal's "Image…

  2. Document understanding using layout styles of title page images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Louis H., II; Manns, Basil

    1992-08-01

    An important problem in the application of compound document architectures is the input of data from raster images. One technique is to use visual, syntactic cues found in the layout of the raster document to infer its logical structure or semantics. Another is to use context derived from characters recognized within a given block of raster data. Both character- and image- based information are considered here. A well-constrained environment is defined for use in developing rules that can be applied to basic book title page understanding. This paper identifies the attributes of title page layout objects which aid in mapping them into the fields of a simple bibliographic format. Using as input the raster images of the title page and the verso of the title page along with the ASCII output of a generic character recognition engine from these same images, a system of rules is defined for generating a marked-up text wherein key bibliographic fields may be identified.

  3. Automatic comic page image understanding based on edge segment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Yongtao; Tang, Zhi; Li, Luyuan; Gao, Liangcai

    2013-12-01

    Comic page image understanding aims to analyse the layout of the comic page images by detecting the storyboards and identifying the reading order automatically. It is the key technique to produce the digital comic documents suitable for reading on mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a novel comic page image understanding method based on edge segment analysis. First, we propose an efficient edge point chaining method to extract Canny edge segments (i.e., contiguous chains of Canny edge points) from the input comic page image; second, we propose a top-down scheme to detect line segments within each obtained edge segment; third, we develop a novel method to detect the storyboards by selecting the border lines and further identify the reading order of these storyboards. The proposed method is performed on a data set consisting of 2000 comic page images from ten printed comic series. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves satisfactory results on different comics and outperforms the existing methods.

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging for understanding brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Anqi; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I

    2015-01-03

    The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants. Finally, we discuss limitations of DTI and potential valuable imaging techniques for studying white matter myelination.

  5. A simple polarized-based diffused reflectance colour imaging system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system uses a commercial web camera and a halogen lamp that makes it relatively simple and less expensive for diagnostic research and teaching. The system has been used to demonstrate ... Predicting the area of the sample using a method of counting dark pixels is presented. This method avoids complex and more ...

  6. Towards Deep Image Understanding : from pixels to semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Gonfaus, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Entendre el contingut de les imatges és un dels grans reptes de la visió per computador. Arribar a ser capaços de reconèixer quins objectes apareixen en les imatges, quina acció hi realitzen, i finalment, entendre el per què esta succeïnt, és l'objectiu del topic de Image Understanding. El fet d'entendre què succeeix en un instant de temps, ja sigui capturat en una fotografia, en un vídeo o simplement la imatge retinguda en la retina de l'ull (humà o un robòtic) és un pas fonamental per tal d...

  7. Understanding the optics to aid microscopy image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhaozheng; Li, Kang; Kanade, Takeo; Chen, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Image segmentation is essential for many automated microscopy image analysis systems. Rather than treating microscopy images as general natural images and rushing into the image processing warehouse for solutions, we propose to study a microscope's optical properties to model its image formation process first using phase contrast microscopy as an exemplar. It turns out that the phase contrast imaging system can be relatively well explained by a linear imaging model. Using this model, we formulate a quadratic optimization function with sparseness and smoothness regularizations to restore the "authentic" phase contrast images that directly correspond to specimen's optical path length without phase contrast artifacts such as halo and shade-off. With artifacts removed, high quality segmentation can be achieved by simply thresholding the restored images. The imaging model and restoration method are quantitatively evaluated on two sequences with thousands of cells captured over several days.

  8. Understanding oxide interfaces: From microscopic imaging to electronic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilani, Shahal

    2014-03-01

    In the last decade, the advent of complex oxide interfaces has unleashed a wealth of new possibilities to create materials with unexpected functionalities. A notable example is the two-dimensional electron system formed at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (LAO/STO), which exhibits ferromagnetism, superconductivity, and a wide range of unique magneto-transport properties. A key challenge is to find the microscopic mechanisms that underlie these emergent phenomena. While there is a growing understanding that these phenomena might reflect rich structures at the micro-scale, experimental progress toward microscopic imaging of this system has been so far rather limited due to the buried nature of its interface. In this talk I will discuss our experiments that study this system on microscopic and macroscopic scales. Using a newly-developed nanotube-based scanning electrometer we image on the nanoscale the electrostatics and mechanics of this buried interface. We reveal the dynamics of structural domains in STO, their role in generating the contested anomalous piezoelectricity of this substrate, and their direct effects on the physics of the interface electrons. Using macroscopic magneto-transport experiments we demonstrate that a universal Lifshitz transition between the population of d-orbitals with different symmetries underlies many of the transport phenomena observed to date. We further show that the interactions between the itinerant electrons and localized spins leads to an unusual, gate-tunable magnetic phase diagram. These measurements highlight the unique physical settings that can be realized within this new class of low dimensional systems.

  9. Understanding the Social Basis of Adolescent Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholt, L. J.

    It is apparent from current research and professional experience that body image has a strong social basis, but the form of such comparisons is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine likely forms of the social basis of adolescent body image. This study compares two approaches to the social basis of body image to ask to what extent…

  10. SpaceTime Environmental Image Information for Scene Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    framework for real-time foreground detection . J Real-Time Image Process . 2015;10:423–433. 36. Tu Z, Zheng A, Yang E, Luo B, Hussain A. A biologically...important to incorporate space- and time-varying environmental image information from the very beginning of the data collection process so that the recorded...of Congress), and c) nuclear power plant , Bushehr, Iran (photo courtesy of Behrouz Mehri/AFP/Getty Images

  11. Understanding Measurements Returned by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel Parke; Criscuoli, Serena

    2014-06-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observes the Sun at the FeI 6173 Å line and returns full disk maps of line-of-sight observables including the magnetic field flux, FeI line width, line depth, and continuum intensity. To properly interpret such data it is important to understand any issues with the HMI and the pipeline that produces these observables. At this aim, HMI data were analyzed at both daily intervals for a span of 3 years at disk center in the quiet Sun and hourly intervals for a span of 200 hours around an active region. Systematic effects attributed to issues with instrument adjustments and re-calibrations, variations in the transmission filters and the orbital velocities of the SDO were found while the actual physical evolutions of such observables were difficult to determine. Velocities and magnetic flux measurements are less affected, as the aforementioned effects are partially compensated for by the HMI algorithm; the other observables are instead affected by larger uncertainties. In order to model these uncertainties, the HMI pipeline was tested with synthetic spectra generated through various 1D atmosphere models with radiative transfer code (the RH code). It was found that HMI estimates of line width, line depth, and continuum intensity are highly dependent on the shape of the line, and therefore highly dependent on the line-of-sight angle and the magnetic field associated to the model. The best estimates are found for Quiet regions at disk center, for which the relative differences between theoretical and HMI algorithm values are 6-8% for line width, 10-15% for line depth, and 0.1-0.2% for continuum intensity. In general, the relative difference between theoretical values and HMI estimates increases toward the limb and with the increase of the field; the HMI algorithm seems to fail in regions with fields larger than ~2000 G. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory

  12. A neural network approach to MR and CT image understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramella, D.; Poli, R.; Rucci, M.; Valli, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems usually faced in the development of automatic systems for MR and CT image analysis are briefly discussed. Afterward, an approach based on the integration of artificial neural networks and computer vision techniques which should be capable of overcoming the encountered difficulties is described. According to this approach, a system for the construction of 3D descriptions of the organs as imaged by MR or CT slice sequences has been developed. The architecture and preliminary results of this system are reported. (orig.) [de

  13. How do you define body image? Exploring conceptual gaps in understandings of body image at an exercise facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    The definition of body image has evolved within research; however, less is known about the layperson's understanding of the construct. This study explored how members and student trainees of an exercise facility (designed for older adults, people with physical disability, and those with cardiac complications) defined body image. Nineteen participants completed a one-on-one interview, and seven of those participants took part in six additional focus group meetings. The following main themes were found: stereotypical assumptions about body image (e.g., it is solely a person's weight or merely a woman's issue), body image continua for positive and negative body image, degree of complexity of body image dimensions, broad considerations of body image (e.g., it is self-esteem), and limited knowledge about body image. These findings suggest a need for knowledge translation between researchers and the general public which informs future body image program design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiphoton imaging: a view to understanding sulfur mustard lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werrlein, Robert J. S.; Madren-Whalley, Janna S.

    2003-07-01

    It is well known that topical exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) produces persistent, incapacitating blisters of the skin. However, the primary lesions effecting epidermal-dermal separation and disabling of mechanisms for cutaneous repair remain uncertain. Immunofluorescent staining plus multiphoton imaging of human epidermal tissues and keratinocytes exposed to SM (400 μM x 5 min)have revealed that SM disrupts adhesion-complex molecules which are also disrupted by epidermolysis bullosa-type blistering diseases of the skin. Images of keratin-14 showed early, progressive, postexposure collapse of the K5/K14 cytoskeleton that resulted in ventral displacement of the nuclei beneath its collapsing filaments. This effectively corrupted the dynamic filament assemblies that link basal-cell nuclei to the extracellular matrix via α6β4-integrin and laminin-5. At 1 h postexposure, there was disruption in the surface organization of α6β4 integrins, associated displacement of laminin-5 anchoring sites and a concomitant loss of functional asymmetry. Accordingly, our multiphoton images are providing compelling evidence that SM induces prevesicating lesions that disrupt the receptor-ligand organization and cytoskeletal systems required for maintaining dermal-epidermal attachment, signal transduction, and polarized mobility.

  15. CaII Κ Imaging to Understand UV Irradiance Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... To identify and understand the underlying physical mechanisms of total solar and UV irradiance variability and to estimate the contribution of various chromospheric features to UV irradiance, detailed analysis of spatially resolved data is required. The various chromospheric features have been segregated ...

  16. Understanding robustness as an image of sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The general aim of the research described in this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the conceptualisation of robustness in agricultural science as well as its relevance to sustainability. Robustness rapidly gained attention as a potential solution for a variety of

  17. Understanding robustness as an image of sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de D.M.

    2014-01-01

      The general aim of the research described in this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the conceptualisation of robustness in agricultural science as well as its relevance to sustainability. Robustness rapidly gained attention as a potential solution for a variety of problems

  18. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  19. Understanding the Cryosphere of Europa Using Imaging Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, D. L.; Green, R. O.; Hibbitts, C.; Clark, R. N.; Dalton, J. B.; Davies, A. G.; Langevin, Y.; Hedman, M.; Lunine, J. I.; McCord, T. B.; Murchie, S. L.; Paranicas, C.; Seelos, F. P.; Soderblom, J. M.; Diniega, S.

    2017-12-01

    Europa's surface expresses a complex interplay of geologic processes driven by the ocean beneath the cryosphere that are subsequently modified by the Jovian environment once exposed on the surface. Several recent Earth-based observations of Europa's tenuous atmosphere suggest that there may in fact be active plumes [1,2,3]. However, the frequency and the duration of activity at any specific location cannot be precisely determined by these observations, but could be with spacecraft observations. For instance, recently active areas on Europa from plumes or other processes may result in distinctive spectral signatures on the surface. Possible spectral signatures that may indicate recent activity include: differences in ice grain size or ice crystallinity; the lack of radiolytic signatures (e.g. a deficit in species due to implantation, radiation darkening of salts, degradation of organic compounds); and thermal anomalies. The Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE) on NASA's Europa Clipper Mission will be able to map these species thus enabling the identification of these deposits and other young and/or least processed areas. These signatures may also enable a relative geochronology for Europa to be developed. For example, recent work by Proctor et al [4] finds that bands of different stratigraphic ages have different spectral features potentially due to radiation effects on the deposits. We will explore borrowing analyses techniques from earth observing missions of the Arctic. On Earth, data from the Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Next Generation (AVRIS-NG) (https://avirisng.jpl.nasa.gov/aviris-ng.html) is being used to explore Earth's cryosphere. AVRIS-NG data collected from the Greenland ice sheet and high latitude sea ice is being used to map of key ice properties such as grain size and contaminants. These data and processing approaches will be used to explore and validate imaging spectroscopy approaches which MISE might use on Europa.

  20. Hypercube algorithms suitable for image understanding in uncertain environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntsberger, T.L.; Sengupta, A.

    1988-01-01

    Computer vision in a dynamic environment needs to be fast and able to tolerate incomplete or uncertain intermediate results. An appropriately chose representation coupled with a parallel architecture addresses both concerns. The wide range of numerical and symbolic processing needed for robust computer vision can only be achieved through a blend of SIMD and MIMD processing techniques. The 1024 element hypercube architecture has these capabilities, and was chosen as the test-bed hardware for development of highly parallel computer vision algorithms. This paper presents and analyzes parallel algorithms for color image segmentation and edge detection. These algorithms are part of a recently developed computer vision system which uses multiple valued logic to represent uncertainty in the imaging process and in intermediate results. Algorithms for the extraction of three dimensional properties of objects using dynamic scene analysis techniques within the same framework are examined. Results from experimental studies using a 1024 element hypercube implementation of the algorithm as applied to a series of natural scenes are reported

  1. Pyramidal Normalization Filter: Visual Model With Applications To Image Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, P. S.; Unangst, D. R.; Knaak, T. F.; Huntley, D. T.; Patterson, W. R.

    1982-12-01

    This paper introduces a new nonlinear filter model which has applications in low-level machine vision. We show that this model, which we designate the normalization filter, is the basis for non-directional, multiple spatial frequency channel resolved detection of image edge structure. We show that the results obtained in this procedure are in close correspondence to the zero-crossing sets of the Marr-Hildreth edge detector.6 By comparison to their model, ours has the additional feature of constant-contrast thresholding, viz., it is spatially brightness adaptive. We describe a highly efficient and flexible realization of the normalization filter based on Burt's algorithm for pyramidal filtering.18 We present illustrative experimental results that we have obtained with a computer implementation of this filter design.

  2. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Way, Baldwin M; Jasinska, Agnes J

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.

  3. Understanding earthquakes: The key role of radar images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzori, Simone, E-mail: simone.atzori@ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-21

    The investigation of the fault rupture underlying earthquakes greatly improved thanks to the spread of radar images. Following pioneer applications in the eighties, Interferometry from Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) gained a prominent role in geodesy. Its capability to measure millimetric deformations for wide areas and the increased data availability from the early nineties, made InSAR a diffused and accepted analysis tool in tectonics, though several factors contribute to reduce the data quality. With the introduction of analytical or numerical modeling, InSAR maps are used to infer the source of an earthquake by means of data inversion. Newly developed algorithms, known as InSAR time-series, allowed to further improve the data accuracy and completeness, strengthening the InSAR contribution even in the study of the inter- and post-seismic phases. In this work we describe the rationale at the base of the whole processing, showing its application to the New Zealand 2010–2011 seismic sequence.

  4. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eFalk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both, which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.

  5. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions. PMID:22701416

  6. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmink, Jan T.

    2010-01-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  7. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmink, Jan T. [University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. Radiology

    2010-07-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  8. A novel polar-based human face recognition computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by a recently proposed biologically inspired face recognition approach, we investigated the relation between human behavior and a computational model based on Fourier-Bessel (FB spatial patterns. We measured human recognition performance of FB filtered face images using an 8-alternative forced-choice method. Test stimuli were generated by converting the images from the spatial to the FB domain, filtering the resulting coefficients with a band-pass filter, and finally taking the inverse FB transformation of the filtered coefficients. The performance of the computational models was tested using a simulation of the psychophysical experiment. In the FB model, face images were first filtered by simulated V1- type neurons and later analyzed globally for their content of FB components. In general, there was a higher human contrast sensitivity to radially than to angularly filtered images, but both functions peaked at the 11.3-16 frequency interval. The FB-based model presented similar behavior with regard to peak position and relative sensitivity, but had a wider frequency band width and a narrower response range. The response pattern of two alternative models, based on local FB analysis and on raw luminance, strongly diverged from the human behavior patterns. These results suggest that human performance can be constrained by the type of information conveyed by polar patterns, and consequently that humans might use FB-like spatial patterns in face processing.

  9. Understanding God images and God concepts: Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Counted

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent�child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns. The article points out that insecure God images often develop head-to-head with God concepts in a believer�s emotional experience of God. On the other hand, the author describes God concepts as indicators of a religious faith and metaphorical standards for regulating insecure attachment patterns. The goals of this article, however, is to highlight the relationship between God images and God concepts, and to provide a hermeneutical process for interpreting and surviving the God image experience.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Given that most scholars within the discipline of Practical Theology discuss the subject of God images from cultural and theological perspectives, this article has discussed God images from an attachment perspective, which is a popular framework in psychology of religion. This is rare. The study is therefore interdisciplinary in this regards. The article further helps the reader to understand the intrapsychic process of the God image experience, and thus provides us with hermeneutical answers for dealing with the God image experience from methodologies grounded in Practical Theology and pastoral care.

  10. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T; Mancini, R C; Mayes, D; Tommasini, R; Florido, R

    2015-11-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ∼6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ∼10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application.

  11. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Mayes, D.; Tommasini, R.; Florido, R.

    2015-11-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ˜6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ˜10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application.

  12. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Mayes, D.; Tommasini, R.; Florido, R.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ∼6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ∼10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application

  13. 3D lidar imaging for detecting and understanding plant responses and canopy structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omasa, Kenji; Hosoi, Fumiki; Konishi, Atsumi

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and diagnosing plant responses to stress will benefit greatly from three-dimensional (3D) measurement and analysis of plant properties because plant responses are strongly related to their 3D structures. Light detection and ranging (lidar) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for direct 3D measurement of plant structure. Here the use of 3D lidar imaging to estimate plant properties such as canopy height, canopy structure, carbon stock, and species is demonstrated, and plant growth and shape responses are assessed by reviewing the development of lidar systems and their applications from the leaf level to canopy remote sensing. In addition, the recent creation of accurate 3D lidar images combined with natural colour, chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflectance index, and leaf temperature images is demonstrated, thereby providing information on responses of pigments, photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal opening, and shape to environmental stresses; these data can be integrated with 3D images of the plants using computer graphics techniques. Future lidar applications that provide more accurate dynamic estimation of various plant properties should improve our understanding of plant responses to stress and of interactions between plants and their environment. Moreover, combining 3D lidar with other passive and active imaging techniques will potentially improve the accuracy of airborne and satellite remote sensing, and make it possible to analyse 3D information on ecophysiological responses and levels of various substances in agricultural and ecological applications and in observations of the global biosphere.

  14. Do brain image databanks support understanding of normal ageing brain structure? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, David Alexander; Job, Dominic E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Poole, Ian; Ahearn, Trevor S.; Staff, Roger T.; Murray, Alison D.

    2012-01-01

    To document accessible magnetic resonance (MR) brain images, metadata and statistical results from normal older subjects that may be used to improve diagnoses of dementia. We systematically reviewed published brain image databanks (print literature and Internet) concerned with normal ageing brain structure. From nine eligible databanks, there appeared to be 944 normal subjects aged ≥60 years. However, many subjects were in more than one databank and not all were fully representative of normal ageing clinical characteristics. Therefore, there were approximately 343 subjects aged ≥60 years with metadata representative of normal ageing, but only 98 subjects were openly accessible. No databank had the range of MR image sequences, e.g. T2*, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), required to effectively characterise the features of brain ageing. No databank supported random subject retrieval; therefore, manual selection bias and errors may occur in studies that use these subjects as controls. Finally, no databank stored results from statistical analyses of its brain image and metadata that may be validated with analyses of further data. Brain image databanks require open access, more subjects, metadata, MR image sequences, searchability and statistical results to improve understanding of normal ageing brain structure and diagnoses of dementia. (orig.)

  15. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Nathoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  16. There's a World Going on Underground: Imaging Technologies to Understand Root Growth Dynamics and Rhizosphere Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, C. N.

    2016-12-01

    Our ability to harness the power of plant genomics for basic and applied science depends on how well and how fast we can quantify the phenotypic ramifications of genetic variation. Plants can be considered from many vantage points: at scales from cells to organs, over the course of development or evolution, and from biophysical, physiological, and ecological perspectives. In all of these ways, our understanding of plant form and function is greatly limited by our ability to study subterranean structures and processes. The limitations to accessing this knowledge are well known - soil is opaque, roots are morphologically complex, and root growth can be heavily influenced by a myriad of environmental factors. Nonetheless, recent technological innovations in imaging science have generated a renewed focus on roots and thus new opportunities to understand the plant as a whole. The Topp Lab is interested in crop root system growth dynamics and function in response to environmental stresses such as drought, rhizosphere interactions, and as a consequence of artificial selection for agronomically important traits such as nitrogen uptake and high plant density. Studying roots requires the development of imaging technologies, computational infrastructure, and statistical methods that can capture and analyze morphologically complex networks over time and at high-throughput. The lab uses several imaging tools (optical, X-ray CT, PET, etc.) along with quantitative genetics and molecular biology to understand the dynamics of root growth and physiology. We aim to understand the relationships among root traits that can be effectively measured both in controlled laboratory environments and in the field, and to identify genes and gene networks that control root, and ultimately whole plant architectural features useful for crop improvement.

  17. Theoretical-methodological approach to social imaginary and collective representations: Notes for a sociological understanding of image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eliécer Martínez Posada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of social imaginaries and collective representations from a sociological perspective involves agencying interpretative exercises of image reconstruction, whether mental or pictorial images. Thus, the theoretical path followed in this text points to the understanding of social imaginaries and collective representations, as knowledge tradition socially constructed, and social images, which become historically symbolic points of reference of social action.

  18. Real-Time G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Imaging to Understand and Quantify Receptor Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Aymerich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and their regulation by agonists and antagonists is fundamental to develop more effective drugs. Optical methods using fluorescent-tagged receptors and spinning disk confocal microscopy are useful tools to investigate membrane receptor dynamics in living cells. The aim of this study was to develop a method to characterize receptor dynamics using this system which offers the advantage of very fast image acquisition with minimal cell perturbation. However, in short-term assays photobleaching was still a problem. Thus, we developed a procedure to perform a photobleaching-corrected image analysis. A study of short-term dynamics of the long isoform of the dopamine type 2 receptor revealed an agonist-induced increase in the mobile fraction of receptors with a rate of movement of 0.08 μm/s For long-term assays, the ratio between the relative fluorescence intensity at the cell surface versus that in the intracellular compartment indicated that receptor internalization only occurred in cells co-expressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. These results indicate that the lateral movement of receptors and receptor internalization are not directly coupled. Thus, we believe that live imaging of GPCRs using spinning disk confocal image analysis constitutes a powerful tool to study of receptor dynamics.

  19. The Weight of Things: Understanding African American Women's Perceptions of Health, Body Image, and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Nicole Ola; Muldrow, Adrienne Fayola; Stefani, Whitney

    2018-01-01

    Negative attitudes toward being overweight or obese are widespread, and these notions perpetuate into conceptions about one's health. Clinically, being overweight is associated with health problems such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and many other illnesses. African American women, who are generally larger in body size, are a particular target for health interventions. However, these women have resisted the "obesity" label, arguing that dominant measures of health are White norms and oppressive. Through the use of in-depth interviews, this study investigates how African American women understand and experience healthfulness, body image, and barriers to each. Findings show that African American women are ambivalent in their acceptance of dominant markers of health and expressed an almost universal disdain for the thin ideal as a marker of "good" health and a positive body image. Moreover, participants articulated a suspicion of formal medical measurements of obesity.

  20. Image Understanding. Proceedings of a Workshop Held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on 11-13 September, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    reconstruct the scene and tion), i.e. to understand its own motion from images thus know that the person in the corner is smiling ! and adjust it...move the model globally (e.g., to make the head nod) these rigid objects. We have shown that the accuracy and locally (e.g., to make the face smile ) and...dimensional index space. That way, the twomake an entry at those coordinates in a planar ’index etaDCapa sa neigsaeta a wspace. xtra DOG appear a an i dexing

  1. Toward understanding body image importance: individual differences in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alexander B; Delaney, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between body image importance (BII) and perfectionism and body satisfaction in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students. Specifically, perfectionism was conceptualized as a common cause of BII and body satisfaction. Furthermore, gender-schematic processing was examined as a moderator of sex differences in BII, which have been inconsistently found. As hypothesized, there was no significant partial correlation between BII and body satisfaction, controlling for perfectionism. Also, a significant Sex × Gender Schematicity interaction indicated that gender schematicity moderates sex differences in BII. Implications for understanding individual differences in, and elevated levels of BII are discussed.

  2. Contribution of thermal infrared images on the understanding of the subsurface/atmosphere exchanges on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Teodolina; Antoine, Raphaël; Baratoux, David; Rabinowicz, Michel

    2017-04-01

    High temporal resolution of space-based thermal infrared images (METEOSAT, MODIS) and the development of field thermal cameras have permitted the development of thermal remote sensing in Earth Sciences. Thermal images are influenced by many factors such as atmosphere, solar radiation, topography and physico-chemical properties of the surface. However, considering these limitations, we have discovered that thermal images can be used in order to better understand subsurface hydrology. In order to reduce as much as possible the impact of these perturbing factors, our approach combine 1) field observations and 2) numerical modelling of surface/subsurface thermal processes. Thermal images of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Réunion Island), acquired by hand, show that the Formica Leo inactive scoria cone and some fractures close to the Bory-Dolomieu caldera are always warmer, inducing a thermal difference with the surrounding of at least 5°C and a Self-Potential anomaly [1, 2]. Topography cannot explain this thermal behaviour, but Piton de la Fournaise is known as highly permeable. This fact allows the development of an air convection within the whole permeable structure volcanic edifice [2]. Cold air enters the base of the volcano, and exits warmer upslope, as the air is warmed by the geothermal flow [1,2]. Then, we have decided to understand the interaction between subsurface hydrogeological flows and the humidity in the atmosphere. In the Lake Chad basin, regions on both sides of Lake Chad present a different thermal behaviour during the diurnal cycle and between seasons [3]. We propose that this thermal behaviour can only be explained by lateral variations of the surface permeability that directly impact the process of evaporation/condensation cycle. These studies bring new highlights on the understanding of the exchanges between subsurface and the atmosphere, as the presence of a very permeable media and/or variations of the surface permeability may enhance or

  3. Polarization-based all-optical logic operations in volume holographic photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengmingyue; Cao, Liangcai; Li, Jingming; Wang, Zheng; Jin, Guofan

    2014-11-01

    Polarization-based all-optical logic operations were realized with dual-channel polarization holographic recording system. The polarization property of 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone-doped poly-methyl methacrylate (PQ/PMMA) photopolymer is investigated experimentally. To accurately represent the optical operations, the diffraction efficiency of parallel and orthogonal polarization recording in PQ/PMMA with the thickness of 1 mm are characterized for holographic recording and reconstruction process. A dual-channel polarization holographic recording system is set up for simultaneously recording two input pages. By changing the polarization state of the diffraction beam, all-optical logic OR and NAND operations are realized in the volume holograms. The polarization-based all-optical logic operations in the volume holographic photopolymer may pave a way for practical all-optical logic devices with high speed and large information capacity.

  4. Great circle solution to polarization-based quantum communication (QC) in optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Hughes, Richard John

    2016-03-15

    Birefringence in optical fibers is compensated by applying polarization modulation at a receiver. Polarization modulation is applied so that a transmitted optical signal has states of polarization (SOPs) that are equally spaced on the Poincare sphere. Fiber birefringence encountered in propagation between a transmitter and a receiver rotates the great circle on the Poincare sphere that represents the polarization bases used for modulation. By adjusting received polarizations, polarization components of the received optical signal can be directed to corresponding detectors for decoding, regardless of the magnitude and orientation of the fiber birefringence. A transmitter can be configured to transmit in conjugate polarization bases whose SOPs can be represented as equidistant points on a great circle so that the received SOPs are mapped to equidistant points on a great circle and routed to corresponding detectors.

  5. UNDERSTANDING AND PERCEPTION OF THE CHARACTER IMAGE BY PRIMARY SCHOOLCHILDREN IN THE PROCESS OF TEXT INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Hnatenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern literature research works practically assert that literature is a way of thinking in imagery, and the interpretation of art works is almost always the interpretation of imagery, in other words perfect reality. Psychologists confirm that educational process in primary school should be formed on the account of both present and potential abilities of the children. Literature is an important means of pupils’ development. Reading in grades 1 − 4 promotes the development of children’s positive moral and will-power qualitie. With its help children perceive the world, learn to understand and love beautiful things. The writer’s ideological content of a piece of literature can be revealed in images. The main objective of text interpretation in grades 1 − 4 is to promote pupils’ perception and comprehension. Nowadays the changes in educational sphere require more attention to the issue of literary perception. In 2011, primary school changed the training course of "Reading" into "Literary reading," which aims at the development of the following reader’s qualities: to be capable to independent reading,to perform different communicative and creative activities. However, the educational process observation showed the existence of problems in young learners’ perception and understanding of literary art, and especially the role of character and its images. Today, the methodology pays attention to the quality of the perception, its depth and awareness. The efficiency level of children’s literary work perception is set on the analysis of readers’ activity results. Difficulties in the determination of the literary work perception level lie in various interpretations, complexity of the perception process, necessity to reflect different sides and emotions of imagination and thinking. Many scientific works are devoted to the analysis of literary texts understanding, to the role of visual images and imagination in literary text understanding

  6. Imaging lymphoid tissues in nonhuman primates to understand SIV pathogenesis and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleage, Claire; Turkbey, Baris; Estes, Jacob D

    2016-08-01

    CD4+ T cells are the primary HIV-1 target cell, with the vast majority of these cells residing within lymphoid tissue compartments throughout the body. Predictably, HIV-1 infection, replication, localization, reservoir establishment and persistence, as well as associated host immune and inflammatory responses and disease pathology principally take place within the tissues of the immune system. By virture of the fact that the virus-host struggle is played out within lymphoid and additional tissues compartments in HIV-1 infected individuals it is critical to understand HIV-1 infection and disease within these relevant tissue sites; however, there are obvious limitations to studying these dynamic processes in humans. Nonhuman primate (NHP) research has provided a vital bridge between basic and preclinical research and clinical studies, with experimental SIV infection of NHP models offering unique opportunities to understand key processes of HIV-1 infection and disease that are either not practically feasible or ethical in HIV-1 infected humans. In this review we will discuss current approaches to studying the tissue based immunopathogenesis of AIDS virus infection in NHPs, including both analyses of tissues obtained at biopsy or necropsy and complementary non-invasive imaging approaches that may have practical utility in monitoring HIV-1 disease in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding the phase contrast optics to restore artifact-free microscopy images for segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhaozheng; Kanade, Takeo; Chen, Mei

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast, a noninvasive microscopy imaging technique, is widely used to capture time-lapse images to monitor the behavior of transparent cells without staining or altering them. Due to the optical principle, phase contrast microscopy images contain artifacts such as the halo and shade-off that hinder image segmentation, a critical step in automated microscopy image analysis. Rather than treating phase contrast microscopy images as general natural images and applying generic image processing techniques on them, we propose to study the optical properties of the phase contrast microscope to model its image formation process. The phase contrast imaging system can be approximated by a linear imaging model. Based on this model and input image properties, we formulate a regularized quadratic cost function to restore artifact-free phase contrast images that directly correspond to the specimen's optical path length. With artifacts removed, high quality segmentation can be achieved by simply thresholding the restored images. The imaging model and restoration method are quantitatively evaluated on microscopy image sequences with thousands of cells captured over several days. We also demonstrate that accurate restoration lays the foundation for high performance in cell detection and tracking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel 3D imaging techniques for improved understanding of planetary surface geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jan-Peter

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the role of different planetary surface formation processes within our Solar System is one of the fundamental goals of planetary science research. There has been a revolution in planetary surface observations over the past decade for Mars and the Moon, especially in 3D imaging of surface shape (down to resolutions of 75cm) and subsequent correction for terrain relief of imagery from orbiting and co-registration of lander and rover robotic images. We present some of the recent highlights including 3D modelling of surface shape from the ESA Mars Express HRSC (High Resolution Stereo Camera), see [1], [2] at 30-100m grid-spacing; and then co-registered to HRSC using a resolution cascade of 20m DTMs from NASA MRO stereo-CTX and 0.75m DTMs from MRO stereo-HiRISE [3]. This has opened our eyes to the formation mechanisms of megaflooding events, such as the formation of Iani Vallis and the upstream blocky terrain, to crater lakes and receding valley cuts [4]. A comparable set of products is now available for the Moon from LROC-WA at 100m [5] and LROC-NA at 1m [6]. Recently, a very novel technique for the super-resolution restoration (SRR) of stacks of images has been developed at UCL [7]. First examples shown will be of the entire MER-A Spirit rover traverse taking a stack of 25cm HiRISE to generate a corridor of SRR images along the rover traverse of 5cm imagery of unresolved features such as rocks, created as a consequence of meteoritic bombardment, ridge and valley features. This SRR technique will allow us for ˜400 areas on Mars (where 5 or more HiRISE images have been captured) and similar numbers on the Moon to resolve sub-pixel features. Examples will be shown of how these SRR images can be employed to assist with the better understanding of surface geomorphology. Acknowledgements: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under PRoViDE grant agreement n° 312377

  9. I'm sorry to say, but your understanding of image processing fundamentals is absolutely wrong

    OpenAIRE

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I have proposed a few ideas that are entirely new and therefore might look suspicious. All the novelties come as a natural extension of a new definition of information that is sequentially applied to various aspects of image processing. The most important innovation is positing information image processing as the prime mode of image processing (in contrast to traditionally dominant data image processing). The next novelty is the dissociation between physical and semantic inform...

  10. Understanding by seeing before treating: present and future of medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentourkia, M'hamed

    2012-10-01

    In the last three decades, the development of medical imaging gave a burst to modern medicine. A considerable budget has been affected to develop and equip departments of radiology, nuclear medicine, medical imaging, radiotherapy, and emergency services. Several imaging installations have become intensively and exclusively used by the clinic where most of the imaging exams are performed for diagnoses, while for other imaging installations, the time of usage is shared between the clinical and research departments. However, very few centers restrain their installations to the research groups only,as their budgets are not sufficient to maintain the devices. The increase in medical imaging demand is mainly attributed to: (1) the drastic increase in the technology of electronic and computing sciences, which has made the imaging devices efficient and easy to operate, and (2) to the public and private insurers who consent the reimbursement of the imaging fees for some determined medical exams. Because the imaging modalities are based on different physical properties, they can be used individually, complementary but distinctly, or jointly. Despite their beneficial contribution, the imaging devices should be used with care as they can provoke undesirable effects. The future of the imaging technologies is, a priori, to exploit the full potential of the actual instruments, to target experiments at the molecular level, and to be able to monitor a biological phenomenon at its time of occurrence. In this paper,rapid overview and perspectives are proposed as the field of medical imaging is vast and encompasses several domains of knowledge.

  11. Understanding patient beliefs regarding the use of imaging in the management of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H J; Hancock, M J; Maher, C G; French, S D; Magnussen, J S

    2016-04-01

    Imaging for low back pain (LBP) remains common despite guidelines recommending against routine imaging. Patient beliefs about imaging may contribute to the problem. This study aimed to quantitatively investigate patient beliefs regarding the need for imaging in managing LBP and to investigate whether personal characteristics, pain characteristics or back pain beliefs are associated with imaging beliefs. A survey was performed of consecutive patients presenting to general medical practitioners in Sydney, Australia. Nine medical clinics were selected across varied socioeconomic regions. Survey questions assessed beliefs about the importance of imaging for LBP, collected demographic information, LBP history and general beliefs about back pain. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyse findings. Three hundred completed surveys were collected with a 79.6% response rate. The mean age was 44 years and 60.7% of respondents were women. Exactly, 54.3% (95% CI: 48.7-58.9%) believed that imaging was necessary for the best medical care for LBP. Exactly, 48.0% (95% CI: 42.4-53.6%) believed that everyone with LBP should obtain imaging. Increased age, lower education level, non-European or non-Anglo-saxon cultural background, history of previous imaging and Back Beliefs Questionnaire scores were associated with beliefs that imaging was necessary. Approximately, half of all patients presenting to a medical doctor consider low back imaging to be necessary. This may have important implications for overutilization of low back imaging investigations. Knowledge of the factors associated with the patient's belief that imaging is necessary may be helpful in designing appropriate interventions to reduce unnecessary imaging for LBP. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  12. Understanding everyday life of morbidly obese adults-habits and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørg Christiansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morbid obesity is a progressive, chronic condition associated with failed attempts at change and repeated relapses. Aim: There seems to be little previous research into the understanding of the everyday life of morbidly obese adults. We wanted to gain more knowledge about characteristics of eating habits and body image as well as motivational forces for change. Methods: A qualitative approach was chosen in order to gain insight into how morbidly obese adults experience everyday life. Qualitative interviews are well suited to provide insight into themes from the interviewee's life story from the subjects’ own perspectives. To gain insight into such processes, a narrative approach that allowed the informants to give voice to their ways of doing, thinking and feeling in daily life, was adopted. The informants comprised seven women and four men aged of 26–56 years, recruited from a population of obese individuals who had participated in a weight reduction course. A hermeneutic approach was used where the research question was the basis for a reflective interpretation. Results: The following meaning-units were identified: to be perceived as overweight; and to see oneself as overweight. Ingrained habits: the struggle between knowing and doing; acting without knowing; and eating is soothing. Conclusions: Seeing oneself as an obese person is a gradual process that implied experiencing oneself as different from significant others, such as (slim siblings and friends. To experience a gap between knowing and doing concerning food habits in everyday life indicates that informants value they have a choice. This is an important insight to consider when framing interventions to support this vulnerable group.

  13. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  14. An image-processing method to detect sub-optical features based on understanding noise in intensity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Tripta

    2018-02-01

    Accurate quantitative analysis of image data requires that we distinguish between fluorescence intensity (true signal) and the noise inherent to its measurements to the extent possible. We image multilamellar membrane tubes and beads that grow from defects in the fluid lamellar phase of the lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine dissolved in water and water-glycerol mixtures by using fluorescence confocal polarizing microscope. We quantify image noise and determine the noise statistics. Understanding the nature of image noise also helps in optimizing image processing to detect sub-optical features, which would otherwise remain hidden. We use an image-processing technique "optimum smoothening" to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of features of interest without smearing their structural details. A high SNR renders desired positional accuracy with which it is possible to resolve features of interest with width below optical resolution. Using optimum smoothening, the smallest and the largest core diameter detected is of width [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] nm, respectively, discussed in this paper. The image-processing and analysis techniques and the noise modeling discussed in this paper can be used for detailed morphological analysis of features down to sub-optical length scales that are obtained by any kind of fluorescence intensity imaging in the raster mode.

  15. Understanding the Morphological Mismatch between Magnetic Susceptibility Source and T2 Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose Recent research has shown that a T2 * image (either magnitude or phase is not identical to the internal spatial distribution of a magnetic susceptibility (χ source. In this paper, we examine the reasons behind these differences by looking into the insights of T2 * -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2 * MRI and provide numerical characterizations of the source/image mismatches by numerical simulations. Methods For numerical simulations of T2 * MRI, we predefine a 3D χ source and calculate the complex-valued T2 * image by intravoxel dephasing in presence and absence of diffusion. We propose an empirical α-power model to describe the overall source/image transformation. For a Gaussian-shaped χ source, we numerically characterize the source/image morphological mismatch in terms of spatial correlation and FWHM (full width at half maximum. Results In theory, we show that the χ-induced fieldmap is morphologically different from the χ source due to dipole effect, and the T2 * magnitude image is related to the fieldmap by a quadratic transformation in the small phase angle regime, which imposes an additional morphological change. The numerical simulations with a Gaussian-shaped χ source show that a T2 * magnitude image may suffer an overall source/image morphological shrinkage of 20% to 25% and that the T2 * phase image is almost identical to the fieldmap thus maintaining a morphological mismatch from the χ source due to dipole effect. Conclusion The morphological mismatch between a bulk χ source and its T2 * image is caused by the 3D convolution during tissue magnetization (dipole effect, the nonlinearity of the T2 * magnitude and phase calculation, and the spin diffusion effect. In the small phase angle regime, the T2 * magnitude exhibits an overall morphological shrinkage, and the T2 * phase image suffers a dipole effect but maintains the χ-induced fieldmap morphology.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of athletic pubalgia and the sports hernia: current understanding and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Waseem; Zoga, Adam C; Meyers, William C

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard imaging modality for activity-related groin pain. Lesions, including rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury and osteitis pubis, can be accurately identified and delineated in patients with clinical conditions termed athletic pubalgia, core injury, and sports hernia. A dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia MRI protocol is easy to implement and should be available at musculoskeletal MR imaging centers. This article will review pubic anatomy, imaging considerations, specific lesions, and common MRI findings encountered in the setting of musculoskeletal groin pain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding Appearance-Enhancing Drug Use in Sport Using an Enactive Approach to Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauw, Denis; Bilard, Jean

    2017-01-01

    From an enactive approach to human activity, we suggest that the use of appearance-enhancing drugs is better explained by the sense-making related to body image rather than the cognitive evaluation of social norms about appearance and consequent psychopathology-oriented approach. After reviewing the main psychological disorders thought to link body image issues to the use of appearance-enhancing substances, we sketch a flexible, dynamic and embedded account of body image defined as the individual's propensity to act and experience in specific situations. We show how this enacted body image is a complex process of sense-making that people engage in when they are trying to adapt to specific situations. These adaptations of the enacted body image require effort, perseverance and time, and therefore any substance that accelerates this process appears to be an easy and attractive solution. In this enactive account of body image, we underline that the link between the enacted body image and substance use is also anchored in the history of the body's previous interactions with the world. This emerges during periods of upheaval and hardship, especially in a context where athletes experience weak participatory sense-making in a sport community. We conclude by suggesting prevention and intervention designs that would promote a safe instrumental use of the body in sports and psychological helping procedures for athletes experiencing difficulties with substances use and body image.

  18. Application of a Relational Model to Understanding Body Image in College Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Ryan, William J.; Pierce, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Relational cultural theory was examined in relation to body image in two samples of college women (n = 102) and men (n = 78) from a Midwestern university. Participants completed measures of mutuality and body image satisfaction. Results revealed that low mutuality with mothers and fathers predicted body dissatisfaction in both men and women, and…

  19. [Understanding depressive symptoms after bariatric surgery: the role of weight, eating and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Paula; Bastos, Ana Pinto; Venâncio, Carla; Vaz, Ana Rita; Brandão, Isabel; Costa, José Maia; Machado, Paulo; Conceição, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms have been reported as prevalent after bariatric surgery. This study aims to analyze the role of weight, eating behaviors and body image in depressive symptomatology in bariatric surgery patients assessed post-operatively. This is a cross-sectional study including 52 bariatric surgery patients assessed post-operatively with a follow-up time ranging from 22 to 132 months. Psychological assessment included a clinical interview (Eating Disorder Examination) to assess eating disorders psychopathology, and three self-report measures: Outcome Questionnaire 45--general distress; Beck Depression Inventory--depressive symptoms; and Body Shape Questionnaire--body image. Our data show that depressive symptoms after surgery are associated with loss of control over eating, increased concerns with body image, and body mass index regain. Multiple linear regressions was tested including these variables and showed that body mass index regain after surgery, loss of control over eating and concerns with body image significantly explained 50% of the variance of post-operative depressive symptoms, being the concern with body image the most significant variable: greater dissatisfaction with body image was associated with more depressive symptoms. The results of this study showed that a subgroup of patients presents a significant weight gain after bariatric surgery, which is associated with episodes of loss of control over eating, concerns with body image and depressive symptoms. These results stress the relevance of body image concerns after surgery and the importance of clinically addressing these issues to optimize psychological functioning after bariatric surgery.

  20. Understanding God images and God concepts : Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Agina Victor

    2015-01-01

    The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent–child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns.

  1. Polarity-based separation and chemical characterization of fast pyrolysis bio-oil from poultry litter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Bingji; Agblevor, Foster A.

    2014-01-01

    140 g Poultry litter pyrolysis oils (PL oils) were separated into four fractions using polarity based fractionation method. Four solvents of increasing polarity (hexane < toluene < chloroform < methanol) were used to sequentially fractionate the PL oil into four fractions (hexane fraction, toluene fraction, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction). The mass of hexane, toluene, chloroform and methanol fractions was 46 g, 29 g, 48 g and 14 g, respectively. The hexane and toluene fractions had low viscosity, while chloroform fraction was viscous and methanol fraction was almost solid at ambient laboratory conditions. The four PL oil fractions were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry, and their organic elemental composition and higher heating values were also determined. Furthermore, major compounds in the four fractions were isolated by column chromatography. As a result, four compound classes (fatty acids, sterols, phenols and carbohydrates) and eleven major compounds were isolated from these four fractions. Oleic acid was predominant component of the hexane fraction (48.6%). The major component in methanol fraction was 1, 6-anhydro-β-D-glucose (16.7%), but the chloroform fraction had no predominant component. The 1, 6-anhydro-β-D-glucose and other sugar derivatives were water soluble and were selectively removed from the PL oil by water extraction and this subsequently decreased the viscosity of residual PL oil. - Highlights: • PL oil was separated into four fractions using polarity-based fractionation method. • The methanol fraction is a major cause of the high viscosity of the PL oil. • Fatty acids were predominant components of the hexane and toluene fractions. • The major component in methanol fraction was 1, 6-anhydro-glucose

  2. MR imaging observations in head injury and their importance in understanding the pathophysiology of head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, R.I.; Atlas, S.W.; Hackney, D.B.; Goldberg, H.J.; Gomori, J.M.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Alves, W.M.; Gennarelli, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-five patients were imaged with a General Electric 1.5-T Signa MR imager following significant head injury. Seventeen of them had acute head injury (within 10 days of trauma). In none of the acute cases, despite significant alterations in the level of consciousness, was there diffuse cerebral edema (diffuse high intensity on long repetition time [TR], long echo time [TE] images). CT and MR imaging, in some cases, demonstrated what was interpreted as a diffusely swollen brain with loss of normal sulci. These findings suggest that increased blood volume with concomitant loss of cerebral autoregulation, rather than vasogenic edema, is responsible for the diffusely swollen brain imaged with CT or MR. Treatment based on these MR findings should be aimed at decreasing the cerebral blood volume rather than treating of nonexistent diffuse cerebral edema. In 13 patients with longitudinal MR images, improvement was noted in some patients in initially diagnosed diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The focal regions of high intensity on long TR, long TE representing the DAI reverted to isointensity on subsequent images

  3. Image Understanding Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Washington, DC, April 23, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    of the image, including rotation. We then describe a We will propose a reore general measure of image difference, of aereo vision system that uses...maintained. One of the tentative goals of the teatbed project is to develop a transportable and PROJECT PLANS universally duplicable system with...by the contributor for transport to the testbed. )n many * Stereographic reconstructiou cases, this praparation will be sufticiently difficult that

  4. Image Understanding: Proceedings of a Workshop (14th) Held at Arlington, Virginia on 23 June 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    dimension can provide (I) evidence of surface texture anisotrop.v, and (2) an estimate of the perspective texture gradient. Moth capabilities are extremely... Catheters Arteries •.-.■. linurt 9: Experimenial results were obtained for a sequence of way images of a dog s heart...left ventricle, the aorta and some of the coronary arteries. The other obvious Structures in tine images are a couple of catheters left over from

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal marrow: Basic understanding of the normal marrow pattern and its variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab; Eid, Ahmed Fathi

    2015-01-01

    For now, magnetic resonance (MR) is the best noninvasive imaging modality to evaluate vertebral bone marrow thanks to its inherent soft-tissue contrast and non-ionizing nature. A daily challenging scenario for every radiologist interpreting MR of the vertebral column is discerning the diseased from normal marrow. This requires the radiologist to be acquainted with the used MR techniques to judge the spinal marrow as well as its normal MR variants. Conventional sequences used basically to image marrow include T1W, fat-suppressed T2W and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging provides gross morphological data. Interestingly, using non-routine MR sequences; such as opposed phase, diffusion weighted, MR spectroscopy and contrasted-enhanced imaging; may elucidate the nature of bone marrow heterogeneities; by inferring cellular and chemical composition; and adding new functional prospects. Recalling the normal composition of bone marrow elements and the physiologic processes of spinal marrow conversion and reconversion eases basic understanding of spinal marrow imaging. Additionally, orientation with some common variants seen during spinal marrow MR imaging as hemangiomas and bone islands is a must. Moreover, awareness of the age-associated bone marrow changes as well as changes accompanying different variations of the subject’s health state is essential for radiologists to avoid overrating normal MR marrow patterns as pathologic states and metigate unnecessary further work-up. PMID:26753060

  6. Millimeter-wave imaging of magnetic fusion plasmas: technology innovations advancing physics understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Tobias, B.; Chang, Y.-T.; Yu, J.-H.; Li, M.; Hu, F.; Chen, M.; Mamidanna, M.; Phan, T.; Pham, A.-V.; Gu, J.; Liu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Domier, C. W.; Shi, L.; Valeo, E.; Kramer, G. J.; Kuwahara, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Mase, A.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    2017-07-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging is a passive radiometric technique that measures electron temperature fluctuations; and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) is an active radar imaging technique that measures electron density fluctuations. Microwave imaging diagnostic instruments employing these techniques have made important contributions to fusion science and have been adopted at major fusion facilities worldwide including DIII-D, EAST, ASDEX Upgrade, HL-2A, KSTAR, LHD, and J-TEXT. In this paper, we describe the development status of three major technological advancements: custom mm-wave integrated circuits (ICs), digital beamforming (DBF), and synthetic diagnostic modeling (SDM). These have the potential to greatly advance microwave fusion plasma imaging, enabling compact and low-noise transceiver systems with real-time, fast tracking ability to address critical fusion physics issues, including ELM suppression and disruptions in the ITER baseline scenario, naturally ELM-free states such as QH-mode, and energetic particle confinement (i.e. Alfvén eigenmode stability) in high-performance regimes that include steady-state and advanced tokamak scenarios. Furthermore, these systems are fully compatible with today’s most challenging non-inductive heating and current drive systems and capable of operating in harsh environments, making them the ideal approach for diagnosing long-pulse and steady-state tokamaks.

  7. A Noninvasive Imaging Approach to Understanding Speech Changes following Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Jacks, Adam; Robin, Donald A.; Poizner, Howard; Zhang, Wei; Franklin, Crystal; Liotti, Mario; Vogel, Deanie; Fox, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of noninvasive functional imaging and "virtual" lesion techniques to study the neural mechanisms underlying motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease. Here, we report the use of positron emission tomography (PET) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explain exacerbated speech impairment following…

  8. Improving uptake and engagement with child body image interventions delivered to mothers: Understanding mother and daughter preferences for intervention content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Kirsty M; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2016-12-01

    Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study aimed to improve understanding of mothers' and daughters' preferences for content in body image interventions designed to assist mothers to promote positive body image among their daughters. British mother-daughter dyads (N=190) viewed descriptions of five evidence-based influences on body image (family, friends, and relationships; appearance-based teasing; media and celebrities; appearance conversations; body acceptance and care). Mothers and daughters each selected the two most important influences to learn about in these interventions. Overall, both mothers and daughters most frequently opted for family, friends, and relationships and body acceptance and care, whereas media and celebrities was their least preferred topic. While the overall sample of mothers and daughters agreed on preferences, Fisher's exact tests showed that within-dyad agreement was low. Recommendations for improving parent and child engagement with, and effectiveness of, child body image interventions delivered to parents are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards understanding the influence of electron-gas interactions on imaging in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Boothroyd, Chris; Beleggia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    improved the point resolution to the sub-Ångström level [1] and reduced image delocalization, allowing images of surface and interface structures to be interpreted more directly [2]. However, when gas is present in the microscope the path of electrons along the column is modified due to gas......-electron scattering [3]. In general there are two approaches for performing TEM experiments in the presence of gases. These approaches are based on a differential pumping scheme and the closed cell TEM holder approach and each has its advantages and disadvantages. In the closed cell approach, gas molecules...... are confined to a thin (typically 50-200 μm thick) slab around the sample, but the electrons interact with the window material (e.g. C, SiN) as well as with the gas and the sample. In addition, the field of view is typically smaller than in a conventional TEM and a limited range of sample geometries can...

  10. Three-dimensional Ca2+ imaging advances understanding of astrocyte biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindocci, Erika; Savtchouk, Iaroslav; Liaudet, Nicolas; Becker, Denise; Carriero, Giovanni; Volterra, Andrea

    2017-05-19

    Astrocyte communication is typically studied by two-dimensional calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) imaging, but this method has not yielded conclusive data on the role of astrocytes in synaptic and vascular function. We developed a three-dimensional two-photon imaging approach and studied Ca 2+ dynamics in entire astrocyte volumes, including during axon-astrocyte interactions. In both awake mice and brain slices, we found that Ca 2+ activity in an individual astrocyte is scattered throughout the cell, largely compartmented between regions, preponderantly local within regions, and heterogeneously distributed regionally and locally. Processes and endfeet displayed frequent fast activity, whereas the soma was infrequently active. In awake mice, activity was higher than in brain slices, particularly in endfeet and processes, and displayed occasional multifocal cellwide events. Astrocytes responded locally to minimal axonal firing with time-correlated Ca 2+ spots. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. New concepts in understanding evolution of desmoid tumors: MR imaging of 30 lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevenne, J.E. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium); Schepper, A.M. de [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium); Beuckeleer, L. de [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium); Marck, E. van [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium); Aparisi, F. [MR Center, Clinica Virgen del Consuelo, Valencia (Spain); Bloem, J.L. [Department of Radiology, Academisch Ziekenhuis, Leiden (Netherlands); Erkorkmaz, Z. [Tuembeden MR-BT-Lab, Istanbul (Turkey); Brijs, S. [Department of Radiology, H. Hart Ziekenhuis, Roeselare (Belgium)

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the appearance and the natural evolution of desmoid tumors on MR imaging, given histologic correlation. The MR images of 30 desmoids (20 primary and 10 recurrent) in 26 patients were scored for a multiplicity of morphological parameters, signal intensity (SI) on different pulse sequences, and behavior after contrast administration. Natural evolution was evaluated in 2 primary and 3 recurrent lesions, and correlated with evolution on histologic specimens. Desmoid tumors are mostly found in muscles of shoulder and hip girdle and are often fusiform with partially ill-defined margins. Rare subcutaneous desmoids have a more stellar morphology. Variable amounts of low-SI areas are present on all sequences. On T1-weighted images (T1-WI), most lesions are near homogeneous and isointense to muscle, whereas on T2-WI they are more heterogeneous with an overall SI equal to or slightly lower than fat. Histologic correlation reveals that SI on T2-WI cannot be explained solely by cellularity. After initial growth, spontaneous evolution of desmoids is characterized by shrinking and an increase in low-SI areas on T2-WI. While distal lesions shrink, the more recent lesions in asynchronous multicentric desmoids have a tendency to develop proximally in the same limb, and should not be confused with recurrences. Fast growth, extracompartmental spread, and bone involvement are often seen in recurrences. Follow-up MR imaging of desmoids indicates natural regression of desmoids and more aggressive behavior of recurrences, which may justify a more conservative therapeutic approach. (orig.). With 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 1: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baraldi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to existing literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the degree of automation, accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and timeliness of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. The present first paper provides a multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches that augments similar analyses proposed in recent years. In line with constraints stemming from human vision, this SWOT analysis promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification. Hence, a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage accomplishes image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the second part of this work a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design; (b information/knowledge representation; (c algorithm design; and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a

  13. Preliminary Understanding of Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy by Single Particle Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Kangshu

    Monitoring chiral optical signals of biomolecules as their conformation changes is an important means to study their structures, properties, and functions. Most measurements, however, are ensemble measurements because chiral optical signals from a single biomolecule is often too weak to be detected. In this dissertation, I present my early attempts to study conformational changes of adsorbed proteins by taking advantage of the enhanced electromagnetic (EM) field around a well-designed plasmonic nanofeature. In particular, I discuss the detection of protein adsorption and denaturation on metallic nanoparticles using single particle scattering and CD spectroscopic imaging. Particles of two distinctively different sizes were compared and two different sample protein molecules were studied. A combination of experimental and computational tools was used to simulate and interpret the collected scattering and CD results. The first chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-art research in CD spectroscopic studies at the single particle level. Three different means to make particles capable of chiral detection are discussed. Various applications beyond single particle imaging are presented to showcase the potential of the described research project, beyond our immediate goals. The second chapter describes my initial characterization of large, metallic, anisotropic nanorods and the establishment of experimental procedures used later for spectrum reconstruction, data visualization and analysis. The physical shape and structure of the particles were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and the optical properties by darkfield microscopy. An experimental protocol was developed to connect information collected from separate techniques for the same particle, with the aims of discovering any possible structural-property correlation. The reproducibility of the single particle imaging method was

  14. Understanding Immersivity: Image Generation and Transformation Processes in 3D Immersive Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Dhond, Rupali P

    2012-01-01

    Most research on three-dimensional (3D) visual-spatial processing has been conducted using traditional non-immersive 2D displays. Here we investigated how individuals generate and transform mental images within 3D immersive (3DI) virtual environments, in which the viewers perceive themselves as being surrounded by a 3D world. In Experiment 1, we compared participants' performance on the Shepard and Metzler (1971) mental rotation (MR) task across the following three types of visual presentation environments; traditional 2D non-immersive (2DNI), 3D non-immersive (3DNI - anaglyphic glasses), and 3DI (head mounted display with position and head orientation tracking). In Experiment 2, we examined how the use of different backgrounds affected MR processes within the 3DI environment. In Experiment 3, we compared electroencephalogram data recorded while participants were mentally rotating visual-spatial images presented in 3DI vs. 2DNI environments. Overall, the findings of the three experiments suggest that visual-spatial processing is different in immersive and non-immersive environments, and that immersive environments may require different image encoding and transformation strategies than the two other non-immersive environments. Specifically, in a non-immersive environment, participants may utilize a scene-based frame of reference and allocentric encoding whereas immersive environments may encourage the use of a viewer-centered frame of reference and egocentric encoding. These findings also suggest that MR performed in laboratory conditions using a traditional 2D computer screen may not reflect spatial processing as it would occur in the real world.

  15. Proceedings of Image Understanding Workshop Held at Miami, Florida on 9- 10 December 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    the gradieat-projection mttbod, they ve eauly ~ xteas •bl• to muy defi!11tiou of "amooth". 3 Parallelization or Image Algorithm ~ We ban coatinued to...8217!. The basic: matc:hin~ algorithm gen- erates only :.\\ few false matches and mos~ or these can be ea.siiy eliminated. A general disl-ussion of...Using Dynamic: Prog~amming We (r.ick Szeliskt) have developed a multi-resolution version of the dynamic programming stereo algorithm introduced by

  16. Proceedings of Image Understanding Workshop Held in Palo Alto, California on 23-26 May 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Robotics and Factories of the Future, August, 1988. 4. Allen, P.K. Real-Time Motion Tracking using Spatio-Temporal Filters. Proceedings of the DARPA Image...is trhe( total floor space that we have to work with andit the ol)j-c t.5 are wall partitions, dlesks, office eqipmeni’it, anid factory equipmenit’it...mean, not the mode, of the probability distribution function. Minimum Mean-Square Error Estimation The MMSE method is for random parameters and yields ik

  17. Utilization of satellite images to understand the dynamics of Pampas shallow lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aliaga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze satellite images of different spatial resolutions to interpret the morphometric behavior of six shallow lakes of the Pampas, Argentina. These are characterized by having different rainfall regimes. Morphometric response considering each location, site conditions and dry and wet extreme events is analyzed. Standardized Precipitation Index (IEP for determination of wet, dry and normal years was used. This analysis showed that the Pampas shallow lakes do not behave in the same way to the rainfall events. Its origin, socio-economic use and rainfall patterns affect their spatiotemporal variation and morphometric.

  18. Applying neutron transmission physics and 3D statistical full-field model to understand 2D Bragg-edge imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Q.; Song, G.; Gorti, S.; Stoica, A. D.; Radhakrishnan, B.; Bilheux, J. C.; Kirka, M.; Dehoff, R.; Bilheux, H. Z.; An, K.

    2018-02-01

    Bragg-edge imaging, which is also known as neutron radiography, has recently emerged as a novel crystalline characterization technique. Modelling of this novel technique by incorporating various features of the underlying microstructure (including the crystallographic texture, the morphological texture, and the grain size) of the material remains a subject of considerable research and development. In this paper, Inconel 718 samples made by additive manufacturing were investigated by neutron diffraction and neutron radiography techniques. The specimen features strong morphological and crystallographic textures and a highly heterogeneous microstructure. A 3D statistical full-field model is introduced by taking details of the microstructure into account to understand the experimental neutron radiography results. The Bragg-edge imaging and the total cross section were calculated based on the neutron transmission physics. A good match was obtained between the model predictions and experimental results at different incident beam angles with respect to the sample build direction. The current theoretical approach has the ability to incorporate 3D spatially resolved microstructural heterogeneity information and shows promise in understanding the 2D neutron radiography of bulk samples. With further development to incorporate the heterogeneity in lattice strain in the model, it can be used as a powerful tool in the future to better understand the neutron radiography data.

  19. Complicated Pericarditis: Understanding Risk Factors and Pathophysiology to Inform Imaging and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Paul C; Kumar, Arnav; Kontzias, Apostolos; Tan, Carmela D; Rodriguez, E Rene; Imazio, Massimo; Klein, Allan L

    2016-11-29

    Most patients with acute pericarditis have a benign course and a good prognosis. However, a minority of patients develop complicated pericarditis, and the care of these patients is the focus of this review. Specifically, we address risk factors, multimodality imaging, pathophysiology, and novel treatments. The authors conclude that: 1) early high-dose corticosteroids, a lack of colchicine, and an elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are associated with the development of complicated pericarditis; 2) in select cases, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging may aid in the assessment of pericardial inflammation and constriction; 3) given phenotypic similarities between recurrent idiopathic pericarditis and periodic fever syndromes, disorders of the inflammasome may contribute to relapsing attacks; and 4) therapies that target the inflammasome may lead to more durable remission and resolution. Finally, regarding future investigations, the authors discuss the potential of cardiovascular magnetic resonance to inform treatment duration and the need to compare steroid-sparing treatments to pericardiectomy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gothic Churches in Paris ST Gervais et ST Protais Image Matching 3d Reconstruction to Understand the Vaults System Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, M.; Campi, M.; Catuogno, R.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is part of a research about ribbed vaults systems in French Gothic Cathedrals. Our goal is to compare some different gothic cathedrals to understand the complex geometry of the ribbed vaults. The survey isn't the main objective but it is the way to verify the theoretical hypotheses about geometric configuration of the flamboyant churches in Paris. The survey method's choice generally depends on the goal; in this case we had to study many churches in a short time, so we chose 3D reconstruction method based on image dense stereo matching. This method allowed us to obtain the necessary information to our study without bringing special equipment, such as the laser scanner. The goal of this paper is to test image matching 3D reconstruction method in relation to some particular study cases and to show the benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  1. Multiband Circular Polarizer Based on Fission Transmission of Linearly Polarized Wave for X-Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Mangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband circular polarizer based on fission transmission of linearly polarized wave for x-band application is proposed, which is constructed of 2 × 2 metallic strips array. The linear-to-circular polarization conversion is obtained by decomposing the linearly incident x-polarized wave into two orthogonal vector components of equal amplitude and 90° phase difference between them. The innovative approach of “fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarized wave” is firstly introduced to obtain giant circular dichroism based on decomposition of orthogonal vector components through the structure. It means that the incident linearly polarized wave is converted into two orthogonal components through lower printed metallic strips layer and two transmitted waves impinge on the upper printed strips layer to convert into four orthogonal vector components at the end of structure. This projection and transmission sequence of orthogonal components sustain the chain transmission of electromagnetic wave and can achieve giant circular dichroism. Theoretical analysis and microwave experiments are presented to validate the performance of the structure. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation results. In addition, the proposed circular polarizer exhibits the optimal performance with respect to the normal incidence. The right handed circularly polarized wave is emitted ranging from 10.08 GHz to 10.53 GHz and 10.78 GHz to 11.12 GHz, while the left handed circular polarized wave is excited at 10.54 GHz–10.70 GHz and 11.13 GHz–11.14 GHz, respectively.

  2. Understanding catalyst behavior during in situ heating through simultaneous secondary and transmitted electron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Jane Y.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Bigelow, Wilbur C.; Demers, Hendrix; Overbury, Steven H.

    2014-11-01

    By coupling techniques of simultaneous secondary (SE) and transmitted electron (TE) imaging at high resolution in a modern scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), with the ability to heat specimens using a highly stable MEMS-based heating platform, we obtained synergistic information to clarify the behavior of catalysts during in situ thermal treatments. Au/iron oxide catalyst 'leached' to remove surface Au was heated to temperatures as high as 700°C. The Fe2O3 support particle structure tended to reduce to Fe3O4 and formed surface terraces; the formation, coalescence, and mobility of 1- to 2-nm particles on the terraces were characterized in SE, STEM-ADF, and TEM-BF modes. If combined with simultaneous nanoprobe spectroscopy, this approach will open the door to a new way of studying the kinetics of nano-scaled phenomena.

  3. The Moral Self-Image Scale: Measuring and Understanding the Malleability of the Moral Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jennifer; Leliveld, Marijke C; Tenbrunsel, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    Recent ethical decision-making models suggest that individuals' own view of their morality is malleable rather than static, responding to their (im)moral actions and reflections about the world around them. Yet no construct currently exists to represent the malleable state of a person's moral self-image (MSI). In this investigation, we define this construct, as well as develop a scale to measure it. Across five studies, we show that feedback about the moral self alters an individual's MSI as measured by our scale. We also find that the MSI is related to, but distinct from, related constructs, including moral identity, self-esteem, and moral disengagement. In Study 1, we administered the MSI scale and several other relevant scales to demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, we examine the relationship between the MSI and one's ought versus ideal self. In Studies 3 and 4, we find that one's MSI is affected in the predicted directions by manipulated feedback about the moral self, including feedback related to social comparisons of moral behavior (Study 3) and feedback relative to one's own moral ideal (Study 4). Lastly, Study 5 provides evidence that the recall of one's moral or immoral behavior alters people's MSI in the predicted directions. Taken together, these studies suggest that the MSI is malleable and responds to individuals' moral and immoral actions in the outside world. As such, the MSI is an important variable to consider in the study of moral and immoral behavior.

  4. The Moral Self-Image Scale: Measuring and Understanding the Malleability of the Moral Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eJordan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent ethical decision-making models suggest that individuals’ own view of their morality is malleable rather than static, responding to their (immoral actions and reflections about the world around them. Yet no construct currently exists to represent the malleable state of a person’s moral self-image (MSI. In this investigation, we define this construct, as well as develop a scale to measure it. Across five studies, we show that feedback about the moral self alters an individual’s MSI as measured by our scale. We also find that MSI is related to, but distinct from, related constructs, including moral identity, self-esteem, and moral disengagement. In Study 1, we administered the MSI scale and several other relevant scales to demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, we examine the relationship between the MSI and one’s ought versus ideal self. In Studies 3 and 4, we find that one’s MSI is affected in the predicted directions by manipulated feedback about the moral self, including feedback related to social comparisons of moral behavior (Study 3 and feedback relative to one’s own moral ideal (Study 4. Lastly, Study 5 provides evidence that the recall of one’s moral or immoral behavior alters people’s MSI in the predicted directions. Taken together, these studies suggest that the MSI is malleable and responds to individuals’ moral and immoral actions in the outside world. As such, the MSI is an important variable to consider in the study of moral and immoral behavior.

  5. Novel brain imaging approaches to understand acquired and congenital neuro-ophthalmological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, Rebecca S; Ajina, Sara; Bridge, Holly

    2014-02-01

    The arrival of large datasets and the on-going refinement of neuroimaging technology have led to a number of recent advances in our understanding of visual pathway disorders. This work can broadly be classified into two areas, both of which are important when considering the optimal management strategies. The first looks at the delineation of damage, teasing out subtle changes to (specific components of) the visual pathway, which may help evaluate the severity and extent of disease. The second uses neuroimaging to investigate neuroplasticity, via changes in connectivity, cortical thickness, and retinotopic maps within the visual cortex. Here, we give consideration to both acquired and congenital patients with damage to the visual pathway, and how they differ. Congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system can provide insight into the large-scale reorganization of the visual cortex: these are investigated with reference to disorders of the optic chiasm and anophthalmia (absence of the eyes). In acquired conditions, we consider the recent work describing patterns of degeneration, both following single insult and in neurodegenerative conditions. We also discuss the developments in functional neuroimaging, with particular reference to work on hemianopia and the controversial suggestion of cortical reorganization following acquired retinal injury. Techniques for comparing neuro-ophthalmological conditions with healthy visual systems provide sensitive metrics to uncover subtle differences in grey and white matter structure of the brain. It is now possible to compare the massive reorganization present in congenital conditions with the apparent lack of plasticity following acquired damage.

  6. Applying Chemical Imaging Analysis to Improve Our Understanding of Cold Cloud Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, A.; Knopf, D. A.; Wang, B.; Alpert, P. A.; Roedel, T.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.; Tivanski, A.

    2012-12-01

    The impact that atmospheric ice nucleation has on the global radiation budget is one of the least understood problems in atmospheric sciences. This is in part due to the incomplete understanding of various ice nucleation pathways that lead to ice crystal formation from pre-existing aerosol particles. Studies investigating the ice nucleation propensity of laboratory generated particles indicate that individual particle types are highly selective in their ice nucleating efficiency. This description of heterogeneous ice nucleation would present a challenge when applying to the atmosphere which contains a complex mixture of particles. Here, we employ a combination of micro-spectroscopic and optical single particle analytical methods to relate particle physical and chemical properties with observed water uptake and ice nucleation. Field-collected particles from urban environments impacted by anthropogenic and marine emissions and aging processes are investigated. Single particle characterization is provided by computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). A particle-on-substrate approach coupled to a vapor controlled cooling-stage and a microscope system is applied to determine the onsets of water uptake and ice nucleation including immersion freezing and deposition ice nucleation as a function of temperature (T) as low as 200 K and relative humidity (RH) up to water saturation. We observe for urban aerosol particles that for T > 230 K the oxidation level affects initial water uptake and that subsequent immersion freezing depends on particle mixing state, e.g. by the presence of insoluble particles. For T cloud formation. Initial results applying single particle IN analysis using CCSEM/EDX and STXM/NEXAFS reveal that a significant amount of IN are coated by organics and, thus, are similar to the

  7. A multi-omics and imaging approach to understand soil organic matter composition and its interaction with microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, M. M.; Walker, L. R.; Kyle, J. E.; Chu, R. K.; Dohnalkova, A.; Tolic, N.; Orton, D.; Robinson, E. R.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Hess, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    The focus on soil C dynamics is currently relevant as researchers and policymakers strive to understand the feedbacks between ecosystem stress and climate change. Successful development of molecular profiles that link soil microbiology with soil carbon (C) dynamics to ascertain soil vulnerability and resilience to climate change would have great impact on assessments of soil ecosystems in response to climate change. Additionally, a better understanding of the soil C dynamics would improve climate modeling, and fate and transport of carbon across terrestrial, subsurface and atmospheric interfaces. Unravelling the wide range of possible interactions between and within the microbial communities, with minerals and organic compounds in the terrestrial ecosystem requires a multimodal, molecular approach. Here we report on the use of a combination of several molecular 'omics' approaches: metabolomics, metallomics, lipidomics, and proteomics coupled with a suite of high resolution imaging, and X-ray diffraction crystallographic techniques, as a novel methodology to understand SOM composition, and its interaction with microbial communities in different ecosystems, including C associated with mineral surfaces. The findings of these studies provide insights into the SOM persistence and microbial stabilization of carbon in ecosystems and reveal the powerful coupling of a multi-scale of techniques. Examples of this approach will be presented from field studies of simulated climate change, and laboratory column-grown Pinus resinosa mesocosms.

  8. Group-wise construction of reduced models for understanding and characterization of pulmonary blood flows from medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, Romain; McLeod, Kristin; Caiazzo, Alfonso; Mansi, Tommaso; Fernández, Miguel A; Sermesant, Maxime; Pennec, Xavier; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E; Boudjemline, Younes; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in patient-specific geometries provides complementary insights to clinical imaging, to better understand how heart disease, and the side effects of treating heart disease, affect and are affected by hemodynamics. This information can be useful in treatment planning for designing artificial devices that are subject to stress and pressure from blood flow. Yet, these simulations remain relatively costly within a clinical context. The aim of this work is to reduce the complexity of patient-specific simulations by combining image analysis, computational fluid dynamics and model order reduction techniques. The proposed method makes use of a reference geometry estimated as an average of the population, within an efficient statistical framework based on the currents representation of shapes. Snapshots of blood flow simulations performed in the reference geometry are used to build a POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition) basis, which can then be mapped on new patients to perform reduced order blood flow simulations with patient specific boundary conditions. This approach is applied to a data-set of 17 tetralogy of Fallot patients to simulate blood flow through the pulmonary artery under normal (healthy or synthetic valves with almost no backflow) and pathological (leaky or absent valve with backflow) conditions to better understand the impact of regurgitated blood on pressure and velocity at the outflow tracts. The model reduction approach is further tested by performing patient simulations under exercise and varying degrees of pathophysiological conditions based on reduction of reference solutions (rest and medium backflow conditions respectively). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

    2013-12-01

    Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar

  10. Document Image Understanding - 1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doermann, David S

    1998-01-01

    .... Each reference is classified by major topic. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, preprocessing, models and representations, on-line recognition, off-line recognition, graphics recognition and interpretation, page processing, post...

  11. Hierarchical Multisensor Image Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    for all linear shifts in a 6-0 hyperspace . If the resulting 6-0 correlation function 0 exceeds threshold somewhere, then recognition is achieved. The...position and spatial frequency relations in the receptive fields of simple cells in the visual cortex, I iol. Xhrn*Zci 43, 187-198 (1982). 33. S...arcelja, Mathematical description of the responses of simple cortical cells , ,.U %r,, Am, 70, 1297-1300 (1980). 34. W. Wigner, On the quantum correction

  12. Visualization and understanding of the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Jurgen; Toiviainen, Maunu; Fonteyne, Margot; Helkimo, Niko; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Juuti, Mikko; Delaet, Urbain; Van Assche, Ivo; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the application of twin screw granulation as a continuous wet granulation technique for pharmaceutical drug formulations. However, the mixing of granulation liquid and powder material during the short residence time inside the screw chamber and the atypical particle size distribution (PSD) of granules produced by twin screw granulation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study aims at visualizing the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging. In first instance, the residence time of material inside the barrel was investigated as function of screw speed and moisture content followed by the visualization of the granulation liquid distribution as function of different formulation and process parameters (liquid feed rate, liquid addition method, screw configuration, moisture content and barrel filling degree). The link between moisture uniformity and granule size distributions was also studied. For residence time analysis, increased screw speed and lower moisture content resulted to a shorter mean residence time and narrower residence time distribution. Besides, the distribution of granulation liquid was more homogenous at higher moisture content and with more kneading zones on the granulator screws. After optimization of the screw configuration, a two-level full factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the influence of moisture content, screw speed and powder feed rate on the mixing efficiency of the powder and liquid phase. From these results, it was concluded that only increasing the moisture content significantly improved the granulation liquid distribution. This study demonstrates that NIR chemical imaging is a fast and adequate measurement tool for allowing process visualization and hence for providing better process understanding of a continuous twin screw granulation system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. Stereo-Optic High Definition Imaging: A New Technology to Understand Bird and Bat Avoidance of Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Evan; Goodale, Wing; Burns, Steve; Dorr, Chirs; Duron, Melissa; Gilbert, Andrew; Moratz, Reinhard; Robinson, Mark

    2017-07-21

    There is a critical need to develop monitoring tools to track aerofauna (birds and bats) in three dimensions around wind turbines. New monitoring systems will reduce permitting uncertainty by increasing the understanding of how birds and bats are interacting with wind turbines, which will improve the accuracy of impact predictions. Biodiversity Research Institute (BRI), The University of Maine Orono School of Computing and Information Science (UMaine SCIS), HiDef Aerial Surveying Limited (HiDef), and SunEdison, Inc. (formerly First Wind) responded to this need by using stereo-optic cameras with near-infrared (nIR) technology to investigate new methods for documenting aerofauna behavior around wind turbines. The stereo-optic camera system used two synchronized high-definition video cameras with fisheye lenses and processing software that detected moving objects, which could be identified in post-processing. The stereo- optic imaging system offered the ability to extract 3-D position information from pairs of images captured from different viewpoints. Fisheye lenses allowed for a greater field of view, but required more complex image rectification to contend with fisheye distortion. The ability to obtain 3-D positions provided crucial data on the trajectory (speed and direction) of a target, which, when the technology is fully developed, will provide data on how animals are responding to and interacting with wind turbines. This project was focused on testing the performance of the camera system, improving video review processing time, advancing the 3-D tracking technology, and moving the system from Technology Readiness Level 4 to 5. To achieve these objectives, we determined the size and distance at which aerofauna (particularly eagles) could be detected and identified, created efficient data management systems, improved the video post-processing viewer, and attempted refinement of 3-D modeling with respect to fisheye lenses. The 29-megapixel camera system

  14. Acquiring and preprocessing leaf images for automated plant identification: understanding the tradeoff between effort and information gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rzanny

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated species identification is a long term research subject. Contrary to flowers and fruits, leaves are available throughout most of the year. Offering margin and texture to characterize a species, they are the most studied organ for automated identification. Substantially matured machine learning techniques generate the need for more training data (aka leaf images. Researchers as well as enthusiasts miss guidance on how to acquire suitable training images in an efficient way. Methods In this paper, we systematically study nine image types and three preprocessing strategies. Image types vary in terms of in-situ image recording conditions: perspective, illumination, and background, while the preprocessing strategies compare non-preprocessed, cropped, and segmented images to each other. Per image type-preprocessing combination, we also quantify the manual effort required for their implementation. We extract image features using a convolutional neural network, classify species using the resulting feature vectors and discuss classification accuracy in relation to the required effort per combination. Results The most effective, non-destructive way to record herbaceous leaves is to take an image of the leaf’s top side. We yield the highest classification accuracy using destructive back light images, i.e., holding the plucked leaf against the sky for image acquisition. Cropping the image to the leaf’s boundary substantially improves accuracy, while precise segmentation yields similar accuracy at a substantially higher effort. The permanent use or disuse of a flash light has negligible effects. Imaging the typically stronger textured backside of a leaf does not result in higher accuracy, but notably increases the acquisition cost. Conclusions In conclusion, the way in which leaf images are acquired and preprocessed does have a substantial effect on the accuracy of the classifier trained on them. For the first time, this

  15. Acquiring and preprocessing leaf images for automated plant identification: understanding the tradeoff between effort and information gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzanny, Michael; Seeland, Marco; Wäldchen, Jana; Mäder, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Automated species identification is a long term research subject. Contrary to flowers and fruits, leaves are available throughout most of the year. Offering margin and texture to characterize a species, they are the most studied organ for automated identification. Substantially matured machine learning techniques generate the need for more training data (aka leaf images). Researchers as well as enthusiasts miss guidance on how to acquire suitable training images in an efficient way. In this paper, we systematically study nine image types and three preprocessing strategies. Image types vary in terms of in-situ image recording conditions: perspective, illumination, and background, while the preprocessing strategies compare non-preprocessed, cropped, and segmented images to each other. Per image type-preprocessing combination, we also quantify the manual effort required for their implementation. We extract image features using a convolutional neural network, classify species using the resulting feature vectors and discuss classification accuracy in relation to the required effort per combination. The most effective, non-destructive way to record herbaceous leaves is to take an image of the leaf's top side. We yield the highest classification accuracy using destructive back light images, i.e., holding the plucked leaf against the sky for image acquisition. Cropping the image to the leaf's boundary substantially improves accuracy, while precise segmentation yields similar accuracy at a substantially higher effort. The permanent use or disuse of a flash light has negligible effects. Imaging the typically stronger textured backside of a leaf does not result in higher accuracy, but notably increases the acquisition cost. In conclusion, the way in which leaf images are acquired and preprocessed does have a substantial effect on the accuracy of the classifier trained on them. For the first time, this study provides a systematic guideline allowing researchers to spend

  16. Advances in Bio-Imaging From Physics to Signal Understanding Issues State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Racoceanu, Daniel; Gouaillard, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Imaging Devices and Image processing stem from cross-fertilization between many fields of research such as Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer Sciences. This BioImaging Community feel the urge to integrate more intensively its various results, discoveries and innovation into ready to use tools that can address all the new exciting challenges that Life Scientists (Biologists, Medical doctors, ...) keep providing, almost on a daily basis. Devising innovative chemical probes, for example, is an archetypal goal in which image quality improvement must be driven by the physics of acquisition, the image processing and analysis algorithms and the chemical skills in order to design an optimal bioprobe. This book offers an overview of the current advances in many research fields related to bioimaging and highlights the current limitations that would need to be addressed in the next decade to design fully integrated BioImaging Device.

  17. Log-polar-based framework for mobile vehicle tracking with road follower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Pavlo B.; Messner, Richard A.

    2007-04-01

    A new computationally efficient framework for vehicle tracking on a mobile platform is proposed. The principal component of the framework is the log-polar transformation applied to video frames captured from a standard uniformly sampled format camera. The log-polar transformation provides two major benefits to real-time vehicle tracking from a mobile vehicle platform moving along a single or multi-lane road. First, it significantly reduces the amount of data required to be processed since it collapses the original Cartesian video frames into log-polar images with much smaller dimensions. Second, the log-polar transformation is capable of mitigating perspective distortion due to its scale invariance property. This second aspect is of interest for vehicle tracking because the target vehicle appearance is preserved for all distances from the observer (camera). This works however only if the center of log-polar transformation is coincident with the vanishing point of perspective view. Therefore, a road following algorithm is proposed to keep the center of log-polar transform on the vanishing point at every video frame compensating for the carrying vehicle movements. Since the algorithm is intended to be used in the mobile embedded devices, it is developed to achieve both mathematical simplicity and algorithmic efficiency while avoiding computationally expensive mathematical functions. The use of trigonometric and exponential functions is minimized comparing to the log-Hough transform traditionally used in log-polar space. This new algorithm focuses on straight radial line fragments, thus shifting its mathematical engine to the linear equations' domain.

  18. Teaching Strategies for Using Projected Images to Develop Conceptual Understanding: Exploring Discussion Practices in Computer Simulation and Static Image-Based Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Norman T.

    2013-01-01

    The availability and sophistication of visual display images, such as simulations, for use in science classrooms has increased exponentially however, it can be difficult for teachers to use these images to encourage and engage active student thinking. There is a need to describe flexible discussion strategies that use visual media to engage active…

  19. GOTHIC CHURCHES IN PARIS ST GERVAIS ET ST PROTAIS IMAGE MATCHING 3D RECONSTRUCTION TO UNDERSTAND THE VAULTS SYSTEM GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Capone

    2015-02-01

    benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  20. Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  1. Volume rendering based on magnetic resonance imaging: advances in understanding the three-dimensional anatomy of the human knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Di Bella, Paolo; Favaloro, Angelo; Trimarchi, Fabio; Magaudda, Ludovico; Gaeta, Michele; Scribano, Emanuele; Bruschetta, Daniele; Milardi, Demetrio

    2007-01-01

    The choice of medical imaging techniques, for the purpose of the present work aimed at studying the anatomy of the knee, derives from the increasing use of images in diagnostics, research and teaching, and the subsequent importance that these methods are gaining within the scientific community. Medical systems using virtual reality techniques also offer a good alternative to traditional methods, and are considered among the most important tools in the areas of research and teaching. In our work we have shown some possible uses of three-dimensional imaging for the study of the morphology of the normal human knee, and its clinical applications. We used the direct volume rendering technique, and created a data set of images and animations to allow us to visualize the single structures of the human knee in three dimensions. Direct volume rendering makes use of specific algorithms to transform conventional two-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging sets of slices into see-through volume data set images. It is a technique which does not require the construction of intermediate geometric representations, and has the advantage of allowing the visualization of a single image of the full data set, using semi-transparent mapping. Digital images of human structures, and in particular of the knee, offer important information about anatomical structures and their relationships, and are of great value in the planning of surgical procedures. On this basis we studied seven volunteers with an average age of 25 years, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging. After elaboration of the data through post-processing, we analysed the structure of the knee in detail. The aim of our investigation was the three-dimensional image, in order to comprehend better the interactions between anatomical structures. We believe that these results, applied to living subjects, widen the frontiers in the areas of teaching, diagnostics, therapy and scientific research. PMID:17645453

  2. Teaching strategies for using projected images to develop conceptual understanding: Exploring discussion practices in computer simulation and static image-based lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Norman T.

    The availability and sophistication of visual display images, such as simulations, for use in science classrooms has increased exponentially however, it can be difficult for teachers to use these images to encourage and engage active student thinking. There is a need to describe flexible discussion strategies that use visual media to engage active thinking. This mixed methods study analyzes teacher behavior in lessons using visual media about the particulate model of matter that were taught by three experienced middle school teachers. Each teacher taught one half of their students with lessons using static overheads and taught the other half with lessons using a projected dynamic simulation. The quantitative analysis of pre-post data found significant gain differences between the two image mode conditions, suggesting that the students who were assigned to the simulation condition learned more than students who were assigned to the overhead condition. Open coding was used to identify a set of eight image-based teaching strategies that teachers were using with visual displays. Fixed codes for this set of image-based discussion strategies were then developed and used to analyze video and transcripts of whole class discussions from 12 lessons. The image-based discussion strategies were refined over time in a set of three in-depth 2x2 comparative case studies of two teachers teaching one lesson topic with two image display modes. The comparative case study data suggest that the simulation mode may have offered greater affordances than the overhead mode for planning and enacting discussions. The 12 discussions were also coded for overall teacher student interaction patterns, such as presentation, IRE, and IRF. When teachers moved during a lesson from using no image to using either image mode, some teachers were observed asking more questions when the image was displayed while others asked many fewer questions. The changes in teacher student interaction patterns suggest

  3. Cortical and white matter mapping in the visual system- more than meets theeye: on the importance of functional imaging to understand visual systempathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa eRaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Information transmission within the visual system is highly organized with the ultimate goal of accomplishing higher-order, complex visuo-spatial and object identity processing. Perception is dependent on the intactness of the entire system and damage at each stage – in the eye itself, the visual pathways, or within cortical processing - might result in perception disturbance.Herein we will review several examples of lesions along the visual system, from the retina, via the optic nerve and chiasm and through the occipital cortex. We will address their clinical manifestation and their cortical substrate. The latter will be studied via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, enabling cortical and white matter mapping of the human brain. In contrast to traditional signal recording, these procedures enable simultaneous evaluation of the entire brain network engaged when subjects undertake a particular task or evaluate the entirety of associated white matter pathways.These examples provided will highlight the importance of using advanced imaging methods to better understand visual pathologies. We will argue that clinical manifestation cannot always be explained solely by structural damage and a functional view is required to understand the clinical symptom. In such cases we recommend using advanced imaging methods to better understand the neurological basis of visual phenomena.

  4. Characteristic X-ray imaging for palliative therapy using strontium-89 chloride: understanding the mechanism of nuclear medicine imaging of strontium-89 chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaki, Yoshiki; Inoue, Kazumasa; Narita, Hiroto; Tsuda, Keisuke; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Strontium-89 (Sr-89) chloride is a targeted palliative therapy used for painful bone metastasis in which repeated doses can be administered, and its usefulness has been reported in the case of bone metastasis of various primary tumors. However, the effectiveness of the pain relief treatment is only described using a subjective index such as the visual analog scale, which lacks objectivity. Although various attempts at quantifying the effectiveness of Sr-89 chloride therapy have been reported using nuclear medicine imaging for energy peaks around 70-80 keV, the principle of Sr-89 chloride imaging has not been explained. In this study, the principle of nuclear medicine imaging for Sr-89 chloride was evaluated using a fundamental study. Additionally, the optimal collimator for acquiring Sr-89 chloride image data was evaluated. Based on the results, the principle of nuclear medicine imaging for Sr-89 chloride could be explained: the energy peaks were characteristic X-rays produced by interactions between gamma rays (514 keV) emitted from Sr-85, which is included during the manufacturing process of the Sr-89 chloride solution, and the lead collimator used in the imaging. The optimal collimator for generating characteristic X-rays efficiently was identified as a middle-to-high energy collimator.

  5. One size does not fit all: using variables other than the thin ideal to understand Black women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M

    2015-04-01

    Very few empirical studies have investigated the effect that culturally relevant beauty ideals (such as long, straight hair and lighter skin tones) have on Black women's feelings about their physical appearance. The current investigation examined the direct effect of internalizing idealized media images on Black women's body esteem and appearance satisfaction. The indirect effects of: (a) the presumed influence of the media images on African American men, and (b) feelings of invisibility were also tested. Using an online survey, the sample included 230 women who identified as African American and/or Black American. Through structural equation modeling (SEM), findings reveal that participants' body esteem was directly negatively impacted by higher levels of internalization of idealized media images. Further, the findings support the idea that higher levels of internalization of media lead to a greater presumed influence of media on men, which leads to higher feelings of invisibility, ultimately leading to lower body esteem. Finally, there was evidence to suggest that appearance satisfaction was not directly negatively affected by internalization of media images but was negatively impacted when the images are presumed to have a higher influence on African American men. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Overview of the use of theory to understand infrared and Raman spectra and images of biomolecules: colorectal cancer as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piva, J. A. A. C.; Silva, J. L. R.; Raniero, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the state of the art in the use of theory (first principles, molecular dynamics, and statistical methods) for interpreting and understanding the infrared (vibrational) absorption and Raman scattering spectra. It is discussed how they can be used in combination with purely...... and that the models used must take this into account. Hence, the use of statistical methods to interpret and understand the infrared and Raman spectra and images from biological tissues, cells, parts of cells, fluids, and even whole organism should change accordingly. As the species, conformers and structures...... of biomolecules are very sensitive to their environment and aggregation state, the combined use of infrared and Raman spectroscopy and imaging and theoretical simulations are clearly fields, which can benefit from their joint and mutual development....

  7. The Contribution of Novel Brain Imaging Techniques to Understanding the Neurobiology of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Furfaro, Joyce A.; Penniman, Lauren C.; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2005-01-01

    Studying the biological mechanisms underlying mental retardation and developmental disabilities (MR/DD) is a very complex task. This is due to the wide heterogeneity of etiologies and pathways that lead to MR/DD. Breakthroughs in genetics and molecular biology and the development of sophisticated brain imaging techniques during the last decades…

  8. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  9. A model for understanding diagnostic imaging referrals and complex interaction processes within the bigger picture of a healthcare system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makanjee, Chandra R.; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Willem A.

    2014-01-01

    Using experiences from the South African public healthcare system with limited resources, this review proposes a model that captures a holistic perspective of diagnostic imaging services embedded in a network of negotiated decision-making processes. Professional interdependency and interprofessional collaboration, cooperation and coordination are built around the central notion of integration in order to achieve a seamless transition through the continuum of various types of services needed to come to a diagnosis. Health-system role players interact with patients who enter the system from the perspective of their life-world. The distribution of diagnostic imaging services – within one setting or at multiple levels of care – demonstrates how fragments of information are filtered, interpreted and transformed at each point of care. The proposed model could contribute to alignment towards a common goal: services providing holistic quality of care within and beyond a complex healthcare system

  10. Advances in the understanding of early Huntington's disease using the functional imaging techniques of PET and SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, T.C.; Brooks, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The functional imaging techniques of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPET) have been used to study regional brain function in Huntington's disease (HD) in vivo. Reduced striatal glucose metabolism and dopamine receptor binding are evident in all symptomatic HD patients and in ∼50% of asymptomatic adult mutation carriers. These characteristics correlate with clinical measures of disease severity. Reduced cortical glucose metabolism and dopamine receptor binding, together with reduced striatal and cortical opioid receptor binding, have also been demonstrated in symptomatic patients with HD. Repeat PET measures of striatal function have been used to monitor the progression of this disease objectively. In the future, functional imaging will provide a valuable way of assessing the efficacy of both fetal striatal cell implants and putative neuroprotective agents, such as nerve growth factors. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  12. Proceedings of the Image Understanding Workshop (18th) Held in Cambridge, Massachusetts on 6-8 April 1988. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    M -77-r T- "-Mk-C - .FT- F7 -.,i ?I TI 2T V- 9 . .!~ chips, the array and its controller will occupy three standard- [Fisher, Highnam, Rockoff 88...types of image information, the Hough transform, and ( BPP ) was upgraded with the floating point platform texture modeling [Aloimonos et al. 1987...Aloimonos , kit, to provide much faster scientific computation. Our and Swain 1987a; 1987b; Bandopadhay 1986; 3-node BPP was upgraded to a Butterfly PlusO

  13. Forensic comparison and matching of fingerprints: using quantitative image measures for estimating error rates through understanding and predicting difficulty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Kellman

    Full Text Available Latent fingerprint examination is a complex task that, despite advances in image processing, still fundamentally depends on the visual judgments of highly trained human examiners. Fingerprints collected from crime scenes typically contain less information than fingerprints collected under controlled conditions. Specifically, they are often noisy and distorted and may contain only a portion of the total fingerprint area. Expertise in fingerprint comparison, like other forms of perceptual expertise, such as face recognition or aircraft identification, depends on perceptual learning processes that lead to the discovery of features and relations that matter in comparing prints. Relatively little is known about the perceptual processes involved in making comparisons, and even less is known about what characteristics of fingerprint pairs make particular comparisons easy or difficult. We measured expert examiner performance and judgments of difficulty and confidence on a new fingerprint database. We developed a number of quantitative measures of image characteristics and used multiple regression techniques to discover objective predictors of error as well as perceived difficulty and confidence. A number of useful predictors emerged, and these included variables related to image quality metrics, such as intensity and contrast information, as well as measures of information quantity, such as the total fingerprint area. Also included were configural features that fingerprint experts have noted, such as the presence and clarity of global features and fingerprint ridges. Within the constraints of the overall low error rates of experts, a regression model incorporating the derived predictors demonstrated reasonable success in predicting objective difficulty for print pairs, as shown both in goodness of fit measures to the original data set and in a cross validation test. The results indicate the plausibility of using objective image metrics to predict expert

  14. Transforming Our Understanding of the X-ray Universe: The Imaging X-ray Polarimeter Explorer (IXPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Matt, Giorgio; Marshall, Herman; ODell, Stephen L.; Pavlov, George; Ramsey, Brian; Romani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Accurate X-ray polarimetry can provide unique information on high-energy-astrophysical processes and sources. As there have been no meaningful X-ray polarization measurements of cosmic sources since our pioneering work in the 1970's, the time is ripe to explore this new parameter space in X-ray astronomy. To accomplish this requires a well-calibrated and well understood system that-particularly for an Explorer mission-has technical, cost, and schedule credibility. The system that we shall present satisfies these conditions, being based upon completely calibrated imaging- and polarization-sensitive detectors and proven X-ray-telescope technology.

  15. Empirical study of Kanji as archetypal images: understanding the collective unconscious as part of the Japanese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirova-Kohli, Milena; Rosen, David H; Smith, Steven M; Henderson, Patti; Taki-Reece, Sachiko

    2011-02-01

    Chinese characters originated as a semiotic system independent from spoken language and in the Japanese language they function non-phonetically with speakers exhibiting right-hemispheric advantage in their processing. We tested the hypothesis that Chinese characters are archetypal images and therefore part of our collective unconscious memory. Our study builds on the first empirical study of archetypal memory of Rosen et al. (1991) which demonstrated that archetypal symbols presented matched with their correct meaning were better learned and recalled. In a series of three experiments we used 40 Chinese characters instead of the archetypal symbols used by Rosen, et al. (1991). The results provided empirical evidence that Chinese characters matched with their correct meaning were significantly better recalled than the ones that were mismatched. Thus, we demonstrated that there appears to be unconscious knowledge of the meaning of the Chinese characters which was triggered as a result of priming when the characters were correctly matched with their meaning. On this basis, we suggest that Chinese characters exhibit the same cognitive qualities as archetypal symbols. Thus, in the Japanese language an archetypal image is integrated non-phonetically into the system of language and signifies the concept independent from the phonetic signifier and is equal to it. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  16. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 2: Novel system Architecture, Information/Knowledge Representation, Algorithm Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Boschetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the Quality Indexes of Operativeness (OQIs of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. Based on an original multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches, the first part of this work promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification capable of accomplishing image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the present second part of this work, a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design, (b information/knowledge representation, (c algorithm design and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time, multi-sensor, multi-resolution, application-independent Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a symbolic syntactic inference system, like SIAM™, is made available to the RS community for operational use in a RS-IUS pre-attentive vision first stage

  17. Increased Understanding of Stem Cell Behavior in Neurodegenerative and Neuromuscular Disorders by Use of Noninvasive Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Bryan; De Waele, Liesbeth; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Gheysens, Olivier; Sampaolesi, Maurillio; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Deroose, Christophe M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders are associated with cell-specific depletion in the human body. This imbalance in tissue homeostasis is in healthy individuals repaired by the presence of endogenous stem cells that can replace the lost cell type. However, in most disorders, a genetic origin or limited presence or exhaustion of stem cells impairs correct cell replacement. During the last 30 years, methods to readily isolate and expand stem cells have been developed and this resulted in a major change in the regenerative medicine field as it generates sufficient amount of cells for human transplantation applications. Furthermore, stem cells have been shown to release cytokines with beneficial effects for several diseases. At present however, clinical stem cell transplantations studies are struggling to demonstrate clinical efficacy despite promising preclinical results. Therefore, to allow stem cell therapy to achieve its full potential, more insight in their in vivo behavior has to be achieved. Different methods to noninvasively monitor these cells have been developed and are discussed. In some cases, stem cell monitoring even reached the clinical setting. We anticipate that by further exploring these imaging possibilities and unraveling their in vivo behavior further improvement in stem cell transplantations will be achieved.

  18. Increased Understanding of Stem Cell Behavior in Neurodegenerative and Neuromuscular Disorders by Use of Noninvasive Cell Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Holvoet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders are associated with cell-specific depletion in the human body. This imbalance in tissue homeostasis is in healthy individuals repaired by the presence of endogenous stem cells that can replace the lost cell type. However, in most disorders, a genetic origin or limited presence or exhaustion of stem cells impairs correct cell replacement. During the last 30 years, methods to readily isolate and expand stem cells have been developed and this resulted in a major change in the regenerative medicine field as it generates sufficient amount of cells for human transplantation applications. Furthermore, stem cells have been shown to release cytokines with beneficial effects for several diseases. At present however, clinical stem cell transplantations studies are struggling to demonstrate clinical efficacy despite promising preclinical results. Therefore, to allow stem cell therapy to achieve its full potential, more insight in their in vivo behavior has to be achieved. Different methods to noninvasively monitor these cells have been developed and are discussed. In some cases, stem cell monitoring even reached the clinical setting. We anticipate that by further exploring these imaging possibilities and unraveling their in vivo behavior further improvement in stem cell transplantations will be achieved.

  19. High-speed imaging and small-scale explosive characterization techniques to understand effects of primary blast-induced injury on nerve cell structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler, T.; Banton, R.; Zander, N.; Duckworth, J.; Benjamin, R.; Sparks, R.

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often associated with blast exposure. Even in the absence of penetrating injury or evidence of tissue injury on imaging, blast TBI may trigger a series of neural/glial cellular and functional changes. Unfortunately, the diagnosis and proper treatment of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) caused by explosive blast is challenging, as it is not easy to clinically distinguish blast from non-blast TBI on the basis of patient symptoms. Damage to brain tissue, cell, and subcellular structures continues to occur slowly and in a manner undetectable by conventional imaging techniques. The threshold shock impulse levels required to induce damage and the cumulative effects upon multiple exposures are not well characterized. Understanding how functional and structural damage from realistic blast impact at cellular and tissue levels at variable timescales after mTBI events may be vital for understanding this injury phenomenon and for linking mechanically induced structural changes with measurable effects on the nervous system. Our working hypothesis is that there is some transient physiological dysfunction occurring at cellular and subcellular levels within the central nervous system due to primary blast exposure. We have developed a novel in vitro indoor experimental system that uses real military explosive charges to more accurately represent military blast exposure and to probe the effects of primary explosive blast on dissociated neurons. We believe this system offers a controlled experimental method to analyze and characterize primary explosive blast-induced cellular injury and to understand threshold injury phenomenon. This paper will also focus on the modeling aspect of our work and how it relates to the experimental work.

  20. Understanding Heterogeneity and Permeability of Brain Metastases in Murine Models of HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Through Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Implications for Detection and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Murrell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Brain metastases due to breast cancer are increasing, and the prognosis is poor. Lack of effective therapy is attributed to heterogeneity of breast cancers and their resulting metastases, as well as impermeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB, which hinders delivery of therapeutics to the brain. This work investigates three experimental models of HER2+ breast cancer brain metastasis to better understand the inherent heterogeneity of the disease. We use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to quantify brain metastatic growth and explore its relationship with BBB permeability. DESIGN: Brain metastases due to breast cancer cells (SUM190-BR3, JIMT-1-BR3, or MDA-MB-231-BR-HER2 were imaged at 3 T using balanced steady-state free precession and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin echo sequences. The histology and immunohistochemistry corresponding to MRI were also analyzed. RESULTS: There were differences in metastatic tumor appearance by MRI, histology, and immunohistochemistry (Ki67, CD31, CD105 across the three models. The mean volume of an MDA-MB-231-BR-HER2 tumor was significantly larger compared to other models (F2,12 = 5.845, P < .05; interestingly, this model also had a significantly higher proportion of Gd-impermeable tumors (F2,12 = 22.18, P < .0001. Ki67 staining indicated that Gd-impermeable tumors had significantly more proliferative nuclei compared to Gd-permeable tumors (t[24] = 2.389, P < .05 in the MDA-MB-231-BR-HER2 model. CD31 and CD105 staining suggested no difference in new vasculature patterns between permeable and impermeable tumors in any model. CONCLUSION: Significant heterogeneity is present in these models of brain metastases from HER2+ breast cancer. Understanding this heterogeneity, especially as it relates to BBB permeability, is important for improvement in brain metastasis detection and treatment delivery.

  1. A Phytochemical-Sensing Strategy Based on Mass Spectrometry Imaging and Metabolic Profiling for Understanding the Functionality of the Medicinal Herb Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Fujimura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-molecular-weight phytochemicals have health benefits and reduce the risk of diseases, but the mechanisms underlying their activities have remained elusive because of the lack of a methodology that can easily visualize the exact behavior of such small molecules. Recently, we developed an in situ label-free imaging technique, called mass spectrometry imaging, for visualizing spatially-resolved biotransformations based on simultaneous mapping of the major bioactive green tea polyphenol and its phase II metabolites. In addition, we established a mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling technique capable of evaluating the bioactivities of diverse green tea extracts, which contain multiple phytochemicals, by focusing on their compositional balances. This methodology allowed us to simultaneously evaluate the relative contributions of the multiple compounds present in a multicomponent system to its bioactivity. This review highlights small molecule-sensing techniques for visualizing the complex behaviors of herbal components and linking such information to an enhanced understanding of the functionalities of multicomponent medicinal herbs.

  2. Leitura de imagens e cultura visual: desenredando conceitos para a prática educativa Image reading and critical understanding of the visual culture: unraveling concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilia Sardelich

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Quase tudo do pouco que conhecemos, em relação ao conhecimento produzido, nos chega pelos meios de informação e comunicação. Estes, por sua vez, também constroem imagens do mundo. Imagens para deleitar, entreter, vender, com mensagens sobre o que devemos vestir, comer, aparentar, pensar. Em nossa sociedade contemporânea discute-se a necessidade de uma alfabetização visual que se expressa em várias designações como: leitura de imagens e compreensão crítica da cultura visual. Freqüentes mudanças de expressões e conceitos dificultam o entendimento dessas propostas para o currículo escolar, a definição do/a professor/a responsável por tal conhecimento e o referencial teórico do mesmo. Este artigo apresenta os conceitos que fundamentam as propostas da leitura de imagens e cultura visual, sinalizando suas proximidades e distâncias. Contrasta alguns referenciais teóricos da antropologia, arte, educação, história, sociologia, e sugere linhas de trabalho em ambientes de aprendizagem com o intuito de refletir sobre nossa permanente formação como docentes.Almost everything from the little we know relating to manufactured knowledge comes to us by means of information and communication. This in turn also build images of the world. Images for pleasure, entertainment, trade, telling us what to wear, to eat, to think, how to look. In our contemporary society there is a debate about the need of a visual education that expresses itself in different denominations such as image reading and critical understanding of the visual culture. Frequent changes in expressions and concepts cause more difficulties in understanding these propositions in the national curriculum, the definition of the teachers responsible for this knowledge and the theoretical reference of it. This article intends to unravel the concepts that establish these different propositions, pointing out their similarities and differences. It contrasts theoretical references

  3. Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Catherine, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this month's issue is "Images"--from early paintings and statuary to computer-generated design. Resources on the theme include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and others. A page of reproducible activities is also provided. Features include photojournalism, inspirational Web sites, art history, pop art, and myths. (AEF)

  4. Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  5. Understanding the visual resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd L. Newby

    1971-01-01

    Understanding our visual resources involves a complex interweaving of motivation and cognitive recesses; but, more important, it requires that we understand and can identify those characteristics of a landscape that influence the image formation process. From research conducted in Florida, three major variables were identified that appear to have significant effect...

  6. An Investigation of Preschoolers' Misattributions of the Properties of Two-Dimensional Images: Understanding the Relationship between a Symbol and Its Referent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that preschoolers are confused about the relationship between two-dimensional (2D) symbols and their referents. Preschoolers report that 2D images (e.g. televised images and photographs) share some of the characteristics of the objects they are representing. A novel Comparison Task was created to test what might account…

  7. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  8. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  9. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  10. Validation and understanding of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol products (C5) using ground-based measurements from the handheld Sun photometer network in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanqing Li; Feng Niu; Kwon-Ho Lee; Jinyuan Xin; Wei Min Hao; Bryce L. Nordgren; Yuesi Wang; Pucai Wang

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) currently provides the most extensive aerosol retrievals on a global basis, but validation is limited to a small number of ground stations. This study presents a comprehensive evaluation of Collection 4 and 5 MODIS aerosol products using ground measurements from the Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network (CSHNET). The...

  11. Steps toward understanding the impact of early emotional experiences on disordered eating: The role of self-criticism, shame, and body image shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Cláudia; Mendes, Ana Laura

    2018-01-29

    In research, it has been suggested that early threatening emotional experiences, characterized by abuse, rejection, neglect or absence of affiliative signals may activate maladaptive defensive responses. Further, several studies have emphasised the association between the recall of early emotional experiences and eating psychopathology. However, this relationship does not seem to be direct. Thus, the current study explored the mediator roles of self-criticism and shame (general and body image-focused shame) in the link between early emotional experiences and the engagement in disordered eating, while controlling for the effect of body mass index. The sample of this study included 552 female participants, aged between 18 and 40 years old. The path analysis indicated that the absence of early positive emotional experiences was associated with disordered eating behaviours, through an increased perception of being negatively perceived as inferior or unattractive by others, self-critical attitudes, and body image-focused shame. The tested model accounted for 63% of body image shame and for 67% of disordered eating's variance, and showed an excellent model fit. These findings suggest that shame and self-criticism are defensive mechanisms associated with early threatening emotional experiences, which may trigger disordered eating behaviours. These data appear to offer important research and clinical implications supporting the development of intervention community programs for body and eating difficulties, that specifically target shame (general and body image-focused shame) and self-criticism, through the development of more adaptive emotional regulation strategies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  13. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  14. Understanding homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on understanding homelessness. It criticizes approaches that ignore, distort or diminish the humanity of homeless people, or else, add little to our understanding of that humanity. In particular, it rejects what it calls “epidemiological” approaches, which deny the possibility of agency for homeless people, insofar as those approaches view the situation of those people largely as a “social fact”, to be explained in terms of causal variables or “risk factors” ...

  15. Active vision and image/video understanding systems built upon network-symbolic models for perception-based navigation of mobile robots in real-world environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2004-12-01

    To be completely successful, robots need to have reliable perceptual systems that are similar to human vision. It is hard to use geometric operations for processing of natural images. Instead, the brain builds a relational network-symbolic structure of visual scene, using different clues to set up the relational order of surfaces and objects with respect to the observer and to each other. Feature, symbol, and predicate are equivalent in the biologically inspired Network-Symbolic systems. A linking mechanism binds these features/symbols into coherent structures, and image converts from a "raster" into a "vector" representation. View-based object recognition is a hard problem for traditional algorithms that directly match a primary view of an object to a model. In Network-Symbolic Models, the derived structure, not the primary view, is a subject for recognition. Such recognition is not affected by local changes and appearances of the object as seen from a set of similar views. Once built, the model of visual scene changes slower then local information in the visual buffer. It allows for disambiguating visual information and effective control of actions and navigation via incremental relational changes in visual buffer. Network-Symbolic models can be seamlessly integrated into the NIST 4D/RCS architecture and better interpret images/video for situation awareness, target recognition, navigation and actions.

  16. Integration of image/video understanding engine into 4D/RCS architecture for intelligent perception-based behavior of robots in real-world environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2004-10-01

    To be completely successful, robots need to have reliable perceptual systems that are similar to human vision. It is hard to use geometric operations for processing of natural images. Instead, the brain builds a relational network-symbolic structure of visual scene, using different clues to set up the relational order of surfaces and objects with respect to the observer and to each other. Feature, symbol, and predicate are equivalent in the biologically inspired Network-Symbolic systems. A linking mechanism binds these features/symbols into coherent structures, and image converts from a "raster" into a "vector" representation. View-based object recognition is a hard problem for traditional algorithms that directly match a primary view of an object to a model. In Network-Symbolic Models, the derived structure, not the primary view, is a subject for recognition. Such recognition is not affected by local changes and appearances of the object as seen from a set of similar views. Once built, the model of visual scene changes slower then local information in the visual buffer. It allows for disambiguating visual information and effective control of actions and navigation via incremental relational changes in visual buffer. Network-Symbolic models can be seamlessly integrated into the NIST 4D/RCS architecture and better interpret images/video for situation awareness, target recognition, navigation and actions.

  17. From Brand Image Research to Teaching Assessment: Using a Projective Technique Borrowed from Marketing Research to Aid an Understanding of Teaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Clive Roland

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how a simple qualitative market research technique using a projective device called a bubble drawing can be used as a useful feedback device to gain an understanding of students' views of the teaching effectiveness of a market research lecture. Comparisons are made with feedback gained from teaching observations and insights…

  18. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  19. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  20. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  1. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  2. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  3. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  4. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  5. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  6. 'Manage and mitigate punitive regulatory measures, enhance the corporate image, influence public policy': industry efforts to shape understanding of tobacco-attributable deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Carrillo Botero, Natalia; Novotny, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    Deforestation due to tobacco farming began to raise concerns in the mid 1970s. Over the next 40 years, tobacco growing increased significantly and shifted markedly to low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of deforestation caused by tobacco farming reached 4 % globally by the early 2000s, although substantially higher in countries such as China (18 %), Zimbabwe (20 %), Malawi (26 %) and Bangladesh (>30 %). Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have argued that tobacco-attributable deforestation is not a serious problem, and that the industry has addressed the issue through corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. After reviewing the existing scholarly literature on tobacco and deforestation, we analysed industry sources of public information to understand how the industry framed deforestation, its key causes, and policy responses. To analyse industry strategies between the 1970s and early 2000s to shape understanding of deforestation caused by tobacco farming and curing, the Truth Tobacco Documents Library was systematically searched. The above sources were compiled and triangulated, thematically and chronologically, to derive a narrative of how the industry has framed the problem of, and solutions to, tobacco-attributable deforestation. The industry sought to undermine responses to tobacco-attributable deforestation by emphasising the economic benefits of production in LMICs, blaming alternative causes, and claiming successful forestation efforts. To support these tactics, the industry lobbied at the national and international levels, commissioned research, and colluded through front groups. There was a lack of effective action to address tobacco-attributable deforestation, and indeed an escalation of the problem, during this period. The findings suggest the need for independent data on the varied environmental impacts of the tobacco industry, awareness of how the industry seeks to work with environmental researchers and groups to

  7. Understanding uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, Dennis V

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.

  8. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  9. Understanding ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  10. Understanding Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya Dilip Gadgil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda′s power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  11. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  12. Understanding PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen DOWNES

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding PISA Stephen DOWNESMoncton, CANADA ABSTRACT The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004. It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the theme and running with it, Alice and Bill ask, "Computers Make School Kids Dumber?" They theorize, "If you track the admitted decline of education, you'll probably notice that it follows along with the increase of technology in the classroom." In a similar vein, James Bartholomew asks, "Do you think that the government will turn down the volume of its boasting about how it has spent billions introducing computers in schools (while keeping down the pay of teachers so much that there are shortages? Do you think it will stop sending governors of state schools glossy pamphlets about insisting that computers are used in their schools as much as possible?" In this study, therefore, PISA looks well beyond educational attainment, and also includes school demographics, such as whether it is a public or private school, has large or small classes, or has access or not to technological resources. Finally, it does measure student information-their family background, access to books and computers and parental support as well. The PISA survey departs from previous surveys in disregarding the stated curricula of the schools being measured. Therefore, the conclusion is not surprising, nor even wrong for him to consider independently of any parental or teacher support, considered without reference to the software running on it, considered without reference to student attitudes and interests, does not positively impact an education. Finally, he focus on missing the reporting of results

  13. Image, Image, Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    With all the talk today about accountability, budget cuts, and the closing of programs in public education, teachers cannot overlook the importance of image in the field of industrial technology. It is very easy for administrators to cut ITE (industrial technology education) programs to save school money--money they might shift to teaching the…

  14. Foundations of image science

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Harrison H

    2013-01-01

    Winner of the 2006 Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award! A comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and statistics of image science In today's visually oriented society, images play an important role in conveying messages. From seismic imaging to satellite images to medical images, our modern society would be lost without images to enhance our understanding of our health, our culture, and our world. Foundations of Image Science presents a comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and st

  15. IMAGES, IMAGES, IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.

    1980-07-01

    The role of images of information (charts, diagrams, maps, and symbols) for effective presentation of facts and concepts is expanding dramatically because of advances in computer graphics technology, increasingly hetero-lingual, hetero-cultural world target populations of information providers, the urgent need to convey more efficiently vast amounts of information, the broadening population of (non-expert) computer users, the decrease of available time for reading texts and for decision making, and the general level of literacy. A coalition of visual performance experts, human engineering specialists, computer scientists, and graphic designers/artists is required to resolve human factors aspects of images of information. The need for, nature of, and benefits of interdisciplinary effort are discussed. The results of an interdisciplinary collaboration are demonstrated in a product for visualizing complex information about global energy interdependence. An invited panel will respond to the presentation.

  16. Radiotherapy of abdomen with precise renal assessment with SPECT/CT imaging (RAPRASI): design and methodology of a prospective trial to improve the understanding of kidney radiation dose response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Gaitan, Juanita; O’Mara, Brenton; Chu, Julie; Faggian, Jessica; Williams, Luke; Hofman, Michael S; Spry, Nigel A; Ebert, Martin A; Robins, Peter; Boucek, Jan; Leong, Trevor; Willis, David; Bydder, Sean; Podias, Peter; Waters, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    The kidneys are a principal dose-limiting organ in radiotherapy for upper abdominal cancers. The current understanding of kidney radiation dose response is rudimentary. More precise dose-volume response models that allow direct correlation of delivered radiation dose with spatio-temporal changes in kidney function may improve radiotherapy treatment planning for upper-abdominal tumours. Our current understanding of kidney dose response and tolerance is limited and this is hindering efforts to introduce advanced radiotherapy techniques for upper-abdominal cancers, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of this study is to utilise radiotherapy and combined anatomical/functional imaging data to allow direct correlation of radiation dose with spatio-temporal changes in kidney function. The data can then be used to develop a more precise dose-volume response model which has the potential to optimise and individualise upper abdominal radiotherapy plans. The Radiotherapy of Abdomen with Precise Renal Assessment with SPECT/CT Imaging (RAPRASI) is an observational clinical research study with participating sites at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital (SCGH) in Perth, Australia and the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre (PMCC) in Melbourne, Australia. Eligible patients are those with upper gastrointestinal cancer, without metastatic disease, undergoing conformal radiotherapy that will involve incidental radiation to one or both kidneys. For each patient, total kidney function is being assessed before commencement of radiotherapy treatment and then at 4, 12, 26, 52 and 78 weeks after the first radiotherapy fraction, using two procedures: a Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) measurement using the 51 Cr-ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) clearance; and a regional kidney perfusion measurement assessing renal uptake of 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), imaged with a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography / Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) system. The CT component

  17. Image Understanding Architecture Prototype Evaluation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    2n. We have developed an algorithm (the MGRA discussed below), based on wormhole routing, that has routed a large number of communication patterns...inference and manipulation of object models are run in the SPA. To support distributed artificial intelligence processing, powerful processors are needed... artificial intelligence. A typical scenario with video input I might require that an interpretation of a changing scene be updated as video frames arrive

  18. Symbolic feature detection for image understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sinem; Akgül, Ceyhun Burak; Sankur, Bülent

    2014-03-01

    In this study we propose a model-driven codebook generation method used to assign probability scores to pixels in order to represent underlying local shapes they reside in. In the first version of the symbol library we limited ourselves to photometric and similarity transformations applied on eight prototypical shapes of flat plateau , ramp, valley, ridge, circular and elliptic respectively pit and hill and used randomized decision forest as the statistical classifier to compute shape class ambiguity of each pixel. We achieved90% accuracy in identification of known objects from alternate views, however, we could not outperform texture, global and local shape methods, but only color-based method in recognition of unknown objects. We present a progress plan to be accomplished as a future work to improve the proposed approach further.

  19. Thumbnail Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Nanna; Teilmann, Stina

    2017-01-01

    and strategic terms; and a cultural question of how human-computer interaction design works with navigational uncertainty, both as an experience to be managed and a resource to be exploited. This paper considers two copyright infringement cases that involved search engines as defendants, Kelly v. Arriba Soft......This article argues that thumbnail images are infrastructural images that raise issues of uncertainty in two distinct, but interrelated, areas: a legal question of how to define, understand and govern visual information infrastructures, in particular image search systems in epistemological...

  20. Shape understanding system machine understanding and human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Les, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    This is the third book presenting selected results of research on the further development of the shape understanding system (SUS) carried out by authors in the newly founded Queen Jadwiga Research Institute of Understanding. In this book the new term Machine Understanding is introduced referring to a new area of research aiming to investigate the possibility of building machines with the ability to understand. It is presented that SUS needs to some extent mimic human understanding and for this reason machines are evaluated according to the rules applied for the evaluation of human understanding. The book shows how to formulate problems and how it can be tested if the machine is able to solve these problems.    

  1. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  2. Understanding NMR: self-learning manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, B.

    2000-01-01

    This initiation to the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging allows to understand the essential basic physical principles for the realization and the interpretation of an NMR examination. (J.S.)

  3. RPC understanding and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Santonico, R

    2004-01-01

    The understanding of the long-term behavior of the RPCs developed as dedicated muon trigger detectors at LHC and presently in construction, is analyzed. The main aging mechanisms are reviewed. The gas contamination by the hydrofluoric acid is analyzed as a possible aging cause and a method for measuring the fluorine concentration in the exhaust gas is described. Finally, the use of RPCs for the detection of Cosmic Ray Extensive Air Showers and their imaging capabilities are briefly discussed.

  4. Mission Driven Scene Understanding: Dynamic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    International Society for Optical Engineering; c2001. 14. Siva P, Russell C, Xiang T, Agapito L. Looking beyond the image : Unsupervised learning for...60,000 was 0.0818 and the training error rate was 0.0273, which means that the CNN had “ learned ” to assign the correct class label to an image , when... images is necessary for scene understanding. Such dynamic environmental conditions (e.g., changing illumination, precipitation, and vegetation) can

  5. Quantum imaging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.; Boyd, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades, quantum mechanics has allowed the development of technologies that provide unconditionally secure communication. In parallel, the quantum nature of the transverse electromagnetic field has spawned the field of quantum imaging that encompasses technologies such as quantum lithography, quantum ghost imaging, and high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD). The emergence of such quantum technologies also highlights the need for the development of accurate and efficient methods of measuring and characterizing the elusive quantum state itself. In this paper, we describe new technologies that use the quantum properties of light for security. The first of these is a technique that extends the principles behind QKD to the field of imaging and optical ranging. By applying the polarization-based BB84 protocol to individual photons in an active imaging system, we obtained images that are secure against any interceptresend jamming attacks. The second technology presented in this article is based on an extension of quantum ghost imaging, a technique that uses position-momentum entangled photons to create an image of an object without directly obtaining any spatial information from it. We used a holographic filtering technique to build a quantum ghost image identification system that uses a few pairs of photons to identify an object from a set of known objects. The third technology addressed in this document is a high-dimensional QKD system that uses orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes of light for encoding. Moving to a high-dimensional state space in QKD allows one to impress more information on each photon, as well as introduce higher levels of security. We discuss the development of two OAM-QKD protocols based on the BB84 and Ekert protocols of QKD. The fourth and final technology presented in this article is a relatively new technique called direct measurement that uses sequential weak and strong measurements to characterize a quantum state

  6. Spatial Thinking: Precept for Understanding Operational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    ATP Army Techniques Publication COP Common Operating Picture DOTMLPF Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership and education ...numbers, linguists in vocal tones (words), and artists in images of feeling. To understand spatial thinking is to understand the nature of how humans...how that space impacts our interactions. Like any mode of thinking, be it numerical, artistic , or vocal, spatial thinking requires a medium for

  7. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship ... Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask About ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers Questions to Ask About ...

  13. Neuroperformance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    understood and may result in unanticipated long-term effects in those serving under combat conditions. Advances in imaging technology have enabled human...capabilities, the scope of this research is to 1) use PET/MRI studies to understand glucose metabolism and dopamine binding in the brain, particularly in the...A prospective pilot study using fMRI effective connectivity mapping, Addictive Behaviors, Volume 38, Issue 4, April 2013, Pages 2052-2059 • Iyer, S

  14. Processing of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the innovations in the technology for the processing of medical images, to the high development of better and cheaper computers, and, additionally, to the advances in the systems of communications of medical images, the acquisition, storage and handling of digital images has acquired great importance in all the branches of the medicine. It is sought in this article to introduce some fundamental ideas of prosecution of digital images that include such aspects as their representation, storage, improvement, visualization and understanding

  15. Understanding "people" people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  16. Computer image processing and recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic introduction to the concepts and techniques of computer image processing and recognition is presented. Consideration is given to such topics as image formation and perception; computer representation of images; image enhancement and restoration; reconstruction from projections; digital television, encoding, and data compression; scene understanding; scene matching and recognition; and processing techniques for linear systems.

  17. Medical image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    This book is designed for end users in the field of digital imaging, who wish to update their skills and understanding with the latest techniques in image analysis. This book emphasizes the conceptual framework of image analysis and the effective use of image processing tools. It uses applications in a variety of fields to demonstrate and consolidate both specific and general concepts, and to build intuition, insight and understanding. Although the chapters are essentially self-contained they reference other chapters to form an integrated whole. Each chapter employs a pedagogical approach to e

  18. Holography Experiments on Optical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonczak, B.; Dabrowski, J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes experiments intended to produce a better understanding of the holographic method of producing images and optical imaging by other optical systems. Application of holography to teaching physics courses is considered. (Author/SA)

  19. Metaphor, skepticism, understanding Metaphor, skepticism, understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Martins

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts.

    This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts

  20. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  1. Understanding Hereditary Angioedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Understanding Hereditary Angioedema Share | Understanding Hereditary Angioedema This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic condition. People with ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., ... find our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using ...

  3. Understanding in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinska, Anna

    1994-01-01

    The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.

  4. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  5. Fundamentals of electronic image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Weeks, Arthur R

    1996-01-01

    This book is directed to practicing engineers and scientists who need to understand the fundamentals of image processing theory and algorithms to perform their technical tasks. It is intended to fill the gap between existing high-level texts dedicated to specialists in the field and the need for a more practical, fundamental text on image processing. A variety of example images are used to enhance reader understanding of how particular image processing algorithms work.

  6. Valuation of Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    An important aim for the teacher in Higher Education is that students, in order to learn, achieve understanding in terms of being able to handle knowledge in a certain way. In this paper focus will be on understanding as a phenomenon which is permeated with values of what good understanding might...... be. Understanding is to be discussed as a phenomenon which in its definition is relative to the paradigm of educational thinking in which it is embedded. Paradigms of valuation of understanding in higher education will be viewed from two perspectives: An anglosaxon curriculum studies tradition...

  7. Memorandum of Understanding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siple, Bud H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A Memorandum of Understanding establishes a clear understanding of how an agreement is going to be implemented. The Memorandum of Understanding allows all involved to specifically understand that they are agreeing to the same thing and the terms are clearly identified. It also includes the clear distinction of functions and the level of involvement of the agencies involved. Specifically, a Memorandum of Understanding gives a chance to all of those involved in the agreement to see on paper as to what they all have agreed to.

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for ...

  9. Understanding Intra-Class Knowledge Inside CNN

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Donglai; Zhou, Bolei; Torrabla, Antonio; Freeman, William

    2015-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has been successful in image recognition tasks, and recent works shed lights on how CNN separates different classes with the learned inter-class knowledge through visualization. In this work, we instead visualize the intra-class knowledge inside CNN to better understand how an object class is represented in the fully-connected layers. To invert the intra-class knowledge into more interpretable images, we propose a non-parametric patch prior upon previous CNN...

  10. Snap Shots: Using Photography for Intercultural Awareness and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaray, Luisela

    2014-01-01

    Watching images through mass media presents a challenge for understanding the complexities of different cultures within and outside the United States. Photographic images, in particular, are ubiquitous in our mediated world, populating old and interactive media and many times serving to perpetuate established codes of understanding and action.…

  11. Negotiating the thumbnail image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde; Teilmann-Lock, Stina

    2017-01-01

    understand the role of the thumbnail as an attention technology in the digital economy? And what kind of aesthetic does it produce? This paper examines the legal negotiations of the thumbnail image and the ensuing decision to conceptualize the thumbnail as a functional image against the cultural history...... of visual attention technologies and the aesthetics of their connective function. Such an endeavour, we propose, allows us to understand and appreciate the significant digital economy and particular aesthetic of the thumbnail image despite its apparent subtlety.......Thumbnail images are discreet, yet central navigational tools in increasingly complex visual information environments. Indeed, without thumbnail images there would be no image search: they are an inherent part of the information architecture of most digital information platforms. Yet, how might we...

  12. Understanding quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillner, Vera

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a bundle definition for 'scientific understanding' through which the empirically equivalent interpretations of quantum mechanics can be evaluated with respect to the understanding they generate. The definition of understanding is based on a sufficient and necessary criterion, as well as a bundle of conditions - where a theory can be called most understandable whenever it fulfills the highest number of bundle criteria. Thereby the definition of understanding is based on the one hand on the objective number of criteria a theory fulfills, as well as, on the other hand, on the individual's preference of bundle criteria. Applying the definition onto three interpretations of quantum mechanics, the interpretation of David Bohm appears as most understandable, followed by the interpretation of Tim Maudlin and the Kopenhagen interpretation. These three interpretations are discussed in length in my thesis. (orig.)

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using statistics that researchers have collected over many years about ...

  14. European Space Imaging & Skybox Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; Schichor, P.

    2015-01-01

    Skybox and European Space Imaging have partnered to bring timely, Very High-Resolution imagery to customers in Europe and North Africa. Leveraging Silicon Valley ingenuity and world-class aerospace expertise, Skybox designs, builds, and operates a fleet of imaging satellites. With two satellites currently on-orbit, Skybox is quickly advancing towards a planned constellation of 24+ satellites with the potential for daily or sub-daily imaging at 70-90 cm resolution. With consistent, high-resolution imagery and video, European customers can monitor the dynamic units of human activity - cars, trucks, shipping containers, ships, aircraft, etc. - and derive valuable insights about the global economy. With multiple imaging opportunities per day, the Skybox constellation provides unprecedented access to imagery and information about critical targets that require rapid analysis. Skybox's unique capability to deliver high-definition video from space enables European customers to monitor a network of globally distributed assets with full-motion snapshots, without the need to deploy an aircraft or field team. The movement captured in these 30-90 second video windows yield unique insights that improve operational decisions. Skybox and EUSI are excited to offer a unique data source that can drive a better understanding of our world through supply chain monitoring, natural resource management, infrastructure monitoring, and crisis response. (author)

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research Advanced ... Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  17. Understanding Your Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammation.  Glucose Reference range: 70–100 mg/dL (fasting blood glucose level) The level of glucose, a ... lary (outside the bone marrow) disease. The uses, benefits, and limitations of the various types of imaging ...

  18. Understanding cancer onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhuis, Djuke

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Malaysia analysed the genomes of people with a rare genetic disorder to better understand people’s predisposition to cancer across generations.......Researchers in Malaysia analysed the genomes of people with a rare genetic disorder to better understand people’s predisposition to cancer across generations....

  19. Understanding Menstrual Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Anne H

    2018-04-01

    Menstrual-related migraine is very prevalent, very disabling, yet very easy to manage given a good understanding of its cause. This article is intended to help with that understanding and to enable headache specialists to prescribe or create effective hormonal preventives of menstrual-related migraine. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a ... for provider care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three ...

  1. Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…

  2. Understanding Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Prenatal Tests Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... be done before pregnancy or at the first prenatal visit. If there is Rh incompatibility, treatments can ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Funding for ... disease will go for you is called prognosis. It can be hard to understand what prognosis means ...

  4. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  5. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  6. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  7. Tinnitus: Understanding the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  8. Economics and International Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh

    1983-01-01

    A methodology linking the teaching of economics to the promotion of international understanding is discussed. The content of a course dealing with the new international economic order is examined. (Author/RM)

  9. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... side effects from the cancer treatments you received. Video Series This video series offers the perspectives of ... care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three cancer patients ...

  11. Understanding the DASH diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000784.htm Understanding the DASH diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The DASH diet is low in salt and rich in fruits, ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What Is ... Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ...

  15. Understanding the Opioid Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Opioid Overdose Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Opioid Overdose Opioid Basics Understanding the Epidemic Commonly Used ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doctor to give you an accurate prognosis. Understanding the Difference Between Cure and Remission Cure means that ... about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this video on YouTube. Andrew wants ...

  17. Understanding your hospital bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000881.htm Understanding your hospital bill To use the sharing features on this ... help you save money. Charges Listed on Your Hospital Bill A hospital bill will list the major ...

  18. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Feb 19,2018 What do your ... this chart: English | Spanish | Traditional Chinese Enter Your Blood Pressure Systolic mm Hg (upper #) Diastolic mm Hg (lower #) ...

  19. PICTURES (Pisagua/Iquique Crustal Tomography to Understand the Region of the Earthquake Source): seismic imaging of the source region of the April 1, 2014 Mw 8.2 earthquake offshore northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehu, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The 2014 event partially filled a well-recognized seismic gap that had not experienced a large earthquake since a pair of devastating M9 events in 1868 and 1877. The rupture sequence was marked by an unusually long and distinct precursory period that was well recorded by onshore seismic and geodetic instruments of the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC). The pattern of foreshock activity, which defined a "classic" Mogi donut, is correlated with a circular residual gravity high that surrounds the patch of greatest slip during the main shock. Aftershocks generally propagated to the south and stopped in a region of relatively low pre-earthquake coupling. The remaining nearly 300-km long seismic gap is correlated with a distinct forearc residual gravity high. The correlation between the pre-, syn- and post-earthquake deformation patterns and the residual gravity anomalies indicates that crustal structure affects the distribution of seismic and aseismic deformation in response to plate convergence. Because the non-uniqueness inherent in modeling gravity data does not allow for a detailed geologic interpretation of the correlation between structure and slip, we conducted an ambitious seismic experiment using the R/V Marcus Langseth to acquire 5000 km of multichannel seismic seismic data using an 8-12.5-km long streamer and a 6600 cubic inch tuned air-gun array. The 45000 shots were also recorded on 70 ocean-bottom and 50 land-based seismometers. Shipboard analysis of the data indicates that the Moho of the Nazca plate is well imaged west of the trench, that deformation is distributed throughout the outer 10 km of the accretionary wedge as the rough topography of the Nazca plate is subducted, and that a reflection tentatively interpreted to be the plate boundary can be imaged continuously from the trench to the coast on at least one transect across the margin. Post-cruise data analysis is underway to process the MCS data using various techniques to

  20. Understanding Conflict?...Maybe!

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony P. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    The premise of this paper is the study in the field of conflict andconflict resolution and that conflict and conflict resolution are usefulareas of focus in order to better understand human behavior. Additionally,I will present data that will highlight the notion that conflict is not in itselfa bad thing and that conflict has the capability to be utilized as a vehiclefor understanding the many contradictions that are necessarily present inour efforts to be social beings.

  1. Understanding Family Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, G

    2012-01-01

    This essential text will help students and those already working with children to understand both theoretically and practically, what may constitute a ‘family’. It explores how to build relationships with a child’s family to ensure early years settings and schools are working in partnership with children’s home environments, thereby supporting the best possible learning outcomes for children. It will help the reader to develop their skills, knowledge and understanding of their professional pr...

  2. Understanding Grief and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Managing Emotions Self-Image and Cancer ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  4. The production of understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce G

    2003-12-01

    While there is little doubt that sociological theory and research has had an important impact on the way people think about health and health care, mental health and medical sociologists are often confronted with challenges concerning the utility of the work that they do. Among the doubters are deans, funding agencies and family members. We are challenged by the ascendency of biological interpretations of human behaviors, by the incompatibility between the contextual view we prefer and the very strong individualistic orientation of our culture, and by the fact that we do not have an applied arm that trains the professionals who treat health and mental-health conditions. How do we respond to this challenge? The title of this paper gives a short answer: "The Production of Understanding." I propose that a powerful but under-recognized value of our work is the generation of explanations about health and mental health matters that help people understand the other side of an "us"/"them" divide. We produce understanding in a context in which misunderstanding is regularly constructed by powerful people who offer victim-blaming explanations for the circumstances experienced by people with less power. The production of understanding serves as an important counterbalance to this tendency. Our work shapes the way people think about problems related to health and mental health, limits the power of inaccurate victim-blaming accounts and provides understanding about why health and mental health are mal-distributed among people from different social circumstances.

  5. Understanding Sex for Sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted....... This interdisciplinary book aims to understand how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are defined, delineated, contested and understood in different places and times. The book offers contributions from a number of scholars who, based on their on their own research, discuss on going theoretical issues and analytical...... challenges Some chapters focuses on how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale have been regulated by the authorities and what understandings this regulation builds on. Other chapters investigate the experiences of the sex workers and sex buyers asking how these actors adjust to or resist the categorisation...

  6. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm...... territory, which they consider their place, but are unwilling to employ large-scale mobility themselves. Mobility is not of importance for their ethnic identity and some use paid herders to care for their livestock. By looking at both knowledge systems, we achieve a better understanding of pastoral mobility...

  7. Images of Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The term usability is ubiquitous in human-computer interaction, so much so that it is commonly used without definition. Rather than one established meaning of usability, there are, however, multiple images of usability. While each image provides a partial view, the partiality remains implicit...... unless confronted with alternative images. This study delineates six images of usability: universal usability, situational usability, perceived usability, hedonic usability, organizational usability, and cultural usability. The different foci of the images provide opportunities for becoming sensitized...... to manifold aspects of the use of a system and thereby acquiring a genuine understanding of its usability. The six images differ, for example, in the extent to which they include aspects of the outcome of the process of using a system or merely the process of use, whether they involve collaborative use...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor- ... Centered Approach View this video on YouTube. Anthony L. Back, M.D., coaches other oncologists about how ...

  9. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  10. Understanding regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heymann, Matthias; Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    ”. Danish wind power development is all the more surprising, as the innovation process in wind technology was carried to a large extent by non-academic craftsmen and political activists. Many features of this innovation story have been investigated and that research makes it possible to summarize...... the current understanding of the regime shift....

  11. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  12. Understanding the bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    all boils down to the role pricing plays vis-à-vis the emergence of a new venture and its perceived value. Being in the midst of the global economic crisis provides us with a unique opportunity to refine the proposed model, especially by understanding its temporal and contextual boundaries....

  13. Teachers' Understandings of Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Thompson, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Probability is an important idea with a remarkably wide range of applications. However, psychological and instructional studies conducted in the last two decades have consistently documented poor understanding of probability among different populations across different settings. The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical framework for…

  14. Understanding Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This curriculum module is designed for students who are taking high school chemistry. Students should already have some experience with the following: (1) Understanding and reading the pH scale; (2) Knowledge of the carbon cycle; (3) Using scientific notation to express large and small values; and (4) Reading chemical equations. This curriculum…

  15. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  16. Understanding Organizational Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    The attention-based view (ABV) of the firm highlights the role of decision makers’ attention in firm behavior. The ABV vastly improves our understanding of decision makers’ focus of attention; how that focus is situated in an organization’s procedural and communication channels; and how the distr......The attention-based view (ABV) of the firm highlights the role of decision makers’ attention in firm behavior. The ABV vastly improves our understanding of decision makers’ focus of attention; how that focus is situated in an organization’s procedural and communication channels; and how...... the distribution of the focus of attention among decision makers participating in those procedural and communication channels affects their understanding of a situation, their motivation to act, and, ultimately, their behavior. Significant progress has been made in recent years in refining and extending the ABV....... However, the role of individual differences in the capacity to read other people’s desires, intentions, knowledge, and beliefs that is, the theory of mind (ToM) has remained on the sidelines. The ToM is a natural complement to the ABV. In this study, we explore how the ToM allows for an understanding...

  17. Understanding ADHD through entification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    with adults diagnosed with ADHD, I illustrate how the process of entification (transforming a trait, temperament, emotion, or some other psychological phenomenon into a thing or agent) can be a way to understand, accept and handle the symptoms of ADHD. In this context, ADHD is perceived on the one hand...

  18. Measuring Spreadsheet Formula Understandability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.F.J.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Spreadsheets are widely used in industry, because they are flexible and easy to use. Often they are used for business-critical applications. It is however difficult for spreadsheet users to correctly assess the quality of spreadsheets, especially with respect to the understandability.

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention ... source and a link to this page included, e.g., “Understanding Cancer Prognosis was originally published by ...

  20. Text understanding for computers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenter, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing challenge for computers communicating with humans is to pass the Turing test, i.e., to communicate in such a way that it is impossible for humans to determine whether they are talking to a computer or another human being. The field of natural language understanding — which studies

  1. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  2. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  3. Understanding Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon

    From Pong to PlayStation 3 and beyond, Understanding Video Games is the first general introduction to the exciting new field of video game studies. This textbook traces the history of video games, introduces the major theories used to analyze games such as ludology and narratology, reviews...... the economics of the game industry, examines the aesthetics of game design, surveys the broad range of game genres, explores player culture, and addresses the major debates surrounding the medium, from educational benefits to the effects of violence. Throughout the book, the authors ask readers to consider...... larger questions about the medium: * What defines a video game? * Who plays games? * Why do we play games? * How do games affect the player? Extensively illustrated, Understanding Video Games is an indispensable and comprehensive resource for those interested in the ways video games are reshaping...

  4. Understanding Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon

    From Pong to PlayStation 3 and beyond, Understanding Video Games is the first general introduction to the exciting new field of video game studies. This textbook traces the history of video games, introduces the major theories used to analyze games such as ludology and narratology, reviews...... larger questions about the medium: * What defines a video game? * Who plays games? * Why do we play games? * How do games affect the player? Extensively illustrated, Understanding Video Games is an indispensable and comprehensive resource for those interested in the ways video games are reshaping...... entertainment and society. A companion website (www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415977210) features student resources including discussion questions for each chapter, a glossary of key terms, a video game timeline, and links to other video game studies resources for further study....

  5. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  6. Intention understanding in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boria

    Full Text Available When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking. Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the "why" trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object ("why-use" trials, in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object ("why-place" trials. The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the "why-place" trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues.

  7. Understanding nuclear issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-09-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  8. Understanding the spermatozoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Queenie V; Hu, Jennifer; Rosenwaks, Zev; Palermo, Gianpiero D

    2014-01-01

    The former perception of the spermatozoon as a delivery device of the male genome has been expanded to include a new understanding of the cell's complex role in fertilization. Once the spermatozoon reaches the oocyte, it triggers egg activation and orchestrates the stages of pre- and post-fertilization in a preprogrammed pattern while tapping the oocyte's resources in an effort to generate a new life.

  9. Understanding Mediation Support

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz, David; Pring, Jamie; von Burg, Corinne; Zeller, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed increasing institutionalization of mediation support through the establishment of mediation support structures (MSS) within foreign ministries and secretariats of multilateral organizations. This study sheds light on this trend and aims to better understand the emergence, design and development of different MSS. This study analyzes six MSS, namely those established in the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Eu...

  10. Understanding nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, G.

    1999-01-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  11. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  12. Brain imaging and schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, J.L.; Dao-Castellana, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain structures and brain function have been investigated by the new brain imaging techniques for more than ten years. In Psychiatry, these techniques could afford a new understanding of mental diseases. In schizophrenic patients, CAT scanner and RMI pointed out statistically significant ventricular enlargments which are presently considered as evidence for abnormalities in brain maturation. Functional imaging techniques reported metabolic dysfunctions in the cortical associative areas which are probably linked to the cognitive features of schizophrenics [fr

  13. Optical imaging and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, David J

    2009-01-01

    An essential reference for optical sensor system design This is the first text to present an integrated view of the optical and mathematical analysis tools necessary to understand computational optical system design. It presents the foundations of computational optical sensor design with a focus entirely on digital imaging and spectroscopy. It systematically covers: Coded aperture and tomographic imaging Sampling and transformations in optical systems, including wavelets and generalized sampling techniques essential to digital system analysis Geometric, wave, and statis

  14. Artistic Stereo Imaging by Edge Preserving Smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Campisi, Patrizio; Callet, Patrick Le; Petkov, Nicolai

    2009-01-01

    Stereo imaging is an important area of image and video processing, with exploding progress in the last decades. An open issue in this field is the understanding of the conditions under which the straightforward application of a given image processing operator to both the left and right image of a

  15. Data imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepy, G.

    1999-01-01

    After an introduction about data imaging in general, the principles of imaging data collected via neutron scattering experiments are presented. Some computer programs designed for data imaging purposes are reviewed. (K.A.)

  16. Tomographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Tomographic images of an object or scene are produced by an analysis of two or more stereographic images of the scene including shifting one image laterally with respect to another and logically summing the image data sets. Several image processing, edge enhancement and edge extraction algorithms may be applied to the images in digitised video data form to provide wire-frame or skeleton type representations of each of the original images. Tomographic images of planes not parallel with the image plane (or normal to the camera axes) may be produced by changing the magnification of one image prior to logical summing. The images may be generated by three video cameras arranged on two orthogonal axes for elimination of spurious coincidences. The images are preferably produced using X-rays. (author)

  17. Image Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

  18. An Interdisciplinary Approach for Understanding Artworks: The Role of Music in Visual Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlou, Victoria; Athansiou, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    In a world that is becoming increasingly more visual, there is a greater need to educate children to better understand images. A school subject that deals directly with image understanding is visual arts. This article discusses an interdisciplinary approach to promote art understanding, within a multimodal environment that combines art and music.…

  19. Quantum Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kolobov, Mikhail I

    2007-01-01

    Quantum Imaging is a newly born branch of quantum optics that investigates the ultimate performance limits of optical imaging allowed by the laws of quantum mechanics. Using the methods and techniques from quantum optics, quantum imaging addresses the questions of image formation, processing and detection with sensitivity and resolution exceeding the limits of classical imaging. This book contains the most important theoretical and experimental results achieved by the researchers of the Quantum Imaging network, a research programme of the European Community.

  20. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...... are self-contained and can be read independently. There is however a common thread in the themes covered as all essays focus on the understanding of interest rate volatility, its time-variation and main determinants....

  1. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  2. Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolstad, William M

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to computational statistics from a Bayesian point of view Providing a solid grounding in statistics while uniquely covering the topics from a Bayesian perspective, Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics successfully guides readers through this new, cutting-edge approach. With its hands-on treatment of the topic, the book shows how samples can be drawn from the posterior distribution when the formula giving its shape is all that is known, and how Bayesian inferences can be based on these samples from the posterior. These ideas are illustrated on common statistic

  3. Understanding Homicide-Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, James L

    2016-12-01

    Homicide-suicide is the phenomenon in which an individual kills 1 or more people and commits suicide. Research on homicide-suicide has been hampered by a lack of an accepted classification scheme and reliance on media reports. Mass murder-suicide is gaining increasing attention particularly in the United States. This article reviews the research and literature on homicide-suicide, proposing a standard classification scheme. Preventive methods are discussed and sociocultural factors explored. For a more accurate and complete understanding of homicide-suicide, it is argued that future research should use the full psychological autopsy approach, to include collateral interviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding quantum phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Lincoln

    2010-01-01

    Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth

  5. Understanding MARC: Another Look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Chang

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available 無MARC format has been widely used and discussed in our profession. However, there appear to have a wide spread misunderstanding of its real structure and attributes. This article discuss the needs for us to understand it a little more. Also, it presents the general misconceptions about MARC, the compatibility of MARC, the structure of MARC, standardization and - data communication, and some major issues related to MARC format. In this library automation age, MARC is a key element in library services, and it deserves us to take another look.

  6. Understanding Teen UX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitton, Daniel; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Bell, Beth

    2014-01-01

    needs to be understood about this population, from a UX perspective. The theme of this workshop is Building a Bridge to the Future and the aim is to gather together academics and UX practitioners, interested in teen users specifically, in order to discuss experiences, understandings, insights...... and methods that we can use to comprehend teen UX now and explore how this may lead to the creation of better interactive products in the future. The workshop will also foster new collaborations, and define new research agendas to grow the research and literature in this area....

  7. Understanding DSGE models

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Junior, Celso Jose

    2016-01-01

    While the theoretical development of DSGE models is not overly difficult to understand, practical application remains somewhat complex. The literature on this subject has some significant obscure points. This book can be thought of, firstly, as a tool to overcome initial hurdles with this type of modeling. Secondly, by showcasing concrete applications, it aims to persuade incipient researchers to work with this methodology. In principle, this is not a book on macroeconomics in itself, but on tools used in the construction of this sort of models. It strives to present this technique in a detail

  8. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  9. Biomedical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deserno, Thomas Martin

    2011-01-01

    In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.

  10. Understanding medical device regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgon, Richard E

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a structural and functional understanding of the systems used for the regulation of medical devices in the USA and European Union (EU). Safe and effective anesthesia care depends heavily on medical devices, including simple, low risk devices to complex life-supporting and life-sustaining devices. In the USA and EU, the Food and Drug Administration and European Commission, respectively, provide regulatory oversight to ensure medical devices are reasonably safe and effective when used for their intended purposes. Unfortunately, practicing anesthesiologists generally have little or no understanding of how medical devices are regulated, nor do they have sufficient knowledge of available adverse event reporting systems. The US and EU medical device regulatory systems are similar in many ways, but differ in important ways too, which impacts the afforded level of safety and effectiveness assurance. In both systems, medical devices are classified and regulated on a risk basis, which fundamentally differs from drug regulation, where uniform requirements are imposed. Anesthesia providers must gain knowledge of these systems and be active players in both premarket and postmarket activities, particularly with regard to vigilance and adverse event/device failure reporting.

  11. Understanding Callisto's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John

    2016-10-01

    We plan to address first-order questions about the nature and origin of the mysterious atmosphere of Callisto, including its composition, longitudinal distribution, formation, and support mechanisms. This investigation is made possible by the remarkable sensitivity of the COS instrument, which has recently detected faint 1304 A and 1356 A O I emission from Callisto's leading / Jupiter-facing quadrant. The emission is probably due to dissociation of O2 molecules in Callisto's atmosphere by photo-electrons, and resonant scattering from an extended atomic O corona. We suspect, from Galileo ionospheric data, that the atmosphere may be much denser, and brighter in emission, on the trailing hemisphere, as expected for a sputter-generated atmosphere, and propose to test the sputter generation hypothesis with 4-orbit COS integrations on the leading and trailing hemispheres. If the trailing side emissions are indeed brighter, the improved SNR there will also allow much improved determination of atmospheric and coronal composition and optical depth. The observations will set the stage for, and aid in planning of, the extensive observations of Callisto's environment planned for the JUICE mission. Because Callisto's atmospheric oxygen emissions are indirectly illuminated by sunlight, which is uniform and quantifiable, it is much easier to understand atmospheric spatial distribution, and thus origin, than on Europa and Ganymede were emissions depend on magnetospheric excitation which is spatially variable and poorly understood. Callisto's atmosphere thus provides a unique chance to better understand the oxygen atmospheres of all the icy Galilean moons.

  12. Understanding Lustre Internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL; Wang, Di [ORNL; Huang, He [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  13. The Christian Understanding of Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Zwoliński

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship with God allows man to find the sense of life. Christianity is a humanism – it positions man in the very centre of the world according him the highest place – of the being created after God’s image. The revelation of God’s Love endows man with a new way of enriching himself and others. Thus the desire for happiness gains a new perspective of the divine longing for good. Happiness which Christ promises exceeds the limits of our imagination. It is incon­ ceivable and incomprehensible to those living on earth. Heaven is beyond every word, beyond our conception for it bears the meaning which man cannot fully understand. It is the most supreme happiness, absolutely perfect and complete which no one has ever known. A Christian has to achieve in his life something more than the worldly aims. Whoever limits their life to the earth, focuses only on enjoying and using this life to the full; squeezing from it the last drop heedless of the needs of others.

  14. Understanding empathy and related phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamasundar, C

    1999-01-01

    Over a period of time, the author arrived at a few tentative postulates concerning empathy and related processes based on some of his experiences and observations. The central theme of these postulates is, firstly, that interpersonal interaction is an interaction of the personal-space fields. Secondly, empathy, therapeutic benefit, and the professional stress are all related to the same process of interpersonal interaction. This interaction takes place as an enmeshment of personal spaces of the interacting individuals, and involves transfer of a wide range of information in the affective, cognitive, and other areas. This is because the personal spaces have fieldlike qualities analogous to what Kurt Lewin described. Thus, such phenomena as empathy, therapeutic benefit, professional stress are all consequences of the same process. It is possible to substantiate these postulates by diverse evidences in the published literature. The natural consequences of such an interpersonal interaction are empathic understanding, transfer of mood states (like hope, distress or expectancy), affective states (like anxiety, sadness, anger or hostility), ideas, images and even attitudes and values, etc. This phenomenon of transfer can explain such processes as therapeutic benefit in individual and group settings, professional stress, shared delusions, and even experimenter bias. Whether one becomes aware of such transferred information or not depends upon the intent and sensitivity of the participants.

  15. A Deep Learning Pipeline for Image Understanding and Acoustic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Clement Farabet, Ylan Boureau, Michael Mathieu , Marco Scoffier, Ayse Erkan, Matt Grimes, Marc-Aurelio Ranzato, Li Wan and Xiang Zhang. Special thanks...summarized in equation (1), where G is a Gaussian kernel, I is the input feature map and O is the output feature map. It can be imagined as giving an...mixing coefficients z ∈ Rn. z∗ = argmin z ‖x−Dz‖22 + λs(z) (4.1) The aim is to minimize equation 4.1 with respect to z to obtain the optimal sparse

  16. CaII Κ Imaging to Understand UV Irradiance Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    agencies responsible for CaII emission are: the plages, the network, and the intranet work elements. The changes in the network and intranetwork elements related to solar activity are less understood, especially because of the lack of systematic and quantitative measurements of these chromospheric features. In our earlier ...

  17. CaII Κ Imaging to Understand UV Irradiance Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    (NSO/Sac Peak). The main purpose of the present paper is to separate and to derive the relative intensity and area of various chromospheric features from 424 ... 2. Results and discussion. To analyze the CaII Κ spectroheliograms and to separate various chromospheric magnetic features, we have calculated histograms ...

  18. Document Image Parsing and Understanding using Neuromorphic Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    converge at optimal weights so as to minimize the square of the error between a target output pattern and the input prototype pattern. Algorithm 1...only based on their grammatical relation. Semantic should be assigned in addition to POS tag to enhance those words that are semantically correlated

  19. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuro...

  20. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    OpenAIRE

    Emily eFalk; Emily eFalk; Baldwin eWay; Agnes eJasinska

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neur...

  1. Foundation of a Knowledge Representation System for Image Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    the tasks of the system is also basic in systems that use complete indexing, or Conniver, or Lisp. Systems like KRL [11], on the other hand, have a...Winograd, T., "An Overview of KRL , a Knowledge Representation Language," Cogn. Science, pp. 13-45, 1977. [12] Zadeh, L.A., "PRUF - A Memory

  2. Understanding engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Bill

    2001-01-01

    * Unique interactive style enables students to diagnose their strengths and weaknesses and focus their efforts where needed* Ideal for self-study and tutorial work, building from an initially supportive approach to the development of independent learning skills * Free website includes solutions to all exercises, additional topics and applications, guide to learning mathematics, and practice materialStudents today enter engineering courses with a wide range of mathematical skills, due to the many different pre-university qualifications studied. Bill Cox''s aim is for students to gain a thorough understanding of the maths they are studying, by first strengthening their background in the essentials of each topic. His approach allows a unique self-paced study style, in which students Review their strengths and weaknesses through self-administered diagnostic tests, then focus on Revision where they need it, to finally Reinforce the skills required.The book is structured around a highly successful ''transition'' ma...

  3. From understanding to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents some methodological considerations around the topic of the AFinLA 2012 Autumn Symposium: Multimodal discourses of participation. The aim is to shed theoretical and analytical light on embodied participation in material settings. The research is placed in a relational perspective...... in which entities (for example, the world, culture, society, organization and identities) emerge through entangled, layered practices in concrete circumstances. Understanding is not treated as a philosophical puzzle or as a purely linguistic phenomenon. Rather, it is conceptualized as an embodied......, multimodal process in which language together with bodily senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste) and a sense of place contribute to a phenomenon being recognized (as shared). Participation can result in inclusion or exclusion, a claim which is discussed with the help of a pilot study from...

  4. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  5. Understanding medical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov

    2015-01-01

    perspectives deal with how symptom perception occurs when any kind of altered balance brings forward a bodily attention. Corporeality is brought to explicit awareness and perceived as sensations. Jesper Hoffmeyer’s biosemiotic perspectives provide access to how signs are interpreted to attribute meaning......The aim of this article is to present a conceptual review and analysis of symptom understanding. Subjective bodily sensations occur abundantly in the normal population and dialogues about symptoms take place in a broad range of contexts, not only in the doctor’s office. Our review of symptom...... is a social and relational phenomenon of containment, and regulating the situation where the symptoms originate implies adjusting containment. Discourse analysis, as presented by Jonathan Potter and Margaret Wetherell, provides a tool to notice the subtle ways in which language orders perceptions and how...

  6. Understanding philosophical animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Una

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the Predrag Krstić's book Philosophical Animal author is trying to find hers way through a broad and complex web of philosophies and roles that different animals play in them. The main question is how to understand philosophy itself in a present day context, which philosophy is supposed to think and rethink through. Animals as presented in concepts, more precisely philosophical contexts, open one interesting and innovative way to deal with this question, balancing between tradition of philosophy and its presence, structure of philosophical arguments and questioning of language of philosophy, abstract and individual. In this frame philosopher as the true philosophical animal is revealed as the main symbol that requires analysis in his philosophical strategies.

  7. Towards better process understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matero, Sanni Elina; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J; Poutiainen, Sami

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of tablets involves many unit operations that possess multivariate and complex characteristics. The interactions between the material characteristics and process related variation are presently not comprehensively analyzed due to univariate detection methods. As a consequence......, current best practice to control a typical process is to not allow process-related factors to vary i.e. lock the production parameters. The problem related to the lack of sufficient process understanding is still there: the variation within process and material properties is an intrinsic feature...... and cannot be compensated for with constant process parameters. Instead, a more comprehensive approach based on the use of multivariate tools for investigating processes should be applied. In the pharmaceutical field these methods are referred to as Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools that aim...

  8. Understanding climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellous, J.L.; Gautier, C.; Andre, J.C.; Balstad, R.; Boucher, O.; Brasseur, G.; Chahine, M.T.; Chanin, M.L.; Ciais, P.; Corell, W.; Duplessy, J.C.; Hourcade, J.C.; Jouzel, J.; Kaufman, Y.J.; Laval, K.; Le Treut, H.; Minster, J.F.; Moore, B. III; Morel, P.; Rasool, S.I.; Remy, F.; Smith, R.C.; Somerville, R.C.J.; Wood, E.F.; Wood, H.; Wunsch, C.

    2007-01-01

    Climatic change is gaining ground and with no doubt is stimulated by human activities. It is therefore urgent to better understand its nature, importance and potential impacts. The chapters of this book have been written by US and French experts of the global warming question. After a description of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, GIEC in French) consensus, they present the past and present researches on each of the main component of the climate system, on the question of climatic change impacts and on the possible answers. The conclusion summarizes the results of each chapter. Content: presentation of the IPCC; greenhouse effect, radiation balance and clouds; atmospheric aerosols and climatic change; global water cycle and climate; influence of climatic change on the continental hydrologic cycle; ocean and climate; ice and climate; global carbon cycle; about some impacts of climatic change on Europe and the Atlantic Ocean; interaction between atmospheric chemistry and climate; climate and society, the human dimension. (J.S.)

  9. Understanding person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew W; Bruce, Vicki

    2011-11-01

    Bruce and Young's (1986) theoretical framework was actually a synthesis of ideas contributed by several people. Some of its insights have stood the test of time - especially the importance of using converging evidence from as wide a range of methods of enquiry as possible, and an emphasis on understanding the demands that are made by particular face perception tasks. But there were also areas where Bruce and Young failed to obey their own edicts (emotion recognition), and some topics they simply omitted (gaze perception). We discuss these, and then look at how the field has been transformed by computing developments, finishing with a few thoughts about where things may go over the next few (25?) years. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Understanding Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding defense mechanisms is an important part of psychotherapy. In this article, we trace the history of the concept of defense, from its origin with Freud to current views. The issue of defense as an unconscious mechanism is examined. The question of whether defenses are pathological, as well as their relation to pathology, is discussed. The effect of psychotherapy on the use of defenses, and their relation to a therapeutic alliance is explored. A series of empirical research studies that demonstrate the functioning of defense mechanisms and that support the theory is presented. Research also shows that as part of normal development, different defenses emerge at different developmental periods, and that gender differences in defense use occur.

  11. Understanding social motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding traditional African healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgobi, M G

    2014-09-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  13. High Content Screening: Understanding Cellular Pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Zaffar Ali Mohamed Amiroudine; Daryl Jesus Arapoc; Zainah Adam; Shafii Khamis

    2015-01-01

    High content screening (HCS) is the convergence between cell-based assays, high-resolution fluorescence imaging, phase-contrast imaging of fixed- or live-cell assays, tissues and small organisms. It has been widely adopted in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries for target identification and validation and as secondary screens to reveal potential toxicities or to elucidate a drugs mechanism of action. By using the ImageXpress® Micro XLS System HCS, the complex network of key players controlling proliferation and apoptosis can be reduced to several sentinel markers for analysis. Cell proliferation and apoptosis are two key areas in cell biology and drug discovery research. Understanding the signaling pathways in cell proliferation and apoptosis is important for new therapeutic discovery because the imbalance between these two events is predominant in the progression of many human diseases, including cancer. The DNA binding dye DAPI is used to determine the nuclear size and nuclear morphology as well as cell cycle phases by DNA content. Images together with MetaXpress® analysis results provide a convenient and easy to use solution to high volume image management. In particular, HCS platform is beginning to have an important impact on early drug discovery, basic research in systems cell biology, and is expected to play a role in personalized medicine or revealing off-target drug effects. (author)

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ... the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Appendicitis Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...

  16. Multispectral imaging for medical diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, V. J.

    1977-01-01

    Photography technique determines amount of morbidity present in tissue. Imaging apparatus incorporates numerical filtering. Overall system operates in near-real time. Information gained from this system enables physician to understand extent of injury and leads to accelerated treatment.

  17. Image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Blanken, Henk; Vries de, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    The field of image processing addresses handling and analysis of images for many purposes using a large number of techniques and methods. The applications of image processing range from enhancement of the visibility of cer- tain organs in medical images to object recognition for handling by

  18. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  19. Multimodality cardiovascular molecular imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Matthew; McVeigh, Elliot R; Strauss, H William; Tanaka, Atsushi; Bouma, Brett E; Tearney, Guillermo J; Guttman, Michael A; Garcia, Ernest V

    2010-05-01

    Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a new discipline that integrates scientific advances in both functional imaging and molecular probes to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the cardiovascular system. These advances are driven by in vivo imaging of molecular processes in animals, usually small animals, and are rapidly moving toward clinical applications. Molecular imaging has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The 2 key components of all molecular imaging systems are the molecular contrast agents and the imaging system providing spatial and temporal localization of these agents within the body. They must deliver images with the appropriate sensitivity and specificity to drive clinical applications. As work in molecular contrast agents matures and highly sensitive and specific probes are developed, these systems will provide the imaging technologies required for translation into clinical tools. This is the promise of molecular medicine.

  20. Tools for Understanding Identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creese, Sadie; Gibson-Robinson, Thomas; Goldsmith, Michael; Hodges, Duncan; Kim, Dee DH; Love, Oriana J.; Nurse, Jason R.; Pike, William A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2013-12-28

    Identity attribution and enrichment is critical to many aspects of law-enforcement and intelligence gathering; this identity typically spans a number of domains in the natural-world such as biographic information (factual information – e.g. names, addresses), biometric information (e.g. fingerprints) and psychological information. In addition to these natural-world projections of identity, identity elements are projected in the cyber-world. Conversely, undesirable elements may use similar techniques to target individuals for spear-phishing attacks (or worse), and potential targets or their organizations may want to determine how to minimize the attack surface exposed. Our research has been exploring the construction of a mathematical model for identity that supports such holistic identities. The model captures the ways in which an identity is constructed through a combination of data elements (e.g. a username on a forum, an address, a telephone number). Some of these elements may allow new characteristics to be inferred, hence enriching the holistic view of the identity. An example use-case would be the inference of real names from usernames, the ‘path’ created by inferring new elements of identity is highlighted in the ‘critical information’ panel. Individual attribution exercises can be understood as paths through a number of elements. Intuitively the entire realizable ‘capability’ can be modeled as a directed graph, where the elements are nodes and the inferences are represented by links connecting one or more antecedents with a conclusion. The model can be operationalized with two levels of tool support described in this paper, the first is a working prototype, the second is expected to reach prototype by July 2013: Understanding the Model The tool allows a user to easily determine, given a particular set of inferences and attributes, which elements or inferences are of most value to an investigator (or an attacker). The tool is also able to take

  1. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how media exposure, self esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers.The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure to...

  2. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Twentieth century bore witness to remarkable scientists whohave advanced our understanding of the brain. Among them,EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) imaging is particularlyuseful in monitoring hypoxic zones in tumors which arehighly resistant to radiation and chemotherapeutic treatment.This first part of the ...

  3. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    MRI deals with the in vivo distribution of endogenous protons in water and tissue, whereas for EPRI we have to introduce bio- compatible free radicals before imaging. ..... no spectral information, but only spatial information. We can understand the spectral–spatial projections if we define a pseudo- viewing angle defined by.

  4. Transformation of the Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middlemas, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the visual representations of various figures in the book of Ezekiel with a view towards understanding the rhetorical strategies employed. One of the rhetorical strategies apparent is the evocation of images to abolish them. Furthermore, careful observation rev...

  5. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Understanding anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, L A; Natrajan, M; Kothari, M L

    1996-01-01

    Words are our masters and words are our slaves, all depending on how we use them. The whole of medical science owes its origin to Greco-Roman culture and is replete with terms whose high sound is not necessarily accompanied by sound meaning. This is even more the case in the initial, pre-clinical years. Anatomical terminology seems bewildering to the initiate; and maybe that is a reason why love of anatomy as a subject does not always spill over through later years. Employing certain classifications of the origin of the anatomical terms, we have prepared an anthology that we hope will ease the student's task and also heighten the student's appreciation of the new terms. This centers on revealing the Kiplingian "how, why, when, where, what, and who" of a given term. This presentation should empower students to independently formulate a wide network of correlations once they understand a particular term. The article thus hopes to stimulate students' analytic and synthetic faculties as well. A small effort can reap large rewards in terms of enjoyment of the study of anatomy and the related subjects of histology, embryology, and genetics. It is helpful to teachers and students alike. This exercise in semantics and etymology does not demand of the student or his teacher any background in linguistics, grammar, Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, anatomy, or medicine.

  7. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  8. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Ballerini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”

  9. Understanding autism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."

  10. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Doug [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Leggett, Jim [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-07-29

    The Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager project has a goal to develop a wireline ultrasonic imager that is capable of operating in temperatures up to 300°C (572°F) and depths up to 10 km (32,808 ft). This will address one of the critical needs in any EGS development of understanding the hydraulic flow paths in the reservoir. The ultrasonic imaging is well known in the oil and gas industry as one of the best methods for fracture evaluation; providing both high resolution and complete azimuthal coverage of the borehole. This enables fracture detection and characterization, both natural and induced, providing information as to their location, dip direction and dip magnitude. All of these factors are critical to fully understand the fracture system to enable the optimization of the thermal drainage through injectors and producers in a geothermal resource.

  11. Principles of digital image synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Glassner, Andrew S

    1995-01-01

    Image synthesis, or rendering, is a field of transformation: it changesgeometry and physics into meaningful images. Because the most popularalgorithms frequently change, it is increasingly important for researchersand implementors to have a basic understanding of the principles of imagesynthesis. Focusing on theory, Andrew Glassner provides a comprehensiveexplanation of the three core fields of study that come together to formdigital image synthesis: the human visual system, digital signalprocessing, and the interaction of matter and light. Assuming no more thana basic background in calculus,

  12. Image post-processing in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormez, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Hasan Huseyin

    2009-10-01

    Image post-processing of dental digital radiographs, a function which used commonly in dental practice is presented in this article. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years and its use by dental practitioners is steadily increasing. Digital acquisition of radiographs enables computer-based image post-processing to enhance image quality and increase the accuracy of interpretation. Image post-processing applications can easily be practiced in dental office by a computer and image processing programs. In this article, image post-processing operations such as image restoration, image enhancement, image analysis, image synthesis, and image compression, and their diagnostic efficacy is described. In addition this article provides general dental practitioners with a broad overview of the benefits of the different image post-processing operations to help them understand the role of that the technology can play in their practices.

  13. Image Post-Processing in Dental Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormez, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Hasan Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    Image post-processing of dental digital radiographs, a function which used commonly in dental practice is presented in this article. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years and its use by dental practitioners is steadily increasing. Digital acquisition of radiographs enables computer-based image post-processing to enhance image quality and increase the accuracy of interpretation. Image post-processing applications can easily be practiced in dental office by a computer and image processing programs. In this article, image post-processing operations such as image restoration, image enhancement, image analysis, image synthesis, and image compression, and their diagnostic efficacy is described. In addition this article provides general dental practitioners with a broad overview of the benefits of the different image post-processing operations to help them understand the role of that the technology can play in their practices. PMID:19826609

  14. Understanding Social Media Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José van Dijck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpin­ning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass me­dia logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmabil­ity, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increas­ingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance ex­isting mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relat­ively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between plat­forms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that

  15. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Geoparks for understanding geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila-Muilu, Sirpa

    2015-04-01

    used to enhance the understanding of geodiversity - through different scales.

  17. The Medical Image Perception Society Update on Key Issues for Image Perception Research1

    OpenAIRE

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Berbaum, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    To guide future investigations, the 2007 Medical Image Perception Society meeting held panel discussions to consider the current state of our knowledge of medical image perception and identify important questions to advance our understanding.

  18. Spinal imaging and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    This book is instrumental to building a bridge between scientists and clinicians in the field of spine imaging by introducing state-of-the-art computational methods in the context of clinical applications.  Spine imaging via computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and other radiologic imaging modalities, is essential for noninvasively visualizing and assessing spinal pathology. Computational methods support and enhance the physician’s ability to utilize these imaging techniques for diagnosis, non-invasive treatment, and intervention in clinical practice. Chapters cover a broad range of topics encompassing radiological imaging modalities, clinical imaging applications for common spine diseases, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, quantitative analysis, data reconstruction and visualization, statistical modeling, image-guided spine intervention, and robotic surgery. This volume serves a broad audience as  contributions were written by both clinicians and researchers, which reflects the inte...

  19. Image denoising using cloud images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Huanjing; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Jingyu; Wu, Feng

    2013-09-01

    Image denoising manages to recover a digital image from its noisy version by exploring the statistical features inside a given noisy image. Most denoising methods perform well at low noise levels but lose efficiency at higher ones. In this paper, we propose a novel image denoising method, which restores an image by exploiting the correlations between the noisy image and the images retrieved from the cloud. Given a noisy image, we first retrieve relevant images based on feature-level similarity. These images are then geometrically aligned to the noisy image to increase global statistical correlation. Using the aligned images as references, we propose recovering the image with patch-level noise removal. For each noisy patch, we first retrieve similar patches from the references and stack these patches (including the noisy one) into a three dimensional (3D) group. We then obtain the noise free (NF) patches by collaborative filtering over the 3D groups. These recovered NF patches are aggregated together, producing the desired NF image. Experimental results demonstrate that our scheme achieves significantly better results compared to state-of-the-art methods in terms of both objective and subjective qualities.

  20. Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M. C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

  1. Microwave imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorino, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the most relevant theoretical and algorithmic aspects of modern microwave imaging approaches Microwave imaging-a technique used in sensing a given scene by means of interrogating microwaves-has recently proven its usefulness in providing excellent diagnostic capabilities in several areas, including civil and industrial engineering, nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysical prospecting, and biomedical engineering. Microwave Imaging offers comprehensive descriptions of the most important techniques so far proposed for short-range microwave imaging-in

  2. Image alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  3. Understanding Metaphorical Use of Verbs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torreano, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    How do people understand language in which verbs are used metaphorically? For example, how do people understand utterances such as He bathed in her beauty or She punctured his ego in everyday conversation...

  4. Hyperspectral image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liguo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the authors’ research, this book introduces the main processing techniques in hyperspectral imaging. In this context, SVM-based classification, distance comparison-based endmember extraction, SVM-based spectral unmixing, spatial attraction model-based sub-pixel mapping, and MAP/POCS-based super-resolution reconstruction are discussed in depth. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of these cutting-edge hyperspectral imaging techniques. Researchers and graduate students in fields such as remote sensing, surveying and mapping, geosciences and information systems will benefit from this valuable resource.

  5. Nuclear imaging of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Y.W.

    1998-01-01

    This book provides up-to-the minute information on the diagnostic nuclear imaging of chest disorders. The authors have endeavored to integrate and consolidate the many different subspecialities in order to enable a holistic understanding of chest diseases from the nuclear medicine standpoint. Highlights of the book include in addition to the cardiac scan the description of aerosol lung imaging in COPD and other important pulmonary diseases and the updates on breast and lung cancer imaging, as well as imaging of the bony thorax and esophagus. It is required reading not only for nuclear medicine practitioners and researchers but also for all interested radiologists, traumatologists, pulmonologists, oncologists and cardiologists. (orig.)

  6. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualize processes in living subjects at the molecular level. Monitoring biochemical processes at this level will allow us to directly track biological processes and signaling events that lead to pathophysiological abnormalities, and help make personalized medicine a reality by allowing evaluation of therapeutic efficacies on an individual basis. Although most molecular imaging techniques emerged from the field of oncology, they have now gradually gained acceptance by the cardiovascular community. Hence, the availability of dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems and specific targeting imaging probes is now enhancing our understanding of cardiovascular diseases and expediting the development of newer therapies. Examples include imaging approaches to evaluate and track the progress of recent genetic and cellular therapies for treatment of myocardial ischemia. Other areas include in vivo monitoring of such key molecular processes as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cardiovascular molecular imaging is already an important research tool in preclinical experiments. The challenge that lies ahead is to implement these techniques into the clinics so that they may help fulfill the promise of molecular therapies and personalized medicine, as well as to resolve disappointments and controversies surrounding the field

  7. Head and neck cancer imaging. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermans, Robert (ed.) [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2012-07-01

    Imaging is crucial in the multidisciplinary approach to head and neck cancer management. The rapid technological development of recent years makes it necessary for all members of the multidisciplinary team to understand the potential applications, limitations, and advantages of existing and evolving imaging technologies. It is equally important that the radiologist has sufficient clinical background knowledge to understand the clinical significance of imaging findings. This book provides an overview of the findings obtained using different imaging techniques during the evaluation of head and neck neoplasms, both before and after therapy. All anatomic areas in the head and neck are covered, and the impact of imaging on patient management is discussed in detail. The authors are recognized experts in the field, and numerous high-quality images are included. This second edition provides information on the latest imaging developments in this area, including the application of PET-CT and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

  9. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  10. A Dual Process Approach to Understand Tourists’ Destination Choice Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Most studies that investigate tourists' choices of destinations apply the concept of mental destination representations, also referred to as destination image. The present study investigates tourists’ destination choice processes by conceptualizing how different components of destination image...... are mentally processed in tourists' minds. Specifically, the seminal dual processing approach is applied to the destination image literature. By doing this, we argue that some components of mental destination representations are processed systematically while others serve as inputs for heuristics...... that individuals apply to inform their decision making. Understanding how individuals make use of their mental destination representations and how they color their decision-making is essential in order to better explain tourist behavior....

  11. Understanding Understanding Mathematics. Artificial Intelligence Memo No. 488.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michener, Edwina Rissland

    This document is concerned with the important extra-logical knowledge that is often outside of traditional discussions in mathematics, and looks at some of the ingredients and processes involved in the understanding of mathematics. The goal is to develop a conceptual framework in which to talk about mathematical knowledge and to understand the…

  12. Cerenkov Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sudeep; Thorek, Daniel L.J.; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Cerenkov luminescence (CL) has been used recently in a plethora of medical applications like imaging and therapy with clinically relevant medical isotopes. The range of medical isotopes used is fairly large and expanding. The generation of in vivo light is useful since it circumvents depth limitations for excitation light. Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is much cheaper in terms of infrastructure than positron emission tomography (PET) and is particularly useful for imaging of superficial...

  13. Manganese: Recent advances in understanding its transport and neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschner, Michael; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Schneider, Jay S.; Zheng Wei

    2007-01-01

    The present review is based on presentations from the meeting of the Society of Toxicology in San Diego, CA (March 2006). It addresses recent developments in the understanding of the transport of manganese (Mn) into the central nervous system (CNS), as well as brain imaging and neurocognitive studies in non-human primates aimed at improving our understanding of the mechanisms of Mn neurotoxicity. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic modalities for treating Mn intoxication in humans

  14. What's new in cardiac imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, E.E. van der; Niemeyer, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    Since the introduction of myocardial perfusion imaging and radionuclide angiography in mid-seventies, cardiovascular nuclear medicine has undergone an explosive growth. Use of nuclear cardiology techniques has become one of the cornerstones of noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease. In the past 15 years, major steps were made from visual analysis to quantitative analysis, from planar imaging to tomographic imaging, from disease-detection to prognosis, and from separate evaluations of perfusion, metabolism and function to an integrated assessment of myocardial viability.In recent years, many more advances have been made in cardiovascular nuclear imaging, such as the development of new imaging agents, re-evaluation of existing procedures, and new clinical applications. This book describes most recent developments in nuclear cardiology and also addresses new contrast agents in MRI. This book will assist clinical cardiologist, cardiology fellow, nuclear medicine physician, and radiologist in understanding the most recent achievements in clinical cardiovascular nuclear imaging

  15. Aesthetics and Composition in Deep Sky Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendler, Robert

    It's safe to say that many of us began astrophotography feeling overwhelmed by the unnerving task of creating even the simplest astro image. Typically those first successful images were met with a healthy dose of humility as we began to understand the reality of assembling an aesthetically pleasing astronomical image. As we acquired more experience and gradually mastered the fundamentals of image processing our goals and objectives likely evolved and matured.

  16. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging are very useful for the management of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy. Presurgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy often included PET imaging using FDG. The use of SPECT in these patients adds some more information and gives the clinicians the possibility of having ictal imaging. Furthermore, PET and SPECT imaging are performed to better understand the pathophysiology of epilepsy. (authors)

  17. Law discourse and images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Cruz Pistori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to offer some remarks upon the argumentative use of images - mainly photographs - in the legal proceedings of the criminal and labor areas. Notions and categories of dialogical discourse analysis, inspired in the works of Bakhtin and the Circle, are the theoretical-methodological basis of the paper. We understand that every utterance in law proceedings belongs to a genre defined in the ideological sphere of law and, as such, presents a thematic content, style, and compositional form appropriate to the genre. In addition, they constitute themselves as the unique discursive project of the enunciator, who occasionally combines words and images in the construction of persuasive sense. In the statements presented, the set of words and images expressed evaluative standpoints, whether in agreement or not. Moreover, the analysis showed some different voices of the countless speeches that circulate in our society.

  18. General perspectives for molecular nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging provides a visualization of normal as well as abnormal cellular processes at a molecular or genetic level rather than at an anatomical level. Conventional medical imaging methods utilize the imaging signals produced by nonspecific physico-chemical interaction. However, molecular imaging methods utilize the imaging signals derived from specific cellular or molecular events. Because molecular and genetic changes precede anatomical change in the course of disease development, molecular imaging can detect early events in disease progression. In the near future, through molecular imaging we can understand basic mechanisms of disease, and diagnose earlier and, subsequently, treat earlier intractable disease such as cancer, neuro-degenerative diseases, and immunologic disorders. In beginning period, nuclear medicine started as a molecular imaging, and has had a leading role in the field of molecular imaging. But recently molecular imaging has been rapidly developed. Besides nuclear imaging, molecular imaging methods such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging are emerging. Each imaging modalities have their advantages and weaknesses. The opportunities from molecular imaging look bright. We should try nuclear medicine continues to have a leading role in molecular imaging

  19. General perspectives for molecular nuclear imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, June Key [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Molecular imaging provides a visualization of normal as well as abnormal cellular processes at a molecular or genetic level rather than at an anatomical level. Conventional medical imaging methods utilize the imaging signals produced by nonspecific physico-chemical interaction. However, molecular imaging methods utilize the imaging signals derived from specific cellular or molecular events. Because molecular and genetic changes precede anatomical change in the course of disease development, molecular imaging can detect early events in disease progression. In the near future, through molecular imaging we can understand basic mechanisms of disease, and diagnose earlier and, subsequently, treat earlier intractable disease such as cancer, neuro-degenerative diseases, and immunologic disorders. In beginning period, nuclear medicine started as a molecular imaging, and has had a leading role in the field of molecular imaging. But recently molecular imaging has been rapidly developed. Besides nuclear imaging, molecular imaging methods such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging are emerging. Each imaging modalities have their advantages and weaknesses. The opportunities from molecular imaging look bright. We should try nuclear medicine continues to have a leading role in molecular imaging.

  20. Semi-automated Image Processing for Preclinical Bioluminescent Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavine, Nikolai V; McColl, Roderick W

    Bioluminescent imaging is a valuable noninvasive technique for investigating tumor dynamics and specific biological molecular events in living animals to better understand the effects of human disease in animal models. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a strategy behind automated methods for bioluminescence image processing from the data acquisition to obtaining 3D images. In order to optimize this procedure a semi-automated image processing approach with multi-modality image handling environment was developed. To identify a bioluminescent source location and strength we used the light flux detected on the surface of the imaged object by CCD cameras. For phantom calibration tests and object surface reconstruction we used MLEM algorithm. For internal bioluminescent sources we used the diffusion approximation with balancing the internal and external intensities on the boundary of the media and then determined an initial order approximation for the photon fluence we subsequently applied a novel iterative deconvolution method to obtain the final reconstruction result. We find that the reconstruction techniques successfully used the depth-dependent light transport approach and semi-automated image processing to provide a realistic 3D model of the lung tumor. Our image processing software can optimize and decrease the time of the volumetric imaging and quantitative assessment. The data obtained from light phantom and lung mouse tumor images demonstrate the utility of the image reconstruction algorithms and semi-automated approach for bioluminescent image processing procedure. We suggest that the developed image processing approach can be applied to preclinical imaging studies: characteristics of tumor growth, identify metastases, and potentially determine the effectiveness of cancer treatment.

  1. A hierarchical SVG image abstraction layer for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Huang, Xiaolei; Tan, Gang; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2010-03-01

    As medical imaging rapidly expands, there is an increasing need to structure and organize image data for efficient analysis, storage and retrieval. In response, a large fraction of research in the areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) has focused on structuring information to bridge the "semantic gap", a disparity between machine and human image understanding. An additional consideration in medical images is the organization and integration of clinical diagnostic information. As a step towards bridging the semantic gap, we design and implement a hierarchical image abstraction layer using an XML based language, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG). Our method encodes features from the raw image and clinical information into an extensible "layer" that can be stored in a SVG document and efficiently searched. Any feature extracted from the raw image including, color, texture, orientation, size, neighbor information, etc., can be combined in our abstraction with high level descriptions or classifications. And our representation can natively characterize an image in a hierarchical tree structure to support multiple levels of segmentation. Furthermore, being a world wide web consortium (W3C) standard, SVG is able to be displayed by most web browsers, interacted with by ECMAScript (standardized scripting language, e.g. JavaScript, JScript), and indexed and retrieved by XML databases and XQuery. Using these open source technologies enables straightforward integration into existing systems. From our results, we show that the flexibility and extensibility of our abstraction facilitates effective storage and retrieval of medical images.

  2. Normal MR imaging of fetal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Ichiro; Tamaya, Teruhiko (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1990-12-01

    MR imaging has recently been used in medical scene, especially in obstetrics. The definite prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomaly using MR imaging has proved to be useful. But MR imaging of normal fetal organs remains to be understood. There have been not complete systemical research works about normal fetus by MR imaging, up to date. MR imaging on 25 pregnant cases were carried out to get the definite diagnosis of the possible fetal anomalies. MR imaging in fetus is usually disturbed by fetal movement. Generally, diazepam to mother or muscle relaxants to fetus have been used in given cases in order to obtain good quality of imaging. Mothers were requested to walk around the lobby in hospital before examination and fetal movement was decreased, resulting in 85% good imaging. The understanding of normal findings of fetal organs by MR imagings is important for diagnosis of the fetal anomalies. For example, brain and bowel showed high signals in T{sub 1} weighted images. Lung showed high signal in T{sub 2} weighted images. Liver was demonstrated clearly in T{sub 1} weighted images and proton density images. Heart and vessels showed low signals because of flow void phenomenon. Thus, it is necessary to detect and diagnose fetal anomalies after understanding the normal findings of fetal organs in MR imaging. (author).

  3. Memorandums of Understanding with Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In February 2016, U.S. EPA and the Australian Department of Agriculture and Water Resources signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Water. This was an update to the March 2011 Memorandum of Understanding on the same topic. Both documents are available bel

  4. Artistic Understanding and Motivational Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekue, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse artistic understanding in primary and secondary education and the relationship between this understanding and motivational characteristics such as goal orientation, engagement in art activities and attitude to art education at school, which determine (according to prior research) learners' academic achievement, in…

  5. Intercultural Understanding: An Interpretive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    Noting that intercultural understanding is a prime construct in the study of intercultural communication, this paper examines two questions that confront all intercultural communication researchers: (1) What are the underlying characteristics of intercultural understanding? and (2) What constitutes an interpretative perspective to intercultural…

  6. Students' Understanding of Quadratic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jonathan; Robles, Izraim; Martínez-Planell, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Action-Process-Object-Schema theory (APOS) was applied to study student understanding of quadratic equations in one variable. This required proposing a detailed conjecture (called a genetic decomposition) of mental constructions students may do to understand quadratic equations. The genetic decomposition which was proposed can contribute to help…

  7. Bioinstrumentation: Tools for Understanding Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersee, James H., Ed.; And Others

    This book was written to help introductory biology teachers gain a basic understanding of contemporary bioinstrumentation and the uses to which it is put in the laboratory. It includes topics that are most basic to understanding the nature of biology. The book is divided into five sections: (1) "Separation and Identification" that includes…

  8. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sue; Bergman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the research on middle school students' understanding of variables and explores preservice elementary and middle school teachers' knowledge of variables. According to research studies, middle school students have limited understanding of variables. Many studies have examined the performance of middle school students and offered…

  9. Cerenkov imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeep; Thorek, Daniel L J; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Cerenkov luminescence (CL) has been used recently in a plethora of medical applications like imaging and therapy with clinically relevant medical isotopes. The range of medical isotopes used is fairly large and expanding. The generation of in vivo light is useful since it circumvents depth limitations for excitation light. Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is much cheaper in terms of infrastructure than positron emission tomography (PET) and is particularly useful for imaging of superficial structures. Imaging can basically be done using a sensitive camera optimized for low-light conditions, and it has a better resolution than any other nuclear imaging modality. CLI has been shown to effectively diagnose disease with regularly used PET isotope ((18)F-FDG) in clinical setting. Cerenkov luminescence tomography, Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy, and intraoperative Cerenkov imaging have also been explored with positive conclusions expanding the current range of applications. Cerenkov has also been used to improve PET imaging resolution since the source of both is the radioisotope being used. Smart imaging agents have been designed based on modulation of the Cerenkov signal using small molecules and nanoparticles giving better insight of the tumor biology. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Reid, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear imaging, utilizing relatively low photon energy emitting isotopes, allows an assessment of anatomic configuration and organ function. This method of imaging is predicted on the utilization of physiologically active radioisotope-labeled compounds or biologically active radioisotopes. Localization of such isotopes in normal or abnormal concentrations may be due to varying physiological or pathological mechanisms

  11. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  12. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  13. Incompatible Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassene, Michel J.; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    is, however, based on a taken-for-granted image of asthmatics as, per se, striving to be symptom-free. This image is incompatible with interviewed asthmatics' day-to-day performances of their asthma, and renders invisible (a) that their asthma performances emphasize an economy of good passages...

  14. Conversion disorder: towards a neurobiological understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Stanton, Biba R; David, Anthony S

    2006-01-01

    Conversion disorders are a common cause of neurological disability, but the diagnosis remains controversial and the mechanism by which psychological stress can result in physical symptoms “unconsciously” is poorly understood. This review summarises research examining conversion disorder from a neurobiological perspective. Early observations suggesting a role for hemispheric specialization have not been replicated consistently. Patients with sensory conversion symptoms have normal evoked responses in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex but a reduction in the P300 potential, which is thought to reflect a lack of conscious processing of sensory stimuli. The emergence of functional imaging has provided the greatest opportunity for understanding the neural basis of conversion symptoms. Studies have been limited by small patient numbers and failure to control for confounding variables. The evidence available would suggest a broad hypothesis that frontal cortical and limbic activation associated with emotional stress may act via inhibitory basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuits to produce a deficit of conscious sensory or motor processing. The conceptual difficulties that have limited progress in this area are discussed. A better neuropsychiatric understanding of the mechanisms of conversion symptoms may improve our understanding of normal attention and volition and reduce the controversy surrounding this diagnosis. PMID:19412442

  15. Medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, David W

    1996-01-01

    Since the introduction of the X-ray scanner into radiology almost 25 years ago, non-invasive imaging has become firmly established as an essential tool in the diagnosis of disease. Fully three-dimensional imaging of internal organs is now possible, b and for studies which explore the functional status of the body. Powerful techniques to correlate anatomy and function are available, and scanners which combine anatomical and functional imaging in a single device are under development. Such techniques have been made possible through r ecent technological and mathematical advances. This series of lectures will review both the physical basis of medical imaging techniques using X-rays, gamma and positron emitting radiosiotopes, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the mathematical methods used to reconstruct three-dimentional distributions from projection data. The lectures will trace the development of medical imaging from simple radiographs to the present-day non-invasive measurement of in vivo biochemistry. They ...

  16. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Iwaki

    2009-01-01

    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  17. Functional imaging in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, Martin; Eidelberg, David

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging has been increasingly used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases as such techniques can elucidate neurochemical and functional changes that cannot be captured with structural imaging. Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases, in Huntington disease (HD) genetic testing allows for diagnostic certainty. Thus, the focus has been on understanding the pathophysiogic processes underlying the development of the disease, as well as the identification of potential biomarkers to monitor disease progression, particularly during the presymptomatic stage. These imaging methods have expanded our understanding of HD beyond dopaminergic deficits and striatal cell loss, and have described alteration in widespread networks relating to motor and cognitive symptoms. In this chapter, we review the current literature on radiotracer and functional magnetic resonance imaging relating to HD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Contrasting Cases of Calculus Students' Understanding of Derivative Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Aspinwall, Leslie; Presmeg, Norma C.

    2010-01-01

    This study adds momentum to the ongoing discussion clarifying the merits of visualization and analysis in mathematical thinking. Our goal was to gain understanding of three calculus students' mental processes and images used to create meaning for derivative graphs. We contrast the thinking processes of these three students as they attempted to…

  19. Cardiac imaging: does radiation matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Knuuti, Juhani

    2011-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular imaging has generated considerable discussion. Radiation should not be considered in isolation, but rather in the context of a careful examination of the benefits, risks, and costs of cardiovascular imaging. Such consideration requires an understanding of some fundamental aspects of the biology, physics, epidemiology, and terminology germane to radiation, as well as principles of radiological protection. This paper offers a concise, contemporary...

  20. Image perception and image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1987-01-01

    The author develops theoretical and practical models of image perception and image processing, based on phenomenology and structuralism and leading to original perception: fundamental for a positivistic approach of research work for the development of artificial intelligence that will be able in an automated system fo 'reading' X-ray pictures. (orig.) [de

  1. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  2. Polarization-Based Radar Detection in Sea Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-27

    Stationarity and Ergodicity Surface statistics exhibit translational invariance , or stationarity, which means that they don’t depend upon the absolute...channel with contiguous subchannels in frequency that are time- invariant over the coherence time interval [35]. The pseudo- stationary response may be...minimum mean square error [ MMSE ) solutions are formed to maximize the resulting signal to noise ratio. However, if the desired signal is in the

  3. Electrically tunable polarizer based on 2D orthorhombic ferrovalley materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin-Wei; Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2018-03-01

    The concept of ferrovalley materials has been proposed very recently. The existence of spontaneous valley polarization, resulting from ferromagnetism, in such hexagonal 2D materials makes nonvolatile valleytronic applications realizable. Here, we introduce a new member of ferrovalley family with orthorhombic lattice, i.e. monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides (GIVMs), in which the intrinsic valley polarization originates from ferroelectricity, instead of ferromagnetism. Combining the group theory analysis and first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that, different from the valley-selective circular dichroism in hexagonal lattice, linearly polarized optical selectivity for valleys exists in the new type of ferrovalley materials. On account of the distinctive property, a prototype of electrically tunable polarizer is realized. In the ferrovalley-based polarizer, a laser beam can be optionally polarized in x- or y-direction, depending on the ferrovalley state controlled by external electric fields. Such a device can be further optimized to emit circularly polarized radiation with specific chirality and to realize the tunability for operating wavelength. Therefore, we show that 2D orthorhombic ferrovalley materials are the promising candidates to provide an advantageous platform to realize the polarizer driven by electric means, which is of great importance in extending the practical applications of valleytronics.

  4. Physiology for the pulmonary functional imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, David L.; Schiebler, Mark L.; Hopkins, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An understanding of the relevant pulmonary physiology is crucial to functional lung imaging. • Spatial resolution for pulmonary functional imaging can be substantially less than that used for anatomic/clinical imaging. • Regional deformation of the lung under the influence of gravity significantly affects the measurement of pulmonary perfusion. • Large vessels identified on perfusion imaging do not represent local blood flow. • Pulmonary diseases are typically characterized by a change in the matching of ventilation and perfusion. - Abstract: As pulmonary functional imaging moves beyond the realm of the radiologist and physicist, it is important that imagers have a common language and understanding of the relevant physiology of the lung. This review will focus on key physiological concepts and pitfalls relevant to functional lung imaging.

  5. Image retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    The paper touches upon indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Different conceptions of what subject indexing means are described as a basis for defining an operational subject indexing strategy for images. The methodology is based on the art historian Erwin Panofsky......), special knowledge about image codes, and special knowledge about history of ideas. The semiologist Roland Barthes has established a semiology for pictorial expressions based on advertising photos. Barthes uses the concepts denotation/connotation where denotations can be explained as the sober expression...

  6. Understanding marketing decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhile a whole range of factors influences the outcomes of a marketing policy, it is managerial decision-making that can really make a difference. A clearer understanding of how marketers make decisions should therefore improve their quality.

  7. Challenges in human behavior understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.; Sebe, N.; Vinciarelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in pattern recognition has allowed computer scientists and psychologists to jointly address automatic analysis of of human behavior via computers. The Workshop on Human Behavior Understanding at the International Conference on Pattern Recognition explores a number of different

  8. Know the Facts: Understand Concussion

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-17

    This podcast discusses concussions and provides information to help people better understand concussion.  Created: 3/17/2010 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 3/17/2010.

  9. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... about NICHD preeclampsia research in the sidebar.) Preterm Birth Preterm (premature) birth is birth before the baby ...

  10. Understanding your health care costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000878.htm Understanding your health care costs To use the sharing features on this page, ... on out-of-pocket costs. Out-of-Pocket Costs The good news is there is a limit ...

  11. Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  12. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  13. Ayurgenomics: Understanding human individuality through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mitali

    Ayurgenomics: Understanding human individuality through integration of. Ayurveda and Genomics for stratified medicine. Mitali Mukerji. Programme Director- CSIR-TRISUTRA. (Translational Research and Innovative Science Through Ayurgenomics). & Scientist CSIR-IGIB. Public health Modern medicine. Ayurveda others ...

  14. Semantic Source Coding for Flexible Lossy Image Compression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phoha, Shashi; Schmiedekamp, Mendel

    2007-01-01

    ... of an image based on their utility in understanding the scene depicted. We have used semantic methods, including pattern discovery, wavelet-based segmentation and texture segmentation to extract the essential predictive information in the image...

  15. Understanding IT for Dispute Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dory Reiling

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Judges and judiciaries do not understand information technology (IT. This idea crops up quite often in discussions about IT for courts. The perceived slow rate of IT adoption in courts is explained by this lack of understanding. To my mind, this is not the main issue. What needs to be understood first is at the other end of the spectrum: how courts process information.

  16. Image Gallery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glance Mission and Vision Organizational Structure Director's Message Strategic Plans & Reports Budget & Legislation ... The Image Gallery contains high-quality digital photographs available from the National Center for Complementary ...

  17. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  18. Image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindler, M.; Radtke, F.; Demel, G.

    1986-01-01

    The book is arranged in seven sections, describing various applications of volumetric analysis using image processing systems, and various methods of diagnostic evaluation of images obtained by gamma scintigraphy, cardic catheterisation, and echocardiography. A dynamic ventricular phantom is explained that has been developed for checking and calibration for safe examination of patient, the phantom allowing extensive simulation of volumetric and hemodynamic conditions of the human heart: One section discusses the program development for image processing, referring to a number of different computer systems. The equipment described includes a small non-expensive PC system, as well as a standardized nuclear medical diagnostic system, and a computer system especially suited to image processing. (orig.) [de

  19. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect body image Pre-baby body Pregnancy and eating disorders Looking for information on mental health conditions? Visit ... Mental health section. Fact sheets Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during ...

  20. Geriatric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Peh, Wilfred C.G.; Guermazi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Considers all aspect of geriatric imaging. Explains clearly how to distinguish the healthy elderly from those in need of treatment. Superbly illustrated. Written by recognized experts in field. In the elderly, the coexistence of various diseases, the presence of involutional and degenerative changes, and the occurrence of both physical and cognitive problems represent ''the norm.'' It is therefore important to know how to distinguish the healthy elderly from those in need of treatment as a sound basis for avoiding overdiagnosis and overtreatment. This aspect is a central theme in Geriatric Imaging, which covers a wide range of applications of different imaging techniques and clearly explains both the potential and the limitations of diagnostic imaging in geriatric patients. Individual sections are devoted to each major region or system of the body, and a concluding section focuses specifically on interventional procedures. The book, written by recognized experts in the field, is superbly illustrated and will be an ideal resource for geriatricians, radiologists, and trainees.

  1. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2016-09-17

    Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.

  2. CSR's effect on brand image

    OpenAIRE

    Gudjonsdottir, Elly; Jusubova, Albina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate CSR’s effect on brand image in order to increase the understanding of CSR as a marketing tool, within the service industry. The research questions of the study are “How does a service-based company’s involvement in CSR as a marketing strategy affect the brand image? And how do the different CSR dimensions affect the brand image?” This study has a positive and deductive approach with a cross sectional design. The quantitative method chosen was a ques...

  3. Image processing for optical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Prabu; Gupta, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Optical Mapping is an established single-molecule, whole-genome analysis system, which has been used to gain a comprehensive understanding of genomic structure and to study structural variation of complex genomes. A critical component of Optical Mapping system is the image processing module, which extracts single molecule restriction maps from image datasets of immobilized, restriction digested and fluorescently stained large DNA molecules. In this review, we describe robust and efficient image processing techniques to process these massive datasets and extract accurate restriction maps in the presence of noise, ambiguity and confounding artifacts. We also highlight a few applications of the Optical Mapping system.

  4. Image processing

    OpenAIRE

    Rino, Franco

    2014-01-01

    An image segmentation method has a training phase, and a segmentation phase. In the training phase a frame of pixel lated data from a camera is processed using information on camera characteristics to render it camera-independent. The camera independent data are processed using a chosen value of illuminant spectral characteristics to derive reflectivity data of the items in the image. Pixels of high reflectivity are established. Then, using data from the high reflectivity pixels, the actual i...

  5. Image processing in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    This Ph.D project addresses image processing in medical ultrasound and seeks to achieve two major scientific goals: First to develop an understanding of the most significant factors influencing image quality in medical ultrasound, and secondly to use this knowledge to develop image processing...... multiple imaging setups. This makes the system well suited for development of new processing methods and for clinical evaluations, where acquisition of the exact same scan location for multiple methods is important. The second project addressed implementation, development and evaluation of SASB using...... methods for enhancing the diagnostic value of medical ultrasound. The project is an industrial Ph.D project co-sponsored by BK Medical ApS., with the commercial goal to improve the image quality of BK Medicals scanners. Currently BK Medical employ a simple conventional delay-and-sum beamformer to generate...

  6. On coherence in neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treimer, W.; Feye-Treimer, U.

    2011-09-01

    The variety of imaging signals in neutron radiography and tomography became quite large compared to the pure absorption and scattering contrast in neutron radiographies and topographies in the early sixties or seventies of the last century. The diversity of absorption based techniques for neutron radiography and tomography is comparable to coherence based imaging techniques such as phase contrast, differential phase contrast, dark field imaging, diffraction enhanced contrast, refraction contrast, ultra small angle scattering contrast, grating interferometry and crystal interferometry, also the spin of the neutron was successfully used for imaging [1-12]. We show which effects (total reflection, diffraction, refraction) contribute to e.g. a step boundary or a phase boundary. Taking this simple object, one can learn to understand the imaging procedure and what is displayed in a radiograph.

  7. On coherence in neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treimer, W.; Feye-Treimer, U.

    2011-01-01

    The variety of imaging signals in neutron radiography and tomography became quite large compared to the pure absorption and scattering contrast in neutron radiographies and topographies in the early sixties or seventies of the last century. The diversity of absorption based techniques for neutron radiography and tomography is comparable to coherence based imaging techniques such as phase contrast, differential phase contrast, dark field imaging, diffraction enhanced contrast, refraction contrast, ultra small angle scattering contrast, grating interferometry and crystal interferometry, also the spin of the neutron was successfully used for imaging . We show which effects (total reflection, diffraction, refraction) contribute to e.g. a step boundary or a phase boundary. Taking this simple object, one can learn to understand the imaging procedure and what is displayed in a radiograph.

  8. Assessing neuronal networks: understanding Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-02-01

    Findings derived from neuroimaging of the structural and functional organization of the human brain have led to the widely supported hypothesis that neuronal networks of temporally coordinated brain activity across different regional brain structures underpin cognitive function. Failure of integration within a network leads to cognitive dysfunction. The current discussion on Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) argues that it presents in part a disconnection syndrome. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and electroencephalography demonstrate that synchronicity of brain activity is altered in AD and correlates with cognitive deficits. Moreover, recent advances in diffusion tensor imaging have made it possible to track axonal projections across the brain, revealing substantial regional impairment in fiber-tract integrity in AD. Accumulating evidence points towards a network breakdown reflecting disconnection at both the structural and functional system level. The exact relationship among these multiple mechanistic variables and their contribution to cognitive alterations and ultimately decline is yet unknown. Focused research efforts aimed at the integration of both function and structure hold great promise not only in improving our understanding of cognition but also of its characteristic progressive metamorphosis in complex chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.

  9. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  10. [Intersubjectivity: Between Explanation and Understanding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely Ávila, Flor Emilce

    2014-03-01

    The discussion on explanation and understanding has led to a division in the sciences, based on what is considered to be inherent to each of the domains. The task of the natural sciences would be the explanation, while that of the social sciences would be understanding or interpretation.There is a line of work that currently seeks to overcome the methodological dualism and to propose more interdisciplinary studies, such as the studies on emergence of the mental in the framework of intersubjective relationships. In particular, the concept of intersubjectivity defended by the phenomenology as an embodied practice, is being supported by the results of investigations carried out on the basis of the cognitive neuroscience and developmental psychology. Authors from different roots, such as J. Bruner and S. Gallagher propose considering these types of interdisciplinary collaboration as a possible way to integrate the traditions of the explanation and understanding. The purpose of this paper is to analyze to what extent this collaboration between phenomenology and sciences, particularly on the subject of understanding others and their relevance for the understanding of certain psychopathologies, has allowed to close the gap that had opened in the nineteenth century between these traditions. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  12. Understanding Number Sequences Leads to Understanding Mathematics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnak, Robert; Schmerold, Katrina Lea; Robinson, Melissa Fetterer; Gadzichowski, K. Marinka; Bock, Allison M.; O'Brien, Sarah Eva; Kidd, Julie K.; Gallington, Deb A.

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-six first grade students in an urban school system were tested in October and May on reading, mathematics, and their understanding of sequences of letters and numbers. A time lag analysis was subsequently conducted. In such analyses, cross-correlations between the first measurement of one variable and the second measurement of another are…

  13. PC image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, Mok Jin Il; Am, Ha Jeng Ung

    1995-04-01

    This book starts summary of digital image processing and personal computer, and classification of personal computer image processing system, digital image processing, development of personal computer and image processing, image processing system, basic method of image processing such as color image processing and video processing, software and interface, computer graphics, video image and video processing application cases on image processing like satellite image processing, color transformation of image processing in high speed and portrait work system.

  14. Students' understanding of quadratic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jonathan; Robles, Izraim; Martínez-Planell, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Action-Process-Object-Schema theory (APOS) was applied to study student understanding of quadratic equations in one variable. This required proposing a detailed conjecture (called a genetic decomposition) of mental constructions students may do to understand quadratic equations. The genetic decomposition which was proposed can contribute to help students achieve an understanding of quadratic equations with improved interrelation of ideas and more flexible application of solution methods. Semi-structured interviews with eight beginning undergraduate students explored which of the mental constructions conjectured in the genetic decomposition students could do, and which they had difficulty doing. Two of the mental constructions that form part of the genetic decomposition are highlighted and corresponding further data were obtained from the written work of 121 undergraduate science and engineering students taking a multivariable calculus course. The results suggest the importance of explicitly considering these two highlighted mental constructions.

  15. Mobile medical image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  16. Image analysis and modeling in medical image computing. Recent developments and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handels, H; Deserno, T M; Meinzer, H-P; Tolxdorff, T

    2012-01-01

    Medical image computing is of growing importance in medical diagnostics and image-guided therapy. Nowadays, image analysis systems integrating advanced image computing methods are used in practice e.g. to extract quantitative image parameters or to support the surgeon during a navigated intervention. However, the grade of automation, accuracy, reproducibility and robustness of medical image computing methods has to be increased to meet the requirements in clinical routine. In the focus theme, recent developments and advances in the field of modeling and model-based image analysis are described. The introduction of models in the image analysis process enables improvements of image analysis algorithms in terms of automation, accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Furthermore, model-based image computing techniques open up new perspectives for prediction of organ changes and risk analysis of patients. Selected contributions are assembled to present latest advances in the field. The authors were invited to present their recent work and results based on their outstanding contributions to the Conference on Medical Image Computing BVM 2011 held at the University of Lübeck, Germany. All manuscripts had to pass a comprehensive peer review. Modeling approaches and model-based image analysis methods showing new trends and perspectives in model-based medical image computing are described. Complex models are used in different medical applications and medical images like radiographic images, dual-energy CT images, MR images, diffusion tensor images as well as microscopic images are analyzed. The applications emphasize the high potential and the wide application range of these methods. The use of model-based image analysis methods can improve segmentation quality as well as the accuracy and reproducibility of quantitative image analysis. Furthermore, image-based models enable new insights and can lead to a deeper understanding of complex dynamic mechanisms in the human body

  17. Imaging of gossypibomas: self-assessment module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, Adonis; Filho, Paulo Borba; Albuquerque, Eolo; Farias, Fabiana; Kaercher, João

    2009-12-01

    The educational objectives of this self-assessment module are for the participants to exercise, self-assess, and improve their understanding of the most important features of gossypibomas and the role of imaging in the diagnosis of these masses.

  18. Understanding map projections: Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, E. Lynn; Kent, Alexander J.; Vujakovic, Peter

    2018-01-01

    It has probably never been more important in the history of cartography than now that people understand how maps work. With increasing globalization, for example, world maps provide a key format for the transmission of information, but are often poorly used. Examples of poor understanding and use of projections and the resultant maps are many; for instance, the use of rectangular world maps in the United Kingdom press to show Chinese and Korean missile ranges as circles, something which can only be achieved on equidistant projections and then only from one launch point (Vujakovic, 2014).

  19. Understanding quantitative research: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Juanita; Hoare, Zoë

    This article, which is the first in a two-part series, provides an introduction to understanding quantitative research, basic statistics and terminology used in research articles. Critical appraisal of research articles is essential to ensure that nurses remain up to date with evidence-based practice to provide consistent and high-quality nursing care. This article focuses on developing critical appraisal skills and understanding the use and implications of different quantitative approaches to research. Part two of this article will focus on explaining common statistical terms and the presentation of statistical data in quantitative research.

  20. Fuzzy image processing and applications with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to classical image analysis methods that employ ""crisp"" mathematics, fuzzy set techniques provide an elegant foundation and a set of rich methodologies for diverse image-processing tasks. However, a solid understanding of fuzzy processing requires a firm grasp of essential principles and background knowledge.Fuzzy Image Processing and Applications with MATLAB® presents the integral science and essential mathematics behind this exciting and dynamic branch of image processing, which is becoming increasingly important to applications in areas such as remote sensing, medical imaging,

  1. Wavelets in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, Noor e; Sevindir, Huliya A.; Aslan, Zafar; Siddiqi, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide emerging applications of wavelet methods to medical signals and images, such as electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, functional magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography, X-ray and mammography. Interpretation of these signals and images are quite important. Nowadays wavelet methods have a significant impact on the science of medical imaging and the diagnosis of disease and screening protocols. Based on our initial investigations, future directions include neurosurgical planning and improved assessment of risk for individual patients, improved assessment and strategies for the treatment of chronic pain, improved seizure localization, and improved understanding of the physiology of neurological disorders. We look ahead to these and other emerging applications as the benefits of this technology become incorporated into current and future patient care. In this chapter by applying Fourier transform and wavelet transform, analysis and denoising of one of the important biomedical signals like EEG is carried out. The presence of rhythm, template matching, and correlation is discussed by various method. Energy of EEG signal is used to detect seizure in an epileptic patient. We have also performed denoising of EEG signals by SWT.

  2. Wavelets in medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahra, Noor e; Sevindir, Huliya A.; Aslan, Zafar; Siddiqi, A. H. [Sharda University, SET, Department of Electronics and Communication, Knowledge Park 3rd, Gr. Noida (India); University of Kocaeli, Department of Mathematics, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Istanbul Aydin University, Department of Computer Engineering, 34295 Istanbul (Turkey); Sharda University, SET, Department of Mathematics, 32-34 Knowledge Park 3rd, Greater Noida (India)

    2012-07-17

    The aim of this study is to provide emerging applications of wavelet methods to medical signals and images, such as electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, functional magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography, X-ray and mammography. Interpretation of these signals and images are quite important. Nowadays wavelet methods have a significant impact on the science of medical imaging and the diagnosis of disease and screening protocols. Based on our initial investigations, future directions include neurosurgical planning and improved assessment of risk for individual patients, improved assessment and strategies for the treatment of chronic pain, improved seizure localization, and improved understanding of the physiology of neurological disorders. We look ahead to these and other emerging applications as the benefits of this technology become incorporated into current and future patient care. In this chapter by applying Fourier transform and wavelet transform, analysis and denoising of one of the important biomedical signals like EEG is carried out. The presence of rhythm, template matching, and correlation is discussed by various method. Energy of EEG signal is used to detect seizure in an epileptic patient. We have also performed denoising of EEG signals by SWT.

  3. Medical Imaging Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, William; El-Saden, Suzie; Taira, Ricky K

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is one of the most important sources of clinically observable evidence that provides broad coverage, can provide insight on low-level scale properties, is noninvasive, has few side effects, and can be performed frequently. Thus, imaging data provides a viable observable that can facilitate the instantiation of a theoretical understanding of a disease for a particular patient context by connecting imaging findings to other biologic parameters in the model (e.g., genetic, molecular, symptoms, and patient survival). These connections can help inform their possible states and/or provide further coherent evidence. The field of radiomics is particularly dedicated to this task and seeks to extract quantifiable measures wherever possible. Example properties of investigation include genotype characterization, histopathology parameters, metabolite concentrations, vascular proliferation, necrosis, cellularity, and oxygenation. Important issues within the field include: signal calibration, spatial calibration, preprocessing methods (e.g., noise suppression, motion correction, and field bias correction), segmentation of target anatomic/pathologic entities, extraction of computed features, and inferencing methods connecting imaging features to biological states.

  4. Vectorized image segmentation via trixel agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos, NM; Skourikhine, Alexei N [Los Alamos, NM

    2006-10-24

    A computer implemented method transforms an image comprised of pixels into a vectorized image specified by a plurality of polygons that can be subsequently used to aid in image processing and understanding. The pixelated image is processed to extract edge pixels that separate different colors and a constrained Delaunay triangulation of the edge pixels forms a plurality of triangles having edges that cover the pixelated image. A color for each one of the plurality of triangles is determined from the color pixels within each triangle. A filter is formed with a set of grouping rules related to features of the pixelated image and applied to the plurality of triangle edges to merge adjacent triangles consistent with the filter into polygons having a plurality of vertices. The pixelated image may be then reformed into an array of the polygons, that can be represented collectively and efficiently by standard vector image.

  5. Ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.N.T.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasound is a form of energy which consists of mechanical vibrations the frequencies of which are so high that they are above the range of human hearing. The lower frequency limit of the ultrasonic spectrum may generally be taken to be about 20 kHz. Most biomedical applications of ultrasound employ frequencies in the range 1-15 MHz. At these frequencies, the wavelength is in the range 1.5 - 0.1 mm in soft tissues, and narrow beams of ultrasound can be generated which propagate through such tissues without excessive attenuation. This chapter begins with brief reviews of the physics of diagnostic ultrasound pulse-echo imaging methods and Doppler imaging methods. The remainder of the chapter is a resume of the applications of ultrasonic imaging to physiological measurement

  6. Ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, E.G.; Doherty, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound was used as early as 1950 in attempts to detect malignant tumors within the human breast and brain. In the years following, however, little attention was paid to this method of imaging by the radiologic community. Extensive work with this technique was not begun until the 1960s, when bistable ultrasound enabled sonographers to display organ outlines for the first time. Prior to the development of bistable ultrasound, sonographic images were limited to A-mode displays, which were merely a series of amplitude spikes on a graph. Over the past 20 or so years, major advances in ultrasound technology have gradually taken us from the simple graphic A-mode display, through bistable organ outlines, to gray-scale images with excellent parenchymal detail, and finally to real-time ultrasound

  7. Fast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrli, F.W.; Altas, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on MRI which has evolved rapidly and promises to continue to do so. The diagnostic armamentarium, as a result, has increased dramatically over recent years, which has necessitated constant interactions between clinicians, physicists, and biochemists. Pulse sequence design, coupled with advances in other software and hardware technology, offers practical improvements in scanning and image quality. Perhaps more importantly, these same advances hold promise for MRI to become, in addition to its traditional role as a morphological imaging technique, a functional imaging modality. The attractiveness of this prospect is that for the first time, a high-resolution technique has been shown to have the potential to provide both types of information from a single integrated examination, which promises to generate important insights into normal physiology as well as the natural history of pathophysiologic states

  8. Imaging fecal incontinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsjaeger, Michael H. E-mail: michael.fuchsjaeger@univie.ac.at; Maier, Andrea G

    2003-08-01

    Fecal incontinence is the inability to defer release of gas or stool from the anus and rectum by mechanisms of voluntary control. It is an important medical disorder affecting the quality of life of up to 20% of the population above 65 years. The most common contributing factors include previous vaginal deliveries, pelvic or perineal trauma, previous anorectal surgery, and rectal prolapse. Many physicians lack experience and knowledge related to pelvic floor incontinence disorders, but advancing technology has improved this knowledge. Increased experience with endoanal ultrasound and endoanal magnetic resonance imaging have given us a better understanding not only of the anatomy of the anal canal but also of the underlying morphological defects in fecal incontinence. Current imaging methods are emphasized and recent literature is reviewed.

  9. Evapotranspiration from UAV Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Hoffmann Munk

    and hence enabling image processing (such as orthorectification and concatenation) within the Agisoft PhotoScan software framework. This thesis contains, to my best knowledge, the first investigation on advanced heat flux modelling based on UAV images (Paper 1) along with the first attempt to directly......Current research on evapotranspiration (ET) is motivated by the growing world population and its demand for food and hence an intensified irrigation of cultivated lands, along with the need to better understand climate changes. ET links the land surface processes to the atmospheric processes...... and is thus of importance in both hydrological, agricultural and atmospheric sciences. Still today, accurate measurements of ET are not achieved easily. The state-of the-art method to measure ET, the eddy covariance method, is associated with uncertainties and its footprint, though at the order of around 1...

  10. Nuclear imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kyung Ah

    2007-01-01

    Correct localization of epileptogenic zone is important for the successful epilepsy surgery. Both ictal perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and interictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can provide useful information in the presurgical localization of intractable partial epilepsy. These imaging modalities have excellent diagnostic sensitivity in medial temporal lobe epilepsy and provide good presurgical information in neocortical epilepsy. Also provide functional information about cellular functions to better understand the neurobiology of epilepsy and to better define the ictal onset zone, symptomatogenic zone, propagation pathways, functional deficit zone and surround inhibition zones. Multimodality imaging and developments in analysis methods of ictal perfusion SPECT and new PET ligand other than FDG help to better define the localization

  11. Assessing Photosynthesis by Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Pedro; Quiles, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    This practical paper describes a novel fluorescence imaging experiment to study the three processes of photochemistry, fluorescence and thermal energy dissipation, which compete during the dissipation of excitation energy in photosynthesis. The technique represents a non-invasive tool for revealing and understanding the spatial heterogeneity in…

  12. Language Games and Musical Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Arbo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein has often explored language games that have to do with musical objects of different sizes (phrases, themes, formal sections or entire works. These games can refer to a technical language or to common parlance and correspond to different targets. One of these coincides with the intention to suggest a way of conceiving musical understanding. His model takes the form of the invitation to "hear (something as (something": typically, to hear a musical passage as an introduction or as a conclusion or in a certain tonality. However one may ask to what extent or in what terms (literal or metaphorical these procedures, and usually the intervention of language games, is requested by our common ways of understanding music. This article shows through the use of some examples that aspectual perception inherent to musical understanding does not require language games as a necessary condition (although in many cases the link between them seems very strong, in contradiction with the thesis of an essential linguistic character of music. At a basic level, it seems more appropriate to insist on the notion of a game: to understand music means to enter into the orbit of "music games" which show an autonomous functioning. Language games have, however, an important function when we develop this comprehension in the light of the criteria of judgment that substantiate the manner in which music is incorporated in and operates within specific forms of life.

  13. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration...

  14. Understanding FE Mergers. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Natasha

    2009-01-01

    This report presents research findings and discussion to help develop an understanding of what gives rise to mergers and, when they do happen, what makes them work. The research has focused on merger activity between further education (FE) colleges since incorporation in 1993. Mergers are highly contextual, and part of ensuring success is…

  15. An Exercise in Artistic Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Rachel

    1982-01-01

    Describes an attempt to use two theories of literary criticism as a research strategy for interpreting art. Paul Ricoeur's interpretation theory and Northrup Frye's Anatomy of Criticism were adopted as approaches to the problem of understanding religious or mystical paintings by Norman Adams. (AM)

  16. Understanding Algorithms in Different Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska; Abari, Kálmán; Máth, János

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of the Testing Algorithmic and Application Skills project we tested first year students of Informatics at the beginning of their tertiary education. We were focusing on the students' level of understanding in different programming environments. In the present paper we provide the results from the University of Debrecen, the…

  17. Young Children's Understanding of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Keith; Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although a fair amount is known about young children's production of negation, little is known about their comprehension. Here, we focus on arguably the most complex basic form, denial, and how young children understand denial, when it is expressed in response to a question with gesture, single word, or sentence. One hundred twenty-six children in…

  18. Understanding neutrino masses and mixings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    atmospheric neutrino observations, where there is a deficit of observed neutrinos compared to theoretical expectations. ... and reactor neutrinos as in the Kamland experiment have also shown deficits in their flux compared to ... In this brief overview, I wish to draw attention to some of the theoretical ideas for understanding ...

  19. Spectroscopy, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Hal

    This booklet is one of the "Understanding the Atom" Series. The science of spectroscopy is presented by a number of topics dealing with (1) the uses of spectroscopy, (2) its origin and background, (3) the basic optical systems of spectroscopes, spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, (4) the characteristics of wave motion, (5) the…

  20. Explanation, understanding, and unrealistic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    How can false models be explanatory? And how can they help us to understand the way the world works? Sometimes scientists have little hope of building models that approximate the world they observe. Even in such cases, I argue, the models they build can have explanatory import. The basic idea is

  1. Intuitive Understanding of Base Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel

    Purpose: This study examines whether physicians and other adults intuitively understand that the probability a positive test result is a true positive (positive predictive value, PPV) depends on the base rate of disease in the population tested. In particular, this research seeks to examine...

  2. Understanding and Teaching Practical Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Caroline L.

    2011-01-01

    Because wisdom is such a complex and multidimensional construct, it is difficult to study, much less to define. Based on the author's understanding, her definition of wisdom is as follows: "Wisdom is about human flourishing; it is having sufficient awareness in various situations and contexts to act in ways that enhance our common humanity." This…

  3. Do Children Understand Fraction Addition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Many children fail to master fraction arithmetic even after years of instruction. A recent theory of fraction arithmetic (Braithwaite, Pyke, & Siegler, in press) hypothesized that this poor learning of fraction arithmetic procedures reflects poor conceptual understanding of them. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments…

  4. Understanding and Supporting Window Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch

  5. Understanding Mathematics: Some Key Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asma Amanat; Reid, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is well known as a subject area where there can be problems in terms of understanding as well as retaining positive attitudes. In a large study involving 813 school students (ages approximately 10-12) drawn from two different school systems in Pakistan, the effect of limited working memory capacity on performance in mathematics was…

  6. When Do Children Understand "Opposite"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Catherine I; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-08-01

    The aims of the present research were to determine (a) the age at which children with typical development understand the concept of opposite, (b) whether this is related to other cognitive abilities or experiences, and (c) whether there is early implicit understanding of the concept. Children (N = 204) between 3 and 5 years of age were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions in a novel opposite task. Children's language and working memory skills were assessed, and parents provided information about children's access to learning materials about opposites. In the opposite task, 4- and 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, demonstrated acquisition of the concept of opposite. Children demonstrated this understanding only when asked for the "opposite" one, suggesting that antonymy was not made salient by stimulus properties alone. Children's accuracy was not significantly related to their language or working memory skills, to their child care experience, or to whether parents reported having books or games about opposites or playing opposite word games with children. Eye gaze analyses provided no evidence for early implicit understanding of the concept of opposite. Children with typical development have a concept of opposite by 4 years of age.

  7. Educators' Understanding of Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens of a two- dimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to analyse 59…

  8. Understanding and Counseling Transgender Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, James; Belovics, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Because transgender individuals experience widespread employment discrimination, counselors need to understand and be able to work with members of the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender communities. The aim of this article is to help counselors become more transgender literate by (a) defining gender dysphoric disorder and related terms; (b)…

  9. Flexibility in embodied language understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel M Willems

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Do people use sensori-motor cortices to understand language? Here we review neurocognitive studies of language comprehension in healthy adults and evaluate their possible contributions to theories of language in the brain. We start by sketching the minimal predictions that an embodied theory of language understanding makes for empirical research, and then survey studies that have been offered as evidence for embodied semantic representations. We explore four debated issues: first, does activation of sensori-motor cortices during action language understanding imply that action semantics relies on mirror neurons? Second, what is the evidence that activity in sensori-motor cortices plays a functional role in understanding language? Third, to what extent do responses in perceptual and motor areas depend on the linguistic and extra-linguistic context? And finally, can embodied theories accommodate language about abstract concepts? Based on the available evidence, we conclude that sensori-motor cortices are activated during a variety of language comprehension tasks, for both concrete and abstract language. Yet, this activity depends on the context in which perception and action words are encountered. Although modality-specific cortical activity is not a sine qua non of language processing even for language about perception and action, sensori-motor regions of the brain appear to make functional contributions to the construction of meaning, and should therefore be incorporated into models of the neurocognitive architecture of language.

  10. Interpretive Hermeneutic Phenomenology: Clarifying Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The philosophical orientation of Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenology is explored in this paper. Gadamer offers a hermeneutics of the humanities that differs significantly from models of the human sciences historically rooted in scientific methodologies. In particular, Gadamer proposes that understanding is first a mode ...

  11. Understanding Agency and Educating Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Klas

    2011-01-01

    How can we understand human agency, and what does it mean to educate character? In this essay Klas Roth develops a Kantian notion, one that suggests we render ourselves efficacious and autonomous in education and elsewhere. This requires, among other things, that we are successful in bringing about the intended result through our actions and the…

  12. Filipino children's understanding of peace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.J.T.; Kuipers, I.

    2003-01-01

    This study reports on 10-year-old Filipino children's understanding of peace, war, and strategies to attain peace. In total, 56 children were presented with a semistructured interview consisting of free associations to peace and questions pertaining to the definitions of peace and war and strategies

  13. Expanding the Understanding of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Originally designed for K-12 teachers, the Understanding Evolution (UE) Web site ("www.understandingevolution.org") is a one-stop shop for all of a teacher's evolution education needs, with lesson plans, teaching tips, lists of common evolution misconceptions, and much more. However, during the past five years, the UE project team learned that…

  14. Understanding the Problem of Pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Leigh Ann

    This report was written to clarify the terms often associated with pornography and to help readers understand the issue of pornography more clearly. The first chapter defines pornography, as it was defined by the United States Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, as "that material (which) is predominantly sexually explicit and intended…

  15. Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The topics of the accepted papers range from novel applications of vision systems, pattern recognition, machine learning, feature extraction, segmentation, 3D vision, to medical and biomedical image analysis. The papers originate from all the Scandinavian countries and several other European countries......The 19th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis was held at the IT University of Copenhagen in Denmark during June 15-17, 2015. The SCIA conference series has been an ongoing biannual event for more than 30 years and over the years it has nurtured a world-class regional research and development...

  16. Imaging Systemic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghammer, Per; Knudsen, Karoline; Brooks, David J

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is now widely recognized to be a multisystem disorder affecting the brain and peripheral autonomic nerves. Extensive pathology is present in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system and the intrinsic gastrointestinal plexuses in patients. Autonomic pathology and symptoms such as constipation can predate the clinical diagnosis by years or decades. Imaging studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of Parkinson's disease but focused primarily on imaging cerebral pathology. However, given the importance of understanding the nature, chronology, and functional consequences of peripheral pathology, there has been renewed interest in imaging peripheral organs in Parkinson's disease. Suitable imaging tools can be divided into two types: radiotracer studies that directly estimate loss of sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve terminals, and imaging modalities to quantitate dysphagia, gastric emptying, esophageal and intestinal transit times, and anorectal dyssynergia. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about peripheral imaging in Parkinson's disease.

  17. The imaging appearance of crayons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, Aaron S.; Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lall, Neil U. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ochsner Health System, Department of Radiology, New Orleans, LA (United States); Tawfik, Kareem O. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-05-15

    A crayon fragment was determined to be the source of a foreign body inflammatory process in the masticator space of a 15-month-old boy. The appearance of the crayon on CT and MR imaging was unexpected, leading to a further analysis of the imaging features of crayons. To investigate and characterize the imaging appearance of crayons at CT and MRI. The authors obtained CT and MR images of 22 crayons from three manufacturers and three non-pigmented crayons cast by the authors. CT attenuation of the crayons and diameter of the MRI susceptibility signal dropout were plotted versus brand and color. All crayons demonstrated a longitudinal central hypo-attenuating tract. Crayon attenuation varied by brand and color. All of the crayons demonstrated a signal void on T1 and T2 imaging and signal dropout on susceptibility-weighted imaging, the diameter of which varied by brand and color. Understanding the imaging appearance of crayons could help in the correct identification of a crayon as a foreign body on imaging studies, even when it is located in unusual places. (orig.)

  18. Review of advanced imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies" at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These advanced imaging modalities have exciting diagnostic potential and introduce new opportunities in pathology. Therefore, it is important that pathology informaticists understand these advanced imaging techniques and the impact they have on pathology. This paper reviews several recently developed microscopic techniques, including diffraction-limited methods (e.g., confocal microscopy, 2-photon microscopy, 4Pi microscopy, and spatially modulated illumination microscopy and subdiffraction techniques (e.g., photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This article serves as a primer for pathology informaticists, highlighting the fundamentals and applications of advanced optical imaging techniques.

  19. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure for ...

  20. Literature Review of Applying Visual Method to Understand Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new method to understand mathematics, visualization offers a new way of understanding mathematical principles and phenomena via image thinking and geometric explanation. It aims to deepen the understanding of the nature of concepts or phenomena and enhance the cognitive ability of learners. This paper collates and summarizes the application of this visual method in the understanding of mathematics. It also makes a literature review of the existing research, especially with a visual demonstration of Euler’s formula, introduces the application of this method in solving relevant mathematical problems, and points out the differences and similarities between the visualization method and the numerical-graphic combination method, as well as matters needing attention for its application.

  1. The transformative power of the thumbnail image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Nanna; Teilmann, Stina

    2017-01-01

    understand the role of the thumbnail as an attention technology in the digital economy? And what kind of aesthetic does it produce? This paper examines the legal negotiations of the thumbnail image and the ensuing decision to conceptualize the thumbnail as a functional image against the cultural history...

  2. On the Concept Image of Complex Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlander, Maria Cortas; Nordlander, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    A study of how Swedish students understand the concept of complex numbers was performed. A questionnaire was issued reflecting the student view of own perception. Obtained answers show a variety of concept images describing how students adopt the concept of complex numbers. These concept images are classified into four categories in order to…

  3. Perceptual digital imaging methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lukac, Rastislav

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception is a complex process requiring interaction between the receptors in the eye that sense the stimulus and the neural system and the brain that are responsible for communicating and interpreting the sensed visual information. This process involves several physical, neural, and cognitive phenomena whose understanding is essential to design effective and computationally efficient imaging solutions. Building on advances in computer vision, image and video processing, neuroscience, and information engineering, perceptual digital imaging greatly enhances the capabilities of tradition

  4. Imaging sciences workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.

    1994-11-15

    This workshop on the Imaging Sciences sponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory contains short abstracts/articles submitted by speakers. The topic areas covered include the following: Astronomical Imaging; biomedical imaging; vision/image display; imaging hardware; imaging software; Acoustic/oceanic imaging; microwave/acoustic imaging; computed tomography; physical imaging; imaging algorithms. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. The Digital Image Processing And Quantitative Analysis In Microscopic Image Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisasmita, M. Syamsa

    2000-01-01

    Many electron microscopes although have produced digital images, but not all of them are equipped with a supporting unit to process and analyse image data quantitatively. Generally the analysis of image has to be made visually and the measurement is realized manually. The development of mathematical method for geometric analysis and pattern recognition, allows automatic microscopic image analysis with computer. Image processing program can be used for image texture and structure periodic analysis by the application of Fourier transform. Because the development of composite materials. Fourier analysis in frequency domain become important for measure the crystallography orientation. The periodic structure analysis and crystal orientation are the key to understand many material properties like mechanical strength. stress, heat conductivity, resistance, capacitance and other material electric and magnetic properties. In this paper will be shown the application of digital image processing in microscopic image characterization and analysis in microscopic image

  6. Electronic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    image blur, as in Fig. 5, is well suited to efficient and private data transmission and we describe the use of DPCM and DCT-based algorithms. For... DPCM compression, we find that the bit rates required in a Huffman code can be reduced up to 50% by using a multiple-point blur prefilter

  7. Inner Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollhagen, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author states that she has always loved self portraits but most teenagers do not enjoy looking too closely at their own faces in an effort to replicate them. Thanks to a new digital camera, she was able to use this new technology to inspire students to take a closer look at their inner image. Prior to the self-portrait…

  8. Forest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  9. Geriatric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, Giuseppe [Scientific Institute Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Peh, Wilfred C.G. [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Guermazi, Ali (eds.) [Boston Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2013-08-01

    Considers all aspect of geriatric imaging. Explains clearly how to distinguish the healthy elderly from those in need of treatment. Superbly illustrated. Written by recognized experts in field. In the elderly, the coexistence of various diseases, the presence of involutional and degenerative changes, and the occurrence of both physical and cognitive problems represent ''the norm.'' It is therefore important to know how to distinguish the healthy elderly from those in need of treatment as a sound basis for avoiding overdiagnosis and overtreatment. This aspect is a central theme in Geriatric Imaging, which covers a wide range of applications of different imaging techniques and clearly explains both the potential and the limitations of diagnostic imaging in geriatric patients. Individual sections are devoted to each major region or system of the body, and a concluding section focuses specifically on interventional procedures. The book, written by recognized experts in the field, is superbly illustrated and will be an ideal resource for geriatricians, radiologists, and trainees.

  10. Tensor-based fusion of EEG and FMRI to understand neurological changes in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evrim, Acar Ataman; Levin-Schwartz, Yuri; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) provide information about neurological functions in complementary spatiotemporal resolutions; therefore, fusion of these modalities is expected to provide better understanding of brain...

  11. Understanding Polymer-Cell Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturato, Andrea; MacFarlane, Gillian; Geng, Jin; Bradley, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The development of polymeric materials with cell adhesion abilities requires an understanding of cell-surface interactions which vary with cell type. To investigate the correlation between cell attachment and the nature of the polymer, a series of random and block copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate are synthesized through single electron transfer living radical polymerization. The polymers are synthesized with highly defined and controlled monomer compositions and exhibited narrow polydispersity indices. These polymers are examined for their performance in the attachment and growth of HeLa and HEK cells, with attachment successfully modeled on monomer composition and polymer chain length, with both cell lines found to preferentially attach to moderately hydrophobic functional materials. The understanding of the biological-material interactions assessed in this study will underpin further investigations of engineered polymer scaffolds with predictable cell binding performance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Socialization, Language, and Scenic Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling; Weber, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks to understand collective unconscious meaning in text, and is presented with an illustration of the interpretation procedure from social research. Then follows a brief systematic account of key......»Sozialisation, Sprache und szenisches Verstehen. Alfred Lorenzers Beitrag zu einer psychosozialen Methodologie«. The article is a guided tour to Alfred Lorenzer's proposal for an "in-depth hermeneutic" cultural analysis methodology which was launched in an environment with an almost complete split...... between social sciences and psychology/psychoanalysis. It presents the background in his materialist socialization theory, which combines a social reinterpretation of the core insights in classical psychoanalysis – the unconscious, the drives – with a theory of language acquisition. His methodology...

  13. Understanding Tattoos in Medicolegal Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carolina A; Kenedi, Christopher

    2018-03-01

    Tattoos have held different meanings throughout history, with particular significance in cultural, social, and clinical contexts. Psychiatrists have long been interested in understanding the relevance of the tattooed body in a clinical or forensic evaluation and in settling on interpretive models that hold reliable value. Some studies have indicated that tattoos may be associated with markers of high-risk behaviors, mental illness diagnosis, and personality disorders. We attempt to provide an updated and comprehensive guide for forensic evaluators, so they can incorporate the observation of tattoos into their assessments with a review of the scientific literature that supports the interpretations and places them in context. The association between tattoos and risk, mental health, or behavioral implications is not as clear or linear as one might initially imagine, and mental health professionals should have a sophisticated understanding of the practice. © 2018 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  14. KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING AND ADVANCED SEARCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vidya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It’s a comprehensive fact that millions of people around the world surf the Internet for want of answers for their questions. Generally, the questions are asked in the form of Searching or direct questions which follow perfect ontological directions. It is important that the system understands the questions in the right sense and can provide the best answer for all the questions raised in the web forum. One such pragmatic method is required which is expected to provide optimum solution to achieve best answers for questions that not only percepts language but also follows perfect ontological information in accordance with the cyber law. This Proposed Model presents a new dynamic model called Knowledge Understanding and Advance Searching (KUAS that studies the importance of Smart Question Answering with other question answering engines like START and proves to give the optimal solution compared to them.

  15. Understanding peace a comprehensive introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Michael Allen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding Peace: A Comprehensive Introduction fills the need for an original, contemporary examination of peace that is challenging, informative, and empowering. This well-researched, fully documented, and highly accessible textbook moves beyond fixation on war to highlight the human capacity for nonviolent cooperation in everyday life and in conflict situations. After deconstructing numerous ideas about war and explaining its heavy costs to humans, animals, and the environment, discussion turns to evidence for the existence of peaceful societies. Further topics include the role of nonviolence in history, the nature of violence and aggression, and the theory and practice of nonviolence. The book offers two new moral arguments against war, and concludes by defining peace carefully from different angles and then describing conditions for creating a culture of peace. Understanding Peace brings a fresh philosophical perspective to discussions of peace, and also addresses down-to-earth issues about effecting ...

  16. Educators' understanding of workplace bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Corene de Wet

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens o a two-dimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to analyse 59 participants' descriptions of workplace bullying. The study found that the theoretical model provided a valuable framework for studying bullying in this context....

  17. Public understanding of sustainable tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, G; Rathouse, K; Scarles, C; Holmes, K; Tribe, J

    2010-01-01

    If tourism is to become part of a more sustainable lifestyle, changes are needed to the patterns of behaviour adopted by the public. This paper presents the results of research conducted amongst members of the public in England on their understanding of sustainable tourism; their response to four desired tourism behaviour goals, and expectations about the role of government and the tourism industry in encouraging sustainable tourism. The research shows a lack of awareness of tourism’s impact ...

  18. Understanding the 'historical' electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    At the time of the debates about the French 'NOME' (new organization of the electricity market) law, it is interesting to analyse the principles which have led to elaborate the 'historical' electricity tariffs in France, in order to better understand the stakes around their recasting. Today, there exists 2 categories of tariffs: the regulated selling prices and the market offers. The regulated selling prices are different depending on the client (individuals, small professionals, companies)

  19. Understanding Intellectual Disability through Rasopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro, San Martín; Rafael, Pagani Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent...

  20. Understanding service-oriented software.

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, N. E.; Knight, C.; Mohan, A.; Munro, M.

    2004-01-01

    Service-oriented software is being hailed as the next revolutionary approach to software development. Service orientation allows organizations to rapidly and dynamically form new software applications to meet changing business needs, thus alleviating the software evolution problems that occur with traditional applications. The largest of these problems is the need to understand existing software before changing it. This article looks ahead toward the automated construction of service-oriented...

  1. Understanding Intellectual Disability through Rasopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, San Martín; Rafael, Pagani Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent. However, investigations in animal models suggest that learning disability can be functional in nature and as such reversible through pharmacology or appropriate learning paradigms. A fraction of the cases of intellectual disability is caused by point mutations or deletions in genes that encode for proteins of the RAS/MAP Kinase signaling pathway known as RASopathies. Here we examined the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this group of genetic disorders focusing in studies which provide evidence that intellectual disability is potentially treatable and curable. The evidence presented supports the idea that with the appropriate understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, intellectual disability could be treated pharmacologically and perhaps through specific mechanistic-based teaching strategies. PMID:24859216

  2. Learning the image processing pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haomiao; Tian, Qiyuan; Farrell, Joyce; Wandell, Brian

    2017-06-08

    Many creative ideas are being proposed for image sensor designs, and these may be useful in applications ranging from consumer photography to computer vision. To understand and evaluate each new design, we must create a corresponding image processing pipeline that transforms the sensor data into a form that is appropriate for the application. The need to design and optimize these pipelines is time-consuming and costly. We explain a method that combines machine learning and image systems simulation that automates the pipeline design. The approach is based on a new way of thinking of the image processing pipeline as a large collection of local linear filters. We illustrate how the method has been used to design pipelines for novel sensor architectures in consumer photography applications.

  3. Image Processing: Some Challenging Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. S.; Aizawa, K.

    1993-11-01

    Image processing can be broadly defined as the manipulation of signals which are inherently multidimensional. The most common such signals are photographs and video sequences. The goals of processing or manipulation can be (i) compression for storage or transmission; (ii) enhancement or restoration; (iii) analysis, recognition, and understanding; or (iv) visualization for human observers. The use of image processing techniques has become almost ubiquitous; they find applications in such diverse areas as astronomy, archaeology, medicine, video communication, and electronic games. Nonetheless, many important problems in image processing remain unsolved. It is the goal of this paper to discuss some of these challenging problems. In Section I, we mention a number of outstanding problems. Then, in the remainder of this paper, we concentrate on one of them: very-low-bit-rate video compression. This is chosen because it involves almost all aspects of image processing.

  4. Microwave Imaging Reflectometer for TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Munsat; E. Mazzucato; H. Park; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; A.J.H. Donne; and M. van de Pol

    2002-07-09

    Understanding the behavior of fluctuations in magnetically confined plasmas is essential to the advancement of turbulence-based transport physics. Though microwave reflectometry has proven to be an extremely useful and sensitive tool for measuring small density fluctuations in some circumstances, this technique has been shown to have limited viability for large amplitude, high kq fluctuations and/or core measurements. To this end, a new instrument based on 2-D imaging reflectometry has been developed to measure density fluctuations over an extended plasma region in the TEXTOR tokamak. This technique is made possible by collecting an extended spectrum of reflected waves with large-aperture imaging optics. Details of the imaging reflectometry concept, as well as technical details of the TEXTOR instrument will be presented. Data from roof-of-principle experiments on TEXTOR using a prototype system is presented, as well as results from a systematic off-line study of the advantages and limitations of the imaging reflectometer.

  5. Medical imaging displays and their use in image interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagadis, George C; Walz-Flannigan, Alisa; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Nagy, Paul G; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Langer, Steve G

    2013-01-01

    The adequate and repeatable performance of the image display system is a key element of information technology platforms in a modern radiology department. However, despite the wide availability of high-end computing platforms and advanced color and gray-scale monitors, the quality and properties of the final displayed medical image may often be inadequate for diagnostic purposes if the displays are not configured and maintained properly. In this article-an expanded version of the Radiological Society of North America educational module "Image Display"-the authors discuss fundamentals of image display hardware, quality control and quality assurance processes for optimal image interpretation settings, and parameters of the viewing environment that influence reader performance. Radiologists, medical physicists, and other allied professionals should strive to understand the role of display technology and proper usage for a quality radiology practice. The display settings and display quality control and quality assurance processes described in this article can help ensure high standards of perceived image quality and image interpretation accuracy.

  6. Advanced biomedical image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    "This book covers the four major areas of image processing: Image enhancement and restoration, image segmentation, image quantification and classification, and image visualization. Image registration, storage, and compression are also covered. The text focuses on recently developed image processing and analysis operators and covers topical research"--Provided by publisher.

  7. Imaging dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoiardo, M.; Grisoli, M.

    2001-01-01

    Dementia is the progressive loss of intellectual functions due to involvement of cortical or subcortical areas. Specific involvement of certain brain areas in the different diseases leads to impairment of different functions, e. g., memory, language, visuospatial abilities, and behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging and other neuroradiological studies may indicate which structures are mainly or selectively involved in a demented patient, thus allowing clinical-radiological correlations. Clinical presentation and evolution of the disease, supported by imaging studies, may lead to a highly probable diagnosis. The most common disorders, or the most relevant from the neuroradiological point of view, such as Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementias, dementia associated with parkinsonism, Huntington's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus, are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  8. Imaging dementias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Grisoli, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    Dementia is the progressive loss of intellectual functions due to involvement of cortical or subcortical areas. Specific involvement of certain brain areas in the different diseases leads to impairment of different functions, e. g., memory, language, visuospatial abilities, and behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging and other neuroradiological studies may indicate which structures are mainly or selectively involved in a demented patient, thus allowing clinical-radiological correlations. Clinical presentation and evolution of the disease, supported by imaging studies, may lead to a highly probable diagnosis. The most common disorders, or the most relevant from the neuroradiological point of view, such as Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementias, dementia associated with parkinsonism, Huntington's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus, are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  9. MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaric, Z.L.; Sukov, R.M.; Boechat, I.M.

    1988-01-01

    MR images were obtained from six patients with surgically proved hemorrhagic renal cysts and three with adult polycystic renal disease that contained many hemorrhagic cysts. Their appearance was compared with that of 30 simple renal cysts. Simple cysts were hypointense on T1-weighted spin-echo sequences and hyperintense to the kidney on T2-weighted sequences. On the same sequences, hemorrhagic cysts showed three patterns: (1) hyperintense-hyperintense, (2) isointense-hyperintense, and (3) hypointense-hypointense. The fluid-fluid interphase was identified in a number of hemorrhagic cysts on T2-weighted images. Three hemorrhagic cysts contained renal carcinoma. Hemorrhagic cysts may be impossible to differentiate from solid renal tumors except for layering

  10. Image construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    An image processing system fitting in an X-ray television circuit for tomography is described. The profiles registered by the X-ray television circuit are projected on the screen of an afterglow cathode ray tube which registration is convoluted in an analogue system with the help of either a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional convolution function after which it is stored or processed further such that a clear tomogram is obtained

  11. Intravital Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, Mikael J.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, the idea of observing life deep within the tissues of a living mouse, at a resolution sufficient to pick out cellular behaviors and molecular signals underlying them, remained a much-coveted dream. Now, a new era of intravital fluorescence microscopy has dawned. In this Primer, we review the technologies that made this revolution possible, and demonstrate how intravital imaging is beginning to provide quantitative and dynamic insights into cell biology, immunology, tumor biolo...

  12. Neuroperformance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    9 4 Introduction Sleep restriction and deprivation have profound negative effects on cognitive ability and task performance...e.g., vigilance). At the same time, physical and psychological stressors often lead to sleep disruptions, which compromise the body’s ability to reap...imaging-based studies to advance our fundamental knowledge of the effects of sleep and sleep -related stressors on neuroperformance. In order to

  13. Cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has grown exponentially over the past decade. The introduction of the gamma camera, the development of new radionuclides, and the implementation of computers have transformed the field of nuclear cardiology from largely research in the 1970s to routine clinical applications in the 1980s. At first, noninvasive nuclear imaging techniques were used predominantly to aid disease detection. In the ensuing years, emphasis has shifted to the functional assessment of patients with known disease. Widely available noninvasive techniques now allow the quantitative assessment of left and right ventricular function, one of the most important predictors of survival in patients with cardiac disease. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography provides valuable information on the myocardial reserve in patients with normal resting function. The serial measurement of the ventricular ejection fraction assists in the timing of valvular replacement therapy. In patients receiving doxorubicin, serial ejection fraction follow-up helps prevent the development of irreversible, drug-induced cardiomyopathy. It is now generally acknowledged that the detection of latent coronary disease is improved by the addition of 201 T1 imaging to the standard exercise electrocardiogram. Thallium imaging and infarct avid imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate have proven useful in quantifying myocardial infarction size, and in assessing the value of therapy aimed at limiting infarction extent. In the evaluation of coronary artery disease, scintigraphy provides physiologic data that complements angiography, which is more anatomic. An angiographic lesion, read as a 70 percent narrowing, may not necessarily be flow-limiting, whereas one read as 40 percent, may, in fact, have physiologic consequences, if it is of sufficient length or eccentricity, or is in series with another insignificant stenosis

  14. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions

  15. Imaging of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantanas, A.

    2012-01-01

    with fat suppression and turboshort T1 inversion recovery. In selected cases, contrast enhanced T1-w spin echo with fat suppression is applied. Radiological interpretation of the marrow space requires an understanding of normal maturation and recognition that red and yellow marrow coexist with variable amounts depending upon the age and location. With MRI, this variability yields normal patterns ranging from very uniform and homogeneous signal intensity to patchy and heterogeneous signal intensity. Signal changes also depend on the pulse sequence applied. The marrow reflects the health of the patient and may herald developing anemia with marrow reconversion from inactive to active. Clinical correlation will contribute to narrow the differential diagnosis. Bone tumors may require additional imaging with CT in order to explore the pattern of matrix calcification and/or guide a diagnostic biopsy

  16. The Planet Formation Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S.; Buscher, D. F.; Monnier, J. D.; PFI Science, the; Technical Working Group

    2014-04-01

    Among the most fascinating and hotly-debated areas in contemporary astrophysics are the means by which planetary systems are assembled from the large rotating disks of gas and dust which attend a stellar birth. Although important work is being done both in theory and observation, a full understanding of the physics of planet formation can only be achieved by opening observational windows able to directly witness the process in action. The key requirement is then to probe planet-forming systems at the natural spatial scales over which material is being assembled. By definition, this is the so-called Hill Sphere which delineates the region of influence of a gravitating body within its surrounding environment. The Planet Formation Imager project has crystallized around this challenging goal: to deliver resolved images of Hill-Sphere-sized structures within candidate planet-hosting disks in the nearest star-forming regions. In this contribution we outline the primary science case of PFI and discuss how PFI could significantly advance our understanding of the architecture and potential habitability of planetary systems. We present radiation-hydrodynamics simulations from which we derive preliminary specifications that guide the design of the facility. Finally, we give an overview about the interferometric and non-interferometric technologies that we are investigating in order to meet the specifications.

  17. Electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The topics discussed include, among others, the following: Role of portal imaging; Port films vs. EPID; Image guidance: Elekta volume view; Delivery verification; Automation tasks of portal imaging; Types of portal imaging (Fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera-based imaging; Liquid ion chamber imaging; Amorpho-silicon portal imagers; Fluoroscopic portal imaging; Kodak CR reader; and Other types of portal imaging devices); QA of EPID; and Portal dosimetry (P.A.)

  18. Imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuyst, Dimitri De; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Bernaerts, Anja; Gielen, Jan; Schepper, Arthur M. de

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the imaging characteristics of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Skeletal tuberculosis represents one-third of all cases of tuberculosis occurring in extrapulmonary sites. Hematogenous spread from a distant focus elsewhere in the body is the cornerstone in the understanding of imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. The most common presentations are tuberculous spondylitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and soft tissue involvement. The diagnostic value of the different imaging techniques, which include conventional radiography, CT, and MR imaging, are emphasized. Whereas conventional radiography is the mainstay in the diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis and osteomyelitis, MR imaging may detect associated bone marrow and soft tissue abnormalities. MR imaging is generally accepted as the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis, demonstration of the extent of the disease of tuberculous spondylitis, and soft tissue tuberculosis. Moreover, it may be very helpful in the differential diagnosis with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, as it may easily demonstrate anterior corner destruction, the relative preservation of the intervertebral disk, multilevel involvement with or without skip lesions, and a large soft tissue abscess, as these are all arguments in favor of a tuberculous spondylitis. On the other hand, CT is still superior in the demonstration of calcifications, which are found in chronic tuberculous abscesses. (orig.)

  19. Imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuyst, Dimitri De [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Maarten, Campus Duffel, Rooienberg 25, 2570 Duffel (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, Filip; Bernaerts, Anja [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Maarten, Campus Duffel, Rooienberg 25, 2570 Duffel (Belgium); Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Gielen, Jan; Schepper, Arthur M. de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the imaging characteristics of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Skeletal tuberculosis represents one-third of all cases of tuberculosis occurring in extrapulmonary sites. Hematogenous spread from a distant focus elsewhere in the body is the cornerstone in the understanding of imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. The most common presentations are tuberculous spondylitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and soft tissue involvement. The diagnostic value of the different imaging techniques, which include conventional radiography, CT, and MR imaging, are emphasized. Whereas conventional radiography is the mainstay in the diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis and osteomyelitis, MR imaging may detect associated bone marrow and soft tissue abnormalities. MR imaging is generally accepted as the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis, demonstration of the extent of the disease of tuberculous spondylitis, and soft tissue tuberculosis. Moreover, it may be very helpful in the differential diagnosis with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, as it may easily demonstrate anterior corner destruction, the relative preservation of the intervertebral disk, multilevel involvement with or without skip lesions, and a large soft tissue abscess, as these are all arguments in favor of a tuberculous spondylitis. On the other hand, CT is still superior in the demonstration of calcifications, which are found in chronic tuberculous abscesses. (orig.)

  20. Photoacoustic imaging of lymphatic pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, Alex; Heinmiller, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J.

    2017-10-01

    The lymphatic system is responsible for fluid homeostasis and immune cell trafficking and has been implicated in several diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer metastasis. Despite its importance, the lack of suitable in vivo imaging techniques has hampered our understanding of the lymphatic system. This is, in part, due to the limited contrast of lymphatic fluids and structures. Photoacoustic imaging, in combination with optically absorbing dyes or nanoparticles, has great potential for noninvasively visualizing the lymphatic vessels deep in tissues. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging is capable of separating the components; however, the slow wavelength switching speed of most laser systems is inadequate for imaging lymphatic pumping without motion artifacts being introduced into the processed images. We investigate two approaches for visualizing lymphatic processes in vivo. First, single-wavelength differential photoacoustic imaging is used to visualize lymphatic pumping in the hindlimb of a mouse in real time. Second, a fast-switching multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging system was used to assess the propulsion profile of dyes through the lymphatics in real time. These approaches may have profound impacts in noninvasively characterizing and investigating the lymphatic system.