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Sample records for polarization shaping method

  1. Genetic control of organ shape and tissue polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A Green

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which genes control organ shape are poorly understood. In principle, genes may control shape by modifying local rates and/or orientations of deformation. Distinguishing between these possibilities has been difficult because of interactions between patterns, orientations, and mechanical constraints during growth. Here we show how a combination of growth analysis, molecular genetics, and modelling can be used to dissect the factors contributing to shape. Using the Snapdragon (Antirrhinum flower as an example, we show how shape development reflects local rates and orientations of tissue growth that vary spatially and temporally to form a dynamic growth field. This growth field is under the control of several dorsoventral genes that influence flower shape. The action of these genes can be modelled by assuming they modulate specified growth rates parallel or perpendicular to local orientations, established by a few key organisers of tissue polarity. Models in which dorsoventral genes only influence specified growth rates do not fully account for the observed growth fields and shapes. However, the data can be readily explained by a model in which dorsoventral genes also modify organisers of tissue polarity. In particular, genetic control of tissue polarity organisers at ventral petal junctions and distal boundaries allows both the shape and growth field of the flower to be accounted for in wild type and mutants. The results suggest that genetic control of tissue polarity organisers has played a key role in the development and evolution of shape.

  2. Reversible Shaping of Microwells by Polarized Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Pirani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, stimuli-responsive polymeric materials have attracted great interest, due to their low cost and ease of structuration over large areas combined with the possibility to actively manipulate their properties. In this work, we propose a polymeric pattern of soft-imprinted microwells containing azobenzene molecules. The shape of individual elements of the pattern can be controlled after fabrication by irradiation with properly polarized light. By taking advantage of the light responsivity of the azobenzene compound, we demonstrate the possibility to reversibly modulate a contraction-expansion of wells from an initial round shape to very narrow slits. We also show that the initial shape of the microconcavities can be restored by flipping the polarization by 90°. The possibility to reversibly control the final shape of individual elements of structured surfaces offers the opportunity to engineer surface properties dynamically, thus opening new perspectives for several applications.

  3. Polarization of lanthanum nucleus by dynamic polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshikazu; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Masuda, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Kimio

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been carried out concerning the application of a dynamic polarization method to polarizing lanthanum fluoride single crystal to be employed as target in experiments with time reversal invariance. The present report briefly outlines the dynamic polarization method and describes some preliminary studies carried out so far. Dynamic polarization is of particular importance because no techniques are currently available that can produce highly polarized static nucleus. Spin interaction between electrons and protons (nuclei) plays a major role in the dynamic polarization method. In a thermal equilibrium state, electrons are polarized almost completely while most protons are not polarized. Positively polarized proton spin is produced by applying microwave to this system. The most hopeful candidate target material is single crystal of LaF 3 containing neodymium because the crystal is chemically stable and easy to handle. The spin direction is of great importance in experiments with time reversal invariance. The spin of neutrons in the target can be cancelled by adjusting the external magnetic field applied to a frozen polarized target. In a frozen spin state, the polarity decreases slowly with a relaxation time that depends on the external magnetic field and temperature. (N.K.)

  4. Noodles and stars allow a precise and efficient calculation of the Z-line shape and the polarization asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung-Choon Im, C.

    1990-01-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the star functions and the Noodle method. The Z-line shape and the polarization asymmetry at SLC/LEP can be evaluated elegantly and efficiently using the star functions and the Noodle method

  5. Polarization spectrum of supernova 1987A interpreted in terms of shape asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, D J

    1987-10-01

    Polarimetry carried out on the type II supernova 1987A on 6 and 7 March 1987 showed variation in polarization across line profiles. This polarization structure is interpreted as arising from an asymmetric, homologously expanding, scattering atmosphere surrounding an asymmetric continuum-producing photosphere. Resonant scattering of radiation by ions in the atmosphere produces the line structure in the flux spectrum and polarizes the emergent radiation. The asymmetric shape of the atmosphere causes a non-zero net polarization. Sobolev-method radiative transfer calculations with axisymmetric oblate ellipsoidal models have been carried out to fit the observed data. The models are parameterized by the ratio of the symmetry axis to the perpendicular axis, c/a. The fits to the 1987A data indicate that (c/a) is approx. 0.6-0.8.

  6. Two-dimensional shape recognition using oriented-polar representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Neng-Chung; Yu, Kuo-Kan; Hsu, Yung-Li

    1997-10-01

    To deal with such a problem as object recognition of position, scale, and rotation invariance (PSRI), we utilize some PSRI properties of images obtained from objects, for example, the centroid of the image. The corresponding position of the centroid to the boundary of the image is invariant in spite of rotation, scale, and translation of the image. To obtain the information of the image, we use the technique similar to Radon transform, called the oriented-polar representation of a 2D image. In this representation, two specific points, the centroid and the weighted mean point, are selected to form an initial ray, then the image is sampled with N angularly equispaced rays departing from the initial rays. Each ray contains a number of intersections and the distance information obtained from the centroid to the intersections. The shape recognition algorithm is based on the least total error of these two items of information. Together with a simple noise removal and a typical backpropagation neural network, this algorithm is simple, but the PSRI is achieved with a high recognition rate.

  7. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index. The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc. provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds.

  8. Broadband reflective multi-polarization converter based on single-layer double-L-shaped metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chenyang; Yang, Yang; He, Xiaoxiang; Zheng, Jingming; Zhou, Chun

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a broadband reflective multi-polarization converter based on single-layer double-L-shaped metasurface is proposed. The proposed metasurface can effectively convert linear-polarized (TE/TM) incident wave into the reflected wave with three different polarizations within the frequency bands of 5.5-22.75 GHz. Based on the electric and magnetic resonant features of the double-L-shaped structure, the proposed metasurface can convert linearly polarized waves into cross-polarized waves at three resonant frequency bands. Furthermore, the incident linearly polarized waves can be effectively converted into left/right handed circular-polarized (LHCP and RHCP) waves at other four non-resonance frequency bands. Thus, the proposed metasurface can be regarded as a seven-band multi-polarization converter. The prototype of the proposed polarization converter is analyzed and measured. Both simulated and measured results show the 3-dB axis ratio bandwidth of circular polarization bands and the high polarization conversion efficiency of cross-polarization bands when the incident wave changes from 0° to 30° at both TE and TM modes.

  9. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  10. A method for generating double-ring-shaped vector beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Chen; Xiao-Hui, Ling; Zhi-Hong, Chen; Qian-Guang, Li; Hao, Lv; Hua-Qing, Yu; Xu-Nong, Yi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method for generating double-ring-shaped vector beams. A step phase introduced by a spatial light modulator (SLM) first makes the incident laser beam have a nodal cycle. This phase is dynamic in nature because it depends on the optical length. Then a Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP) optical element is used to manipulate the local polarization of the optical field by modulating the geometric phase. The experimental results show that this scheme can effectively create double-ring-shaped vector beams. It provides much greater flexibility to manipulate the phase and polarization by simultaneously modulating the dynamic and the geometric phases. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11547017), the Hubei Engineering University Research Foundation, China (Grant No. z2014001), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFB578).

  11. Mechanochemical Polarization of Contiguous Cell Walls Shapes Plant Pavement Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Mateusz; Grones, Peter; Sintorn, Ida-Maria; Vain, Thomas; Milani, Pascale; Krupinski, Pawel; Zagórska-Marek, Beata; Viotti, Corrado; Jönsson, Henrik; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Hamant, Olivier; Robert, Stéphanie

    2017-11-06

    The epidermis of aerial plant organs is thought to be limiting for growth, because it acts as a continuous load-bearing layer, resisting tension. Leaf epidermis contains jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells whose shape has been proposed to be a result of subcellular variations in expansion rate that induce local buckling events. Paradoxically, such local compressive buckling should not occur given the tensile stresses across the epidermis. Using computational modeling, we show that the simplest scenario to explain pavement cell shapes within an epidermis under tension must involve mechanical wall heterogeneities across and along the anticlinal pavement cell walls between adjacent cells. Combining genetics, atomic force microscopy, and immunolabeling, we demonstrate that contiguous cell walls indeed exhibit hybrid mechanochemical properties. Such biochemical wall heterogeneities precede wall bending. Altogether, this provides a possible mechanism for the generation of complex plant cell shapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. General method for designing wave shape transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo; Wang, Jiafu

    2008-12-22

    An effective method for designing wave shape transformers (WSTs) is investigated by adopting the coordinate transformation theory. Following this method, the devices employed to transform electromagnetic (EM) wave fronts from one style with arbitrary shape and size to another style, can be designed. To verify this method, three examples in 2D spaces are also presented. Compared with the methods proposed in other literatures, this method offers the general procedure in designing WSTs, and thus is of great importance for the potential and practical applications possessed by such kinds of devices.

  13. Multiple-band reflective polarization converter using U-shaped metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaojun; Yang, Dong; Yang, Helin

    2014-01-01

    A multiple-band metamaterial reflective polarization converter (RPC) is proposed, which is composed of the dielectric substrate sandwiched with U-shaped metallic patterns and continuous metal film. The proposed U-shaped metamaterial RPC (UMM-RPC) can convert a linearly polarized wave to its cross polarized wave at the three resonant frequencies, which also can convert the linearly polarized wave to circularly polarized wave at other three resonant frequencies. Furthermore, the proposed UMM-RPC can maintain the same conversional direction at the three resonant frequencies when incident on a circularly polarized wave. The simulated and measured results are in agreement in the entire frequency range, and the polarization conversion ratio is over 90% for both linear and circular polarizations. The surface current distributions of the UMM-RPC are discussed to look into the physical mechanism. The proposed UMM-RPC has simple geometry but more operating frequency bands compared to the previous designs and can be used in applications such as antenna radome, remote sensors, and radiometer

  14. Multiple-band reflective polarization converter using U-shaped metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaojun [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Physics, Kashgar Teachers College, Kashgar 844000 (China); Yang, Dong [College of Physics and Electronics Science, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002 (China); Yang, Helin, E-mail: emyang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2014-03-14

    A multiple-band metamaterial reflective polarization converter (RPC) is proposed, which is composed of the dielectric substrate sandwiched with U-shaped metallic patterns and continuous metal film. The proposed U-shaped metamaterial RPC (UMM-RPC) can convert a linearly polarized wave to its cross polarized wave at the three resonant frequencies, which also can convert the linearly polarized wave to circularly polarized wave at other three resonant frequencies. Furthermore, the proposed UMM-RPC can maintain the same conversional direction at the three resonant frequencies when incident on a circularly polarized wave. The simulated and measured results are in agreement in the entire frequency range, and the polarization conversion ratio is over 90% for both linear and circular polarizations. The surface current distributions of the UMM-RPC are discussed to look into the physical mechanism. The proposed UMM-RPC has simple geometry but more operating frequency bands compared to the previous designs and can be used in applications such as antenna radome, remote sensors, and radiometer.

  15. Nano-polarization-converter based on magnetic plasmon resonance excitation in an L-shaped slot antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jiasen

    2013-04-08

    We propose a nano-polarization-converter made of a resonant L-shaped slot antenna in a gold film and study its optical properties using the finite-difference time-domain method. Phase retardation between the fast and slow axes of the nano-polarization-converter originates from the simultaneous excitation of both single-surface first-order magnetic plasmon resonance mode and second-order magnetic plasmon resonance mode at the working wavelength. By adjusting the size of the slot antenna, which is still much smaller than the wavelength, the working wavelength can be tuned within a large wavelength range.

  16. Concave pulse shaping of a circularly polarized laser pulse from non-uniform overdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Min Sup [School of Natural Science, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kulagin, Victor V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Universitetsky prosp. 13, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Suk, Hyyong, E-mail: hysuk@gist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Photon Science, GIST, 123 Cheomdan-gwangiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-20

    Pulse shaping of circularly polarized laser pulses in nonuniform overdense plasmas are investigated numerically. Specifically we show by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the generation of a concave pulse front of a circularly polarized, a few tens of petawatt laser pulse from a density-tapered, overdense plasma slab. The concept used for the transverse-directional shaping is the differential transmittance depending on the plasma density, and the laser intensity. For suitable selection of the slab parameters for the concave pulse shaping, we studied numerically the pulse transmittance, which can be used for further parameter design of the pulse shaping. The concavely shaped circularly polarized pulse is expected to add more freedom in controlling the ion-beam characteristics in the RPDA regime. - Highlights: • Laser pulse shaping for a concave front by non-uniform overdense plasma was studied. • Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations were used for the investigation. • A laser pulse can be shaped by a density-tapered overdense plasma. • The concave and sharp pulse front are useful in many laser–plasma applications. • They are important for ion acceleration, especially in the radiation pressure dominant regime.

  17. Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber based on E-shaped all-dielectric structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we designed a metamaterial absorber performed in microwave frequency band. This absorber is composed of E-shaped dielectrics which are arranged along different directions. The E-shaped all-dielectric structure is made of microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. Within about 1 GHz frequency band, more than 86% absorption efficiency was observed for this metamaterial absorber. This absorber is polarization insensitive and is stable for incident angles. It is figured out that the polarization insensitive absorption is caused by the nearly located varied resonant modes which are excited by the E-shaped all-dielectric resonators with the same size but in the different direction. The E-shaped dielectric absorber contains intensive resonant points. Our research work paves a way for designing all-dielectric absorber.

  18. Dual-polarized feed antenna apparatus and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarehraz, Mohammed (Inventor); Buckle, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Stefanakos, Elias (Inventor); Weller, Thomas (Inventor); Goswami, D. Yogi (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An antenna apparatus and method for the interception of randomly polarized electromagnetic waves utilizing a dual polarized antenna which is excited through a cross-slot aperture using two well-isolated orthogonal feeds.

  19. POLARIZATION REMOTE SENSING PHYSICAL MECHANISM, KEY METHODS AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains,it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1 Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2 Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3 Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  20. Adaptive finite element method for shape optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Morin, Pedro; Nochetto, Ricardo H.; Pauletti, Miguel S.; Verani, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We examine shape optimization problems in the context of inexact sequential quadratic programming. Inexactness is a consequence of using adaptive finite element methods (AFEM) to approximate the state and adjoint equations (via the dual weighted residual method), update the boundary, and compute the geometric functional. We present a novel algorithm that equidistributes the errors due to shape optimization and discretization, thereby leading to coarse resolution in the early stages and fine resolution upon convergence, and thus optimizing the computational effort. We discuss the ability of the algorithm to detect whether or not geometric singularities such as corners are genuine to the problem or simply due to lack of resolution - a new paradigm in adaptivity. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2012.

  1. Adaptive finite element method for shape optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Morin, Pedro

    2012-01-16

    We examine shape optimization problems in the context of inexact sequential quadratic programming. Inexactness is a consequence of using adaptive finite element methods (AFEM) to approximate the state and adjoint equations (via the dual weighted residual method), update the boundary, and compute the geometric functional. We present a novel algorithm that equidistributes the errors due to shape optimization and discretization, thereby leading to coarse resolution in the early stages and fine resolution upon convergence, and thus optimizing the computational effort. We discuss the ability of the algorithm to detect whether or not geometric singularities such as corners are genuine to the problem or simply due to lack of resolution - a new paradigm in adaptivity. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2012.

  2. Research based on matlab method of digital trapezoidal shaping filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qinghua; Zhang Ruanyu; Li Taihua

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop digital shaping system fast and conveniently, the paper presents the method of optimizing the trapezoidal shaping filter's parameters by using MATLAB, and discusses the affections of the parameters to the shaping result by this method. (authors)

  3. Polarized atomic orbitals for linear scaling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghold, Gerd; Parrinello, Michele; Hutter, Jürg

    2002-02-01

    We present a modified version of the polarized atomic orbital (PAO) method [M. S. Lee and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9085 (1997)] to construct minimal basis sets optimized in the molecular environment. The minimal basis set derives its flexibility from the fact that it is formed as a linear combination of a larger set of atomic orbitals. This approach significantly reduces the number of independent variables to be determined during a calculation, while retaining most of the essential chemistry resulting from the admixture of higher angular momentum functions. Furthermore, we combine the PAO method with linear scaling algorithms. We use the Chebyshev polynomial expansion method, the conjugate gradient density matrix search, and the canonical purification of the density matrix. The combined scheme overcomes one of the major drawbacks of standard approaches for large nonorthogonal basis sets, namely numerical instabilities resulting from ill-conditioned overlap matrices. We find that the condition number of the PAO overlap matrix is independent from the condition number of the underlying extended basis set, and consequently no numerical instabilities are encountered. Various applications are shown to confirm this conclusion and to compare the performance of the PAO method with extended basis-set calculations.

  4. Off-specular polarized neutron reflectometry study of magnetic dots with a strong shape anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Temst, K; Moshchalkov, V V; Bruynseraede, Y; Fritzsche, H; Jonckheere, R

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the off-specular polarized neutron reflectivity of a regular array of rectangular magnetic polycrystalline Co dots, which were prepared by a combination of electron-beam lithography, molecular beam deposition, and lift-off processes. The dots have a length-to-width ratio of 4:1 imposing a strong shape anisotropy. The intensity of the off-specular satellite reflection was monitored as a function of the magnetic field applied parallel to the rows of dots and in the plane of the sample, allowing us to analyze the magnetization-reversal process using the four spin-polarized cross sections. (orig.)

  5. High-efficiency broadband polarization converter based on Ω-shaped metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyao; Huang, Lingling; Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian

    2017-11-01

    The polarization state, which cannot be directly detected by human eyes, forms an important characteristic of electromagnetic waves. Control of polarization states has long been pursued for various applications. Conventional polarization converters can hardly meet the requirements in lab-on-chip systems, due to the involvement of bulk materials. Here, we propose the design and realization of a linear to circular polarization converter based on metasurfaces. The metasurface is deliberately designed using achiral two-fold mirror symmetry Ω-shaped antennas. The converter integrates a ground metal plane, a spacer dielectric layer and an antenna array, leading to a high conversion efficiency and broad operating bandwidth in the near infrared regime. The calculated Stokes parameters indicate an excellent conversion of linear to circular polarization for the reflected light. The tunability of the bandwidth by oblique incidence and by modulating the thickness of the dielectric layer is also introduced and demonstrated, which shows great flexibilities for such metasurface converters. The proposed metasurface may open up intriguing possibilities towards the realization of ultrathin nanophotonic devices for polarization manipulation and wavefront engineering.

  6. Polarizing matter and antimatter: A new method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onel, Y.

    1992-02-01

    Several years ago a self-polarization effect for stored (anti)- protons and ions was investigated theoretically. The effect is based on the well-known Stern-Gerlach effect in gradient fields. The aim of the ongoing measurements at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) is to verify experimentally the various assumptions on which this effect is based. The final goal is to demonstrate this new polarization effect. The proposed effect could be a powerful tool to produce polarized stored hadron beams both in the low-energy range and at SSC and LHC energies. In this progress report we will describe our progress in three parts: (A) Experimental work at IUCF Cooler Ring; (B) Our extensive computer simulations of the spin stability for the IUCF Cooler Ring; and (C) Theoretical studies

  7. Shape theory categorical methods of approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, J M

    2008-01-01

    This in-depth treatment uses shape theory as a ""case study"" to illustrate situations common to many areas of mathematics, including the use of archetypal models as a basis for systems of approximations. It offers students a unified and consolidated presentation of extensive research from category theory, shape theory, and the study of topological algebras.A short introduction to geometric shape explains specifics of the construction of the shape category and relates it to an abstract definition of shape theory. Upon returning to the geometric base, the text considers simplical complexes and

  8. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, B W; DaSilva, L B; Everett, M J; Featherstone, J D B; Fried, D; Ragadio, J N; Sathyam, U S.

    1999-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for non-invasive in vivo detection and characterization of early, incipient caries lesions. PS-OCT generates cross-sectional images of biological tissue while measuring the effect of the tissue on the polarization state of incident light. Clear discrimination between regions of normal and demineralized enamel is first shown in PS-OCT images of bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. High-resolution, cross-sectional images of extracted human teeth are then generated that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions on both the smooth and occlusal surfaces. Regions of the teeth that appeared to be demineralized in the PS-OCT images were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light microscopy. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the polarization state of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. Demineralization of enamel increases the scattering coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions

  9. A Bionic Polarization Navigation Sensor and Its Calibration Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huijie; Xu, Wujian

    2016-08-03

    The polarization patterns of skylight which arise due to the scattering of sunlight in the atmosphere can be used by many insects for deriving compass information. Inspired by insects' polarized light compass, scientists have developed a new kind of navigation method. One of the key techniques in this method is the polarimetric sensor which is used to acquire direction information from skylight. In this paper, a polarization navigation sensor is proposed which imitates the working principles of the polarization vision systems of insects. We introduce the optical design and mathematical model of the sensor. In addition, a calibration method based on variable substitution and non-linear curve fitting is proposed. The results obtained from the outdoor experiments provide support for the feasibility and precision of the sensor. The sensor's signal processing can be well described using our mathematical model. A relatively high degree of accuracy in polarization measurement can be obtained without any error compensation.

  10. PolarTREC: Successful Methods and Tools for Attaining Broad Educational Impacts with Interdisciplinary Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K. M.; Warburton, J.; Owens, R.; Warnick, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded International Polar Year (IPY) project in which K-12 educators participate in hands-on field experiences in the polar regions, working closely with IPY scientists as a pathway to improving science education. Developing long-term teacher- researcher collaborations through PolarTREC ensures up-to-date climate change science content will permeate the K-12 education system long after the IPY. By infusing education with the cutting edge science from the polar regions, PolarTREC has already shown an increase in student and public knowledge of and interest in the polar regions and global climate change. Preliminary evaluations have shown that PolarTREC's program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes regarding the importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today's world. Researchers have been overwhelmingly satisfied with PolarTREC and cited several specific strengths, including the program's crucial link between the teachers' field research experiences and their classroom and the extensive training provided to teachers prior to their expedition. This presentation will focus on other successful components of the PolarTREC program and how researchers and organizations might use these tools to reach out to the public for long-term impacts. Best practices include strategies for working with educators and the development of an internet-based platform for teachers and researchers to interact with the public, combining several communication tools such as online journals and forums, real-time Internet seminars, lesson plans, activities, audio, and other educational resources that address a broad range of scientific

  11. One directional polarized neutron reflectometry with optimized reference layer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudi, S. Farhad; Jahromi, Saeed S.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, several neutron reflectometry methods for determining the modulus and phase of the complex reflection coefficient of an unknown multilayer thin film have been worked out among which the method of variation of surroundings and reference layers are of highest interest. These methods were later modified for measurement of the polarization of the reflected beam instead of the measurement of the intensities. In their new architecture, these methods not only suffered from the necessity of change of experimental setup but also another difficulty was added to their experimental implementations. This deficiency was related to the limitations of the technology of the neutron reflectometers that could only measure the polarization of the reflected neutrons in the same direction as the polarization of the incident beam. As the instruments are limited, the theory has to be optimized so that the experiment could be performed. In a recent work, we developed the method of variation of surroundings for one directional polarization analysis. In this new work, the method of reference layer with polarization analysis has been optimized to determine the phase and modulus of the unknown film with measurement of the polarization of the reflected neutrons in the same direction as the polarization of the incident beam.

  12. Global positioning method based on polarized light compass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yang, Jiangtao; Wang, Yubo; Tang, Jun; Shen, Chong

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a global positioning method based on a polarized light compass system. A main limitation of polarization positioning is the environment such as weak and locally destroyed polarization environments, and the solution to the positioning problem is given in this paper which is polarization image de-noising and segmentation. Therefore, the pulse coupled neural network is employed for enhancing positioning performance. The prominent advantages of the present positioning technique are as follows: (i) compared to the existing position method based on polarized light, better sun tracking accuracy can be achieved and (ii) the robustness and accuracy of positioning under weak and locally destroyed polarization environments, such as cloudy or building shielding, are improved significantly. Finally, some field experiments are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed global positioning technique. The experiments have shown that our proposed method outperforms the conventional polarization positioning method, the real time longitude and latitude with accuracy up to 0.0461° and 0.0911°, respectively.

  13. Optimized fan-shaped chiral metamaterial as an ultrathin narrow-band circular polarizer at visible frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yizhuo; Wang, Xinghai; Ingram, Whitney; Ai, Bin; Zhao, Yiping

    2018-04-01

    Chiral metamaterials have the great ability to manipulate the circular polarizations of light, which can be utilized to build ultrathin circular polarizers. Here we build a narrow-band circular polarizer at visible frequencies based on plasmonic fan-shaped chiral nanostructures. In order to achieve the best optical performance, we systematically investigate how different fabrication factors affect the chiral optical response of the fan-shaped chiral nanostructures, including incident angle of vapor depositions, nanostructure thickness, and post-deposition annealing. The optimized fan-shaped nanostructures show two narrow bands for different circular polarizations with the maximum extinction ratios 7.5 and 6.9 located at wavelength 687 nm and 774 nm, respectively.

  14. A novel polarization demodulation method using polarization beam splitter (PBS) for dynamic pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Yiming; Shen, Huiping

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we propose a new design to demodulate polarization properties induced by pressure using a PBS (polarization beam splitter), which is different with traditional polarimeter based on the 4-detector polarization measurement approach. The theoretical model is established by Muller matrix method. Experimental results confirm the validity of our analysis. Proportional relationships and linear fit are found between output signal and applied pressure. A maximum sensitivity of 0.092182 mv/mv is experimentally achieved and the frequency response exhibits a <0.14 dB variation across the measurement bandwidth. The sensitivity dependence on incident SOP (state of polarization) is investigated. The simple and all-fiber configuration, low-cost and high speed potential make it promising for fiber-based dynamic pressure sensing.

  15. Chiral retrieval method based on right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Ernesto; Muñoz, Juan; Margineda, José; Molina-Cuberos, Gregorio J; García-Collado, Ángel J

    2014-01-01

    The free-wave characterization of metamaterials is usually carried out by illuminating a sample with a linearly polarized plane electromagnetic wave. At points before and after the sample, sensors are introduced to measure the transverse components of the field, in order to compute the reflection and transmission coefficients related with the co- and cross-polar field components. Based on this information, retrieval algorithms allow parameters like rotation angle, effective chirality and refraction index to be calculated. Here we propose to use the transmission signals under illumination with plane circularly polarized waves, without sensing the reflection signal, to calculate the chirality parameter and the rotation angle due to the electromagnetic activity of the material. This new method, which allows a simpler characterization of a chiral slab, is applied to the study of metamaterials composed of both periodic and random distributions of metallic structures with chiral symmetry. The experimental results are contrasted with simulations and alternative measurements obtained using linearly polarized waves. (paper)

  16. Method of measuring the polarization of high momentum proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A method of measuring the polarization of high momentum proton beams is proposed. This method utilizes the Primakoff effect and relates asymmetries at high energy to large asymmetries already measured at low energy. Such a new method is essential for the success of future experiments at energies where present methods are no longer feasible

  17. Low-Gain Circularly Polarized Antenna with Torus-Shaped Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Luis R.; Kruid, Ronald C.; Vacchione, Joseph D.; Prata, Aluizio

    2012-01-01

    The Juno mission to Jupiter requires an antenna with a torus-shaped antenna pattern with approximately 6 dBic gain and circular polarization over the Deep Space Network (DSN) 7-GHz transmit frequency and the 8-GHz receive frequency. Given the large distances that accumulate en-route to Jupiter and the limited power afforded by the solar-powered vehicle, this toroidal low-gain antenna requires as much gain as possible while maintaining a beam width that could facilitate a +/-10deg edge of coverage. The natural antenna that produces a toroidal antenna pattern is the dipole, but the limited approx. = 2.2 dB peak gain would be insufficient. Here a shaped variation of the standard bicone antenna is proposed that could achieve the required gains and bandwidths while maintaining a size that was not excessive. The final geometry that was settled on consisted of a corrugated, shaped bicone, which is fed by a WR112 waveguide-to-coaxial- waveguide transition. This toroidal low-gain antenna (TLGA) geometry produced the requisite gain, moderate sidelobes, and the torus-shaped antenna pattern while maintaining a very good match over the entire required frequency range. Its "horn" geometry is also low-loss and capable of handling higher powers with large margins against multipactor breakdown. The final requirement for the antenna was to link with the DSN with circular polarization. A four-layer meander-line array polarizer was implemented; an approach that was fairly well suited to the TLGA geometry. The principal development of this work was to adapt the standard linear bicone such that its aperture could be increased in order to increase the available gain of the antenna. As one increases the aperture of a standard bicone, the phase variation across the aperture begins to increase, so the larger the aperture becomes, the greater the phase variation. In order to maximize the gain from any aperture antenna, the phase should be kept as uniform as possible. Thus, as the standard

  18. Controlling optical properties of periodic gold nanoparticle arrays by changing the substrate, topologic shapes of nanoparticles, and polarization direction of incident light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Li; Li, Yu; Zhi-Xin, Lu; Gang, Song; Kai, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of various parameters including thickness and dielectric constants of substrates, shapes of nanoparticles, and polarization direction of incident light, on the extinction spectra of periodic gold nanoparticle arrays are investigated by the full-vectorial three-dimensional (3D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The calculated results show that the substrate affects the extinction spectra by coupling the fields co-excited by the substrate and gold nanoparticles. Extinction spectra are influenced by the shapes of the nanoparticles, but there are no obvious changes in extinction spectra for similar shapes. The polarization direction of incident light has a great influence on the extinction spectra. The implications of these results are discussed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Circularly polarized triple band glass shaped monopole patch antenna with metallic reflector for bluetooth & wireless applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangid, K. G.; Choudhary, N.; Jain, P.; Sharma, B. R.; Saini, J. S.; Kulhar, V. S.; Bhatnagar, D.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of strip line fed glass shaped monopole patch antenna having with overall size 30mm × 30 mm × 1.59 mm. In the patch; an eight shaped slot and in the ground plane an eight shaped ring are introduced. A metallic ground plane is also introduced at appropriate location beneath the ground plane. The proposed antenna is simulated by applying CST Microwave Studio simulator. Antenna provides circularly polarized radiations, triple broad impedance bandwidth of 203MHz (2.306GHz to 2.510GHz), 42MHz (2.685GHz to 2.757GHz) & GHz (3.63 GHz to 6.05 GHz), high flat gain (close to 5dBi) and good radiation properties in the desired frequency range. This antenna may be a very useful tool for 2.45GHz Bluetooth communication band as well as for 2.4GHz/5.2 GHz /5.8 GHz WLAN bands & 3.7GHz/5.5 GHz Wi-Max bands.

  20. Circularly polarized triple band glass shaped monopole patch antenna with metallic reflector for bluetooth & wireless applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jangid, K. G.; Kulhar, V. S. [Department of Physics, Manipal University Jaipur, Jaipur-303007 (India); Choudhary, N.; Jain, P.; Sharma, B. R.; Saini, J. S.; Bhatnagar, D., E-mail: dbhatnagar-2000@rediffmail.com [Microwave Lab, Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India)

    2016-03-09

    This paper presents the design and performance of strip line fed glass shaped monopole patch antenna having with overall size 30mm × 30 mm × 1.59 mm. In the patch; an eight shaped slot and in the ground plane an eight shaped ring are introduced. A metallic ground plane is also introduced at appropriate location beneath the ground plane. The proposed antenna is simulated by applying CST Microwave Studio simulator. Antenna provides circularly polarized radiations, triple broad impedance bandwidth of 203MHz (2.306GHz to 2.510GHz), 42MHz (2.685GHz to 2.757GHz) & GHz (3.63 GHz to 6.05 GHz), high flat gain (close to 5dBi) and good radiation properties in the desired frequency range. This antenna may be a very useful tool for 2.45GHz Bluetooth communication band as well as for 2.4GHz/5.2 GHz /5.8 GHz WLAN bands & 3.7GHz/5.5 GHz Wi-Max bands.

  1. Polarization control method for UV writing of advanced bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deyerl, Hans-Jürgen; Plougmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2002-01-01

    We report the application of the polarization control method for the UV writing of advanced fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). We demonstrate the strength of the new method for different apodization profiles, including the Sinc-profile and two designs for dispersion-free square filters. The method has...

  2. A novel x-ray circularly polarized ranging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shi-Bin; Xu Lu-Ping; Zhang Hua; Shen Yang-He; Gao Na

    2015-01-01

    Range measurement has found multiple applications in deep space missions. With more and further deep space exploration activities happening now and in the future, the requirement for range measurement has risen. In view of the future ranging requirement, a novel x-ray polarized ranging method based on the circular polarization modulation is proposed, termed as x-ray circularly polarized ranging (XCPolR). XCPolR utilizes the circular polarization modulation to process x-ray signals and the ranging information is conveyed by the circular polarization states. As the circular polarization states present good stability in space propagation and x-ray detectors have light weight and low power consumption, XCPolR shows great potential in the long-distance range measurement and provides an option for future deep space ranging. In this paper, we present a detailed illustration of XCPolR. Firstly, the structure of the polarized ranging system is described and the signal models in the ranging process are established mathematically. Then, the main factors that affect the ranging accuracy, including the Doppler effect, the differential demodulation, and the correlation error, are analyzed theoretically. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of XCPolR. (paper)

  3. Broadband spectral shaping in regenerative amplifier based on modified polarization-encoded chirped pulse amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinliang; Lu, Xiaoming; Liu, Yanqi; Xu, Yi; Wang, Cheng; Li, Shuai; Yu, Linpeng; Liu, Xingyan; Liu, Keyang; Xu, Rongjie; Leng, Yuxin

    2018-06-01

    We present an intra-cavity spectral shaping method to suppress the spectral narrowing in a Ti:sapphire (Ti:Sa) regenerative amplifier. The spectral shaping is realized by manipulating the stored energies of two Ti:Sa crystals with orthogonal c-axes, changing the length of a quartz plate, and rotating a broadband achromatic half-wave plate. Using this method, in our proof-of-concept experiment, an 84-nm-(FWHM)-broadband amplified pulse with an energy gain larger than 106 is obtained, which supports a 17.8 fs Fourier-transform-limited pulse duration. The pulse is compressed to 18.9 fs.

  4. Diacylglycerol Kinases: Shaping Diacylglycerol and Phosphatidic Acid Gradients to Control Cell Polarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Baldanzi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs terminate diacylglycerol (DAG signaling and promote phosphatidic acid (PA production. Isoform specific regulation of DGKs activity and localization allows DGKs to shape the DAG and PA gradients. The capacity of DGKs to constrain the areas of DAG signaling is exemplified by their role in defining the contact interface between T cells and antigen presenting cells: the immune synapse. Upon T cell receptor engagement, both DGK α and ζ metabolize DAG at the immune synapse thus constraining DAG signaling. Interestingly, their activity and localization are not fully redundant because DGKζ activity metabolizes the bulk of DAG in the cell, whereas DGKα limits the DAG signaling area localizing specifically at the periphery of the immune synapse.When DGKs terminate DAG signaling, the local PA production defines a new signaling domain, where PA recruits and activates a second wave of effector proteins. The best-characterized example is the role of DGKs in protrusion elongation and cell migration. Indeed, upon growth factor stimulation, several DGK isoforms, such as α, ζ, and γ, are recruited and activated at the plasma membrane. Here, local PA production controls cell migration by finely modulating cytoskeletal remodeling and integrin recycling. Interestingly, DGK-produced PA also controls the localization and activity of key players in cell polarity such as aPKC, Par3, and integrin β1. Thus, T cell polarization and directional migration may be just two instances of the general contribution of DGKs to the definition of cell polarity by local specification of membrane identity signaling.

  5. Magnetic flux reconstruction methods for shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, Chi-Wa.

    1993-12-01

    The use of a variational method permits the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation to be solved by reducing the problem of solving the 2D non-linear partial differential equation to the problem of minimizing a function of several variables. This high speed algorithm approximately solves the GS equation given a parameterization of the plasma boundary and the current profile (p' and FF' functions). The author treats the current profile parameters as unknowns. The goal is to reconstruct the internal magnetic flux surfaces of a tokamak plasma and the toroidal current density profile from the external magnetic measurements. This is a classic problem of inverse equilibrium determination. The current profile parameters can be evaluated by several different matching procedures. Matching of magnetic flux and field at the probe locations using the Biot-Savart law and magnetic Green's function provides a robust method of magnetic reconstruction. The matching of poloidal magnetic field on the plasma surface provides a unique method of identifying the plasma current profile. However, the power of this method is greatly compromised by the experimental errors of the magnetic signals. The Casing Principle provides a very fast way to evaluate the plasma contribution to the magnetic signals. It has the potential of being a fast matching method. The performance of this method is hindered by the accuracy of the poloidal magnetic field computed from the equilibrium solver. A flux reconstruction package has been implemented which integrates a vacuum field solver using a filament model for the plasma, a multi-layer perception neural network as an interface, and the volume integration of plasma current density using Green's functions as a matching method for the current profile parameters. The flux reconstruction package is applied to compare with the ASEQ and EFIT data. The results are promising

  6. Control of periodic surface structures on silicon by combined temporal and polarization shaping of femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraggelakis, F.; Stratakis, E.; Loukakos, P. A.

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate the capability to exercise advanced control on the laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on silicon by combining the effect of temporal shaping, via tuning the interpulse temporal delay between double femtosecond laser pulses, along with the independent manipulation of the polarization state of each of the individual pulses. For this, cross-polarized (CP) as well as counter-rotating (CR) double circularly polarized pulses have been utilized. The pulse duration was 40 fs and the central wavelength of 790 nm. The linearly polarized double pulses are generated by a modified Michelson interferometer allowing the temporal delay between the pulses to vary from Δτ = -80 ps to Δτ = +80 ps with an accuracy of 0.2 fs. We show the significance of fluence balance between the two pulse components and its interplay with the interpulse delay and with the order of arrival of the individually polarized pulse components of the double pulse sequence on the final surface morphology. For the case of CR pulses we found that when the pulses are temporally well separated the surface morphology attains no axial symmetry. But strikingly, when the two CP pulses temporally overlap, we demonstrate, for the first time in our knowledge, the detrimental effect that the phase delay has on the ripple orientation. Our results provide new insight showing that temporal pulse shaping in combination with polarization control gives a powerful tool for drastically controlling the surface nanostructure morphology.

  7. Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Philip

    2010-05-12

    Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

  8. Into the development of a model to assess beam shaping and polarization control effects on laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gonçalo C.; Duflou, Joost R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper offers an in-depth look into beam shaping and polarization control as two of the most promising techniques for improving industrial laser cutting of metal sheets. An assessment model is developed for the study of such effects. It is built upon several modifications to models as available in literature in order to evaluate the potential of a wide range of considered concepts. This includes different kinds of beam shaping (achieved by extra-cavity optical elements or asymmetric diode staking) and polarization control techniques (linear, cross, radial, azimuthal). A fully mathematical description and solution procedure are provided. Three case studies for direct diode lasers follow, containing both experimental data and parametric studies. In the first case study, linear polarization is analyzed for any given angle between the cutting direction and the electrical field. In the second case several polarization strategies are compared for similar cut conditions, evaluating, for example, the minimum number of spatial divisions of a segmented polarized laser beam to achieve a target performance. A novel strategy, based on a 12-division linear-to-radial polarization converter with an axis misalignment and capable of improving cutting efficiency with more than 60%, is proposed. The last case study reveals different insights in beam shaping techniques, with an example of a beam shape optimization path for a 30% improvement in cutting efficiency. The proposed techniques are not limited to this type of laser source, neither is the model dedicated to these specific case studies. Limitations of the model and opportunities are further discussed.

  9. A method for the accurate determination of the polarization of a neutron beam using a polarized 3He spin filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.L.; Thompson, A.K.; Dewey, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    A new method for the accurate determination of the degree of polarization of a neutron beam which has been polarized by transmission through a spin polarized 3 He cell is given. The method does not require the use of an analyzer or spin flipper nor does it require an accurate independent determination of the 3 He polarization. The method provides a continuous on-line determination of the neutron polarization. The method may be of use in the accurate determination of correlation coefficients in neutron beta decay which provide a test of the standard model for the electroweak interaction. The method may also provide an accurate procedure for the calibration of polarized 3 He targets used in medium and high energy scattering experiments. ((orig.))

  10. On the use of shape spaces to compare morphometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. James Rohlf

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several methods have been proposed to use differences in configurations of landmark points to measure the amount of shape difference between two structures. Shape difference coefficients ignore differences in the configurations that could be due to the effects of translation, rotation, and scale. One way to understand the differences between these methods is to compare the multidimensional shape spaces corresponding to each coefficient. This paper compares Kendall's shape space, Kendall tangent space, the shape spaces implied by EDMA-I and EDMA-II test statistics, the shape space of log size-scaled inter-landmark distances, and the shape space implied by differences in angles of lines connecting pairs of landmarks. The case of three points in the plane (i.e., landmarks at the vertices of a triangle is given special emphasis because the various shape spaces can be illustrated in just 2 or 3 dimensions. The results of simulalions are shown both for random samples of all possible triangles as well as for normally distributed independent variation at each landmark. Generalizations to studies of more than three landmarks are suggested. It is shown that methods other than those based on Procrustes distances strongly constrain the possible results obtained by ordination analyses, can give misleading results when used in studies of growth and evolutionary trajectories.

  11. Photoinduced electric currents in ring-shaped molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobusada, Katsuyuki; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    We have theoretically demonstrated that circularly polarized laser pulses induce electric currents and magnetic moments in ring-shaped molecules Na 10 and benzene. The time-dependent adiabatic local density approximation is employed for this purpose, solving the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equation in real space and real time. It has been found that the electric currents are induced efficiently and persist continuously even after the laser pulses were switched off provided the frequency of the applied laser pulse is in tune with the excitation energy of the electronic excited state with the dipole strength for each molecular system. The electric currents are definitely revealed to be a second-order nonlinear optical response to the magnitude of the electric field. The magnetic dipole moments inevitably accompany the ring currents, so that the molecules are magnetized. The production of the electric currents and the magnetic moments in the present procedure is found to be much more efficient than that utilizing static magnetic fields

  12. Comparative Analysis of Kernel Methods for Statistical Shape Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rathi, Yogesh; Dambreville, Samuel; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-01-01

    .... In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of shape learning techniques such as linear PCA, kernel PCA, locally linear embedding and propose a new method, kernelized locally linear embedding...

  13. A novel x-ray circularly polarized ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shi-Bin; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Na; Shen, Yang-He

    2015-05-01

    Range measurement has found multiple applications in deep space missions. With more and further deep space exploration activities happening now and in the future, the requirement for range measurement has risen. In view of the future ranging requirement, a novel x-ray polarized ranging method based on the circular polarization modulation is proposed, termed as x-ray circularly polarized ranging (XCPolR). XCPolR utilizes the circular polarization modulation to process x-ray signals and the ranging information is conveyed by the circular polarization states. As the circular polarization states present good stability in space propagation and x-ray detectors have light weight and low power consumption, XCPolR shows great potential in the long-distance range measurement and provides an option for future deep space ranging. In this paper, we present a detailed illustration of XCPolR. Firstly, the structure of the polarized ranging system is described and the signal models in the ranging process are established mathematically. Then, the main factors that affect the ranging accuracy, including the Doppler effect, the differential demodulation, and the correlation error, are analyzed theoretically. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of XCPolR. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014 CXJJ-DH 12), the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant No. CXY1350(4)), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 201413B, 201412B, and JB141303), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation and Timing Technology, National Time Service Center, Chinese

  14. A New Shape Description Method Using Angular Radial Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Whoi-Yul

    Shape is one of the primary low-level image features in content-based image retrieval. In this paper we propose a new shape description method that consists of a rotationally invariant angular radial transform descriptor (IARTD). The IARTD is a feature vector that combines the magnitude and aligned phases of the angular radial transform (ART) coefficients. A phase correction scheme is employed to produce the aligned phase so that the IARTD is invariant to rotation. The distance between two IARTDs is defined by combining differences in the magnitudes and aligned phases. In an experiment using the MPEG-7 shape dataset, the proposed method outperforms existing methods; the average BEP of the proposed method is 57.69%, while the average BEPs of the invariant Zernike moments descriptor and the traditional ART are 41.64% and 36.51%, respectively.

  15. Enantiopure distorted ribbon-shaped nanographene combining two-photon absorption-based upconversion and circularly polarized luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Carlos M; Márquez, Irene R; Mariz, Inês F A; Blanco, Victor; Sánchez-Sánchez, Carlos; Sobrado, Jesús M; Martín-Gago, José A; Cuerva, Juan M; Maçôas, Ermelinda; Campaña, Araceli G

    2018-04-28

    Herein we describe a distorted ribbon-shaped nanographene exhibiting unprecedented combination of optical properties in graphene-related materials, namely upconversion based on two-photon absorption (TPA-UC) together with circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). The compound is a graphene molecule of ca. 2 nm length and 1 nm width with edge defects that promote the distortion of the otherwise planar lattice. The edge defects are an aromatic saddle-shaped ketone unit and a [5]carbohelicene moiety. This system is shown to combine two-photon absorption and circularly polarized luminescence and a remarkably long emission lifetime of 21.5 ns. The [5]helicene is responsible for the chiroptical activity while the push-pull geometry and the extended network of sp 2 carbons are factors favoring the nonlinear absorption. Electronic structure theoretical calculations support the interpretation of the results.

  16. Ionization detector, electrode configuration and single polarity charge detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z.

    1998-07-07

    An ionization detector, an electrode configuration and a single polarity charge detection method each utilize a boundary electrode which symmetrically surrounds first and second central interlaced and symmetrical electrodes. All of the electrodes are held at a voltage potential of a first polarity type. The first central electrode is held at a higher potential than the second central or boundary electrodes. By forming the first and second central electrodes in a substantially interlaced and symmetrical pattern and forming the boundary electrode symmetrically about the first and second central electrodes, signals generated by charge carriers are substantially of equal strength with respect to both of the central electrodes. The only significant difference in measured signal strength occurs when the charge carriers move to within close proximity of the first central electrode and are received at the first central electrode. The measured signals are then subtracted and compared to quantitatively measure the magnitude of the charge. 10 figs.

  17. Aerodynamic shape optimization using preconditioned conjugate gradient methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgreen, Greg W.; Baysal, Oktay

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to further improve upon the latest advancements made in aerodynamic shape optimization procedures, a systematic study is performed to examine several current solution methodologies as applied to various aspects of the optimization procedure. It is demonstrated that preconditioned conjugate gradient-like methodologies dramatically decrease the computational efforts required for such procedures. The design problem investigated is the shape optimization of the upper and lower surfaces of an initially symmetric (NACA-012) airfoil in inviscid transonic flow and at zero degree angle-of-attack. The complete surface shape is represented using a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial. The present optimization method then automatically obtains supercritical airfoil shapes over a variety of freestream Mach numbers. Furthermore, the best optimization strategy examined resulted in a factor of 8 decrease in computational time as well as a factor of 4 decrease in memory over the most efficient strategies in current use.

  18. Evaluation of Extraction Protocols for Simultaneous Polar and Non-Polar Yeast Metabolite Analysis Using Multivariate Projection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas P. Tambellini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic and lipidomic approaches aim to measure metabolites or lipids in the cell. Metabolite extraction is a key step in obtaining useful and reliable data for successful metabolite studies. Significant efforts have been made to identify the optimal extraction protocol for various platforms and biological systems, for both polar and non-polar metabolites. Here we report an approach utilizing chemoinformatics for systematic comparison of protocols to extract both from a single sample of the model yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three chloroform/methanol/water partitioning based extraction protocols found in literature were evaluated for their effectiveness at reproducibly extracting both polar and non-polar metabolites. Fatty acid methyl esters and methoxyamine/trimethylsilyl derivatized aqueous compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to evaluate non-polar or polar metabolite analysis. The comparative breadth and amount of recovered metabolites was evaluated using multivariate projection methods. This approach identified an optimal protocol consisting of 64 identified polar metabolites from 105 ion hits and 12 fatty acids recovered, and will potentially attenuate the error and variation associated with combining metabolite profiles from different samples for untargeted analysis with both polar and non-polar analytes. It also confirmed the value of using multivariate projection methods to compare established extraction protocols.

  19. Wettability measurements of irregular shapes with Wilhelmy plate method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyung; Pasaogullari, Ugur; Bonville, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    One of the most accurate methods for measuring the dynamic contact angle of liquids on solid surfaces is the Wilhelmy plate method. This method generally requires the use of rectangular samples having a constant perimeter in the liquid during advancing and receding cycles. A new formulation based on the Wilhelmy force balance equation to determine the contact angle for plate samples with irregular shapes has been developed. This method employs a profile plot obtained from an optical image to determine the perimeter (i.e. wetted length) of the sample as a function of the immersion depth. The raw force data measured by the force tensiometer is manipulated using the profile plot and the Wilhelmy equation to determine the wetting force and consequently advancing and the receding contact angle. This method is verified with both triangular and irregular PTFE samples in water, and measured contact angles are in good agreement with results from conventional regular shaped samples with a constant perimeter.

  20. A method to calculate Stokes parameters and angle of polarization of skylight from polarized CIMEL sun/sky radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Li, Z.; Li, K.; Blarel, L.; Wendisch, M.

    2014-01-01

    The polarized CIMEL sun/sky radiometers have been routinely operated within the Sun/sky-radiometer Observation NETwork (SONET) in China and some sites of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) around the world. However, the polarization measurements are not yet widely used due to in a certain degree the lack of Stokes parameters derived directly from these polarization measurements. Meanwhile, it have been shown that retrievals of several microphysical properties of aerosol particles can be significantly improved by using degree of linear polarization (DoLP) measurements of polarized CIMEL sun/sky radiometers (CE318-DP). The Stokes parameters Q and U, as well as angle of polarization (AoP) contain additional information about linear polarization and its orientation. A method to calculate Stokes parameters Q, U, and AoP from CE318-DP polarized skylight measurements is introduced in this study. A new polarized almucantar geometry based on CE318-DP is measured to illustrate abundant variation features of these parameters. The polarization parameters calculated in this study are consistent with previous results of DoLP and I, and also comparable to vector radiative transfer simulations. - Highlights: • The CE318-DP polarized measurements are not yet widely used except DoLP. • Compared with DoLP and I, difficulty in calculating Stokes Q and U is discussed. • A new polarized almucantar observation geometry based on CE318-DP is executed. • We derive Stokes Q, U, and AoP both in principal and almucantar plane geometries. • The results are comparable with previous DoLP and I, as well as model simulations

  1. CPW-fed Circularly Polarized Slot Antenna with Small Gap and Stick-shaped Shorted Strip for UHF FRID Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yuan; Su, Chum-Chieh; Yang, Wei-Lin

    2018-04-01

    A new circularly polarized (CP) slot antenna with a small gap and a stick-shaped shorted strip is presented. The proposed antenna has a sufficient bandwidth for ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader applications. The antenna structure consists of a rectangular slot with a small gap, a stick-shaped shorted strip and a 50 Ω coplanar waveguide (CPW) feedline with an asymmetrical ground plane. By using the stick -shaped shorted strip to disturb magnetic current distribution on the slot, the CP radiation can be generated. The measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna can reach a 10 dB return loss impedance bandwidth of 14.1 % (894-1030 MHz) and a 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of 6.4 % (910-970 MHz). The whole antenna size is 80 × 80 × 1.6 mm3.

  2. Shape sensing methods: Review and experimental comparison on a wing-shaped plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherlone, Marco; Cerracchio, Priscilla; Mattone, Massimiliano

    2018-05-01

    Shape sensing, i.e., the reconstruction of the displacement field of a structure from some discrete surface strain measurements, is a fundamental capability for the structural health management of critical components. In this paper, a review of the shape sensing methodologies available in the open literature and of the different applications is provided. Then, for the first time, an experimental comparative study is presented among the main approaches in order to highlight their relative merits in presence of uncertainties affecting real applications. These approaches are, namely, the inverse Finite Element Method, the Modal Method and Ko's Displacement Theory. A brief description of these methods is followed by the presentation of the experimental test results. A cantilevered, wing-shaped aluminum plate is let deform under its own weight, leading to bending and twisting. Using the experimental strain measurements as input data, the deflection field of the plate is reconstructed using the three aforementioned approaches and compared with the actual measured deflection. The inverse Finite Element Method is proven to be slightly more accurate and particularly attractive because it is versatile with respect to the boundary conditions and it does not require any information about material properties and loading conditions.

  3. A Robust Shape Reconstruction Method for Facial Feature Point Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiu Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial feature point detection has been receiving great research advances in recent years. Numerous methods have been developed and applied in practical face analysis systems. However, it is still a quite challenging task because of the large variability in expression and gestures and the existence of occlusions in real-world photo shoot. In this paper, we present a robust sparse reconstruction method for the face alignment problems. Instead of a direct regression between the feature space and the shape space, the concept of shape increment reconstruction is introduced. Moreover, a set of coupled overcomplete dictionaries termed the shape increment dictionary and the local appearance dictionary are learned in a regressive manner to select robust features and fit shape increments. Additionally, to make the learned model more generalized, we select the best matched parameter set through extensive validation tests. Experimental results on three public datasets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a better robustness over the state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Polarization methods for diode laser excitation of solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtom, Gary R.

    2008-11-25

    A mode-locked laser employs a coupled-polarization scheme for efficient longitudinal pumping by reshaped laser diode bars. One or more dielectric polarizers are configured to reflect a pumping wavelength having a first polarization and to reflect a lasing wavelength having a second polarization. A Yb-doped gain medium can be used that absorbs light having a first polarization and emits light having a second polarization. Using such pumping with laser cavity dispersion control, pulse durations of less than 100 fs can be achieved.

  5. Universal Natural Shapes: From Unifying Shape Description to Simple Methods for Shape Analysis and Boundary Value Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielis, Johan; Caratelli, Diego; Fougerolle, Yohan; Ricci, Paolo Emilio; Tavkelidze, Ilia; Gerats, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Gielis curves and surfaces can describe a wide range of natural shapes and they have been used in various studies in biology and physics as descriptive tool. This has stimulated the generalization of widely used computational methods. Here we show that proper normalization of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm allows for efficient and robust reconstruction of Gielis curves, including self-intersecting and asymmetric curves, without increasing the overall complexity of the algorithm. Then, we show how complex curves of k-type can be constructed and how solutions to the Dirichlet problem for the Laplace equation on these complex domains can be derived using a semi-Fourier method. In all three methods, descriptive and computational power and efficiency is obtained in a surprisingly simple way. PMID:23028417

  6. Method of transferring regular shaped vessel into cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Tsunehiko.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of transferring regular shaped vessels from a non-contaminated area to a contaminated cell. A passage hole for allowing the regular shaped vessels to pass in the longitudinal direction is formed to a partitioning wall at the bottom of the contaminated cell. A plurality of regular shaped vessel are stacked in multiple stages in a vertical direction from the non-contaminated area present below the passage hole, allowed to pass while being urged and transferred successively into the contaminated cell. As a result, since they are transferred while substantially closing the passage hole by the regular shaped vessels, radiation rays or contaminated materials are prevented from discharging from the contaminated cell to the non-contaminated area. Since there is no requirement to open/close an isolation door frequently, the workability upon transfer can be improved remarkably. In addition, the sealing member for sealing the gap between the regular shaped vessel passing through the passage hole and the partitioning wall of the bottom is disposed to the passage hole, the contaminated materials in the contaminated cells can be prevented from discharging from the gap to the non-contaminated area. (N.H.)

  7. Finite-Geometry and Polarized Multiple-Scattering Corrections of Experimental Fast- Neutron Polarization Data by Means of Monte Carlo Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspelund, O; Gustafsson, B

    1967-05-15

    After an introductory discussion of various methods for correction of experimental left-right ratios for polarized multiple-scattering and finite-geometry effects necessary and sufficient formulas for consistent tracking of polarization effects in successive scattering orders are derived. The simplifying assumptions are then made that the scattering is purely elastic and nuclear, and that in the description of the kinematics of the arbitrary Scattering {mu}, only one triple-parameter - the so-called spin rotation parameter {beta}{sup ({mu})} - is required. Based upon these formulas a general discussion of the importance of the correct inclusion of polarization effects in any scattering order is presented. Special attention is then paid to the question of depolarization of an already polarized beam. Subsequently, the afore-mentioned formulas are incorporated in the comprehensive Monte Carlo program MULTPOL, which has been designed so as to correctly account for finite-geometry effects in the sense that both the scattering sample and the detectors (both having cylindrical shapes) are objects of finite dimensions located at finite distances from each other and from the source of polarized fast-neutrons. A special feature of MULTPOL is the application of the method of correlated sampling for reduction of the standard deviations .of the results of the simulated experiment. Typical data of performance of MULTPOL have been obtained by the application of this program to the correction of experimental polarization data observed in n + '{sup 12}C elastic scattering between 1 and 2 MeV. Finally, in the concluding remarks the possible modification of MULTPOL to other experimental geometries is briefly discussed.

  8. Investigation of novel shape-controlled linearly and circularly polarized attosecond pulse sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóth, György; Tibai, Zoltán; Nagy-Csiha, Zsuzsanna; Márton, Zsuzsanna; Almási, Gábor; Hebling, János

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the temporal shape of one- or few-cycle, 20–180 nm central wavelength attosecond pulses that are produced in a scheme based on coherent undulator radiation. It is demonstrated, that the carrier–envelope phase (CEP) of the radiated electric field can be chosen arbitrarily by shaping the magnetic field of the radiator undulator appropriately. It is shown that the temporal shape and the spectrum of the generated electric field are influenced by the spatial shape and amplitude of the magnetic field of the radiator undulator for different central wavelength pulses, while both are practically independent of the energy of the initial electron bunch. Shape distortions at high K undulator parameters are also discussed.

  9. Investigation of novel shape-controlled linearly and circularly polarized attosecond pulse sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, György [MTA-PTE High-Field Terahertz Research Group, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Tibai, Zoltán; Nagy-Csiha, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Márton, Zsuzsanna [MTA-PTE High-Field Terahertz Research Group, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Almási, Gábor; Hebling, János [MTA-PTE High-Field Terahertz Research Group, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Szentágothai Research Centre, 7624 Pécs (Hungary)

    2016-02-15

    In this article, we investigate the temporal shape of one- or few-cycle, 20–180 nm central wavelength attosecond pulses that are produced in a scheme based on coherent undulator radiation. It is demonstrated, that the carrier–envelope phase (CEP) of the radiated electric field can be chosen arbitrarily by shaping the magnetic field of the radiator undulator appropriately. It is shown that the temporal shape and the spectrum of the generated electric field are influenced by the spatial shape and amplitude of the magnetic field of the radiator undulator for different central wavelength pulses, while both are practically independent of the energy of the initial electron bunch. Shape distortions at high K undulator parameters are also discussed.

  10. New shapes of light-cone distributions of the transversely polarized ρ-mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhajlov, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    The leading twist light-cone distributions for transversely polarized ρ-, ρ ' - and b 1 mesons are reanalyzed in the framework of QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates. Using different kinds of sum rules to obtain reliable predictions, we estimate the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-th moments for transversely polarized ρ- and ρ ' -meson distributions and reestimate tensor couplings f ρ,ρ ' ,b 1 T . It is stressed that the results of standard sum rules also support our estimation of the second moment of the transversely polarized ρ-meson distribution. New models for light-cone distributions are briefly discussed. Our results are compared with those found by Ball and Braun (1996), and the latter is shown to be incomplete

  11. The investigation of Fe-Mn-based alloys with shape memory effect by small-angle scattering of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopitsa, G.P.; Runov, V.V.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Bliznuk, V.V.; Gavriljuk, V.G.; Glavatska, N.I.

    2003-01-01

    The small-angle polarized neutron scattering (SAPNS) technique has been used to study a nuclear and magnetic homogeneity in the distribution of both substituent (Si, Cr, Ni) and interstitial (C, N) alloying elements on the mesoscopic range in Fe-Mn-based alloys with shape memory effect (SME). The four groups of alloys with various basic compositions: FeMn 18 (wt%), FeMn 20 Si 6 , FeMn 20 Cr 9 N 0.2 and FeMn 17 Cr 9 Ni 4 Si 6 were investigated. It was found that the small-angle scattering of neutrons and depolarization on these alloys are very small altogether. The scattering did not exceed 1.5% from the incident beam and depolarization ∼2% for all samples. It means that these alloys are well nuclear and magnetically homogeneous on the scale of 10-1000 A. However, the difference in the homogeneity depending on the compositions still takes place. Thus, the adding of Si in FeMn 18 and FeMn 20 Cr 9 N 0.2 alloys improves the homogeneity pronouncedly. At once, the effect of the doping by C or N atoms on the homogeneity in FeMn 20 Si 6 and FeMn 17 Cr 9 Ni 4 Si 6 alloys is multivalued and depend on the presence of substitutional atoms (Ni and Cr). The capability of SAPNS as a method for the study of mesoscopic homogeneity in materials with SME and testing of the quality of their preparation is discussed

  12. Exactness of supersymmetric WKB method for translational shape invariant potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K M; Leung, P T; Pang, C S

    2003-01-01

    By examining the generic form of the superpotential of translational shape invariant potentials (TSIPs), we explicitly show the exactness of the lowest order supersymmetric WKB (SWKB) formula for TSIPs. Remarkably, our method applies to both unbroken and broken supersymmetric systems. We also demonstrate the equivalence of one-parameter and multi-parameter TSIPs, thus establishing the exactness of the SWKB formula for all TSIPs

  13. Exactness of supersymmetric WKB method for translational shape invariant potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, K M; Pang, C S

    2003-01-01

    By examining the generic form of the superpotential of translational shape invariant potentials (TSIPs), we explicitly show the exactness of the lowest order supersymmetric WKB (SWKB) formula for TSIPs. Remarkably, our method applies to both unbroken and broken supersymmetric systems. We also demonstrate the equivalence of one-parameter and multi-parameter TSIPs, thus establishing the exactness of the SWKB formula for all TSIPs.

  14. On some methods to produce high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    Some methods of production of high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons are considered. These methods are based on transfer by protons of a part of their energy to the polarized electrons of a thin target placed inside the working volume of the synchrotron. It is suggested to use as a polarized electron target a magnetized crystalline iron in which proton channeling is realized, polarized atomic beams and the polarized plasma. It is shown that by this method one can produce polarized electron beams with energy approximately 100 GeV, energy spread +- 5 % and intensity approximately 10 7 electron/c, polarization approximately 30% and with intensity approximately 10 4 -10 5 electron/c, polarization approximately 100% [ru

  15. Extended discrete-ordinate method considering full polarization state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, Michael A.; Qin Yi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an extension to the standard discrete-ordinate method (DOM) to consider generalized sources including: beam sources which can be placed at any (vertical) position and illuminate in any direction, thermal emission from the atmosphere and angularly distributed sources which illuminate from a surface as continuous functions of zenith and azimuth angles. As special cases, the thermal emission from the surface and deep space can be implemented as angularly distributed sources. Analytical-particular solutions for all source types are derived using the infinite medium Green's function. Radiation field zenith angle interpolation using source function integration is developed for all source types. The development considers the full state of polarization, including the sources (as applicable) and the (BRDF) surface, but the development can be reduced easily to scalar problems and is ready to be implemented in a single set of code for both scalar and vector radiative transfer computation

  16. Extended discrete-ordinate method considering full polarization state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Box, Michael A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales (Australia)]. E-mail: m.box@unsw.edu.au; Qin Yi [School of Physics, University of New South Wales (Australia)]. E-mail: yi.qin@csiro.au

    2006-01-15

    This paper presents an extension to the standard discrete-ordinate method (DOM) to consider generalized sources including: beam sources which can be placed at any (vertical) position and illuminate in any direction, thermal emission from the atmosphere and angularly distributed sources which illuminate from a surface as continuous functions of zenith and azimuth angles. As special cases, the thermal emission from the surface and deep space can be implemented as angularly distributed sources. Analytical-particular solutions for all source types are derived using the infinite medium Green's function. Radiation field zenith angle interpolation using source function integration is developed for all source types. The development considers the full state of polarization, including the sources (as applicable) and the (BRDF) surface, but the development can be reduced easily to scalar problems and is ready to be implemented in a single set of code for both scalar and vector radiative transfer computation.

  17. The effect of laser spot shapes on polar-direct-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilacher, F.; Radha, P. B.; Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl and E. I. Moses, Phys. Plasmas 18, 050901 (2011)] use existing NIF hardware, including indirect-drive phase plates. This limits the performance achievable in these implosions. Spot shapes are identified that significantly improve the uniformity of PDD NIF implosions; outer surface deviation is reduced by a factor of 7 at the end of the laser pulse and hot-spot distortion is reduced by a factor of 2 when the shell has converged by a factor of ∼10. As a result, the neutron yield increases by approximately a factor of 2. This set of laser spot shapes is a combination of circular and elliptical spots, along with elliptical spot shapes modulated by an additional higher-intensity ellipse offset from the center of the beam. This combination is motivated in this paper. It is also found that this improved implosion uniformity is obtained independent of the heat conduction model. This work indicates that significant improvement in performance can be obtained robustly with the proposed spot shapes

  18. The effect of laser spot shapes on polar-direct-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilacher, F.; Radha, P. B., E-mail: rbah@lle.rochester.edu; Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Ongoing polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl and E. I. Moses, Phys. Plasmas 18, 050901 (2011)] use existing NIF hardware, including indirect-drive phase plates. This limits the performance achievable in these implosions. Spot shapes are identified that significantly improve the uniformity of PDD NIF implosions; outer surface deviation is reduced by a factor of 7 at the end of the laser pulse and hot-spot distortion is reduced by a factor of 2 when the shell has converged by a factor of ∼10. As a result, the neutron yield increases by approximately a factor of 2. This set of laser spot shapes is a combination of circular and elliptical spots, along with elliptical spot shapes modulated by an additional higher-intensity ellipse offset from the center of the beam. This combination is motivated in this paper. It is also found that this improved implosion uniformity is obtained independent of the heat conduction model. This work indicates that significant improvement in performance can be obtained robustly with the proposed spot shapes.

  19. A new and efficient culture method for porcine bone marrow-derived M1- and M2-polarized macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiye; Scheenstra, Maaike R; van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2018-06-01

    Macrophages play an important role in the innate immune system as part of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). They have a pro-inflammatory signature (M1-polarized macrophages) or anti-inflammatory signature (M2-polarized macrophages) based on expression of surface receptors and secretion of cytokines. However, very little is known about the culture of macrophages from pigs and more specific about the M1 and M2 polarization in vitro. Porcine monocytes or mononuclear bone marrow cells were used to culture M1- and M2-polarized macrophages in the presence of GM-CSF and M-CSF, respectively. Surface receptor expression was measured with flow cytometry and ELISA was used to quantify cytokine secretion in response to LPS and PAM 3 CSK 4 stimulation. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were used as control. Porcine M1- and M2-polarized macrophages were cultured best using porcine GM-CSF and murine M-CSF, respectively. Cultures from bone marrow cells resulted in a higher yield M1- and M2-polarized macrophages which were better comparable to human monocyte-derived macrophages than cultures from porcine monocytes. Porcine M1-polarized macrophages displayed the characteristic fried egg shape morphology, lower CD163 expression and low IL-10 production. Porcine M2-polarized macrophages contained the spindle-like morphology, higher CD163 expression and high IL-10 production. Porcine M1- and M2-polarized macrophages can be most efficiently cultured from mononuclear bone marrow cells using porcine GM-CSF and murine M-CSF. The new culture method facilitates more refined studies of porcine macrophages in vitro, important for both porcine and human health since pigs are increasingly used as model for translational research. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Generation of high-intensity sub-30 as pulses by inhomogeneous polarization gating technology in bowtie-shaped nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liqiang; Feng, A. Yuanzi

    2018-04-01

    The generation of high-order harmonics and single attosecond pulses (SAPs) from He atom driven by the inhomogeneous polarization gating technology in a bowtie-shaped nanostructure is theoretically investigated. The results show that by the proper addition of bowtie-shaped nanostructure along the driven laser polarization direction, the harmonic emission becomes sensitive to the position of the laser field, and the harmonics emitted at the maximum orders that generate SAPs occur only at one side of the region inside the nanostructure. As a result, not only the harmonic cutoff can be extended, but also the modulations of the harmonics can be decreased, showing a carrier envelope phase independent harmonic cutoff with a bandwidth of 310 eV. Further, with the proper introduction of an ultraviolet pulse, the harmonic yield can be enhanced by 2 orders of magnitude. Finally, by the Fourier transformation of the selected harmonics, some SAPs with a full width at half maximum of sub-30 as can be obtained.

  1. Methods for the design and optimization of shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, S.W.

    1988-05-01

    Two major questions associated with the design and optimization of shaped tokamaks are considered. How do physics and engineering constraints affect the design of shaped tokamaks? How can the process of designing shaped tokamaks be improved? The first question is addressed with the aid of a completely analytical procedure for optimizing the design of a resistive-magnet tokamak reactor. It is shown that physics constraints---particularly the MHD beta limits and the Murakami density limit---have an enormous, and sometimes, unexpected effect on the final design. The second question is addressed through the development of a series of computer models for calculating plasma equilibria, estimating poloidal field coil currents, and analyzing axisymmetric MHD stability in the presence of resistive conductors and feedback. The models offer potential advantages over conventional methods since they are characterized by extremely fast computer execution times, simplicity, and robustness. Furthermore, evidence is presented that suggests that very little loss of accuracy is required to achieve these desirable features. 94 refs., 66 figs., 14 tabs

  2. Method for universal detection of two-photon polarization entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Horodecki, Paweł; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Życzkowski, Karol

    2015-03-01

    Detecting and quantifying quantum entanglement of a given unknown state poses problems that are fundamentally important for quantum information processing. Surprisingly, no direct (i.e., without quantum tomography) universal experimental implementation of a necessary and sufficient test of entanglement has been designed even for a general two-qubit state. Here we propose an experimental method for detecting a collective universal witness, which is a necessary and sufficient test of two-photon polarization entanglement. It allows us to detect entanglement for any two-qubit mixed state and to establish tight upper and lower bounds on its amount. A different element of this method is the sequential character of its main components, which allows us to obtain relatively complicated information about quantum correlations with the help of simple linear-optical elements. As such, this proposal realizes a universal two-qubit entanglement test within the present state of the art of quantum optics. We show the optimality of our setup with respect to the minimal number of measured quantities.

  3. High-efficiency and multi-frequency polarization converters based on graphene metasurface with twisting double L-shaped unit structure array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xiao, Xiaofei; Chang, Linzi; Wang, Congyun; Zhao, Deping

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a high-efficiency and tunable dual-frequency reflective polarization converter composed of graphene metasurface with twisting double L-shaped unit is firstly realized. Numerical results demonstrate that the device can convert a linearly polarized wave to its cross-polarized wave, and meantime it can also convert to a circularly polarized wave. Subsequently, one thickness of 500 nm SiO2 layer sandwiched by two graphene metasurfaces with similar pattern is stacked on the top of the two-layered structure, a four-frequency efficient reflective polarization converters is realized. Above all, those working frequencies can also be dynamically tuned within a large frequency range by adjusting the Fermi energy of the graphene, without reoptimizing and refabricating the nanostructures, which paves a novel way toward developing a controllable polarization converter for mid-infrared applications.

  4. Pulse shape method for the Chimera silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, A.; Arena, N.; Cardella, G.; D' Andrea, M.; Filippo, E. de; Fichera, F.; Giudice, N.; Guardone, N.; Grimaldi, A.; Nicotra, D.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Rapicavoli, C.; Rizza, G.; Russotto, P.; Sacca, G.; Urso, S.; Lanzano, G. [Catania Univ., INFN Catania and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Alderighi, M.; Sechi, G. [INFN Milano and Istituto di Fisica Cosmica CNR, Milano (Italy); Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Cali, C.; Campagna, V.; Cavallaro, S.; Di Stefano, A.; Giustolisi, F.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzalone, G.; Maiolino, C.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Salamone, S. [Catania Univ., INFN-LNS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Auditore, L.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M. [Messina Univ., INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Bassini, R.; Boiano, C.; Guazzoni, P.; Russo, S.; Sassi, M.; Zetta, L. [Milano Univ., INFN Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Blicharska, J.; Grzeszczuk, A. [Silesia Univ., Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Chatterjee, M.B. [Saha Institute Of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); Geraci, E.; Zipper, W. [Bologna Univ., INFN Bologna and Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M. [Napoli Univ., INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Schroder, W.U.; T-ke, J. [Rochester Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Rochester, N.Y. (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Since January 2003, the 4{pi} CHIMERA (Charged Heavy Ions Mass and Energy Resolving Array) detector in its full configuration has successfully been operated at the 'Catania Laboratori Nazionali del Sud' (LNS) accelerator facility. The detector has been used with a variety of beams from the Superconducting Cyclotron in heavy-ion reaction studies at Fermi bombarding energies. Future experiments with a focus on isospin physics at Fermi energies, planned for both primary and less intense secondary particle beams, suggest the development of new and more versatile experimental particle identification methods. Recent achievements in implementing specific pulse shape particle identification methods for CHIMERA silicon detectors are reported. They suggest an upgrade of the present charge and mass identification capability of CHIMERA by a simple extension of the method. (authors)

  5. Palate Shape and Depth: A Shape-Matching and Machine Learning Method for Estimating Ancestry from Human Skeletal Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Christopher A; Zhang, Kang; Manhein, Mary H; Li, Xin

    2015-09-01

    In the past, assessing ancestry relied on the naked eye and observer experience; however, replicability has become an important aspect of such analysis through the application of metric techniques. This study examines palate shape and assesses ancestry quantitatively using a 3D digitizer and shape-matching and machine learning methods. Palate curves and depths were recorded, processed, and tested for 376 individuals. Palate shape was an accurate indicator of ancestry in 58% of cases. Cluster analysis revealed that the parabolic, hyperbolic, and elliptical shapes are discrete from one another. Preliminary results indicate that palate depth in Hispanic individuals is greatest. Palate shape appears to be a useful indicator of ancestry, particularly when assessed by a computer. However, these data suggest that palate shape is not useful for assessing ancestry in Hispanic individuals. Although ancestry may be determined from palate shape, the use of multiple features is recommended and more reliable. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. A Simplified, Low-Cost Method for Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Richard J.; Buapetch, Wanchana; Silamut, Kamolrat

    2009-01-01

    Malaria pigment is an intracellular inclusion body that appears in blood and tissue specimens on microscopic examination and can help in establishing the diagnosis of malaria. In simple light microscopy, it can be difficult to discern from cellular background and artifacts. It has long been known that if polarized light microscopy is used, malaria pigment can be much easier to distinguish. However, this technique is rarely used because of the need for a relatively costly polarization microscope. We describe a simple and economical technique to convert any standard light microscope suitable for examination of malaria films into a polarization microscope. PMID:19861611

  7. New method of contour-based mask-shape compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Onizawa, Akira; Sato, Hidetoshi; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, it is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method for a DFM solution in which two dimensional data are extracted for an error free practical simulation by precise reproduction of a real mask shape in addition to the mask data simulation. The flow centering around the design data is fully automated and provides an environment where optimization and verification for fully automated model calibration with much less error is available. It also allows complete consolidation of input and output functions with an EDA system by constructing a design data oriented system structure. This method therefore is regarded as a strategic DFM approach in the semiconductor metrology.

  8. Polarized cellular patterns of endocannabinoid production and detection shape cannabinoid signaling in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine eLadarre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons display important differences in plasma membrane composition between somatodendritic and axonal compartments, potentially leading to currently unexplored consequences in G-protein-coupled-receptor signaling. Here, by using highly-resolved biosensor imaging to measure local changes in basal levels of key signaling components, we explored features of type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R signaling in individual axons and dendrites of cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Activation of endogenous CB1Rs led to rapid, Gi/o-protein- and cAMP-mediated decrease of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA activity in the somatodendritic compartment. In axons, PKA inhibition was significantly stronger, in line with axonally-polarized distribution of CB1Rs. Conversely, inverse agonist AM281 produced marked rapid increase of basal PKA activation in somata and dendrites, but not in axons, removing constitutive activation of CB1Rs generated by local production of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG. Interestingly, somatodendritic 2-AG levels differently modified signaling responses to CB1R activation by Δ9-THC, the psychoactive compound of marijuana, and by the synthetic cannabinoids WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940. These highly contrasted differences in sub-neuronal signaling responses warrant caution in extrapolating pharmacological profiles, which are typically obtained in non-polarized cells, to predict in vivo responses of axonal (i.e. presynaptic GPCRs. Therefore, our results suggest that enhanced comprehension of GPCR signaling constraints imposed by neuronal cell biology may improve the understanding of neuropharmacological action.

  9. Apparatus and methods for memory using in-plane polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junwei; Chang, Kai; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Chen, Xi; Fu, Liang

    2018-05-01

    A memory device includes a semiconductor layer with an in-plane polarization component switchable between a first direction and a second direction. A writing electrode is employed to apply a writing voltage to the semiconductor layer to change the in-plane polarization component between the first direction and the second direction. A reading electrode is employed to apply a reading voltage to the semiconductor layer to measure a tunneling current substantially perpendicular to the polarization direction of the in-plane polarization component. The directions of the reading voltage and the writing voltage are substantially perpendicular to each other. Therefore, the reading process is non-destructive. Thin films (e.g., one unit cell thick) of ferroelectric material can be used in the memory device to increase the miniaturization of the device.

  10. Enhanced spin polarization of elastic electron scattering from alkaline-earth-metal atoms in Ramsauer-Townsend and low-lying shape resonance regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, J.; Zhang, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Spin polarizations (SP's) of elastic electron scattering from alkaline-earth-metal atoms in Ramsauer-Townsend (RT) and low-lying shape resonance (SR) regions are calculated using a relativistic method. The detailed SP distributions both with scattering angle and with electron energy are presented via the energy- and angle-dependent surfaces of SP parameters. It is shown that the SP effects of the collisions of electrons with Ca, Sr, and Ba atoms in the RT region are significant in a considerable area on the energy-angle plane and that the spin-orbit interaction is well increased around the low-lying p-wave SR states of Be and Mg and the d-wave SR states of Ca, Sr, and Ba

  11. Iterative Methods for the Non-LTE Transfer of Polarized Radiation: Resonance Line Polarization in One-dimensional Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Manso Sainz, Rafael

    1999-05-01

    This paper shows how to generalize to non-LTE polarization transfer some operator splitting methods that were originally developed for solving unpolarized transfer problems. These are the Jacobi-based accelerated Λ-iteration (ALI) method of Olson, Auer, & Buchler and the iterative schemes based on Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation (SOR) iteration of Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho. The theoretical framework chosen for the formulation of polarization transfer problems is the quantum electrodynamics (QED) theory of Landi Degl'Innocenti, which specifies the excitation state of the atoms in terms of the irreducible tensor components of the atomic density matrix. This first paper establishes the grounds of our numerical approach to non-LTE polarization transfer by concentrating on the standard case of scattering line polarization in a gas of two-level atoms, including the Hanle effect due to a weak microturbulent and isotropic magnetic field. We begin demonstrating that the well-known Λ-iteration method leads to the self-consistent solution of this type of problem if one initializes using the ``exact'' solution corresponding to the unpolarized case. We show then how the above-mentioned splitting methods can be easily derived from this simple Λ-iteration scheme. We show that our SOR method is 10 times faster than the Jacobi-based ALI method, while our implementation of the Gauss-Seidel method is 4 times faster. These iterative schemes lead to the self-consistent solution independently of the chosen initialization. The convergence rate of these iterative methods is very high; they do not require either the construction or the inversion of any matrix, and the computing time per iteration is similar to that of the Λ-iteration method.

  12. Polarizing matter and antimatter: A new method. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onel, Y.

    1994-12-01

    Several years ago a self-polarization effect for stored (anti-)protons and ions was investigated theoretically. The effect is based on the well-known Stern-Gerlach effect in gradient fields. The aim of the ongoing measurements at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) is to verify experimentally the various assumptions on which this effect is based. The final goal is to demonstrate this new polarization effect. The proposed effect could be a powerful tool to produce polarized stored hadron beams both in the low-energy range and at SSC and LHC energies. In this progress report the authors will describe the progress in three parts: (A) experimental work at IUCF Cooler Ring; (B) the extensive computer simulations of the spin stability for the IUCF Cooler Ring; and (C) theoretical studies

  13. Methods for polarized light emission from CdSe quantum dot based monolithic pillar microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfried, Moritz; Kalden, Joachim; Sebald, Kathrin; Gutowski, Juergen; Kruse, Carsten; Hommel, Detlef [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A lifting of the polarization degeneracy of the fundamental cavity mode in pillar microcavities (MCs) would allow for controlling the polarization state of the emitted photons. Therefore, monolithic VCSEL structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy containing either one CdSe/ZnSSe quantum dot layer or three quantum well layers as active material. By using focused-ion-beam etching, MC pillars with different geometries were prepared out of the planar samples. Among these are circularly shaped pillar MCs with diameters in the range from 500 nm up to 4 {mu}m and quality factors of up to 7860, elliptically shaped MCs, and so-called photonic molecules consisting of circular pillar MCs which are connected by small bars. Polarization dependent photoluminescence investigations of the fundamental cavity mode reveal a lifting of the polarization degeneracy for all three types of MCs. The energy splitting of up to 0.42 meV in the circularly shaped pillar MCs is probably caused by anisotropic strain conditions within the sample and directly dependent on the pillar diameter, whereas the larger energy splitting of up to 0.72 meV for the photonic molecules or even 4.5 meV for the elliptically shaped MC is based on their asymmetric cross sections.

  14. THE METHODS OF PRODUCING AND ANALYZING POLARIZED NEUTRON BEAMS FOR HYSPEC AT THE SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAPIRO, S.M.; PASSELL, L.; ZALIZNYAK, A.; GHOSH, V.J.; LEONHARDT, W.L.; HAGEN, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    The Hybrid Spectrometer (HYSPEC), under construction at the SNS on beam line 14B, is the only inelastic scattering instrument designed to enable polarization of the incident and the scattered neutron beams. A Heusler monochromator will replace the graphite crystal for producing polarized neutrons. In the scattered beam it is planned to use a collimator--multi-channel supermirror bender array to analyze the polarization of the scattered beam over the final energy range from 5-20 meV. Other methods of polarization analysis under consideration such as transmission filters using He 3 , Sm, and polarized protons are considered. Their performance is estimated and a comparison of the various methods of polarization is made

  15. Experimental Comparison of Probabilistic Shaping Methods for Unrepeated Fiber Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renner, Julian; Fehenberger, Tobias; Yankov, Metodi Plamenov

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of probabilistic shaping on effective signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and achievable information rates (AIRs) in a back-to-back configuration and in unrepeated nonlinear fiber transmissions. For back-to-back, various shaped quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM......) distributions are found to have the same implementation penalty as uniform input. By demonstrating in transmission experiments that shaped QAM input leads to lower effective SNR than uniform input at a fixed average launch power, we experimentally confirm that shaping enhances the fiber nonlinearities. However......, shaping is ultimately found to increase the AIR, which is the most relevant figure of merit as it is directly related to spectral efficiency. In a detailed study of these shaping gains for the nonlinear fiber channel, four strategies for optimizing QAM input distributions are evaluated and experimentally...

  16. Method for preparing corrosion-resistant ceramic shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1979-12-07

    Ceramic shapes having impermeable tungsten coatings can be used for containing highly corrosive molten alloys and salts. The shapes are prepared by coating damp green ceramic shapes containing a small amount of yttria with a tungsten coating slip which has been adjusted to match the shrinkage rate of the green ceramic and which will fire to a theoretical density of at least 80% to provide an impermeable coating.

  17. A pulse-shape discrimination method for improving Gamma-ray spectrometry based on a new digital shaping filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhang-jian; Chen, Chuan; Luo, Jun-song; Xie, Xing-hong; Ge, Liang-quan; Wu, Qi-fan

    2018-04-01

    It is a usual practice for improving spectrum quality by the mean of designing a good shaping filter to improve signal-noise ratio in development of nuclear spectroscopy. Another method is proposed in the paper based on discriminating pulse-shape and discarding the bad pulse whose shape is distorted as a result of abnormal noise, unusual ballistic deficit or bad pulse pile-up. An Exponentially Decaying Pulse (EDP) generated in nuclear particle detectors can be transformed into a Mexican Hat Wavelet Pulse (MHWP) and the derivation process of the transform is given. After the transform is performed, the baseline drift is removed in the new MHWP. Moreover, the MHWP-shape can be discriminated with the three parameters: the time difference between the two minima of the MHWP, and the two ratios which are from the amplitude of the two minima respectively divided by the amplitude of the maximum in the MHWP. A new type of nuclear spectroscopy was implemented based on the new digital shaping filter and the Gamma-ray spectra were acquired with a variety of pulse-shape discrimination levels. It had manifested that the energy resolution and the peak-Compton ratio were both improved after the pulse-shape discrimination method was used.

  18. The optimal method for the measurement of tau polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Le Diberder, F.; Rouge, A.

    1992-12-01

    A variable is constructed for each τ decay channel which carries all the available information on the τ spin state. Its use allows a simple determination of the polarization with the maximal sensitivity for all final states. Further applications to the τ → α 1 ν channel are discussed, and it is shown that a sizeable improvement of the measurement can be achieved. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. A novel method for polarization squeezing with Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milanovic, Josip; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2010-01-01

    Photonic Crystal Fibers can be tailored to increase the effective Kerr nonlinearity, while producing smaller amounts of excess noise compared to standard silicon fibers. Using these features of Photonic Crystal Fibers we create polarization squeezed states with increased purity compared to standa...... Stokes parameter squeezing of −3.9 ±0.3dB and anti-squeezing of 16.2 ±0.3dB....

  20. Larger spontaneous polarization ferroelectric inorganic-organic hybrids: [PbI3](infinity) chains directed organic cations aggregation to Kagomé-shaped tubular architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Rong; Li, Dong-Ping; Ren, Xiao-Ming; Song, You; Jin, Wan-Qin

    2010-01-13

    Four isostructural inorganic-organic hybrid ferroelectric compounds, assembled from achiral 3-R-benzylidene-1-aminopyridiniums (R = NO(2), Br, Cl, or F for 1-4, respectively) and [PbI(3)](-) anions with the chiral Kagomé-shaped tubular aggregating architecture, show larger spontaneous polarizations.

  1. A new polarized neutrons method for studying depth-inhomogeneously magnetized magnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korneev, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The main specific features of the process of polarized thermal neutrons specular reflection from the surface of depth-inhomogeneously magnetic films are considered theoretically. It is shown how using the method of specular reflection of polarized thermal neutrons from such a films surface, one may restore the depth distribution of the local magnetization vector M-vector(z). 9 refs

  2. Gaussian beam profile shaping apparatus, method therefore and evaluation thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus maps a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile by exploiting the Fourier transform properties of lenses. A phase element imparts a design phase onto an input beam and the output optical field from a lens is then the Fourier transform of the input beam and the phase function from the phase element. The phase element is selected in accordance with a dimensionless parameter which is dependent upon the radius of the incoming beam, the desired spot shape, the focal length of the lens and the wavelength of the input beam. This dimensionless parameter can also be used to evaluate the quality of a system. In order to control the radius of the incoming beam, optics such as a telescope can be employed. The size of the target spot and the focal length can be altered by exchanging the transform lens, but the dimensionless parameter will remain the same. The quality of the system, and hence the value of the dimensionless parameter, can be altered by exchanging the phase element. The dimensionless parameter provides design guidance, system evaluation, and indication as to how to improve a given system. 27 figs

  3. Descriptive study of the Socratic method: evidence for verbal shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Elvira, Ana; Froján-Parga, María Xesús; Ruiz-Sancho, Elena María; Alpañés-Freitag, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    In this study we analyzed 65 fragments of session recordings in which a cognitive behavioral therapist employed the Socratic method with her patients. Specialized coding instruments were used to categorize the verbal behavior of the psychologist and the patients. First the fragments were classified as more or less successful depending on the overall degree of concordance between the patient's verbal behavior and the therapeutic objectives. Then the fragments were submitted to sequential analysis so as to discover regularities linking the patient's verbal behavior and the therapist's responses to it. Important differences between the more and the less successful fragments involved the therapist's approval or disapproval of verbalizations that approximated therapeutic goals. These approvals and disapprovals were associated with increases and decreases, respectively, in the patient's behavior. These results are consistent with the existence, in this particular case, of a process of shaping through which the therapist modifies the patient's verbal behavior in the overall direction of his or her chosen therapeutic objectives. © 2013.

  4. Knowledge and method base for shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welp, E.G.; Breidert, J. [Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute of Engineering Design, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    It is often impossible for design engineers to decide whether it is possible to use shape memory alloys (SMA) for a particular task. In case of a decision to use SMA for product development, design engineers normally do not know in detail how to proceed in a correct and beneficial way. In order to support design engineers who have no previous knowledge about SMA and to assist in the transfer of results from basic research to industrial practice, an essential knowledge and method base has been developed. Through carefully conducted literature studies and patent analysis material and design information could be collected. All information is implemented into a computer supported knowledge and method base that provides design information with a particular focus on the conceptual and embodiment design phase. The knowledge and method base contains solution principles and data about effects, material and manufacturing as well as design guidelines and calculation methods for dimensioning and optimization. A browser-based user interface ensures that design engineers have immediate access to the latest version of the knowledge and method base. In order to ensure a user friendly application, an evaluation with several test users has been carried out. Reactions of design engineers from the industrial sector underline the need for support related to knowledge on SMA. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Fuer Konstrukteure ist es haeufig schwierig zu entscheiden, ob sich der Einsatz von Formgedaechtnislegierungen (FGL) fuer eine bestimmte Aufgabe eignet. Fuer den Fall, dass FGL fuer die Produktentwicklung genutzt werden sollen, besitzen Ingenieure zumeist nur unzureichende Detailkenntnisse, um Formgedaechtnislegierungen richtig und in vorteilhafter Weise anwenden zu koennen. Zur Unterstuetzung von Konstrukteuren, die ueber kein Vorwissen und keine Erfahrungen zu FGL verfuegen und zum Transfer von Forschungsergebnissen in die industrielle Praxis, ist eine

  5. Modeling of hydrogen Stark line shapes with kinetic theory methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, J.; Capes, H.; Stamm, R.

    2012-12-01

    The unified formalism for Stark line shapes is revisited and extended to non-binary interactions between an emitter and the surrounding perturbers. The accuracy of this theory is examined through comparisons with ab initio numerical simulations.

  6. A three-dimensional polarization domain retrieval method from electron diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, Robert S.; Koch, Christoph T.

    2015-01-01

    We present an algorithm for retrieving three-dimensional domains of picometer-scale shifts in atomic positions from electron diffraction data, and apply it to simulations of ferroelectric polarization in BaTiO 3 . Our algorithm successfully and correctly retrieves polarization domains in which the Ti atom positions differ by less than 3 pm (0.4% of the unit cell diagonal distance) with 5 and 10 nm depth resolution along the beam direction, and we also retrieve unit cell strain, corresponding to tetragonal-to-cubic unit cell distortions, for 10 nm domains. Experimental applicability is also discussed. - Highlights: • We show a retrieval method for ferroelectric polarization from TEM diffraction data. • Simulated strain and polarization variations along the beam direction are retrieved. • This method can be used for 3D strain and polarization mapping without specimen tilt

  7. Proposed method to produce a highly polarized e+ beam for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okugi, Toshiyuki; Chiba, Masami; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    1996-01-01

    We propose a method to produce a spin-polarized e + beam using e + e - pair-creation by circularly polarized photons. Assuming Compton scattering of an unpolarized e - beam and circularly polarized laser light, scattered γ-rays at the high end of the energy spectrum are also circularly polarized. If those γ-rays are utilized to create e ± pairs on a thin target, the spin-polarization is preserved for e + 's at the high end of their energy spectrum. By using the injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility at KEK and a commercially available Nd:YAG pulse laser, we can expect about 10 5 polarized e + 's per second with a degree of polarization of 80% and a kinetic energy of 35-80 MeV. The apparatus for creation and measurement of polarized e + 's is being constructed. We present new idea for possible application of our method to future linear colliders by utilizing a high-power CO 2 laser. (author)

  8. [Progress in sample preparation and analytical methods for trace polar small molecules in complex samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianchun; Luo, Xialin; Li, Gongke; Xiao, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Small polar molecules such as nucleosides, amines, amino acids are important analytes in biological, food, environmental, and other fields. It is necessary to develop efficient sample preparation and sensitive analytical methods for rapid analysis of these polar small molecules in complex matrices. Some typical materials in sample preparation, including silica, polymer, carbon, boric acid and so on, are introduced in this paper. Meanwhile, the applications and developments of analytical methods of polar small molecules, such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, etc., are also reviewed.

  9. Some Remarks on Methods of QCD Analysis of Polarized DIS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Leader, Elliot; Stamenov, Dimiter B

    2009-01-01

    The results on polarized parton densities (PDFs) obtained using different methods of QCD analysis of the present polarized DIS data are discussed. Their dependence on the method used in the analysis, accounting or not for the kinematic and dynamic 1/Q^2 corrections to spin structure function g_1, is demonstrated. It is pointed out that the precise data in the preasymptotic region require a more careful matching of the QCD predictions to the data in this region in order to determine the polarized PDFs correctly.

  10. A LEVEL SET BASED SHAPE OPTIMIZATION METHOD FOR AN ELLIPTIC OBSTACLE PROBLEM

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we construct a level set method for an elliptic obstacle problem, which can be reformulated as a shape optimization problem. We provide a detailed shape sensitivity analysis for this reformulation and a stability result for the shape Hessian at the optimal shape. Using the shape sensitivities, we construct a geometric gradient flow, which can be realized in the context of level set methods. We prove the convergence of the gradient flow to an optimal shape and provide a complete analysis of the level set method in terms of viscosity solutions. To our knowledge this is the first complete analysis of a level set method for a nonlocal shape optimization problem. Finally, we discuss the implementation of the methods and illustrate its behavior through several computational experiments. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  11. BACKWARD AND FORWARD MONTE CARLO METHOD IN POLARIZED RADIATIVE TRANSFER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Huang; Guo-Dong, Shi; Ke-Yong, Zhu, E-mail: huangy_zl@263.net [School of Aeronautical Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-03-20

    In general, the Stocks vector cannot be calculated in reverse in the vector radiative transfer. This paper presents a novel backward and forward Monte Carlo simulation strategy to study the vector radiative transfer in the participated medium. A backward Monte Carlo process is used to calculate the ray trajectory and the endpoint of the ray. The Stocks vector is carried out by a forward Monte Carlo process. A one-dimensional graded index semi-transparent medium was presented as the physical model and the thermal emission consideration of polarization was studied in the medium. The solution process to non-scattering, isotropic scattering, and the anisotropic scattering medium, respectively, is discussed. The influence of the optical thickness and albedo on the Stocks vector are studied. The results show that the U, V-components of the apparent Stocks vector are very small, but the Q-component of the apparent Stocks vector is relatively larger, which cannot be ignored.

  12. Experimental study on reactivity measurement in thermal reactor by polarity correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hideshi

    1977-11-01

    Experimental study on the polarity correlation method for measuring the reactivity of a thermal reactor, especially the one possessing long prompt neutron lifetime such as graphite on heavy water moderated core, is reported. The techniques of reactor kinetics experiment are briefly reviewed, which are classified in two groups, one characterized by artificial disturbance to a reactor and the other by natural fluctuation inherent in a reactor. The fluctuation phenomena of neutron count rate are explained using F. de Hoffman's stochastic method, and correlation functions for the neutron count rate fluctuation are shown. The experimental results by polarity correlation method applied to the β/l measurements in both graphite-moderated SHE core and light water-moderated JMTRC and JRR-4 cores, and also to the measurement of SHE shut down reactivity margin are presented. The measured values were in good agreement with those by a pulsed neutron method in the reactivity range from critical to -12 dollars. The conditional polarity correlation experiments in SHE at -20 cent and -100 cent are demonstrated. The prompt neutron decay constants agreed with those obtained by the polarity correlation experiments. The results of experiments measuring large negative reactivity of -52 dollars of SHE by pulsed neutron, rod drop and source multiplication methods are given. Also it is concluded that the polarity and conditional polarity correlation methods are sufficiently applicable to noise analysis of a low power thermal reactor with long prompt neutron lifetime. (Nakai, Y.)

  13. Polarization characterization of PZT disks and of embedded PZT plates by thermal wave methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eydam, Agnes; Suchaneck, Gunnar; Gerlach, Gerald; Esslinger, Sophia; Schönecker, Andreas; Neumeister, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the thermal wave method was applied to characterize PZT disks and embedded PZT plates with regard to the polarization magnitude and spatial homogeneity. The samples were exposed to periodic heating by means of a laser beam and the pyroelectric response was determined. Thermal relaxation times (single time constants or distributions of time constants) describe the heat losses of the PZT samples to the environment. The resulting pyroelectric current spectrum was fitted to the superposition of thermal relaxation processes. The pyroelectric coefficient gives insight in the polarization distribution. For PZT disks, the polarization distribution in the surface region showed a characteristic decrease towards the electrodes

  14. Design of fused-silica rectangular transmission gratings for polarizing beam splitter based on modal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huajun; Yuan, Dairong

    2010-02-10

    Examples of optimal designs for a fused-silica transmitted grating with high-intensity tolerance are discussed. It has the potential of placing up to 99% incident polarized light in a single diffraction order. The modal method has been used to analyze the effective indices for TE and TM polarization propagating through the grating region, and the eigenvalue equation of the modal method is transformed to a new form. It is shown that the effective indices of the first two modes depend on the value of the period under Littrow mounting with filling factor f=0.5. The polarization properties of the polarizing beam splitter are analyzed by rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) at the wavelength of 1.064 microm. The optimal design perfectly matches the RCWA simulation result.

  15. Monte Carlo method for polarized radiative transfer in gradient-index media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.M.; Tan, J.Y.; Liu, L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Light transfer in gradient-index media generally follows curved ray trajectories, which will cause light beam to converge or diverge during transfer and induce the rotation of polarization ellipse even when the medium is transparent. Furthermore, the combined process of scattering and transfer along curved ray path makes the problem more complex. In this paper, a Monte Carlo method is presented to simulate polarized radiative transfer in gradient-index media that only support planar ray trajectories. The ray equation is solved to the second order to address the effect induced by curved ray trajectories. Three types of test cases are presented to verify the performance of the method, which include transparent medium, Mie scattering medium with assumed gradient index distribution, and Rayleigh scattering with realistic atmosphere refractive index profile. It is demonstrated that the atmospheric refraction has significant effect for long distance polarized light transfer. - Highlights: • A Monte Carlo method for polarized radiative transfer in gradient index media. • Effect of curved ray paths on polarized radiative transfer is considered. • Importance of atmospheric refraction for polarized light transfer is demonstrated

  16. A novel method to assay special nuclear materials by measuring prompt neutrons from polarized photofission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J.M., E-mail: mueller@tunl.duke.edu [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Ahmed, M.W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Physics, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Weller, H.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    A novel method of measuring the enrichment of special nuclear material is presented. Recent photofission measurements using a linearly polarized γ-ray beam were performed on samples of {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239,240}Pu. Prompt neutron polarization asymmetries, defined to be the difference in the prompt neutron yields parallel and perpendicular to the plane of beam polarization divided by their sum, were measured. It was discovered that the prompt neutron polarization asymmetries differed significantly depending on the sample. Prompt neutrons from photofission of even–even (non-fissile) targets had significant polarization asymmetries (∼0.2 to 0.5), while those from odd-A (generally fissile) targets had polarization asymmetries close to zero. This difference in the polarization asymmetries could be exploited to measure the fissile versus non-fissile content of special nuclear materials, and potentially to detect the presence of fissile material during active interrogation. The proposed technique, its expected performance, and its potential applicability are discussed.

  17. A novel method to assay special nuclear materials by measuring prompt neutrons from polarized photofission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.M.; Ahmed, M.W.; Weller, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    A novel method of measuring the enrichment of special nuclear material is presented. Recent photofission measurements using a linearly polarized γ-ray beam were performed on samples of 232 Th, 233,235,238 U, 237 Np, and 239,240 Pu. Prompt neutron polarization asymmetries, defined to be the difference in the prompt neutron yields parallel and perpendicular to the plane of beam polarization divided by their sum, were measured. It was discovered that the prompt neutron polarization asymmetries differed significantly depending on the sample. Prompt neutrons from photofission of even–even (non-fissile) targets had significant polarization asymmetries (∼0.2 to 0.5), while those from odd-A (generally fissile) targets had polarization asymmetries close to zero. This difference in the polarization asymmetries could be exploited to measure the fissile versus non-fissile content of special nuclear materials, and potentially to detect the presence of fissile material during active interrogation. The proposed technique, its expected performance, and its potential applicability are discussed

  18. An Operator Perturbation Method of Polarized Line Transfer V ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    imate Lambda Iteration) method to the resonance scattering in spectral lines formed in the presence of weak magnetic fields. The method is based on an operator perturbation approach, and can efficiently give solutions for oriented vector magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. Key words. ... 1999 for observational.

  19. An efficient and robutst method for shape-based image retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, N.D.; Besar, R.; Abas, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    Shapes can be thought as being the words oft he visual language. Shape boundaries need to be simplified and estimated in a wide variety of image analysis applications. Representation and description of Shapes is one of the major problems in content-based image retrieval (CBIR). This paper present an a novel method for shape representation and description named block-based shape representation (BSR), which is capable of extracting reliable information of the object outline in a concise manner. Our technique is translation, scale, and rotation invariant. It works well on different types of shapes and fast enough for use in real-time. This technique has been implemented and evaluated in order to analyze its accuracy and Efficiency. Based on the experimental results, we urge that the proposed BSR is a compact and reliable shape representation method. (author)

  20. Influence of 3D particle shape on the mechanical behaviour through a novel characterization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouhbi Noura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of the mechanical behaviour of railway ballast to particle shape variation is studied through Discrete Element Method (DEM numerical simulations, focusing on some basic parameters such as solid fraction, coordination number, or force distribution. We present an innovative method to characterize 3D particle shape using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD of scanned ballast grains with a high accuracy. The method enables not only shape characterization but also the generation of 3D distinct and angular shapes. Algorithms are designed for face and edge recognition.

  1. An extension of command shaping methods for controlling residual vibration using frequency sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Neil C.; Seering, Warren P.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present an extension to the impulse shaping technique for commanding machines to move with reduced residual vibration. The extension, called frequency sampling, is a method for generating constraints that are used to obtain shaping sequences which minimize residual vibration in systems such as robots whose resonant frequencies change during motion. The authors present a review of impulse shaping methods, a development of the proposed extension, and a comparison of results of tests conducted on a simple model of the space shuttle robot arm. Frequency shaping provides a method for minimizing the impulse sequence duration required to give the desired insensitivity.

  2. Optical image encryption method based on incoherent imaging and polarized light encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Xiong, D.; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.

    2018-05-01

    We propose an incoherent encoding system for image encryption based on a polarized encoding method combined with an incoherent imaging. Incoherent imaging is the core component of this proposal, in which the incoherent point-spread function (PSF) of the imaging system serves as the main key to encode the input intensity distribution thanks to a convolution operation. An array of retarders and polarizers is placed on the input plane of the imaging structure to encrypt the polarized state of light based on Mueller polarization calculus. The proposal makes full use of randomness of polarization parameters and incoherent PSF so that a multidimensional key space is generated to deal with illegal attacks. Mueller polarization calculus and incoherent illumination of imaging structure ensure that only intensity information is manipulated. Another key advantage is that complicated processing and recording related to a complex-valued signal are avoided. The encoded information is just an intensity distribution, which is advantageous for data storage and transition because information expansion accompanying conventional encryption methods is also avoided. The decryption procedure can be performed digitally or using optoelectronic devices. Numerical simulation tests demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme.

  3. Characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers using a new polar solvent titration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Di; Zhang, Yagang; Geer, Michael F; Shimizu, Ken D

    2014-07-01

    A new method of characterizing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed and tested, which provides a more accurate means of identifying and measuring the molecular imprinting effect. In the new polar solvent titration method, a series of imprinted and non-imprinted polymers were prepared in solutions containing increasing concentrations of a polar solvent. The polar solvent additives systematically disrupted the templation and monomer aggregation processes in the prepolymerization solutions, and the extent of disruption was captured by the polymerization process. The changes in binding capacity within each series of polymers were measured, providing a quantitative assessment of the templation and monomer aggregation processes in the imprinted and non-imprinted polymers. The new method was tested using three different diphenyl phosphate imprinted polymers made using three different urea functional monomers. Each monomer had varying efficiencies of templation and monomer aggregation. The new MIP characterization method was found to have several advantages. To independently verify the new characterization method, the MIPs were also characterized using traditional binding isotherm analyses. The two methods appeared to give consistent conclusions. First, the polar solvent titration method is less susceptible to false positives in identifying the imprinting effect. Second, the method is able to differentiate and quantify changes in binding capacity, as measured at a fixed guest and polymer concentration, arising from templation or monomer aggregation processes in the prepolymerization solution. Third, the method was also easy to carry out, taking advantage of the ease of preparing MIPs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Investigation of RNA Structure by High-Throughput SHAPE-Based Probing Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl

    of highthroughput SHAPE-based approaches to investigate RNA structure based on novel SHAPE reagents that permit selection of full-length cDNAs. The SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) method is applied to the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) plus strand RNA genome, and the data is used to construct a genome-wide structural...... that they are functional. The SHAPES method is further applied to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), where the data is used to refine known and predicted structures. Over the past years, the interest of studying RNA structure in their native environment has been increased, and to allow studying RNA structure inside living cells...... using the SHAPE Selection approach, I introduce a biotinylated probing reagent. This chemical can cross cell membranes and reacts with RNA inside the cells, allowing the structural conformations to be studied in the context of physiological relevant conditions in living cells. The methods and results...

  5. Method to incorporate anisotropic semiconductor nanocrystals of all shapes in an ultrathin and uniform silica shell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutter, Eline M.; Pietra, Francesca; Moes, Relinde; Mitoraj, Dariusz; Meeldijk, Johannes D.; De Mello Donegá, Celso; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a method for the incorporation of anisotropic colloidal nanocrystals of many different shapes in silica in a highly controlled way. This method yields a uniform silica shell, with thickness tunable from 3 to 17 nm. The silica shell perfectly adapts to the shape of the

  6. Prospects of hydrocarbon deposits exploration using the method of induced polarization during geomagnetic-variation profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. М. Ермохин

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally it is believed that the effect of induced polarization is an interfering factor for the measurement of electromagnetic fields and their interpretation during conducting works using magnetotelluric sounding and geomag-netic-variation profiling methods. A new method is proposed for isolating the effects of induced polarization during geomagnetic-variation profiling aimed at searching for hydrocarbon deposits on the basis of phase measurements during the conduct of geomagnetic-variation profiling. The phenomenon of induced polarization is proposed to be used as a special exploration mark for deep-lying hydrocarbon deposits. The traditional method of induced polarization uses artificial field sources, the powers of which are principally insufficient to reach depths of 3-5 km, which leads to the need to search for alternative - natural sources in the form of telluric and magnetotelluric fields. The proposed method makes it possible to detect and interpret the effects of induced polarization from deep-seated oil and gas reservoirs directly, without relying on indirect signs.

  7. Flow velocity measurement by using zero-crossing polarity cross correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chengji; Lu Jinming; Xia Hong

    1993-01-01

    Using the designed correlation metering system and a high accurate hot-wire anemometer as a calibration device, the experimental study of correlation method in a tunnel was carried out. The velocity measurement of gas flow by using zero-crossing polarity cross correlation method was realized and the experimental results has been analysed

  8. Detection-Discrimination Method for Multiple Repeater False Targets Based on Radar Polarization Echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. ZONG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple repeat false targets (RFTs, created by the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM system of jammer, are widely used in practical to effectively exhaust the limited tracking and discrimination resource of defence radar. In this paper, common characteristic of radar polarization echoes of multiple RFTs is used for target recognition. Based on the echoes from two receiving polarization channels, the instantaneous polarization radio (IPR is defined and its variance is derived by employing Taylor series expansion. A detection-discrimination method is designed based on probability grids. By using the data from microwave anechoic chamber, the detection threshold of the method is confirmed. Theoretical analysis and simulations indicate that the method is valid and feasible. Furthermore, the estimation performance of IPRs of RFTs due to the influence of signal noise ratio (SNR is also covered.

  9. Method for forming permanent magnets with different polarities for use in microelectromechanical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-04-24

    Methods are provided for forming a plurality of permanent magnets with two different north-south magnetic pole alignments for use in microelectromechanical (MEM) devices. These methods are based on initially magnetizing the permanent magnets all in the same direction, and then utilizing a combination of heating and a magnetic field to switch the polarity of a portion of the permanent magnets while not switching the remaining permanent magnets. The permanent magnets, in some instances, can all have the same rare-earth composition (e.g. NdFeB) or can be formed of two different rare-earth materials (e.g. NdFeB and SmCo). The methods can be used to form a plurality of permanent magnets side-by-side on or within a substrate with an alternating polarity, or to form a two-dimensional array of permanent magnets in which the polarity of every other row of the array is alternated.

  10. Increasing the pump-up rate to polarize 3He gas using spin-exchange optical pumping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.T.; Tong Xin; Rich, Dennis; Liu Yun; Fleenor, Michael; Ismaili, Akbar; Pierce, Joshua; Hagen, Mark; Dadras, Jonny; Robertson, J. Lee

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, polarized 3 He gas has increasingly been used as neutron polarizers and polarization analyzers. Two of the leading methods to polarize the 3 He gas are the spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) method and the meta-stable exchange optical pumping (MEOP) method. At present, the SEOP setup is comparatively compact due to the fact that it does not require the sophisticated compressor system used in the MEOP method. The temperature and the laser power available determine the speed, at which the SEOP method polarizes the 3 He gas. For the quantity of gas typically used in neutron scattering work, this speed is independent of the quantity of the gas required, whereas the polarizing time using the MEOP method is proportional to the quantity of gas required. Currently, using the SEOP method to polarize several bar-liters of 3 He to 70% polarization would require 20-40 h. This is an order of magnitude longer than the MEOP method for the same quantity of gas and polarization. It would therefore be advantageous to speed up the SEOP process. In this article, we analyze the requirements for temperature, laser power, and the type of alkali used in order to shorten the time required to polarize 3 He gas using the SEOP method.

  11. An analysis of pipe degradation shape using potential drop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegal, S.; Lee, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    The Potential Drop (PD) method, one of NDE (Non-Destructive Evaluation) method is used to analyze the thickness distribution of pipes degraded by FAC (Flow Accelerated Corrosion). A DCPD (Direct Current Potential Drop) system which can measure PD for direct current was made, and the specimens with line defects and cylinder type defects have been used for experiments to prove the theory of Potential Drop method and to find out the effects of each factors. The experiment to find out defect distributions has been performed and it is found that PD method can analyze almost correct position of defects

  12. Nuclear-optical methods for production of polarized photons with energies of a few hundred GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ispiryan, K.A.; Ispiryan, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    The absorption coefficients of linearly polarized photons passing through a crystal in parallel to its crystallographic planes are calculated. The methods of determination of the obtainable degree of polarization as well as of the intensity losses for the cases when non-polarized photon beams pass through various crystals in parallel to the planes (110) are described. The energy dependence of the thickness of the quarter-wave plate crystals transforming the linear polarization of the beam into circular one is obtained

  13. Design of a Fused-Silica Subwavelength Polarizing Beam Splitter Grating Based on the Modal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua-Jun, Zhao; Dai-Rong, Yuan; Pei, Wang; Yong-Hua, Lu; Hai, Ming

    2010-01-01

    A polarizing beam splitter (PBS) design based on a fused-silica lamellar subwavelength transmission grating is demonstrated with the modal method, where TE- and TM-polarized waves are mainly diffracted in the −1 st and 0 th orders, respectively. The physical explanation of the grating diffraction is illustrated by the interference of the corresponding parts of the two propagating modes, which is very similar to a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. It is shown that diffraction efficients over 99% for a TM-polarized wave in the −1 st order and 90% for a TE-polarized wave in the 0 th order are obtained at the wavelength of 1.053 μm. The polarization transmission extinction ratios are better than 33 dB and 51 dB for the order 0 th and the −1 st order, respectively. The splitting properties of the PBS grating designed by the modal method are in good agreement with the results simulated by the rigorous coupled wave analysis method. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  14. Iron Pole Shape Optimization of IPM Motors Using an Integrated Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JABBARI, A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An iron pole shape optimization method to reduce cogging torque in Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM motors is developed by using the reduced basis technique coupled by finite element and design of experiments methods. Objective function is defined as the minimum cogging torque. The experimental design of Taguchi method is used to build the approximation model and to perform optimization. This method is demonstrated on the rotor pole shape optimization of a 4-poles/24-slots IPM motor.

  15. Analysis of Circularly Polarized Hemispheroidal Dielectric Resonator Antenna Phased Arrays Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs are subsequen......The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs...

  16. Characterization of polarization-independent phase modulation method for practical plug and play quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Osung; Lee, Min-Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Park, Byung Kwon; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2015-01-01

    We characterized a polarization-independent phase modulation method, called double phase modulation, for a practical plug and play quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Following investigation of theoretical backgrounds, we applied the method to the practical QKD system and characterized the performance through comparing single phase modulation (SPM) and double phase modulation. Consequently, we obtained repeatable and accurate phase modulation confirmed by high visibility single photon interference even for input signals with arbitrary polarization. Further, the results show that only 80% of the bias voltage required in the case of single phase modulation is needed to obtain the target amount of phase modulation. (paper)

  17. Method of generating intense nuclear polarized beams by selective photodetachment of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1986-01-01

    A novel method for production of nuclear polarized negative hydrogen ions by selective neutralization with a laser of negative hydrogen ions in a magnetic field is described. This selectivity is possible since a final state of the neutralized atom, and hence the neutralization energy, depends on its nuclear polarization. The main advantages of this scheme are the availability of multi-ampere negative ion sources and the possibility of neutralizing negative ions with very high efficiency. An assessment of the required laser power indicates that this method is in principle feasible with today's technology

  18. Deterministic and stochastic methods of calculation of polarization characteristics of radiation in natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, S. A.; Sushkevich, T. A.; Maksakova, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    We are talking about russian achievements of the world level in the theory of radiation transfer, taking into account its polarization in natural media and the current scientific potential developing in Russia, which adequately provides the methodological basis for theoretically-calculated research of radiation processes and radiation fields in natural media using supercomputers and mass parallelism. A new version of the matrix transfer operator is proposed for solving problems of polarized radiation transfer in heterogeneous media by the method of influence functions, when deterministic and stochastic methods can be combined.

  19. Fabrication of advanced Bragg gratings with complex apodization profiles by use of the polarization control method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deyerl, Hans-Jürgen; Plougmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2004-01-01

    The polarization control method offers a flexible, robust, and low-cost route for the parallel fabrication of gratings with complex apodization profiles including several discrete phase shifts and chirp. The performance of several test gratings is evaluated in terms of their spectral response...... and compared with theoretical predictions. Short gratings with sidelobe-suppression levels in excess of 32 dB and transmission dips lower than 80 dB have been realized. Finally, most of the devices fabricated by the polarization control method show comparable quality to gratings manufactured by far more...

  20. A novel fruit shape classification method based on multi-scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jiangsheng; Ying, Yibin; Rao, Xiuqin

    2005-11-01

    Shape is one of the major concerns and which is still a difficult problem in automated inspection and sorting of fruits. In this research, we proposed the multi-scale energy distribution (MSED) for object shape description, the relationship between objects shape and its boundary energy distribution at multi-scale was explored for shape extraction. MSED offers not only the mainly energy which represent primary shape information at the lower scales, but also subordinate energy which represent local shape information at higher differential scales. Thus, it provides a natural tool for multi resolution representation and can be used as a feature for shape classification. We addressed the three main processing steps in the MSED-based shape classification. They are namely, 1) image preprocessing and citrus shape extraction, 2) shape resample and shape feature normalization, 3) energy decomposition by wavelet and classification by BP neural network. Hereinto, shape resample is resample 256 boundary pixel from a curve which is approximated original boundary by using cubic spline in order to get uniform raw data. A probability function was defined and an effective method to select a start point was given through maximal expectation, which overcame the inconvenience of traditional methods in order to have a property of rotation invariants. The experiment result is relatively well normal citrus and serious abnormality, with a classification rate superior to 91.2%. The global correct classification rate is 89.77%, and our method is more effective than traditional method. The global result can meet the request of fruit grading.

  1. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  2. Testing methods for using high-resolution satellite imagery to monitor polar bear abundance and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Michelle A.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Porter, Claire; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Atwood, Todd C.; Dyck, Markus; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution satellite imagery is a promising tool for providing coarse information about polar species abundance and distribution, but current applications are limited. With polar bears (Ursus maritimus), the technique has only proven effective on landscapes with little topographic relief that are devoid of snow and ice, and time-consuming manual review of imagery is required to identify bears. Here, we evaluated mechanisms to further develop methods for satellite imagery by examining data from Rowley Island, Canada. We attempted to automate and expedite detection via a supervised spectral classification and image differencing to expedite image review. We also assessed what proportion of a region should be sampled to obtain reliable estimates of density and abundance. Although the spectral signature of polar bears differed from nontarget objects, these differences were insufficient to yield useful results via a supervised classification process. Conversely, automated image differencing—or subtracting one image from another—correctly identified nearly 90% of polar bear locations. This technique, however, also yielded false positives, suggesting that manual review will still be required to confirm polar bear locations. On Rowley Island, bear distribution approximated a Poisson distribution across a range of plot sizes, and resampling suggests that sampling >50% of the site facilitates reliable estimation of density (CV in certain areas, but large-scale applications remain limited because of the challenges in automation and the limited environments in which the method can be effectively applied. Improvements in resolution may expand opportunities for its future uses.

  3. Testing methods for using high-resolution satellite imagery to monitor polar bear abundance and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Michelle A.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Porter, Claire; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Atwood, Todd C.; Dyck, Markus; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution satellite imagery is a promising tool for providing coarse information about polar species abundance and distribution, but current applications are limited. With polar bears (Ursus maritimus), the technique has only proven effective on landscapes with little topographic relief that are devoid of snow and ice, and time-consuming manual review of imagery is required to identify bears. Here, we evaluated mechanisms to further develop methods for satellite imagery by examining data from Rowley Island, Canada. We attempted to automate and expedite detection via a supervised spectral classification and image differencing to expedite image review. We also assessed what proportion of a region should be sampled to obtain reliable estimates of density and abundance. Although the spectral signature of polar bears differed from nontarget objects, these differences were insufficient to yield useful results via a supervised classification process. Conversely, automated image differencing—or subtracting one image from another—correctly identified nearly 90% of polar bear locations. This technique, however, also yielded false positives, suggesting that manual review will still be required to confirm polar bear locations. On Rowley Island, bear distribution approximated a Poisson distribution across a range of plot sizes, and resampling suggests that sampling >50% of the site facilitates reliable estimation of density (CV large-scale applications remain limited because of the challenges in automation and the limited environments in which the method can be effectively applied. Improvements in resolution may expand opportunities for its future uses.

  4. Ancestral polymorphisms and sex-biased migration shaped the demographic history of brown bears and polar bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Nakagome

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported discordant gene trees in the evolution of brown bears and polar bears. Genealogical histories are different among independent nuclear loci and between biparentally inherited autosomal DNA (aDNA and matrilineal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Based on multi-locus genomic sequences from aDNA and mtDNA, we inferred the population demography of brown and polar bears and found that brown bears have 6 times (aDNA or more than 14 times (mtDNA larger population sizes than polar bears and that polar bear lineage is derived from within brown bear diversity. In brown bears, the effective population size ratio of mtDNA to aDNA was at least 0.62, which deviated from the expected value of 0.25, suggesting matriarchal population due to female philopatry and male-biased migration. These results emphasize that ancestral polymorphisms and sex-biased migration may have contributed to conflicting branching patterns in brown and polar bears across aDNA genes and mtDNA.

  5. Ancestral polymorphisms and sex-biased migration shaped the demographic history of brown bears and polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagome, Shigeki; Mano, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Masami

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have reported discordant gene trees in the evolution of brown bears and polar bears. Genealogical histories are different among independent nuclear loci and between biparentally inherited autosomal DNA (aDNA) and matrilineal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Based on multi-locus genomic sequences from aDNA and mtDNA, we inferred the population demography of brown and polar bears and found that brown bears have 6 times (aDNA) or more than 14 times (mtDNA) larger population sizes than polar bears and that polar bear lineage is derived from within brown bear diversity. In brown bears, the effective population size ratio of mtDNA to aDNA was at least 0.62, which deviated from the expected value of 0.25, suggesting matriarchal population due to female philopatry and male-biased migration. These results emphasize that ancestral polymorphisms and sex-biased migration may have contributed to conflicting branching patterns in brown and polar bears across aDNA genes and mtDNA.

  6. A Spatial Shape Constrained Clustering Method for Mammographic Mass Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Yong Lou

    2015-01-01

    error of 7.18% for well-defined masses (or 8.06% for ill-defined masses was obtained by using DACF on MiniMIAS database, with 5.86% (or 5.55% and 6.14% (or 5.27% improvements as compared to the standard DA and fuzzy c-means methods.

  7. Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

  8. A possible method to produce a polarized antiproton beam at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Vaandering, E.W.; Hofmann, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    A feasible and conservative design for a medium energy polarized antiproton beam has been presented. The design requires an intense beam of unpolarized antiprotons (≥ 10 7 /sec) from a typical secondary beam line in order to achieve reasonable anti pp elastic scattering count rates. All three beam spin directions can be achieved. Methods were discussed to reverse the spin directions in modest times, and to change to a polarized proton beam if desired. It is expected that experiments with such a beam would have a profound effect on the understanding of the anti NN interaction at intermediate energies

  9. Sagagd method for the beam shaping of uniform illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongping; Chen Dewei; Wang Wei

    2002-01-01

    The simulated annealing algorithm, the genetic and the gradient descent algorithm are retrospectively and successfully amalgamated to optimal design of pure phase element for uniform beams. The process of this method is divided into three steps, first the energy enhancement of the main lobe, then the process to make the top of the main lobe to be smooth and the fringe to be steep, at last the full optimization beam. After these three steps of optimization, the beam is good enough to be applied to ICF

  10. Space-polarization Collaborative Suppression Method for Ionospheric Clutter in HFSWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yunlong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR is able to receive surface target and low-flying aircraft echoes at a long-distance, but it suffers severely from ionospheric clutter. In this paper, a spacepolarization collaborative-based filter is introduced to mitigate ionospheric clutter. For parameter estimation on ionospheric clutter used for filters, a spatial parameter estimation algorithm based on compressive sensing is introduced to the DOA estimation of ionospheric clutter. In addition, a polarized parameter estimation algorithm based on statistical characteristics is proposed for ionospheric clutter in the range-Doppler spectrum. Higher estimation accuracy is achieved as a result of the range-Doppler spectrum; therefore, these two estimation algorithms enhance the performance of the space-polarization collaborative suppression method for ionospheric clutter. Experimental results of practical dual-polarized HFSWR data show the effectiveness of the two algorithms and the above mentioned filter for ionospheric clutter suppression.

  11. Applying electric field to charged and polar particles between metallic plates: extension of the Ewald method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira

    2013-09-28

    We develop an efficient Ewald method of molecular dynamics simulation for calculating the electrostatic interactions among charged and polar particles between parallel metallic plates, where we may apply an electric field with an arbitrary size. We use the fact that the potential from the surface charges is equivalent to the sum of those from image charges and dipoles located outside the cell. We present simulation results on boundary effects of charged and polar fluids, formation of ionic crystals, and formation of dipole chains, where the applied field and the image interaction are crucial. For polar fluids, we find a large deviation of the classical Lorentz-field relation between the local field and the applied field due to pair correlations along the applied field. As general aspects, we clarify the difference between the potential-fixed and the charge-fixed boundary conditions and examine the relationship between the discrete particle description and the continuum electrostatics.

  12. Centrifugal compressor shape modification using a proposed inverse design method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niliahmadabadi, Mahdi; Poursadegh, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a quasi-3D design method for the radial and axial diffusers of a centrifugal compressor on the meridional plane. The method integrates a novel inverse design algorithm, called ball-spine algorithm (BSA), and a quasi-3D analysis code. The Euler equation is solved on the meridional plane for a numerical domain, of which unknown boundaries (hub and shroud) are iteratively modified under the BSA until a prescribed pressure distribution is reached. In BSA, unknown walls are composed of a set of virtual balls that move freely along specified directions called spines. The difference between target and current pressure distributions causes the flexible boundary to deform at each modification step. In validating the quasi-3D analysis code, a full 3D Navier-Stokes code is used to analyze the existing and designed compressors numerically. Comparison of the quasi-3D analysis results with full 3D analysis results shows viable agreement. The 3D numerical analysis of the current compressor shows a huge total pressure loss on the 90 .deg. bend between the radial and axial diffusers. Geometric modification of the meridional plane causes the efficiency to improve by about 10%.

  13. Centrifugal compressor shape modification using a proposed inverse design method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niliahmadabadi, Mahdi [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursadegh, Farzad [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    This paper is concerned with a quasi-3D design method for the radial and axial diffusers of a centrifugal compressor on the meridional plane. The method integrates a novel inverse design algorithm, called ball-spine algorithm (BSA), and a quasi-3D analysis code. The Euler equation is solved on the meridional plane for a numerical domain, of which unknown boundaries (hub and shroud) are iteratively modified under the BSA until a prescribed pressure distribution is reached. In BSA, unknown walls are composed of a set of virtual balls that move freely along specified directions called spines. The difference between target and current pressure distributions causes the flexible boundary to deform at each modification step. In validating the quasi-3D analysis code, a full 3D Navier-Stokes code is used to analyze the existing and designed compressors numerically. Comparison of the quasi-3D analysis results with full 3D analysis results shows viable agreement. The 3D numerical analysis of the current compressor shows a huge total pressure loss on the 90 .deg. bend between the radial and axial diffusers. Geometric modification of the meridional plane causes the efficiency to improve by about 10%.

  14. Bayesian Methods for Predicting the Shape of Chinese Yam in Terms of Key Diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunori Kayano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes Bayesian methods for the shape estimation of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita using a few key diameters of yam. Shape prediction of yam is applicable to determining optimal cutoff positions of a yam for producing seed yams. Our Bayesian method, which is a combination of Bayesian estimation model and predictive model, enables automatic, rapid, and low-cost processing of yam. After the construction of the proposed models using a sample data set in Japan, the models provide whole shape prediction of yam based on only a few key diameters. The Bayesian method performed well on the shape prediction in terms of minimizing the mean squared error between measured shape and the prediction. In particular, a multiple regression method with key diameters at two fixed positions attained the highest performance for shape prediction. We have developed automatic, rapid, and low-cost yam-processing machines based on the Bayesian estimation model and predictive model. Development of such shape prediction approaches, including our Bayesian method, can be a valuable aid in reducing the cost and time in food processing.

  15. Simple Methods to Approximate CPC Shape to Preserve Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jafrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound parabolic concentrator (CPC is the most efficient reflective geometry to collect light to an exit port. Anyway, to allow its actual use in solar plants or photovoltaic concentration systems, a tradeoff between system efficiency and cost reduction, the two key issues for sunlight exploitation, must be found. In this work, we analyze various methods to model an approximated CPC aimed to be simpler and more cost-effective than the ideal one, as well as to preserve the system efficiency. The manufacturing easiness arises from the use of truncated conic surfaces only, which can be realized by cheap machining techniques. We compare different configurations on the basis of their collection efficiency, evaluated by means of nonsequential ray-tracing software. Moreover, due to the fact that some configurations are beam dependent and for a closer approximation of a real case, the input beam is simulated as nonsymmetric, with a nonconstant irradiance on the CPC internal surface.

  16. Method for hot pressing irregularly shaped refractory articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, William E.; Ballard, Ambrose H.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for hot pressing irregularly haped refractory articles with these articles of varying thickness being provided with high uniform density and dimensional accuracy. Two partially pressed compacts of the refractory material are placed in a die cavity between displaceable die punches having compact-contacting surfaces of the desired article configuration. A floating, rotatable block is disposed between the compacts. The displacement of the die punches towards one another causes the block to rotate about an axis normal to the direction of movement of the die punches to uniformly distribute the pressure loading upon the compacts for maintaining substantially equal volume displacement of the powder material during the hot pressing operation.

  17. Comparison of infrared laser beam shaping by diffractive and refractive methods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Infra-red laser beam shaping has the inherent difficulty that simple ray tracing methods often yield anomalous results, due primarily to the propagation effects at longer wavelengths. Techniques based on diffraction theory have been developed...

  18. A Gauss-Newton method for the integration of spatial normal fields in shape Space

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    to solving a nonlinear least-squares problem in shape space. Previously, the corresponding minimization has been performed by gradient descent, which suffers from slow convergence and susceptibility to local minima. Newton-type methods, although significantly

  19. Pulse-shape discrimination in radioanalytical methods. Part I. Delayed fission neutron counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posta, S.; Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Cervena, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this study the principle of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) has been employed in delayed fission neutron counting (DNC) method. Effective elimination of unwanted gamma background signals in measured radiation spectra has been proved. (author)

  20. A Review of Discrete Element Method (DEM) Particle Shapes and Size Distributions for Lunar Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2010-01-01

    As part of ongoing efforts to develop models of lunar soil mechanics, this report reviews two topics that are important to discrete element method (DEM) modeling the behavior of soils (such as lunar soils): (1) methods of modeling particle shapes and (2) analytical representations of particle size distribution. The choice of particle shape complexity is driven primarily by opposing tradeoffs with total number of particles, computer memory, and total simulation computer processing time. The choice is also dependent on available DEM software capabilities. For example, PFC2D/PFC3D and EDEM support clustering of spheres; MIMES incorporates superquadric particle shapes; and BLOKS3D provides polyhedra shapes. Most commercial and custom DEM software supports some type of complex particle shape beyond the standard sphere. Convex polyhedra, clusters of spheres and single parametric particle shapes such as the ellipsoid, polyellipsoid, and superquadric, are all motivated by the desire to introduce asymmetry into the particle shape, as well as edges and corners, in order to better simulate actual granular particle shapes and behavior. An empirical particle size distribution (PSD) formula is shown to fit desert sand data from Bagnold. Particle size data of JSC-1a obtained from a fine particle analyzer at the NASA Kennedy Space Center is also fitted to a similar empirical PSD function.

  1. Polarization ratio property and material classification method in passive millimeter wave polarimetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yayun; Qi, Bo; Liu, Siyuan; Hu, Fei; Gui, Liangqi; Peng, Xiaohui

    2016-10-01

    Polarimetric measurements can provide additional information as compared to unpolarized ones. In this paper, linear polarization ratio (LPR) is created to be a feature discriminator. The LPR properties of several materials are investigated using Fresnel theory. The theoretical results show that LPR is sensitive to the material type (metal or dielectric). Then a linear polarization ratio-based (LPR-based) method is presented to distinguish between metal and dielectric materials. In order to apply this method to practical applications, the optimal range of incident angle have been discussed. The typical outdoor experiments including various objects such as aluminum plate, grass, concrete, soil and wood, have been conducted to validate the presented classification method.

  2. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms

  3. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Kai [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin, 300222 (China); Lee, Soo-Y., E-mail: sooying@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics & Applied Physics, and Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  4. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-12-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  5. Generation of single attosecond pulse within one atomic unit by using multi-cycle inhomogeneous polarization gating technology in bowtie-shaped nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liqiang; Liu, Hang

    2018-04-01

    The generations of high-order harmonic spectra and single attosecond pulses (SAPs) driven by the multi-cycle inhomogeneous polarization gating (PG) technology in the bowtie-shaped nanostructure have been theoretically investigated. It is found that by setting the bowtie-shaped nanostructure along the driven laser polarization direction, not only the extension of the harmonic cutoff can be achieved, caused by the surface plasmon polaritons, but also the modulations of the harmonics can be decreased, caused by the PG technology and the inhomogeneous effect. As a result, the contribution of the harmonic plateau is only from one harmonic emission peak with the dominant short quantum path. Further, by properly adding a half-cycle pulse into the driven laser field, the harmonic emission process can be precisely controlled in the half-cycle duration and a supercontinuum with the bandwidth of 263 eV can be obtained. Finally, by directly superposing the harmonics from this supercontinuum, a SAP with the full width at half maximum of 23 as can be obtained, which is shorter than one atomic unit.

  6. Linearly polarized photoluminescence of anisotropically strained c-plane GaN layers on stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongmyeong; Moon, Daeyoung; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Donghyun; Yang, Duyoung; Jang, Jeonghwan; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon

    2018-05-01

    Anisotropic in-plane strain and resultant linearly polarized photoluminescence (PL) of c-plane GaN layers were realized by using a stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate (SCES). High resolution X-ray reciprocal space mapping measurements revealed that the GaN layers on the SCES were under significant anisotropic in-plane strain of -0.0140% and -0.1351% along the directions perpendicular and parallel to the stripe pattern, respectively. The anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers was attributed to the anisotropic strain relaxation due to the anisotropic arrangement of cavity-incorporated membranes. Linearly polarized PL behavior such as the observed angle-dependent shift in PL peak position and intensity comparable with the calculated value based on k.p perturbation theory. It was found that the polarized PL behavior was attributed to the modification of valence band structures induced by anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers on the SCES.

  7. A LEVEL SET BASED SHAPE OPTIMIZATION METHOD FOR AN ELLIPTIC OBSTACLE PROBLEM

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Matevosyan, Norayr; Wolfram, Marie-Therese

    2011-01-01

    analysis of the level set method in terms of viscosity solutions. To our knowledge this is the first complete analysis of a level set method for a nonlocal shape optimization problem. Finally, we discuss the implementation of the methods and illustrate its

  8. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  9. Using polarized Raman spectroscopy and the pseudospectral method to characterize molecular structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Andrew L.

    Electronic structure calculation is an essential approach for determining the structure and function of molecules and is therefore of critical interest to physics, chemistry, and materials science. Of the various algorithms for calculating electronic structure, the pseudospectral method is among the fastest. However, the trade-off for its speed is more up-front programming and testing, and as a result, applications using the pseudospectral method currently lag behind those using other methods. In Part I of this dissertation, we first advance the pseudospectral method by optimizing it for an important application, polarized Raman spectroscopy, which is a well-established tool used to characterize molecular properties. This is an application of particular importance because often the easiest and most economical way to obtain the polarized Raman spectrum of a material is to simulate it; thus, utilization of the pseudospectral method for this purpose will accelerate progress in the determination of molecular properties. We demonstrate that our implementation of Raman spectroscopy using the pseudospectral method results in spectra that are just as accurate as those calculated using the traditional analytic method, and in the process, we derive the most comprehensive formulation to date of polarized Raman intensity formulas, applicable to both crystalline and isotropic systems. Next, we apply our implementation to determine the orientations of crystalline oligothiophenes -- a class of materials important in the field of organic electronics -- achieving excellent agreement with experiment and demonstrating the general utility of polarized Raman spectroscopy for the determination of crystal orientation. In addition, we derive from first-principles a method for using polarized Raman spectra to establish unambiguously whether a uniform region of a material is crystalline or isotropic. Finally, we introduce free, open-source software that allows a user to determine any of a

  10. General method for calculating polarization electric fields produced by auroral Cowling mechanism and application examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhamäki, Heikki; Amm, Olaf; Fujii, Ryo; Yoshikawa, Aki; Ieda, Aki

    2013-04-01

    The Cowling mechanism is characterized by the generation of polarization space charges in the ionosphere in consequence of a partial or total blockage of FAC flowing between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. Thus a secondary polarization electric field builds up in the ionosphere, which guarantees that the whole (primary + secondary) ionospheric current system is again in balance with the FAC. In the Earth's ionosphere the Cowling mechanism is long known to operate in the equatorial electrojet, and several studies indicate that it is important also in auroral current systems. We present a general method for calculate the secondary polarization electric field, when the ionospheric conductances, the primary (modeled) or the total (measured) electric field, and the Cowling efficiency are given. Here the Cowling efficiency is defined as the fraction of the divergent Hall current canceled by secondary Pedersen current. In contrast to previous studies, our approach is a general solution which is not limited to specific geometrical setups (like an auroral arc), and all parameters may have any kind of spatial dependence. The solution technique is based on spherical elementary current (vector) systems (SECS). This way, we avoid the need to specify explicit boundary conditions for the searched polarization electric field or its potential, which would be required if the problem was solved in a differential equation approach. Instead, we solve an algebraic matrix equation, for which the implicit boundary condition that the divergence of the polarization electric field vanishes outside our analysis area is sufficient. In order to illustrate the effect of Cowling mechanism on ionospheric current systems, we apply our method to two simple models of auroral electrodynamic situations: 1) a mesoscale strong conductance enhancement in the early morning sector within a relatively weak southward primary electric field, 2) a morning sector auroral arc with only a weak conductance

  11. Method for measuring retardation of infrared wave-plate by modulated-polarized visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Song, Feijun

    2012-11-01

    A new method for precisely measuring the optical phase retardation of wave-plates in the infrared spectral region is presented by using modulated-polarized visible light. An electro-optic modulator is used to accurately determine the zero point by the frequency-doubled signal of the Modulated-polarized light. A Babinet-Soleil compensator is employed to make the phase delay compensation. Based on this method, an instrument is set up to measure the retardations of the infrared wave-plates with visible region laser. Measurement results with high accuracy and sound repetition are obtained by simple calculation. Its measurement precision is less than and repetitive precision is within 0.3%.

  12. Method of shaping fields of controlled extension in a resonator with a large electrical length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomko, V.A.; Rudiak, B.I.

    A method is discussed for controlling the energy of particles accelerated in a linear accelerator consisting of a volume resonator with drift tubes. Results are described for experimental studies of problems with field shaping of controlled extension of fields in an accelerating structure having drift tubes and a large electrical length. The possibility of shaping the field in a resonator using a stabilizing system of the ''antipode'' type is considered

  13. Non-linear shape functions over time in the space-time finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacprzyk Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a generalisation of the space-time finite element method proposed by Kączkowski in his seminal of 1970’s and early 1980’s works. Kączkowski used linear shape functions in time. The recurrence formula obtained by Kączkowski was conditionally stable. In this paper, non-linear shape functions in time are proposed.

  14. Formal Solutions for Polarized Radiative Transfer. II. High-order Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janett, Gioele; Steiner, Oskar; Belluzzi, Luca, E-mail: gioele.janett@irsol.ch [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno (IRSOL), 6605 Locarno-Monti (Switzerland)

    2017-08-20

    When integrating the radiative transfer equation for polarized light, the necessity of high-order numerical methods is well known. In fact, well-performing high-order formal solvers enable higher accuracy and the use of coarser spatial grids. Aiming to provide a clear comparison between formal solvers, this work presents different high-order numerical schemes and applies the systematic analysis proposed by Janett et al., emphasizing their advantages and drawbacks in terms of order of accuracy, stability, and computational cost.

  15. Apparatus and Method for Elimination of Polarization-Induced Fading in Fiber-optic Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method of eliminating polarization-induced fading in interferometric fiber-optic sensor system having a wavelength-swept laser optical signal. The interferometric return signal from the sensor arms are combined and provided to a multi-optical path detector assembly and ultimately to a data acquisition and processing unit by way of a switch that is time synchronized with the laser scan sweep cycle.

  16. Application of the Ursell-Mayer method in the theory of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, S.; Radelja, T.

    1981-01-01

    Employing the Ursell-Mayer method and Ljolje semi-free gas model analytic relations describing ground state properties (energy, pressure, compressibility, sound velocity, radial distribution function and one-particle density matrix) of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen were derived. The expressions are valid up to density 2 10 26 atoms/m 3 . It was found out that at density of 2 10 26 atoms/m 3 the condensation of particle in momentum space is 88% (at absolute zero). (orig.)

  17. A measurement method for micro 3D shape based on grids-processing and stereovision technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chuanwei; Xie, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei

    2013-01-01

    An integrated measurement method for micro 3D surface shape by a combination of stereovision technology in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and grids-processing methodology is proposed. The principle of the proposed method is introduced in detail. By capturing two images of the tested specimen with grids on the surface at different tilt angles in an SEM, the 3D surface shape of the specimen can be obtained. Numerical simulation is applied to analyze the feasibility of the proposed method. A validation experiment is performed here. The surface shape of the metal-wire/polymer-membrane structures with thermal deformation is reconstructed. By processing the surface grids of the specimen, the out-of-plane displacement field of the specimen surface is also obtained. Compared with the measurement results obtained by a 3D digital microscope, the experimental error of the proposed method is discussed (paper)

  18. A multilevel, level-set method for optimizing eigenvalues in shape design problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider optimal design problems that involve shape optimization. The goal is to determine the shape of a certain structure such that it is either as rigid or as soft as possible. To achieve this goal we combine two new ideas for an efficient solution of the problem. First, we replace the eigenvalue problem with an approximation by using inverse iteration. Second, we use a level set method but rather than propagating the front we use constrained optimization methods combined with multilevel continuation techniques. Combining these two ideas we obtain a robust and rapid method for the solution of the optimal design problem

  19. Analysis on the geometrical shape of T-honeycomb structure by finite element method (FEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Fitri; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan; Effendi, M. S. M.; Abdullah, Mohamad Hariri

    2017-09-01

    Geometric in design is much related with our life. Each of the geometrical structure interacts with each other. The overall shape of an object contains other shape inside, and there shapes create a relationship between each other in space. Besides that, how geometry relates to the function of the object have to be considerate. In this project, the main purpose was to design the geometrical shape of modular furniture with the shrinking of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) jointing system that has good strength when applied load on it. But, the goal of this paper is focusing on the analysis of Static Cases by FEM of the hexagonal structure to obtain the strength when load apply on it. The review from the existing product has many information and very helpful to finish this paper. This project focuses on hexagonal shape that distributed to become a shelf inspired by honeycomb structure. It is very natural look and simple in shape and its modular structure more easily to separate and combine. The method discusses on chapter methodology are the method used to analysis the strength when the load applied to the structure. The software used to analysis the structure is Finite Element Method from CATIA V5R21 software. Bending test is done on the jointing part between the edges of the hexagonal shape by using Universal Tensile Machine (UTM). The data obtained have been calculate by bending test formulae and sketch the graph between flexural strains versus flexural stress. The material selection of the furniture is focused on wood. There are three different types of wood such as balsa, pine and oak, while the properties of jointing also be mentioned in this thesis. Hence, the design structural for honeycomb shape already have in the market but this design has main objective which has a good strength that can withstand maximum load and offers more potentials in the form of furniture.

  20. Can Electron Propagator Methods Be Used To Improve Polarization Propagator Methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2008-01-01

    Calculations of Rydberg excitation energies with the second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA) often produce results which are more in error than the random phase approximation (RPA), which formally is the first-order model. This is obviously because of cancellation of errors...... at the RPA level. On the other hand, valence excitation energies behave as expected, and they are systematically improved in SOPPA compared to RPA. Note that a Rydberg series is related to one of the ionization thresholds of the molecule, and it is thus obvious that a good description of the ionization...

  1. 3-D Forward modeling of Induced Polarization Effects of Transient Electromagnetic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Ji, Y.; Guan, S.; Li, D.; Wang, A.

    2017-12-01

    In transient electromagnetic (TEM) detection, Induced polarization (IP) effects are so important that they cannot be ignored. The authors simulate the three-dimensional (3-D) induced polarization effects in time-domain directly by applying the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) based on Cole-Cole model. Due to the frequency dispersion characteristics of the electrical conductivity, the computations of convolution in the generalized Ohm's law of fractional order system makes the forward modeling particularly complicated. Firstly, we propose a method to approximate the fractional order function of Cole-Cole model using a lower order rational transfer function based on error minimum theory in the frequency domain. In this section, two auxiliary variables are introduced to transform nonlinear least square fitting problem of the fractional order system into a linear programming problem, thus avoiding having to solve a system of equations and nonlinear problems. Secondly, the time-domain expression of Cole-Cole model is obtained by using Inverse Laplace transform. Then, for the calculation of Ohm's law, we propose an e-index auxiliary equation of conductivity to transform the convolution to non-convolution integral; in this section, the trapezoid rule is applied to compute the integral. We then substitute the recursion equation into Maxwell's equations to derive the iterative equations of electromagnetic field using the FDTD method. Finally, we finish the stimulation of 3-D model and evaluate polarization parameters. The results are compared with those obtained from the digital filtering solution of the analytical equation in the homogeneous half space, as well as with the 3-D model results from the auxiliary ordinary differential equation method (ADE). Good agreements are obtained across the three methods. In terms of the 3-D model, the proposed method has higher efficiency and lower memory requirements as execution times and memory usage were reduced by 20

  2. A new method for the measurement of the polarization characteristics of ferromagnetic films on ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taran, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring the polarization characteristics of ferromagnetic films on ultracold neutrons (UCN) by single-, double- and triple-transmission of UCN beam through one and the same film. To realize the method an installation has been proposed consisting of the two UCN storage traps connected with a mirror neutron guide. An investigated film is placed in the slit in the middle of the neutron guide. On both sides of the film a spin-flipper is installed bottle is equiped with three neutron values which permit filling in the bottle with UCN and allow oneto let UCN out to the neutron guide or detector. The neutrons once let out from one bottle into the neutron guide are caught by the other. The film can be moved out of the neutron guide or rotated. By manipulating with spin-flippers and the film one may take the integral polarization parameters of the film: transmission, polarizing and analysing efficiencies, so-called S-factor, which is the fourth independent linear combination of the elements of the square 2x2 transmission matrix of the film. The measurement parameters help to restore the film transmission matrix. Then a comparison is drawn with the theoretical models of UCN depolarization on transmission through a ferromagnetic film

  3. Method and apparatus for shape and end position determination using an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of determining the shape of an unbound optical fiber includes collecting strain data along a length of the fiber, calculating curvature and bending direction data of the fiber using the strain data, curve-fitting the curvature and bending direction data to derive curvature and bending direction functions, calculating a torsion function using the bending direction function, and determining the 3D shape from the curvature, bending direction, and torsion functions. An apparatus for determining the 3D shape of the fiber includes a fiber optic cable unbound with respect to a protective sleeve, strain sensors positioned along the cable, and a controller in communication with the sensors. The controller has an algorithm for determining a 3D shape and end position of the fiber by calculating a set of curvature and bending direction data, deriving curvature, bending, and torsion functions, and solving Frenet-Serret equations using these functions.

  4. Level set method for optimal shape design of MRAM core. Micromagnetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicher, Valdemar; Cimrak, Ivan; Keer, Roger van

    2008-01-01

    We aim at optimizing the shape of the magnetic core in MRAM memories. The evolution of the magnetization during the writing process is described by the Landau-Lifshitz equation (LLE). The actual shape of the core in one cell is characterized by the coefficient γ. Cost functional f=f(γ) expresses the quality of the writing process having in mind the competition between the full-select and the half-select element. We derive an explicit form of the derivative F=∂f/∂γ which allows for the use of gradient-type methods for the actual computation of the optimized shape (e.g., steepest descend method). The level set method (LSM) is employed for the representation of the piecewise constant coefficient γ

  5. Polarization recovery through scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Hilton B; Gigan, Sylvain; Brasselet, Sophie

    2017-09-01

    The control and use of light polarization in optical sciences and engineering are widespread. Despite remarkable developments in polarization-resolved imaging for life sciences, their transposition to strongly scattering media is currently not possible, because of the inherent depolarization effects arising from multiple scattering. We show an unprecedented phenomenon that opens new possibilities for polarization-resolved microscopy in strongly scattering media: polarization recovery via broadband wavefront shaping. We demonstrate focusing and recovery of the original injected polarization state without using any polarizing optics at the detection. To enable molecular-level structural imaging, an arbitrary rotation of the input polarization does not degrade the quality of the focus. We further exploit the robustness of polarization recovery for structural imaging of biological tissues through scattering media. We retrieve molecular-level organization information of collagen fibers by polarization-resolved second harmonic generation, a topic of wide interest for diagnosis in biomedical optics. Ultimately, the observation of this new phenomenon paves the way for extending current polarization-based methods to strongly scattering environments.

  6. Comparison of Two Methods Used to Model Shape Parameters of Pareto Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Charpentier, R.R.; Su, J.

    2011-01-01

    Two methods are compared for estimating the shape parameters of Pareto field-size (or pool-size) distributions for petroleum resource assessment. Both methods assume mature exploration in which most of the larger fields have been discovered. Both methods use the sizes of larger discovered fields to estimate the numbers and sizes of smaller fields: (1) the tail-truncated method uses a plot of field size versus size rank, and (2) the log-geometric method uses data binned in field-size classes and the ratios of adjacent bin counts. Simulation experiments were conducted using discovered oil and gas pool-size distributions from four petroleum systems in Alberta, Canada and using Pareto distributions generated by Monte Carlo simulation. The estimates of the shape parameters of the Pareto distributions, calculated by both the tail-truncated and log-geometric methods, generally stabilize where discovered pool numbers are greater than 100. However, with fewer than 100 discoveries, these estimates can vary greatly with each new discovery. The estimated shape parameters of the tail-truncated method are more stable and larger than those of the log-geometric method where the number of discovered pools is more than 100. Both methods, however, tend to underestimate the shape parameter. Monte Carlo simulation was also used to create sequences of discovered pool sizes by sampling from a Pareto distribution with a discovery process model using a defined exploration efficiency (in order to show how biased the sampling was in favor of larger fields being discovered first). A higher (more biased) exploration efficiency gives better estimates of the Pareto shape parameters. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences.

  7. Measurements of linear attenuation coefficients of irregular shaped samples by two media method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficient values of regular and irregular shaped flyash materials have been measured without knowing the thickness of a sample using a new technique namely 'two media method'. These values have also been measured with a standard gamma ray transmission method and obtained theoretically with winXCOM computer code. From the comparison it is reported that the two media method has given accurate results of attenuation coefficients of flyash materials

  8. Mitigation of Power frequency Magnetic Fields. Using Scale Invariant and Shape Optimization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, Ener; Yueqiang Liu; Daalder, Jaap; Cruz, Pedro; Antunez de Souza, Paulo Roberto Jr; Atalaya, Juan Carlos; Paula Marciano, Fabianna de; Eskinasy, Alexandre

    2006-10-15

    The present report describes the development and application of two novel methods for implementing mitigation techniques of magnetic fields at power frequencies. The first method makes use of scaling rules for electromagnetic quantities, while the second one applies a 2D shape optimization algorithm based on gradient methods. Before this project, the first method had already been successfully applied (by some of the authors of this report) to electromagnetic designs involving pure conductive Material (e.g. copper, aluminium) which implied a linear formulation. Here we went beyond this approach and tried to develop a formulation involving ferromagnetic (i.e. non-linear) Materials. Surprisingly, we obtained good equivalent replacement for test-transformers by varying the input current. In spite of the validity of this equivalence constrained to regions not too close to the source, the results can still be considered useful, as most field mitigation techniques are precisely developed for reducing the magnetic field in regions relatively far from the sources. The shape optimization method was applied in this project to calculate the optimal geometry of a pure conductive plate to mitigate the magnetic field originated from underground cables. The objective function was a weighted combination of magnetic energy at the region of interest and dissipated heat at the shielding Material. To our surprise, shapes of complex structure, difficult to interpret (and probably even harder to anticipate) were the results of the applied process. However, the practical implementation (using some approximation of these shapes) gave excellent experimental mitigation factors.

  9. Perfect tuning of spin-polarization in a ring-shaped multiple-quantum-dot nanostructure in the presence of Rashba spin–orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, L., E-mail: Leslami@iust.ac.ir; Chaghari, Z.; Faizabadi, E.

    2013-09-02

    Spin-dependent electronic transport through an open multiple-quantum-dot ring threaded by a magnetic flux is theoretically investigated by using the single particle Green's function method. By introducing local Rashba spin–orbit interaction on an individual quantum dot and local magnetic moments on two of other quantum dots, we calculate the spin-polarization in the output lead. We find the spin-polarization can be tuned by manipulating magnetic moments, adjusting magnetic flux and setting the Rashba spin–orbit strength. It is also shown the system can operate as an efficient spin-inverter when the structure is adjusted properly. The analysis can be utilized in designing optimized nanodevices.

  10. Simultaneous hit finding and timing method for pulse shape analysis of drift chamber signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaile, D; Schaile, O; Schwarz, J

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm for the analysis of the digitized signal waveform of drift chamber pulses is described which yields a good multihit resolution and an accurate drift time determination with little processing time. The method has been tested and evaluated with measured pulse shapes from the full size prototype of the OPAL central detector which were digitized by 100 MHz FADCs. (orig.).

  11. Simultaneous hit finding and timing method for pulse shape analysis of drift chamber signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaile, D; Schaile, O; Schwarz, J

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm for the analysis of the digitized signal waveform of drift chamber pulses is described which yields a good multihit resolution and an accurate drift time determination with little processing time. The method has been tested and evaluated with measured pulse shapes from the full size prototype of the OPAL central detector which were digitized by 100 MHz FADCs.

  12. Theory of direct-interband-transition line shapes based on Mori's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam Nyung Yi; Jai Yon Ryu; Ok Hee Chung; Joung Young Sug; Sang Don Choi; Yeon Choon Chung

    1987-01-01

    A theory of direct interband optical transition in the electron-phonon system is introduced on the basis of the Kubo formalism and by using Mori's method of calculation. The line shape functions are introduced in two different ways and are compared with those obtained by Choi and Chung based on Argyres and Sigel's projection technique

  13. Stokes vector based interpolation method to improve the efficiency of bio-inspired polarization-difference imaging in turbid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jinge; Ren, Wei; Cheng, Yaoyu

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate an efficient polarization-difference imaging system in turbid conditions by using the Stokes vector of light. The interaction of scattered light with the polarizer is analyzed by the Stokes-Mueller formalism. An interpolation method is proposed to replace the mechanical rotation of the polarization axis of the analyzer theoretically, and its performance is verified by the experiment at different turbidity levels. We show that compared with direct imaging, the Stokes vector based imaging method can effectively reduce the effect of light scattering and enhance the image contrast.

  14. A novel method for analysing key corticosteroids in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hair using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisser, Johan; Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Erland

    2016-01-01

    . This procedure allows for the simultaneous determination of multiple steroids, which is in contrast to previous polar bear studies based on ELISA techniques. Absolute method recoveries were 81%, 75% and 60% for cortisol, corticosterone and aldosterone, respectively. We applied the developed method on a hair......This paper presents the development and evaluation of a methodology for extraction, clean-up and analysis of three key corticosteroids (aldosterone, cortisol and corticosterone) in polar bear hair. Such a methodology can be used to monitor stress biomarkers in polar bears and may provide...

  15. A Novel Method for Performance Analysis of OFDM Polarization Diversity System in Ricean Fading Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilic-Delibasic, M.; Pejanovic-Djurisic, M.; Prasad, R.

    2012-01-01

    OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) is proven to be a very effective modulation and multiple access technique that enables high data rate transmission. Due to its good performance it is already implemented in several standardized technologies, and it is very promising technique...... conditions. In order to calculate BER (Bit Error Rate) for the considered OFDM polarization diversity system with a certain level of the received signals correlation, we propose a novel analytical method. The obtained results are compared with the ones attained by simulation....

  16. A simple method to treat an ingrowing toenail with a shape-memory alloy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Masaya; Tabata, Nobuko; Suetake, Takaki; Omori, Toshihiro; Sutou, Yuji; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2008-01-01

    An ingrowing toenail has no definitive treatment. Previously, effective methods were complicated but easy ones had less effect. We show both an easy and an effective way with Cu-Al-Mn-based shape-memory alloys (SMAs). They have a characteristic shape which patients themselves can detach easily without any pain. But they also have enough corrective force. Cu-based SMAs cost much less than Ni-Ti-based alloys. Despite not being appropriate for all cases of ingrowing toenails, it is an easy, effective and less costly alternative.

  17. Ultrafast method of calculating the dynamic spectral line shapes for integrated modelling of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsa, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    An ultrafast code for spectral line shape calculations is presented to be used in the integrated modelling of plasmas. The code is based on the close analogy between two mechanisms: (i) Dicke narrowing of the Doppler-broadened spectral lines and (ii) transition from static to impact regime in the Stark broadening. The analogy makes it possible to describe the dynamic Stark broadening in terms of an analytical functional of the static line shape. A comparison of new method with the widely used Frequency Fluctuating Method (FFM) developed by the Marseille University group (B. Talin, R. Stamm, et al.) shows good agreement, with the new method being faster than the standard FFM by nearly two orders of magnitude. The method proposed may significantly simplify the radiation transport modeling and opens new possibilities for integrated modeling of the edge and divertor plasma in tokamaks. (author)

  18. Support vector machine-based facial-expression recognition method combining shape and appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Jung; Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sangyoun

    2010-11-01

    Facial expression recognition can be widely used for various applications, such as emotion-based human-machine interaction, intelligent robot interfaces, face recognition robust to expression variation, etc. Previous studies have been classified as either shape- or appearance-based recognition. The shape-based method has the disadvantage that the individual variance of facial feature points exists irrespective of similar expressions, which can cause a reduction of the recognition accuracy. The appearance-based method has a limitation in that the textural information of the face is very sensitive to variations in illumination. To overcome these problems, a new facial-expression recognition method is proposed, which combines both shape and appearance information, based on the support vector machine (SVM). This research is novel in the following three ways as compared to previous works. First, the facial feature points are automatically detected by using an active appearance model. From these, the shape-based recognition is performed by using the ratios between the facial feature points based on the facial-action coding system. Second, the SVM, which is trained to recognize the same and different expression classes, is proposed to combine two matching scores obtained from the shape- and appearance-based recognitions. Finally, a single SVM is trained to discriminate four different expressions, such as neutral, a smile, anger, and a scream. By determining the expression of the input facial image whose SVM output is at a minimum, the accuracy of the expression recognition is much enhanced. The experimental results showed that the recognition accuracy of the proposed method was better than previous researches and other fusion methods.

  19. Plasma shape reconstruction of merging spherical tokamak based on modified CCS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiki, Tomohiko; Inomoto, Michiaki; Itagaki, Masafumi; McNamara, Steven

    2017-10-01

    The merging start-up method is the one of the CS-free start-up schemes that has the advantage of high plasma temperature and density because it involves reconnection heating and compression processes. In order to achieve optimal merging operations, the initial two STs should have identical plasma currents and shapes, and then move symmetrically toward the center of the device with appropriate velocity. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of the compression effect, controlling the plasma major radius is also important. To realize the active feedback control of the plasma currents, the positions, and the shapes of the two initial STs and to optimize the plasma parameters described above, accurate estimation of the plasma boundary shape is highly important. In the present work, the Modified-CCS method is demonstrated to reconstruct the plasma boundary shapes as well as the eddy current profiles in the UTST (The University of Tokyo) and ST40 device (Tokamak Energy Ltd). The present research results demonstrate the effectiveness of the M-CCS method in the reconstruction analyses of ST merging.

  20. Synthesis of CdS Nanocrystals with Different Shapes via a Colloidal Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jie; Liu, Changsong; Niu, Jinzhong; Wang, Hongzhe; Xu, Shasha; Shen, Huaibin; Li, Lin Song [Henan Univ., Henan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Size- and shape-controlled monodisperse wurtzite structured CdS nanorods have been successfully synthesized using a facile solution-based colloidal method. Depending on the control of injection/growth temperatures and the variation of Cd-to-S molar ratios, the morphology of the CdS nanocrystals (NCs) can be adjusted into bullet-like, rod-like, and dot-like shapes. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transition electron microscopy (TEM), and absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure, morphology, and optical properties of as-synthesized CdS NCs. It was found that uniform CdS nanorods could be successfully synthesized when the injection and growth temperatures were very high (> 360 .deg. C). The aspect ratios of different shaped (bullet-like or rod-like) CdS NCs could be controlled by simply adjusting the molar ratios between Cd and S.

  1. Synthesis of CdS Nanocrystals with Different Shapes via a Colloidal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Jie; Liu, Changsong; Niu, Jinzhong; Wang, Hongzhe; Xu, Shasha; Shen, Huaibin; Li, Lin Song

    2014-01-01

    Size- and shape-controlled monodisperse wurtzite structured CdS nanorods have been successfully synthesized using a facile solution-based colloidal method. Depending on the control of injection/growth temperatures and the variation of Cd-to-S molar ratios, the morphology of the CdS nanocrystals (NCs) can be adjusted into bullet-like, rod-like, and dot-like shapes. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transition electron microscopy (TEM), and absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure, morphology, and optical properties of as-synthesized CdS NCs. It was found that uniform CdS nanorods could be successfully synthesized when the injection and growth temperatures were very high (> 360 .deg. C). The aspect ratios of different shaped (bullet-like or rod-like) CdS NCs could be controlled by simply adjusting the molar ratios between Cd and S

  2. Scaling Mode Shapes in Output-Only Structure by a Mass-Change-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass-change-based method based on output-only data for the rescaling of mode shapes in operational modal analysis (OMA is introduced. The mass distribution matrix, which is defined as a diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements represent the ratios among the diagonal elements of the mass matrix, is calculated using the unscaled mode shapes. Based on the theory of null space, the mass distribution vector or mass distribution matrix is obtained. A small mass with calibrated weight is added to a certain location of the structure, and then the mass distribution vector of the modified structure is estimated. The mass matrix is identified according to the difference of the mass distribution vectors between the original and modified structures. Additionally, the universal set of modes is unnecessary when calculating the mass distribution matrix, indicating that modal truncation is allowed in the proposed method. The mass-scaled mode shapes estimated in OMA according to the proposed method are compared with those obtained by experimental modal analysis. A simulation is employed to validate the feasibility of the method. Finally, the method is tested on output-only data from an experiment on a five-storey structure, and the results confirm the effectiveness of the method.

  3. Input shaping filter methods for the control of structurally flexible, long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Hwang, Dong-Hwan; Babcock, S.M.; Burks, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    Within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the US Department of Energy, the remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the areas that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. Concepts that utilize long-reach manipulators are being seriously considered for this task. Due to high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to exhibit significant structural flexibility. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, various types of shaping filter methods have been investigated. A robust notch filtering method and an impulse shaping method were used as simulation benchmarks. In addition to that, two very different approaches have been developed and compared. One new approach, referred to as a ''feedforward simulation filter,'' uses imbedded simulation with complete knowledge of the system dynamics. The other approach, ''fuzzy shaping method,'' employs a fuzzy logic method to modify the joint trajectory from the desired end-position trajectory without precise knowledge of the system dynamics

  4. Monte Carlo Method with Heuristic Adjustment for Irregularly Shaped Food Product Volume Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Siswantoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  5. Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment for irregularly shaped food product volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswantoro, Joko; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Abdullah, Azizi; Idrus, Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  6. Input shaping methods for telerobotic operation of flexible, long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Hwang, Dong-Hwan; Babcock, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Among the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the U.S. Department of Energy, the remediation of radioactive waste from the underground storage tank challenges the state-of-the-art equipment and methods. Long-reach manipulators are being considered to be one of the most advantageous approaches for the retrieval of waste from large storage tanks. Because of long-reach manipulator's high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratios, such manipulator system exhibits significant structural flexibility. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, control algorithms employing various types of shaping filters were investigated. A robust notch filtering method and an impulse shaping method were evaluated. In addition to that, a new approach that uses imbedded simulation was developed and compared with others. In the new approach, joint trajectories have been generated considering the flexible link dynamics

  7. A shape-based quality evaluation and reconstruction method for electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink, Christoph Hoog; Pikkemaat, Robert; Malmivuo, Jaakko; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    Linear methods of reconstruction play an important role in medical electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and there is a wide variety of algorithms based on several assumptions. With the Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT), a novel linear reconstruction algorithm as well as a standardized framework for evaluating and comparing methods of reconstruction were introduced that found widespread acceptance in the community. In this paper, we propose a two-sided extension of this concept by first introducing a novel method of evaluation. Instead of being based on point-shaped resistivity distributions, we use 2759 pairs of real lung shapes for evaluation that were automatically segmented from human CT data. Necessarily, the figures of merit defined in GREIT were adjusted. Second, a linear method of reconstruction that uses orthonormal eigenimages as training data and a tunable desired point spread function are proposed. Using our novel method of evaluation, this approach is compared to the classical point-shaped approach. Results show that most figures of merit improve with the use of eigenimages as training data. Moreover, the possibility of tuning the reconstruction by modifying the desired point spread function is shown. Finally, the reconstruction of real EIT data shows that higher contrasts and fewer artifacts can be achieved in ventilation- and perfusion-related images.

  8. A shape-based quality evaluation and reconstruction method for electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antink, Christoph Hoog; Pikkemaat, Robert; Leonhardt, Steffen; Malmivuo, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    Linear methods of reconstruction play an important role in medical electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and there is a wide variety of algorithms based on several assumptions. With the Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT), a novel linear reconstruction algorithm as well as a standardized framework for evaluating and comparing methods of reconstruction were introduced that found widespread acceptance in the community.In this paper, we propose a two-sided extension of this concept by first introducing a novel method of evaluation. Instead of being based on point-shaped resistivity distributions, we use 2759 pairs of real lung shapes for evaluation that were automatically segmented from human CT data. Necessarily, the figures of merit defined in GREIT were adjusted. Second, a linear method of reconstruction that uses orthonormal eigenimages as training data and a tunable desired point spread function are proposed.Using our novel method of evaluation, this approach is compared to the classical point-shaped approach. Results show that most figures of merit improve with the use of eigenimages as training data. Moreover, the possibility of tuning the reconstruction by modifying the desired point spread function is shown. Finally, the reconstruction of real EIT data shows that higher contrasts and fewer artifacts can be achieved in ventilation- and perfusion-related images. (paper)

  9. Whole vertebral bone segmentation method with a statistical intensity-shape model based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Shouhei; Fritscher, Karl; Schuler, Benedikt; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni; Schubert, Rainer

    2011-03-01

    An automatic segmentation algorithm for the vertebrae in human body CT images is presented. Especially we focused on constructing and utilizing 4 different statistical intensity-shape combined models for the cervical, upper / lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, respectively. For this purpose, two previously reported methods were combined: a deformable model-based initial segmentation method and a statistical shape-intensity model-based precise segmentation method. The former is used as a pre-processing to detect the position and orientation of each vertebra, which determines the initial condition for the latter precise segmentation method. The precise segmentation method needs prior knowledge on both the intensities and the shapes of the objects. After PCA analysis of such shape-intensity expressions obtained from training image sets, vertebrae were parametrically modeled as a linear combination of the principal component vectors. The segmentation of each target vertebra was performed as fitting of this parametric model to the target image by maximum a posteriori estimation, combined with the geodesic active contour method. In the experimental result by using 10 cases, the initial segmentation was successful in 6 cases and only partially failed in 4 cases (2 in the cervical area and 2 in the lumbo-sacral). In the precise segmentation, the mean error distances were 2.078, 1.416, 0.777, 0.939 mm for cervical, upper and lower thoracic, lumbar spines, respectively. In conclusion, our automatic segmentation algorithm for the vertebrae in human body CT images showed a fair performance for cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.

  10. First correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdelmonem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires knowledge of the relationship between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles. Usually, this relationship is obtained by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS designed to measure simultaneously the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles. Clouds containing particles ranging from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter in size can be characterized systematically with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10° and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°. The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced size distributions and images comparable to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF program. PHIPS is a highly promising novel airborne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurement instruments.

  11. First correlated measurements of the shape and scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Amsler, P.; Hesse, E.; Meyer, J.; Leisner, T.

    2011-05-01

    Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires the knowledge of the link between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of the cloud particles. Usually, this link is created by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS) designed to measure the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles, simultaneously. Clouds containing particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter can be systematically characterized with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns which were conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced comparable size distributions and images to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) program. PHIPS is candidate to be a novel air borne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurements instruments.

  12. First correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Amsler, P.; Hesse, E.; Meyer, J.; Leisner, T.

    2011-10-01

    Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires knowledge of the relationship between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles. Usually, this relationship is obtained by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS) designed to measure simultaneously the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles. Clouds containing particles ranging from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter in size can be characterized systematically with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced size distributions and images comparable to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) program. PHIPS is a highly promising novel airborne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurement instruments.

  13. Exploring Conceptual Frameworks of Models of Atomic Structures and Periodic Variations, Chemical Bonding, and Molecular Shape and Polarity: A Comparison of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students with High and Low Levels of Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' conceptual frameworks of models of atomic structure and periodic variations, chemical bonding, and molecular shape and polarity, and how these conceptual frameworks influence their quality of explanations and ability to shift among chemical representations. This study employed a purposeful sampling…

  14. The second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA) method coupled to the polarizable continuum model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Janus Juul; Solanko, Lukasz Michal; Nåbo, Lina J.

    2014-01-01

    2) wave function coupled to PCM, we introduce dynamical PCM solvent effects only in the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) part of the SOPPA response equations while the static solvent contribution is kept in both the RPA terms as well as in the higher order correlation matrix components of the SOPPA...... response equations. By dynamic terms, we refer to contributions that describe a change in environmental polarization which, in turn, reflects a change in the core molecular charge distribution upon an electronic excitation. This new combination of methods is termed PCM-SOPPA/RPA. We apply this newly...... defined method to the challenging cases of solvent effects on the lowest and intense electronic transitions in o-, m- and p-nitroaniline and o-, m- and p-nitrophenol and compare the performance of PCM-SOPPA/RPA with more conventional approaches. Compared to calculations based on time-dependent density...

  15. Standard Reference Test Method for Making Potentiostatic and Potentiodynamic Anodic Polarization Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an experimental procedure for checking experimental technique and instrumentation. If followed, this test method will provide repeatable potentiostatic and potentiodynamic anodic polarization measurements that will reproduce data determined by others at other times and in other laboratories provided all laboratories are testing reference samples from the same lot of Type 430 stainless steel. 1.2 Values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. A method for robust segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque structures in cone-beam CT projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Fledelius, Walther; Keall, Paul J.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Lu Jun; Brackbill, Emily; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Implanted markers are commonly used in radiotherapy for x-ray based target localization. The projected marker position in a series of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections can be used to estimate the three dimensional (3D) target trajectory during the CBCT acquisition. This has important applications in tumor motion management such as motion inclusive, gating, and tumor tracking strategies. However, for irregularly shaped markers, reliable segmentation is challenged by large variations in the marker shape with projection angle. The purpose of this study was to develop a semiautomated method for robust and reliable segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections. Methods: The segmentation method involved the following three steps: (1) Threshold based segmentation of the marker in three to six selected projections with large angular separation, good marker contrast, and uniform background; (2) construction of a 3D marker model by coalignment and backprojection of the threshold-based segmentations; and (3) construction of marker templates at all imaging angles by projection of the 3D model and use of these templates for template-based segmentation. The versatility of the segmentation method was demonstrated by segmentation of the following structures in the projections from two clinical CBCT scans: (1) Three linear fiducial markers (Visicoil) implanted in or near a lung tumor and (2) an artificial cardiac valve in a lung cancer patient. Results: Automatic marker segmentation was obtained in more than 99.9% of the cases. The segmentation failed in a few cases where the marker was either close to a structure of similar appearance or hidden behind a dense structure (data cable). Conclusions: A robust template-based method for segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections was developed.

  17. Rotor cascade shape optimization with unsteady passing wakes using implicit dual time stepping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Seok

    2000-10-01

    An improved aerodynamics performance of a turbine cascade shape can be achieved by an understanding of the flow-field associated with the stator-rotor interaction. In this research, an axial gas turbine airfoil cascade shape is optimized for improved aerodynamic performance by using an unsteady Navier-Stokes solver and a parallel genetic algorithm. The objective of the research is twofold: (1) to develop a computational fluid dynamics code having faster convergence rate and unsteady flow simulation capabilities, and (2) to optimize a turbine airfoil cascade shape with unsteady passing wakes for improved aerodynamic performance. The computer code solves the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. It is based on the explicit, finite difference, Runge-Kutta time marching scheme and the Diagonalized Alternating Direction Implicit (DADI) scheme, with the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic and k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Improvements in the code focused on the cascade shape design capability, convergence acceleration and unsteady formulation. First, the inverse shape design method was implemented in the code to provide the design capability, where a surface transpiration concept was employed as an inverse technique to modify the geometry satisfying the user specified pressure distribution on the airfoil surface. Second, an approximation storage multigrid method was implemented as an acceleration technique. Third, the preconditioning method was adopted to speed up the convergence rate in solving the low Mach number flows. Finally, the implicit dual time stepping method was incorporated in order to simulate the unsteady flow-fields. For the unsteady code validation, the Stokes's 2nd problem and the Poiseuille flow were chosen and compared with the computed results and analytic solutions. To test the code's ability to capture the natural unsteady flow phenomena, vortex shedding past a cylinder and the shock oscillation over a bicircular airfoil were simulated and compared with

  18. A comparison of a track shape analysis-based automated slide scanner system with traditional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bator, G.; Csordas, A.; Horvath, D.; Somlai, J.; Kovacs, T.

    2015-01-01

    During recent years, CR-39 detector measurements have gained attention due to improvements in image processing methods. An assessment method based on the application of a high-resolution slide scanner and its quality checks is introduced, using commercially available software and hardware. Using the conventional (visual) comparing analysis for 563 detectors, the method was found suitable for high-precision and reliable track analysis. The accuracy of the measurements were not disturbed by any other pseudo-tracks (scratches or contamination) due to the signal shape of the analysis. (author)

  19. Method of local pointed function reduction of original shape in Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, H.; Slavyanov, S.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The method for analytical reduction of the original shape in the one-dimensional Fourier transformation by the fourier image modulus is proposed. The basic concept of the method consists in the presentation of the model shape in the form of the local peak functions sum. The eigenfunctions, generated by the linear differential equations with the polynomial coefficients, are selected as the latter ones. This provides for the possibility of managing the Fourier transformation without numerical integration. This reduces the reverse task to the nonlinear regression with a small number of the evaluated parameters and to the numerical or asymptotic study on the model peak functions - the eigenfunctions of the differential tasks and their fourier images [ru

  20. Geometric shapes inversion method of space targets by ISAR image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Chao-ying; Xing, Xiao-yu; Yin, Hong-cheng; Li, Chen-guang; Zeng, Xiang-yun; Xu, Gao-gui

    2017-11-01

    The geometric shape of target is an effective characteristic in the process of space targets recognition. This paper proposed a method of shape inversion of space target based on components segmentation from ISAR image. The Radon transformation, Hough transformation, K-means clustering, triangulation will be introduced into ISAR image processing. Firstly, we use Radon transformation and edge detection to extract space target's main body spindle and solar panel spindle from ISAR image. Then the targets' main body, solar panel, rectangular and circular antenna are segmented from ISAR image based on image detection theory. Finally, the sizes of every structural component are computed. The effectiveness of this method is verified using typical targets' simulation data.

  1. Oxide properties of autoclaved zircaloy cladding tubes investigated by the photoelectric polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystrand, A.C.

    2000-06-01

    Corrosion of zirconium alloys is an important lifetime limiting factor for the nuclear reactor fuel. The corrosion resistance of a metal is highly dependent on the ability of the surface metal oxide to transport electrons and ions, which is related to the stoichiometry of the oxide and the oxide defect concentration. The Photoelectric Polarization Method (PEP) is a structure sensitive method which earlier has been investigated as a possible method to study the defect structure in zirconium oxides. The purpose of the following work is, by using more optimized experimental equipment, to verify if the PEP method is a suitable method to study the defect structure in zirconium oxides and to predict the corrosion resistance for different zirconium alloys. The conclusions from the experiments are as follows: - The modifications of the experimental setup by means of a new source of light (deuterium lamp) and a new oscilloscope with an amplifier gave distinct Vpep signals. - The photoresponse is negative for all types of cladding and under all kind of oxidation regimes and hence the oxide is a n-type semiconductor with deficiency of oxygen. - The method needs to be verified by testing semiconductors with a known defect concentration

  2. Epigenetic Tracking, a Method to Generate Arbitrary Shapes By Using Evolutionary-Developmental Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an Artificial Embryology method (called ``Epigenetic Tracking'') to generate predefined arbitrarily shaped 2-dimensional arrays of cells by means of evolutionary techniques. It is based on a model of development, whose key features are: i) the distinction bewteen ``normal'' and ``driver'' cells, being the latter able to receive guidance from the genome, ii) the implementation of the proliferation/apoptosis events in such a way that many cells are created/deleted at once, ...

  3. Development in LIYaF of the method of polarized thermal neutron beam production by mirror reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikova, N.V.; Bulkin, A.P.; Gukasov, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    Main stages of development of polarizing neutron guide equipment in LIYaF of the USSR Academy of Sciences are described. To carry out experiments on solid-state physics constructed was a working mock-up of a polarizing neutron guide having 1570 mm length of a mirror channel. Successful application of polarizing mirrors to the working mock-up permitted to develop and fabricate five-meter polarizing neutron guide with output flux equal to 1.5x10 7 neutr/cm 2 xs. The following stage of development of polarizing neutron guides was the construction of four-meter neutron guide at the WWR-M reactor with output flux equal to the highest possible. Improvement of optical sections geometry made it possible to produce integral flux of 6.0x10 7 neutr/cm 2 xs in this neutron guide at 15 MW reactor power. The results obtained testify to prospects of the mirror method for polarization of thermal neutrons of a wave length lambda >= A. Neutron guides-polarizators permit to produce high fluxes of polarized thermal neutrons in the wide interval of wave length [ru

  4. Comparison On Matching Methods Used In Pose Tracking For 3D Shape Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Kyu Kyu Win

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work three different algorithms such as Brute Force Delaunay Triangulation and k-d Tree are analyzed on matching comparison for 3D shape representation. It is intended for developing the pose tracking of moving objects in video surveillance. To determine 3D pose of moving objects some tracking system may require full 3D pose estimation of arbitrarily shaped objects in real time. In order to perform 3D pose estimation in real time each step in the tracking algorithm must be computationally efficient. This paper presents method comparison for the computationally efficient registration of 3D shapes including free-form surfaces. Matching of free-form surfaces are carried out by using geometric point matching algorithm ICP. Several aspects of the ICP algorithm are investigated and analyzed by using specified surface setup. The surface setup processed in this system is represented by simple geometric primitive dealing with objects of free-from shape. Considered representations are a cloud of points.

  5. [A novel method based on Y-shaped cotton-polyester thread microfluidic channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Shi, Yan-ru; Yan, Hong-tao

    2014-08-01

    A novel method based on Y-shaped microfluidic channel was firstly proposed in this study. The microfluidic channel was made of two cotton-polyester threads based on the capillary effect of cotton-polyester threads for the determination solutions. A special device was developed to fix the Y-shaped microfluidic channel by ourselves, through which the length and the tilt angle of the channel can be adjusted as requested. The spectrophotometry was compared with Scan-Adobe Photoshop software processing method. The former had a lower detection limit while the latter showed advantages in both convenience and fast operations and lower amount of samples. The proposed method was applied to the determination of nitrite. The linear ranges and detection limits are 1.0-70 micromol x L(-1), 0.66 micromol x L(-1) (spectrophotometry) and 50-450 micromol x L(-1), 45.10 micromol x L(-1) (Scan-Adobe Photoshop software processing method) respectively. This method has been successfully used to the determination of nitrite in soil samples and moat water with recoveries between 96.7% and 104%. It was proved that the proposed method was a low-cost, rapid and convenient analytical method with extensive application prospect.

  6. Monostatic Radar Cross Section Estimation of Missile Shaped Object Using Physical Optics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi Bhushana Rao, G.; Nambari, Swathi; Kota, Srikanth; Ranga Rao, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    Stealth Technology manages many signatures for a target in which most radar systems use radar cross section (RCS) for discriminating targets and classifying them with regard to Stealth. During a war target’s RCS has to be very small to make target invisible to enemy radar. In this study, Radar Cross Section of perfectly conducting objects like cylinder, truncated cone (frustum) and circular flat plate is estimated with respect to parameters like size, frequency and aspect angle. Due to the difficulties in exactly predicting the RCS, approximate methods become the alternative. Majority of approximate methods are valid in optical region and where optical region has its own strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, the analysis given in this study is purely based on far field monostatic RCS measurements in the optical region. Computation is done using Physical Optics (PO) method for determining RCS of simple models. In this study not only the RCS of simple models but also missile shaped and rocket shaped models obtained from the cascaded objects with backscatter has been computed using Matlab simulation. Rectangular plots are obtained for RCS in dbsm versus aspect angle for simple and missile shaped objects using Matlab simulation. Treatment of RCS, in this study is based on Narrow Band.

  7. Dynamic Error Analysis Method for Vibration Shape Reconstruction of Smart FBG Plate Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape reconstruction of aerospace plate structure is an important issue for safe operation of aerospace vehicles. One way to achieve such reconstruction is by constructing smart fiber Bragg grating (FBG plate structure with discrete distributed FBG sensor arrays using reconstruction algorithms in which error analysis of reconstruction algorithm is a key link. Considering that traditional error analysis methods can only deal with static data, a new dynamic data error analysis method are proposed based on LMS algorithm for shape reconstruction of smart FBG plate structure. Firstly, smart FBG structure and orthogonal curved network based reconstruction method is introduced. Then, a dynamic error analysis model is proposed for dynamic reconstruction error analysis. Thirdly, the parameter identification is done for the proposed dynamic error analysis model based on least mean square (LMS algorithm. Finally, an experimental verification platform is constructed and experimental dynamic reconstruction analysis is done. Experimental results show that the dynamic characteristics of the reconstruction performance for plate structure can be obtained accurately based on the proposed dynamic error analysis method. The proposed method can also be used for other data acquisition systems and data processing systems as a general error analysis method.

  8. Dynamic nuclear polarization methods in solids and solutions to explore membrane proteins and membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments.

  9. An Image Matching Method Based on Fourier and LOG-Polar Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijia Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This Traditional template matching methods are not appropriate for the situation of large angle rotation between two images in the online detection for industrial production. Aiming at this problem, Fourier transform algorithm was introduced to correct image rotation angle based on its rotatary invariance in time-frequency domain, orienting image under test in the same direction with reference image, and then match these images using matching algorithm based on log-polar transform. Compared with the current matching algorithms, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only match two images with rotation of arbitrary angle, but also possess a high matching accuracy and applicability. In addition, the validity and reliability of algorithm was verified by simulated matching experiment targeting circular images.

  10. Transfer of polarized light in planetary atmospheres basic concepts and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hovenier, Joop W; Domke, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The principal elements of the theory of polarized light transfer in planetary atmospheres are expounded in a systematic but concise way. Basic concepts and practical methods are emphasized, both for single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic radiation by molecules and particles in the atmospheres of planets in the Solar System, including the Earth, and beyond. A large part of the book is also useful for studies of light scattering by particles in comets, the interplanetary and interstellar medium, circumstellar disks, reflection nebulae, water bodies like oceans and suspensions of particles in a gas or liquid in the laboratory. Throughout the book symmetry principles, such as the reciprocity principle and the mirror symmetry principle, are employed. In this way the theory is made more transparent and easier to understand than in most papers on the subject. In addition, significant computational reductions, resulting from symmetry principles, are presented. Hundreds of references to relevant literature ...

  11. Consistent calculation of the polarization electric dipole moment by the shell-correction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Macroscopic calculations of the polarization electric dipole moment which arises in nuclei with an octupole deformation are discussed in detail. This dipole moment is shown to depend on the position of the center of gravity. The conditions of consistency of the radii of the proton and neutron potentials and the radii of the proton and neutron surfaces, respectively, are discussed. These conditions must be incorporated in a shell-correction calculation of this dipole moment. A correct calculation of this moment by the shell-correction method is carried out. Dipole transitions between (on the one hand) levels belonging to an octupole vibrational band and (on the other) the ground state in rare-earth nuclei with a large quadrupole deformation are studied. 19 refs., 3 figs

  12. Applying polarity rapid assessment method and ultrafiltration to characterize NDMA precursors in wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Leavey, Shannon; Krasner, Stuart W; Mel Suffet, I H

    2014-06-15

    Certain nitrosamines in water are disinfection byproducts that are probable human carcinogens. Nitrosamines have diverse and complex precursors that include effluent organic matter, some anthropogenic chemicals, and natural (likely non-humic) substances. An easy and selective tool was first developed to characterize nitrosamine precursors in treated wastewaters, including different process effluents. This tool takes advantages of the polarity rapid assessment method (PRAM) and ultrafiltration (UF) (molecular weight distribution) to locate the fractions with the strongest contributions to the nitrosamine precursor pool in the effluent organic matter. Strong cation exchange (SCX) and C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges were used for their high selectivity for nitrosamine precursors. The details of PRAM operation, such as cartridge clean-up, capacity, pH influence, and quality control were included in this paper, as well as the main parameters of UF operation. Preliminary testing of the PRAM/UF method with effluents from one wastewater treatment plant gave very informative results. SCX retained 45-90% of the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential (FP)-a measure of the precursors-in secondary and tertiary wastewater effluents. These results are consistent with NDMA precursors likely having a positively charged amine group. C18 adsorbed 30-45% of the NDMAFP, which indicates that a substantial portion of these precursors were non-polar. The small molecular weight (MW) (10 kDa) fractions obtained from UF were the primary contributors to NDMAFP. The combination of PRAM and UF brings important information on the characteristics of nitrosamine precursors in water with easy operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Kristina [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Slater, Lee [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2015-02-24

    This documents contains the final report for the project "Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods" (DE-SC0007049) Executive Summary: Our research aimed to develop borehole measurement techniques capable of monitoring subsurface processes, such as changes in pore geometry and iron/sulfur geochemistry, associated with remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides. Previous work has demonstrated that geophysical method spectral induced polarization (SIP) can be used to assess subsurface contaminant remediation; however, SIP signals can be generated from multiple sources limiting their interpretation value. Integrating multiple geophysical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), with SIP, could reduce the ambiguity of interpretation that might result from a single method. Our research efforts entails combining measurements from these methods, each sensitive to different mineral forms and/or mineral-fluid interfaces, providing better constraints on changes in subsurface biogeochemical processes and pore geometries significantly improving our understanding of processes impacting contaminant remediation. The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site was used as a test location for our measurements. The Rifle IFRC site is located at a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado. Leachate from spent mill tailings has resulted in residual uranium contamination of both groundwater and sediments within the local aquifer. Studies at the site include an ongoing acetate amendment strategy, native microbial populations are stimulated by introduction of carbon intended to alter redox conditions and immobilize uranium. To test the geophysical methods in the field, NMR and MS logging measurements were collected before, during, and after acetate amendment. Next, laboratory NMR, MS, and SIP measurements

  14. A Gauss-Newton method for the integration of spatial normal fields in shape Space

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan

    2011-08-09

    We address the task of adjusting a surface to a vector field of desired surface normals in space. The described method is entirely geometric in the sense, that it does not depend on a particular parametrization of the surface in question. It amounts to solving a nonlinear least-squares problem in shape space. Previously, the corresponding minimization has been performed by gradient descent, which suffers from slow convergence and susceptibility to local minima. Newton-type methods, although significantly more robust and efficient, have not been attempted as they require second-order Hadamard differentials. These are difficult to compute for the problem of interest and in general fail to be positive-definite symmetric. We propose a novel approximation of the shape Hessian, which is not only rigorously justified but also leads to excellent numerical performance of the actual optimization. Moreover, a remarkable connection to Sobolev flows is exposed. Three other established algorithms from image and geometry processing turn out to be special cases of ours. Our numerical implementation founds on a fast finite-elements formulation on the minimizing sequence of triangulated shapes. A series of examples from a wide range of different applications is discussed to underline flexibility and efficiency of the approach. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. A method for interpolating asymmetric peak shapes in multiplet γ-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Siguang; Mao Yajun; Zhu Bo; Liang Yutie; Tang Peijia

    2009-01-01

    The peak shapes of γ-rays at various energies must be known before unfolding the multiplet spectra obtained by using semiconductor or scintillation detectors. Traditional methods describe isolated peaks with multi-parameter fitting functions, and assume that most of these parameters do not vary with energy because it is rare to find a spectrum with enough isolated peaks to constrain their dependence. We present an algorithm for interpolating the γ-ray profile at any intermediate energy given a pair of isolated γ-ray peaks from the spectrum under consideration. The algorithm is tested on experimental data and leads to a good agreement between the interpolated profile and the fitting function. This method is more accurate than the traditional approach, since all aspects of the peak shape are allowed to vary with energy. New definitions of Left-Half Width at Half Maximum, and Right-Half Width at Half Maximum for peak shape description are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  16. Development of Extended Ray-tracing method including diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Kota; Kubo, Shin; Dodin, Ilya; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Tsujimura, Toru

    2017-10-01

    Geometrical Optics Ray-tracing is a reasonable numerical analytic approach for describing the Electron Cyclotron resonance Wave (ECW) in slowly varying spatially inhomogeneous plasma. It is well known that the result with this conventional method is adequate in most cases. However, in the case of Helical fusion plasma which has complicated magnetic structure, strong magnetic shear with a large scale length of density can cause a mode coupling of waves outside the last closed flux surface, and complicated absorption structure requires a strong focused wave for ECH. Since conventional Ray Equations to describe ECW do not have any terms to describe the diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects, we can not describe accurately a mode coupling of waves, strong focus waves, behavior of waves in inhomogeneous absorption region and so on. For fundamental solution of these problems, we consider the extension of the Ray-tracing method. Specific process is planned as follows. First, calculate the reference ray by conventional method, and define the local ray-base coordinate system along the reference ray. Then, calculate the evolution of the distributions of amplitude and phase on ray-base coordinate step by step. The progress of our extended method will be presented.

  17. Variable Camber Continuous Aerodynamic Control Surfaces and Methods for Active Wing Shaping Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamic control apparatus for an air vehicle improves various aerodynamic performance metrics by employing multiple spanwise flap segments that jointly form a continuous or a piecewise continuous trailing edge to minimize drag induced by lift or vortices. At least one of the multiple spanwise flap segments includes a variable camber flap subsystem having multiple chordwise flap segments that may be independently actuated. Some embodiments also employ a continuous leading edge slat system that includes multiple spanwise slat segments, each of which has one or more chordwise slat segment. A method and an apparatus for implementing active control of a wing shape are also described and include the determination of desired lift distribution to determine the improved aerodynamic deflection of the wings. Flap deflections are determined and control signals are generated to actively control the wing shape to approximate the desired deflection.

  18. Global optimization methods for the aerodynamic shape design of transonic cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengistu, T.; Ghaly, W.

    2003-01-01

    Two global optimization algorithms, namely Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Simulated Annealing (SA), have been applied to the aerodynamic shape optimization of transonic cascades; the objective being the redesign of an existing turbomachine airfoil to improve its performance by minimizing the total pressure loss while satisfying a number of constraints. This is accomplished by modifying the blade camber line; keeping the same blade thickness distribution, mass flow rate and the same flow turning. The objective is calculated based on an Euler solver and the blade camber line is represented with non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS). The SA and GA methods were first assessed for known test functions and their performance in optimizing the blade shape for minimum loss is then demonstrated on a transonic turbine cascade where it is shown to produce a significant reduction in total pressure loss by eliminating the passage shock. (author)

  19. Apparatus and Method for Low-Temperature Training of Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  20. Thermo-mechanically coupled fracture analysis of shape memory alloys using the extended finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatefi Ardakani, S.; Ahmadian, H.; Mohammadi, S.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the extended finite element method is used for fracture analysis of shape memory alloys for both cases of super elastic and shape memory effects. Heat generation during the forward and reverse phase transformations can lead to temperature variation in the material because of strong thermo-mechanical coupling, which significantly influences the SMA mechanical behavior. First, the stationary crack mode is studied and the effects of loading rate on material behavior in the crack tip are examined. Then, the crack propagation analysis is performed in the presence of an initial crack by adopting a weighted averaging criterion, where the direction of crack propagation is determined by weighted averaging of effective stresses at all the integration points in the vicinity of the crack tip. Finally, several numerical examples are analyzed and the obtained results are compared with the available reference results.

  1. A new method to determinate phase transformation in shape memory alloys: infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubulinca, C.; Balandraud, X.; Grediac, M.; Plaiasu, G. A.; Abrudeanu, M.; Stanciu, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article it is presented a shape memory alloy case, based on copper, namely Cu-Zn-Al, which is subjected to periodic mechanical traction. Traction is performed in conditions of normal temperature and pressure. The purpose of this article it is to study stress induced phase transformation. All tests are performed in same conditions. Transformation on which is based this effect occurs in two ways: by applying a stress or temperature variation. In this article it is studied stress induced phase transformation. The method to analyze the microstructure of an shape memory alloy (SMA) is relatively new and it is based on tracking the evolution of temperature. After thermal analysis we can decide in which state is one alloy without any other supplier measures (differential scanning calorimetric or electrical resistivity). If our specimen will producing thermal energy when specimen is tensile he is austenitic. If absorbing heat during the first deformation is in martensitic state. (authors)

  2. A Method of Road Extraction from High-resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Shape Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Xiaoqi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Road extraction from high-resolution remote sensing image is an important and difficult task.Since remote sensing images include complicated information,the methods that extract roads by spectral,texture and linear features have certain limitations.Also,many methods need human-intervention to get the road seeds(semi-automatic extraction,which have the great human-dependence and low efficiency.The road-extraction method,which uses the image segmentation based on principle of local gray consistency and integration shape features,is proposed in this paper.Firstly,the image is segmented,and then the linear and curve roads are obtained by using several object shape features,so the method that just only extract linear roads are rectified.Secondly,the step of road extraction is carried out based on the region growth,the road seeds are automatic selected and the road network is extracted.Finally,the extracted roads are regulated by combining the edge information.In experiments,the images that including the better gray uniform of road and the worse illuminated of road surface were chosen,and the results prove that the method of this study is promising.

  3. Yarkovsky effect and V-shapes: New method to compute family ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoto, F.; Milani, A.; Cellino, A.; Knezevic, Z.; Novakovic, B.; Paolicchi, P.

    2014-07-01

    The computation of family ages is a high-priority goal. As a matter of principle, it can be achieved by using V-shape plots for the families old enough to have the Yarkovsky effect dominating the spread of the proper a and large enough for a statistically significant analysis of the shape. By performing an asteroid family classification with a very enlarged dataset, the results are not just ''more families'', but there are interesting qualitative changes. These are due to the large-number statistics, but also to the larger fraction of smaller objects contained in recently numbered asteroids. We are convinced that our method is effective in adding many smaller asteroids to the core families. As a result, we have a large number of families with very well defined V-shapes, thus with a good possibility of age estimation. We have developed our method to compute ages, which we believe is better than those used previously because it is more objective. Since there are no models for error in absolute magnitude H and for albedo, we have also developed a model of the error in the inverse of the diameter and then we have performed a weighted least-squares fit. We report at least 5/6 examples of dynamical families for which the computation of the V-shape is possible. These examples show the presence of different internal structure of the families, e.g., in the dynamical family of (4) Vesta, we have found two collisional families. The main problem in estimating the ages is the calibration. The difficulty in the Yarkovsky calibration, due to the need to extrapolate from near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) with measured da/dt to main-belt asteroids, is in most cases the main limitation to the accuracy of the age estimation. We obtain an age estimation by scaling the results for the NEA for which there is the best Yarkovsky effect determination, namely (101955) Bennu.

  4. Pulse shape discrimination and classification methods for continuous depth of interaction encoding PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncali, Emilie; Phipps, Jennifer E; Marcu, Laura; Cherry, Simon R

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we demonstrated the potential of positron emission tomography (PET) detectors with depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding capability based on phosphor-coated crystals. A DOI resolution of 8 mm full-width at half-maximum was obtained for 20 mm long scintillator crystals using a delayed charge integration linear regression method (DCI-LR). Phosphor-coated crystals modify the pulse shape to allow continuous DOI information determination, but the relationship between pulse shape and DOI is complex. We are therefore interested in developing a sensitive and robust method to estimate the DOI. Here, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was implemented to classify the events based on information extracted from the pulse shape. Pulses were acquired with 2×2×20 mm 3 phosphor-coated crystals at five irradiation depths and characterized by their DCI values or Laguerre coefficients. These coefficients were obtained by expanding the pulses on a Laguerre basis set and constituted a unique signature for each pulse. The DOI of individual events was predicted using LDA based on Laguerre coefficients (Laguerre-LDA) or DCI values (DCI-LDA) as discriminant features. Predicted DOIs were compared to true irradiation depths. Laguerre-LDA showed higher sensitivity and accuracy than DCI-LDA and DCI-LR and was also more robust to predict the DOI of pulses with higher statistical noise due to low light levels (interaction depths further from the photodetector face). This indicates that Laguerre-LDA may be more suitable to DOI estimation in smaller crystals where lower collected light levels are expected. This novel approach is promising for calculating DOI using pulse shape discrimination in single-ended readout depth-encoding PET detectors. (paper)

  5. Fourier method for modeling slanted lamellar gratings of arbitrary end-surface shapes in conical mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lifeng

    2015-10-01

    An efficient modal method for numerically modeling slanted lamellar gratings of isotropic dielectric or metallic media in conical mounting is presented. No restrictions are imposed on the slant angle and the length of the lamellae. The end surface of the lamellae can be arbitrary, subject to certain restrictions. An oblique coordinate system that is adapted to the slanted lamella sidewalls allows the most efficient way of representing and manipulating the electromagnetic fields. A translational coordinate system that is based on the oblique Cartesian coordinate system adapts to the end-surface profile of the lamellae, so that the latter can be handled simply and easily. Moreover, two matrix eigenvalue problems of size 2N × 2N, one for each fundamental polarization of the electromagnetic fields in the periodic lamellar structure, where N is the matrix truncation number, are derived to replace the 4N × 4N eigenvalue problem that has been used in the literature. The core idea leading to this success is the polarization decomposition of the electromagnetic fields inside the periodic lamellar region when the fields are expressed in the oblique translational coordinate system.

  6. Incorporation of charge transfer into the explicit polarization fragment method by grand canonical density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isegawa, Miho; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G

    2011-08-28

    Molecular fragmentation algorithms provide a powerful approach to extending electronic structure methods to very large systems. Here we present a method for including charge transfer between molecular fragments in the explicit polarization (X-Pol) fragment method for calculating potential energy surfaces. In the conventional X-Pol method, the total charge of each fragment is preserved, and charge transfer between fragments is not allowed. The description of charge transfer is made possible by treating each fragment as an open system with respect to the number of electrons. To achieve this, we applied Mermin's finite temperature method to the X-Pol wave function. In the application of this method to X-Pol, the fragments are open systems that partially equilibrate their number of electrons through a quasithermodynamics electron reservoir. The number of electrons in a given fragment can take a fractional value, and the electrons of each fragment obey the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The equilibrium state for the electrons is determined by electronegativity equalization with conservation of the total number of electrons. The amount of charge transfer is controlled by re-interpreting the temperature parameter in the Fermi-Dirac distribution function as a coupling strength parameter. We determined this coupling parameter so as to reproduce the charge transfer energy obtained by block localized energy decomposition analysis. We apply the new method to ten systems, and we show that it can yield reasonable approximations to potential energy profiles, to charge transfer stabilization energies, and to the direction and amount of charge transferred. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  7. Retrieve polarization aberration from image degradation: a new measurement method in DUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhongbo; Li, Yanqiu

    2017-10-01

    Detailed knowledge of polarization aberration (PA) of projection lens in higher-NA DUV lithographic imaging is necessary due to its impact to imaging degradations, and precise measurement of PA is conductive to computational lithography techniques such as RET and OPC. Current in situ measurement method of PA thorough the detection of degradations of aerial images need to do linear approximation and apply the assumption of 3-beam/2-beam interference condition. The former approximation neglects the coupling effect of the PA coefficients, which would significantly influence the accuracy of PA retrieving. The latter assumption restricts the feasible pitch of test masks in higher-NA system, conflicts with the Kirhhoff diffraction model of test mask used in retrieving model, and introduces 3D mask effect as a source of retrieving error. In this paper, a new in situ measurement method of PA is proposed. It establishes the analytical quadratic relation between the PA coefficients and the degradations of aerial images of one-dimensional dense lines in coherent illumination through vector aerial imaging, which does not rely on the assumption of 3-beam/2- beam interference and linear approximation. In this case, the retrieval of PA from image degradation can be convert from the nonlinear system of m-quadratic equations to a multi-objective quadratic optimization problem, and finally be solved by nonlinear least square method. Some preliminary simulation results are given to demonstrate the correctness and accuracy of the new PA retrieving model.

  8. Comparison of soft-input-soft-output detection methods for dual-polarized quadrature duobinary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun; Huang, Benxiong; Xu, Zhengguang; Li, Bin; Zhao, Nan

    2018-02-01

    Three soft-input-soft-output (SISO) detection methods for dual-polarized quadrature duobinary (DP-QDB), including maximum-logarithmic-maximum-a-posteriori-probability-algorithm (Max-log-MAP)-based detection, soft-output-Viterbi-algorithm (SOVA)-based detection, and a proposed SISO detection, which can all be combined with SISO decoding, are presented. The three detection methods are investigated at 128 Gb/s in five-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing uncoded and low-density-parity-check (LDPC) coded DP-QDB systems by simulations. Max-log-MAP-based detection needs the returning-to-initial-states (RTIS) process despite having the best performance. When the LDPC code with a code rate of 0.83 is used, the detecting-and-decoding scheme with the SISO detection does not need RTIS and has better bit error rate (BER) performance than the scheme with SOVA-based detection. The former can reduce the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) requirement (at BER=10-5) by 2.56 dB relative to the latter. The application of the SISO iterative detection in LDPC-coded DP-QDB systems makes a good trade-off between requirements on transmission efficiency, OSNR requirement, and transmission distance, compared with the other two SISO methods.

  9. Experimental verification on limit load estimation method for pipes with an arbitrary shaped circumferential surface flaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Hasegawa, Kunio; Miura, Naoki; Hoshino, Katsuaki

    2010-01-01

    When a flaw is detected in stainless steel pipes during in-service inspection, the limit load criterion given in the codes such as JSME Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI can be applied to evaluate the integrity of the pipe. However, in these codes, the limit load criterion is only provided for pipes containing a flaw with uniform depth, although many flaws with complicated shape such as stress corrosion cracking have been actually detected in pipes. In order to evaluate the integrity of the flawed pipes for general case, a limit load estimation method has been proposed by authors considering a circumferential surface flaw with arbitrary shape. The plastic collapse bending moment and corresponding stress are obtained by dividing the surface flaw into several segmented sub-flaws. In this paper, the proposed method was verified by comparing with experimental results. Four-point bending experiments were carried out for full scale stainless steel pipes with a symmetrical or non-symmetrical circumferential flaw. Estimated failure bending moments by the proposed method were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, and the proposed method was confirmed to be effective for evaluating bending failure of pipes with flaw. (author)

  10. Optical loss analysis and parameter optimization for fan-shaped single-polarization grating coupler at wavelength of 1.3 µm band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Jun; Tokushima, Masatoshi; Sobu, Yohei; Shimura, Daisuke; Yashiki, Kenichiro; Takahashi, Shigeki; Kurata, Kazuhiko

    2018-05-01

    Fan-shaped grating couplers (F-GCs) can be smaller than straight ones but are less efficient in general in coupling to single-mode fibers. To find a small F-GC with sufficiently high fiber-coupling characteristics, we numerically compared the dependencies of coupling efficiencies on wavelengths, the starting width of gratings, and misalignment distances among 25, 45, and 60° tapered angles of fan shape by using the three-dimensional finite-difference time domain method. A F-GC with a tapered angle of 25° exhibited the highest performances for all dependencies. The optical loss origins of F-GCs were discussed in terms of the electric field structures in them and scattering at the joint between the fan-shaped slab and channel waveguide. We fabricated an optimized 25° F-GC by using ArF photolithography, which almost exactly reproduced the optical coupling efficiency and radiation angle characteristics that were numerically expected.

  11. Creation of a longitudinally polarized subwavelength hotspot with an ultra-thin planar lens: vectorial Rayleigh–Sommerfeld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Huapeng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Huang, Kun; Yeo, Swee Ping; Teng, Jinghua; Luk’yanchuk, Boris

    2013-01-01

    This letter shows how a longitudinally polarized hotspot can be created by a planar ultra-thin lens that beats the diffraction limit. On the imaging plane, a subwavelength optical resolution 0.39λ with almost purely longitudinal electric component has been demonstrated in air ambient. This novel paradigm addresses simultaneously both longitudinal polarization and deep sub-diffraction imaging, by a planar lens composed of ultra-thin opaque concentric annuli. The vectorial Rayleigh–Sommerfeld (VRS) approach, offering the advantage of significant reduction in computation, has been developed for a particular optimization of a flat lens with full control of polarization. Empowered by the robustness of VRS in dealing with polarization states, the proposed roadmap may be universally and efficiently integrated with other optimization algorithms to design super-resolution imaging with controlled polarization states at any wavelength without luminescence of the object. The lens, which is empowered by the proposed method, opens an avenue for the first time toward a highly integrated imaging system with advanced functionalities in far-field super-imaging, tailored polarization states and flat ultra-thin geometry simultaneously. (letter)

  12. Using cold deformation methods in flow-production of steel high precision shaped sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, M.L.; Makhnev, I.F.; Shkurko, I.I.

    1975-01-01

    A final size with a preset tolerance and a required surface finish of steel high-precision sections could be achieved by a cold deformation of hot-rolled ingots-by drawing through dismountable, monolith or roller-type drawing tools or by cold rolling in roller dies. The particularities of the both techniques are compared as regards a number of complicated shaped sections and the advantages of cold rolling are showna more uniform distribution of deformations (strain hardening) across the section, that is a greater margin of plasticity with the same reductions, the less number of the operations required. Rolling is recommended in all the cases when possible as regards the section shape and the bulk volume. The rolling-mill for the calibration of high-precision sections should have no less than two shafts (so that the size could be controlled in both directions) and arrangements to withstand high axial stresses on the rollers (the stresses appearing during rolling in skew dies). When manufacturing precise shaped sections by the cold rolling method the operations are less plentiful than in the cold drawing manufacturing

  13. Shape coexistence in the N=19 neutron-rich nucleus 31Mg explored by β–γ spectroscopy of spin-polarized 31Na

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nishibata

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of excited states in the neutron-rich nucleus 31Mg, which is in the region of the “island of inversion” associated with the neutron magic number N=20, is studied by β–γ spectroscopy of spin-polarized 31Na. Among the 31Mg levels below the one neutron separation energy of 2.3 MeV, the spin values of all five positive-parity levels are unambiguously determined by observing the anisotropic β decay. Two rotational bands with Kπ=1/2+ and 1/2− are proposed based on the spins and energies of the levels. Comparison on a level-by-level basis is performed between the experimental results and theoretical calculations by the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD plus generator coordinate method (GCM. It is found that various nuclear structures coexist in the low excitation energy region in 31Mg.

  14. Modeling of Sensor Placement Strategy for Shape Sensing and Structural Health Monitoring of a Wing-Shaped Sandwich Panel Using Inverse Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Kefal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of sensor density and alignment for three-dimensional shape sensing of an airplane-wing-shaped thick panel subjected to three different loading conditions, i.e., bending, torsion, and membrane loads. For shape sensing analysis of the panel, the Inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM was used together with the Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT, in order to enable accurate predictions for transverse deflection and through-the-thickness variation of interfacial displacements. In this study, the iFEM-RZT algorithm is implemented by utilizing a novel three-node C°-continuous inverse-shell element, known as i3-RZT. The discrete strain data is generated numerically through performing a high-fidelity finite element analysis on the wing-shaped panel. This numerical strain data represents experimental strain readings obtained from surface patched strain gauges or embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. Three different sensor placement configurations with varying density and alignment of strain data were examined and their corresponding displacement contours were compared with those of reference solutions. The results indicate that a sparse distribution of FBG sensors (uniaxial strain measurements, aligned in only the longitudinal direction, is sufficient for predicting accurate full-field membrane and bending responses (deformed shapes of the panel, including a true zigzag representation of interfacial displacements. On the other hand, a sparse deployment of strain rosettes (triaxial strain measurements is essentially enough to produce torsion shapes that are as accurate as those of predicted by a dense sensor placement configuration. Hence, the potential applicability and practical aspects of i3-RZT/iFEM methodology is proven for three-dimensional shape-sensing of future aerospace structures.

  15. A New Method for Simulating Power Flow Density Focused by a Silicon Lens Antenna Irradiated with Linearly Polarized THz Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Apriono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A terahertz system uses dielectric lens antennas for focusing and collimating beams of terahertz wave radiation. Linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation has been widely applied in the terahertz system. Therefore, an accurate method for analyzing the power flow density in the dielectric lens antenna irradiated with the linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation is important to design the terahertz systems. In optics, ray-tracing method has been used to calculate the power flow density by a number density of rays. In this study, we propose a method of ray-tracing combined with Fresnel’s transmission, including transmittance and polarization of the terahertz wave radiation to calculate power flow density in a Silicon lens antenna. We compare power flow density calculated by the proposed method with the regular ray-tracing method. When the Silicon lens antenna is irradiated with linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation, the proposed method calculates the power flow density more accurately than the regular ray-tracing.

  16. Computer driven optical keratometer and method of evaluating the shape of the cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroth, Edmund C. (Inventor); Mouneimme, Samih A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the shape of the cornea utilize only one reticle to generate a pattern of rings projected onto the surface of a subject's eye. The reflected pattern is focused onto an imaging device such as a video camera and a computer compares the reflected pattern with a reference pattern stored in the computer's memory. The differences between the reflected and stored patterns are used to calculate the deformation of the cornea which may be useful for pre-and post-operative evaluation of the eye by surgeons.

  17. Method of shaping of direction-characterization of sensitivity of ionizing radiation detection probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.; Jaszczuk, J.; Kruczyk, M.; Slapa, M.; Wroblewski, T.

    1986-01-01

    A method of shaping of direction-characterization of sensitivity of the ionizing radiation detection probe, especially equipped with small gamma detectors is described. Two detectors are placed coaxially in the bases of the cylindrical shield. One of them is uncovered in the highest degree and the second is not covered to a maximum. The signals from them are processed on the standarized sequences of electrical impulses (taking into account the heights and the widths of the amplitude). 2 figs., 1 tab. (A.S.)

  18. 3D shape detection of the indoor space based on 3D-Hough method

    OpenAIRE

    安齋, 達也; ANZAI, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes methods for detecting the 3D shapes of the indoor space that is represented as a combination of planes such as a wall, desk, or whatnot. Detecting the planes makes it possible to perform calibration of multiple sensors and 3D mapping, and then produces various services such as the acquisition of life logs, AR interaction, and invader detection. This paper proposes and verifies three algorithms. First, it mentions a way to use2D-Hough.The proposed technique converts 3D dat...

  19. A NEW 3D DESIGN METHOD FOR FOOTWEAR SOLES USING DELCAM PowerSHAPE-e SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Design methods of soles and soles injection moulds must be accurate, timely and at the same time, accessible to a wide category of soles and injection moulds designers and manufacturers. For designing soles and injection moulds for soles, various dedicated CAD/CAM systems have been developed, such as: Delcam Shoe Solution (3D, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e (2D and 3D, Padsy II (2D and Padsy III (3D, Shoemaster System (2D and 3D, Lectra System (2D and 3D, Parmel System (2D and ATOS II System (3D. These systems are equipped with colour displays, plotters, digitizers, terminals and other equipment dedicated for computer aided design activities. Designing 3D soles models using computer systems enables the prevention of ambiguities inherited from 2D drawings, thus reducing errors and remanufacturing. Depending on the design complexity of soles, the technical means available for copying shoe soles and the technologies at the disposal of the soles manufacturers, soles and injection moulds designers adopt various design methods. Not all CAD/CAM systems are accessible for all users, because often their purchasing costs are high. Design method developed and presented in this paper, uses Delcam PowerSHAPE software program, which has the advantage that it can be accessed free of charge from the manufacturer's website. At the same time, this software program provides the user with all the necessary tools and instruments needed to design the most complex injection moulds and footwear sole.

  20. HUMAN ERROR QUANTIFICATION USING PERFORMANCE SHAPING FACTORS IN THE SPAR-H METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold S. Blackman; David I. Gertman; Ronald L. Boring

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a cognitively based human reliability analysis (HRA) quantification technique for estimating the human error probabilities (HEPs) associated with operator and crew actions at nuclear power plants. The method described here, Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method, was developed to aid in characterizing and quantifying human performance at nuclear power plants. The intent was to develop a defensible method that would consider all factors that may influence performance. In the SPAR-H approach, calculation of HEP rates is especially straightforward, starting with pre-defined nominal error rates for cognitive vs. action-oriented tasks, and incorporating performance shaping factor multipliers upon those nominal error rates.

  1. Three-Dimensional Induced Polarization Parallel Inversion Using Nonlinear Conjugate Gradients Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four kinds of array of induced polarization (IP methods (surface, borehole-surface, surface-borehole, and borehole-borehole are widely used in resource exploration. However, due to the presence of large amounts of the sources, it will take much time to complete the inversion. In the paper, a new parallel algorithm is described which uses message passing interface (MPI and graphics processing unit (GPU to accelerate 3D inversion of these four methods. The forward finite differential equation is solved by ILU0 preconditioner and the conjugate gradient (CG solver. The inverse problem is solved by nonlinear conjugate gradients (NLCG iteration which is used to calculate one forward and two “pseudo-forward” modelings and update the direction, space, and model in turn. Because each source is independent in forward and “pseudo-forward” modelings, multiprocess modes are opened by calling MPI library. The iterative matrix solver within CULA is called in each process. Some tables and synthetic data examples illustrate that this parallel inversion algorithm is effective. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the joint inversion of surface and borehole data produces resistivity and chargeability results are superior to those obtained from inversions of individual surface data.

  2. Multi-layer solid-phase extraction and evaporation-enrichment methods for polar organic chemicals from aqueous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köke, Niklas; Zahn, Daniel; Knepper, Thomas P; Frömel, Tobias

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of polar organic chemicals in the aquatic environment is exacerbated by the lack of suitable and widely applicable enrichment methods. In this work, we assessed the suitability of a novel combination of well-known solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials in one cartridge as well as an evaporation method and for the enrichment of 26 polar model substances (predominantly log D evaporation method were investigated for the recovery and matrix effects of the model substances and analyzed with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). In total, 65% of the model substances were amenable (> 10% recovery) to the mlSPE method with a mean recovery of 76% while 73% of the model substances were enriched with the evaporation method achieving a mean recovery of 78%. Target and non-target screening comparison of both methods with a frequently used reversed-phase SPE method utilizing "hydrophilic and lipophilic balanced" (HLB) material was performed. Target analysis showed that the mlSPE and evaporation method have pronounced advantages over the HLB method since the HLB material retained only 30% of the model substances. Non-target screening of a ground water sample with the investigated enrichment methods showed that the median retention time of all detected features on a HILIC system decreased in the order mlSPE (3641 features, median t R 9.7 min), evaporation (1391, 9.3 min), HLB (4414, 7.2 min), indicating a higher potential of the described methods to enrich polar analytes from water compared with HLB-SPE. Graphical abstract Schematic of the method evaluation (recovery and matrix effects) and method comparison (target and non-target analysis) of the two investigated enrichment methods for very polar chemicals in aqueousmatrices.

  3. Evaluation of direct analysis in real time for the determination of highly polar pesticides in lettuce and celery using modified Quick Polar Pesticides Extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Francisco J; Chan, Danny; Dickinson, Michael; Lloyd, Antony S; Adams, Stuart J

    2017-05-05

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) was evaluated for the determination of a number of highly polar pesticides using the Quick Polar Pesticides Extraction (QuPPe) method. DART was hyphenated to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to get the required selectivity that allows the determination of these compounds in complex samples such as lettuce and celery. Experimental parameters such as desorption temperature, scanning speed, and distances between the DART ion source and MS inlet were optimized. Two different mass analyzers (Orbitrap and QTOF) and two accessories for sample introduction (Dip-it ® tips and QuickStrip™ sample cards) were evaluated. An extra clean-up step using primary-secondary amine (PSA) was included in the QuPPe method to improve sensitivity. The main limitation found was in-source fragmentation, nevertheless QuPPe-DART-HRMS proved to be a fast and reliable tool with quantitative capabilities for at least seven compounds: amitrole, cyromazine, propamocarb, melamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine and 1,2,4-triazole. The limits of detection ranged from 20 to 60μg/kg. Recoveries for fortified samples ranged from 71 to 115%, with relative standard deviations <18%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An immersed boundary method for the interaction of turbulence with particles of arbitrary shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizhao; Vanella, Marcos; Balaras, Elias

    2014-11-01

    In this work we present a computational scheme applicable to turbulence/particle interactions, targeting applications involving millions of particles of arbitrary shape. Immersed boundary methods have been frequently applied in simulating such problems, but are usually confined to spherical particles. Extension to rigid/deformable particles of arbitrary shape introduces significant challenges in achieving parallel efficiency. The proposed method is based on the moving least squares immersed boundary approach (Vanella & Balaras, J. Comput. Physics, 228(18), 6617, 2009) on uniform and adaptive block-structured grids. We will present a novel parallelization strategy based on a master/slave model: the processor on which a body/structure resides is designated the master processor, while all the processors that contain at least one block overlapping with the body are designated the slaves. As the particle moves through the fluid, its blocks association and therefore the participating processors change. Effective ways of replicating the mesh metadata on all processors will be discussed. Results for homogeneous turbulence interacting with spherical and ellipsoidal particles and comparisons with experimental results will be given.

  5. A new method for generating axially-symmetric and radially-polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Chunhui; Gu Benyuan; Dong Bizhen; Zhang Yan

    2005-01-01

    A scheme for generating axially-symmetric and radially-polarized beams is proposed by using two diffractive phase elements (DPEs) made of birefringent materials. The design of these two DPEs is based on the general theory of phase-retrieval of optical system in combination with an iterative algorithm. The first DPE is used for demultiplexing two orthogonally linearly-polarized light beams to produce diffractive patterns, and the second DPE is used for compensating the phase difference to obtain the desired radially-polarized beam

  6. Experimental method for investigating γd→pn photodisintegration reaction on the linearly polarized photon beam of the Erevan synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agababyan, K.Sh.; Adamyan, F.V.; Ajrapetyan, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental method for measuring the asymmetry of the γd → pn photodisintegration reaction on the linearly polarized photon beam of the Erevan synchrotron is described. The results of Monte Carlo calculations, the calibration of apparatus, the procedure of measurements and experimental data processing are repored

  7. Electrochemical Cathodic Polarization, a Simplified Method That Can Modified and Increase the Biological Activity of Titanium Surfaces: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Bernedo Alcazar

    Full Text Available The cathodic polarization seems to be an electrochemical method capable of modifying and coat biomolecules on titanium surfaces, improving the surface activity and promoting better biological responses.The aim of the systematic review is to assess the scientific literature to evaluate the cellular response produced by treatment of titanium surfaces by applying the cathodic polarization technique.The literature search was performed in several databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Scielo and EBSCO Host, until June 2016, with no limits used. Eligibility criteria were used and quality assessment was performed following slightly modified ARRIVE and SYRCLE guidelines for cellular studies and animal research.Thirteen studies accomplished the inclusion criteria and were considered in the review. The quality of reporting studies in animal models was low and for the in vitro studies it was high. The in vitro and in vivo results reported that the use of cathodic polarization promoted hydride surfaces, effective deposition, and adhesion of the coated biomolecules. In the experimental groups that used the electrochemical method, cellular viability, proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, or bone growth were better or comparable with the control groups.The use of the cathodic polarization method to modify titanium surfaces seems to be an interesting method that could produce active layers and consequently enhance cellular response, in vitro and in vivo animal model studies.

  8. Shape optimization of high power centrifugal compressor using multi-objective optimal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Soo; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Youn Jea [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In this study, a method for optimal design of impeller and diffuser blades in the centrifugal compressor using response surface method (RSM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) was evaluated. A numerical simulation was conducted using ANSYS CFX with various values of impeller and diffuser parameters, which consist of leading edge (LE) angle, trailing edge (TE) angle, and blade thickness. Each of the parameters was divided into three levels. A total of 45 design points were planned using central composite design (CCD), which is one of the design of experiment (DOE) techniques. Response surfaces that were generated on the basis of the results of DOE were used to determine the optimal shape of impeller and diffuser blade. The entire process of optimization was conducted using ANSYS Design Xplorer (DX). Through the optimization, isentropic efficiency and pressure recovery coefficient, which are the main performance parameters of the centrifugal compressor, were increased by 0.3 and 5, respectively.

  9. A simple and accurate onset detection method for a measured bell-shaped speed profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Botzer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor control neuroscientists measure limb trajectories and extract the onset of the movement for a variety of purposes. Such trajectories are often aligned relative to the onset of individual movement before the features of that movement are extracted and their properties are inspected. Onset detection is performed either manually or automatically, typically by selecting a velocity threshold. Here, we present a simple onset detection algorithm that is more accurate than the conventional velocity threshold technique. The proposed method is based on a simple regression and follows the minimum acceleration with constraints model, in which the initial phase of the bell-shaped movement is modeled by a cubic power of the time. We demonstrate the performance of the suggested method and compare it to the velocity threshold technique and to manual onset detection by a group of motor control experts. The database for this comparison consists of simulated minimum jerk trajectories and recorded reaching movements.

  10. Hybrid Methods and Atomistic Models to Explore Free Energies, Rates and Pathways of Protein Shape Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong

    When I just joined the Lindor-Larsen group as a fresh PhD student, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry that year was awarded for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems" to prize the pioneering works of Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel. As a computational......L), whose conformational dynamics however is still not fully understood. We found modern simulation methods and force elds are able to capture key aspects of how this protein changes its shape, paving the way for future studies for systems that are dicult to study experimentally. In Chapter 3, we...... revisited the problem of accurately quantifying the thermodynamics and kinetics, by following a novel route. In this route both of the forward and backward rates are calculated directly from MD simulations using a recently developed enhanced sampling method, called \\infrequent metadynamics...

  11. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr,; Jeffrey, W [Livermore, CA

    2009-03-31

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  12. Shape optimization of high power centrifugal compressor using multi-objective optimal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Soo; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Youn Jea

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a method for optimal design of impeller and diffuser blades in the centrifugal compressor using response surface method (RSM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) was evaluated. A numerical simulation was conducted using ANSYS CFX with various values of impeller and diffuser parameters, which consist of leading edge (LE) angle, trailing edge (TE) angle, and blade thickness. Each of the parameters was divided into three levels. A total of 45 design points were planned using central composite design (CCD), which is one of the design of experiment (DOE) techniques. Response surfaces that were generated on the basis of the results of DOE were used to determine the optimal shape of impeller and diffuser blade. The entire process of optimization was conducted using ANSYS Design Xplorer (DX). Through the optimization, isentropic efficiency and pressure recovery coefficient, which are the main performance parameters of the centrifugal compressor, were increased by 0.3 and 5, respectively

  13. Ionic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  14. Development of Structure and Characteristics Calculation Method for Γ- shape Rope Vubration Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Yury K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the design of rope vibration insulators with elastic elements of the center line in the form of two rectilinear and one curved section. In the Russian-language scientific literature this type of rope vibration insulators received a stable name "Γ-shaped vibration insulators” by analogy with the shape of the letter “gamma-Γ" of the Greek alphabet and a similar letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. Despite the wide using of vibration insulators designed on this shape, its mathematical calculation model has not yet been developed. In this connection, in this article, for the first time on the basis of the “Method of Forces” and the “Mohr Method”, an analytical technique has been developed for calculating the characteristics of a vibration insulator in the directions of three mutually perpendicular axes. In addition, the article proposes a new structure of a vibration insulator consisting of several tiers of elements of this type, based on a new patented technology for manufacturing quasi-continuous woven rings, proposed by the author of this article in co-authorship with several employees of the Samara National Research University. Simple formulas are obtained for calculating the load characteristics in three mutually perpendicular directions. This makes it possible to calculate the corresponding stiffness and natural frequencies of mechanical vibration protection systems. It is established that the stiffness of the vibration insulator in the direction of the Z axis is greater than the stiffness in the X and Y axis directions, however, if a vibration insulator with equal, or close to equal characteristics, along three axes has to be designed according to the technical specification, this can be done by selecting the parameters included in the equations given in article for load characteristics.

  15. A novel autonomous real-time position method based on polarized light and geomagnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yinlong; Chu, Jinkui; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhiwen

    2015-01-01

    Many animals exploit polarized light in order to calibrate their magnetic compasses for navigation. For example, some birds are equipped with biological magnetic and celestial compasses enabling them to migrate between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. The Vikings' ability to derive true direction from polarized light is also widely accepted. However, their amazing navigational capabilities are still not completely clear. Inspired by birds' and Vikings' ancient navigational skills. Here we...

  16. Study on Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) Quantification Method in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, Inseok Jang; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of HRA implementation is 1) to achieve the human factor engineering (HFE) design goal of providing operator interfaces that will minimize personnel errors and 2) to conduct an integrated activity to support probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For these purposes, various HRA methods have been developed such as technique for human error rate prediction (THERP), simplified plant analysis risk human reliability assessment (SPAR-H), cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. In performing HRA, such conditions that influence human performances have been represented via several context factors called performance shaping factors (PSFs). PSFs are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. Most HRA methods evaluate the weightings of PSFs by expert judgment and explicit guidance for evaluating the weighting is not provided. It has been widely known that the performance of the human operator is one of the critical factors to determine the safe operation of NPPs. HRA methods have been developed to identify the possibility and mechanism of human errors. In performing HRA methods, the effect of PSFs which may increase or decrease human error should be investigated. However, the effect of PSFs were estimated by expert judgment so far. Accordingly, in order to estimate the effect of PSFs objectively, the quantitative framework to estimate PSFs by using PSF profiles is introduced in this paper

  17. Evaluation of the Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE (SHAPE) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, J.; Garcia-Mondéjar, A.; Bercher, N.; Fabry, P. L.; Roca, M.; Varona, E.; Fernandes, J.; Lazaro, C.; Vieira, T.; David, G.; Restano, M.; Ambrózio, A.

    2017-12-01

    Inland water scenes are highly variable, both in space and time, which leads to a much broader range of radar signatures than ocean surfaces. This applies to both LRM and "SAR" mode (SARM) altimetry. Nevertheless the enhanced along-track resolution of SARM altimeters should help improve the accuracy and precision of inland water height measurements from satellite. The SHAPE project - Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE - which is funded by ESA through the Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions Programme Element (contract number 4000115205/15/I-BG) aims at preparing for the exploitation of Sentinel-3 data over the inland water domain. The SHAPE Processor implements all of the steps necessary to derive rivers and lakes water levels and discharge from Delay-Doppler Altimetry and perform their validation against in situ data. The processor uses FBR CryoSat-2 and L1A Sentinel-3A data as input and also various ancillary data (proc. param., water masks, L2 corrections, etc.), to produce surface water levels. At a later stage, water level data are assimilated into hydrological models to derive river discharge. This poster presents the improvements obtained with the new methods and algorithms over the regions of interest (Amazon and Danube rivers, Vanern and Titicaca lakes).

  18. Laser-polarized xenon-129 magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. The development of a method for in vivo perfusion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Matthew Scot

    2001-07-01

    This thesis presents in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies with laser-polarized 129Xe delivered to living rats by inhalation and transported to tissue via blood flow. The results presented herein include the observation, assignment, and dynamic measurement of 129Xe resonances in the brain and body, the first one- and two-dimensional chemical-shift-resolved images of 129Xe in blood, tissue, and gas in the thorax, and the first images of 129Xe in brain tissue. These results establish that laser-polarized 129Xe can be used as a magnetic resonance tracer in vivo. NMR resonances at 0, 191, 198, and 209 ppm relative to the 129 Xe gas resonance are observed in the rat thorax and assigned to 129Xe in gas, fat, tissue, and blood respectively. Resonances at 189, 192, 195, 198, and 209 ppm are observed in the brain, and the 195 and 209 ppm resonances are assigned to 129Xe in grey matter, and blood, respectively. The design and construction of a laser-polarized 129Xe production and delivery system is described. This system produces liter-volumes of laser- polarized 129Xe by spin-exchange optical- pumping. It represented an order of magnitude increase over previously reported production volumes of polarized 129Xe. At approximately 3-7% polarization, 157 cc-atm of xenon is produced and stored as ice every 5 minutes. This reliable, effective, and simple production method for large volumes of 129Xe can be applied to other areas of research involving the use of laser-polarized noble gases. A model of the in vivo transport of laser polarized 129Xe to tissue under realistic experimental NMR conditions is described. Appropriate control of the NMR parameters is shown to allow tissue perfasion and 129Xe tissue T1 to be extracted from measurement of the steady-state 129Xe tissue signal. In vivo rodent 129Xe NMR results are used to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of this technique, and an inhaled 30% xenon/70% O2 mixture polarized to 5

  19. CT image reconstruction of steel pipe section from few projections using the method of rotating polar-coordinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Shuaijun; Wu Zhifang

    2008-01-01

    Fast online inspection in steel pipe production is a big challenge. Radiographic CT imaging technology, a high performance non-destructive testing method, is quite appropriate for inspection and quality control of steel pipes. The method of rotating polar-coordinate is used to reconstruct the steel pipe section from few projections with the purpose of inspecting it online. It reduces the projection number needed and the data collection time, and accelerates the reconstruction algorithm and saves the inspection time evidently. The results of simulation experiment and actual experiment indicate that the image quality and reconstruction time of rotating polar-coordinate method meet the requirements of inspecting the steel tube section online basically. The study is of some theoretical significance and the method is expected to be widely used in practice. (authors)

  20. Method of making large area conformable shape structures for detector/sensor applications using glass drawing technique and postprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, John T [Clinton, IN

    2012-01-24

    A method of making a large area conformable shape structure comprises drawing a plurality of tubes to form a plurality of drawn tubes, and cutting the plurality of drawn tubes into cut drawn tubes of a predetermined shape. The cut drawn tubes have a first end and a second end along the longitudinal direction of the cut drawn tubes. The method further comprises conforming the first end of the cut drawn tubes into a predetermined curve to form the large area conformable shape structure, wherein the cut drawn tubes contain a material.

  1. Investigating the size, shape and surface roughness dependence of polarization lidars with light-scattering computations on real mineral dust particles: Application to dust particles' external mixtures and dust mass concentration retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Tahar; Kemppinen, Osku; David, Grégory; Lindqvist, Hannakaisa; Tyynelä, Jani; Nousiainen, Timo; Rairoux, Patrick; Miffre, Alain

    2018-05-01

    Our understanding of the contribution of mineral dust to the Earth's radiative budget is limited by the complexity of these particles, which present a wide range of sizes, are highly-irregularly shaped, and are present in the atmosphere in the form of particle mixtures. To address the spatial distribution of mineral dust and atmospheric dust mass concentrations, polarization lidars are nowadays frequently used, with partitioning algorithms allowing to discern the contribution of mineral dust in two or three-component particle external mixtures. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of the retrieved dust backscattering (βd) vertical profiles with the dust particle size and shape. For that, new light-scattering numerical simulations are performed on real atmospheric mineral dust particles, having determined mineralogy (CAL, DOL, AGG, SIL), derived from stereogrammetry (stereo-particles), with potential surface roughness, which are compared to the widely-used spheroidal mathematical shape model. For each dust shape model (smooth stereo-particles, rough stereo-particles, spheroids), the dust depolarization, backscattering Ångström exponent, lidar ratio are computed for two size distributions representative of mineral dust after long-range transport. As an output, two Saharan dust outbreaks involving mineral dust in two, then three-component particle mixtures are studied with Lyon (France) UV-VIS polarization lidar. If the dust size matters most, under certain circumstances, βd can vary by approximately 67% when real dust stereo-particles are used instead of spheroids, corresponding to variations in the dust backscattering coefficient as large as 2 Mm- 1·sr- 1. Moreover, the influence of surface roughness in polarization lidar retrievals is for the first time discussed. Finally, dust mass-extinction conversion factors (ηd) are evaluated for each assigned shape model and dust mass concentrations are retrieved from polarization lidar measurements. From

  2. Parameter-free method for the shape optimization of stiffeners on thin-walled structures to minimize stress concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Shibutan, Yoji [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Shimoda, Masatoshi [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a parameter-free shape optimization method for the strength design of stiffeners on thin-walled structures. The maximum von Mises stress is minimized and subjected to the volume constraint. The optimum design problem is formulated as a distributed-parameter shape optimization problem under the assumptions that a stiffener is varied in the in-plane direction and that the thickness is constant. The issue of nondifferentiability, which is inherent in this min-max problem, is avoided by transforming the local measure to a smooth differentiable integral functional by using the Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser function. The shape gradient functions are derived by using the material derivative method and adjoint variable method and are applied to the H{sup 1} gradient method for shells to determine the optimal free-boundary shapes. By using this method, the smooth optimal stiffener shape can be obtained without any shape design parameterization while minimizing the maximum stress. The validity of this method is verified through two practical design examples.

  3. Workshop on polarized neutron filters and polarized pulsed neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi

    2004-07-01

    The workshop was held in KEK by thirty-three participants on April 26, 2004. The polarized neutron filter method was only discussed. It consists of three parts; the first part was discussed on the polarized neutron methods, the second part on the polarized neutron experiments and the third on the pulse neutron spectrometer and polarized neutron experiments. The six papers were presented such as the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, neutron polarization by proton polarized filter, soft master and neutron scattering, polarized neutron in solid physics, polarization experiments by chopper spectroscope and neutron polarization system in superHRPD. (S.Y.)

  4. Numerical simulation of pseudoelastic shape memory alloys using the large time increment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Weihong; Zaki, Wael; Moumni, Ziad

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents a numerical implementation of the large time increment (LATIN) method for the simulation of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in the pseudoelastic range. The method was initially proposed as an alternative to the conventional incremental approach for the integration of nonlinear constitutive models. It is adapted here for the simulation of pseudoelastic SMA behavior using the Zaki-Moumni model and is shown to be especially useful in situations where the phase transformation process presents little or lack of hardening. In these situations, a slight stress variation in a load increment can result in large variations of strain and local state variables, which may lead to difficulties in numerical convergence. In contrast to the conventional incremental method, the LATIN method solve the global equilibrium and local consistency conditions sequentially for the entire loading path. The achieved solution must satisfy the conditions of static and kinematic admissibility and consistency simultaneously after several iterations. 3D numerical implementation is accomplished using an implicit algorithm and is then used for finite element simulation using the software Abaqus. Computational tests demonstrate the ability of this approach to simulate SMAs presenting flat phase transformation plateaus and subjected to complex loading cases, such as the quasi-static behavior of a stent structure. Some numerical results are contrasted to those obtained using step-by-step incremental integration.

  5. The Neutron-Gamma Pulse Shape Discrimination Method for Neutron Flux Detection in the ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiufeng; Li Shiping; Cao Hongrui; Yin Zejie; Yuan Guoliang; Yang Qingwei

    2013-01-01

    The neutron flux monitor (NFM), as a significant diagnostic system in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will play an important role in the readings of a series of key parameters in the fusion reaction process. As the core of the main electronic system of the NFM, the neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination (n-γ PSD) can distinguish the neutron pulse from the gamma pulse and other disturbing pulses according to the thresholds of the rising time and the amplitude pre-installed on the board, the double timing point CFD method is used to get the rising time of the pulse. The n-γ PSD can provide an accurate neutron count. (magnetically confined plasma)

  6. Modification of backgammon shape cathode and graded charge division readout method for a novel triple charge division centroid finding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javanmardi, F.; Matoba, M.; Sakae, T.

    1996-01-01

    Triple Charge Division (TCD) centroid finding method that uses modified pattern of Backgammon Shape Cathode (MBSC) is introduced for medium range length position sensitive detectors with optimum numbers of cathode segments. MBSC pattern has three separated areas and uses saw tooth like insulator gaps for separating the areas. Side areas of the MBSC pattern are severed by a central common area. Size of the central area is twice of the size of both sides. Whereas central area is the widest area among three, both sides' areas have the main role in position sensing. With the same resolution and linearity, active region of original Backgammon pattern increases twice by using MBSC pattern, and with the same length, linearity of TCD centroid finding is much better than Backgammon charge division readout method. Linearity prediction of TCD centroid finding and experimental results conducted us to find an optimum truncation of the apices of MBCS pattern in the central area. The TCD centroid finding has an especial readout method since charges must be collected from two segments in both sides and from three segments in the central area of MBSC pattern. The so called Graded Charge Division (GCD) is the especial readout method for TCD. The GCD readout is a combination of the charge division readout and sequence grading of serial segments. Position sensing with TCD centroid finding and GCD readout were done by two sizes MBSC patterns (200mm and 80mm) and Spatial resolution about 1% of the detector length is achieved

  7. A novel method for analysing key corticosteroids in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hair using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisser, Johan J; Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Erland; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of a methodology for extraction, clean-up and analysis of three key corticosteroids (aldosterone, cortisol and corticosterone) in polar bear hair. Such a methodology can be used to monitor stress biomarkers in polar bears and may provide as a useful tool for long-term and retrospective information. We developed a combined pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)-solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure for corticosteroid extraction and clean-up followed by high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis. This procedure allows for the simultaneous determination of multiple steroids, which is in contrast to previous polar bear studies based on ELISA techniques. Absolute method recoveries were 81%, 75% and 60% for cortisol, corticosterone and aldosterone, respectively. We applied the developed method on a hair sample pooled from four East Greenland polar bears. Herein cortisol and corticosterone were successfully determined in levels of 0.32±0.02ng/g hair and 0.13±0.02ng/g hair, respectively. Aldosterone was below limit of detection (LODpolar bears was consistent with cortisol levels previously determined in the Southern Hudson Bay and James Bay in Canada using ELISA kits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [A new method to orthodontically correct dental occlusal plane canting: wave-shaped arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Hu, X X; Ma, N; Chen, X H

    2017-02-18

    ; after treatment the angles were from -0.17° to 2.57° with a median of 1.87°, the decrease of the angles between AOP and BBP after treatment ranged from 1.08° to 4.15° with a median of 2.21°. Paired Wilcoxon test P was 0.000. The wave-shaped arch can be used independently or in combination with other treatment methods, which can take advantage of left and right interactive anchorage to correct AOPC effectively, so it has certain application value in clinical practice.

  9. Polarization switching detection method using a ferroelectric liquid crystal for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock frequency stabilization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzik, Grzegorz; Rzepka, Janusz; Abramski, Krzysztof M

    2015-04-01

    We present a concept of the polarization switching detection method implemented for frequency-stabilized lasers, called the polarization switching dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (PSDAVLL) technique. It is a combination of the well-known dichroic atomic vapor laser lock method for laser frequency stabilization with a synchronous detection system based on the surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal (SSFLC).The SSFLC is a polarization switch and quarter wave-plate component. This technique provides a 9.6 dB better dynamic range ratio (DNR) than the well-known two-photodiode detection configuration known as the balanced polarimeter. This paper describes the proposed method used practically in the VCSEL laser frequency stabilization system. The applied PSDAVLL method has allowed us to obtain a frequency stability of 2.7×10⁻⁹ and a reproducibility of 1.2×10⁻⁸, with a DNR of detected signals of around 81 dB. It has been shown that PSDAVLL might be successfully used as a method for spectra-stable laser sources.

  10. TX-RX isolation method based on polarization diversity, spatial diversity and TX beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foroozanfard, Ehsan; Carvalho, Elisabeth De; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of an antenna isolation technique based on null-steer beamforming, polarization diversity and spatial diversity is investigated. The proposed system consists of six patch antennas which are fed by a feeding network to obtain a null-steer beamformer. To achieve spatial...... diversity, antenna elements are located on two layers, facing in a different direction. Moreover, the antenna elements in two layers use different polarization. The measured results of the antenna system present a high TX-RX isolation in the order of 70 dB which shows the feasibility of such a system...

  11. An alternative method to predict the S-shaped curve for logistic characteristics of phonon transport in silicon thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    The S-shaped curve was observed by Yilbas and Bin Mansoor (2013). In this study, an alternative method to predict the S-shaped curve for logistic characteristics of phonon transport in silicon thin film is presented by using an analytical prediction method. This analytical prediction method was introduced by Bejan and Lorente in 2011 and 2012. The Bejan and Lorente method is based on two-mechanism flow of fast “invasion” by convection and slow “consolidation” by diffusion.

  12. Numerical method to optimize the polar-azimuthal orientation of infrared superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Mária; Sipos, Áron; Najafi, Faraz; Hu, Xiaolong; Berggren, Karl K

    2011-11-01

    A finite-element method for calculating the illumination-dependence of absorption in three-dimensional nanostructures is presented based on the radio frequency module of the Comsol Multiphysics software package (Comsol AB). This method is capable of numerically determining the optical response and near-field distribution of subwavelength periodic structures as a function of illumination orientations specified by polar angle, φ, and azimuthal angle, γ. The method was applied to determine the illumination-angle-dependent absorptance in cavity-based superconducting-nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) designs. Niobium-nitride stripes based on dimensions of conventional SNSPDs and integrated with ~ quarter-wavelength hydrogen-silsesquioxane-filled nano-optical cavity and covered by a thin gold film acting as a reflector were illuminated from below by p-polarized light in this study. The numerical results were compared to results from complementary transfer-matrix-method calculations on composite layers made of analogous film-stacks. This comparison helped to uncover the optical phenomena contributing to the appearance of extrema in the optical response. This paper presents an approach to optimizing the absorptance of different sensing and detecting devices via simultaneous numerical optimization of the polar and azimuthal illumination angles. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Early adolescence (ages 10–14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents’ personal gender attitudes. Objectives To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. Methods A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984–2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Results Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents’ construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. Conclusions The findings from this

  14. Estimation of pattern shape based on CD-SEM image by using MPPC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, T.; Ojima, Y.; Meessen, J.; Rijpers, B.

    2006-03-01

    This study demonstrates the MPPC (Multiple Parameters Profile Characterization) measurement method utilizing ArF photo resist patterns. MPPC is a technique for estimating the three dimensional profile of patterns which are imaged and measured on the CD-SEM (critical dimension scanning electron microscope). MPPC utilizes the secondary electron signal to calculate several indices including top CD, peak CD, top rounding, bottom footing, etc. This primary focused of this study is to understand the variations in pattern profile caused by changes in exposure condition. The results demonstrate the ability to extract pattern profile shape information by MPPC measurement that could not otherwise be detected by a conventional bottom CD measurement method. Furthermore, the results were compared to cross sectional images collected by STEM (scanning transmission electron microscope) to verify the accuracy of the MPPC technique. The peak CD results accurately estimate the pattern width when the sidewall angle of the feature is nearly vertical. Additionally, line edge roughness (LER) caused by pattern profile variations was evaluated utilizing MPPC. The results suggest that MPPC may be utilized to evaluate the roughness over the entire profile.

  15. Method of moments as applied to arbitrarily shaped bounded nonlinear scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caorsi, Salvatore; Massa, Andrea; Pastorino, Matteo

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of applying the moment method to determine the electromagnetic field distributions inside three-dimensional bounded nonlinear dielectric objects of arbitrary shapes. The moment method has usually been employed to solve linear scattering problems. We start with an integral equation formulation, and derive a nonlinear system of algebraic equations that allows us to obtain an approximate solution for the harmonic vector components of the electric field. Preliminary results of some numerical simulations are reported. Dans cet article nous explorons la possibilité d'appliquer la méthode des moments pour déterminer la distribution du champ électromagnétique dans des objets tridimensionnels diélectriques, non-linéaires, limités et de formes arbitraires. La méthode des moments a été communément employée pour les problèmes de diffusion linéaire. Nous commençons par une formulation basée sur l'équation intégrale et nous dérivons un système non-linéaire d'équations algébriques qui nous permet d'obtenir une solution approximative pour les composantes harmoniques du vecteur du champ électrique. Les résultats préliminaires de quelques simulations numériques sont présentés.

  16. A method for ultrashort electron pulse-shape measurement using coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper we discuss a method for nondestructive measurements of the longitudinal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches for X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The method is based on the detection of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) spectrum produced by a bunch passing a dipole magnet system. This work also contains a systematic treatment of synchrotron radiation theory which lies at the basis of CSR. Standard theory of synchrotron radiation uses several approximations whose applicability limits are often forgotten: here we present a systematic discussion about these assumptions. Properties of coherent synchrotron radiation from an electron moving along an arc of a circle are then derived and discussed. We describe also an effective and practical diagnostic technique based on the utilization of an electromagnetic undulator to record the energy of the coherent radiation pulse into the central cone. This measurement must be repeated many times with different undulator resonant frequencies in order to reconstruct the modulus of the bunch form-factor. The retrieval of the bunch profile function from these data is performed by means of deconvolution techniques: for the present work we take advantage of a constrained deconvolution method. We illustrate with numerical examples the potential of the proposed method for electron beam diagnostics at the TESLA test facility (TTF) accelerator. Here we choose, for emphasis, experiments aimed at the measure of the strongly non-Gaussian electron bunch profile in the TTF femtosecond-mode operation. We demonstrate that a tandem combination of a picosecond streak camera and a CSR spectrometer can be used to extract shape information from electron bunches with a narrow leading peak and a long tail. (orig.)

  17. Method to locate the polar cap boundary in the nightside ionosphere and application to a substorm event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a new method to be used for the polar cap boundary (PCB determination in the nightside ionosphere by using the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR field-aligned measurements by the 42-m antenna and southward directed low-elevation measurements by the ESR 32 m antenna or northward directed low-elevation measurements by the EISCAT VHF radar at Tromsø. The method is based on increased electron temperature (Te caused by precipitating particles on closed field lines. Since the Svalbard field-aligned measurement provides the reference polar cap Te height profile, the method can be utilised only when the PCB is located between Svalbard and the mainland. Comparison with the Polar UVI images shows that the radar-based method is generally in agreement with the PAE (poleward auroral emission boundary from Polar UVI. The new technique to map the polar cap boundary was applied to a substorm event on 6 November 2002. Simultaneous measurements by the MIRACLE magnetometers enabled us to put the PCB location in the framework of ionospheric electrojets. During the substorm growth phase, the polar cap expands and the region of the westward electrojet shifts gradually more apart from the PCB. The substorm onset takes place deep within the region of closed magnetic field region, separated by about 6–7° in latitude from the PCB in the ionosphere. We interpret the observations in the framework of the near-Earth neutral line (NENL model of substorms. After the substorm onset, the reconnection at the NENL reaches within 3 min the open-closed field line boundary and then the PCB moves poleward together with the poleward boundary of the substorm current wedge. The poleward expansion occurs in the form of individual bursts, which are separated by 2–10 min, indicating that the reconnection in the magnetotail neutral line is impulsive. The poleward expansions of the PCB are followed by latitude dispersed intensifications in the westward electrojet

  18. A new shape reproduction method based on the Cauchy-condition surface for real-time tokamak reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, K.

    2000-01-01

    A new shape reproduction method is investigated on the basis of an applied mathematical approach. An analytically exact solution of Maxwell's equations in a static current field yields an (boundary) integral equation. In application of this equation to tokamak plasma shape reproduction, it is made clear that a Cauchy condition (both Dirichlet and Neumann conditions) on a hypothetical surface is necessarily identified. To calculate the Cauchy condition using magnetic sensor signals, conversion to numerical formulation of this method is conducted. Then, reproduction errors by this method are evaluated through two numerical tests: The first test uses ideal signals produced from a full equilibrium code in the JT-60 geometry, and the second test uses actual sensor signals in JT-60 experiments. In addition, it is shown that positioning and shape of the Cauchy condition surface is insensitive to reproduction error. Finally, this method is clarified to have preferable features for real-time tokamak reactor control

  19. QSPR studies for predicting polarity parameter of organic compounds in methanol using support vector machine and enhanced replacement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, H; Dashtbozorgi, Z

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, enhanced replacement method (ERM) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies of polarity parameter (p) of various organic compounds in methanol in reversed phase liquid chromatography based on molecular descriptors calculated from the optimized structures. Diverse kinds of molecular descriptors were calculated to encode the molecular structures of compounds, such as geometric, thermodynamic, electrostatic and quantum mechanical descriptors. The variable selection method of ERM was employed to select an optimum subset of descriptors. The five descriptors selected using ERM were used as inputs of SVM to predict the polarity parameter of organic compounds in methanol. The coefficient of determination, r 2 , between experimental and predicted polarity parameters for the prediction set by ERM and SVM were 0.952 and 0.982, respectively. Acceptable results specified that the ERM approach is a very effective method for variable selection and the predictive aptitude of the SVM model is superior to those obtained by ERM. The obtained results demonstrate that SVM can be used as a substitute influential modeling tool for QSPR studies.

  20. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Early adolescence (ages 10-14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes. To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural

  1. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    Full Text Available Early adolescence (ages 10-14 is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes.To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally.A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes.Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age. Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents.The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different

  2. A New 3D Object Pose Detection Method Using LIDAR Shape Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Un; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2018-03-16

    In object detection systems for autonomous driving, LIDAR sensors provide very useful information. However, problems occur because the object representation is greatly distorted by changes in distance. To solve this problem, we propose a LIDAR shape set that reconstructs the shape surrounding the object more clearly by using the LIDAR point information projected on the object. The LIDAR shape set restores object shape edges from a bird's eye view by filtering LIDAR points projected on a 2D pixel-based front view. In this study, we use this shape set for two purposes. The first is to supplement the shape set with a LIDAR Feature map, and the second is to divide the entire shape set according to the gradient of the depth and density to create a 2D and 3D bounding box proposal for each object. We present a multimodal fusion framework that classifies objects and restores the 3D pose of each object using enhanced feature maps and shape-based proposals. The network structure consists of a VGG -based object classifier that receives multiple inputs and a LIDAR-based Region Proposal Networks (RPN) that identifies object poses. It works in a very intuitive and efficient manner and can be extended to other classes other than vehicles. Our research has outperformed object classification accuracy (Average Precision, AP) and 3D pose restoration accuracy (3D bounding box recall rate) based on the latest studies conducted with KITTI data sets.

  3. A new shape design method of salt cavern used as underground gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tongtao; Yan, Xiangzhen; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Xiujuan; Jiang, Tingting; Zhao, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Safety factor contours of four salt cavern gas storages after running 10 years. Highlights: ► We propose a new model to design the shape of salt cavern gas storage. ► The concepts of slope instability and pressure arch are introduced into the shape design. ► The max. gas pressure determines the shapes and dimensions of cavern lower structure. ► The min. gas pressure decides the shapes and dimensions of cavern upper structure. - Abstract: A new model used to design the shape and dimension of salt cavern gas storage is proposed in the paper. In the new model, the cavern is divided into two parts, namely the lower and upper structures, to design. The concepts of slope instability and pressure arch are introduced into the shape design of the lower and upper structures respectively. Calculating models are established according to the concepts. Field salt cavern gas storage in China is simulated as examples, and its shape and dimension are proposed. The effects of gas pressure, friction angle and cohesion of rock salt on the cavern stability are discussed. Moreover, the volume convergence, displacement, plastic volume rate, safety factor, and effective strain are compared with that of three other existing shapes salt caverns to validate the performance of newly proposed cavern. The results show that the max. gas pressure determines the shape and dimension of cavern lower structure, while the min. gas pressure decides that of cavern upper structure. With the increase of friction angle and cohesion of rock salt, the stability of salt cavern is increased. The newly proposed salt cavern gas storage has more notable advantages than the existing shapes of salt cavern in volume convergence, displacement, plastic volume rate, safety factor, and effective strain under the same conditions

  4. SHAPE AND CONSTRUCTION OF BRICK VAULTS. CRITERIA, METHODS AND TOOLS FOR A POSSIBLE CATALOGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brumana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of cloister vaults in the construction of noble buildings, as covering elements for square or rectangular rooms, is widespread and well-known. The geometric continuity at the intrados makes generally possible the execution all over the span of frescoes, stucco and decorations. The construction of brick vaults, from the late Middle Age, was sped up by limiting the centering to the wooden planks arches that were instrumental in the profile determination. Nowadays, the availability of several procedures, phases and tools for carrying out a survey allows to draw reliable assumptions about the construction methods and the execution time. It is mandatory to determine the properties of the binders, the shape and dimensions of the bricks, and to carry out a comparison between the geometry of the intrados surface and the evidences emerging at the extrados. The support of the laser scanner technique allows to accurately identify the surface profile and thickness. All these indications, in turn, are useful, in view of an interpretation of the structural behavior, to identify weaknesses, and to highlight contributing factors of instability (if any. The paper focuses on a well-documented case, the Magio Grasselli palace in Cremona in which the cloister vaults of two main rooms show different construction systems, although they were built almost at the same time. The thermographic recordings and laser-scanner surveys highlight the various arrangements used for the cloister vaults.

  5. Fabrication of Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders by ball milling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Nam, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ti-Ni and Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders have been fabricated by ball milling method, and then alloying behavior and transformation behavior were investigated by means of optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. As milled Ti-Ni powders fabricated with milling time less than 20 hrs was a mixture of pure elemental Ti and Ni, and therefore it was unable to obtain alloy powders because the combustion reaction between Ti and Ni occurred during heat treatment. Since those fabricated with milling time more than 20 hrs was a mixture of Ti-rich and Ni-rich Ti-Ni solid solution, however, it was possible to obtain alloy powders without the combustion reaction during heat treatment. Clear exothermic and endothermic peaks appeared in the cooling and heating curves, respectively in DSC curves of 20 hrs and 30 hrs milled Ti-Ni powders. On the other hand, in DSC curves of 1 hr, 10 hrs, 50 hrs and 100 hrs, the thermal peaks were almost discernible. The most optimum ball milling time for fabricating Ti-Ni alloy powders was 30 hrs. Ti-40Ni-10Cu(at%) alloy powders were fabricated successfully by ball milling conditions with rotating speed of 100 rpm and milling time of 30 hrs. (author)

  6. First application of the spectral difference method for lifetime measurements of doppler attenuated line shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckwitz, Hannah [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln Univ. (Germany); Petkov, Pavel [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-07-01

    In this new approach to lifetime measurements via Doppler attenuated line shapes, the spectra of a feeding f and a deexciting transition d of the level of interest are used to determine the lifetime without any lineshape analysis of the feeding transition (direct or indirect). Similarly to the DDC method, the decay function λ{sub d}n{sub d}(t) of the deexciting transition is determined. The feeding of the level is included via the spectral difference of the two successive decays. Consequently, the determined lifetime is the real lifetime. After transforming both transitions into the same energy region, their spectral difference D(v{sub θ}) = S{sub d}(v{sub θ})-S{sub f}(v{sub θ}) = ∫{sub 0}{sup ∞}(∂P{sub θ}(t,v{sub θ}))/(∂t)n{sub d}(t) dt, is solved for n{sub d}(t). Dividing n{sub d}(t) by the decay function λ{sub d}n{sub d}(t) should yield a constant τ value for the level lifetime as a function of the time t. After the development and test of the procedure in 2015, it is now applied for the first time. Two level lifetimes are determined in {sup 86}Sr for the 2{sup +}{sub 2} and the 2{sup +}{sub 3} levels.

  7. Modification of the method of polarized orbitals for electron--alkali-metal scattering: Application to e-Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Temkin, A.; Silver, A.; Sullivan, E.C.

    1978-01-01

    The method of polarized orbitals is modified to treat low-energy scattering of electrons from highly polarizable systems, specifically alkali-metal atoms. The modification is carried out in the particular context of the e-Li system, but the procedure is general; it consists of modifying the polarized orbital, so that when used in the otherwise orthodox form of the method, it gives (i) the correct electron affinity of the negative ion (in this case Li - ), (ii) the proper (i.e., Levinson-Swan) number of nodes of the associated zero-energy scattering orbital, and (iii) the correct polarizability. A procedure is devised whereby the scattering length can be calculated from the (known) electron affinity without solving the bound-state equation. Using this procedure we adduce a 1 S scattering length of 8.69a 0 . (The 3 S scattering length is -9.22a 0 .) The above modifications can also be carried out in the (lesser) exchange adiabatic approximation. However, they lead to qualitatively incorrect 3 S phase shifts. The modified polarized-orbital phase shifts are qualitatively similar to close-coupling and elaborate variational calculations. Quantitative differences from the latter calculations, however, remain; they are manifested most noticeably in the very-low-energy total and differential spin-flip cross sections

  8. Detection of Ground Clutter from Weather Radar Using a Dual-Polarization and Dual-Scan Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Golbon-Haghighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel dual-polarization and dual-scan (DPDS classification algorithm is developed for clutter detection in weather radar observations. Two consecutive scans of dual-polarization radar echoes are jointly processed to estimate auto- and cross-correlation functions. Discriminants are then defined and estimated in order to separate clutter from weather based on their physical and statistical properties. An optimal Bayesian classifier is used to make a decision on clutter presence from the estimated discriminant functions. The DPDS algorithm is applied to the data collected with the KOUN polarimetric radar and compared with the existing detection methods. It is shown that the DPDS algorithm yields a higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rate in clutter detection.

  9. Simulation of natural convection in an inclined polar cavity using a finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Haicheng; Guo, Xueyan; Ren Dai [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Yan, Yonghua [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer in Power Engineering, Shanghai (China); Liu, Chaoqun [University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Natural convection heat transfer in an inclined polar cavity was studied using a Finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM) based on a double-population approach for body-fitted coordinates. A D2G9 model coupled with the simplest TD2Q4 lattice model was applied to determine the velocity field and temperature field. For both velocity and temperature fields, the discrete spatial derivatives were obtained by combining the upwind scheme with the central scheme, and the discrete temporal term is obtained using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Studies were carried out for different Rayleigh numbers and different inclination angles. The results in terms of streamlines, isotherms, and Nusselt numbers explain the heat transfer mechanism of natural convection in an inclined polar cavity due to the change of Rayleigh number and inclination angle.

  10. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  11. Neutron-Gamma Pulse Shape Discrimination With Ne-213 Liquid Scintillator By Using Digital Signal Processing Combined With Similarity Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardiyanto

    2008-01-01

    Neutron-Gamma Pulse Shape Discrimination with a NE-213 Liquid Scintillator by Using Digital Signal Processing Combined with Similarity Method. Measurement of mixed neutron-gamma radiation is difficult because a nuclear detector is usually sensitive to both radiations. A new attempt of neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination for a NE-213 liquid scintillator is presented by using digital signal processing combined with an off-line similarity method. The output pulse shapes are digitized with a high speed digital oscilloscope. The n-γ discrimination is done by calculating the index of each pulse shape, which is determined by the similarity method, and then fusing it with its corresponding pulse height. Preliminary results demonstrate good separation of neutron and gamma-ray signals from a NE-213 scintillator with a simple digital system. The results were better than those with a conventional rise time method. Figure of Merit is used to determine the quality of discrimination. The figure of merit of the discrimination using digital signal processing combined with off-line similarity method are 1.9; 1.7; 1.1; 1.1; and 0.8; on the other hand by using conventional method the rise time are 0.9; 0.9; 0.9; 0.7; and 0.4 for the equivalent electron energy of 800; 278; 139; 69; and 30 keV. (author)

  12. Exact solutions of the dirac equation for an electron in magnetic field with shape invariant method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setare, M.R.; Hatami, O.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the shape invariance property we obtain exact solutions of the Virac equation for an electron moving in the presence of a certain varying magnetic Geld, then we also show its non-relativistic limit. (authors)

  13. High Work Output Ni-Ti-Pt High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys and Associated Processing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Garg, Anita (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    According to the invention, compositions of Ni-Ti-Pt high temperature, high force, shape memory alloys are disclosed that have transition temperatures above 100 C.; have narrow hysteresis; and produce a high specific work output.

  14. Investigating preferences for color-shape combinations with gaze driven optimization method based on evolutionary algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Tim; Zanker, Johannes M

    2013-01-01

    Studying aesthetic preference is notoriously difficult because it targets individual experience. Eye movements provide a rich source of behavioral measures that directly reflect subjective choice. To determine individual preferences for simple composition rules we here use fixation duration as the fitness measure in a Gaze Driven Evolutionary Algorithm (GDEA), which has been demonstrated as a tool to identify aesthetic preferences (Holmes and Zanker, 2012). In the present study, the GDEA was used to investigate the preferred combination of color and shape which have been promoted in the Bauhaus arts school. We used the same three shapes (square, circle, triangle) used by Kandinsky (1923), with the three color palette from the original experiment (A), an extended seven color palette (B), and eight different shape orientation (C). Participants were instructed to look for their preferred circle, triangle or square in displays with eight stimuli of different shapes, colors and rotations, in an attempt to test for a strong preference for red squares, yellow triangles and blue circles in such an unbiased experimental design and with an extended set of possible combinations. We Tested six participants extensively on the different conditions and found consistent preferences for color-shape combinations for individuals, but little evidence at the group level for clear color/shape preference consistent with Kandinsky's claims, apart from some weak link between yellow and triangles. Our findings suggest substantial inter-individual differences in the presence of stable individual associations of color and shapes, but also that these associations are robust within a single individual. These individual differences go some way toward challenging the claims of the universal preference for color/shape combinations proposed by Kandinsky, but also indicate that a much larger sample size would be needed to confidently reject that hypothesis. Moreover, these experiments highlight the

  15. Efficient Measurement of Shape Dissimilarity between 3D Models Using Z-Buffer and Surface Roving Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Kyu Park

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the shape dissimilarity between 3D models is a very important problem in both computer vision and graphics for 3D surface reconstruction, modeling, matching, and compression. In this paper, we propose a novel method called surface roving technique to estimate the shape dissimilarity between 3D models. Unlike conventional methods, our surface roving approach exploits a virtual camera and Z-buffer, which is commonly used in 3D graphics. The corresponding points on different 3D models can be easily identified, and also the distance between them is determined efficiently, regardless of the representation types of the 3D models. Moreover, by employing the viewpoint sampling technique, the overall computation can be greatly reduced so that the dissimilarity is obtained rapidly without loss of accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves fast and accurate measurement of shape dissimilarity for different types of 3D object models.

  16. Particle System Based Adaptive Sampling on Spherical Parameter Space to Improve the MDL Method for Construction of Statistical Shape Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum description length (MDL based group-wise registration was a state-of-the-art method to determine the corresponding points of 3D shapes for the construction of statistical shape models (SSMs. However, it suffered from the problem that determined corresponding points did not uniformly spread on original shapes, since corresponding points were obtained by uniformly sampling the aligned shape on the parameterized space of unit sphere. We proposed a particle-system based method to obtain adaptive sampling positions on the unit sphere to resolve this problem. Here, a set of particles was placed on the unit sphere to construct a particle system whose energy was related to the distortions of parameterized meshes. By minimizing this energy, each particle was moved on the unit sphere. When the system became steady, particles were treated as vertices to build a spherical mesh, which was then relaxed to slightly adjust vertices to obtain optimal sampling-positions. We used 47 cases of (left and right lungs and 50 cases of livers, (left and right kidneys, and spleens for evaluations. Experiments showed that the proposed method was able to resolve the problem of the original MDL method, and the proposed method performed better in the generalization and specificity tests.

  17. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  18. Improved non-dimensional dynamic influence function method for vibration analysis of arbitrarily shaped plates with clamped edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new formulation for the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method, which was developed by the authors, is proposed to efficiently extract eigenvalues and mode shapes of clamped plates with arbitrary shapes. Compared with the finite element and boundary element methods, the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method yields highly accurate solutions in eigenvalue analysis problems of plates and membranes including acoustic cavities. However, the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method requires the uneconomic procedure of calculating the singularity of a system matrix in the frequency range of interest for extracting eigenvalues because it produces a non-algebraic eigenvalue problem. This article describes a new approach that reduces the problem of free vibrations of clamped plates to an algebraic eigenvalue problem, the solution of which is straightforward. The validity and efficiency of the proposed method are illustrated through several numerical examples.

  19. Transient Analysis of Dispersive Power-Ground Plate Pairs With Arbitrarily Shaped Antipads by the DGTD Method With Wave Port Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2016-09-09

    A discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method analyzing signal/power integrity on multilayered power-ground parallel plate pairs is proposed. The excitation is realized by introducing wave ports on the antipads where electric/magnetic current sources are represented in terms of the eigenmodes of the antipads. Since closed-forms solutions do not exist for the eigenmodes of the arbitrarily shaped antipads, they have to be calculated using numerical schemes. Spatial orthogonality of the eigenmodes permits determination of each mode\\'s temporal expansion coefficient by integrating the product of the electric field and the mode over the wave port. The temporal mode coefficients are then Fourier transformed to accurately calculate the S-parameters corresponding to different modes. Additionally, to generalize the DGTD to manipulate dispersive media, the auxiliary differential equation method is employed. This is done by introducing a time-dependent polarization volume current as an auxiliary unknown and the constitutive relation between this current and the electric field as an auxiliary equation. Consequently, computationally expensive temporal convolution is avoided. Various numerical examples, which demonstrate the applicability, robustness, and accuracy of the proposed method, are presented.

  20. Influence of the parameters of supplying pulses and polarization voltage on the signal and shape of current characteristics of the electron capture detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.; Sliwka, I.; Drozdowicz, B.

    1989-01-01

    The paper contains results of measurements of current characteristics and of the signal for the constant concentration of freon F-11 of the ECD supplied with pulse voltage of changeable time of pulse duration t p , amplitude U 1 and the time of pulse repetition t r . In the course of measurements the detector worked at temperature 573 K with the additional constant polarization voltage. The polarization voltage has been observed to cause the effect of hypercoulometry. The presented mathematical analysis helps to determine the values of the coefficient of efficiency of electron capture p, the coefficient of electron loss k D , the coefficient of collecting of electric charges by the anode k' 3 and the coefficient of collecting of electric charges by the detector cathode k u . The coefficients are determined on the basis of experimental measurements. An attempt of physical interpretation of calculated values of these coefficients and their dependence on the parameters of the pulses supplying the detector has been presented. This interpretation requires the assumption that in some pulse periods t r the concentration of positive ions in the detector considerably exceeds concentration n 0 + = √a xα e /V, where a is an efficiency of the carrier gas ionization, α e is the coefficient of the electron-ion recombination and V is the detector volume. This statement helping to describe the effects observed in the electron capture polarized by voltage U a contradicts the recognized concept that the concentration of positive ions in the detector does not exceed the concentration n 0 + . The paper shows that the detector of the cylindrical construction, supplied with a pulse voltage can be used for coulometric measurements and the voltage polarizing the cathode can cause an effect of hypercoulometry. 33 figs., 9 refs. (author)

  1. The role of Pleistocene glaciations in shaping the evolution of polar and brown bears. Evidence from a critical review of mitochondrial and nuclear genome analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    In this report, I review recent molecular studies dealing with the origin and evolution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), with special emphasis on their relationships with brown bears (U. arctos). On the basis of mitochondrial and nuclear data, different hypotheses have been proposed, including rapid morphological differentiation of U. maritimus, genetic introgression from U. arctos into U. maritimus, or inversely from U. maritimus into U. arctos, involving either male- or female-mediated gene flow. In the light of available molecular and eco-ethological data, I suggest, firstly, that all divergences among major clades of large bears can be linked to glacial periods, secondly, that polar bears diverged from brown bears before 530 thousand years ago (ka), during one of the three glacial marine isotope stages (MIS) 14, 15.2 or 16, and, thirdly, that genetic introgression had occurred from female polar bears into brown bear populations during at least two glacial periods, at 340 ± 10 ka (MIS 10) in western Europe, and at 155 ± 5 ka (MIS 6) on the ABC islands of southeastern Alaska, and probably also in Beringia and Ireland based on ancient DNA sequences. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. New method for preparing a liquid crystal polymer that exhibits linearly polarized white fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shijun; Kun, Wang; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of developing a single-chain white-light-emitting polymer, liquid crystal (LC) polymers with a shish-kebab-type moiety on their cross-conjugated (p-phenylene)s-poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s main chain were synthesized by Gilch polymerization. They were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). 1 H-NMR indicated that the polymers had a shish-kebab structure, which strongly suppressed the formation of structural defects in the polymers. DSC revealed that the polymers had thermotropic LC properties, indicating that the LC polymers were enantiotropic. XRD showed that the polymers had a mesophase, which implies that they were in a smectic LC phase. A polymer with 'kebabs' of 2,5-bis(4'-alkoxyphenyl)benzene was combined with an aligned polyimide film with orientated microgrooves. The polymer main chain was aligned due to the orientation of the 'kebabs' of the uniform cross-conjugated structure. It lay between the kebabs and the 'shish' of the polymer main chains. The aligned polymer main chain emitted yellow light while and the oriented LC side chains emitted blue light emission. These two emissions resulted in linearly polarized white fluorescence.

  3. Analysis of polarization methods for elimination of power overshoot in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Polarization curves from microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show an unexpectedly large drop in voltage with increased current densities, leading to a phenomenon in the power density curve referred to as "power overshoot". Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV, 1 mV s- 1) and variable external resistances (at fixed intervals of 20 min) over a single fed-batch cycle in an MFC both resulted in power overshoot in power density curves due to anode potentials. Increasing the anode enrichment time from 30 days to 100 days did not eliminate overshoot, suggesting that insufficient enrichment of the anode biofilm was not the primary cause. Running the reactor at a fixed resistance for a full fed-batch cycle (~ 1 to 2 days), however, completely eliminated the overshoot in the power density curve. These results show that long times at a fixed resistance are needed to stabilize current generation by bacteria in MFCs, and that even relatively slow LSV scan rates and long times between switching circuit loads during a fed-batch cycle may produce inaccurate polarization and power density results for these biological systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A method for automatic grain segmentation of multi-angle cross-polarized microscopic images of sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Gu, Qing; Hao, Huizhen; Li, Na; Wang, Bingqian; Hu, Xiumian

    2018-06-01

    Automatic grain segmentation of sandstone is to partition mineral grains into separate regions in the thin section, which is the first step for computer aided mineral identification and sandstone classification. The sandstone microscopic images contain a large number of mixed mineral grains where differences among adjacent grains, i.e., quartz, feldspar and lithic grains, are usually ambiguous, which make grain segmentation difficult. In this paper, we take advantage of multi-angle cross-polarized microscopic images and propose a method for grain segmentation with high accuracy. The method consists of two stages, in the first stage, we enhance the SLIC (Simple Linear Iterative Clustering) algorithm, named MSLIC, to make use of multi-angle images and segment the images as boundary adherent superpixels. In the second stage, we propose the region merging technique which combines the coarse merging and fine merging algorithms. The coarse merging merges the adjacent superpixels with less evident boundaries, and the fine merging merges the ambiguous superpixels using the spatial enhanced fuzzy clustering. Experiments are designed on 9 sets of multi-angle cross-polarized images taken from the three major types of sandstones. The results demonstrate both the effectiveness and potential of the proposed method, comparing to the available segmentation methods.

  5. Determination of the shape factor of 90Sr by means of the cutoff energy yield method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Kossert, K.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2008-01-01

    Usually, Kurie plots are used to analyze beta-spectra shape-factor functions measured by means of semiconductor and magnetic spectrometers. A drawback of these techniques is the occurrence of self-absorption within the samples through which the emission spectrum is altered. In liquid-scintillation samples self-absorption does not occur, but the poor energy resolution makes the analysis of the spectra difficult. To overcome this problem, two resolution-invariant observables are used for determining the shape-factor function of 90 Sr: (1) the maximum point energy and (2) the cutoff energy yield. The measured shape-factor function of 90 Sr agrees with the one which is predicted by theory for the first-forbidden unique transition

  6. Investigating preferences for colour-shape combinations with gaze driven optimization method based on evolutionary algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eHolmes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying aesthetic preference is notoriously difficult because it targets individual experience. Eye movements provide a rich source of behavioural measures that directly reflect subjective choice. To determine individual preferences for simple composition rules we here use fixation duration as the fitness measure in a Gaze Driven Evolutionary Algorithm (GDEA, which has been used as a tool to identify aesthetic preferences (Holmes & Zanker, 2012. In the present study, the GDEA was used to investigate the preferred combination of colour and shape which have been promoted in the Bauhaus arts school. We used the same 3 shapes (square, circle, triangle used by Kandinsky (1923, with the 3 colour palette from the original experiment (A, an extended 7 colour palette (B, and 8 different shape orientation (C. Participants were instructed to look for their preferred circle, triangle or square in displays with 8 stimuli of different shapes, colours and rotations, in an attempt to test for a strong preference for red squares, yellow triangles and blue circles in such an unbiased experimental design and with an extended set of possible combinations. We Tested 6 participants extensively on the different conditions and found consistent preferences for individuals, but little evidence at the group level for preference consistent with Kandinsky’s claims, apart from some weak link between yellow and triangles. Our findings suggest substantial inter-individual differences in the presence of stable individual associations of colour and shapes, but also that these associations are robust within a single individual. These individual differences go some way towards challenging the claims of the universal preference for colour/shape combinations proposed by Kandinsky, but also indicate that a much larger sample size would be needed to confidently reject that hypothesis. Moreover, these experiments highlight the vast potential of the GDEA in experimental aesthetics

  7. [A non-invasive glucose measurement method based on orthogonal twin-polarized light and its pilot experimental investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Baoming; Liu, Ding

    2010-04-01

    In order to overcome the existing shortcomings of the non-invasive blood glucose polarized light measurement methods of optical heterodyne detection and direct detection, we present in this paper a new orthogonal twin-polarized light (OTPL) non-invasive blood glucose measurement method, which converts the micro-angle rotated by an optical active substance such as glucose to the energy difference of OTPL, amplifies the signals by the high-sensitivity lock-in amplifier made of relevant principle, controls Faraday coil current to compensate the changes in deflection angle caused by blood glucose, and makes use of the linear relationship between blood glucose concentration and Faraday coil current to calculate blood glucose concentration. In our comparative experiment using the data measured by LX-20 automatic biochemical analyzer as a standard, a 0.9777 correlation coefficient is obtained in glucose concentration experiment, and a 0.952 in serum experiment. The result shows that this method has higher detection sensitivity and accuracy and lays a foundation for the development of practical new type of non-invasive blood glucose tester for diabetic patients.

  8. A Few Comments on Determining the Shapes of Hyperboloid Cooling Towers by the Means of Ambient Tangents Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jasińska, Elżbieta; Preweda, Edward

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the contemplations on determining the parameters of location and shape of the model hyperboloid cooling tower by the means of the ambient tangents method. The attention has been drawn to the method of determining the so-called length of the tangent, understood as the horizontal distance between the station and the points of tangency with the structure, as well as to the impact of calculation of this length on the parameters of the shell being determined. The calculations of...

  9. Application of the adiabatic self-consistent collective coordinate method to a solvable model of prolate-oblate shape coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayasi, Masato; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    The adiabatic self-consistent collective coordinate method is applied to an exactly solvable multi-O(4) model that is designed to describe nuclear shape coexistence phenomena. The collective mass and dynamics of large amplitude collective motion in this model system are analyzed, and it is shown that the method yields a faithful description of tunneling motion through a barrier between the prolate and oblate local minima in the collective potential. The emergence of the doublet pattern is clearly described. (author)

  10. Control by Interconnection and Energy-Shaping Methods of Port Hamiltonian Models. Application to the Shallow Water Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Hamroun , Boussad; Dimofte , Alexandru; Lefevre , Laurent; Mendes , Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    International audience; — In this paper a control algorithm for the reduced port-Controlled Hamiltonian model (PCH) of the shallow water equations (PDEs) is developed. This control is developed using the Interconnection and Damping Assignment Passivity Based Control (IDA-PBC) method on the reduced PCH model without the natural dissipation. It allows to assign desired structure and energy function to the closed loop system. The same control law is then derived using an energy shaping method ba...

  11. Jet production in the CoLoRFulNNLO method: event shapes in electron-positron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Del Duca, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We present the CoLoRFulNNLO method to compute higher order radiative corrections to jet cross sections in perturbative QCD. We apply our method to the computation of event shape observables in electron-positron collisions at NNLO accuracy and validate our code by comparing our predictions to previous results in the literature. We also calculate for the first time jet cone energy fraction at NNLO.

  12. Development of an integrated Sasang constitution diagnosis method using face, body shape, voice, and questionnaire information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jun-Hyeong; Jang, Eunsu; Ku, Boncho; Jang, Jun-Su; Kim, Honggie; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2012-07-04

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique form of traditional Korean medicine that divides human beings into four constitutional types (Tae-Yang: TY, Tae-Eum: TE, So-Yang: SY, and So-Eum: SE), which differ in inherited characteristics, such as external appearance, personality traits, susceptibility to particular diseases, drug responses, and equilibrium among internal organ functions. According to SCM, herbs that belong to a certain constitution cannot be used in patients with other constitutions; otherwise, this practice may result in no effect or in an adverse effect. Thus, the diagnosis of SC type is the most crucial step in SCM practice. The diagnosis, however, tends to be subjective due to a lack of quantitative standards for SC diagnosis. We have attempted to make the diagnosis method as objective as possible by basing it on an analysis of quantitative data from various Oriental medical clinics. Four individual diagnostic models were developed with multinomial logistic regression based on face, body shape, voice, and questionnaire responses. Inspired by SCM practitioners' holistic diagnostic processes, an integrated diagnostic model was then proposed by combining the four individual models. The diagnostic accuracies in the test set, after the four individual models had been integrated into a single model, improved to 64.0% and 55.2% in the male and female patient groups, respectively. Using a cut-off value for the integrated SC score, such as 1.6, the accuracies increased by 14.7% in male patients and by 4.6% in female patients, which showed that a higher integrated SC score corresponded to a higher diagnostic accuracy. This study represents the first trial of integrating the objectification of SC diagnosis based on quantitative data and SCM practitioners' holistic diagnostic processes. Although the diagnostic accuracy was not great, it is noted that the proposed diagnostic model represents common rules among practitioners who have various points of

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the Galerkin finite element method neutron diffusion solver to the shape of the elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Seyed Abolfaz [Dept. of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The purpose of the present study is the presentation of the appropriate element and shape function in the solution of the neutron diffusion equation in two-dimensional (2D) geometries. To this end, the multigroup neutron diffusion equation is solved using the Galerkin finite element method in both rectangular and hexagonal reactor cores. The spatial discretization of the equation is performed using unstructured triangular and quadrilateral finite elements. Calculations are performed using both linear and quadratic approximations of shape function in the Galerkin finite element method, based on which results are compared. Using the power iteration method, the neutron flux distributions with the corresponding eigenvalue are obtained. The results are then validated against the valid results for IAEA-2D and BIBLIS-2D benchmark problems. To investigate the dependency of the results to the type and number of the elements, and shape function order, a sensitivity analysis of the calculations to the mentioned parameters is performed. It is shown that the triangular elements and second order of the shape function in each element give the best results in comparison to the other states.

  14. Systems and methods for selective detection and imaging in coherent Raman microscopy by spectral excitation shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Freudiger, Christian; Min, Wei

    2016-03-15

    A microscopy imaging system is disclosed that includes a light source system, a spectral shaper, a modulator system, an optics system, an optical detector and a processor. The light source system is for providing a first train of pulses and a second train of pulses. The spectral shaper is for spectrally modifying an optical property of at least some frequency components of the broadband range of frequency components such that the broadband range of frequency components is shaped producing a shaped first train of pulses to specifically probe a spectral feature of interest from a sample, and to reduce information from features that are not of interest from the sample. The modulator system is for modulating a property of at least one of the shaped first train of pulses and the second train of pulses at a modulation frequency. The optical detector is for detecting an integrated intensity of substantially all optical frequency components of a train of pulses of interest transmitted or reflected through the common focal volume. The processor is for detecting a modulation at the modulation frequency of the integrated intensity of substantially all of the optical frequency components of the train of pulses of interest due to the non-linear interaction of the shaped first train of pulses with the second train of pulses as modulated in the common focal volume, and for providing an output signal for a pixel of an image for the microscopy imaging system.

  15. Microscopical approach of the shape coexistence phenomenon using Adiabatic SCC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinohara, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    Using the multi-O(4) model as a simple model of oblate-prolate shape coexistence, we show that contribution from time-old components of mean field to mass parameter (inertia function) is very important for large amplitude collective motion. (author)

  16. Beam shape coefficients calculation for an elliptical Gaussian beam with 1-dimensional quadrature and localized approximation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shen, Jianqi

    2018-06-01

    The use of a shaped beam for applications relying on light scattering depends much on the ability to evaluate the beam shape coefficients (BSC) effectively. Numerical techniques for evaluating the BSCs of a shaped beam, such as the quadrature, the localized approximation (LA), the integral localized approximation (ILA) methods, have been developed within the framework of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT). The quadrature methods usually employ the 2-/3-dimensional integrations. In this work, the expressions of the BSCs for an elliptical Gaussian beam (EGB) are simplified into the 1-dimensional integral so as to speed up the numerical computation. Numerical results of BSCs are used to reconstruct the beam field and the fidelity of the reconstructed field to the given beam field is estimated. It is demonstrated that the proposed method is much faster than the 2-dimensional integrations and it can acquire more accurate results than the LA method. Limitations of the quadrature method and also the LA method in the numerical calculation are analyzed in detail.

  17. An Experimental Study on the Shape Changes of TiO2 Nanocrystals Synthesized by Microemulsion-Solvothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanocrystals of different shape were successfully synthesized in a new microemulsion system through a solvothermal process. The TiO2 nanocrystals were prepared from the reaction of tetrabutyl titanate (TBT, H2O, and oleic acid (OA, which were used as solvent and surfactant at 300∘C and 240∘C in a stainless steel autoclave. The sphere, polygon, and rhombus-shaped nanocrystals have been prepared at 300∘C and the dot- and- rod shaped nanocrystals have been synthesized at 240∘C. The effect of the reaction time on the shape and size of TiO2 nanocrystals in this method was studied in the present paper. The size distribution of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared at 300∘C for different hours is also studied. In addition, an attempt to describe the mechanism of shape change of TiO2 nanocrystals was presented in this paper.

  18. From global to local statistical shape priors novel methods to obtain accurate reconstruction results with a limited amount of training shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Last, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    This book proposes a new approach to handle the problem of limited training data. Common approaches to cope with this problem are to model the shape variability independently across predefined segments or to allow artificial shape variations that cannot be explained through the training data, both of which have their drawbacks. The approach presented uses a local shape prior in each element of the underlying data domain and couples all local shape priors via smoothness constraints. The book provides a sound mathematical foundation in order to embed this new shape prior formulation into the well-known variational image segmentation framework. The new segmentation approach so obtained allows accurate reconstruction of even complex object classes with only a few training shapes at hand.

  19. METHOD FOR PROVIDING SHAPED BIODEGRADABLE AND ELASTOMERIC STRUCTURES OF (CO) POLYMERS OF 1,3-TRIMETHYLENE CARBONATE (TMC), SHAPED BIODEGRADABLE AND ELASTOMERIC STRUCTURES, AND THE USE OF THESE STRUCTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpma, D.W.; Pêgo, A.P.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for providing shaped biodegradable and elastomeric structures of (co)polymers of 1,3­trimethylene carbonate (TMC) with improved (mechanical) properties which can be used for tissue or tissue component support, generation or regeneration. Such shaped

  20. A method for assessment of the shape of the proximal femur and its relationship to osteoporotic hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J S; Testi, D; Stewart, A; Undrill, P E; Reid, D M; Aspden, R M

    2004-01-01

    The shape of the proximal femur has been demonstrated to be important in the occurrence of fractures of the femoral neck. Unfortunately, multiple geometric measurements frequently used to describe this shape are highly correlated. A new method, active shape modeling (ASM) has been developed to quantify the morphology of the femur. This describes the shape in terms of orthogonal modes of variation that, consequently, are all independent. To test this method, digitized standard pelvic radiographs were obtained from 26 women who had suffered a hip fracture and compared with images from 24 age-matched controls with no fracture. All subjects also had their bone mineral density (BMD) measured at five sites using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An ASM was developed and principal components analysis used to identify the modes which best described the shape. Discriminant analysis was used to determine which variable, or combination of variables, was best able to discriminate between the groups. ASM alone correctly identified 74% of the individuals and placed them in the appropriate group. Only one of the BMD values (Ward's triangle) achieved a higher value (82%). A combination of Ward's triangle BMD and ASM improved the accuracy to 90%. Geometric variables used in this study were weaker, correctly classifying less than 60% of the study group. Logistic regression showed that after adjustment for age, body mass index, and BMD, the ASM data was still independently associated with hip fracture (odds ratio (OR)=1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 3.11). The odds ratio was calculated relative to a 10% increase in the probability of belonging to the fracture group. Though these initial results were obtained from a limited data set, this study shows that ASM may be a powerful method to help identify individuals at risk of a hip fracture in the future.

  1. Testing for Gender Related Size and Shape Differences of the Human Ear canal using Statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2002-01-01

    surface models are built by using the anatomical landmarks to warp a template mesh onto all shapes in the training set. Testing the gender related differences is done by initially reducing the dimensionality using principal component analysis of the vertices of the warped meshes. The number of components...... to retain is chosen using Horn's parallel analysis. Finally a multivariate analysis of variance is performed on these components....

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-05-09

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  3. Measurements of Polarization Transfers in Real Compton Scattering by a proton target at JLAB. A new source of information on the 3D shape of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanelli, Cristiano V. [Sapienza Univ. of Rome (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    In this thesis work, results of the analysis of the polarization transfers measured in real Compton scattering (RCS) by the Collaboration E07-002 at the Je fferson Lab Hall-C are presented. The data were collected at large scattering angle (theta_cm = 70deg) and with a polarized incident photon beam at an average energy of 3.8 GeV. Such a kind of experiments allows one to understand more deeply the reaction mechanism, that involves a real photon, by extracting both Compton form factors and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) (also relevant for possibly shedding light on the total angular momentum of the nucleon). The obtained results for the longitudinal and transverse polarization transfers K_LL and K_LT, are of crucial importance, since they confirm unambiguously the disagreement between experimental data and pQCD prediction, as it was found in E99-114 experiment, and favor the Handbag mechanism. The E99-114 and E07-002 results can contribute to attract new interest on the great yield of the Compton scattering by a nucleon target, as demonstrated by the recent approval of an experimental proposal submitted to the Jefferson Lab PAC 42 for a Wide-angle Compton Scattering experiment, at 8 and 10 GeV Photon Energies. The new experiments approved to run with the updated 12 GeV electron beam at JLab, are characterized by much higher luminosities, and a new GEM tracker is under development to tackle the challenging backgrounds. Within this context, we present a new multistep tracking algorithm, based on (i) a Neural Network (NN) designed for a fast and efficient association of the hits measured by the GEM detector which allows the track identification, and (ii) the application of both a Kalman filter and Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother to further improve the track reconstruction. The full procedure, i.e. NN and filtering, appears very promising, with high performances in terms of both association effciency and reconstruction accuracy, and these preliminary results will

  4. Fast and Simple Method for Evaluation of Polarization Correction to Propagation Constant of Arbitrary Order Guided Modes in Optical Fibers with Arbitrary Refractive Index Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Bourdine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents fast and simple method for evaluation of polarization correction to scalar propagation constant of arbitrary order guided modes propagating over weakly guiding optical fibers. Proposed solution is based on earlier on developed modified Gaussian approximation extended for analysis of weakly guiding optical fibers with arbitrary refractive index profile in the core region bounded by single solid outer cladding. Some results are presented that illustrate the decreasing of computational error during the estimation of propagation constant when polarization corrections are taken into account. Analytical expressions for the first and second derivatives of polarization correction are derived and presented.

  5. BLANK SHAPE OPTIMIZATION ON DEEP DRAWING OF A TWIN ELLIPTICAL CUP USING THE REDUCED BASIS TECHNIQUE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hasanzadeh Golshani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this project thesis, initial blank shape optimization of a twin elliptical cup to reduce earring phenomenon in anisotropic sheet deep drawing process was studied .The purpose of this study is optimization of initial blank for reduction of the ears height value. The optimization process carried out using finite element method approach, which is coupled with Taguchi design of experiments and reduced basis technique methods. The deep drawing process was simulated in FEM software ABAQUS 6.12. The results of optimization show earring height and, in addition, a number of design variables and time of process can be reduced by using this methods. After optimization process with the proposed method, the maximum reduction of the earring height would be from 21.08 mm to 0.07 mm and also it could be reduced to 0 in some of the directions. The proposed optimization design in this article allows the designers to select the practical basis shapes. This leads to obtain better results at the end of the optimization process, to reduce design variables, and also to prevent repeating the optimization steps for indirect shapes.

  6. Joint 2D-DOA and Frequency Estimation for L-Shaped Array Using Iterative Least Squares Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yun Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an iterative least squares method (ILS for estimating the 2D-DOA and frequency based on L-shaped array. The ILS iteratively finds direction matrix and delay matrix, then 2D-DOA and frequency can be obtained by the least squares method. Without spectral peak searching and pairing, this algorithm works well and pairs the parameters automatically. Moreover, our algorithm has better performance than conventional ESPRIT algorithm and propagator method. The useful behavior of the proposed algorithm is verified by simulations.

  7. A Novel Ship Detection Method Based on Gradient and Integral Feature for Single-Polarization Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Shi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of remote sensing technologies, SAR satellites like China’s Gaofen-3 satellite have more imaging modes and higher resolution. With the availability of high-resolution SAR images, automatic ship target detection has become an important topic in maritime research. In this paper, a novel ship detection method based on gradient and integral features is proposed. This method is mainly composed of three steps. First, in the preprocessing step, a filter is employed to smooth the clutters and the smoothing effect can be adaptive adjusted according to the statistics information of the sub-window. Thus, it can retain details while achieving noise suppression. Second, in the candidate area extraction, a sea-land segmentation method based on gradient enhancement is presented. The integral image method is employed to accelerate computation. Finally, in the ship target identification step, a feature extraction strategy based on Haar-like gradient information and a Radon transform is proposed. This strategy decreases the number of templates found in traditional Haar-like methods. Experiments were performed using Gaofen-3 single-polarization SAR images, and the results showed that the proposed method has high detection accuracy and rapid computational efficiency. In addition, this method has the potential for on-board processing.

  8. Polarized particles in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Kondratenko, A.M.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Tumajkin, G.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams on the VEPP-2M and SPEAK storage rings are described. Possible methods of producing polarized particle beams in storage rings as well as method of polarization monitoring are counted. Considered are the processes of radiation polarization of electrons and positrons. It is shown, that to preserve radiation polarization the introduction of regions with a strong sign-variable magnetic field is recommended. Methods of polarization measurement are counted. It is suggested for high energies to use dependence of synchrotron radiation power on transverse polarization of electrons and positrons. Examples of using polarizability of colliding beams in storage rings are presented

  9. A new automated method for analysis of gated-SPECT images based on a three-dimensional heart shaped model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomsky, Milan; Richter, Jens; Johansson, Lena

    2005-01-01

    A new automated method for quantification of left ventricular function from gated-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images has been developed. The method for quantification of cardiac function (CAFU) is based on a heart shaped model and the active shape algorithm. The model....... The maximal differences between the CAFU estimations and the true left ventricular volumes of the digital phantoms were 11 ml for the end-diastolic volume (EDV), 3 ml for the end-systolic volume (ESV) and 3% for the ejection fraction (EF). The largest differences were seen in the smallest heart....... In the patient group the EDV calculated using QGS and CAFU showed good agreement for large hearts and higher CAFU values compared with QGS for the smaller hearts. In the larger hearts, ESV was much larger for QGS than for CAFU both in the phantom and patient studies. In the smallest hearts there was good...

  10. Pyrene absorption can be a convenient method for probing critical micellar concentration (cmc) and indexing micellar polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Ray, Gargi; Chakraborty, Indranil; Moulik, Satya P

    2006-02-01

    The critical micellar concentration (cmc) of both ionic and non-ionic surfactants can be conveniently determined from the measurements of UV absorption of pyrene in surfactant solution. The results on a number of surfactants have agreed with that realized from pyrene fluorescence measurements as well as that obtained following conductometric, tensiometric and calorimetric methods. The absorbance vs [surfactant] profiles for all the major UV spectral peaks of pyrene have been found to be sigmoidal in nature which were analyzed according to Sigmoidal-Boltzmann equation (SBE) to evaluate the cmcs of the studied surfactants. The difference between the initial and the final asymptotes (a(i) and a(f), respectively) of the sigmoidal profile, Delta a = (a(f)-a(i)) and the slope of the sigmoid, S(sig) have been observed to depend on the type of the surfactant. The Delta a has shown a linear correlation with the ratio of the fluorescence intensities of the first and the third vibronic peaks, I1/I3 of pyrene which is considered as a measure of the environmental polarity (herein micellar interior) of the probe (pyrene). Thus, Delta a values have the prospect for use as another index for the estimation of polarity of micellar interior.

  11. Shape Reconstruction of Thin Electromagnetic Inclusions via Boundary Measurements: Level-Set Method Combined with the Topological Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Kwang Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An inverse problem for reconstructing arbitrary-shaped thin penetrable electromagnetic inclusions concealed in a homogeneous material is considered in this paper. For this purpose, the level-set evolution method is adopted. The topological derivative concept is incorporated in order to evaluate the evolution speed of the level-set functions. The results of the corresponding numerical simulations with and without noise are presented in this paper.

  12. Standard test method for measuring rolling friction characteristics of a spherical shape on a flat horizontal plane

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the use of an angled launch ramp to initiate rolling of a sphere or nearly spherical shape on a flat horizontal surface to determine the rolling friction characteristics of a given spherical shape on a given surface. 1.1.1 Steel balls on a surface plate were used in interlaboratory tests (see Appendix X1). Golf balls on a green, soccer and lacrosse balls on playing surfaces, bowling balls on an a lane, basketballs on hardwood, and marbles on composite surface were tested in the development of this test method, but the test applies to any sphere rolling on any flat horizontal surface. 1.1.2 The rolling friction of spheres on horizontal surfaces is affected by the spherical shape’s stiffness, radius of curvature, surface texture, films on the surface, the nature of the counterface surface; there are many factors to consider. This test method takes all of these factors into consideration. The spherical shape of interest is rolled on the surface of interest using a standard ramp to...

  13. Volume Measurement Algorithm for Food Product with Irregular Shape using Computer Vision based on Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Siswantoro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volume is one of important issues in the production and processing of food product. Traditionally, volume measurement can be performed using water displacement method based on Archimedes’ principle. Water displacement method is inaccurate and considered as destructive method. Computer vision offers an accurate and nondestructive method in measuring volume of food product. This paper proposes algorithm for volume measurement of irregular shape food product using computer vision based on Monte Carlo method. Five images of object were acquired from five different views and then processed to obtain the silhouettes of object. From the silhouettes of object, Monte Carlo method was performed to approximate the volume of object. The simulation result shows that the algorithm produced high accuracy and precision for volume measurement.

  14. Computation of fields in an arbitrarily shaped heterogeneous dielectric or biological body by an iterative conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.J.H.; Dubberley, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) fields in a three-dimensional, arbitrarily shaped heterogeneous dielectric or biological body illuminated by a plane wave are computed by an iterative conjugate gradient method. The method is a generalized method of moments applied to the volume integral equation. Because no matrix is explicitly involved or stored, the present iterative method is capable of computing EM fields in objects an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by the conventional method of moments. Excellent numerical convergence is achieved. Perfect convergence to the result of the conventional moment method using the same basis and weighted with delta functions is consistently achieved in all the cases computed, indicating that these two algorithms (direct and interactive) are equivalent

  15. A novel method for shape analysis: deformation of bubbles during wire drawing in doped tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmat, P.; Bartha, L.; Grosz, T.; Rosta, L.

    2001-01-01

    A novel technique has been developed for monitoring shape and size of microscopic pores, bubbles, second phase particles in deformed PM materials. The anisotropic small angle neutron scattering (ASANS) measurement provides direct visualization of the shape of second phase objects after rolling, swaging, wire drawing. Also in case of mixture of different objects e. g. uniformly elongated bubbles and spherical ones they can be separated and their morphological parameters like relative number density, diameter, aspect ratio can be obtained from the quantitative analysis of ASANS data. Rods and wires from K-AI-Si doped tungsten containing residual porosity and K filled bubbles were studied from 6 mm to 0.2 mm in diameter. The increase of the average aspect ratio (∼1/d) was found to be much slower than expected from the usual theory (∼1/d 3 ). Instead of 'constant volume' assumption, the 'constant length' seems to be reliable. The ASANS investigation revealed also the occurrence of a small amount of spherical bubbles after several steps of wire drawing. (author)

  16. Performance for the hybrid method using stochastic and deterministic searching for shape optimization of electromagnetic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokose, Yoshio; Noguchi, So; Yamashita, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    Stochastic methods and deterministic methods are used for the problem of optimization of electromagnetic devices. The Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are used for one stochastic method in multivariable designs, and the deterministic method uses the gradient method, which is applied sensitivity of the objective function. These two techniques have benefits and faults. In this paper, the characteristics of those techniques are described. Then, research evaluates the technique by which two methods are used together. Next, the results of the comparison are described by applying each method to electromagnetic devices. (Author)

  17. An optical liquid level sensor based on core-offset fusion splicing method using polarization-maintaining fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Weimin; Chen, Debao; Shen, Changyu; Lu, Yanfang; Liu, Huanan; Wei, Jian

    2016-01-01

    A simple liquid level sensor using a small piece of hydrofluoric acid (HF) etched polarization maintaining fiber (PMF), with SMF-PMF-SMF fiber structure based on Mach- Zehnder interference (MZI) mechanism is proposed. The core-offset fusion splicing method induced cladding modes interfere with the core mode. Moreover, the changing liquid level would influence the optical path difference of the MZI since the effective refractive indices of the air and the liquid is different. Both the variations of the wavelength shifts and power intensity attenuation corresponding to the liquid level can be obtained with a sensitivity of 0.4956nm/mm and 0.2204dB/mm, respectively.

  18. Distribution of conductive minerals as associated with uranium minerals at Dendang Arai sector by induced polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurdin, M.; Nikijuluw, N.; Subardjo; Sudarto, S.

    2000-01-01

    Based on previous investigation results, a favourable zone of 20-80 meters in wide, 80-240 meters in length and in the direction of East-West to Northwest-Southeast was found. The favourable zone is conductor, associated with sulfide. Induced polarization method has been applied to find vertical and horizontal sulfide distribution. The measurement was conducted in perpendicular to lateral direction of the conductive zone in an interval of 20 meters. Properties measured are apparent resistivity and charge ability. Measurement results indicated the presence of sulfide zone with the position and dip are sub-vertical. Sulfide zones were found on the fault cross-point with the directions being East-West to East South East-West North West by fault is North-South. This anomalies were then represented in 3 (three) dimension tomographic model. (author)

  19. The polarization of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The present work is the review of polarization of fast neutrons and methods of polarization analysis. This also includes information about polarization of fast neutrons from first papers, which described polarization in the D(d,n) 3 He, 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be, and T(p,n) 3 He reactions. (authors)

  20. Multi-objective optimization of an arch dam shape under static loads using an evolutionary game method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rui; Cheong, Kang Hao; Bao, Wei; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Wang, Lu; Xie, Neng-gang

    2018-06-01

    This article attempts to evaluate the safety and economic performance of an arch dam under the action of static loads. The geometric description of a crown cantilever section and the horizontal arch ring is presented. A three-objective optimization model of arch dam shape is established based on the arch dam volume, maximum principal tensile stress and total strain energy. The evolutionary game method is then applied to obtain the optimal solution. In the evolutionary game technique, a novel and more efficient exploration method of the game players' strategy space, named the 'sorting partition method under the threshold limit', is presented, with the game profit functions constructed according to both competitive and cooperative behaviour. By way of example, three optimization goals have all shown improvements over the initial solutions. In particular, the evolutionary game method has potentially faster convergence. This demonstrates the preliminary proof of principle of the evolutionary game method.

  1. Evaluation of expansion algorithm of measurement range suited for 3D shape measurement using two pitches of projected grating with light source-stepping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Toshimasa; Fujigaki, Motoharu; Murata, Yorinobu

    2015-03-01

    Accurate and wide-range shape measurement method is required in industrial field. The same technique is possible to be used for a shape measurement of a human body for the garment industry. Compact 3D shape measurement equipment is also required for embedding in the inspection system. A shape measurement by a phase shifting method can measure the shape with high spatial resolution because the coordinates can be obtained pixel by pixel. A key-device to develop compact equipment is a grating projector. Authors developed a linear LED projector and proposed a light source stepping method (LSSM) using the linear LED projector. The shape measurement euipment can be produced with low-cost and compact without any phase-shifting mechanical systems by using this method. Also it enables us to measure 3D shape in very short time by switching the light sources quickly. A phase unwrapping method is necessary to widen the measurement range with constant accuracy for phase shifting method. A general phase unwrapping method with difference grating pitches is often used. It is one of a simple phase unwrapping method. It is, however, difficult to apply the conventional phase unwrapping algorithm to the LSSM. Authors, therefore, developed an expansion unwrapping algorithm for the LSSM. In this paper, an expansion algorithm of measurement range suited for 3D shape measurement using two pitches of projected grating with the LSSM was evaluated.

  2. Design of a 50/50 splitting ratio non-polarizing beam splitter based on the modal method with fused-silica transmission gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huajun; Yuan, Dairong; Ming, Hai

    2011-04-01

    The optical design of a beam splitter that has a 50/50 splitting ratio regardless of the polarization is presented. The non-polarizing beam splitter (NPBS) is based on the fused-silica rectangular transmission gratings with high intensity tolerance. The modal method has been used to estimate the effective index of the modes excited in the grating region for TE and TM polarizations. If a phase difference equals an odd multiples of π/2 for the first two modes (i.e. modes 0 and 1), the incident light will be diffracted into the 0 and -1 orders with about 50% and 50% diffraction efficiency for TM and TE polarizations, respectively.

  3. Hot impact densification: a new method for producing high density ceramic pellets with close shape tolerances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.; Huschka, H.; Muhling, G.; Rachor, L.; Zimmerman, H.

    1982-01-01

    Density and correct diameter of nuclear fuel pellets are usually achieved by sintering and subsequent circular grinding. Hot impact densification (HID) thermally squatted ceramic bodies can be directly high speed precision-molded in a cold die. For thermoshock-sensitive materials, a controlled cooling down procedure of some minutes is added. The feasibility of HID has been demonstrated on the laboratory scale on UO 2 , UC, and some more materials at temperatures between 1700 and 2300 0 C, pressures up to 800 N/mm 2 . Shape tolerances are close, density can be exactly reproduced within a wide range. Tool wear seems to be no problem. Currently, a prototype facility for continuous performance is being developed

  4. A comparison of two methods of pulse-shape discrimination for alpha-gamma separation with trans-stilbene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, G.; Cojocaru, M.

    1977-01-01

    A method for measurement of low level alpha particles in high level gamma background is investigated. Because of its pulse-shape-discrimination properties and being a solid scintillator, trans-stilbene seems to be the proper scintillator, for this purpose. The investigation was done by measuring the effect of different gamma background level (from very low to very high) on constant alpha count rate. Two different pulse-shape-discrimination systems were used and compared. The Ortec system measures the pulse fall time and supplies a corresponding pulse height and the Elscint system checks whether the pulse is what is expected to be the gamma pulse, or is a longer pulse. Both systems yielded good results and were found to be adequate for alpha-gamma separation with trans-stilbene. (Auth.)

  5. Optimization of Linear Permanent Magnet (PM Generator with Triangular-Shaped Magnet for Wave Energy Conversion using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design optimization of linear permanent magnet (PM generator for wave energy conversion using finite element method (FEM. A linear PM generator with triangular-shaped magnet is proposed, which has higher electromagnetic characteristics, superior performance and low weight as compared to conventional linear PM generator with rectangular shaped magnet. The Individual Parameter (IP optimization technique is employed in order to optimize and achieve optimum performance of linear PM generator. The objective function, optimization variables; magnet angle,M_θ(∆ (θ, the pole-width ratio, P_w ratio(τ_p/τ_mz,, and split ratio between translator and stator, δ_a ratio(R_m/R_e, and constraints are defined. The efficiency and its main parts; copper and iron loss are computed using time-stepping FEM. The optimal values after optimization are presented which yields highest efficiency. Key

  6. Application of Taguchi method to optimization of surface roughness during precise turning of NiTi shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the research results of surface quality research after the NiTi shape memory alloy (Nitinol) precise turning by the tools with edges made of polycrystalline diamonds (PCD). Nitinol, a nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium shape memory alloy, has wide applications in the arms industry, military, medicine and aerospace industry, and industrial robots. Due to their specific properties NiTi alloys are known to be difficult-to-machine materials particularly by using conventional techniques. The research trials were conducted for three independent parameters (vc, f, ap) affecting the surface roughness were analyzed. The choice of parameter configurations were performed by factorial design methods using orthogonal plan type L9, with three control factors, changing on three levels, developed by G. Taguchi. S/N ratio and ANOVA analyses were performed to identify the best of cutting parameters influencing surface roughness.

  7. Rubber bulge forming of single-stage bellows of TiNi shape memory alloy using the displacement control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, Hiromasa; Yamaji, Toru; Okita, Keisuke; Okabe, Nagatoshi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the bulge process for forming the single-stage bellows of TiNi shape memory alloys, which is proposed as a new type of seismic applications, and especially considering the material's special behavior. Thin walled tubes with 20% cold work, whose composition is Ti-51.0 at% Ni, were prepared. First they are appropriately heat-treated and then the rubber bulge process is introduced for the tubes under the condition of austenite phase at room temperature. Displacement control method is adapted to the process. Theoretical prediction of change in outer diameter of the tube on compression is derived, and modified taking into account the progress of the stress-induced martensite transformation on tube's surface by observing the detachment of the oxide layer of the surface. Finally theoretical relationship between compressive displacement and the outer diameter of the tube, which is the most important for the design of the bellows shape, is cleared. (author)

  8. Generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam CT using a patient-specific bladder shape model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoot, A. J. A. J. van de; Schooneveldt, G.; Wognum, S.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Bel, A.; Hoogeman, M. S.; Chai, X.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), independent of gender and treatment position (prone or supine), using only pretreatment imaging data. Methods: Data of 20 patients, treated for tumors in the pelvic region with the entire bladder visible on CT and CBCT, were divided into four equally sized groups based on gender and treatment position. The full and empty bladder contour, that can be acquired with pretreatment CT imaging, were used to generate a patient-specific bladder shape model. This model was used to guide the segmentation process on CBCT. To obtain the bladder segmentation, the reference bladder contour was deformed iteratively by maximizing the cross-correlation between directional grey value gradients over the reference and CBCT bladder edge. To overcome incorrect segmentations caused by CBCT image artifacts, automatic adaptations were implemented. Moreover, locally incorrect segmentations could be adapted manually. After each adapted segmentation, the bladder shape model was expanded and new shape patterns were calculated for following segmentations. All available CBCTs were used to validate the segmentation algorithm. The bladder segmentations were validated by comparison with the manual delineations and the segmentation performance was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), surface distance error (SDE) and SD of contour-to-contour distances. Also, bladder volumes obtained by manual delineations and segmentations were compared using a Bland-Altman error analysis. Results: The mean DSC, mean SDE, and mean SD of contour-to-contour distances between segmentations and manual delineations were 0.87, 0.27 cm and 0.22 cm (female, prone), 0.85, 0.28 cm and 0.22 cm (female, supine), 0.89, 0.21 cm and 0.17 cm (male, supine) and 0.88, 0.23 cm and 0.17 cm (male, prone), respectively. Manual local adaptations improved the segmentation

  9. Modeling, estimation and identification methods for static shape determination of flexible structures. [for large space structure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Scheid, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines methods for modeling, identification and estimation for static determination of flexible structures. The shape estimation schemes are based on structural models specified by (possibly interconnected) elliptic partial differential equations. The identification techniques provide approximate knowledge of parameters in elliptic systems. The techniques are based on the method of maximum-likelihood that finds parameter values such that the likelihood functional associated with the system model is maximized. The estimation methods are obtained by means of a function-space approach that seeks to obtain the conditional mean of the state given the data and a white noise characterization of model errors. The solutions are obtained in a batch-processing mode in which all the data is processed simultaneously. After methods for computing the optimal estimates are developed, an analysis of the second-order statistics of the estimates and of the related estimation error is conducted. In addition to outlining the above theoretical results, the paper presents typical flexible structure simulations illustrating performance of the shape determination methods.

  10. Canopy BRF simulation of forest with different crown shape and height in larger scale based on Radiosity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinling; Qu, Yonghua; Wang, Jindi; Wan, Huawei; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2007-06-01

    Radiosity method is based on the computer simulation of 3D real structures of vegetations, such as leaves, branches and stems, which are composed by many facets. Using this method we can simulate the canopy reflectance and its bidirectional distribution of the vegetation canopy in visible and NIR regions. But with vegetations are more complex, more facets to compose them, so large memory and lots of time to calculate view factors are required, which are the choke points of using Radiosity method to calculate canopy BRF of lager scale vegetation scenes. We derived a new method to solve the problem, and the main idea is to abstract vegetation crown shapes and to simplify their structures, which can lessen the number of facets. The facets are given optical properties according to the reflectance, transmission and absorption of the real structure canopy. Based on the above work, we can simulate the canopy BRF of the mix scenes with different species vegetation in the large scale. In this study, taking broadleaf trees as an example, based on their structure characteristics, we abstracted their crowns as ellipsoid shells, and simulated the canopy BRF in visible and NIR regions of the large scale scene with different crown shape and different height ellipsoids. Form this study, we can conclude: LAI, LAD the probability gap, the sunlit and shaded surfaces are more important parameter to simulate the simplified vegetation canopy BRF. And the Radiosity method can apply us canopy BRF data in any conditions for our research.

  11. Optimized lighting method of applying shaped-function signal for increasing the dynamic range of LED-multispectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Hu, Yajia; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes an optimized lighting method of applying a shaped-function signal for increasing the dynamic range of light emitting diode (LED)-multispectral imaging system. The optimized lighting method is based on the linear response zone of the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) and the spectral response of the camera. The auxiliary light at a higher sensitivity-camera area is introduced to increase the A/D quantization levels that are within the linear response zone of ADC and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The active light is modulated by the shaped-function signal to improve the gray-scale resolution of the image. And the auxiliary light is modulated by the constant intensity signal, which is easy to acquire the images under the active light irradiation. The least square method is employed to precisely extract the desired images. One wavelength in multispectral imaging based on LED illumination was taken as an example. It has been proven by experiments that the gray-scale resolution and the accuracy of information of the images acquired by the proposed method were both significantly improved. The optimum method opens up avenues for the hyperspectral imaging of biological tissue.

  12. Paleointensity determinations during the Akaroa polarity reversal, New Zealand: New input from the multispecimen parallel differential pTRM method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, P.; Fanjat, G.; Poidras, T.; Hoffman, K. A.; Carvallo, C.; kennedy, B.

    2011-12-01

    We resampled two polarity reversals of late Miocene age (~ 9 Ma) recorded successively in the Akaroa volcano (Hoffman, 1986, Nature). Our main objective was to check old paleointensity determinations (Sherwood & Shaw, 1986, J. Geomag. Geoelec.) that yielded stronger values during the transitional period than during stable periods that preceded and followed the reversals. This observation is opposite to what is generally observed. An increase in intensity during the reversal would provide an extreme example of increasing secular variation. However, the experimental method used for determining the paleointensity, method of Shaw, is strongly questioned by the scientific community. A check of these data by the conventional Thellier method was required. Unfortunately, among the 72 sampled flows, only 4 yielded rock magnetic properties well suited for Thellier determinations. In most of the flows, the presence of large Multi-Domain grains of Ti-magnetite, which are frequently associated with Ti-maghemite, precludes any Thellier paleointensity determinations. We implement the domain-state independent paleointensity method (the multispecimen parallel differential pTRM, Dekkers & Bohnel, 2006, EPSL; Fabian & Leonhardt, 2010, EPSL) for 16 lava flows in which the MD Ti-magnetite are not oxidized. Thellier paleointensities obtained do not confirm the Sherwood results but show more scattered values of the intensity even during the stable periods of the field. To complete the data, multispecimen mesearements are being to be done.

  13. Validation of attenuation, beam blockage, and calibration estimation methods using two dual polarization X band weather radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, M.; Ryzhkov, A.; Simmer, C.; Mühlbauer, K.

    2011-12-01

    The amplitude a of radar wave reflected by meteorological targets can be misjudged due to several factors. At X band wavelength, attenuation of the radar beam by hydro meteors reduces the signal strength enough to be a significant source of error for quantitative precipitation estimation. Depending on the surrounding orography, the radar beam may be partially blocked when scanning at low elevation angles, and the knowledge of the exact amount of signal loss through beam blockage becomes necessary. The phase shift between the radar signals at horizontal and vertical polarizations is affected by the hydrometeors that the beam travels through, but remains unaffected by variations in signal strength. This has allowed for several ways of compensating for the attenuation of the signal, and for consistency checks between these variables. In this study, we make use of several weather radars and gauge network measuring in the same area to examine the effectiveness of several methods of attenuation and beam blockage corrections. The methods include consistency checks of radar reflectivity and specific differential phase, calculation of beam blockage using a topography map, estimating attenuation using differential propagation phase, and the ZPHI method proposed by Testud et al. in 2000. Results show the high effectiveness of differential phase in estimating attenuation, and potential of the ZPHI method to compensate attenuation, beam blockage, and calibration errors.

  14. Inverse method for temperature and stress monitoring in complex-shaped bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, Piotr; Taler, Jan E- mail: aler@ss5.mech.pk.edu.pl; Roos, Eberhard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to formulate a space marching method, which an be used to solve inverse multidimensional heat conduction problems. The method is designed to reconstruct the transient temperature distribution in a hole construction element based on measured temperatures taken at selected points on the outer surface of the construction element. Next, the Finite element Method is used to calculate thermal stresses and stresses caused by other loads such as, for instance, internal pressure. The developed method or solving temperature and total stress distribution is tested using the measured temperatures generated from a direct solution. Transient temperature nd total stress distributions obtained from the method presented below are compared with the values obtained from the direct solution. Finally, the resented method is experimentally verified during the cooling of a hick-walled cylindrical element. The model of a pressure vessel was reheated at 300 deg.C and then cooled by cold water injection. The comparison of results obtained from the inverse method with experimental data hows the high accuracy of the developed method. The presented method allows o optimize the power block's start-up and shut-down operations, contributes o the reduction of heat loss during these operations and to the extension of power block's life. The fatigue and creep usage factor can be computed in an n-line mode. The presented method herein can be applied to monitoring systems that work in conventional as well as in nuclear power plants

  15. Development and validation of polar RP-HPLC method for screening for ectoine high-yield strains in marine bacteria with green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Jianwei; Wang, Sijia; Zhou, Guangmin; Chen, Danqing; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Hong

    2018-04-02

    A novel, green, rapid, and precise polar RP-HPLC method has been successfully developed and screened for ectoine high-yield strain in marine bacteria. Ectoine is a polar and extremely useful solute which allows microorganisms to survive in extreme environmental salinity. This paper describes a polar-HPLC method employed polar RP-C18 (5 μm, 250 × 4.6 mm) using pure water as the mobile phase and a column temperature of 30 °C, coupled with a flow rate at 1.0 mL/min and detected under a UV detector at wavelength of 210 nm. Our method validation demonstrates excellent linearity (R 2  = 0.9993), accuracy (100.55%), and a limit of detection LOQ and LOD of 0.372 and 0.123 μgmL -1 , respectively. These results clearly indicate that the developed polar RP-HPLC method for the separation and determination of ectoine is superior to earlier protocols.

  16. Automated Method for Fractographic Analysis of Shape and Size of Dimples on Fracture Surface of High-Strength Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Konovalenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An automated method for analyzing the shape and size of dimples of ductile tearing formed during static and impact fracture of titanium alloys VT23 and VT23M is proposed. The method is based on the analysis of the image topology. The method contains the operations of smoothing the initial fractographic image; its convolution with a filter to identify the topological ridges; thresholding with subsequent skeletonization to identify boundaries between dimples; clustering to isolate the connected areas that represent the sought objects—dimples. For each dimple, the following quantitative characteristics were calculated: area, coefficient of roundness and visual depth in units of image intensity. The surface of ductile tearing was studied by analyzing the peculiarities of parameter distribution of the found dimples. The proposed method is applied to fractograms of fracture surfaces of titanium alloys VT23 and VT23M.

  17. Person Recognition Method using Sequential Walking Footprints via Overlapped Foot Shape and Center-Of-Pressure Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Jung

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One emerging biometric identification method is the use of human footprint. However, in the previous research, there were some limitations resulting from the spatial resolution of sensors. One possible method to overcome this limitation is through the use additional information such as dynamic walking information in sequential walking footprint. In this study, we suggest a new person recognition scheme based on both overlapped foot shape and COP (Center Of Pressure trajectory during one-step walking. And, we show the usefulness of the suggested method, obtaining a 98.6% recognition rate in our experiment with eleven people. In addition, we show an application of the suggested method, automatic door-opening system for intelligent residential space.

  18. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowben, P A; Wu Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO 2 and Cr 2 O 3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. (viewpoint)

  19. A polar-region-adaptable systematic bias collaborative measurement method for shipboard redundant rotational inertial navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Wu, Wenqi; Wei, Guo; Lian, Junxiang; Yu, Ruihang

    2018-05-01

    The shipboard redundant rotational inertial navigation system (RINS) configuration, including a dual-axis RINS and a single-axis RINS, can satisfy the demand of marine INSs of especially high reliability as well as achieving trade-off between position accuracy and cost. Generally, the dual-axis RINS is the master INS, and the single-axis RINS is the hot backup INS for high reliability purposes. An integrity monitoring system performs a fault detection function to ensure sailing safety. However, improving the accuracy of the backup INS in case of master INS failure has not been given enough attention. Without the aid of any external information, a systematic bias collaborative measurement method based on an augmented Kalman filter is proposed for the redundant RINSs. Estimates of inertial sensor biases can be used by the built-in integrity monitoring system to monitor the RINS running condition. On the other hand, a position error prediction model is designed for the single-axis RINS to estimate the systematic error caused by its azimuth gyro bias. After position error compensation, the position information provided by the single-axis RINS still remains highly accurate, even if the integrity monitoring system detects a dual-axis RINS fault. Moreover, use of a grid frame as a navigation frame makes the proposed method applicable in any area, including the polar regions. Semi-physical simulation and experiments including sea trials verify the validity of the method.

  20. Determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste (HDW) by reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the first application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford Defense Waste (HDW). The method development was carried out by using Synthetic Hanford Waste (SHW), followed by the analysis of 4 real HDW samples. Hexamethonium bromide (HMB) was used as electroosmotic flow modifier in borate buffer at pH 9.2 to decrease the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in order to enhance the speed of analysis and the resolution of nitrate and nitrite in high ionic strength HDW samples. The application of this capillary zone electrophoresis method, when compared with ion chromatography for two major components of HDW, nitrate and nitrite slightly reduced analysis time, eliminated most pre-analysis handling of the highly radioactive sample, and cut analysis wastes by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The analysis of real HDW samples that were validated by using sample spikes showed a concentration range of 1.03 to 1.42 M for both nitrate. The migration times of the real HDW and the spiked HDW samples were within a precision of less than 3% relative standard deviation. The selectivity ratio test used for peak confirmation of the spiked samples was within 96% of the real sample. Method reliability was tested by spiking the matrix with 72.4 mM nitrate and nitrite. Recoveries for these spiked samples were 93-103%

  1. Numerical investigation of shape domain effect to its elasticity and surface energy using adaptive finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfat, Sayahdin; Kimura, Masato; Firihu, Muhammad Zamrun; Rahmat

    2018-05-01

    In engineering area, investigation of shape effect in elastic materials was very important. It can lead changing elasticity and surface energy, and also increase of crack propagation in the material. A two-dimensional mathematical model was developed to investigation of elasticity and surface energy in elastic material by Adaptive Finite Element Method. Besides that, behavior of crack propagation has observed for every those materials. The government equations were based on a phase field approach in crack propagation model that developed by Takaishi-Kimura. This research has varied four shape domains where physical properties of materials were same (Young's modulus E = 70 GPa and Poisson's ratio ν = 0.334). Investigation assumptions were; (1) homogeneous and isotropic material, (2) there was not initial cracking at t = 0, (3) initial displacement was zero [u1, u2] = 0) at initial condition (t = 0), and (4) length of time simulation t = 5 with interval Δt = 0.005. Mode I/II or mixed mode crack propagation has been used for the numerical investigation. Results of this studies were very good and accurate to show changing energy and behavior of crack propagation. In the future time, this research can be developed to complex phenomena and domain. Furthermore, shape optimization can be investigation by the model.

  2. Low-Pressure and Low-Temperature Hydriding-Pulverization-Dehydriding Method for Producing Shape Memory Alloy Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguia, Silvia Briseño; Clauser, Arielle; Dunn, Heather; Fisher, Wendy; Snir, Yoav; Brennan, Raymond E.; Young, Marcus L.

    2018-04-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are of high interest as active, adaptive "smart" materials for applications such as sensors and actuators due to their unique properties, including the shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity. Binary NiTi SMAs have shown the most desirable properties, and consequently have generated the most commercial success. A major challenge for SMAs, in particular, is their well-known compositional sensitivity. Therefore, it is critical to control the powder composition and morphology. In this study, a low-pressure, low-temperature hydriding-pulverization-dehydriding method for preparing well-controlled compositions, size, and size distributions of SMA powders from wires is presented. Starting with three different diameters of as-drawn martensitic NiTi SMA wires, pre-alloyed NiTi powders of various well-controlled sizes are produced by hydrogen charging the wires in a heated H3PO4 solution. After hydrogen charging for different charging times, the wires are pulverized and subsequently dehydrided. The wires and the resulting powders are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. The relationship between the wire diameter and powder size is investigated as a function of hydrogen charging time. The rate of diameter reduction after hydrogen charging of wire is also examined. Finally, the recovery behavior due to the shape memory effect is investigated after dehydriding.

  3. Oriented Polar Molecules in a Solid Inert-Gas Matrix: A Proposed Method for Measuring the Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Vutha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a very sensitive method for measuring the electric dipole moment of the electron using polar molecules embedded in a cryogenic solid matrix of inert-gas atoms. The polar molecules can be oriented in the z ^ -direction by an applied electric field, as has recently been demonstrated by Park et al. The trapped molecules are prepared into a state that has its electron spin perpendicular to z ^ , and a magnetic field along z ^ causes precession of this spin. An electron electric dipole moment d e would affect this precession due to the up to 100 GV/cm effective electric field produced by the polar molecule. The large number of polar molecules that can be embedded in a matrix, along with the expected long coherence times for the precession, allows for the possibility of measuring d e to an accuracy that surpasses current measurements by many orders of magnitude. Because the matrix can inhibit molecular rotations and lock the orientation of the polar molecules, it may not be necessary to have an electric field present during the precession. The proposed technique can be applied using a variety of polar molecules and inert gases, which, along with other experimental variables, should allow for careful study of systematic uncertainties in the measurement.

  4. Oriented Polar Molecules in a Solid Inert-Gas Matrix: A Proposed Method for Measuring the Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutha, A.; Horbatsch, M.; Hessels, E.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a very sensitive method for measuring the electric dipole moment of the electron using polar molecules embedded in a cryogenic solid matrix of inert-gas atoms. The polar molecules can be oriented in the $\\hat{\\rm{z}}$ direction by an applied electric field, as has recently been demonstrated by Park, et al. [Angewandte Chemie {\\bf 129}, 1066 (2017)]. The trapped molecules are prepared into a state which has its electron spin perpendicular to $\\hat{\\rm{z}}$, and a magnetic field along $\\hat{\\rm{z}}$ causes precession of this spin. An electron electric dipole moment $d_e$ would affect this precession due to the up to 100~GV/cm effective electric field produced by the polar molecule. The large number of polar molecules that can be embedded in a matrix, along with the expected long coherence times for the precession, allows for the possibility of measuring $d_e$ to an accuracy that surpasses current measurements by many orders of magnitude. Because the matrix can inhibit molecular rotations and lock the orientation of the polar molecules, it may not be necessary to have an electric field present during the precession. The proposed technique can be applied using a variety of polar molecules and inert gases, which, along with other experimental variables, should allow for careful study of systematic uncertainties in the measurement.

  5. H-Shaped Multiple Linear Motor Drive Platform Control System Design Based on an Inverse System Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyan Qin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its simple mechanical structure and high motion stability, the H-shaped platform has been increasingly widely used in precision measuring, numerical control machining and semiconductor packaging equipment, etc. The H-shaped platform is normally driven by multiple (three permanent magnet synchronous linear motors. The main challenges for H-shaped platform-control include synchronous control between the two linear motors in the Y direction as well as total positioning error of the platform mover, a combination of position deviation in X and Y directions. To deal with the above challenges, this paper proposes a control strategy based on the inverse system method through state feedback and dynamic decoupling of the thrust force. First, mechanical dynamics equations have been deduced through the analysis of system coupling based on the platform structure. Second, the mathematical model of the linear motors and the relevant coordinate transformation between dq-axis currents and ABC-phase currents are analyzed. Third, after the main concept of inverse system method being explained, the inverse system model of the platform control system has been designed after defining relevant system variables. Inverse system model compensates the original nonlinear coupled system into pseudo-linear decoupled linear system, for which typical linear control methods, like PID, can be adopted to control the system. The simulation model of the control system is built in MATLAB/Simulink and the simulation result shows that the designed control system has both small synchronous deviation and small total trajectory tracking error. Furthermore, the control program has been run on NI controller for both fixed-loop-time and free-loop-time modes, and the test result shows that the average loop computation time needed is rather small, which makes it suitable for real industrial applications. Overall, it proves that the proposed new control strategy can be used in

  6. Theodolite Polar measurements system and definition of the grid-lines method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Seixas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of construction quality, mainly in the car and airplane industries, accelerate the development of new 3D-Measurement Systems and Measurement Processes that make possible the automatic object recording and it’s post-processing on the basis, for example, on deformations. The geometrical reconstruction of objects or surface requires a minimal number of points, which abstracts and will be fulfill through interpolation its exact form and quality of the object in each case. The applications of the laser for the active signalization of a point object in combination with the directional measurement make possible in such way the determination of objects or surfaces, including also, places where the use of artificial targets is dangerous or impossible. This work describes the development of such measurement system based on two measurement robots or a reflector-free measuring tachymeter. The system is capable of reaching the intersections points of a grid-line that is defined in an appropriate coordinate system. The aim of this paper is to present the development of measurement methods that can reconstruct unknown three-dimensional and not signalized objects. The existing deformation-measurement, based on Pointer Theodolite and a Video Theodolite Measurement System and the other reflector-free Tachymeter Measurement System in context with the problematic analysis of deformation will be presented. The grid-lines Methods appear a solution and stand as new alternative for the geometrical reconstruction of the object surfaces. Its definition and preparations in a suitable coordinate system are discussed in detail.

  7. Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinaje, M [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Vinsard, G [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Dufour, S [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-03-21

    This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions.

  8. Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinaje, M; Vinsard, G; Dufour, S

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions

  9. A new mechanical characterization method for thin film microactuators and its application to NiTiCi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, K P

    1999-01-01

    In an effort to develop a more full characterization tool of shape memory alloys, a new technique is presented for the mechanical characterization of microactuators and applied to SMA thin films. A test instrument was designed to utilize a spring-loaded transducer in measuring displacements with resolution of 1.5 pm and forces with resolution of 0.2 mN. Employing an out-of-plane loading method for freestanding SMA thin films, strain resolution of 30(mu)(epsilon) and stress resolution of 2.5 MPa were achieved. This new testing method is presented against previous SMA characterization methods for purposes of comparison. Four mm long, 2(micro)m thick NiTiCu ligaments suspended across open windows were bulk micromachined for use in the out-of-plane stress and strain measurements. The fabrication process used to micromachine the ligaments is presented step-by-step, alongside methods of fabrication that failed to produce testable ligaments. Static analysis showed that 63% of the applied strain was recovered while ligaments were subjected to tensile stresses of 870 MPa. In terms of recoverable stress and recoverable strain, the ligaments achieved maximum recovery of 700 MPa and 3.0% strain. No permanent deformations were seen in any ligament during deflection measurements. Maximum actuation forces and displacements produced by the 4 mm ligaments situated on 1 cm square test chips were 56 mN and 300(micro)m, respectively. Fatigue analysis of the ligaments showed degradation in recoverable strain from 0.33% to 0.24% with 200,000 cycles, corresponding to deflections of 90(micro)m and forces of 25 mN. Cycling also produced a wavering shape memory effect late in ligament life, leading to broad inconsistencies of as much as 35% deviation from average. Unexpected phenomena like stress-induced martensitic twinning that leads to less recoverable stress and the shape memory behavior of long life devices are addressed. Finally, a model for design of microactuators using shape memory

  10. Multimodal biometric method that combines veins, prints, and shape of a finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung; Yoo, Jang-Hee; Kim, Jeong Nyeo

    2011-01-01

    Multimodal biometrics provides high recognition accuracy and population coverage by using various biometric features. A single finger contains finger veins, fingerprints, and finger geometry features; by using multimodal biometrics, information on these multiple features can be simultaneously obtained in a short time and their fusion can outperform the use of a single feature. This paper proposes a new finger recognition method based on the score-level fusion of finger veins, fingerprints, and finger geometry features. This research is novel in the following four ways. First, the performances of the finger-vein and fingerprint recognition are improved by using a method based on a local derivative pattern. Second, the accuracy of the finger geometry recognition is greatly increased by combining a Fourier descriptor with principal component analysis. Third, a fuzzy score normalization method is introduced; its performance is better than the conventional Z-score normalization method. Fourth, finger-vein, fingerprint, and finger geometry recognitions are combined by using three support vector machines and a weighted SUM rule. Experimental results showed that the equal error rate of the proposed method was 0.254%, which was lower than those of the other methods.

  11. Methods of integrating Islamic values in teaching biology for shaping attitude and character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyono; Supardi, K. I.; Hindarto, N.; Ridlo, S.

    2018-03-01

    Learning is expected to develop the potential of learners to have the spiritual attitude: moral strength, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, as well as the skills needed by themselves, society, and nation. Implementation of role and morale in learning is an alternative way which is expected to answer the challenge. The solution offered is to inject student with religious material Islamic in learning biology. The content value of materials teaching biology includes terms of practical value, religious values, daily life value, socio-political value, and the value of art. In Islamic religious values (Qur'an and Hadith) various methods can touch human feelings, souls, and generate motivation. Integrating learning with Islamic value can be done by the deductive or inductive approach. The appropriate method of integration is the amtsal (analog) method, hiwar (dialog) method, targhib & tarhib (encouragement & warning) method, and example method (giving a noble role model / good example). The right strategy in integrating Islamic values is outlined in the design of lesson plan. The integration of Islamic values in lesson plan will facilitate teachers to build students' character because Islamic values can be implemented in every learning steps so students will be accustomed to receiving the character value in this integrated learning.

  12. An Improved Surface Simplification Method for Facial Expression Animation Based on Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Matrix and Maximum Shape Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juin-Ling Tseng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial animation is one of the most popular 3D animation topics researched in recent years. However, when using facial animation, a 3D facial animation model has to be stored. This 3D facial animation model requires many triangles to accurately describe and demonstrate facial expression animation because the face often presents a number of different expressions. Consequently, the costs associated with facial animation have increased rapidly. In an effort to reduce storage costs, researchers have sought to simplify 3D animation models using techniques such as Deformation Sensitive Decimation and Feature Edge Quadric. The studies conducted have examined the problems in the homogeneity of the local coordinate system between different expression models and in the retainment of simplified model characteristics. This paper proposes a method that applies Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Matrix to solve the problem of homogeneity of the local coordinate system and Maximum Shape Operator to detect shape changes in facial animation so as to properly preserve the features of facial expressions. Further, root mean square error and perceived quality error are used to compare the errors generated by different simplification methods in experiments. Experimental results show that, compared with Deformation Sensitive Decimation and Feature Edge Quadric, our method can not only reduce the errors caused by simplification of facial animation, but also retain more facial features.

  13. Response surface method optimization of V-shaped fin assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system during discharging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Lohrasbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems (LHTESS containing Phase Change Material (PCM are used to establish balance between energy supply and demand. PCMs have high latent heat but low thermal conductivity, which affects their heat transfer performance. In this paper, a novel fin array has been optimized by multi-objective Response Surface Method (RSM based on discharging process of PCM, and then this fin configuration is applied on LHTESS, and comparison between full discharging time by applying this fin array and LHTESS with other fin structures has been carried out. The employed numerical method in this paper is Standard Galerkin Finite Element Method. Adaptive grid refinement is used to solve the equations. Since the enhancement technique, which has been employed in the present study reduces the employed PCM mass, maximum energy storage capacity variations have been considered. Therefore phase change expedition and maximum energy storage capacity have been considered as the objectives of optimization and the importance of second objective is indicated which is proposed as the novelty here. Results indicate that considering maximum energy storage capacity as the objective of optimization procedure leads to efficient shape design of LHTESS. Also employing optimized V-shaped fin in LHTESS, expedites discharging process considerably in comparison with the LHTESS without fin.

  14. Limitation of peak fitting and peak shape methods for determination of activation energy of thermoluminescence glow peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Sunta, C M; Piters, T M; Watanabe, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the limitation of general order peak fitting and peak shape methods for determining the activation energy of the thermoluminescence glow peaks in the cases in which retrapping probability is much higher than the recombination probability and the traps are filled up to near saturation level. Right values can be obtained when the trap occupancy is reduced by using small doses or by post-irradiation partial bleaching. This limitation in the application of these methods has not been indicated earlier. In view of the unknown nature of kinetics in the experimental samples, it is recommended that these methods of activation energy determination should be applied only at doses well below the saturation dose.

  15. Validation of Shape Context Based Image Registration Method Using Digital Image Correlation Measurement on a Rat Stomach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Donghua; Wang, P; Zhao, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    Recently we developed analysis for 3D visceral organ deformation by combining the shape context (SC) method with a full-field strain (strain distribution on a whole 3D surface) analysis for calculating distension-induced rat stomach deformation. The surface deformation detected by the SC method...... needs to be further verified by using a feature tracking measurement. Hence, the aim of this study was to verify the SC method-based calculation by using digital image correlation (DIC) measurement on a rat stomach. The rat stomach exposed to distension pressures 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 kPa were studied...... and the SC calculated correspondence surface was compared. Compared with DIC measurement, the SC calculated surface had errors from 5% to 23% at pressures from 0.2 to 0.6 kPa with different surface sample counts between the reference surface and the target surface. This indicates good qualitative...

  16. Thermodynamic free energy methods to investigate shape transitions in bilayer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, N; Tourdot, Richard W; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    The conformational free energy landscape of a system is a fundamental thermodynamic quantity of importance particularly in the study of soft matter and biological systems, in which the entropic contributions play a dominant role. While computational methods to delineate the free energy landscape are routinely used to analyze the relative stability of conformational states, to determine phase boundaries, and to compute ligand-receptor binding energies its use in problems involving the cell membrane is limited. Here, we present an overview of four different free energy methods to study morphological transitions in bilayer membranes, induced either by the action of curvature remodeling proteins or due to the application of external forces. Using a triangulated surface as a model for the cell membrane and using the framework of dynamical triangulation Monte Carlo, we have focused on the methods of Widom insertion, thermodynamic integration, Bennett acceptance scheme, and umbrella sampling and weighted histogram analysis. We have demonstrated how these methods can be employed in a variety of problems involving the cell membrane. Specifically, we have shown that the chemical potential, computed using Widom insertion, and the relative free energies, computed using thermodynamic integration and Bennett acceptance method, are excellent measures to study the transition from curvature sensing to curvature inducing behavior of membrane associated proteins. The umbrella sampling and WHAM analysis has been used to study the thermodynamics of tether formation in cell membranes and the quantitative predictions of the computational model are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Furthermore, we also present a method based on WHAM and thermodynamic integration to handle problems related to end-point-catastrophe that are common in most free energy methods.

  17. A novel method for creating custom shaped ballistic gelatin trainers using plaster molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Michael; Katz, Anne; McNamara, Shannon O; Leifer, Jessica H; Bambrick-Santoyo, Gabriela; Saul, Turandot; Rose, Keith M

    2018-03-01

    Simulation based procedural training is an effective and frequently used method for teaching vascular access techniques which often require commercial trainers. These can be prohibitively expensive, which allows for homemade trainers made of gelatin to be a more cost-effective and attractive option. Previously described trainers are often rectangular with a flat surface that is dissimilar to human anatomy. We describe a novel method to create a more anatomically realistic trainer using ballistic gelatin, household items, and supplies commonly found in an emergency department such as the plaster wrap typically used to make splints.

  18. A shape-based statistical method to retrieve 2D TRUS-MR slice correspondence for prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jhimli; Srikantha, Abhilash; Sidibé, Désiré; Martí, Robert; Oliver, Arnau; Lladó, Xavier; Ghose, Soumya; Vilanova, Joan C.; Comet, Josep; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a method based on shape-context and statistical measures to match interventional 2D Trans Rectal Ultrasound (TRUS) slice during prostate biopsy to a 2D Magnetic Resonance (MR) slice of a pre-acquired prostate volume. Accurate biopsy tissue sampling requires translation of the MR slice information on the TRUS guided biopsy slice. However, this translation or fusion requires the knowledge of the spatial position of the TRUS slice and this is only possible with the use of an electro-magnetic (EM) tracker attached to the TRUS probe. Since, the use of EM tracker is not common in clinical practice and 3D TRUS is not used during biopsy, we propose to perform an analysis based on shape and information theory to reach close enough to the actual MR slice as validated by experts. The Bhattacharyya distance is used to find point correspondences between shape-context representations of the prostate contours. Thereafter, Chi-square distance is used to find out those MR slices where the prostates closely match with that of the TRUS slice. Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) values of the TRUS slice with each of the axial MR slices are computed after rigid alignment and consecutively a strategic elimination based on a set of rules between the Chi-square distances and the NMI leads to the required MR slice. We validated our method for TRUS axial slices of 15 patients, of which 11 results matched at least one experts validation and the remaining 4 are at most one slice away from the expert validations.

  19. Geometrical shape assessment of additively manufactured features by direct light processing vat polymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Péreza, Lucia C. Díaz; Davoudinejad, Ali; Quagliotti, Danilo

    The importance of Additive Manufacturing (AM) in the field of micro manufacturing is increasing. Vat Polymerization Methods are one of the lead AM technologies to produce polymer micro parts. In the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), a vat photopolymerization AM machine able to print features...

  20. An error compensation method for a linear array sun sensor with a V-shaped slit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Qiao-yun; Tan, Xiao-feng

    2015-01-01

    Existing methods of improving measurement accuracy, such as polynomial fitting and increasing pixel numbers, cannot guarantee high precision and good miniaturization specifications of a microsun sensor at the same time. Therefore, a novel integrated and accurate error compensation method is proposed. A mathematical error model is established according to the analysis results of all the contributing factors, and the model parameters are calculated through multi-sets simultaneous calibration. The numerical simulation results prove that the calibration method is unaffected by installation errors introduced by the calibration process, and is capable of separating the sensor’s intrinsic and extrinsic parameters precisely, and obtaining accurate and robust intrinsic parameters. In laboratorial calibration, the calibration data are generated by using a two-axis rotation table and a sun simulator. The experimental results show that owing to the proposed error compensation method, the sun sensor’s measurement accuracy is improved by 30 times throughout its field of view (±60°  ×  ±60°), with a RMS error of 0.1°. (paper)

  1. Numerical study of the shape parameter dependence of the local radial point interpolation method in linear elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaoui, Ahmed; Bouziane, Touria

    2016-01-01

    The method LRPIM is a Meshless method with properties of simple implementation of the essential boundary conditions and less costly than the moving least squares (MLS) methods. This method is proposed to overcome the singularity associated to polynomial basis by using radial basis functions. In this paper, we will present a study of a 2D problem of an elastic homogenous rectangular plate by using the method LRPIM. Our numerical investigations will concern the influence of different shape parameters on the domain of convergence,accuracy and using the radial basis function of the thin plate spline. It also will presents a comparison between numerical results for different materials and the convergence domain by precising maximum and minimum values as a function of distribution nodes number. The analytical solution of the deflection confirms the numerical results. The essential points in the method are: •The LRPIM is derived from the local weak form of the equilibrium equations for solving a thin elastic plate.•The convergence of the LRPIM method depends on number of parameters derived from local weak form and sub-domains.•The effect of distributions nodes number by varying nature of material and the radial basis function (TPS).

  2. Studies on the transmission and processing of pulse-shaped signals from nuclear radiation detectors using methods of systems theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillekothen, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Using methods of the systems theory of electronic communications and theoretical electrical science, this study describes the transmission of pulse-shaped signals from nuclear radiation detectors from the detector over ''electrically long lines'' (cables) to the output of the first pulse amplifier. The example of pulses from BF 3 -proportional counters shows, using the Fourier transformation, that pulses from radiation detectors contain a frequency spectrum ranging well above 10 8 Hz. If these pulses are transmitted to the first amplifier over a line length of several meters, the laws of the theory of transmission lines must be taken into account to avoid false signals caused by reflections. In the example, line equations are applied and the influence of the line and the terminating impedance is demonstrated. The influence of the frequency response ν(ω) and the phase response δ(ω) of the amplifier is also considered in the sample calculation. The methods presented make it possible to analyze and optimize the transmission and amplification of signals from radiation detectors. Close agreement emerges between empirically observed and calculated pulse shapes. (orig.)

  3. An evaluation method of critical velocity for self-excited vibration of cross-shaped tube bundle in cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Fumio; Nishihara, Takashi; Yasuo, Akira; Morita, Ryo

    2002-01-01

    The applicability of the cross-shaped tube bundle as a lower plenum component of pressure vessel is examined to develop a next generation LWR in Japanese electric utilities. The flow-induced vibration characteristics are not understood well. Methods to evaluate turbulence induced vibration and vortex induced vibration were proposed by CRIEPI. In this study, vibration response is obtained experimentally to propose a method to evaluate self-excited vibration of cross-shaped tube bundle. The self-excited vibration was found to be generated when nondimensional flow velocity was above a critical value. The nondimensional critical velocity of normal configuration is 15% smaller than that of staggered configuration, which means that the nondimensional critical velocity of normal configuration can give conservative evaluation. The result of Reynolds number Re=6.2 x 10 4 agrees well with that of Re=6.8 x 10 5 , in which region, the effect of Reynolds number on the critical velocity is small. (author)

  4. Embedded 3D shape measurement system based on a novel spatio-temporal coding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Tian, Jindong; Tian, Yong; Li, Dong

    2016-11-01

    Structured light measurement has been wildly used since 1970s in industrial component detection, reverse engineering, 3D molding, robot navigation, medical and many other fields. In order to satisfy the demand for high speed, high precision and high resolution 3-D measurement for embedded system, a new patterns combining binary and gray coding principle in space are designed and projected onto the object surface orderly. Each pixel corresponds to the designed sequence of gray values in time - domain, which is treated as a feature vector. The unique gray vector is then dimensionally reduced to a scalar which could be used as characteristic information for binocular matching. In this method, the number of projected structured light patterns is reduced, and the time-consuming phase unwrapping in traditional phase shift methods is avoided. This algorithm is eventually implemented on DM3730 embedded system for 3-D measuring, which consists of an ARM and a DSP core and has a strong capability of digital signal processing. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method.

  5. Shape resonances of Be- and Mg- investigated with the method of analytic continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čurík, Roman; Paidarová, I.; Horáček, J.

    2018-05-01

    The regularized method of analytic continuation is used to study the low-energy negative-ion states of beryllium (configuration 2 s2ɛ p 2P ) and magnesium (configuration 3 s2ɛ p 2P ) atoms. The method applies an additional perturbation potential and requires only routine bound-state multi-electron quantum calculations. Such computations are accessible by most of the free or commercial quantum chemistry software available for atoms and molecules. The perturbation potential is implemented as a spherical Gaussian function with a fixed width. Stability of the analytic continuation technique with respect to the width and with respect to the input range of electron affinities is studied in detail. The computed resonance parameters Er=0.282 eV, Γ =0.316 eV for the 2 p state of Be- and Er=0.188 eV, Γ =0.167 for the 3 p state of Mg- agree well with the best results obtained by much more elaborate and computationally demanding present-day methods.

  6. Pulse shape analysis based on similarity and neural network with digital-analog fusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardiyanto, M.P.; Uritani, A.; Sakai, H.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2000-01-01

    Through the measurement of 22 Na γ-rays, it has been demonstrated that the correction process was well done by fusing the similarity values with the pulse heights measured by the analog system, where at least four improvements in the energy spectrum characteristics were recognized, i.e., the increase of the peak-to-valley ratio, the photopeak area, the photopeak sharpness without discarding any events, and the 1,275 keV γ-ray photopeak was seen. The use of a slow digitizer was the main problem for this method. However, it can be solved easily using a faster digitizer. The fusion method was also applied for the beta-gamma mixed spectra separation. Mixed spectra of beta-gamma of the 137 Cs- 90 Sr mixed source could be separated well. We made a comparison between the energy spectrum of 137 Cs as a result of independent measurement with the result of the separation. After being compared, both FWHM agreed quite well. However, there was a slight difference between the two spectra on the peak-to-valley ratio. This separation method is simple and useful so that it can be applied for many other similar applications. (S.Y.)

  7. Prediction of the shape of inline wave force and free surface elevation using First Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2017-01-01

    theory, that is, the most likely time history of inline force around a force peak of given value. The results of FORM and NewForce are linearly identical and show only minor deviations at second order. The FORM results are then compared to wave averaged measurements of the same criteria for crest height......In design of substructures for offshore wind turbines, the extreme wave loads which are of interest in Ultimate Limit States are often estimated by choosing extreme events from linear random sea states and replacing them by either stream function wave theory or the NewWave theory of a certain...... design wave height. As these wave theories super from limitations such as symmetry around the crest, other methods to estimate the wave loads are needed. In the present paper, the First Order Reliability Method, FORM, is used systematically to estimate the most likely extreme wave shapes. Two parameters...

  8. Towards and FVE-FAC Method for Determining Thermocapillary Effects on Weld Pool Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canright, David; Henson, Van Emden

    1996-01-01

    Several practical materials processes, e.g., welding, float-zone purification, and Czochralski crystal growth, involve a pool of molten metal with a free surface, with strong temperature gradients along the surface. In some cases, the resulting thermocapillary flow is vigorous enough to convect heat toward the edges of the pool, increasing the driving force in a sort of positive feedback. In this work we examine this mechanism and its effect on the solid-liquid interface through a model problem: a half space of pure substance with concentrated axisymmetric surface heating, where surface tension is strong enough to keep the liquid free surface flat. The numerical method proposed for this problem utilizes a finite volume element (FVE) discretization in cylindrical coordinates. Because of the axisymmetric nature of the model problem, the control volumes used are torroidal prisms, formed by taking a polygonal cross-section in the (r, z) plane and sweeping it completely around the z-axis. Conservation of energy (in the solid), and conservation of energy, momentum, and mass (in the liquid) are enforced globally by integrating these quantities and enforcing conservation over each control volume. Judicious application of the Divergence Theorem and Stokes' Theorem, combined with a Crank-Nicolson time-stepping scheme leads to an implicit algebraic system to be solved at each time step. It is known that near the boundary of the pool, that is, near the solid-liquid interface, the full conduction-convection solution will require extremely fine length scales to resolve the physical behavior of the system. Furthermore, this boundary moves as a function of time. Accordingly, we develop the foundation of an adaptive refinement scheme based on the principles of Fast Adaptive Composite Grid methods (FAC). Implementation of the method and numerical results will appear in a later report.

  9. An on-line normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the rapid detection of radical scavengers in non-polar food matrixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Klift, van der E.J.C.; Janssen, H.G.; Beek, van T.A.

    2009-01-01

    An on-line method for the rapid pinpointing of radical scavengers in non-polar mixtures like vegetable oils was developed. To avoid problems with dissolving the sample, normal-phase chromatography on bare silica gel was used with mixtures of hexane and methyl tert-butyl ether as the eluent. The high

  10. A novel method for automated grid generation of ice shapes for local-flow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogretim, Egemen; Huebsch, Wade W.

    2004-02-01

    Modelling a complex geometry, such as ice roughness, plays a key role for the computational flow analysis over rough surfaces. This paper presents two enhancement ideas in modelling roughness geometry for local flow analysis over an aerodynamic surface. The first enhancement is use of the leading-edge region of an airfoil as a perturbation to the parabola surface. The reasons for using a parabola as the base geometry are: it resembles the airfoil leading edge in the vicinity of its apex and it allows the use of a lower apparent Reynolds number. The second enhancement makes use of the Fourier analysis for modelling complex ice roughness on the leading edge of airfoils. This method of modelling provides an analytical expression, which describes the roughness geometry and the corresponding derivatives. The factors affecting the performance of the Fourier analysis were also investigated. It was shown that the number of sine-cosine terms and the number of control points are of importance. Finally, these enhancements are incorporated into an automated grid generation method over the airfoil ice accretion surface. The validations for both enhancements demonstrate that they can improve the current capability of grid generation and computational flow field analysis around airfoils with ice roughness.

  11. Chiroptical methods in a wide wavelength range for obtaining Ln3+ complexes with circularly polarized luminescence of practical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin; Carpita, Luca; Arrico, Lorenzo; Zinna, Francesco; Di Bari, Lorenzo

    2018-05-29

    We studied enantiopure chiral trivalent lanthanide (Ln3+ = La3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tm3+, and Yb3+) complexes with two fluorinated achiral tris(β-diketonate) ligands (HFA = hexafluoroacetylacetonate and TTA = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate), incorporating a chiral bis(oxazolinyl)pyridine (PyBox) unit as a neutral ancillary ligand, by the combined use of optical and chiroptical methods, ranging from UV to IR both in absorption and circular dichroism (CD), and including circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Ultimately, all the spectroscopic information is integrated into a total and a chiroptical super-spectrum, which allows one to characterize a multidimensional chemical space, spanned by the different Ln3+ ions, the acidity and steric demand of the diketone and the chirality of the PyBox ligand. In all cases, the Ln3+ ions endow the systems with peculiar chiroptical properties, either allied to f-f transitions or induced by the metal onto the ligand. In more detail, we found that Sm3+ complexes display interesting CPL features, which partly superimpose and partly integrate the more common Eu3+ properties. Especially, in the context of security tags, the pair Sm/Eu may be a winning choice for chiroptical barcoding.

  12. Nasopharyngeal Cancers: Which Method Should be Used to Measure these Irregularly Shaped Tumors on Cross-Sectional Imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Ann D.; Zee, Benny; Yuen, Edmund H.Y.; Leung Singfai; Yeung, David K.W.; Ma, Brigette B.; Wong, Jeffrey K.T.; Kam, Michael K.M.; Ahuja, Anil T.; Chan, Anthony T.C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the standard techniques of measuring tumor size and change in size after treatment could be applied to the measurement of nasopharyngeal cancers, which are often irregular in shape. Methods and Materials: The standard measurements of bidimensional (BDM) (World Health Organization criteria) and unidimensional (UDM) (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] criteria), together with the maximum depth of the tumor perpendicular to the pharyngeal wall (DM), were acquired from axial magnetic resonance images of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 44 patients at diagnosis and in 29 of these patients after treatment. Tumor volume measurements (VM), acquired from the summation of areas from the axial magnetic resonance images, were used as the reference standard. Results: There was a significant association between VM and BDM with respect to tumor size at diagnosis (p = 0.002), absolute change in tumor size after treatment (p < 0.001), and percentage change in tumor size after treatment (p = 0.044), but not between VM and UDM. There was also a significant association between VM and DM with respect to percentage change in tumor size after treatment (p = <0.0001) but not absolute change (p = 0.222). Conclusion: When using simple measurements to assess irregularly shaped nasopharyngeal cancers, the BDM should be used to measure size at diagnosis and the BDM and percentage change in size with treatment. Unidimensional measurement does not reflect size or change in size, and therefore the RECIST criteria may not be applicable to all tumor shapes. The use of DM requires further evaluation

  13. Comparison of the analog and digital pulse-shaping methods in signal processing in nuclear detections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnabi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this article is to describe the potential applications of the new improved digital techniques and provide a meaningful figure of merit for the comparison of the analog and digital methods. The experimental operation of a typical digital pulse shaper used in a spectrometer with the 23 Na source and a Ge y-ray detector is discussed. The effect of different imposed dead time on the counted pulses is investigated. It is noticed that nuclear events distribution in all ranges of dead time does not obey Poisson's law and deviation from this distribution depends on the counting rate. For a given dead time, deviation from this distribution increases linearly by increasing imposed dead time. For a fixed dead time, when counting rate increases deviation from Poisson's distribution law increases accordingly, and vice versa. (Author)

  14. Source of spin polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.T.; Meier, F.A.; Siegmann, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of producing intense beams of polarized free electrons in which a semiconductor with a spin orbit split valence band and negative electron affinity is used as a photocathode and irradiated with circularly polarized light

  15. A generalized Fellner-Schall method for smoothing parameter optimization with application to Tweedie location, scale and shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Simon N; Fasiolo, Matteo

    2017-12-01

    We consider the optimization of smoothing parameters and variance components in models with a regular log likelihood subject to quadratic penalization of the model coefficients, via a generalization of the method of Fellner (1986) and Schall (1991). In particular: (i) we generalize the original method to the case of penalties that are linear in several smoothing parameters, thereby covering the important cases of tensor product and adaptive smoothers; (ii) we show why the method's steps increase the restricted marginal likelihood of the model, that it tends to converge faster than the EM algorithm, or obvious accelerations of this, and investigate its relation to Newton optimization; (iii) we generalize the method to any Fisher regular likelihood. The method represents a considerable simplification over existing methods of estimating smoothing parameters in the context of regular likelihoods, without sacrificing generality: for example, it is only necessary to compute with the same first and second derivatives of the log-likelihood required for coefficient estimation, and not with the third or fourth order derivatives required by alternative approaches. Examples are provided which would have been impossible or impractical with pre-existing Fellner-Schall methods, along with an example of a Tweedie location, scale and shape model which would be a challenge for alternative methods, and a sparse additive modeling example where the method facilitates computational efficiency gains of several orders of magnitude. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2017, The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  16. Determination of radiography optimum conditions for complex shape products by simplex planning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipnis, M.A.; Korsunskij, G.M.; Mironenko, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    It has been suggested that the optimum regime of radiography should be determined using the method of successive simplex planning, which can be convenient in the cases, when the result of testing can not be presented quantitatively. Besides, in this case there is no necessity in duplication of experiments, as even gross errors are automatically corrected with further simplex motion. A plan and results of experimental determination of the optimum regime of product radiography using the X-ray RUP-120-5-1 apparatus are presented. In the experiments described voltage, current intensity and radiography duration are varied. The quality of X-ray images is evaluated according to conventional ten-point scale, taking into account the quality of each projection. It has been established that application of simplex planning to determine regimes of X-ray radiography of different types of products permits to obtain high-quality roentgenograms with simultaneous decrease in the consumption of photomaterials and considerable decrease in the time of laboratory tests

  17. Influence of cell shape on mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V meshes fabricated by electron beam melting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S J; Xu, Q S; Wang, Z; Hou, W T; Hao, Y L; Yang, R; Murr, L E

    2014-10-01

    Ti-6Al-4V reticulated meshes with different elements (cubic, G7 and rhombic dodecahedron) in Materialise software were fabricated by additive manufacturing using the electron beam melting (EBM) method, and the effects of cell shape on the mechanical properties of these samples were studied. The results showed that these cellular structures with porosities of 88-58% had compressive strength and elastic modulus in the range 10-300MPa and 0.5-15GPa, respectively. The compressive strength and deformation behavior of these meshes were determined by the coupling of the buckling and bending deformation of struts. Meshes that were dominated by buckling deformation showed relatively high collapse strength and were prone to exhibit brittle characteristics in their stress-strain curves. For meshes dominated by bending deformation, the elastic deformation corresponded well to the Gibson-Ashby model. By enhancing the effect of bending deformation, the stress-strain curve characteristics can change from brittle to ductile (the smooth plateau area). Therefore, Ti-6Al-4V cellular solids with high strength, low modulus and desirable deformation behavior could be fabricated through the cell shape design using the EBM technique. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Shape Memory Alloy Rock Splitters (SMARS) - A Non-Explosive Method for Fracturing Planetary Rocklike Materials and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, Othmane; Noebe, Ronald D.; Halsmer, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    A static rock splitter device based on high-force, high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) was developed for space related applications requiring controlled geologic excavation in planetary bodies such as the Moon, Mars, and near-Earth asteroids. The device, hereafter referred to as the shape memory alloy rock splitter (SMARS), consisted of active (expanding) elements made of Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 (at.%) that generate extremely large forces in response to thermal input. The preshaping (training) of these elements was accomplished using isothermal, isobaric and cyclic training methods, which resulted in active components capable of generating stresses in excess of 1.5 GPa. The corresponding strains (or displacements) were also evaluated and were found to be 2 to 3 percent, essential to rock fracturing and/or splitting when placed in a borehole. SMARS performance was evaluated using a test bed consisting of a temperature controller, custom heaters and heater holders, and an enclosure for rock placement and breakage. The SMARS system was evaluated using various rock types including igneous rocks (e.g., basalt, quartz, granite) and sedimentary rocks (e.g., sandstone, limestone).

  19. How community environment shapes physical activity: perceptions revealed through the PhotoVoice method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2014-09-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that community environment plays an important role in individuals' physical activity engagement. However, while attributes of the physical environment are widely investigated, sociocultural, political, and economic aspects of the environment are often neglected. This article helps to fill these knowledge gaps by providing a more comprehensive understanding of multiple dimensions of the community environment relative to physical activity. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how people's experiences and perceptions of their community environments affect their abilities to engage in physical activity. A PhotoVoice method was used to identify barriers to and opportunities for physical activity among residents in four communities in the province of Alberta, Canada, in 2009. After taking pictures, the thirty-five participants shared their perceptions of those opportunities and barriers in their community environments during individual interviews. Using the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework, themes emerging from these photo-elicited interviews were organized in four environment types: physical, sociocultural, economic, and political. The data show that themes linked to the physical (56.6%) and sociocultural (31.4%) environments were discussed more frequently than the themes of the economic (5.9%) and political (6.1%) environments. Participants identified nuanced barriers and opportunities for physical activity, which are illustrated by their quotes and photographs. The findings suggest that a myriad of factors from physical, sociocultural, economic, and political environments influence people's abilities to be physically active in their communities. Therefore, adoption of a broad, ecological perspective is needed to address the barriers and build upon the opportunities described by participants to make communities more healthy and active. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Modeling 3D Dynamic Rupture on Arbitrarily-Shaped faults by Boundary-Conforming Finite Difference Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D.; Zhu, H.; Luo, Y.; Chen, X.

    2008-12-01

    We use a new finite difference method (FDM) and the slip-weakening law to model the rupture dynamics of a non-planar fault embedded in a 3-D elastic media with free surface. The new FDM, based on boundary- conforming grid, sets up the mapping equations between the curvilinear coordinate and the Cartesian coordinate and transforms irregular physical space to regular computational space; it also employs a higher- order non-staggered DRP/opt MacCormack scheme which is of low dispersion and low dissipation so that the high accuracy and stability of our rupture modeling are guaranteed. Compared with the previous methods, not only we can compute the spontaneous rupture of an arbitrarily shaped fault, but also can model the influence of the surface topography on the rupture process of earthquake. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, we compared our results and other previous results, and found out they matched perfectly. Thanks to the boundary-conforming FDM, problems such as dynamic rupture with arbitrary dip, strike and rake over an arbitrary curved plane can be handled; and supershear or subshear rupture can be simulated with different parameters such as the initial stresses and the critical slip displacement Dc. Besides, our rupture modeling is economical to be implemented owing to its high efficiency and does not suffer from displacement leakage. With the help of inversion data of rupture by field observations, this method is convenient to model rupture processes and seismograms of natural earthquakes.

  1. Simulating Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Shape-Memory Alloy Microstructure by Face-Offsetting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellur Ramaswamy, Ravi S.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Fried, Eliot; Jiao Xiangmin

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of martensitic transformations (diffusionless, solid-solid phase transformations) have been instrumental to the recent discovery of new low hysteresis alloys. However, some key fundamental issues must be better understood to design still better alloys. Restricting attention to antiplane shear, we use finite element analysis to model the shape-memory alloy microstructure within the Abeyaratne-Knowles continuum thermomechanical framework and use an interface kinetic relation of the kind proposed by Rosakis and Tsai. Geometric singularities and topological changes associated with microstructural evolution pose significant numerical challenges. We address such challenges with a recently developed front-tracking scheme called the face-offsetting method (FOM) to explicitly model phase interfaces. Initial results demonstrate the effectiveness of FOM in resolving needle-like twinned microstructures

  2. Implementation of the FDTD method in cylindrical coordinates for dispersive materials: Modal study of C-shaped nano-waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    kebci, Zahia; Belkhir, Abderrahmane; Mezeghrane, Abdelaziz; Lamrous, Omar; Baida, Fadi Issam

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a code based on the finite difference time domain method in cylindrical coordinates (CC-FDTD) that integrates the Drude Critical Points model (DCP) and to apply it in the study of a metallic C-shaped waveguide (CSWG). The integrated dispersion model allows an accurate description of noble metals in the optical range and working in cylindrical coordinates is necessary to bypass the staircase effect induced by a Cartesian mesh especially in the case of curved geometrical forms. The CC-FDTD code developed as a part of this work is more general than the Body-Of-Revolution-FDTD algorithm that can only handle structures exhibiting a complete cylindrical symmetry. A N-order CC-FDTD code is then derived and used to perform a parametric study of an infinitly-long CSWG for nano-optic applications. Propagation losses and dispersion diagrams are given for different geometrical parameters.

  3. Adaptive striping watershed segmentation method for processing microscopic images of overlapping irregular-shaped and multicentre particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X; Bai, B; Xu, N; Wu, K

    2015-04-01

    Oversegmentation is a major drawback of the morphological watershed algorithm. Here, we study and reveal that the oversegmentation is not only because of the irregular shapes of the particle images, which people are familiar with, but also because of some particles, such as ellipses, with more than one centre. A new parameter, the striping level, is introduced and the criterion for striping parameter is built to help find the right markers prior to segmentation. An adaptive striping watershed algorithm is established by applying a procedure, called the marker searching algorithm, to find the markers, which can effectively suppress the oversegmentation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by analysing some typical particle images including the images of gold nanorod ensembles. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. A fuzzy logic-based damage identification method for simply-supported bridge using modal shape ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy logic system (FLS is established for damage identification of simply supported bridge. A novel damage indicator is developed based on ratios of mode shape components between before and after damage. Numerical simulation of a simply-supported bridge is presented to demonstrate the memory, inference and anti-noise ability of the proposed method. The bridge is divided into eight elements and nine nodes, the damage indicator vector at characteristic nodes is used as the input measurement of FLS. Results reveal that FLS can detect damage of training patterns with an accuracy of 100%. Aiming at other test patterns, the FLS also possesses favorable inference ability, the identification accuracy for single damage location is up to 93.75%. Tests with noise simulated data show that the FLS possesses favorable anti-noise ability.

  5. Effect of Anisotropy on Shape Measurement Accuracy of Silicon Wafer Using Three-Point-Support Inverting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiro; Natsu, Wataru; Kunieda, Masanori

    This paper describes the influences of anisotropy found in the elastic modulus of monocrystalline silicon wafers on the measurement accuracy of the three-point-support inverting method which can measure the warp and thickness of thin large panels simultaneously. Deflection due to gravity depends on the crystal orientation relative to the positions of the three-point-supports. Thus the deviation of actual crystal orientation from the direction indicated by the notch fabricated on the wafer causes measurement errors. Numerical analysis of the deflection confirmed that the uncertainty of thickness measurement increases from 0.168µm to 0.524µm due to this measurement error. In addition, experimental results showed that the rotation of crystal orientation relative to the three-point-supports is effective for preventing wafer vibration excited by disturbance vibration because the resonance frequency of wafers can be changed. Thus, surface shape measurement accuracy was improved by preventing resonant vibration during measurement.

  6. Optimization of a beam shaping bolus for superficial microwave hyperthermia waveguide applicators using a finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaradas, J Carl; Sherar, Michael D

    2003-01-01

    Temperature inhomogeneity in hyperthermia treatments often limits the total thermal dose that can be delivered to the tumour region. To reduce such inhomogeneities, a prototype dynamically modifiable square array of saline-filled patches which attenuate microwave energy was developed for superficial treatments that use external microwave applicators. The array was situated inside the coupling water bolus that is often used with external applicators. The prototype has been previously tested clinically with promising results. A more complete theoretical analysis of the performance of this new bolus design and improvements to its design by modelling are presented here. The analysis was performed by performing five iterative simulations of the SAR pattern produced inside a tissue structure by a waveguide applicator with a water bolus containing the dynamic patch array attached. Between iterations the patch array configuration was modified in an attempt to improve the ability of the bolus to confine heating to an 'L'-shaped tumour region. These simulations were performed using the finite element method. The steady-state temperature profile was then computed using a finite element method based simulation of heat transfer that assumed a given applicator power level and water bolus temperature. Several iterations of these heat transfer simulations were performed with varying applicator power level and water bolus temperature to improve the confinement of heating to the target region. The analysis showed that the dynamic patch array should be capable of conforming heating to an 'L'-shaped target tumour region while limiting the heating to the surrounding normal tissue to an acceptable level

  7. Coronal Polarization of Pseudostreamers and the Solar Polar Field Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmeler, L. A.; Guennou, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Gibson, S. E.; Auchere, F.

    2016-01-01

    The reversal of the solar polar magnetic field is notoriously hard to pin down due to the extreme viewing angle of the pole. In Cycle 24, the southern polar field reversal can be pinpointed with high accuracy due to a large-scale pseudostreamer that formed over the pole and persisted for approximately a year. We tracked the size and shape of this structure with multiple observations and analysis techniques including PROBA2/SWAP EUV images, AIA EUV images, CoMP polarization data, and 3D tomographic reconstructions. We find that the heliospheric field reversed polarity in February 2014, whereas in the photosphere, the last vestiges of the previous polar field polarity remained until March 2015. We present here the evolution of the structure and describe its identification in the Fe XII 1074nm coronal emission line, sensitive to the Hanle effect in the corona.

  8. Polarized BRDF measurement of steel E235B in the near-infrared region: Based on a self-designed instrument with absolute measuring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanlei; Yu, Kun; Liu, Zilong; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Yufang

    2018-06-01

    The spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution (BRDF) offers a complete description of the optical properties of the opaque material. Numerous studies on BRDF have been conducted for its important role in scientific research and industrial production. However, most of these studies focus on the visible region and unpolarized BRDF, and the spectral polarized BRDF in the near-infrared region is rarely reported. In this letter, we propose an absolute method to measure the spectral BRDF in the near-infrared region, and the detailed derivation is presented. A self-designed instrument is set up for the absolute measurement of BRDF. The reliability of this method is verified by comparing the experimental data of the three metal (aluminum, silver and gold) mirrors with the reference data. The in-plane polarized BRDF of steel E235B are measured, and the influence of incident angle and roughness on the BRDF are discussed. The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) are determined based on the polarized BRDF. The results indicate that both the roughness and incident angle have distinct influence on the BRDF and DOLP.

  9. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  10. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  11. A rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of aliphatic and polar molecules containing free carboxyl groups in plant extracts by LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventure Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aliphatic molecules containing free carboxyl groups are important intermediates in many metabolic and signalling reactions, however, they accumulate to low levels in tissues and are not efficiently ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI compared to more polar substances. Quantification of aliphatic molecules becomes therefore difficult when small amounts of tissue are available for analysis. Traditional methods for analysis of these molecules require purification or enrichment steps, which are onerous when multiple samples need to be analyzed. In contrast to aliphatic molecules, more polar substances containing free carboxyl groups such as some phytohormones are efficiently ionized by ESI and suitable for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Thus, the development of a method with which aliphatic and polar molecules -which their unmodified forms differ dramatically in their efficiencies of ionization by ESI- can be simultaneously detected with similar sensitivities would substantially simplify the analysis of complex biological matrices. Results A simple, rapid, specific and sensitive method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of free aliphatic molecules (e.g., free fatty acids (FFA and small polar molecules (e.g., jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA containing free carboxyl groups by direct derivatization of leaf extracts with Picolinyl reagent followed by LC-MS/MS analysis is presented. The presence of the N atom in the esterified pyridine moiety allowed the efficient ionization of 25 compounds tested irrespective of their chemical structure. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained after analysis of Nicotiana attenuata leaf material with previously described analytical methods. Conclusion The method presented was used to detect 16 compounds in leaf extracts of N. attenuata plants. Importantly, the method can be adapted based on the specific analytes of interest with the only consideration that the

  12. Simple and efficient method of spin-polarizing a metastable helium beam by diode laser optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granitza, B.; Salvietti, M.; Torello, E.; Mattera, L.; Sasso, A.

    1995-01-01

    Diode laser optical pumping to produce a highly spin-polarized metastable He beam to be used in a spin-polarized metastable atom deexcitation spectroscopy experiment on magnetized surfaces is described. Efficient pumping of the beam is performed by means of an SDL-6702 distributed Bragg reflector diode laser which yields 50 mW of output power in a single longitudinal mode at 1083 nm, the resonance wavelength for the 2 3 S→2 3 P 0,1,2 (D 0 , D 1 , and D 2 ) transitions of He*. The light is circularly polarized by a quarter-wave plate, allowing easy change of the sense of atomic polarization. The laser frequency can be locked to the atomic transition for several hours by phase-sensitive detection of the saturated absorption signal in a He discharge cell. Any of the three transitions of the triplet system can be pumped with the laser but the maximum level of atomic polarization of 98.5% is found pumping the D 2 line. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Fast and accurate algorithm for repeated optical trapping simulations on arbitrarily shaped particles based on boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Kai-Jiang; Pan, Xiao-Min; Li, Ren-Xian; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2017-01-01

    In optical trapping applications, the optical force should be investigated within a wide range of parameter space in terms of beam configuration to reach the desirable performance. A simple but reliable way of conducting the related investigation is to evaluate optical forces corresponding to all possible beam configurations. Although the optical force exerted on arbitrarily shaped particles can be well predicted by boundary element method (BEM), such investigation is time costing because it involves many repetitions of expensive computation, where the forces are calculated from the equivalent surface currents. An algorithm is proposed to alleviate the difficulty by exploiting our previously developed skeletonization framework. The proposed algorithm succeeds in reducing the number of repetitions. Since the number of skeleton beams is always much less than that of beams in question, the computation can be very efficient. The proposed algorithm is accurate because the skeletonization is accuracy controllable. - Highlights: • A fast and accurate algorithm is proposed in terms of boundary element method to reduce the number of repetitions of computing the optical forces from the equivalent currents. • The algorithm is accuracy controllable because the accuracy of the associated rank-revealing process is well-controlled. • The accelerate rate can reach over one thousand because the number of skeleton beams can be very small. • The algorithm can be applied to other methods, e.g., FE-BI.

  14. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  15. Metabolomic method: UPLC-q-ToF polar and non-polar metabolites in the healthy rat cerebellum using an in-vial dual extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amera A Ebshiana

    Full Text Available Unbiased metabolomic analysis of biological samples is a powerful and increasingly commonly utilised tool, especially for the analysis of bio-fluids to identify candidate biomarkers. To date however only a small number of metabolomic studies have been applied to studying the metabolite composition of tissue samples, this is due, in part to a number of technical challenges including scarcity of material and difficulty in extracting metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a method for maximising the biological information obtained from small tissue samples by optimising sample preparation, LC-MS analysis and metabolite identification. Here we describe an in-vial dual extraction (IVDE method, with reversed phase and hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography (HILIC which reproducibly measured over 4,000 metabolite features from as little as 3mg of brain tissue. The aqueous phase was analysed in positive and negative modes following HILIC separation in which 2,838 metabolite features were consistently measured including amino acids, sugars and purine bases. The non-aqueous phase was also analysed in positive and negative modes following reversed phase separation gradients respectively from which 1,183 metabolite features were consistently measured representing metabolites such as phosphatidylcholines, sphingolipids and triacylglycerides. The described metabolomics method includes a database for 200 metabolites, retention time, mass and relative intensity, and presents the basal metabolite composition for brain tissue in the healthy rat cerebellum.

  16. Characterization of textural and hydric heterogeneities in argillaceous geo-materials using induced polarization method: application to the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) of the Tournemire experimental station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okay, Gonca

    2011-01-01

    This Ph-D thesis investigates the potential of clay rocks for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. Underground excavations are responsible in their vicinity a region, where the clay-rock is damaged or disturbed. This region must to be characterized to ensure the safety of repositories. The extension of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) and its evolution over time have been investigated thought electrical resistivity and induced polarization methods from three galleries belonging to the French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN)'s experimental underground research laboratory of Tournemire (Aveyron, France). Time domain induced polarisation indicates the presence of mineralization (e.g., especially pyrite) located in the structural discontinuities such as tectonic fractures (mm-cm), tectonic fault (m) and calcareous nodules (cm). Combined electrical resistivity and Induced Polarization methods show the possibility to delineate textural changes associated to desaturation of the clay-rock induced by the ventilation of galleries. The impact of the desaturation is particularly observed on the gallery's walls. In addition, Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) tomography results can be used to discriminate the responses of the de-saturated zones from the fractured zones. We have performed laboratory experiments (in the range 1.4 mHz - 12 kHz) using saturated unconsolidated sand-clay mixtures. The results illustrate that the amplitude of polarization is strongly affected by the surface properties of these mixtures (e.g., cation exchange capacity, specific surface area) and by the volumetric clay content. However, the amplitude of polarization is independent of the concentration of electrolyte. The SIP response is also strongly sensitive to the mineralogy of the clays. (author)

  17. 极化敏感L型阵模值约束的多参数联合估计%Multi-Parameters Estimation for L-Shaped Polarization Sensitive Array Using the Modulus Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远芳; 周正; 李会勇

    2016-01-01

    对于极化敏感 L 型阵列的多参数联合估计问题,采用传统的多重信号分类(MUSIC)算法所需计算量大,采用旋转不变子空间(ESPRIT)算法需要考虑参数配对问题。提出了模值约束下的求根多重信号分类(root-MUSIC)算法,首先利用 L 型阵列中两个相互垂直的线阵构造两子阵接收数据的自相关函数,采用 root-MUSIC 算法进行波达方向角(DOA)估计,然后根据模值约束条件构造代价函数,通过闭合式解得到极化参数估计。该算法与传统 MUSIC 算法相比,大大减少了计算量,同时能够实现参数自动配对,避免了 ESPRIT 算法的不足。计算机仿真结果表明,该算法的角度估计性能与传统 MUSIC 算法接近,优于ESPRIT 算法,且算法收敛速度快。%A large amount of computation is required when using the traditional MUSIC algorithm and the parameter matching problem should be considered when using ESPRIT algorithm for multi-parameters estimation of L-shaped polarization sensitive array.A root-MUSIC algorithm with modulus constraint is pro-posed.This algorithm estimates the DOA and polarization parameters in two separate steps.In step one,the autocorrelation function of the received data from two mutually vertical linear arrays is constructed,and DOA parameter is estimated by root-MUSIC algorithm;in step two,the cost function is constructed according to constraint condition and polarization parameters are obtained with closed-form formulas.Compared with the traditional MUSIC algorithm,the proposed algorithm greatly reduces the amount of calculation.It can realize automatic matching parameters at the same time,which avoids the deficiency of the ESPRIT algorithm.The computer simulation results show that the angle estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is close to traditional MUSIC algorithm,and is better than ESPRIT algorithm.Furthermore,the proposed algorithm has fast convergence speed.

  18. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  19. The Performance Test of Three Different Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT Blade Shapes Using Experimental and Numerical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tong Chong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT blade geometries with the same diameter of 0.72 m using the same NACA4418 airfoil profile have been investigated both experimentally and numerically. The first is an optimum (OPT blade shape, obtained using improved blade element momentum (BEM theory. A detailed description of the blade geometry is also given. The second is an untapered and optimum twist (UOT blade with the same twist distributions as the OPT blade. The third blade is untapered and untwisted (UUT. Wind tunnel experiments were used to measure the power coefficients of these blades, and the results indicate that both the OPT and UOT blades perform with the same maximum power coefficient, Cp = 0.428, but it is located at different tip speed ratio, λ = 4.92 for the OPT blade and λ = 4.32 for the UOT blade. The UUT blade has a maximum power coefficient of Cp = 0.210 at λ = 3.86. After the tests, numerical simulations were performed using a full three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD method using the k-ω SST turbulence model. It has been found that CFD predictions reproduce the most accurate model power coefficients. The good agreement between the measured and computed power coefficients of the three models strongly suggest that accurate predictions of HAWT blade performance at full-scale conditions are also possible using the CFD method.

  20. Pulsed Polarization-Based NOx Sensors of YSZ Films Produced by the Aerosol Deposition Method and by Screen-Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, Jörg; Albrecht, Gaby; Schönauer-Kamin, Daniela; Kita, Jaroslaw; Moos, Ralf

    2017-07-26

    The pulsed polarization technique on solid electrolytes is based on alternating potential pulses interrupted by self-discharge pauses. Since even small concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) in the ppm range significantly change the polarization and discharge behavior, pulsed polarization sensors are well suited to measure low amounts of NO x . In contrast to all previous investigations, planar pulsed polarization sensors were built using an electrolyte thick film and platinum interdigital electrodes on alumina substrates. Two different sensor layouts were investigated, the first with buried Pt electrodes under the electrolyte and the second one with conventional overlying Pt electrodes. Electrolyte thick films were either formed by aerosol deposition or by screen-printing, therefore exhibiting a dense or porous microstructure, respectively. For screen-printed electrolytes, the influence of the electrolyte resistance on the NO x sensing ability was investigated as well. Sensors with buried electrodes showed little to no response even at higher NO x concentrations, in good agreement with the intended sensor mechanism. Electrolyte films with overlying electrodes, however, allowed the quantitative detection of NO x . In particular, aerosol deposited electrolytes exhibited high sensitivities with a sensor output signal Δ U of 50 mV and 75 mV for 3 ppm of NO and NO₂, respectively. For screen-printed electrolytes, a clear trend indicated a decrease in sensitivity with increased electrolyte resistance.

  1. South Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    4 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a polgyon-cracked surface, into which deep, somewhat kidney-bean-shaped pits have formed. These are landscapes of the martian south polar residual cap. This view was captured during May 2005. Location near: 86.9oS, 5.1oW Image width: 1.5 km (0.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season Southern Spring

  2. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  3. Paired Pulse Basis Functions for the Method of Moments EFIE Solution of Electromagnetic Problems Involving Arbitrarily-shaped, Three-dimensional Dielectric Scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Anne I.; Rao, Sadasiva M.; Baginski, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    A pair of basis functions is presented for the surface integral, method of moment solution of scattering by arbitrarily-shaped, three-dimensional dielectric bodies. Equivalent surface currents are represented by orthogonal unit pulse vectors in conjunction with triangular patch modeling. The electric field integral equation is employed with closed geometries for dielectric bodies; the method may also be applied to conductors. Radar cross section results are shown for dielectric bodies having canonical spherical, cylindrical, and cubic shapes. Pulse basis function results are compared to results by other methods.

  4. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  5. Research on fusion algorithm of polarization image in tetrolet domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dexiang; Yuan, BaoHong; Zhang, Jingjing

    2015-12-01

    Tetrolets are Haar-type wavelets whose supports are tetrominoes which are shapes made by connecting four equal-sized squares. A fusion method for polarization images based on tetrolet transform is proposed. Firstly, the magnitude of polarization image and angle of polarization image can be decomposed into low-frequency coefficients and high-frequency coefficients with multi-scales and multi-directions using tetrolet transform. For the low-frequency coefficients, the average fusion method is used. According to edge distribution differences in high frequency sub-band images, for the directional high-frequency coefficients are used to select the better coefficients by region spectrum entropy algorithm for fusion. At last the fused image can be obtained by utilizing inverse transform for fused tetrolet coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect image features more effectively and the fused image has better subjective visual effect

  6. H-Shaped Multiple Linear Motor Drive Platform Control System Design Based on an Inverse System Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Caiyan; Zhang, Chaoning; Lu, H.

    2017-01-01

    Due to its simple mechanical structure and high motion stability, the H-shaped platform has been increasingly widely used in precision measuring, numerical control machining and semiconductor packaging equipment, etc. The H-shaped platform is normally driven by multiple (three) permanent magnet

  7. A new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis for major, trace and ultra-trace element determination in atmospheric mineral dust from polar ice cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccolo, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.baccolo@mib.infn.it [Graduate School in Polar Sciences, University of Siena, Via Laterina 8, 53100, Siena (Italy); Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milano (Italy); INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Clemenza, Massimiliano [INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Delmonte, Barbara [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milano (Italy); Maffezzoli, Niccolò [Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej, 30, 2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nastasi, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio [INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea [LENA, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Maggi, Valter [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milano (Italy); INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy)

    2016-05-30

    Dust found in polar ice core samples present extremely low concentrations, in addition the availability of such samples is usually strictly limited. For these reasons the chemical and physical analysis of polar ice cores is an analytical challenge. In this work a new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis (LB-INAA) for the multi-elemental characterization of the insoluble fraction of dust from polar ice cores is presented. Thanks to an accurate selection of the most proper materials and procedures it was possible to reach unprecedented analytical performances, suitable for ice core analyses. The method was applied to Antarctic ice core samples. Five samples of atmospheric dust (μg size) from ice sections of the Antarctic Talos Dome ice core were prepared and analyzed. A set of 37 elements was quantified, spanning from all the major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) to trace ones, including 10 (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu) of the 14 natural occurring lanthanides. The detection limits are in the range of 10{sup −13}–10{sup −6} g, improving previous results of 1–3 orders of magnitude depending on the element; uncertainties lies between 4% and 60%. - Highlights: • A new method based on neutron activation for the multi-elemental characterization of atmospheric dust entrapped in polar ice cores is proposed. • 37 elements were quantified in μg size dust samples with detection limits ranging from 10{sup −13} to 10{sup −6} g. • A low background approach and a clean analytical protocol improved INAA performances to unprecedented levels for multi-elemental analyses.

  8. Modeling of MHD natural convection in a square enclosure having an adiabatic square shaped body using Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kadhim Hussein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A steady laminar two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD natural convection flow in a square enclosure filled with an electrically conducting fluid is numerically investigated using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM. The left and right vertical sidewalls of the square enclosure are maintained at hot and cold temperatures respectively. The horizontal top and bottom walls are considered thermally insulated. An adiabatic square shaped body is located in the center of a square enclosure and an external magnetic field is applied parallel to the horizontal x-axis. In the present work, the following parametric ranges of the non-dimensional groups are utilized: Hartmann number is varied as 0 ⩽ Ha ⩽ 50, Rayleigh number is varied as 103 ⩽ Ra ⩽ 105, Prandtl number is varied 0.05 ⩽ Pr ⩽ 5. It is found that the Hartmann number, Rayleigh number, and Prandtl number have an important role on the flow and thermal characteristics. It is found that when the Hartmann number increases the average Nusselt number decreases. The results also explain that the effect of magnetic field on flow field increases by increasing Prandtl number. However, the Prandtl number effect on the average Nusselt number with a magnetic field is less than the case without a magnetic field. Comparisons with previously published numerical works are performed and good agreements between the results are observed.

  9. Defect window analysis by using SEM-contour based shape quantifying method for sub-20nm node production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Daisuke; Hsu, Mingyi; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Izawa, Masayuki; Enomoto, Yuji; Lin, J. F.; Hu, J. R.

    2013-04-01

    The impact on yield loss due to systematic defect which remains after Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) modeling has increased, and achieving an acceptable yield has become more difficult in the leading technology beyond 20 nm node production. Furthermore Process-Window has become narrow because of the complexity of IC design and less process margin. In the past, the systematic defects have been inspected by human-eyes. However the judgment by human-eyes is sometime unstable and not accurate. Moreover an enormous amount of time and labor will have to be expended on the one-by-one judgment for several thousands of hot-spot defects. In order to overcome these difficulties and improve the yield and manufacturability, the automated system, which can quantify the shape difference with high accuracy and speed, is needed. Inspection points could be increased for getting higher yield, if the automated system achieves our goal. Defect Window Analysis (DWA) system by using high-precision-contour extraction from SEM image on real silicon and quantifying method which can calculate the difference between defect pattern and non-defect pattern automatically, which was developed by Hitachi High-Technologies, has been applied to the defect judgment instead of the judgment by human-eyes. The DWA result which describes process behavior might be feedback to design or OPC or mask. This new methodology and evaluation results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  10. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized using polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junaidi, E-mail: junaidi.1982@fmipa.unila.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Department of Physics, Lampung University, Bandar Lampung (Indonesia); Yunus, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.yunus@mail.ugm.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Triyana, Kuwat, E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id; Harsojo,, E-mail: harsojougm@ugm.ac.id; Suharyadi, Edi, E-mail: esuharyadi@ugm.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Nanomaterials Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions on controlling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as a salt precursor and performed at the oil bath temperature of 140°C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorods were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline of silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorods decreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  11. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized by polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaidi; Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo,; Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions oncontrolling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods(AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as asalt precursor and performed at the oilbath temperature of 140 °C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorodswere characterized using UV-VIS, XRD, SEM and TEM. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorodsdecreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  12. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized using polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaidi; Yunus, Muhammad; Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo,; Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions on controlling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as a salt precursor and performed at the oil bath temperature of 140°C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorods were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline of silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorods decreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  13. A generic, geometric cocalibration method for a combined system of fluorescence molecular tomography and microcomputed tomography with arbitrarily shaped objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jianwei; Yang Xiaoquan; Wang Kan; Luo Qingming; Gong Hui

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A combined system of fluorescence molecular tomography and microcomputed tomography (FMT and mCT) can provide molecular and anatomical information of small animals in a single study with intrinsically coregistered images. The anatomical information provided by the mCT subsystem is commonly used as a reference to locate the fluorophore distribution or as a priori structural information to improve the performance of FMT. Therefore, the transformation between the coordinate systems of the subsystem needs to be determined in advanced. Methods: A cocalibration method for the combined system of FMT and mCT is proposed. First, linear models are adopted to describe the galvano mirrors and the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in the FMT subsystem. Second, the position and orientation of the galvano mirrors are determined with the input voltages of the galvano mirrors and the markers, whose positions are predetermined. The position, orientation and normalized pixel size of the CCD camera are obtained by analysing the projections of a point-like marker at different positions. Finally, the orientation and position of sources and the corresponding relationship between the detectors and their projections on the image plane are predicted. Because the positions of the markers are acquired with mCT, the registration of the FMT and mCT could be realized by direct image fusion. Results: The accuracy and consistency of this method in the presence of noise is evaluated by computer simulation. Next, a practical implementation for an experimental FMT and mCT system is carried out and validated. The maximum prediction error of the source positions on the surface of a cylindrical phantom is within 0.375 mm and that of the projections of a point-like marker is within 0.629 pixel. Finally, imaging experiments of the fluorophore distribution in a cylindrical phantom and a phantom with a complex shape demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Conclusions: This method is

  14. Corrosion evaluation of heat recovery steam generator superheater tube in two methods of testing: Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Rio Pudjidarma; Riastuti, Rini

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the corrosion process which occurs on the water side of Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) superheater tube. The tube was 13CrMo44 and divided into 3 types of specimen: new tube, used tube (with oxide layer on surface), cleaned-used tube (without oxide layer on surface). The evaluation of corrosion parameters wasperformed using deaerated ultra-high purity water (boiler feed water) in two methods of testing: Tafel polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Tafel polarization was excellent as its capability to show the value of corrosion current and the corrosion rate explicitly, on the other hand, EIS was excellent as its capability to explain for corrosion mechanism on metal interface in detail. Both methods showed that the increase of electrolyte temperature from 25°C to 55°C would increase the corrosion rate with the mechanism of decreasing polarization resistance due to thinning out the passive film thickness and enlarge the area of reduction reaction of cathode. Magnetite oxide scale which is laid on the surface of used tube specimen shows protective nature to reduce the corrosion rate, and clear up this oxide would increase the corrosion rate back as new tube.

  15. Effective inclusion of polarization effects in calculations of the oscillator strengths and transition energies in atoms and molecules using the equation-of-motion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, A.V.; Kol'tsova, N.Yu.

    1994-01-01

    Equations of motion were solved by a modified method in a quasi-particle representation of the density functional taking into account the most important polarization effects, including the so-called 2p-2h two-particle-two-hole interactions. Based on these calculations, spectroscopic data on energies and oscillator strengths of the helium atom (the test computation), carbon monoxide, nitrogen molecule, and ethylene are presented that refine some previously reported experimental and theoretical results. It is shown that in some cases the inclusion of polarization corrections introduced by 2p-2h effects is of basic importance because it provides up to ∼30% contribution to the energies and oscillator strengths. 23 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.; Li, R. X.; Guo, L. X.; Ding, C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections of optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are theoretically investigated for a dielectric sphere with particular emphasis on the beam topological charge (or order), half-cone angle and polarization. The angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) is used to derive the non-paraxial electromagnetic (EM) field components of the Bessel beams. The multipole expansion method using vector spherical harmonics is utilized and appropriate beam-shape coefficients are derived in order to compute the radiation force cross-sections. The analysis has no limitation to a particular range of frequencies such that the Rayleigh, Mie or geometrical optics regimes can all be considered effectively using the present rigorous formalism. The focus of this investigation is to identify some of the tractor beam conditions so as to achieve retrograde motion of a dielectric sphere located arbitrarily in space. Numerical computations for the axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections are presented for linear, right-circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane waves forming the Bessel beams of zeroth- and first-order (with positive or negative helicity), respectively. As the sphere shifts off the beam's axis, the axial pulling (tractor) force is weakened. Moreover, the transverse radiation force cross-section field changes with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on the choice of ka and the half-cone angle α0. These results are particularly important in the development of emergent technologies for the photophoretic assembly of optically-engineered (meta)materials with designed properties using optical tractor (vortex) beams, particle manipulation, levitation and positioning, and other applications.

  17. Preliminary study on magnetic tracking-based planar shape sensing and navigation for flexible surgical robots in transoral surgery: methods and phantom experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Zhang, Changchun; Liu, Li; Meng, Max Q-H

    2018-02-01

    Flexible surgical robot can work in confined and complex environments, which makes it a good option for minimally invasive surgery. In order to utilize flexible manipulators in complicated and constrained surgical environments, it is of great significance to monitor the position and shape of the curvilinear manipulator in real time during the procedures. In this paper, we propose a magnetic tracking-based planar shape sensing and navigation system for flexible surgical robots in the transoral surgery. The system can provide the real-time tip position and shape information of the robot during the operation. We use wire-driven flexible robot to serve as the manipulator. It has three degrees of freedom. A permanent magnet is mounted at the distal end of the robot. Its magnetic field can be sensed with a magnetic sensor array. Therefore, position and orientation of the tip can be estimated utilizing a tracking method. A shape sensing algorithm is then carried out to estimate the real-time shape based on the tip pose. With the tip pose and shape display in the 3D reconstructed CT model, navigation can be achieved. Using the proposed system, we carried out planar navigation experiments on a skull phantom to touch three different target positions under the navigation of the skull display interface. During the experiments, the real-time shape has been well monitored and distance errors between the robot tip and the targets in the skull have been recorded. The mean navigation error is [Formula: see text] mm, while the maximum error is 3.2 mm. The proposed method provides the advantages that no sensors are needed to mount on the robot and no line-of-sight problem. Experimental results verified the feasibility of the proposed method.

  18. Precision casting into disposable ceramic mold – a high efficiency method of production of castings of irregular shape

    OpenAIRE

    Уваров, Б. И.; Лущик, П. Е.; Андриц, А. А.; Долгий, Л. П.; Заблоцкий, А. В.

    2016-01-01

    The article shows the advantages and disadvantages of precision casting into disposable ceramic molds. The high quality shaped castings produced by modernized ceramic molding process are proved the reliability and prospects of this advanced technology.

  19. PRECISION CASTING INTO DISPOSABLE CERAMIC MOLD – A HIGH EFFICIENCY METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF CASTINGS OF IRREGULAR SHAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Uvarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages and disadvantages of precision casting into disposable ceramic molds. The high quality shaped castings produced by modernized ceramic molding process are proved the reliability and prospects of this advanced technology.

  20. A new high accuracy non-polynomial tension spline method for the solution of one dimensional wave equation in polar co-ordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Gopal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new three-level implicit nine point compact finite difference formulation of O(k2 + h4 based on non-polynomial tension spline approximation in r-direction and finite difference approximation in t-direction for the numerical solution of one dimensional wave equation in polar co-ordinates. We describe the mathematical formulation procedure in details and also discuss the stability of the method. Numerical results are provided to justify the usefulness of the proposed method.

  1. Ejectile polarization and nuclear orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, A.; Maruyama, T.; Horiuchi, H.

    1992-01-01

    Ejectile polarization phenomena are studied by the use of 'Quantum Molecular Dynamics plus external mean field' model. It is shown that the far-side contribution increases as the incident energy increases or the target charge decreases. The incident energy and the target dependence of ejectile polarization data is reproduced qualitatively. The near- and far-side contributions themselves are calculated to be almost monotone functions of ejectile momentum as is predicted in a simple projectile fragmentation scheme without the assumption that the linear and angular momentum transfers are negligible, and their statistical average results in various shapes in ejectile polarization

  2. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  3. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.; Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.

    2016-01-01

    Low Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and high levels of uncertainty make it challenging to develop cost estimates of new technologies in the R&D phase. It is however essential for NASA to understand the costs and benefits associated with novel concepts, in order to prioritize research investments and evaluate the potential for technology transfer and commercialization. This paper proposes a framework to perform a cost-benefit analysis of a technology in the R&D phase. This framework was developed and used to assess the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. Following the definition of a case study for a cryogenic tank cylinder of specified geometry, data was gathered through interviews with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity. This data served as the basis to produce process flowcharts and timelines, mass estimates, and rough order-of-magnitude cost and schedule estimates. The scalability of the results was subsequently investigated to understand the variability of the results based on tank size. Lastly, once costs and benefits were identified, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to assess the relative value of these achieved benefits for potential stakeholders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results predict a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Compared to the composite manufacturing technique, these results predict cost savings of 35 to 58 percent; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels

  4. Polarized epithermal neutron spectrometer at KENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohgi, M.

    1983-01-01

    A spectrometer employing a white, epithermal, polarized neutron beam is under construction at KENS. The neutron polarization is achieved by passage through a dynamically polarized proton filter (DPPF). The results of the test experiments show that the DPPF method is promising in obtaining polarized epithermal neutron beam. The basic design of the spectrometer is described

  5. Review of polarized ammonium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Recently, ammonia (NH 3 ) and deutron ammonia (ND 3 ), instead of conventional alcohol substances, have been used more frequently as a polarized target substance for experiments of polarization at high energy regions. This article reviews major features of the polarized (deutron) ammonia targets. The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNT) method is widely used in high energy polarization experiments. While only a low polarization degree of hydrogen nucleus of 1.7 percent can be obtained by the Brute force method, DNP can produce polarization as high as ∼ 90 percent (2.5 T, ∼ 200 mK). In 1979, ammonia was irradiated with radiations to form NH 2 free radicals, resulting in the achievement of a high polarization degree of greater than 90 percent (hydrogen). Since then, ammonia and deutron ammonia have increasingly been replacing alcohols including butanol. Irradiation of a target substance with radiations destroys the structure of the substance, leading to a decrease in polarization degree. However, ammonia produces unpaired electrons as a result of irradiation, allowing it to be highly resistant to radiation. This report also present some study results, including observations on effects of radiation on the polarization degree of a target, effects of annealing, and polarization of 14 N. A process for producing an ammonia target is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  6. Refined shape model fitting methods for detecting various types of phenological information on major U.S. crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Toshihiro

    2018-04-01

    Crop phenological information is a critical variable in evaluating the influence of environmental stress on the final crop yield in spatio-temporal dimensions. Although the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Land Cover Dynamics product (MCD12Q2) is widely used in place of crop phenological information, the definitions of MCD12Q2-derived phenological events (e.g. green-up date, dormancy date) were not completely consistent with those of crop development stages used in statistical surveys (e.g. emerged date, harvested date). It has been necessary to devise an alternative method focused on detecting continental-scale crop developmental stages using a different approach. Therefore, this study aimed to refine the Shape Model Fitting (SMF) method to improve its applicability to multiple major U.S. crops. The newly-refined SMF methods could estimate the timing of 36 crop-development stages of major U.S. crops, including corn, soybeans, winter wheat, spring wheat, barley, sorghum, rice, and cotton. The newly-developed calibration process did not require any long-term field observation data, and could calibrate crop-specific phenological parameters, which were used as coefficients in estimated equation, by using only freely accessible public data. The calibration of phenological parameters was conducted in two steps. In the first step, the national common phenological parameters, referred to as X0[base], were calibrated by using the statistical data of 2008. The SMF method coupled using X0[base] was named the rSMF[base] method. The second step was a further calibration to gain regionally-adjusted phenological parameters for each state, referred to as X0[local], by using additional statistical data of 2015 and 2016. The rSMF method using the X0[local] was named the rSMF[local] method. This second calibration process improved the estimation accuracy for all tested crops. When applying the rSMF[base] method to the validation data set (2009-2014), the root

  7. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  8. The polarization modulation and fabrication method of two dimensional silica photonic crystals based on UV nanoimprint lithography and hot imprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuai; Niu, Chunhui; Liang, Liang; Chai, Ke; Jia, Yaqing; Zhao, Fangyin; Li, Ya; Zou, Bingsuo; Liu, Ruibin

    2016-10-04

    Based on a silica sol-gel technique, highly-structurally ordered silica photonic structures were fabricated by UV lithography and hot manual nanoimprint efforts, which makes large-scale fabrication of silica photonic crystals easy and results in low-cost. These photonic structures show perfect periodicity, smooth and flat surfaces and consistent aspect ratios, which are checked by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, glass substrates with imprinted photonic nanostructures show good diffraction performance in both transmission and reflection mode. Furthermore, the reflection efficiency can be enhanced by 5 nm Au nanoparticle coating, which does not affect the original imprint structure. Also the refractive index and dielectric constant of the imprinted silica is close to that of the dielectric layer in nanodevices. In addition, the polarization characteristics of the reflected light can be modulated by stripe nanostructures through changing the incident light angle. The experimental findings match with theoretical results, making silica photonic nanostructures functional integration layers in many optical or optoelectronic devices, such as LED and microlasers to enhance the optical performance and modulate polarization properties in an economical and large-scale way.

  9. A pseudo-spectral method for the simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates using domain decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidler, Rolf, E-mail: rsidler@gmail.com [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Carcione, José M. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante 42c, 34010 Sgonico, Trieste (Italy); Holliger, Klaus [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.

  10. Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, F.G.; Li, R.X.; Guo, L.X.; Ding, C.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections of optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are theoretically investigated for a dielectric sphere with particular emphasis on the beam topological charge (or order), half-cone angle and polarization. The angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) is used to derive the non-paraxial electromagnetic (EM) field components of the Bessel beams. The multipole expansion method using vector spherical harmonics is utilized and appropriate beam-shape coefficients are derived in order to compute the radiation force cross-sections. The analysis has no limitation to a particular range of frequencies such that the Rayleigh, Mie or geometrical optics regimes can all be considered effectively using the present rigorous formalism. The focus of this investigation is to identify some of the tractor beam conditions so as to achieve retrograde motion of a dielectric sphere located arbitrarily in space. Numerical computations for the axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections are presented for linear, right-circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane waves forming the Bessel beams of zeroth- and first-order (with positive or negative helicity), respectively. As the sphere shifts off the beam's axis, the axial pulling (tractor) force is weakened. Moreover, the transverse radiation force cross-section field changes with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on the choice of ka and the half-cone angle α_0. These results are particularly important in the development of emergent technologies for the photophoretic assembly of optically-engineered (meta)materials with designed properties using optical tractor (vortex) beams, particle manipulation, levitation and positioning, and other applications. - Highlights: • Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are

  11. Determination of the shape factor of {sup 90}Sr by means of the cutoff energy yield method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A. [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental (CSIC), Dcho. 211, C/Serrano 113b, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: agrau@imaff.cfmac.csic.es; Kossert, K. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Department 6.1, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Grau Malonda, A. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Proyectos Estrategicos, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Usually, Kurie plots are used to analyze beta-spectra shape-factor functions measured by means of semiconductor and magnetic spectrometers. A drawback of these techniques is the occurrence of self-absorption within the samples through which the emission spectrum is altered. In liquid-scintillation samples self-absorption does not occur, but the poor energy resolution makes the analysis of the spectra difficult. To overcome this problem, two resolution-invariant observables are used for determining the shape-factor function of {sup 90}Sr: (1) the maximum point energy and (2) the cutoff energy yield. The measured shape-factor function of {sup 90}Sr agrees with the one which is predicted by theory for the first-forbidden unique transition.

  12. The polarization of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It is insufficient to know coordinates and momentum to describe a state of a neutron. It is necessary to define a spin orientation. As far as it is known from quantum mechanics, a half spin has a projection in the positive direction or in the negative direction. The probability of both projections in an unpolarized beam is equal. If a direction exists, in which the projection is more probably then beam is called polarized in this direction. It is essential to know polarization of neutrons for characteristics of a neutron source, which is emitting it. The question of polarization of fast neutrons came up in 50's. The present work is the review of polarization of fast neutrons and methods of polarization analysis. This also includes information about polarization of fast neutrons from first papers, which described polarization in the D(d,n) 3 He, 7 Li (p,n) 7 Be, T(p,n) 3 He reactions. (authors)

  13. Magnet pole shape design for reduction of thrust ripple of slotless permanent magnet linear synchronous motor with arc-shaped magnets considering end-effect based on analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hun Shin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The shape of the magnet is essential to the performance of a slotless permanent magnet linear synchronous machine (PMLSM because it is directly related to desirable machine performance. This paper presents a reduction in the thrust ripple of a PMLSM through the use of arc-shaped magnets based on electromagnetic field theory. The magnetic field solutions were obtained by considering end effect using a magnetic vector potential and two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. The analytical solution of each subdomain (PM, air-gap, coil, and end region is derived, and the field solution is obtained by applying the boundary and interface conditions between the subdomains. In particular, an analytical method was derived for the instantaneous thrust and thrust ripple reduction of a PMLSM with arc-shaped magnets. In order to demonstrate the validity of the analytical results, the back electromotive force results of a finite element analysis and experiment on the manufactured prototype model were compared. The optimal point for thrust ripple minimization is suggested.

  14. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  15. Dynamic nuclear polarization and optimal control spatial-selective 13C MRI and MRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Mads Sloth; Laustsen, Christoffer; Maximov, Ivan I.

    2013-01-01

    . This is achieved through the development of spatial-selective single-shot spiral-readout MRI and MRS experiments combined with dynamic nuclear polarization hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate on a 4.7T pre-clinical MR scanner. The method stands out from related techniques by facilitating anatomic shaped region...

  16. A Simultaneous Analytical Method to Profile Non-Volatile Components with Low Polarity Elucidating Differences Between Tobacco Leaves Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Naoyuki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analytical method using liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detector (LC/APCI-MSD was developed to determine key non-volatile components with low polarity elucidating holistic difference among tobacco leaves. Nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography (NARPC using organic solvent ensured simultaneous separation of various components with low polarity in tobacco resin. Application of full-scan mode to APCI-MSD hyphenated with NARPC enabled simultaneous detection of numerous intense product ions given by APCI interface. Parameters for data processing to filter, feature and align peaks were adjusted in order to strike a balance between comprehensiveness and reproducibility in analysis. 63 types of components such as solanesols, chlorophylls, phytosterols, triacylglycerols, solanachromene and others were determined on total ion chromatograms according to authentic components, wavelength spectrum and mass spectrum. The whole area of identified entities among the ones detected on total ion chromatogram reached to over 60% and major entities among those identified showed favorable linearity of determination coefficient of over 0.99. The developed method and data processing procedure were therefore considered feasible for subsequent multivariate analysis. Data matrix consisting of a number of entities was then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering analysis. Cultivars of tobacco leaves were distributed far from each cultivar on PCA score plot and each cluster seemed to be characterized by identified non-volatile components with low polarity. While fluecured Virginia (FCV was loaded by solanachromene, phytosterol esters and triacylglycerols, free phytosterols and chlorophylls loaded Burley (BLY and Oriental (ORI respectively. Consequently the whole methodology consisting of comprehensive method and data processing procedure proved useful to determine key

  17. Evaluation of a X-ray imaging method in micro-fluidics: the case of T-shaped micro-channels filling up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vabre, A.; Legoupil, S.; Manach, E.; Gal, O.; Colin, St.; Geoffroy, S.; Gue, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    X-rays methods assessment in micro-fluidics: case of 'T' shaped microchannels filling. Fluid flows within 'T' or 'Y' shaped microchannels are deeply studied in order to develop adapted modeling approaches and experimental techniques. Our technological choice lies on the attenuation measurement of X-ray in matter. The main advantage of this non-intrusive technique is to be implemented on media opaque to visible light. Moreover, X-rays methods may achieve better spatial resolutions as compared to optical methods because of their much lower wavelength. In order to validate this X-ray method, measurements obtained by this technique are compared with direct measurements carried out on similar microchannels. Finally, experimental results are compared with a theoretical model. (author)

  18. Project Analysis of Aerodynamics Configuration of Re-entry Сapsule-shaped Body Based on Numerical Methods for Newtonian Flow Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Minenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article objective is to review the basic design parameters of space capsule (SC to select a rational shape at the early stages of design.The choice is based on the design parameters such as a volume filling factor (volumetric efficiency of shape, aerodynamic coefficients, margin of stability, and centering characteristics.The aerodynamic coefficients are calculated by a numerical method based on approximate Newton's theory. A proposed engineering technique uses this theory to calculate aerodynamic characteristics of the capsule shapes. The gist of the technique is in using a developed programme to generate capsule shapes and provide numerical calculation of aerodynamic characteristics. The accuracy of the calculation, performed according to proposed technique, tends to the results obtained by analytical integral dependencies according to the Newtonian technique.When considering the stability of the capsule shapes the paper gives a diagram of the aerodynamic forces acting on the SC in the descent phase, and using the aerodynamically-shaped SC "Soyuz" as an example analyses a dangerous moment of flow at adverse angles of attack.After determining a design center-of-mass position to meet the stability requirements it is necessary at the early stage, before starting the SC layout work, to evaluate the complexity of bringing the center-of-mass to the specified point. In this regard have been considered such design parameters of the shape as a volume-centering and surface-centering coefficients.Next, using the above engineering technique are calculated aerodynamic characteristics of capsule shapes similar to the well-known SC "Soyuz", "Zarya 2" and the command module "Apollo".All calculated design parameters are summarized in the table. Currently, among the works cited in foreign publications concerning the contours of winged configuration of the type "Space Shuttle" some papers are close to the proposed technique.Application of the proposed

  19. H- ion current from a polarized vapor target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    A method of determining the polarization transferred to hydrogen atoms in charge-exchange reactions is outlined. The method also provides a means of determining target polarizations once the polarization transfer function is known

  20. Polarized Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Roessli, B.; Böni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of polarized neutron scattering is reviewed with emphasis on applications. Many examples of the usefulness of the method in various fields of physics are given like the determination of spin density maps, measurement of complex magnetic structures with spherical neutron polarimetry, inelastic neutron scattering and separation of coherent and incoherent scattering with help of the generalized XYZ method.

  1. Polarization: A must for fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didelez J.-P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The complete polarization of DT fuel would increase the fusion reactivity by 50% in magnetic as well as in inertial confinements. The persistence of polarization in a fusion process could be tested, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the emitted neutrons and the change in the corresponding total Cross Section (CS can sign the polarization persistence. The polarization of solid H2, D2 or T2 Hydrogen isotopes is very difficult. However, it has been possible to polarize HD, a hetero-molecular form of Hydrogen, by static polarization, at very low temperature and very high field. The radioactivity of DT molecules forbids there high polarization by the static method, therefore one has to develop the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP by RF transitions. The DNP of HD has been investigated in the past. The magnetic properties of HD and DT molecules are very similar, it is therefore expected that any polarization result obtained with HD could be extrapolated to DT.

  2. Estimation methods for sound levels and reverberation time in a room with irregular shape or absorption distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerretsen, E.

    2006-01-01

    The reverberation time of an enclosed space is an important parameter to describe the acoustic quality in enclosed spaces. Mainly due to its simplicity Sabine’s equation is normally used even though the considered situations seldom comply with its preconditions: regular room shape, regular

  3. Sealing device and method for sealing fractures or leaks in wall or formation surrounding tube-shaped channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The sealing device (1) includes an elongated body (5) adapted to be introduced into a tube-shaped channel (2) and including a sealing fluid placement section (6) arranged between a first and a second annular flow barrier (7, 8). The elongated body further includes a sealing fluid activation secti...

  4. Blazed vector grating liquid crystal cells with photocrosslinkable polymeric alignment films fabricated by one-step polarizer rotation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kotaro; Kuzuwata, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Noda, Kohei; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Blazed vector grating liquid crystal (LC) cells, in which the directors of low-molar-mass LCs are antisymmetrically distributed, were fabricated by one-step exposure of an empty glass cell inner-coated with a photocrosslinkable polymer LC (PCLC) to UV light. By adopting a LC cell structure, twisted nematic (TN) and homogeneous (HOMO) alignments were obtained in the blazed vector grating LC cells. Moreover, the diffraction efficiency of the blazed vector grating LC cells was greatly improved by increasing the thickness of the device in comparison with that of a blazed vector grating with a thin film structure obtained in our previous study. In addition, the diffraction efficiency and polarization states of ±1st-order diffracted beams from the resultant blazed vector grating LC cells were controlled by designing a blazed pattern in the alignment films, and these diffraction properties were well explained on the basis of Jones calculus and the elastic continuum theory of nematic LCs.

  5. [The Effect of Observation Geometry on Polarized Skylight Spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren-bin; Wang, Ling-mei; Gao, Jun; Wang, Chi

    2015-03-01

    Study on polarized skylight spectral characters while observation geometry changing in different solar zenith angles (SZA), viewing zenith angles (VZA) or relative azimuth angles (RAA). Simulation calculation of cloudless daylight polarimetric spectrum is realized based on the solver, vector discrete ordinate method, of radiative transfer equation. In the Sun's principal and perpendicular plane, the spectral irradiance data, varying at wavelengths in the range between 0.4 and 3 μm, are calculated to extend the atmospheric polarization spectral information under the conditions: the MODTRAN solar reference spectrur is the only illuminant source; the main influencing factors of polarized radiative transfer include underlying surface albedo, aerosol layers and components, and the absorption of trace gases. Simulation analysis results: (1) While the relative azimuth angle is zero, the magnitude of spectrum U/I is lower than 10(-7) and V/I is negligible, the degree of polarization and the spectrum Q/I are shaped like the letter V or mirror-writing U. (2) In twilight, when the Sun is not in FOV of the detector, the polarization of the daytime sky has two maximum near 0.51 and 2.75 μm, and a minimum near 1.5 μm. For arbitrary observation geometry, the spectral signal of V/I may be ignored. According to observation geometry, choosing different spectral bands or polarized signal will be propitious to targets detection.

  6. NMR dispersion measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Cox, S.F.J.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring dynamic nuclear polarization from the NMR dispersive susceptibility is examined. Two prototype instruments are tested in a polarized proton target using organic target material. The more promising employs a tunnel diode oscillator, inside the target cavity, and should provide a precise polarization measurement working at a frequency far enough from the main resonance for the disturbance of the measured polarization to be negligible. Other existing methods for measuring target polarization are briefly reviewed. (author)

  7. Measuring fluorescence polarization with a dichrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, John C

    2017-09-01

    A method for obtaining fluorescence polarization data from an instrument designed to measure circular and linear dichroism is compared with a previously reported approach. The new method places a polarizer between the sample and a detector mounted perpendicular to the direction of the incident beam and results in determination of the fluorescence polarization ratio, whereas the previous method does not use a polarizer and yields the fluorescence anisotropy. A similar analysis with the detector located axially with the excitation beam demonstrates that there is no frequency modulated signal due to fluorescence polarization in the absence of a polarizer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. On the use of the polarization method of remote indication of oil pollutants on the sea surface under different hydrometerological conditions and at different altitudes of the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buznikov, A A; Lakhtanov, G A

    1980-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations of water areas of the Caspian sea with the aid of a specially developed shipboard polarimeter. Interpretation of the remote measurements was carried out by laboratory analysis of the thickness of the oil film and the amount of dissolved oil in samples gathered from the surface of the sea. Analysis of the influence of weather conditions and of the composition of the petroleum products on the results of remote indications made it possible to formulate concrete methodical recommendations for achieving optimum results in remote assessment of oil pollutants of seawater areas. The effectiveness of the polarization method under different hydrometerological conditions makes it possible to regard it as a good supplementation to the traditional visual and instrumental methods of monitoring pollution of bodies of water.

  9. An Improved Collocation Meshless Method Based on the Variable Shaped Radial Basis Function for the Solution of the Interior Acoustic Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As an efficient tool, radial basis function (RBF has been widely used for the multivariate approximation, interpolating continuous, and the solution of the particle differential equations. However, ill-conditioned interpolation matrix may be encountered when the interpolation points are very dense or irregularly arranged. To avert this problem, RBFs with variable shape parameters are introduced, and several new variation strategies are proposed. Comparison with the RBF with constant shape parameters are made, and the results show that the condition number of the interpolation matrix grows much slower with our strategies. As an application, an improved collocation meshless method is formulated by employing the new RBF. In addition, the Hermite-type interpolation is implemented to handle the Neumann boundary conditions and an additional sine/cosine basis is introduced for the Helmlholtz equation. Then, two interior acoustic problems are solved with the presented method; the results demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the method.

  10. Numerical modeling of polar mesocyclones generation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Dennis; Stepanenko, Victor

    2013-04-01

    Polar mesocyclones, commonly referred to as polar lows, remain of great interest due to their complicated dynamics. These mesoscale vortices are small short-living objects that are formed over the observation-sparse high-latitude oceans, and therefore, their evolution can hardly be observed and predicted numerically. The origin of polar mesoscale cyclones is still a matter of uncertainty, though the recent numerical investigations [3] have exposed a strong dependence of the polar mesocyclone development upon the magnitude of baroclinicity. Nevertheless, most of the previous studies focused on the individual polar low (the so-called case studies), with too many factors affecting it simultaneously. None of the earlier studies suggested a clear picture of polar mesocyclone generation within an idealized experiment, where it is possible to look deeper into each single physical process. The present paper concentrates on the initial triggering mechanism of the polar mesocyclone. As it is reported by many researchers, some mesocyclones are formed by the surface forcing, namely the uneven distribution of heat fluxes. That feature is common on the ice boundaries [2], where intense air stream flows from the cold ice surface to the warm sea surface. Hence, the resulting conditions are shallow baroclinicity and strong surface heat fluxes, which provide an arising polar mesocyclone with potential energy source converting it to the kinetic energy of the vortex. It is shown in this paper that different surface characteristics, including thermal parameters and, for example, the shape of an ice edge, determine an initial phase of a polar low life cycle. Moreover, it is shown what initial atmospheric state is most preferable for the formation of a new polar mesocyclone or in maintaining and reinforcing the existing one. The study is based on idealized high-resolution (~2 km) numerical experiment in which baroclinicity, stratification, initial wind profile and disturbance, surface

  11. Polarization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Brief review is presented of the high energy polarization study including experimental data and the theoretical descriptions. The mostimportant proposals at the biggest accelerators and the crucial technical developments are also listed which may become a main-line of spin physics. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  12. Polar Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  13. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  14. Study by polarized muon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Experiments by using polarized muon beam are reported. The experiments were performed at Berkeley, U.S.A., and at Vancouver, Canada. The muon spin rotation is a useful method for the study of the spin polarization of conductive electrons in paramagnetic Pd metal. The muon Larmor frequency and the relaxation time can be obtained by measuring the time distribution of decay electrons of muon-electron process. The anomalous depolarization of negative muon spin rotation in the transitional metal was seen. The circular polarization of the negative muon X-ray was measured to make clear this phenomena. The experimental results show that the anomalous depolarization is caused at the 1-S-1/2 state. For the purpose to obtain the strong polarization of negative muon, a method of artificial polarization is proposed, and the test experiments are in progress. The study of the hyperfine structure of mu-mesic atoms is proposed. The muon capture rate was studied systematically. (Kato, T.)

  15. Innovative Method for Automatic Shape Generation and 3D Printing of Reduced-Scale Models of Ultra-Thin Concrete Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tomé

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A research and development project has been conducted aiming to design and produce ultra-thin concrete shells. In this paper, the first part of the project is described, consisting of an innovative method for shape generation and the consequent production of reduced-scale models of the selected geometries. First, the shape generation is explained, consisting of a geometrically nonlinear analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM to define the antifunicular of the shell’s deadweight. Next, the scale model production is described, consisting of 3D printing, specifically developed to evaluate the aesthetics and visual impact, as well as to study the aerodynamic behaviour of the concrete shells in a wind tunnel. The goals and constraints of the method are identified and a step-by-step guidelines presented, aiming to be used as a reference in future studies. The printed geometry is validated by high-resolution assessment achieved by photogrammetry. The results are compared with the geometry computed through geometric nonlinear finite-element-based analysis, and no significant differences are recorded. The method is revealed to be an important tool for automatic shape generation and building scale models of shells. The latter enables the performing of wind tunnel tests to obtain pressure coefficients, essential for structural analysis of this type of structures.

  16. Polarization reversal in BaTiO{sub 3} nanostructures synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Davalos, Ivan; Ambriz-Vargas, Fabian [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Gómez-Yáñez, Carlos [Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UPALM, Zacatenco, CP 07738 DF, México (Mexico); Thomas, Reji, E-mail: reji.thomas@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Ruediger, Andreas, E-mail: ruediger@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3} nanostructures and thin films were deposited by a microwave assisted hydrothermal process at low temperatures (<250 °C) on metallic Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Si and Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in the Ba(OH){sub 2} alkaline solution are used as the precursors without any mineralizers. The incorporation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into precursor solution served as a strong oxidant and catalyst for the uniform nucleation of BaTiO{sub 3} on the substrate surface. The polycrystalline and epitaxial nature of the films were confirmed by atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies. We report the ferroelectric behavior of BaTiO{sub 3} films on Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates by piezoresponse force microscopy. - Highlights: • Microwave assisted hydrothermal deposition of highly ordered BaTiO{sub 3} thin films on single crystal substrates. • Fast growth without the needof any mineralizers. • Moderate addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} significantly improves the surface coverage. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} substantially reduces hydrogen incorporation into the film and the associated leakage current. • Out-of-plane polarization reversal demonstrated locally.

  17. Novel amide polar-embedded reversed-phase column for the fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to determine polyether ionophores in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, P; Borrull, F; Pocurull, E; Marcé, R M

    2012-11-09

    A fast chromatographic method has been developed that takes less than 5 min per run to determine five polyether ionophores with a novel amide polar-embedded reversed-phase column coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. A comparison between Oasis HLB and Oasis MAX sorbents for the solid-phase extraction was done. Oasis HLB sorbent gave recoveries close to 90% and the repeatability (%RSD, 25-100 ng/L, n=3) of the method was less than 7% for all compounds in all matrices. The presence of polyether ionophores in environmental waters such as river water and sewage was investigated. Monensin and narasin were frequently determined in influent and effluent sewage at concentrations from 10 ng/L to 47 ng/L in influents and from 6 ng/L to 34 ng/L in effluents. In river waters, polyether ionophores were not detected in any sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of ciclosporine blood levels in patients after kidney or bone-marrow transplantation. Comparison between the two methods, fluorescence polarization immunoassay and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeg, N.; Pham Huy, C.; Claude, J.R.; Postaire, M.; Lebrec, H.; Hamon, M.; Broyer, M.; Gagnadoux, M.F.; Fischer, A.

    1989-01-01

    The apparition of ciclosporine, immunodepressive drug, has largely improved the organ transplantations. However, the range of blood concentrations must be defined to allow the efficacity of ciclosporine therapy and to avoid toxic reactions, because there are very important variations for a same dosage according to the individuals and the diseases. Relative to the low concentrations to be determined (about one hundred ng/ml), the most useful methods for ciclosporine measurement are based on immunochemical assays. This work compares the two methods: radioimmunoassay (RIA) and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) simultaneously performed on several hundred samples. A very significant correlation exists between the two techniques (r = 0.80). The advantages of immunofluorescent assay consists in rapidity, sensibility and facility to realize emergency analysis [fr

  19. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of different polarities stem crude extracts by different extraction methods of Adenium obesum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To select best extraction method for the isolated antioxidant compounds from the stems of Adenium obesum. Methods: Two methods used for the extraction are Soxhlet and maceration methods. Methanol solvent was used for both extraction method. The methanol crude extract was defatted with water and extracted successively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol solvents. The antioxidant potential for all crude extracts were determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The percentage of extraction yield by Soxhlet method is higher compared to maceration method. The antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by Soxhlet extractor method was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in hexane crude extracts and found in the order of ethyl acetate>butanol>water>chloroform>methanol>hexane. However, the antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by maceration method was highest in butanol and lowest in hexane followed in the order of butanol>methanol>chloroform>water>ethyl acetate>hexane. Conclusions: The results showed that isolate antioxidant compounds effected on the extraction method and condition of extraction.

  20. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    , not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...