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Sample records for polarity time scale

  1. The Sensitivity of Income Polarization - Time, length of accounting periods, equivalence scales, and income definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain

    This study looks at polarization and its components’ sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show...... that polarization has increased over time, regardless of the applied measure, when the last part of the period is compared to the first part of the period. Primary causes being increased inequality (alienation) and faster income growth among high incomes relative to those in the middle of the distribution....... Increasing the accounting period confirms the reduction in inequality found for shorter periods, but polarization is virtually unchanged, because income group identification increases. Applying different equivalence scales does not change polarization ranking for different years, but identification ranks...

  2. Revised magnetic polarity time scale for the Paleocene and early Eocene and implications for Pacific plate motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.F.; Coney, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetostratiographic studies of a continental sedimentary sequence in the Clark's Fork Basin, Wyoming and a marine sedimentary sequence at Gubbio, Italy indicate that the Paleocene--Eocene boundary occurs just stratigraphically above normal polarity zones correlative with magnetic anomaly 25 chron. These data indicate that the older boundary of anomaly 24 chron is 52.5 Ma. This age is younger than the late Paleocene age assigned by LaBrecque et al. [1977] and also younger than the basal Eocene age assigned by Ness et al. [1980]. A revised magnetic polarity time scale for the Paleocene and early Eocene is presented in this paper. Several changes in the relative motion system between the Pacific plate and neighboring plates occurred in the interval between anomaly 24 and anomaly 21. A major change in absolute motion of the Pacific plate is indicated by the bend in the Hawaiian--Emperor Seamount chain at approx.43 Ma. The revised magnetic polarity time scale indicates that the absolute motion change lags the relative motion changes by only approx.3--5 m.y. rather than by >10 m.y. as indicated by previous polarity time scales

  3. Extension of the astronomically calibrated (polarity) time scale to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgen, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The early Pleistocene to late Pliocene astronormcally calibrated time scale of Shackleton et al. [1] and Hllgen [2] is extended to the Mlocene/Pllocene boundary This is done by correlating the detailed record of CaCO 3 cycles in the Trubl and the lower part of the overlying Narbone Formation

  4. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......, to reconstruct the distribution of the Cole-Cole parameters of the earth. The accurate modeling of the transmitter waveform had a strong influence on the forward response, and we showed that the difference between a solution using a step response and a solution using the accurate modeling often is above 100...

  5. Astronomical calibration of Gauss to Matuyama sapropels in the Mediterranean and implication for the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, F. J.

    1991-06-01

    The astronomically calibrated age of the Olduvai Subchron is established by correlating the cyclic sapropel patterns in the Vrica section and in the sections of Semaforo (Italy), Singa (Italy), Punta Piccola (Sicily), and Francocastello (Crete) to the new astronomical solutions for the precession of the equinox and eccentricity of the earth's orbit, using inferred phase relationships between the sapropel cycles and orbital cycles. The resultant ages for the Olduvai and for older boundaries are then compared with conventional, as well as other orbitally tuned ages, for these polarity transitions. It is shown that this astronomically calibrated time scale can be extended back to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary.

  6. Mapping geological structures in bedrock via large-scale direct current resistivity and time-domain induced polarization tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Matteo; Olsson, Per-Ivar; Johansson, Sara

    2017-01-01

    -current resistivity distribution of the subsoil and the phase of the complex conductivity using a constant-phase angle model. The joint interpretation of electrical resistivity and induced-polarization models leads to a better understanding of complex three-dimensional subsoil geometries. The results have been......An investigation of geological conditions is always a key point for planning infrastructure constructions. Bedrock surface and rock quality must be estimated carefully in the designing process of infrastructures. A large direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization survey has......, there are northwest-trending Permian dolerite dykes that are less deformed. Four 2D direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization profiles of about 1-km length have been carefully pre-processed to retrieve time-domain induced polarization responses and inverted to obtain the direct...

  7. Refining the Early and Middle Eocene Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale: new results from ODP Leg 208 (Walvis Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.; Frederichs, T.; Bohaty, S. M.; Florindo, F.; Zachos, J. C.; Raffi, I.; Agnini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Astronomical calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) for the Eocene (34-56 Ma) has advanced tremendously in recent years. Combining a cyclostratigraphic approach based on the recognition of the stable 405-kyr eccentricity cycle of Earth's orbit with high-resolution bio- and magnetostratigraphy from deep-sea sedimentary records (ODP Legs 171B, 189 and 207; IODP Exp. 320/321) resulted in a new calibration of the middle-to-late Eocene GPTS spanning Chrons C12r to C19n (30.9-41.3 Ma). A fully astronomically calibrated GPTS for the Eocene was established recently by integrating cyclo-bio-magnetostratigraphy from ODP Sites 702 and 1263 records spanning the middle Eocene with Site 1258 records covering the early Eocene. Comparison of this deep sea-derived GPTS with GTS2012 and GPTS calibration points from terrestrial successions show overall consistent results, but there are still major offsets for the duration of Chrons C20r, C22r and C23n.2n. Because of the relatively large uncertainty of the calibration point, a radioisotopic dated ash layer in DSDP 516F, at C21n.75 (46.24±0.5 Ma) the duration of C20r in GPTS2012 (2.292 myr) is uncertain. Offsets in durations of C22r and C23n.2n between GPTS2012 and the new astronomical GPTS (~400-kyr longer C22r; ~400-kyr shorter C23n.2n) could be due to uncertainties in the interpretation of Site 1258 magnetostratigraphic data. Here we present new results toward establishing a more accurate and complete bio-, magneto- and chemostratigraphy for South Atlantic Leg 208 sites encompassing magnetochrons C13 to C24 (33 to 56 Ma). Our study aims to integrate paleomagnetic records from multiple drilled sites with physical property data, stable isotope data and XRF core scanning data to construct an astronomically calibrated framework for refining GPTS age estimates. This effort will complete the Early-to-Middle Eocene GPTS and allow evaluation of the relative position of calcareous nannofossil events to magnetostratigraphy.

  8. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com

    2016-10-07

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge. - Highlights: • We investigated the polarization properties of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization. • We studied the evolution of transverse intensity profiles for the three components of these beams. • The intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components can reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  9. Toward establishing a definitive Late-Mid Jurassic (M-series) Geomagnetic Polarity Reversal Time Scale through unraveling the nature of Jurassic Quiet Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.; Sager, W.

    2017-12-01

    Two major difficulties have hindered improving the accuracy of the Late-Mid Jurassic geomagnetic polarity time scale: a dearth of reliable high-resolution radiometric dates and the lack of a continuous Jurassic geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) record. We present the latest effort towards establishing a definitive Mid Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (M-series) GPTS model using three high-resolution, multi-level (sea surface [0 km], mid-water [3 km], and near-source [5.2 km]) marine magnetic profiles from a seamount-free corridor adjacent to the Waghenaer Fracture Zone in the western Pacific Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). The profiles show a global coherency in magnetic anomaly correlations between two mid ocean ridge systems (i.e., Japanese and Hawaiian lineations). Their unprecedented high data resolution documents a detailed anomaly character (i.e., amplitudes and wavelengths). We confirm that this magnetic anomaly record shows a coherent anomaly sequence from M29 back in time to M42 with previously suggested from the Japanese lineation in the Pigafetta Basin. Especially noticeable is the M39-M41 Low Amplitude Zone defined in the Pigafetta Bsin, which potentially defines the bounds of JQZ seafloor. We assessed the anomaly source with regard to the crustal architecture, including the effects of Cretaceous volcanism on crustal magnetization and conclude that the anomaly character faithfully represents changes in geomagnetic field intensity and polarity over time and is mostly free of any overprint of the original Jurassic magnetic remanence by later Cretaceous volcanism. We have constructed polarity block models (RMS Japanese M-series sequence. The anomalously high reversal rates during a period of apparent low field intensity suggests a unique period of geomagnetic field behavior in Earth's history.

  10. Linear Polarization Properties of Parsec-Scale AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Pushkarev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We used 15 GHz multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA polarization sensitive observations of 484 sources within a time interval 1996–2016 from the MOJAVE program, and also from the NRAO data archive. We have analyzed the linear polarization characteristics of the compact core features and regions downstream, and their changes along and across the parsec-scale active galactic nuclei (AGN jets. We detected a significant increase of fractional polarization with distance from the radio core along the jet as well as towards the jet edges. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have a higher degree of polarization and exhibit more stable electric vector position angles (EVPAs in their core features and a better alignment of the EVPAs with the local jet direction. The latter is accompanied by a higher degree of linear polarization, suggesting that compact bright jet features might be strong transverse shocks, which enhance magnetic field regularity by compression.

  11. Observing the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization with Variable-delay Polarization Modulators for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; CLASS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The search for inflationary primordial gravitational waves and the optical depth to reionization, both through their imprint on the large angular scale correlations in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), has created the need for high sensitivity measurements of polarization across large fractions of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. These measurements are subjected to instrumental and atmospheric 1/f noise, which has motivated the development of polarization modulators to facilitate the rejection of these large systematic effects.Variable-delay polarization modulators (VPMs) are used in the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) telescopes as the first element in the optical chain to rapidly modulate the incoming polarization. VPMs consist of a linearly polarizing wire grid in front of a moveable flat mirror; varying the distance between the grid and the mirror produces a changing phase shift between polarization states parallel and perpendicular to the grid which modulates Stokes U (linear polarization at 45°) and Stokes V (circular polarization). The reflective and scalable nature of the VPM enables its placement as the first optical element in a reflecting telescope. This simultaneously allows a lock-in style polarization measurement and the separation of sky polarization from any instrumental polarization farther along in the optical chain.The Q-Band CLASS VPM was the first VPM to begin observing the CMB full time in 2016. I will be presenting its design and characterization as well as demonstrating how modulating polarization significantly rejects atmospheric and instrumental long time scale noise.

  12. Modeling optical and UV polarization of AGNs. IV. Polarization timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Lobos, P. A.; Goosmann, R. W.; Marin, F.; Savić, D.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Optical observations cannot resolve the structure of active galactic nuclei (AGN), and a unified model for AGN was inferred mostly from indirect methods, such as spectroscopy and variability studies. Optical reverberation mapping allowed us to constrain the spatial dimension of the broad emission line region and thereby to measure the mass of supermassive black holes. Recently, reverberation was also applied to the polarized signal emerging from different AGN components. In principle, this should allow us to measure the spatial dimensions of the sub-parsec reprocessing media. Aim. We conduct numerical modeling of polarization reverberation and provide theoretical predictions for the polarization time lag induced by different AGN components. The model parameters are adjusted to the observational appearance of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. Methods: We modeled scattering-induced polarization and tested different geometries for the circumnuclear dust component. Our tests included the effects of clumpiness and different dust prescriptions. To further extend the model, we also explored the effects of additional ionized winds stretched along the polar direction, and of an equatorial scattering ring that is responsible for the polarization angle observed in pole-on AGN. The simulations were run using a time-dependent version of the STOKES code. Results: Our modeling confirms the previously found polarization characteristics as a function of the observer`s viewing angle. When the dust adopts a flared-disk geometry, the lags reveal a clear difference between type 1 and type 2 AGN. This distinction is less clear for a torus geometry where the time lag is more sensitive to the geometry and optical depth of the inner surface layers of the funnel. The presence of a scattering equatorial ring and ionized outflows increased the recorded polarization time lags, and the polar outflows smooths out dependence on viewing angle, especially for the higher optical depth of the

  13. Time reversal tests in polarized neutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Koichiro; Bowman, J.D.; Crawford, B.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In recent years the nuclear weak interaction has been studied in the compound nucleus via parity violation. The observed parity-violating effects are strongly enhanced by nuclear structure. The predictions are that the interaction of polarized neutrons with polarized nuclear targets could be also used to perform sensitive tests of time-reversal-violation because of the nuclear enhancements. The author has designed experiments to search for time-reversal violation in neutron-nucleus interactions. He has also developed techniques to polarize neutrons with laser-polarized 3 He gas targets. Using the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, he has performed two experiments at LANSCE: an absolute neutron beam polarization measurement with an accuracy of 0.2--0.3% and a neutron spin-rotation measurement on a 139 La sample

  14. Polarization-sensitive color in butterfly scales: polarization conversion from ridges with reflecting elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Tang, Yiwen; Meng, Jinsong; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Han; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2014-11-03

    Polarization-sensitive color originates from polarization-dependent reflection or transmission, exhibiting abundant light information, including intensity, spectral distribution, and polarization. A wide range of butterflies are physiologically sensitive to polarized light, but the origins of polarized signal have not been fully understood. Here we systematically investigate the colorful scales of six species of butterfly to reveal the physical origins of polarization-sensitive color. Microscopic optical images under crossed polarizers exhibit their polarization-sensitive characteristic, and micro-structural characterizations clarify their structural commonality. In the case of the structural scales that have deep ridges, the polarization-sensitive color related with scale azimuth is remarkable. Periodic ridges lead to the anisotropic effective refractive indices in the parallel and perpendicular grating orientations, which achieves form-birefringence, resulting in the phase difference of two different component polarized lights. Simulated results show that ridge structures with reflecting elements reflect and rotate the incident p-polarized light into s-polarized light. The dimensional parameters and shapes of grating greatly affect the polarization conversion process, and the triangular deep grating extends the outstanding polarization conversion effect from the sub-wavelength period to the period comparable to visible light wavelength. The parameters of ridge structures in butterfly scales have been optimized to fulfill the polarization-dependent reflection for secret communication. The structural and physical origin of polarization conversion provides a more comprehensive perspective on the creation of polarization-sensitive color in butterfly wing scales. These findings show great potential in anti-counterfeiting technology and advanced optical material design.

  15. Calibration of the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene geomagnetic polarity and astrochronological time scales: new results from high-precision U-Pb geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Jahandar; Clyde, William; Wang, Tiantian; Johnson, Kirk; Bowring, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Reversals in the Earth's magnetic polarity are geologically abrupt events of global magnitude that makes them ideal timelines for stratigraphic correlation across a variety of depositional environments, especially where diagnostic marine fossils are absent. Accurate and precise calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale (GPTS) is thus essential to the reconstruction of Earth history and to resolving the mode and tempo of biotic and environmental change in deep time. The Late Cretaceous - Paleocene GPTS is of particular interest as it encompasses a critical period of Earth history marked by the Cretaceous greenhouse climate, the peak of dinosaur diversity, the end-Cretaceous mass extinction and its paleoecological aftermaths. Absolute calibration of the GPTS has been traditionally based on sea-floor spreading magnetic anomaly profiles combined with local magnetostratigraphic sequences for which a numerical age model could be established by interpolation between an often limited number of 40Ar/39Ar dates from intercalated volcanic ash deposits. Although the Neogene part of the GPTS has been adequately calibrated using cyclostratigraphy-based, astrochronological schemes, the application of these approaches to pre-Neogene parts of the timescale has been complicated given the uncertainties of the orbital models and the chaotic behavior of the solar system this far back in time. Here we present refined chronostratigraphic frameworks based on high-precision U-Pb geochronology of ash beds from the Western Interior Basin of North America and the Songliao Basin of Northeast China that places tight temporal constraints on the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene GPTS, either directly or by testing their astrochronological underpinnings. Further application of high-precision radioisotope geochronology and calibrated astrochronology promises a complete and robust Cretaceous-Paleogene GPTS, entirely independent of sea-floor magnetic anomaly profiles.

  16. Gravitational Lens Time Delays Using Polarization Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Biggs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational lens time delays provide a means of measuring the expansion of the Universe at high redshift (and therefore in the ‘Hubble flow’ that is independent of local calibrations. It was hoped that many of the radio lenses found in the JVAS/CLASS survey would yield time delays as these were selected to have flat spectra and are dominated by multiple compact components. However, despite extensive monitoring with the Very Large Array (VLA, time delays have only been measured for three of these systems (out of 22. We have begun a programme to reanalyse the existing VLA monitoring data with the goal of producing light curves in polarized flux and polarization position angle, either to improve delay measurements or to find delays for new sources. Here, we present preliminary results on the lens system B1600+434 which demonstrate the presence of correlated and substantial polarization variability in each image.

  17. RECOVERY OF LARGE ANGULAR SCALE CMB POLARIZATION FOR INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYING VARIABLE-DELAY POLARIZATION MODULATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J.; Marriage, T. A.; Appel, J. W.; Bennett, C. L.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Harrington, K.; Rostem, K.; Watts, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chuss, D. T. [Department of Physics, Villanova University, 800 E Lancaster, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Wollack, E. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Switzer, E. R., E-mail: Nathan.J.Miller@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) are currently being implemented in experiments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large angular scales because of their capability for providing rapid, front-end polarization modulation and control over systematic errors. Despite the advantages provided by the VPM, it is important to identify and mitigate any time-varying effects that leak into the synchronously modulated component of the signal. In this paper, the effect of emission from a 300 K VPM on the system performance is considered and addressed. Though instrument design can greatly reduce the influence of modulated VPM emission, some residual modulated signal is expected. VPM emission is treated in the presence of rotational misalignments and temperature variation. Simulations of time-ordered data are used to evaluate the effect of these residual errors on the power spectrum. The analysis and modeling in this paper guides experimentalists on the critical aspects of observations using VPMs as front-end modulators. By implementing the characterizations and controls as described, front-end VPM modulation can be very powerful for mitigating 1/f noise in large angular scale polarimetric surveys. None of the systematic errors studied fundamentally limit the detection and characterization of B-modes on large scales for a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r = 0.01. Indeed, r < 0.01 is achievable with commensurately improved characterizations and controls.

  18. Polarized atomic orbitals for linear scaling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghold, Gerd; Parrinello, Michele; Hutter, Jürg

    2002-02-01

    We present a modified version of the polarized atomic orbital (PAO) method [M. S. Lee and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9085 (1997)] to construct minimal basis sets optimized in the molecular environment. The minimal basis set derives its flexibility from the fact that it is formed as a linear combination of a larger set of atomic orbitals. This approach significantly reduces the number of independent variables to be determined during a calculation, while retaining most of the essential chemistry resulting from the admixture of higher angular momentum functions. Furthermore, we combine the PAO method with linear scaling algorithms. We use the Chebyshev polynomial expansion method, the conjugate gradient density matrix search, and the canonical purification of the density matrix. The combined scheme overcomes one of the major drawbacks of standard approaches for large nonorthogonal basis sets, namely numerical instabilities resulting from ill-conditioned overlap matrices. We find that the condition number of the PAO overlap matrix is independent from the condition number of the underlying extended basis set, and consequently no numerical instabilities are encountered. Various applications are shown to confirm this conclusion and to compare the performance of the PAO method with extended basis-set calculations.

  19. Multiple time scale dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to dynamical systems with multiple time scales. The approach it takes is to provide an overview of key areas, particularly topics that are less available in the introductory form.  The broad range of topics included makes it accessible for students and researchers new to the field to gain a quick and thorough overview. The first of its kind, this book merges a wide variety of different mathematical techniques into a more unified framework. The book is highly illustrated with many examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography. The target audience of this  book are senior undergraduates, graduate students as well as researchers interested in using the multiple time scale dynamics theory in nonlinear science, either from a theoretical or a mathematical modeling perspective. 

  20. CMB polarization at large angular scales: Data analysis of the POLAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, Christopher W.; Keating, Brian G.; Oliveira-Costa, Angelica de; Tegmark, Max; Timbie, Peter T.

    2003-01-01

    The coming flood of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments, spurred by the recent detection of CMB polarization by the DASI and WMAP instruments, will be confronted by many new analysis tasks specific to polarization. For the analysis of CMB polarization data sets, the devil is truly in the details. With this in mind, we present details of the data analysis for the POLAR experiment, which recently led to the tightest upper limits on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation at large angular scales. We discuss the data selection process, map-making algorithms, offset removal, and likelihood analysis which were used to find upper limits on the polarization. Stated using the modern convention for reporting CMB Stokes parameters, these limits are 5.0 μK on both E- and B-type polarization at 95% confidence. Finally, we discuss simulations used to test our analysis techniques and to probe the fundamental limitations of the experiment

  1. Scale dependence and small x behaviour of polarized parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R D; Ridolfi, G; Forte, S; Ridolfi, G

    1995-01-01

    We discuss perturbative evolution of the polarized structure function g_1 in the (x,Q^2) plane, with special regard to the small-x region. We determine g_1 in terms of polarized quark and gluon distributions using coefficient functions to order alpha_s. At small x g_1 then displays substantial scale dependence, which necessarily implies a corresponding scale dependence in the large-x region. This scale dependence has significant consequences for the extraction of the first moment from the experimental data, reducing its value while increasing the error. Conversely, the scale dependence may be used to constrain the size of the polarized gluon distribution.

  2. Planck-scale sensitivity of CMB polarization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca [Physics Department, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , and Sezione Roma1 INFN P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by xi, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate xiapprox =-0.097+-0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to xi achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-sigma confidence of 8.5x10{sup -4} (PLANCK), 6.1x10{sup -3} (Spider), and 1.0x10{sup -5} (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1x10{sup -6}.

  3. Planck-scale sensitivity of CMB polarization data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca

    2009-01-01

    We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ≅-0.097±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5x10 -4 (PLANCK), 6.1x10 -3 (Spider), and 1.0x10 -5 (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1x10 -6 .

  4. Vacuum polarization on black hole space times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of vacuum polarization in black hole space times are examined. Particular attention is given to the vacuum physics inside the event horizon. The analytic properties of the solutions to the radial wave equation in Schwarzs child space time as functions of argument, frequency, and angular momentum are given. These functions are employed to define the Feynmann Green function (G/sub F/(x,x') for a scalar field subject to the Hartle-Hawking boundary conditions. An examination of the Schwarzschild mode functions near r = 0 is provided. This work is necessary background for a future calculation of 2 > and the quantum stress-energy tensor for small r. Some opinions are given on how this calculation might be performed. A solution of the one-loop Einstein equations for Schwarzs child Anti-deSitter (SAdS) space time is presented, using Page's approximation to the quantum stress tensor. The resulting perturbed metric is shown to be unphysical, as it leads to a system of fields with infinite total energy. This problem is believed to be due to a failure of Page's method in SAdS. Suggestions are given on how one might correct the method

  5. Evolution of Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    as the fundamental unit of time in the International System of Units. It was defined as ( Metrologia , 1968) “the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of...atomic time equivalent to the second of ET in principle. The Comité Consultatif pour la Définition de la Seconde (CCDS) of the CIPM recommended...with the definition of the second, the unit of time of the Inter- national System of Units” ( Metrologia , 1971). The CCDS (BIPM Com. Cons. Déf. Seconde

  6. Polarization dynamics and polarization time of random three-dimensional electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voipio, Timo; Setaelae, Tero; Shevchenko, Andriy; Friberg, Ari T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the polarization dynamics of random, stationary three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic fields. For analyzing the time evolution of the instantaneous polarization state, two intensity-normalized polarization autocorrelation functions are introduced, one based on a geometric approach with the Poincare vectors and the other on energy considerations with the Jones vectors. Both approaches lead to the same conclusions on the rate and strength of the polarization dynamics and enable the definition of a polarization time over which the state of polarization remains essentially unchanged. For fields obeying Gaussian statistics, the two correlation functions are shown to be expressible in terms of quantities characterizing partial 3D polarization and electromagnetic coherence. The 3D degree of polarization is found to have the same meaning in the 3D polarization dynamics as the usual two-dimensional (2D) degree of polarization does with planar fields. The formalism is demonstrated with several examples, and it is expected to be useful in applications dealing with polarization fluctuations of 3D light.

  7. Polarization and Structure of Relativistic Parsec-Scale AGN Jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, M

    2004-01-01

    We consider the polarization properties of optically thin synchrotron radiation emitted by relativistically moving electron-positron jets carrying large-scale helical magnetic fields. In our model, the jet is cylindrical, and the emitting plasma moves parallel to the jet axis with a characteristic Lorentz factor Λ. We draw attention to the strong influence that the bulk relativistic motion of the emitting relativistic particles has on the observed polarization. Our computations predict and explain the following behavior. (1) For jets unresolved in the direction perpendicular to their direction of propagation, the position angle of the electric vector of the linear polarization has a bimodal distribution, being oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the jet. (2) If an ultra-relativistic jet with Λ >> 1 whose axis makes a small angle to the line of sight, θ ∼ 1/Λ, experiences a relatively small change in the direction of propagation, velocity or pitch angle of the magnetic fields, the polarization is likely to remain parallel or perpendicular; on the other hand, in some cases, the degree of polarization can exhibit large variations and the polarization position angle can experience abrupt 90 o changes. This change is more likely to occur in jets with flatter spectra. (3) In order for the jet polarization to be oriented along the jet axis, the intrinsic toroidal magnetic field (in the frame of the jet) should be of the order of or stronger than the intrinsic poloidal field; in this case, the highly relativistic motion of the jet implies that, in the observer's frame, the jet is strongly dominated by the toroidal magnetic field B φ /B z (ge) Λ. (4) The emission-weighted average pitch angle of the intrinsic helical field in the jet must not be too small to produce polarization along the jet axis. In force-free jets with a smooth distribution of emissivities, the emission should be generated in a limited range of radii not too close to the jet core. (5) For

  8. On the Geologic Time Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Hilgen, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the international divisions and ages in the Geologic Time Scale, published in 2012 (GTS2012). Since 2004, when GTS2004 was detailed, major developments have taken place that directly bear and have considerable impact on the intricate science of geologic time scaling. Precam

  9. Dynamic inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi; Saker, Samir

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph devoted to recent research and results on dynamic inequalities on time scales. The study of dynamic inequalities on time scales has been covered extensively in the literature in recent years and has now become a major sub-field in pure and applied mathematics. In particular, this book will cover recent results on integral inequalities, including Young's inequality, Jensen's inequality, Holder's inequality, Minkowski's inequality, Steffensen's inequality, Hermite-Hadamard inequality and Čebyšv's inequality. Opial type inequalities on time scales and their extensions with weighted functions, Lyapunov type inequalities, Halanay type inequalities for dynamic equations on time scales, and Wirtinger type inequalities on time scales and their extensions will also be discussed here in detail.

  10. Optimization of incident EC wave polarization in real-time polarization scan experiments on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Toru I.; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Makino, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    Real-time polarization scan experiments were performed on the Large Helical Device (LHD) to search an optimal incident wave polarization for electron cyclotron resonance heating. The obtained optimal polarization state to maximize the power absorption to the LHD plasma is compared with the ray-tracing code that includes mode content analyses, which indicates that the calculated results are generally in good agreement with the experimental results. The analyses show that optimal coupling to plasma waves requires a fine adjustment for an incident wave polarization even for perpendicular injection due to the finite density profile and the magnetic shear at the peripheral region. (author)

  11. Submicron scale tissue multifractal anisotropy in polarized laser light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Dey, Rajib; Chakraborty, Semanti; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Meglinski, Igor; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2018-03-01

    The spatial fluctuations of the refractive index within biological tissues exhibit multifractal anisotropy, leaving its signature as a spectral linear diattenuation of scattered polarized light. The multifractal anisotropy has been quantitatively assessed by the processing of relevant Mueller matrix elements in the Fourier domain, utilizing the Born approximation and subsequent multifractal analysis. The differential scaling exponent and width of the singularity spectrum appear to be highly sensitive to the structural multifractal anisotropy at the micron/sub-micron length scales. An immediate practical use of these multifractal anisotropy parameters was explored for non-invasive screening of cervical precancerous alterations ex vivo, with the indication of a strong potential for clinical diagnostic purposes.

  12. Pair plasma relaxation time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A G; Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V

    2010-04-01

    By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading. We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density (over 10 orders of magnitude) and of the baryonic loading parameter (over 6 orders of magnitude). This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases. These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role.

  13. Time asymmetry: Polarization and analyzing power in the nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rioux, C.; Roy, R.; Slobodrian, R.J.; Conzett, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of the proton polarization in the reactions 7 Li( 3 He, p vector) 9 Be and 9 Be( 3 He, p vector) 11 B and of the analyzing powers of the inverse reactions, initiated by polarized protons at the same c.m. energies, show significant differences which imply the failure of the polarization-analyzing-power theorem and, prima facie, of time-reversal invariance in these reactions. The reaction 2 H( 3 He, p vector) 4 He and its inverse have also been investigated and show some smaller differences. A discussion of the instrumental asymmetries is presented. (orig.)

  14. Invited article: polarization "down under": the polarized time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerbeck, T; Klose, F; Le Brun, A P; Füzi, J; Brule, A; Nelson, A; Holt, S A; James, M

    2012-08-01

    This review presents the implementation and full characterization of the polarization equipment of the time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The functionality and efficiency of individual components are evaluated and found to maintain a high neutron beam polarization with a maximum of 99.3% through polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors. Neutron spin-flippers with efficiencies of 99.7% give full control over the incident and scattered neutron spin direction over the whole wavelength spectrum available in the instrument. The first scientific experiments illustrate data correction mechanisms for finite polarizations and reveal an extraordinarily high reproducibility for measuring magnetic thin film samples. The setup is now fully commissioned and available for users through the neutron beam proposal system of the Bragg Institute at ANSTO.

  15. Tunable and stable in time ferroelectric imprint through polarization coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a method to tune a ferroelectric imprint, which is stable in time, based on the coupling between the non-switchable polarization of ZnO and switchable polarization of PbZrxTi(1−x)O3. SrRuO3/PbZrxTi(1−x)O3/ZnO/SrRuO3 heterostructures were grown with different ZnO thicknesses. It

  16. Antiferroelectric polarization switching and dynamic scaling of energy storage: A Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. Y.; Lu, Z. X.; Zhang, Y.; Xie, Y. L.; Zeng, M.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2016-05-01

    The polarization-electric field hysteresis loops and the dynamics of polarization switching in a two-dimensional antiferroelectric (AFE) lattice submitted to a time-oscillating electric field E(t) of frequency f and amplitude E0, is investigated using Monte Carlo simulation based on the Landau-Devonshire phenomenological theory on antiferroelectrics. It is revealed that the AFE double-loop hysteresis area A, i.e., the energy loss in one cycle of polarization switching, exhibits the single-peak frequency dispersion A(f), suggesting the unique characteristic time for polarization switching, which is independent of E0 as long as E0 is larger than the quasi-static coercive field for the antiferroelectric-ferroelectric transitions. However, the dependence of recoverable stored energy W on amplitude E0 seems to be complicated depending on temperature T and frequency f. A dynamic scaling behavior of the energy loss dispersion A(f) over a wide range of E0 is obtained, confirming the unique characteristic time for polarization switching of an AFE lattice. The present simulation may shed light on the dynamics of energy storage and release in AFE thin films.

  17. Geologic history of Siletzia, a large igneous province in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range: correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale and implications for a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ray; Bukry, David; Friedman, Richard; Pyle, Douglas; Duncan, Robert; Haeussler, Peter J.; Wooden, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Siletzia is a basaltic Paleocene and Eocene large igneous province in coastal Oregon, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island that was accreted to North America in the early Eocene. New U-Pb magmatic, detrital zircon, and 40Ar/39Ar ages constrained by detailed field mapping, global nannoplankton zones, and magnetic polarities allow correlation of the volcanics with the 2012 geologic time scale. The data show that Siletzia was rapidly erupted 56–49 Ma, during the Chron 25–22 plate reorganization in the northeast Pacific basin. Accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon, based on CP11 (CP—Coccolith Paleogene zone) coccoliths in strata overlying onlapping continental sediments. Magmatism continued in the northern Oregon Coast Range until ca. 46 Ma with the emplacement of a regional sill complex during or shortly after accretion. Isotopic signatures similar to early Columbia River basalts, the great crustal thickness of Siletzia in Oregon, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with offshore formation as an oceanic plateau. Approximately 8 m.y. after accretion, margin parallel extension of the forearc, emplacement of regional dike swarms, and renewed magmatism of the Tillamook episode peaked at 41.6 Ma (CP zone 14a; Chron 19r). We examine the origin of Siletzia and consider the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot using the reconstruction in GPlates, an open source plate model. In most hotspot reference frames, the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) is on or near an inferred northeast-striking Kula-Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge between 60 and 50 Ma. In this configuration, the YHS could have provided a 56–49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which accreted to North America by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, formed contemporaneously on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to coastal British Columbia at about the same time

  18. A laboratory scale fundamental time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, R.V.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a fundamental time (or fundamental length) has been conjectured in many contexts. However, the ''stability of physical theories principle'' seems to be the one that provides, through the tools of algebraic deformation theory, an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. It is well-known that c and ℎ are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and the Poisson algebra. When the stability principle is applied to the Poincare-Heisenberg algebra, two deformation parameters emerge which define two time (or length) scales. In addition there are, for each of them, a plus or minus sign possibility in the relevant commutators. One of the deformation length scales, related to non-commutativity of momenta, is probably related to the Planck length scale but the other might be much larger and already detectable in laboratory experiments. In this paper, this is used as a working hypothesis to look for physical effects that might settle this question. Phase-space modifications, resonances, interference, electron spin resonance and non-commutative QED are considered. (orig.)

  19. Parsec-scale Faraday rotation and polarization of 20 active galactic nuclei jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, E. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.

    2017-05-01

    We perform polarimetry analysis of 20 active galactic nuclei jets using the very long baseline array at 1.4, 1.6, 2.2, 2.4, 4.6, 5.0, 8.1, 8.4 and 15.4 GHz. The study allowed us to investigate linearly polarized properties of the jets at parsec scales: distribution of the Faraday rotation measure (RM) and fractional polarization along the jets, Faraday effects and structure of Faraday-corrected polarization images. Wavelength dependence of the fractional polarization and polarization angle is consistent with external Faraday rotation, while some sources show internal rotation. The RM changes along the jets, systematically increasing its value towards synchrotron self-absorbed cores at shorter wavelengths. The highest core RM reaches 16 900 rad m-2 in the source rest frame for the quasar 0952+179, suggesting the presence of highly magnetized, dense media in these regions. The typical RM of transparent jet regions has values of an order of a hundred rad m-2. Significant transverse RM gradients are observed in seven sources. The magnetic field in the Faraday screen has no preferred orientation, and is observed to be random or regular from source to source. Half of the sources show evidence for the helical magnetic fields in their rotating magneto-ionic media. At the same time jets themselves contain large-scale, ordered magnetic fields and tend to align its direction with the jet flow. The observed variety of polarized signatures can be explained by a model of spine-sheath jet structure.

  20. Time Skew Estimator for Dual-Polarization QAM Transmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros Diniz, Júlio César; Da Ros, Francesco; Jones, Rasmus Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A simple method for joint estimation of transmitter’s in-phase/quadrature and inter-polarization time skew is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The method is based on clock tone extraction of a photodetected signal and genetic algorithm. The maximum estimation error was 0.5 ps....

  1. Time asymmetry: Polarization and analyzing power in the nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioux, C.; Roy, R.; Slobodrian, R.J. (Laval Univ., Quebec City (Canada). Lab. de Physique Nucleaire); Conzett, H.E. (California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.)

    1983-02-28

    Measurements of the proton polarization in the reactions /sup 7/Li(/sup 3/He, p vector)/sup 9/Be and /sup 9/Be(/sup 3/He, p vector)/sup 11/B and of the analyzing powers of the inverse reactions, initiated by polarized protons at the same c.m. energies, show significant differences which imply the failure of the polarization-analyzing-power theorem and, prima facie, of time-reversal invariance in these reactions. The reaction /sup 2/H(/sup 3/He, p vector)/sup 4/ He and its inverse have also been investigated and show some smaller differences. A discussion of the instrumental asymmetries is presented.

  2. Modeling the Quiet Time Outflow Solution in the Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We use the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) to study the geomagnetically quiet conditions in the polar cap during solar maximum, The PWOM solves the gyrotropic transport equations for O(+), H(+), and He(+) along several magnetic field lines in the polar region in order to reconstruct the full 3D solution. We directly compare our simulation results to the data based empirical model of Kitamura et al. [2011] of electron density, which is based on 63 months of Akebono satellite observations. The modeled ion and electron temperatures are also compared with a statistical compilation of quiet time data obtained by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and Intercosmos Satellites (Kitamura et al. [2011]). The data and model agree reasonably well. This study shows that photoelectrons play an important role in explaining the differences between sunlit and dark results, ion composition, as well as ion and electron temperatures of the quiet time polar wind solution. Moreover, these results provide validation of the PWOM's ability to model the quiet time ((background" solution.

  3. Polar plot representation of time-resolved fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorst, John Paul; Wen Teng, Kai; Clegg, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Measuring changes in a molecule's fluorescence emission is a common technique to study complex biological systems such as cells and tissues. Although the steady-state fluorescence intensity is frequently used, measuring the average amount of time that a molecule spends in the excited state (the fluorescence lifetime) reveals more detailed information about its local environment. The lifetime is measured in the time domain by detecting directly the decay of fluorescence following excitation by short pulse of light. The lifetime can also be measured in the frequency domain by recording the phase and amplitude of oscillation in the emitted fluorescence of the sample in response to repetitively modulated excitation light. In either the time or frequency domain, the analysis of data to extract lifetimes can be computationally intensive. For example, a variety of iterative fitting algorithms already exist to determine lifetimes from samples that contain multiple fluorescing species. However, recently a method of analysis referred to as the polar plot (or phasor plot) is a graphical tool that projects the time-dependent features of the sample's fluorescence in either the time or frequency domain into the Cartesian plane to characterize the sample's lifetime. The coordinate transformations of the polar plot require only the raw data, and hence, there are no uncertainties from extensive corrections or time-consuming fitting in this analysis. In this chapter, the history and mathematical background of the polar plot will be presented along with examples that highlight how it can be used in both cuvette-based and imaging applications.

  4. A Quaternary Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    Reversals and excursions of Earth's geomagnetic field create marker horizons that are readily detected in sedimentary and volcanic rocks worldwide. An accurate and precise chronology of these geomagnetic field instabilities is fundamental to understanding several aspects of Quaternary climate, dynamo processes, and surface processes. For example, stratigraphic correlation between marine sediment and polar ice records of climate change across the cryospheres benefits from a highly resolved record of reversals and excursions. The temporal patterns of dynamo behavior may reflect physical interactions between the molten outer core and the solid inner core or lowermost mantle. These interactions may control reversal frequency and shape the weak magnetic fields that arise during successive dynamo instabilities. Moreover, weakening of the axial dipole during reversals and excursions enhances the production of cosmogenic isotopes that are used in sediment and ice core stratigraphy and surface exposure dating. The Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale (GITS) is based on the direct dating of transitional polarity states recorded by lava flows using the 40Ar/39Ar method, in parallel with astrochronologic age models of marine sediments in which O isotope and magnetic records have been obtained. A review of data from Quaternary lava flows and sediments yields a GITS comprising 10 polarity reversals and 27 excursions during the past 2.6 million years. Nine of the ten reversals bounding chrons and subchrons are associated with 40Ar/39Ar ages of transitionally-magnetized lava flows. The tenth, the Guass-Matuyama chron boundary, is tightly bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar dated ash deposits. Of the 27 well-documented excursions, 14 occurred during the Matuyama chron and 13 during the Brunhes chron; 19 have been dated directly using the 40Ar/39Ar method on transitionally-magnetized volcanic rocks and form the backbone of the GITS. Excursions are clearly not the rare phenomena once thought

  5. Advances in spectral inversion of time-domain induced polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    The extraction of spectral information in the inversion process of time-domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) data is changing the use of the TDIP method. Data interpretation is evolving from a qualitative description of the subsurface, able only to discriminate the presence of contrasts in charg......The extraction of spectral information in the inversion process of time-domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) data is changing the use of the TDIP method. Data interpretation is evolving from a qualitative description of the subsurface, able only to discriminate the presence of contrasts...... in chargeability parameters, towards a quantitative analysis of the investigated media, which allows for detailed soil- and rock-type characterization. In this work a review of the recent advances in spectral inversion of TDIP data is presented, in terms of: supported IP parameterizations; modelling of transmitter...

  6. Interpreting tunneling time in circularly polarized strong-laser ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, MingHu; Xin, PeiPei; Chu, TianShu; Liu, HongPing

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to study the tunneling process by analyzing the time-dependent ionization yield in circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs. the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obviou...

  7. Scale dependence and small-x behaviour of polarized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.D.; Forte, S.; Ridolfi, G.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss perturbative evolution of the polarized structure function g 1 in the (x, Q 2 ) plane, with special regard to the small-x region. We determine g 1 in terms of polarized quark and gluon distributions using coefficient functions to order α s . At small x g 1 then displays substantial scale dependence, which necessarily implies a corresponding scale dependence in the large-x region. This scale dependence has significant consequences for the extraction of the first moment from the experimental data, reducing its value while increasing the error. Conversely, the scale dependence may be used to constrain the size of the polarized gluon distribution. ((orig.))

  8. The Large Scale Structure: Polarization Aspects R. F. Pizzo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ized radio sources in galaxy clusters and at their outskirts, emphasizing the crucial information provided by the polarized signal on the origin and evolution ..... Evrard, A. E., Gioia, I. M. 2002, in Astrophysics and Space Science Library, Vol. 272,.

  9. Scaling rates of true polar wander in convecting planets and moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ian; Buffett, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Mass redistribution in the convecting mantle of a planet causes perturbations in its moment of inertia tensor. Conservation of angular momentum dictates that these perturbations change the direction of the rotation vector of the planet, a process known as true polar wander (TPW). Although the existence of TPW on Earth is firmly established, its rate and magnitude over geologic time scales remain controversial. Here we present scaling analyses and numerical simulations of TPW due to mantle convection over a range of parameter space relevant to planetary interiors. For simple rotating convection, we identify a set of dimensionless parameters that fully characterize true polar wander. We use these parameters to define timescales for the growth of moment of inertia perturbations due to convection and for their relaxation due to true polar wander. These timescales, as well as the relative sizes of convective anomalies, control the rate and magnitude of TPW. This analysis also clarifies the nature of so called "inertial interchange" TPW events, and relates them to a broader class of events that enable large and often rapid TPW. We expect these events to have been more frequent in Earth's past.

  10. Sensing Noncollinear Magnetism at the Atomic Scale Combining Magnetic Exchange and Spin-Polarized Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Nadine; Gerritsen, Jan W; Wegner, Daniel; Khajetoorians, Alexander A

    2017-09-13

    Storing and accessing information in atomic-scale magnets requires magnetic imaging techniques with single-atom resolution. Here, we show simultaneous detection of the spin-polarization and exchange force with or without the flow of current with a new method, which combines scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy. To demonstrate the application of this new method, we characterize the prototypical nanoskyrmion lattice formed on a monolayer of Fe/Ir(111). We resolve the square magnetic lattice by employing magnetic exchange force microscopy, demonstrating its applicability to noncollinear magnetic structures for the first time. Utilizing distance-dependent force and current spectroscopy, we quantify the exchange forces in comparison to the spin-polarization. For strongly spin-polarized tips, we distinguish different signs of the exchange force that we suggest arises from a change in exchange mechanisms between the probe and a skyrmion. This new approach may enable both nonperturbative readout combined with writing by current-driven reversal of atomic-scale magnets.

  11. A search for time variability and its possible regularities in linear polarization of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, L.; Guo, Z.H.; Hsu, J.C.; Huang, L.

    1989-01-01

    Linear polarization measurements are presented for 14 Be stars obtained at McDonald Observatory during four observing runs from June to November of 1983. Methods of observation and data reduction are described. Seven of eight program stars which were observed on six or more nights exhibited obvious polarimetric variations on time-scales of days or months. The incidence is estimated as 50% and may be as high as 93%. No connection can be found between polarimetric variability and rapid periodic light or spectroscopic variability for our stars. Ultra-rapid variability on time-scale of minutes was searched for with negative results. In all cases the position angles also show variations indicating that the axis of symmetry of the circumstellar envelope changes its orientation in space. For the Be binary CX Dra the variations in polarization seems to have a period which is just half of the orbital period

  12. Atomic-scale compensation phenomena at polar interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Matthew F; Luo, Weidong; Oxley, Mark P; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2010-11-05

    The interfacial screening charge that arises to compensate electric fields of dielectric or ferroelectric thin films is now recognized as the most important factor in determining the capacitance or polarization of ultrathin ferroelectrics. Here we investigate using aberration-corrected electron microscopy and density-functional theory to show how interfaces cope with the need to terminate ferroelectric polarization. In one case, we show evidence for ionic screening, which has been predicted by theory but never observed. For a ferroelectric film on an insulating substrate, we found that compensation can be mediated by an interfacial charge generated, for example, by oxygen vacancies.

  13. Extreme-Scale Alignments Of Quasar Optical Polarizations And Galactic Dust Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelgrims, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Almost twenty years ago the optical polarization vectors from quasars were shown to be aligned over extreme-scales. That evidence was later confirmed and enhanced thanks to additional optical data obtained with the ESO instrument FORS2 mounted on the VLT, in Chile. These observations suggest either Galactic foreground contamination of the data or, more interestingly, a cosmological origin. Using 353-GHz polarization data from the Planck satellite, I recently showed that the main features of the extreme-scale alignments of the quasar optical polarization vectors are unaffected by the Galactic thermal dust. This confirms previous studies based on optical starlight polarization and discards the scenario of Galactic contamination. In this talk, I shall briefly review the extreme-scale quasar polarization alignments, discuss the main results submitted in A&A and motivate forthcoming projects at the frontier between Galactic and extragalactic astrop hysics.

  14. Estimates of expansion time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the expansion of a spacefaring civilization show that descendants of that civilization should be found near virtually every useful star in the Galaxy in a time much less than the current age of the Galaxy. Only extreme assumptions about local population growth rates, emigration rates, or ship ranges can slow or halt an expansion. The apparent absence of extraterrestrials from the solar system suggests that no such civilization has arisen in the Galaxy. 1 figure

  15. Stochastic time scale for the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, M.; Golda, Z.

    1986-01-01

    An intrinsic time scale is naturally defined within stochastic gradient dynamical systems. It should be interpreted as a ''relaxation time'' to a local potential minimum after the system has been randomly perturbed. It is shown that for a flat Friedman-like cosmological model this time scale is of order of the age of the Universe. 7 refs. (author)

  16. Self-gravity at the scale of the polar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huré, J.-M.; Pierens, A.; Hersant, F.

    2009-06-01

    We present the exact calculus of the gravitational potential and acceleration along the symmetry axis of a plane, homogeneous, polar cell as a function of mean radius bar{a}, radial extension Δ a, and opening angle Δ φ. Accurate approximations are derived in the limit of high numerical resolution at the geometrical mean of the inner and outer radii (a key-position in current FFT-based Poisson solvers). Our results are the full extension of the approximate formula given in the textbook of Binney & Tremaine to all resolutions. We also clarify definitely the question about the existence (or not) of self-forces in polar cells. We find that there is always a self-force at radius except if the shape factor ρ ≡ bar{a}Δ φ /Δ a → 3.531, asymptotically. Such cells are therefore well suited to build a polar mesh for high resolution simulations of self-gravitating media in two dimensions. A by-product of this study is a newly discovered indefinite integral involving complete elliptic integral of the first kind over modulus.

  17. Control of beam size and polarization time in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.M.; Rees, J.R.; Wiedemann, H.

    1975-07-01

    In this report we describe a method of controlling beam size in which the focusing functions are not altered with beam energy but the curvature function is drastically altered in a few locations which comprise only a very small fraction of the circumference. As will be described in the following paper we are proposing to control the quantum excitation and radiation damping of the particles by means of special excitation magnets or /open quotes/wigglers/close quotes/. Since the mean square energy deviation and radial beam emittance are proportional approximately to E/sup 2//l angle/G/sup 3//r angle//l angle/G/sup 2//r angle//sup /minus/1 while the damping times are proportional to (E/sup 3//l angle/G/sup 2//r angle/)/sup /minus/1/, it is possible to achieve constant beam size in a constant focusing configuration while the damping times vary roughly as E/sup /minus/2/. In addition, it is possible to reduce the beam polarization time with these devices. A scheme for beam-size and damping control based on the same principle was described by M. Bassetti about a year ago, in which all of the storage-ring bending magnets were involved as wigglers, and a substantial increase in magnet cost resulted. The consequences for polarization times were not explored. The design formulae are derived and two specific applications to the PEP design in which the wigglers are installed in three of the six 5-m straight sections are described with attention given to practical magnet design, synchrotron radiation handling and other matters. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Time scale in quasifission reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Paul, P.; Nestler, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The quasifission process arises from the hindrance of the complete fusion process when heavy-ion beams are used. The strong dissipation in the system tends to prevent fusion and lead the system towards reseparation into two final products of similar mass reminiscent of a fission process. This dissipation slows down the mass transfer and shape transformation and allows for the emission of high energy {gamma}-rays during the process, albeit with a low probability. Giant Dipole {gamma} rays emitted during this time have a characteristic spectral shape and may thus be discerned in the presence of a background of {gamma} rays emitted from the final fission-like fragments. Since the rate of GDR {gamma} emission is very well established, the strength of this component may therefore be used to measure the timescale of the quasifission process. In this experiment we studied the reaction between 368-MeV {sup 58}Ni and a {sup 165}Ho target, where deep inelastic scattering and quasifission processes are dominant. Coincidences between fission fragments (detected in four position-sensitive avalanche detectors) and high energy {gamma} rays (measured in a 10{close_quotes} x 10{close_quotes} actively shielded NaI detector) were registered. Beams were provided by the Stony Brook Superconducting Linac. The {gamma}-ray spectrum associated with deep inelastic scattering events is well reproduced by statistical cooling of projectile and target-like fragments with close to equal initial excitation energy sharing. The y spectrum associated with quasifission events is well described by statistical emission from the fission fragments alone, with only weak evidence for GDR emission from the mono-nucleus. A 1{sigma} limit of t{sub ss} < 11 x 10{sup -21} s is obtained for the mono-nucleus lifetime, which is consistent with the lifetime obtained from quasifission fragment angular distributions. A manuscript was accepted for publication.

  19. A constraint on Planck-scale modifications to electrodynamics with CMB polarization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Physics Department, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' and Sezione Roma1 INFN, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cooray, Asantha, E-mail: giulia.gubitosi@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: luca.pagano@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: giovanni.amelino-camelia@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: acooray@uci.edu [Center for Cosmology, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ ≅ −0.110±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5 × 10{sup −4} (PLANCK), 6.1 × 10{sup −3} (Spider), and 1.0 × 10{sup −5} (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1 × 10{sup −6}.

  20. A constraint on Planck-scale modifications to electrodynamics with CMB polarization data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha

    2009-01-01

    We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ ≅ −0.110±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5 × 10 −4 (PLANCK), 6.1 × 10 −3 (Spider), and 1.0 × 10 −5 (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1 × 10 −6

  1. Some nonlinear dynamic inequalities on time scales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In 1988, Stefan Hilger [10] introduced the calculus on time scales which unifies continuous and discrete analysis. Since then many authors have expounded on various aspects of the theory of dynamic equations on time scales. Recently, there has been much research activity concerning the new theory. For example, we ...

  2. Multiple time scale methods in tokamak magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods are discussed for integrating the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in tokamak systems on other than the fastest time scale. The dynamical grid method for simulating ideal MHD instabilities utilizes a natural nonorthogonal time-dependent coordinate transformation based on the magnetic field lines. The coordinate transformation is chosen to be free of the fast time scale motion itself, and to yield a relatively simple scalar equation for the total pressure, P = p + B 2 /2μ 0 , which can be integrated implicitly to average over the fast time scale oscillations. Two methods are described for the resistive time scale. The zero-mass method uses a reduced set of two-fluid transport equations obtained by expanding in the inverse magnetic Reynolds number, and in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities. The momentum equation becomes a constraint equation that forces the pressure and magnetic fields and currents to remain in force balance equilibrium as they evolve. The large mass method artificially scales up the ion mass and viscosity, thereby reducing the severe time scale disparity between wavelike and diffusionlike phenomena, but not changing the resistive time scale behavior. Other methods addressing the intermediate time scales are discussed

  3. Uniform Statistical Convergence on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Altin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will introduce the concept of m- and (λ,m-uniform density of a set and m- and (λ,m-uniform statistical convergence on an arbitrary time scale. However, we will define m-uniform Cauchy function on a time scale. Furthermore, some relations about these new notions are also obtained.

  4. Generation time and effective population size in Polar Eskimos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Shuichi; Forster, Peter

    2008-01-01

    North Greenland Polar Eskimos are the only hunter–gatherer population, to our knowledge, who can offer precise genealogical records spanning several generations. This is the first report from Eskimos on two key parameters in population genetics, namely, generation time (T) and effective population size (Ne). The average mother–daughter and father–son intervals were 27 and 32 years, respectively, roughly similar to the previously published generation times obtained from recent agricultural societies across the world. To gain an insight for the generation time in our distant ancestors, we calculated maternal generation time for two wild chimpanzee populations. We also provide the first comparison among three distinct approaches (genealogy, variance and life table methods) for calculating Ne, which resulted in slightly differing values for the Eskimos. The ratio of the effective to the census population size is estimated as 0.6–0.7 for autosomal and X-chromosomal DNA, 0.7–0.9 for mitochondrial DNA and 0.5 for Y-chromosomal DNA. A simulation of alleles along the genealogy suggested that Y-chromosomal DNA may drift a little faster than mitochondrial DNA in this population, in contrast to agricultural Icelanders. Our values will be useful not only in prehistoric population inference but also in understanding the shaping of our genome today. PMID:18364314

  5. Time Scale in Least Square Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Yeniay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of dynamic equations in time scale is a new area in mathematics. Time scale tries to build a bridge between real numbers and integers. Two derivatives in time scale have been introduced and called as delta and nabla derivative. Delta derivative concept is defined as forward direction, and nabla derivative concept is defined as backward direction. Within the scope of this study, we consider the method of obtaining parameters of regression equation of integer values through time scale. Therefore, we implemented least squares method according to derivative definition of time scale and obtained coefficients related to the model. Here, there exist two coefficients originating from forward and backward jump operators relevant to the same model, which are different from each other. Occurrence of such a situation is equal to total number of values of vertical deviation between regression equations and observation values of forward and backward jump operators divided by two. We also estimated coefficients for the model using ordinary least squares method. As a result, we made an introduction to least squares method on time scale. We think that time scale theory would be a new vision in least square especially when assumptions of linear regression are violated.

  6. Extreme-scale alignments of quasar optical polarizations and Galactic dust contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Pelgrims, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Almost twenty years ago the optical polarization vectors from quasars were shown to be aligned over extreme-scales. That evidence was later confirmed and enhanced thanks to additional optical data obtained with the ESO instrument FORS2 mounted on the VLT, in Chile. These observations suggest either Galactic foreground contamination of the data or, more interestingly, a cosmological origin. Using 353-GHz polarization data from the Planck satellite, I recently showed that the main features of t...

  7. Scaling laws and sum rules for the B-mode polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the microwave background polarization anisotropies is investigated when the stochastic Faraday rate is stationary, random and Markovian. The scaling properties of the polarization power spectra and of their nonlinear combinations are scrutinized as a function of the comoving frequency. It is argued that each frequency channel of a given experiment measuring simultaneously the E-mode and the B-mode spectra can be analyzed in this framework with the aim of testing the physical origin of the polarization in a model-independent perspective.

  8. Hardy type inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; Saker, Samir H

    2016-01-01

    The book is devoted to dynamic inequalities of Hardy type and extensions and generalizations via convexity on a time scale T. In particular, the book contains the time scale versions of classical Hardy type inequalities, Hardy and Littlewood type inequalities, Hardy-Knopp type inequalities via convexity, Copson type inequalities, Copson-Beesack type inequalities, Liendeler type inequalities, Levinson type inequalities and Pachpatte type inequalities, Bennett type inequalities, Chan type inequalities, and Hardy type inequalities with two different weight functions. These dynamic inequalities contain the classical continuous and discrete inequalities as special cases when T = R and T = N and can be extended to different types of inequalities on different time scales such as T = hN, h > 0, T = qN for q > 1, etc.In this book the authors followed the history and development of these inequalities. Each section in self-contained and one can see the relationship between the time scale versions of the inequalities and...

  9. Steffensen's Integral Inequality on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Umut Mutlu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish generalizations of Steffensen's integral inequality on time scales via the diamond- dynamic integral, which is defined as a linear combination of the delta and nabla integrals.

  10. JY1 time scale: a new Kalman-filter time scale designed at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jian; Parker, Thomas E; Levine, Judah

    2017-01-01

    We report on a new Kalman-filter hydrogen-maser time scale (i.e. JY1 time scale) designed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The JY1 time scale is composed of a few hydrogen masers and a commercial Cs clock. The Cs clock is used as a reference clock to ease operations with existing data. Unlike other time scales, the JY1 time scale uses three basic time-scale equations, instead of only one equation. Also, this time scale can detect a clock error (i.e. time error, frequency error, or frequency drift error) automatically. These features make the JY1 time scale stiff and less likely to be affected by an abnormal clock. Tests show that the JY1 time scale deviates from the UTC by less than  ±5 ns for ∼100 d, when the time scale is initially aligned to the UTC and then is completely free running. Once the time scale is steered to a Cs fountain, it can maintain the time with little error even if the Cs fountain stops working for tens of days. This can be helpful when we do not have a continuously operated fountain or when the continuously operated fountain accidentally stops, or when optical clocks run occasionally. (paper)

  11. Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; França, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better

  12. A Polar Rover for Large-Scale Scientific Surveys: Design, Implementation and Field Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of polar regions is of great importance to scientific research. Unfortunately, due to the harsh environment, most of the regions on the Antarctic continent are still unreachable for humankind. Therefore, in 2011, the Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE launched a project to design a rover to conduct large-scale scientific surveys on the Antarctic. The main challenges for the rover are twofold: one is the mobility, i.e., how to make a rover that could survive the harsh environment and safely move on the uneven, icy and snowy terrain; the other is the autonomy, in that the robot should be able to move at a relatively high speed with little or no human intervention so that it can explore a large region in a limit time interval under the communication constraints. In this paper, the corresponding techniques, especially the polar rover's design and autonomous navigation algorithms, are introduced in detail. Subsequently, an experimental report of the fields tests on the Antarctic is given to show some preliminary evaluation of the rover. Finally, experiences and existing challenging problems are summarized.

  13. Time-of-flight and vector polarization analysis for diffuse neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweika, W.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of pulsed neutron sources for diffuse scattering including time-of-flight (TOF) and polarization analysis is discussed in comparison to the capabilities of the present instrument diffuse neutron scattering at the research center Juelich. We present first results of a new method for full polarization analysis using precessing neutron polarization. A proposal is made for a new type of instrument at pulsed sources, which allows for vector polarization analysis in TOF instruments with multi-detectors

  14. Chiral polarization scale of QCD vacuum and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horv, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been found that dynamics of pure glue QCD supports the low energy band of Dirac modes with local chiral properties qualitatively different from that of a bulk: while bulk modes suppress chirality relative to statistical independence between left and right, the band modes enhance it. The width of such chirally polarized zone – chiral polarization scale bigwedge ch – has been shown to be finite in the continuum limit at fixed physical volume. Here we present evidence that bigwedge ch remains non-zero also in the infinite volume, and is therefore a dynamical scale in the theory. Our experiments in N f = 2+1 QCD support the proposition that the same holds in the massless limit, connecting bigwedge ch to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In addition, our results suggest that thermal agitation in quenched QCD destroys both chiral polarization and condensation of Dirac modes at the same temperature T ch > T c .

  15. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species invasions

  16. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species

  17. Multivariable dynamic calculus on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Bohner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book offers the reader an overview of recent developments of multivariable dynamic calculus on time scales, taking readers beyond the traditional calculus texts. Covering topics from parameter-dependent integrals to partial differentiation on time scales, the book’s nine pedagogically oriented chapters provide a pathway to this active area of research that will appeal to students and researchers in mathematics and the physical sciences. The authors present a clear and well-organized treatment of the concept behind the mathematics and solution techniques, including many practical examples and exercises.

  18. Time scales in tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolik J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the temporal structure of tidal disruption events pointing out the corresponding transitions in the lightcurves of the thermal accretion disk and of the jet emerging from such events. The hydrodynamic time scale of the disrupted star is the minimal time scale of building up the accretion disk and the jet and it sets a limit on the rise time. This suggest that Swift J1644+57, that shows several flares with a rise time as short as a few hundred seconds could not have arisen from a tidal disruption of a main sequence star whose hydrodynamic time is a few hours. The disrupted object must have been a white dwarf. A second important time scale is the Eddington time in which the accretion rate changes form super to sub Eddington. It is possible that such a transition was observed in the light curve of Swift J2058+05. If correct this provides interesting constraints on the parameters of the system.

  19. Solar Coronal Loops Associated with Small-scale Mixed Polarity Surface Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Knölker, M., E-mail: chitta@mps.mpg.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    How and where are coronal loops rooted in the solar lower atmosphere? The details of the magnetic environment and its evolution at the footpoints of coronal loops are crucial to understanding the processes of mass and energy supply to the solar corona. To address the above question, we use high-resolution line-of-sight magnetic field data from the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory and coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory of an emerging active region. We find that the coronal loops are often rooted at the locations with minor small-scale but persistent opposite-polarity magnetic elements very close to the larger dominant polarity. These opposite-polarity small-scale elements continually interact with the dominant polarity underlying the coronal loop through flux cancellation. At these locations we detect small inverse Y-shaped jets in chromospheric Ca ii H images obtained from the Sunrise Filter Imager during the flux cancellation. Our results indicate that magnetic flux cancellation and reconnection at the base of coronal loops due to mixed polarity fields might be a crucial feature for the supply of mass and energy into the corona.

  20. Solar Coronal Loops Associated with Small-scale Mixed Polarity Surface Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van; Rodríguez, J. Blanco; Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco; Schmidt, W.; Pillet, V. Martínez; Knölker, M.

    2017-01-01

    How and where are coronal loops rooted in the solar lower atmosphere? The details of the magnetic environment and its evolution at the footpoints of coronal loops are crucial to understanding the processes of mass and energy supply to the solar corona. To address the above question, we use high-resolution line-of-sight magnetic field data from the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory and coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory of an emerging active region. We find that the coronal loops are often rooted at the locations with minor small-scale but persistent opposite-polarity magnetic elements very close to the larger dominant polarity. These opposite-polarity small-scale elements continually interact with the dominant polarity underlying the coronal loop through flux cancellation. At these locations we detect small inverse Y-shaped jets in chromospheric Ca ii H images obtained from the Sunrise Filter Imager during the flux cancellation. Our results indicate that magnetic flux cancellation and reconnection at the base of coronal loops due to mixed polarity fields might be a crucial feature for the supply of mass and energy into the corona.

  1. The Second Noether Theorem on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka B. Malinowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the second Noether theorem to variational problems on time scales. As corollaries we obtain the classical second Noether theorem, the second Noether theorem for the h-calculus and the second Noether theorem for the q-calculus.

  2. Structure of Student Time Management Scale (STMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of constructing a Student Time Management Scale (STMS), the initial version was administered and data were collected from 523 standard eleventh students. (Mean age = 15.64). The data obtained were subjected to Reliability and Factor analysis using PASW Statistical software version 18. From 42 items 14 were dropped, resulting in the…

  3. Some Nonlinear Dynamic Inequalities on Time Scales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this paper is to investigate some nonlinear dynamic inequalities on time scales, which provide explicit bounds on unknown functions. The inequalities given here unify and extend some inequalities in (B G Pachpatte, On some new inequalities related to a certain inequality arising in the theory of differential ...

  4. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to continental scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (TIR remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (e.g., air temperature, advection are affecting plant functioning. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil + canopy land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5 to 10-km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions on the order of 10 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe, Africa

  5. Polar cap arcs from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere: kinetic modelling and observations by Cluster and TIMED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maggiolo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available On 1 April 2004 the GUVI imager onboard the TIMED spacecraft spots an isolated and elongated polar cap arc. About 20 min later, the Cluster satellites detect an isolated upflowing ion beam above the polar cap. Cluster observations show that the ions are accelerated upward by a quasi-stationary electric field. The field-aligned potential drop is estimated to about 700 V and the upflowing ions are accompanied by a tenuous population of isotropic protons with a temperature of about 500 eV. The magnetic footpoints of the ion outflows observed by Cluster are situated in the prolongation of the polar cap arc observed by TIMED GUVI. The upflowing ion beam and the polar cap arc may be different signatures of the same phenomenon, as suggested by a recent statistical study of polar cap ion beams using Cluster data. We use Cluster observations at high altitude as input to a quasi-stationary magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI coupling model. Using a Knight-type current-voltage relationship and the current continuity at the topside ionosphere, the model computes the energy spectrum of precipitating electrons at the top of the ionosphere corresponding to the generator electric field observed by Cluster. The MI coupling model provides a field-aligned potential drop in agreement with Cluster observations of upflowing ions and a spatial scale of the polar cap arc consistent with the optical observations by TIMED. The computed energy spectrum of the precipitating electrons is used as input to the Trans4 ionospheric transport code. This 1-D model, based on Boltzmann's kinetic formalism, takes into account ionospheric processes such as photoionization and electron/proton precipitation, and computes the optical and UV emissions due to precipitating electrons. The emission rates provided by the Trans4 code are compared to the optical observations by TIMED. They are similar in size and intensity. Data and modelling results are consistent with the scenario of quasi

  6. Solvent polarity scale on the fluorescence spectra of a dansyl monomer copolymerizable in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Biye; Gao, Feng; Tong, Zhen; Yan, Yu

    1999-06-01

    A copolymerizable fluorescent monomer N-[2-[[[5-(N,N-dimethylamino)-1-naphthalenyl]sulfonyl]-amino]ethyl]-2-propenamide (DANSAEP) was synthesized, which exhibits dual fluorescence due to the twisted intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state. The emission maximum λem shifts from 463.3 nm in n-hexane to 530.0 nm in water, showing solvent polarity dependence. The relations between λem and the conventional solvent polarity parameters ET(30) or Z are linear, dividing solvents into protic and aprotic groups. Kamlet's linear solvation energy relationship gives a good description for λem as a solvent polarity scale. The increment of dipole moment Δ μ at the excited state was estimated as 5.09 D with the solvatochromic analysis.

  7. Parsec-Scale Kinematic and Polarization Properties of MOJAVE AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lister Matthew L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parsec-scale kinematics and statistical polarization properties of 200 AGN jets based on 15 GHz VLBA data obtained between 1994 Aug 31 and 2011 May 1. Nearly all of the 60 most heavily observed jets show significant changes in their innermost position angle over a 12 to 16 year interval, ranging from 10° to 150° on the sky, corresponding to intrinsic variations of ~ 0.5° to ~ 2°. The BL Lac jets show smaller variations than quasars. Roughly half of the heavily observed jets show systematic position angle trends with time, and 20 show indications of oscillatory behavior. The time spans of the data sets are too short compared to the fitted periods (5 to 12 y, however, to reliably establish periodicity. The rapid changes and large jumps in position angle seen in many cases suggest that the superluminal AGN jet features occupy only a portion of the entire jet cross section, and may be energized portions of thin instability structures within the jet. We have derived vector proper motions for 887 moving features in 200 jets having at least five VLBA epochs. For 557 well-sampled features, there are sufficient data to additionally study possible accelerations. The moving features are generally non-ballistic, with 70% of the well-sampled features showing either significant accelerations or non-radial motions. Inward motions are rare (2% of all features, are slow (< 0.1 mas per y, are more prevalent in BL Lac jets, and are typically found within 1 mas of the unresolved core feature. There is a general trend of increasing apparent speed with distance down the jet for both radio galaxies and BL Lac objects. In most jets, the speeds of the features cluster around a characteristic value, yet there is a considerable dispersion in the distribution. Orientation variations within the jet cannot fully account for the dispersion, implying that the features have a range of Lorentz factor and/or pattern speed. Very slow pattern speed features are

  8. Special Issue on Time Scale Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 IOP PUBLISHING METROLOGIA Metrologia 45 (2008) doi:10.1088/0026-1394/45/6/E01...special issue of Metrologia presents selected papers from the Fifth International Time Scale Algorithm Symposium (VITSAS), including some of the...scientists, and hosted by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) in San Fernando, Spain, whose staff further enhanced their nation’s high

  9. Current relaxation time scales in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.

    1987-02-01

    An approximate normal mode analysis of plasma current diffusion in tokamaks is presented. The work is based on numerical solutions of the current diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are shown for a broad range of plasma conductivity profile shapes. Three classes of solutions are considered which correspond to three types of tokamak operation. Convenient approximations to the three lowest eigenvalues in each class are presented and simple formulae for the current relaxation time scales are given

  10. Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperature product provides near-real-time brightness temperatures for both the Northern and...

  11. Liquidity crises on different time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Francesco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    We present an empirical analysis of the microstructure of financial markets and, in particular, of the static and dynamic properties of liquidity. We find that on relatively large time scales (15 min) large price fluctuations are connected to the failure of the subtle mechanism of compensation between the flows of market and limit orders: in other words, the missed revelation of the latent order book breaks the dynamical equilibrium between the flows, triggering the large price jumps. On smaller time scales (30 s), instead, the static depletion of the limit order book is an indicator of an intrinsic fragility of the system, which is related to a strongly nonlinear enhancement of the response. In order to quantify this phenomenon we introduce a measure of the liquidity imbalance present in the book and we show that it is correlated to both the sign and the magnitude of the next price movement. These findings provide a quantitative definition of the effective liquidity, which proves to be strongly dependent on the considered time scales.

  12. Detection of polarization in the cosmic microwave background using DASI. Degree Angular Scale Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, J M; Leitch, E M; Pryke, C; Carlstrom, J E; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L

    The past several years have seen the emergence of a standard cosmological model, in which small temperature differences in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on angular scales of the order of a degree are understood to arise from acoustic oscillations in the hot plasma of the early Universe, arising from primordial density fluctuations. Within the context of this model, recent measurements of the temperature fluctuations have led to profound conclusions about the origin, evolution and composition of the Universe. Using the measured temperature fluctuations, the theoretical framework predicts the level of polarization of the CMB with essentially no free parameters. Therefore, a measurement of the polarization is a critical test of the theory and thus of the validity of the cosmological parameters derived from the CMB measurements. Here we report the detection of polarization of the CMB with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI). The polarization is deteced with high confidence, and its level and spatial distribution are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the standard theory.

  13. Multidimensional scaling of musical time estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocenas-Silva, Raquel; Bueno, José Lino Oliveira; Molin, Paul; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the psycho-musical factors that govern time evaluation in Western music from baroque, classic, romantic, and modern repertoires. The excerpts were previously found to represent variability in musical properties and to induce four main categories of emotions. 48 participants (musicians and nonmusicians) freely listened to 16 musical excerpts (lasting 20 sec. each) and grouped those that seemed to have the same duration. Then, participants associated each group of excerpts to one of a set of sine wave tones varying in duration from 16 to 24 sec. Multidimensional scaling analysis generated a two-dimensional solution for these time judgments. Musical excerpts with high arousal produced an overestimation of time, and affective valence had little influence on time perception. The duration was also overestimated when tempo and loudness were higher, and to a lesser extent, timbre density. In contrast, musical tension had little influence.

  14. Vacuum-polarization effects in global monopole space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzitelli, F.D.; Lousto, C.O.

    1991-01-01

    The gravitational effect produced by a global monopole may be approximated by a solid deficit angle. As a consequence, the energy-momentum tensor of a quantum field will have a nonzero vacuum expectation value. Here we study this ''vacuum-polarization effect'' around the monopole. We find explicit expressions for both left-angle φ 2 right-angle ren and left-angle T μν right-angle ren for a massless scalar field. The back reaction of the quantum field on the monopole metric is also investigated

  15. Probing the Magnetic Field Structure in Sgr A* on Black Hole Horizon Scales with Polarized Radiative Transfer Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Roman; McKinney, Jonathan C. [Department of Physics and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Magnetic fields are believed to drive accretion and relativistic jets in black hole accretion systems, but the magnetic field structure that controls these phenomena remains uncertain. We perform general relativistic (GR) polarized radiative transfer of time-dependent three-dimensional GR magnetohydrodynamical simulations to model thermal synchrotron emission from the Galactic Center source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We compare our results to new polarimetry measurements by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) and show how polarization in the visibility (Fourier) domain distinguishes and constrains accretion flow models with different magnetic field structures. These include models with small-scale fields in disks driven by the magnetorotational instability as well as models with large-scale ordered fields in magnetically arrested disks. We also consider different electron temperature and jet mass-loading prescriptions that control the brightness of the disk, funnel-wall jet, and Blandford–Znajek-driven funnel jet. Our comparisons between the simulations and observations favor models with ordered magnetic fields near the black hole event horizon in Sgr A*, though both disk- and jet-dominated emission can satisfactorily explain most of the current EHT data. We also discuss how the black hole shadow can be filled-in by jet emission or mimicked by the absence of funnel jet emission. We show that stronger model constraints should be possible with upcoming circular polarization and higher frequency (349 GHz) measurements.

  16. uncertain dynamic systems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lakshmikantham

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A basic feedback control problem is that of obtaining some desired stability property from a system which contains uncertainties due to unknown inputs into the system. Despite such imperfect knowledge in the selected mathematical model, we often seek to devise controllers that will steer the system in a certain required fashion. Various classes of controllers whose design is based on the method of Lyapunov are known for both discrete [4], [10], [15], and continuous [3–9], [11] models described by difference and differential equations, respectively. Recently, a theory for what is known as dynamic systems on time scales has been built which incorporates both continuous and discrete times, namely, time as an arbitrary closed sets of reals, and allows us to handle both systems simultaneously [1], [2], [12], [13]. This theory permits one to get some insight into and better understanding of the subtle differences between discrete and continuous systems. We shall, in this paper, utilize the framework of the theory of dynamic systems on time scales to investigate the stability properties of conditionally invariant sets which are then applied to discuss controlled systems with uncertain elements. For the notion of conditionally invariant set and its stability properties, see [14]. Our results offer a new approach to the problem in question.

  17. Recent advances in atomic-scale spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur R; Yang, Rong; Yang, Haiqiang; Dick, Alexey; Neugebauer, Joerg; Lambrecht, Walter R L

    2005-02-01

    The Mn3N2 (010) surface has been studied using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy at the atomic scale. The principle objective of this work is to elucidate the properties and potential of this technique to measure atomic-scale magnetic structures. The experimental approach involves the use of a combined molecular beam epitaxy/scanning tunneling microscopy system that allows the study of atomically clean magnetic surfaces. Several key findings have been obtained. First, both magnetic and non-magnetic atomic-scale information has been obtained in a single spin-polarized image. Magnetic modulation of the height profile having an antiferromagnetic super-period of c = 12.14 A (6 atomic rows) together with a non-magnetic superstructure having a period of c/2 = 6.07 A (3 atomic rows) was observed. Methods of separation of magnetic and non-magnetic profiles are presented. Second, bias voltage-dependent spin-polarized images show a reversal of the magnetic modulation at a particular voltage. This reversal is clearly due to a change in the sign of the magnetic term in the tunnel current. Since this term depends on both the tip's as well as the sample's magnetic local density of states, the reversal can be caused by either the sample or the tip. Third, the shape of the line profile was found to vary with the bias voltage, which is related to the energy-dependent spin contribution from the 2 chemically inequivalent Mn sites on the surface. Overall, the results shown here expand the application of the method of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy to measure atomic-scale magnetic structures. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Dissolution of Platinum in Hydrochloric Acid Under Industrial-Scale Alternating Current Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrzabekov, B. E.; Bayeshov, A. B.; Makhanbetov, A. B.; Mishra, B.; Baigenzhenov, O. S.

    2018-02-01

    The electrochemical behavior of platinum in a hydrochloric acid solution under polarization by an industrial-scale alternating current has been investigated. For the electrical dissolution of platinum, titanium is used as an auxiliary electrode, which increases the yield of platinum dissolution by 12.5 pct. The influence of the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the current densities of the platinum and titanium electrodes, and the temperature of the electrolyte on the efficiency of the process of dissolving platinum have all been studied.

  19. Contribution of parsec-scale material onto the polarized X-ray spectrum of type-1 Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, F.; Dovčiak, M.; Kammoun, E. S.

    2018-04-01

    Type-1 radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN) are seen from the polar direction and offer a direct view of their central X-ray engine. If most of X-ray photons have traveled from the primary source to the observer with minimum light-matter interaction, a fraction of radiation is emitted at different directions and is reprocessed by the parsec-scale equatorial circumnuclear region or the polar outflows. It is still unclear how much the polarization expected from type-1 AGN is affected by radiation that have scattered on the distant AGN components. In this paper, we examine the contribution of remote material onto the polarized X-ray spectrum of type-1 Seyfert galaxies using radiative transfer Monte Carlo codes. We find that the observed X-ray polarization strongly depends on the initial polarization emerging from the disk-corona system. For unpolarized and parallelly polarized photons (parallel to the disk), the contribution is negligible below 3 keV and tends to increase the polarization degree by up to one percentage points at higher energies, smoothing out the energy-dependent variations of the polarization angle. For perpendicularly polarized corona photons, the addition of the circumnuclear scattered (parallel) component adds to the polarization above 10keV, decreases polarization below 10 keV and shifts the expected 90° rotation of the polarization angle to lower energies. In conclusion, we found that simulations of Seyfert-1s that do not account for reprocessing on the parsec-scale equatorial and polar material are under- or over-estimating the X-ray polarization by 0.1 - 1 percentage points.

  20. Time-Scale Invariant Audio Data Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mohamed F

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel algorithm for high-quality data embedding in audio. The algorithm is based on changing the relative length of the middle segment between two successive maximum and minimum peaks to embed data. Spline interpolation is used to change the lengths. To ensure smooth monotonic behavior between peaks, a hybrid orthogonal and nonorthogonal wavelet decomposition is used prior to data embedding. The possible data embedding rates are between 20 and 30 bps. However, for practical purposes, we use repetition codes, and the effective embedding data rate is around 5 bps. The algorithm is invariant after time-scale modification, time shift, and time cropping. It gives high-quality output and is robust to mp3 compression.

  1. Inversion of time-domain induced polarization data based on time-lapse concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bitnarae; Nam, Myung Jin; Kim, Hee Joon

    2018-05-01

    Induced polarization (IP) surveys, measuring overvoltage phenomena of the medium, are widely and increasingly performed not only for exploration of mineral resources but also for engineering applications. Among several IP survey methods such as time-domain, frequency-domain and spectral IP surveys, this study introduces a noble inversion method for time-domain IP data to recover the chargeability structure of target medium. The inversion method employs the concept of 4D inversion of time-lapse resistivity data sets, considering the fact that measured voltage in time-domain IP survey is distorted by IP effects to increase from the instantaneous voltage measured at the moment the source current injection starts. Even though the increase is saturated very fast, we can consider the saturated and instantaneous voltages as a time-lapse data set. The 4D inversion method is one of the most powerful method for inverting time-lapse resistivity data sets. Using the developed IP inversion algorithm, we invert not only synthetic but also field IP data to show the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing the recovered chargeability models with those from linear inversion that was used for the inversion of the field data in a previous study. Numerical results confirm that the proposed inversion method generates reliable chargeability models even though the anomalous bodies have large IP effects.

  2. Large-Scale Structure and Dynamics of the Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. B. H.; Nishitani, N.; Kunduri, B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Sazykin, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) is a narrow channel of high-speed westward ionospheric convection which appears equatorward of the duskside auroral oval during geomagnetically active periods. SAPS is generally thought to occur when the partial ring current intensifies and enhanced region-2 field-aligned currents (FACs) are forced to close across the low conductance region of the mid-latitude ionospheric trough. However, recent studies have suggested SAPS can also occur during non-storm periods, perhaps associated with substorm activity. In this study, we used measurements from mid-latitude SuperDARN radars to examine the large-scale structure and dynamics of SAPS during several geomagnetically active days. Linear correlation analysis applied across all events suggests intensifications of the partial ring current (ASYM-H index) and auroral activity (AL index) are both important driving influences for controlling the SAPS speed. Specifically, SAPS flows increase, on average, by 20-40 m/s per 10 nT of ASYM-H and 10-30 m/s per 100 nT of AL. These dependencies tend to be stronger during the storm recovery phase. There is also a strong local time dependence such that the strength of SAPS flows decrease by 70-80 m/s for each hour of local time moving from dusk to midnight. By contrast, the evidence for direct solar wind control of SAPS speed is much less consistent, with some storms showing strong correlations with the interplanetary electric field components and/or solar wind dynamic pressure, while others do not. These results are discussed in the context of recent simulation results from the Rice Convection Model (RCM).

  3. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate.

  4. EDITORIAL: Special issue on time scale algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakis, Demetrios; Tavella, Patrizia

    2008-12-01

    This special issue of Metrologia presents selected papers from the Fifth International Time Scale Algorithm Symposium (VITSAS), including some of the tutorials presented on the first day. The symposium was attended by 76 persons, from every continent except Antarctica, by students as well as senior scientists, and hosted by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) in San Fernando, Spain, whose staff further enhanced their nation's high reputation for hospitality. Although a timescale can be simply defined as a weighted average of clocks, whose purpose is to measure time better than any individual clock, timescale theory has long been and continues to be a vibrant field of research that has both followed and helped to create advances in the art of timekeeping. There is no perfect timescale algorithm, because every one embodies a compromise involving user needs. Some users wish to generate a constant frequency, perhaps not necessarily one that is well-defined with respect to the definition of a second. Other users might want a clock which is as close to UTC or a particular reference clock as possible, or perhaps wish to minimize the maximum variation from that standard. In contrast to the steered timescales that would be required by those users, other users may need free-running timescales, which are independent of external information. While no algorithm can meet all these needs, every algorithm can benefit from some form of tuning. The optimal tuning, and even the optimal algorithm, can depend on the noise characteristics of the frequency standards, or of their comparison systems, the most precise and accurate of which are currently Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) and GPS carrier phase time transfer. The interest in time scale algorithms and its associated statistical methodology began around 40 years ago when the Allan variance appeared and when the metrological institutions started realizing ensemble atomic time using more than

  5. Polar night vortex breakdown and large-scale stirring in the southern stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Alvaro de la [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geofisica y Meteorologia, Madrid (Spain); University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mechoso, C.R. [University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ide, K. [University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, Collage Park, MD (United States); Walterscheid, R. [The Aerospace Corporation, Space Sciences Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schubert, G. [University of California, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The present paper examines the vortex breakdown and large-scale stirring during the final warming of the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere during the spring of 2005. A unique set of in situ observations collected by 27 superpressure balloons (SPBs) is used. The balloons, which were launched from McMurdo, Antarctica, by the Strateole/VORCORE project, drifted for several weeks on two different isopycnic levels in the lower stratosphere. We describe balloon trajectories and compare them with simulations obtained on the basis of the velocity field from the GEOS-5 and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses performed with and without VORCORE data. To gain insight on the mechanisms responsible for the horizontal transport of air inside and outside the well-isolated vortex we examine the balloon trajectories in the framework of the Lagrangian properties of the stratospheric flow. Coherent structures of the flow are visualized by computing finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE). A combination of isentropic analysis and FTLE distributions reveals that air is stripped away from the vortex's interior as stable manifolds eventually cross the vortex's edge. It is shown that two SPBs escaped from the vortex within high potential vorticity tongues that developed in association with wave breaking at locations along the vortex's edge where forward and backward FTLE maxima approximately intersect. The trajectories of three SPBs flying as a group at the same isopycnic level are examined and their behavior is interpreted in reference to the FTLE field. These results support the concept of stable and unstable manifolds governing transport of air masses across the periphery of the stratospheric polar vortex. (orig.)

  6. Radiation self-polarization of electrons moving in a magnetic field. [Vector spin operator, relaxation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V G; Dorofeev, O F; Sokolov, A A; Ternov, I M; Khalilov, V R [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-03-11

    When electrons move in a magnetic field, synchrotron radiation gives rise to transitions accompanied by the electron spin reorientation. In this case, it is essential that the transition probability depends on the spin orientation; as a result electron polarization takes place with the spin orientation being predominantly opposite to the direction of the magnetic field. This effect has been called ''radiative self-polarization of electrons''. The present work is concerned with the question how the choice of the spin operator will affect the self-polarization degree and relaxation time. The problem has been solved for a vector spin operator.

  7. Time-reversal asymmetry: polarization and analyzing power in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rioux, C.; Roy, R.; Slobodrian, R.J.; Conzett, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of the proton polarization in the reactions 7 Li( 3 He, p vector) 9 Be and 9 Be( 3 He, p vector) 11 B and of the analyzing powers in the inverse reactions, initiated by polarized protons at the same center-of-mass energies, show significant differences. This implies the failure of the polarization-analyzing-power theorem and, prima facie, of time-reversal invariance in these reactions. The reaction 2 H( 3 He, p vector) 4 He and its inverse have also been investigated and show smaller differences. A discussion of instrumental asymmetries is presented

  8. A coherent polarimeter array for the Large Scale Polarization Explorer balloon experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bersanelli, M.; Mennella, A.; Morgante, G.; Zannoni, M.; Addamo, G.; Baschirotto, A.; Battaglia, P.; Baù, A.; Cappellini, B.; Cavaliere, F.; Cuttaia, F.; Del Torto, F.; Donzelli, S.; Farooqui, Z.; Frailis, M.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the design and expected performance of STRIP (STRatospheric Italian Polarimeter), an array of coherent receivers designed to fly on board the LSPE (Large Scale Polarization Explorer) balloon experiment. The STRIP focal plane array comprises 49 elements in Q band and 7 elements in W-band using cryogenic HEMT low noise amplifiers and high performance waveguide components. In operation, the array will be cooled to 20 K and placed in the focal plane of a $\\sim 0.6$ meter telescope prov...

  9. Electron scattering times in ZnO based polar heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falson, J., E-mail: j.falson@fkf.mpg.de [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kozuka, Y. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Smet, J. H. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Arima, T. [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Tsukazaki, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Kawasaki, M. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-08-24

    The remarkable historic advances experienced in condensed matter physics have been enabled through the continued exploration and proliferation of increasingly richer and cleaner material systems. In this work, we report on the scattering times of charge carriers confined in state-of-the-art MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures displaying electron mobilities in excess of 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/V s. Through an examination of low field quantum oscillations, we obtain the effective mass of charge carriers, along with the transport and quantum scattering times. These times compare favorably with high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures, suggesting the quality of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures now rivals that of traditional semiconductors.

  10. Concerning tests of time-reversal invariance via the polarization-analyzing power equality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzett, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Previous tests of time-reversal invariance via comparisons of polarizations and analyzing powers in nuclear scattering have been examined. It is found that all of these comparisons fail as adequate tests of time-reversal invariance either because of a lack of experimental precision or the lack of sensitivity to any time-reversal symmetry violation

  11. Modeling polar cap F-region patches using time varying convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, J.J.; Bowline, M.D.; Schunk, R.W.; Decker, D.T.; Valladares, C.E.; Sheehan, R.; Anderson, D.N.; Heelis, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Here the authors present the results of computerized simulations of the polar cap regions which were able to model the formation of polar cap patches. They used the Utah State University Time-Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) and the Phillips Laboratory (PL) F-region models in this work. By allowing a time varying magnetospheric electric field in the models, they were able to generate the patches. This time varying field generates a convection in the ionosphere. This convection is similar to convective changes observed in the ionosphere at times of southward pointing interplanetary magnetic field, due to changes in the B y component of the IMF

  12. PolarPortal.org Communicates Real-Time Developments in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, P. L.; Andersen, S. B.; Andersen, K. K.; Andersen, M. L.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; van As, D.; Barletta, V. R.; Box, J. E.; Citterio, M.; Colgan, W. T.; Dybkjær, G.; Forsberg, R.; Høyer, J. L.; Jensen, M. B.; Kliem, N.; Mottram, R.; Nielsen, K. P.; Olesen, M.; Quaglia, F. C.; Rasmussen, T. A.; Rodehacke, C. B.; Stendel, M.; Sandberg Sørensen, L.; Tonboe, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    PolarPortal.org was launched in June 2013 by a consortium of Danish institutions, including the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the National Space Institute at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU-Space). Polar Portal is a single web portal presenting a wide range of near real-time information on both the Greenland ice sheet and Arctic sea-ice in a format geared for non-specialists. Polar Portal aims to meet widespread public interest in a diverse range of climate-cryosphere processes in the Arctic: What is the present Greenland ice sheet contribution to sea level rise? How quickly are outlet glaciers retreating or advancing right now? How extensive is Arctic sea-ice or how warm is the Arctic Ocean at this moment? Although public interest in such topics is widely acknowledged, an important primary task for the scientists behind Polar Portal was collaborating with media specialists to establish the knowledge range of the general public on these topics, in order for Polar Portal to appropriately present useful climate-cryosphere information. Consequently, Polar Portal is designed in a highly visual exploratory format, where individual data products are accompanied by plain written summaries, with hyperlinks to relevant journal papers for more scrutinizing users. Numerous satellite and in situ observations, together with model output, are channeled daily into the Greenland ice sheet and Arctic sea-ice divisions of Polar Portal.

  13. Time-dependent polar distribution of outgassing from a spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    A technique has been developed to obtain a characterization of the self-generated environment of a spacecraft and its variation with time, angular position, and distance. The density, pressure, outgassing flux, total weight loss, and other important parameters were obtained from data provided by two mass measuring crystal microbalances, mounted back to back, at distance of 1 m from the spacecraft equivalent surface. A major outgassing source existed at an angular position of 300 deg to 340 deg, near the rocket motor, while the weakest source was at the antennas. The strongest source appeared to be caused by a material diffusion process which produced a directional density at 1 m distance of about 1.6 x 10 to the 11th power molecules/cu cm after 1 hr in vacuum and decayed to 1.6 x 10 to the 9th power molecules/cu cm after 200 hr. The total average outgassing flux at the same distance and during the same time span changed from 1.2 x 10 to the minus 7th power to 1.4 x to the minus 10th power g/sq cm/s. These values are three times as large at the spacecraft surface. Total weight loss was 537 g after 10 hr and about 833 g after 200 hr. Self-contamination of the spacecraft was equivalent to that in orbit at about 300-km altitude.

  14. Large-scale irregularities of the winter polar topside ionosphere according to data from Swarm satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianova, R. Yu.; Bogoutdinov, Sh. R.

    2017-11-01

    An analysis of the electron density measurements ( Ne) along the flyby trajectories over the high-latitude region of the Northern Hemisphere under winter conditions in 2014 and 2016 has shown that the main large-scale structure observed by Swarm satellites is the tongue of ionization (TOI). At the maximum of the solar cycle ( F 10.7 = 160), the average value of Ne in the TOI region at an altitude of 500 km was 8 × 104 cm-3. Two years later, at F 10.7 = 100, Ne 5 × 104 cm-3 and Ne 2.5 × 104 cm-3 were observed at altitudes of 470 and 530 km, respectively. During the dominance of the azimuthal component of the interplanetary magnetic field, the TOI has been observed mainly on the dawn or dusk side depending on the sign of B y . Simultaneous observations of the convective plasma drift velocity in the polar cap show the transpolar flow drift to the dawn ( B y y generation of large-scale irregularities in the polar ionosphere.

  15. Temperature Trends in the Polar Mesosphere between 2002-2007 using TIMED/SABER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Kutepov, Alexander A.; Pesnell, William Dean; Latteck, Ralph; Russell, James M.

    2008-01-01

    The TIMED Satellite was launched on December 7, 2001 to study the dynamics and energy of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The TIMED/SABER instrument is a limb scanning infrared radiometer designed to measure a large number of minor constituents as well as the temperature of the region. In this study, we have concentrated on the polar mesosphere, to investigate the temperature characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal considerations. We used the recently revised SABER dataset (1.07) that contains improved temperature retrievals in the Earth polar summer regions. Weekly averages are used to make comparisons between the winter and summer, as well as to study the variability in different quadrants of each hemisphere. For each year studied, the duration of polar summer based on temperature measurements compares favorably with the PMSE (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes) season measured by radar at the ALOMAR Observatory in Norway (69 N). The PMSE period should also define the summer period suitable for the occurrence of polar mesospheric clouds. The unusual short and relatively warm polar summer in the northern hemisphere

  16. Dramatic change of the recurrence time and outburst parameters of the intermediate polar GK Persei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, V.

    2002-02-01

    This analysis has shown that the intermediate polar GK Per experienced a very striking evolution. Its outbursts became wider and brighter in the last five decades. These changes were accompanied by striking variations of the recurrence time T_C, from 385 days within the years 1948-1967 to 890 days in 1970. Nowadays, T_C displays a strong trend of linear increase. Decrease of irradiation of the disk by the WD, combined with the decrease of viscosity, offers a plausible explanation. It is argued that variations of the mass transfer rate are unlikely to play a major role. The morphology of the outburst light curves in the optical and the X-ray region is also studied. The decay branch in the optical remains remarkably similar for all the events while the largest changes of the light curve occur in the rising branch. This can be explained if the thermal instability may start at different distances from the disk center. The quiescent level of brightness does not display any secular trend in recent decades but a wave on the time scale of about 30 years with the full amplitude of 0.3 m_v, probably due to activity of the cool star, is detected. This research has made use of the AFOEV database, operated at CDS, France, and the observations provided by the ASM/RXTE team.

  17. Implementing a combined polar-geostationary algorithm for smoke emissions estimation in near real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, E. J.; Schmidt, C. C.; Hoffman, J.; Giglio, L.; Peterson, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Polar and geostationary satellites are used operationally for fire detection and smoke source estimation by many near-real-time operational users, including operational forecast centers around the globe. The input satellite radiance data are processed by data providers to produce Level-2 and Level -3 fire detection products, but processing these data into spatially and temporally consistent estimates of fire activity requires a substantial amount of additional processing. The most significant processing steps are correction for variable coverage of the satellite observations, and correction for conditions that affect the detection efficiency of the satellite sensors. We describe a system developed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) that uses the full raster information from the entire constellation to diagnose detection opportunities, calculate corrections for factors such as angular dependence of detection efficiency, and generate global estimates of fire activity at spatial and temporal scales suitable for atmospheric modeling. By incorporating these improved fire observations, smoke emissions products, such as NRL's FLAMBE, are able to produce improved estimates of global emissions. This talk provides an overview of the system, demonstrates the achievable improvement over older methods, and describes challenges for near-real-time implementation.

  18. Plasma polarization spectroscopy. Time resolved spectroscopy in soft x-ray region on recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Hasuo, Masahiro; Atake, Makoto; Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental study of polarization of emission radiations from recombining plasmas generated by the interaction of 60 fs ultra-short laser pulses with a gas jet. Time-resolved spectroscopy with a temporal resolution of 5 ps with repetitive accumulation is used to follow the recombination time histories. (author)

  19. Experimental Demonstration of OCDMA Transmission Using a Three-Dimensional (Time-Wavelength-Polarization) Codeset

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeehan, John E.; Motaghian Nezam, S. M. R.; Saghari, P.; Willner, Alan E.; Omrani, Reza; Vijay Kumar, P.

    2005-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a three-dimensional (3-D) optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) transmission system that encodes data on time, wavelength, and polarization. Such a system may be ideal for use in short-distance optical local area networks (LANs), where polarization states remain fairly stable. This type of coding can increase the number of potential users, by a factor of approximately 2kappa, over a conventional two-dimensional (2-D) code given the same code constraints, where"kappa"is the number of collisions the codeset will allow. We encode 1-Gbit/s, 11-Gchip/s data with an 11-chip, 4-wavelength, weight-4 (per polarization) code using free-space and fiber delay lines and polarization beam combiners and decode using a polarization beam splitter, wavelength demultiplexers, and additional fiber/free-space delays. After threshold detection using independent detectors for each polarization state, we obtain 1-Gbit/s nonreturn to zero (NRZ) output data. Encoding, transmission decoding, and detection carry a penalty of 1.8 dB.

  20. Almost Automorphic Functions on the Quantum Time Scale and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We first propose two types of concepts of almost automorphic functions on the quantum time scale. Secondly, we study some basic properties of almost automorphic functions on the quantum time scale. Then, we introduce a transformation between functions defined on the quantum time scale and functions defined on the set of generalized integer numbers; by using this transformation we give equivalent definitions of almost automorphic functions on the quantum time scale; following the idea of the transformation, we also give a concept of almost automorphic functions on more general time scales that can unify the concepts of almost automorphic functions on almost periodic time scales and on the quantum time scale. Finally, as an application of our results, we establish the existence of almost automorphic solutions of linear and semilinear dynamic equations on the quantum time scale.

  1. Real-Time Observation of Carbon Nanotube Etching Process Using Polarized Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiuchen; Yao, Fengrui; Wang, Zequn; Deng, Shibin; Tong, Lianming; Liu, Kaihui; Zhang, Jin

    2017-08-01

    Controllable synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is of great importance in its further application, which attracts broad attention. As growth and etching are the two sides in the process of material crystallography and the control of the competition between them forms the foundation for modern technology of materials design and manufacture, the understanding on etching process of carbon nanotubes is still very unclear because technically it is of great challenge to characterize the dynamics in such small one-dimensional (1D) scale. Here the real-time investigation on the etching process of CNTs is reported, by the hot-wall chemical reactor equipped with a polarized optical microscope. It is discovered that the CNT etching behavior in air is totally of random, including the etching sites, termination sites, and structure dependence. Combining with the dynamic simulation, it is revealed that the random behavior reflects the unique "self-termination" phenomenon. A structure-independent etching propagation barrier of 2.4 eV is also obtained, which indicates that the etching propagation process still follows the conventional Kinetic Wulff construction theory. The results represent the new knowledge on the etching process in carbon nanotube and can contribute to its selective enrichment. Furthermore, the "self-termination" phenomenon may be a universal behavior in 1D process. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Scaling of the polarization amplitude in quantum many-body systems in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryohei; Nakagawa, Yuya O.; Fukusumi, Yoshiki; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2018-04-01

    Resta proposed a definition of the electric polarization in one-dimensional systems in terms of the ground-state expectation value of the large gauge transformation operator. Vanishing of the expectation value in the thermodynamic limit implies that the system is a conductor. We study Resta's polarization amplitude (expectation value) in the S =1 /2 XXZ chain and its several generalizations, in the gapless conducting Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid phase. We obtain an analytical expression in the lowest-order perturbation theory about the free fermion point (XY chain) and an exact result for the Haldane-Shastry model with long-range interactions. We also obtain numerical results, mostly using the exact diagonalization method. We find that the amplitude exhibits a power-law scaling in the system size (chain length) and vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. On the other hand, the exponent depends on the model even when the low-energy limit is described by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with the same Luttinger parameter. We find that a change in the exponent occurs when the Umklapp term(s) are eliminated, suggesting the importance of the Umklapp terms.

  3. Spider: Probing the Early Universe with a Large-Scale CMB Polarization Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William

    The standard dark-matter and dark-energy dominated cosmological model (LCDM) has proven to be remarkably successful in describing the current state and past evolution of the Universe. However, there remain significant uncertainties regarding the physical mechanisms that established the initial conditions upon which the LCDM predictions rely. Theories of cosmic genesis - the extremely high energy mechanisms that established these conditions - should be expected to provide a natural description of the nearly flat geometry of the Universe, the existence of super-horizon density correlations, and the adiabatic, Gaussian and nearly scale-invariant nature of the observed primordial density perturbations. The primary objective of Spider is to subject models of the early Universe to observational test, probing fundamental physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of terrestrial particle accelerators. The main scientific result will be to characterize, or place stringent upper limits on the level of the odd-parity polarization of the CMB. In the context of the inflationary paradigm, Spider will confirm or exclude the predictions of the simplest single-field inflationary models near the Lyth bound, characterized by tensor to scalar ratios r 0.03. While viable alternatives to the inflationary paradigm are an active and important area of investigation, including string cosmologies and cyclic models, early Universe models described by inflationary periods are now widely accepted as the underlying cause behind much of what we observe in cosmology today. Nevertheless, we know very little about the mechanism that would drive inflation or the energy scale at which it occurred, and the paradigm faces significant questions about the viability of the framework as a scientific theory. Fortunately, inflationary paradigms and alternative theories offer distinct predictions regarding the statistical properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Spider will use measurements

  4. Characteristics of official and experimental GRACE time series by GFZ and CSR - with applications to polar signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Alexander; Horwath, Martin; Pail, Roland

    2014-05-01

    The Release-05 monthly solutions by the three centers of the GRACE Science and Data System are a significant improvement with respect to the previous Release 4. Meanwhile, previous assessments have revealed different noise levels between the solutions by CSR, GFZ and JPL, and also different amplitudes of interannual signal in the solutions by GFZ as compared to the two other centers. Encouraged by the science community, GFZ and CSR have kindly provided additional sets of time series. GFZ has reprocessed the RL05 monthly solutions (up to degree and order 90) with revised processing. CSR has made available monthly solutions with standard processing up to degree and order 96, in addition to their solutions up to degree and order 60. We compare these different time series with respect to their signal and noise content and analyze them on global and regional scale. For the regional scale our special interest is paid on Antarctica and on revealing polar signals such as ice mass trends and GIA. Following the necessity of destriping, an optimal choice for the setup of the Swenson & Wahr filter approach is evaluated to adapt to the specific signal and noise level in Antarctica. Furthermore we analyze the potential benefit of mixed time series solutions in order to combine the strengths of the solutions available. Concerning the question for an optimal maximum degree we suggest that for resolving large polar ice mass changes, it would be beneficial to provide gravity field variations even beyond degree 90.

  5. 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM received by polarization-insensitive time-domain OFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated the generation of a 320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM signal by rectangular filtering on an RZ-OTDM signal with the filter bandwidth (320 GHz) equal to the baud rate (320 Gbaud) and the reception of such a Nyquist-OTDM signal using polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier tra...

  6. Search for Time Reversal Violation in Neutron Decay: A Measurement of the Transverse Polarization of Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, K.; Kaczmarek, A.; Kistryn, St.; Kuzniak, M.; Zejma, J.; Pulut, J.; Kirch, K.; Bialek, A.; Kozela, A.; Ban, G.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Gorel, P.; Beck, M.; Lindroth, A.; Severijns, N.; Stephan, E.; Czarnecki, A.

    2006-01-01

    A non-zero value of the R-correlation coefficient due to the e - polarization component, perpendicular to the plane spanned by the spin of the decaying neutron and the electron momentum, would signal a violation of time reversal symmetry and thus physics beyond the Standard Model. The value of the N-correlation coefficient, given by the transverse e - polarization component within that plane, is expected to be finite. The measurement of N serves as an important systematic check of the apparatus for the R-measurement. The first phase of data taking has been completed. Preliminary results from a limited data sample show no deviations from the Standard Model predictions

  7. Layered and Laterally Constrained 2D Inversion of Time Domain Induced Polarization Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Ramm, James; Auken, Esben

    description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function allowing for a quantitative interpretation of the parameters. The code has been optimized for parallel computation and the inversion time is comparable to codes inverting just for direct current resistivity. The new inversion......In a sedimentary environment, quasi-layered models often represent the actual geology more accurately than smooth minimum-structure models. We have developed a new layered and laterally constrained inversion algorithm for time domain induced polarization data. The algorithm is based on the time...... transform of a complex resistivity forward response and the inversion extracts the spectral information of the time domain measures in terms of the Cole-Cole parameters. The developed forward code and inversion algorithm use the full time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate...

  8. Test of parity and time reversal invariance with low energy polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaike, Akira

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of helicity asymmetries in slow neutron reactions on nuclei have been performed by transmission and capture γ-ray detection. Large enhancements of parity-violation effects have been observed on p-wave resonances of various medium and heavy nuclei. The weak matrix elements in hadron reactions have been deduced from these experimental results. Neutron spin precession near the p-wave resonance has been measured. In recent years violation of time reversal invariance is being searched for in the neutron reactions in which large enhancements of the parity violation effects have been observed. The measurement of the term σ n ·(k n x I) in a neutron reaction using polarized neutrons and a polarized target is an example of the test of T-violation. Polarizations of the neutron and lanthanum nucleus for these experiments are also presented. (author)

  9. Recognition of primary and diagenetic magnetizations to determine the magnetic polarity record and timing of deposition of the moat-fill rocks of the Oligocene Creede Caldera, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Robert, Andrew P.; Verosub, Kenneth L.

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks of the Oligocene Creede Formation fill the moat of the Creede caldera, which formed at about 26.9 Ma during the eruption of the Snowshoe Mountain Tuff. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies of two cores (418 and 703 m long) that penetrated the lower half of the Creede Formation, in addition to paleomagnetic and isotopic dating studies of stratigraphically bracketing volcanic units, provide information on the age and the time span of sedimentation of the caldera fill. Normal polarity magnetization are found in Snowshoe Mountain Tuff beneath the moat sediments; in detrital-magnetite-bearing graded tuffs near the bottom of the moat fill; in an ash-fall deposit about 200 m stratigraphically about the top of core 2; and in postcaldera lava flows of the Fisher Dacite that overlie the Creede Formation. Normal polarity also characterizes detrital-magnetite-bearing tuff and sandstone unites within the caldera moat rocks that did not undergo severe sulfidic alteration. The combination of initially low magnitude of remanent magnetization and the destructive effects of subsequent diagenetic sulfidization on detrital iron oxides results in a poor paleomagnetic record for the fine-grained sedimentary rocks of the Creede Formation. these fine-grained rocks have either normal or revered polarity magnetizations that are carried by magnetite and/or maghemite. Many more apparent reversals are found that can be accommodated by any geomagnetic polarity time scale over the interval spanned by the ages of the bracketing extrusive rocks. Moreover, opposite polarity magnetization are found in specimens separated by only a few centimeters, without intervening hiatuses, and by specimens in several tuff beds, each of which represents a single depositional event. These polarity changes cannot, therefore, be attributed to detrital remanent magnetization. Many polarity changes are apparently related to chemical remanent magnetizations carried by

  10. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in degree of linear polarization polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Hu, Haofeng; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie

    2016-04-04

    We consider the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) polarimetry system, which performs two intensity measurements at orthogonal polarization states to estimate DOLP. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the DOLP estimator depends on the distribution of integration time for two intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time in an approximate way by employing Delta method and Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analyses and real-world experiments, it is shown that the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased for any value of DOLP. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improve the measurement accuracy of the polarimetry system.

  11. Time-dependent theoretical model of the polar wind: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombosi, T.I.; Cravens, T.E.; Nagy, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The coupled time dependent continuity, momentum and energy equations of a two ion (O + and H + ) quasineutral plasma were solved in order to extend our understanding of polar wind behavior. This numerical code allows studies of the time dependent behavior of polar wind-type flows into and out of the ionosphere. Initial studies indicate that the typical time constants for electron and ion temperature changes are of the order of minutes and tens of minutes, respectively. The response time of the minor high altitude ion O + is less than an hour, whereas that of the major ion, H + , is many hours. The initial test runs also demonstrate the fact that temporary supersonic flows of both O + and H + are possible, especially in the presence of significant ion heating

  12. Intense field stabilization in circular polarization: Three-dimensional time-dependent dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dae-Il; Chism, Will

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the stabilization of hydrogen atoms in a circularly polarized laser field. We use a three-dimensional, time-dependent approach to study the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms subject to high-intensity, short-wavelength, laser pulses. We find an enhanced survival probability as the field is increased under fixed envelope conditions. We also confirm wave packet behaviors previously seen in two-dimensional time-dependent computations

  13. Speed scaling for weighted flow time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Pruhs, K.R.; Stein, C.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the traditional goal of efficiently managing time and space, many computers now need to efficiently manage power usage. For example, Intel's SpeedStep and AMD's PowerNOW technologies allow the Windows XP operating system to dynamically change the speed of the processor to prolong

  14. Long-time data storage: relevant time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic processes relevant for long-time storage of information about human kind are discussed, ranging from biological and geological processes to the lifecycle of stars and the expansion of the universe. Major results are that life will end ultimately and the remaining time that the earth is

  15. Time scale of random sequential adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Radek; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    A simple multiscale approach to the diffusion-driven adsorption from a solution to a solid surface is presented. The model combines two important features of the adsorption process: (i) The kinetics of the chemical reaction between adsorbing molecules and the surface and (ii) geometrical constraints on the surface made by molecules which are already adsorbed. The process (i) is modeled in a diffusion-driven context, i.e., the conditional probability of adsorbing a molecule provided that the molecule hits the surface is related to the macroscopic surface reaction rate. The geometrical constraint (ii) is modeled using random sequential adsorption (RSA), which is the sequential addition of molecules at random positions on a surface; one attempt to attach a molecule is made per one RSA simulation time step. By coupling RSA with the diffusion of molecules in the solution above the surface the RSA simulation time step is related to the real physical time. The method is illustrated on a model of chemisorption of reactive polymers to a virus surface.

  16. Nuclear disassembly time scales using space time correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, D.; Colin, J.; Lecolley, J.F.; Meslin, C.; Aboufirassi, M.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Bilwes, B.; Cosmo, F. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France); Galin, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); and others

    1996-09-01

    The lifetime, {tau}, with respect to multifragmentation of highly excited nuclei is deduced from the analysis of strongly damped Pb+Au collisions at 29 MeV/u. The method is based on the study of space-time correlations induced by `proximity` effects between fragments emitted by the two primary products of the reaction and gives the time between the re-separation of the two primary products and the subsequent multifragment decay of one partner. (author). 2 refs.

  17. Nuclear disassembly time scales using space time correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.; Colin, J.; Lecolley, J.F.; Meslin, C.; Aboufirassi, M.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Galin, J.; and others.

    1996-01-01

    The lifetime, τ, with respect to multifragmentation of highly excited nuclei is deduced from the analysis of strongly damped Pb+Au collisions at 29 MeV/u. The method is based on the study of space-time correlations induced by 'proximity' effects between fragments emitted by the two primary products of the reaction and gives the time between the re-separation of the two primary products and the subsequent multifragment decay of one partner. (author)

  18. Responses of seabirds, in particular prions (Pachyptila sp.), to small-scale processes in the Antarctic Polar Front

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Brink, van den N.W.; Bathmann, U.V.; Pollard, R.T.; Baar, de H.J.W.; Wolff, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Small-scale distribution patterns of seabirds in the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) were investigated in relation to other biological, physical, and chemical features during the ANT-XIII/2 research cruise of R.V. Polarstern from December 1995 to January 1996. The APF is characterized by steep gradients

  19. Relaxation Processes and Time Scale Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    the response function may be immediately recognized as being 14 of the Kubo - Green type in the classical regime. Given this general framework, it is now...b as a function of temperature is 24 equivalent to the Vogel-Beuche-Fulcher empirical law for viscosity or the Williams-Landel-Ferry empirical law...relaxation times. With the weighted sum in the form of an integral , one can write exp(-(t/T)b ] = f dT’g(r’) exp[-(t/T’)], O

  20. Long-Time Data Storage: Relevant Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miko C. Elwenspoek

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic processes relevant for long-time storage of information about human kind are discussed, ranging from biological and geological processes to the lifecycle of stars and the expansion of the universe. Major results are that life will end ultimately and the remaining time that the earth is habitable for complex life is about half a billion years. A system retrieved within the next million years will be read by beings very closely related to Homo sapiens. During this time the surface of the earth will change making it risky to place a small number of large memory systems on earth; the option to place it on the moon might be more favorable. For much longer timescales both options do not seem feasible because of geological processes on the earth and the flux of small meteorites to the moon.

  1. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden–Popper layered oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden–Popper (RP), An+1BnO3n+1, thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Srn+1TinO3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure. PMID:27578622

  2. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden-Popper layered oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J; Schlom, Darrell G; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-08-31

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), An+1BnO3n+1, thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Srn+1TinO3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure.

  3. MINUTE-SCALE RAPID VARIABILITY OF THE OPTICAL POLARIZATION IN THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY PMN J0948+0022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Ueno, Issei [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kawabata, Koji S.; Moritani, Yuki; Uemura, Makoto; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hanayama, Hidekazu; Miyaji, Takeshi [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 1024-1 Arakawa, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Kawai, Nobuyuki, E-mail: itoh@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    We report on optical photopolarimetric results of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (RL-NLSy1) galaxy PMN J0948+0022 on 2012 December to 2013 February triggered by flux enhancements in the near infrared and γ-ray bands. With the one-shot polarimetry of the Hiroshima One-shot Wide field Polarimeter installed on the Kanata Telescope, we detected very rapid variability in the polarized-flux (PF) light curve on MJD 56281 (2012 December 20). The rise and decay times were about 140 s and 180 s, respectively. The polarization degree (PD) reached 36% ± 3% at the peak of the short-duration pulse, while the polarization angle remained almost constant. In addition, temporal profiles of the total flux and PD showed highly variable but well correlated behavior and discrete correlation function analysis revealed that no significant time lag of more than 10 minutes was present. The high PD and minute-scale variability in PF provides clear evidence of synchrotron radiation from a very compact emission region of ∼10{sup 14} cm size with a highly ordered magnetic field. Such micro-variability of polarization is also observed in several blazar jets, but its complex relation between total flux and PD are explained by a multi-zone model in several blazars. The implied single emission region in PMN J0948+0022 might reflect a difference of jets between RL-NLSy1s and blazars.

  4. Neutron xyz - polarization analysis at a time-of-flight instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Stewart, John Ross [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Andersen, Ken [ESS

    2015-01-01

    When implementing a dedicated polarization analysis setup at a neutron time-of-flight instrument with a large area detector, one faces enormous challenges. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made towards this goal over the last few years. This paper addresses systematic limitations of the traditional method that is used to make these measurements, and a possible strategy to overcome these limitations. This will be important, for diffraction as well as inelastic experiments, where the scattering occurs mostly out-of-plane.

  5. Time reversal in polarized neutron decay: the emiT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G L; Anaya, J M; Bowles, T J; Chupp, T E; Coulter, K P; Dewey, M S; Freedman, S J; Fujikawa, B K; García, A; Greene, G L; Hwang, S R; Lising, L J; Mumm, H P; Nico, J S; Robertson, R G H; Steiger, T D; Teasdale, W A; Thompson, A K; Wasserman, E G; Wietfeldt, F E; Wilkerson, J F

    2000-01-01

    The standard electro-weak model predicts negligible violation of time-reversal invariance in light quark processes. We report on an experimental test of time-reversal invariance in the beta decay of polarized neutrons as a search for physics beyond the standard model. The emiT collaboration has measured the time-reversal-violating triple-correlation in neutron beta decay between the neutron spin, electron momentum, and neutrino momentum often referred to as the D coefficient. The first run of the experiment produced 14 million events which are currently being analyzed. However, a second run with improved detectors should provide greater statistical precision and reduced systematic uncertainties.

  6. Bounds of Certain Dynamic Inequalities on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Pachpatte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study explicit bounds of certain dynamic integral inequalities on time scales. These estimates give the bounds on unknown functions which can be used in studying the qualitative aspects of certain dynamic equations. Using these inequalities we prove the uniqueness of some partial integro-differential equations on time scales.

  7. Temperature dependence of fluctuation time scales in spin glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenning, Gregory G.; Bowen, J.; Sibani, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Using a series of fast cooling protocols we have probed aging effects in the spin glass state as a function of temperature. Analyzing the logarithmic decay found at very long time scales within a simple phenomenological barrier model, leads to the extraction of the fluctuation time scale of the s...

  8. Time scales of supercooled water and implications for reversible polyamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2015-09-01

    Deeply supercooled water exhibits complex dynamics with large density fluctuations, ice coarsening and characteristic time scales extending from picoseconds to milliseconds. Here, we discuss implications of these time scales as they pertain to two-phase coexistence and to molecular simulations of supercooled water. Specifically, we argue that it is possible to discount liquid-liquid criticality because the time scales imply that correlation lengths for such behaviour would be bounded by no more than a few nanometres. Similarly, it is possible to discount two-liquid coexistence because the time scales imply a bounded interfacial free energy that cannot grow in proportion to a macroscopic surface area. From time scales alone, therefore, we see that coexisting domains of differing density in supercooled water can be no more than nanoscale transient fluctuations.

  9. Time scales of tunneling decay of a localized state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Yue; Muga, J. G.; Sherman, E. Ya.; Buettiker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by recent time-domain experiments on ultrafast atom ionization, we analyze the transients and time scales that characterize, aside from the relatively long lifetime, the decay of a localized state by tunneling. While the tunneling starts immediately, some time is required for the outgoing flux to develop. This short-term behavior depends strongly on the initial state. For the initial state, tightly localized so that the initial transients are dominated by over-the-barrier motion, the time scale for flux propagation through the barrier is close to the Buettiker-Landauer traversal time. Then a quasistationary, slow-decay process follows, which sets ideal conditions for observing diffraction in time at longer times and distances. To define operationally a tunneling time at the barrier edge, we extrapolate backward the propagation of the wave packet that escaped from the potential. This extrapolated time is considerably longer than the time scale of the flux and density buildup at the barrier edge.

  10. TIME-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE POLAR EU CANCRI IN THE OPEN CLUSTER MESSIER 67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Howell, Steve B.; Liebert, James; Smith, Paul S.; Bellini, Andrea; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Bolte, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present time-resolved spectroscopic and polarimetric observations of the AM Her system EU Cnc. EU Cnc is located near the core of the old open cluster Messier 67; new proper motion measurements indicate that EU Cnc is indeed a member of the star cluster, and this system therefore is useful to constrain the formation and evolution of magnetic cataclysmic variables. The spectra exhibit two-component emission features with independent radial velocity variations as well as time-variable cyclotron emission indicating a magnetic field strength of 41 MG. The period of the radial velocity and cyclotron hump variations are consistent with the previously known photometric period, and the spectroscopic flux variations are consistent in amplitude with previous photometric amplitude measurements. The secondary star is also detected in the spectrum. We also present polarimetric imaging measurements of EU Cnc that show a clear detection of polarization, and the degree of polarization drops below our detection threshold at phases when the cyclotron emission features are fading or not evident. The combined data are all consistent with the interpretation that EU Cnc is a low-state polar in the cluster Messier 67. The mass function of the system gives an estimate of the accretor mass of M WD ≥ 0.68 M ☉ with M WD ≈ 0.83 M ☉ for an average inclination. We are thus able to place a lower limit on the progenitor mass of the accreting white dwarf of ≥1.43 M ☉ .

  11. The polarized atomic-beam target for the EDDA experiment and the time-reversal invariance test at COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eversheim, P.D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.

    1996-01-01

    For the the EDDA experiment, which was set up to measure the p-vector - p-vector excitation function during the acceleration ramp of the cooler synchrotron COSY at Juelich, a polarized atomic-beam target was designed regarding the restrictions imposed by the geometry of the EDDA detector. Later, when the time-reversal invariance experiment is to be performed, the EDDA detector will serve as efficient internal polarimeter and the source has to deliver tensor polarized deuterons. The modular design of this polarized atomic-beam target that allows to meet these conditions are discussed in comparison to other existing polarized atomic-beam targets. (orig.)

  12. The polarized atomic-beam target for the EDDA experiment and the time-reversal invariance test at COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversheim, P. D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.

    1997-02-01

    For the the EDDA experiment, which was set up to measure the p¯-p¯ excitation function during the acceleration ramp of the cooler synchrotron COSY at Jülich, a polarized atomic-beam target was designed regarding the restrictions imposed by the geometry of the EDDA detector. Later, when the time-reversal invariance experiment is to be performed, the EDDA detector will serve as efficient internal polarimeter and the source has to deliver tensor polarized deuterons. The modular design of this polarized atomic-beam target that allows to meet these conditions will be discussed in comparison to other existing polarized atomic-beam targets.

  13. Bounds on Time Reversal Violation From Polarized Neutron Capture With Unpolarized Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E D; Gould, C R; Mitchell, G E; Sharapov, E I

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed constraints on parity-odd time-reversal noninvariant interactions derived from measurements of the energy dependence of parity-violating polarized neutron capture on unpolarized targets. As previous authors found, a perturbation in energy dependence due to a parity (P)-odd time (T)-odd interaction is present. However, the perturbation competes with T-even terms which can obscure the T-odd signature. We estimate the magnitudes of these competing terms and suggest strategies for a practicable experiment.

  14. Soil moisture memory at sub-monthly time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoll, K. A.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    For soil moisture-climate feedbacks to occur, the soil moisture storage must have `memory' of past atmospheric anomalies. Quantifying soil moisture memory is, therefore, essential for mapping and characterizing land-atmosphere interactions globally. Most previous studies estimate soil moisture memory using metrics based on the autocorrelation function of the soil moisture time series (e.g., the e-folding autocorrelation time scale). This approach was first justified by Delworth and Manabe (1988) on the assumption that monthly soil moisture time series can be modelled as red noise. While this is a reasonable model for monthly soil moisture averages, at sub-monthly scales, the model is insufficient due to the highly non-Gaussian behavior of the precipitation forcing. Recent studies have shown that significant soil moisture-climate feedbacks appear to occur at sub-monthly time scales. Therefore, alternative metrics are required for defining and estimating soil moisture memory at these shorter time scales. In this study, we introduce metrics, based on the positive and negative increments of the soil moisture time series, that can be used to estimate soil moisture memory at sub-monthly time scales. The positive increments metric corresponds to a rapid drainage time scale. The negative increments metric represents a slower drying time scale that is most relevant to the study of land-atmosphere interactions. We show that autocorrelation-based metrics mix the two time scales, confounding physical interpretation. The new metrics are used to estimate soil moisture memory at sub-monthly scales from in-situ and satellite observations of soil moisture. Reference: Delworth, Thomas L., and Syukuro Manabe. "The Influence of Potential Evaporation on the Variabilities of Simulated Soil Wetness and Climate." Journal of Climate 1, no. 5 (May 1, 1988): 523-47. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1988)0012.0.CO;2.

  15. American West Tephras – Geomagnetic polarity events redefined through calibration of radio-isotopic and astronomical time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael

    calibration. Although this geomagnetic event is not part of the most recent geologic timescale, refined ages on short-lived excursions could hold importance to understanding time scales for the wavering nature of Earth’s magnetic field. We propose a new 40Ar/39Ar age for the Quaternary mineral dating standard......The foundation of the EARTHTIME/GTSnext initiative seeks to construct an internally consistent geologic timescale based on astronomical and radio-isotopic geochronology. American west tephras offer a prime opportunity to integrate these two independent timescales with the geomagnetic timescale....... Using an astronomically calibrated age for the monitor mineral Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs;28.201 ± 0.046 Ma, Kuiper, et al., 2008), ages of Pleistocene geomagnetic polarity events are reexamined. Of particular interest, the Quaternary mineral dating standard Alder Creek sandine (ACs) is the type locality...

  16. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale.

  17. The possibilities of using scale-selective polarization cartography in diagnostics of myocardium pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Yu. A.; Wanchuliak, O. Y.

    2013-06-01

    The optical model of polycrystalline networks of myocardium protein fibrils is presented. The technique of determining the coordinate distribution of polarization azimuth of the points of laser images of myocardium histological sections is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order) parameters are presented which characterize distributions of wavelet-coefficients polarization maps of myocardium layers and death reasons.

  18. Spin-Polarized Scanning Tunneling Microscope for Atomic-Scale Studies of Spin Transport, Spin Relaxation, and Magnetism in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-09

    Polarized Scanning Tunneling Microscope for Atomic-Scale Studies of Spin Transport, Spin Relaxation, and Magnetism in Graphene Report Term: 0-Other Email ...Principal: Y Name: Jay A Gupta Email : gupta.208@osu.edu Name: Roland K Kawakami Email : kawakami.15@osu.edu RPPR Final Report as of 13-Nov-2017...studies on films and devices. Optimization of the Cr tip will be the next important step to establish this technique. We are writing up these early

  19. AFSC/ABL: Ugashik sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 b?? 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Ugashik River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and...

  20. AFSC/ABL: Naknek sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Naknek River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game....

  1. An extended Halanay inequality of integral type on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boqun Ou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain a Halanay-type inequality of integral type on time scales which improves and extends some earlier results for both the continuous and discrete cases. Several illustrative examples are also given.

  2. Multiple dynamical time-scales in networks with hierarchically

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modular networks; hierarchical organization; synchronization. ... we show that such a topological structure gives rise to characteristic time-scale separation ... This suggests a possible functional role of such mesoscopic organization principle in ...

  3. Real time polarization sensor image processing on an embedded FPGA/multi-core DSP system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednara, Marcus; Chuchacz-Kowalczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    Most embedded image processing SoCs available on the market are highly optimized for typical consumer applications like video encoding/decoding, motion estimation or several image enhancement processes as used in DSLR or digital video cameras. For non-consumer applications, on the other hand, optimized embedded hardware is rarely available, so often PC based image processing systems are used. We show how a real time capable image processing system for a non-consumer application - namely polarization image data processing - can be efficiently implemented on an FPGA and multi-core DSP based embedded hardware platform.

  4. Real-Time Science Operations to Support a Lunar Polar Volatiles Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Mattes, Greg; Ennico, Kimberly; Fritzler, Erin; Marinova, Margarita M.; McMurray, Robert; Morse, Stephanie; Roush, Ted L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will likely rely on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) to enable long duration lunar missions. Prior to utilizing ISRU on the Moon, the natural resources (in this case lunar volatiles) must be identified and characterized, and ISRU demonstrated on the lunar surface. To enable future uses of ISRU, NASA and the CSA are developing a lunar rover payload that can (1) locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. Such investigations are important both for ISRU purposes and for understanding the scientific nature of these intriguing lunar volatile deposits. Temperature models and orbital data suggest near surface volatile concentrations may exist at briefly lit lunar polar locations outside persistently shadowed regions. A lunar rover could be remotely operated at some of these locations for the approx. 2-14 days of expected sunlight at relatively low cost. Due to the limited operational time available, both science and rover operations decisions must be made in real time, requiring immediate situational awareness, data analysis, and decision support tools. Given these constraints, such a mission requires a new concept of operations. In this paper we outline the results and lessons learned from an analog field campaign in July 2012 which tested operations for a lunar polar rover concept. A rover was operated in the analog environment of Hawaii by an off-site Flight Control Center, a rover navigation center in Canada, a Science Backroom at NASA Ames Research Center in California, and support teams at NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas and NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. We find that this type of mission requires highly efficient, real time, remotely operated rover operations to enable low cost, scientifically relevant exploration of the distribution and nature of lunar polar volatiles. The field

  5. Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

  6. Some New Inequalities of Opial's Type on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Saker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We will prove some new dynamic inequalities of Opial's type on time scales. The results not only extend some results in the literature but also improve some of them. Some continuous and discrete inequalities are derived from the main results as special cases. The results can be applied on the study of distribution of generalized zeros of half-linear dynamic equations on time scales.

  7. Polar Kerr effect studies of time reversal symmetry breaking states in heavy fermion superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemm, E.R., E-mail: eschemm@alumni.stanford.edu [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Levenson-Falk, E.M. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kapitulnik, A. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute of Energy and Materials Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Polar Kerr effect (PKE) probes broken time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in superconductors. • Absence of PKE below Tc in CeCoIn{sub 5} is consistent with dx2-y2 order parameter symmetry. • PKE in the B phase of the multiphase superconductor UPt3 agrees with an E2u model. • Data on URu2Si2 show broken TRS and additional structure in the superconducting state. - Abstract: The connection between chiral superconductivity and topological order has emerged as an active direction in research as more instances of both have been identified in condensed matter systems. With the notable exception of {sup 3}He-B, all of the known or suspected chiral – that is to say time-reversal symmetry-breaking (TRSB) – superfluids arise in heavy fermion superconductors, although the vast majority of heavy fermion superconductors preserve time-reversal symmetry. Here we review recent experimental efforts to identify TRSB states in heavy fermion systems via measurement of polar Kerr effect, which is a direct consequence of TRSB.

  8. Mapping of landfills using time-domain spectral induced polarization data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazoty, Aurélie; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Pedersen, Jesper Bjergsted

    2012-01-01

    This study uses time-domain induced polarization data for the delineation and characterization of the former landfill site at Eskelund, Denmark. With optimized acquisition parameters combined with a new inversion algorithm, we use the full content of the decay curve and retrieve spectral informat......This study uses time-domain induced polarization data for the delineation and characterization of the former landfill site at Eskelund, Denmark. With optimized acquisition parameters combined with a new inversion algorithm, we use the full content of the decay curve and retrieve spectral...... information from time-domain IP data. Thirteen IP/DC profiles were collected in the area, supplemented by el-log drilling for accurate correlation between the geophysics and the lithology. The data were inverted using a laterally constrained 1D inversion considering the full decay curves to retrieve the four......-log measurements giving in situ values, for which the Cole-Cole parameters were computed. The 3D shape of the waste body was pinpointed and well-defined. The inversion of the IP data also shows a strong correlation with the initial stage of the waste dump and its composition combining an aerial map with acquired...

  9. Scale-dependent intrinsic entropies of complex time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jia-Rong; Peng, Chung-Kang; Huang, Norden E

    2016-04-13

    Multi-scale entropy (MSE) was developed as a measure of complexity for complex time series, and it has been applied widely in recent years. The MSE algorithm is based on the assumption that biological systems possess the ability to adapt and function in an ever-changing environment, and these systems need to operate across multiple temporal and spatial scales, such that their complexity is also multi-scale and hierarchical. Here, we present a systematic approach to apply the empirical mode decomposition algorithm, which can detrend time series on various time scales, prior to analysing a signal's complexity by measuring the irregularity of its dynamics on multiple time scales. Simulated time series of fractal Gaussian noise and human heartbeat time series were used to study the performance of this new approach. We show that our method can successfully quantify the fractal properties of the simulated time series and can accurately distinguish modulations in human heartbeat time series in health and disease. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  11. Linear polarization of BY Draconis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.H.; Pfeiffer, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Linear polarization measurements are reported in four bandpasses for the flare star BY Dra. The red polarization is intrinsically variable at a confidence level greater than 99 percent. On a time scale of many months, the variability is not phase-locked to either a rotational or a Keplerian ephemeris. The observations of the three other bandpasses are useful principally to indicate a polarization spectrum rising toward shorter wavelengths

  12. HIGH-TIME-RESOLUTION MEASUREMENTS OF THE POLARIZATION OF THE CRAB PULSAR AT 1.38 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Słowikowska, Agnieszka [Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Lubuska 2, 65-265 Zielona Góra (Poland); Stappers, Benjamin W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Harding, Alice K. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); O' Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Weisskopf, Martin C. [Astrophysics Office, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP12, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Van der Horst, Alexander J. [Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-20

    Using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, we obtained high-time-resolution measurements of the full polarization of the Crab pulsar. At a resolution of 1/8192 of the 34 ms pulse period (i.e., 4.1 μs), the 1.38 GHz linear-polarization measurements are in general agreement with previous lower-time-resolution 1.4 GHz measurements of linear polarization in the main pulse (MP), in the interpulse (IP), and in the low-frequency component (LFC). We find the MP and IP to be linearly polarized at about 24% and 21% with no discernible difference in polarization position angle. However, contrary to theoretical expectations and measurements in the visible, we find no evidence for significant variation (sweep) in the polarization position angle over the MP, the IP, or the LFC. We discuss the implications, which appear to be in contradiction to theoretical expectations. We also detect weak circular polarization in the MP and IP, and strong (≈20%) circular polarization in the LFC, which also exhibits very strong (≈98%) linear polarization at a position angle of 40° from that of the MP or IP. The properties are consistent with the LFC, which is a low-altitude component, and the MP and IP, which are high-altitude caustic components. Current models for the MP and IP emission do not readily account for the absence of pronounced polarization changes across the pulse. We measure IP and LFC pulse phases relative to the MP consistent with recent measurements, which have shown that the phases of these pulse components are evolving with time.

  13. ASTROSAT CZT IMAGER OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 151006A: TIMING, SPECTROSCOPY, AND POLARIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, A. R.; Chand, Vikas; Hingar, M. K.; Iyyani, S.; Khanna, Rakesh; Kutty, A. P. K.; Malkar, J. P.; Paul, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai (India); Bhalerao, V. B.; Bhattacharya, D.; Dewangan, G. C.; Pawar, Pramod; Vibhute, A. M. [Inter University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India); Chattopadhyay, T.; Mithun, N. P. S.; Vadawale, S. V.; Vagshette, N. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India); Basak, R. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Pradeep, P.; Samuel, Essy, E-mail: arrao@tifr.res.in [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India); and others

    2016-12-10

    AstroSat is a multi-wavelength satellite launched on 2015 September 28. The CZT Imager of AstroSat on its very first day of operation detected a long duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), namely GRB 151006A. Using the off-axis imaging and spectral response of the instrument, we demonstrate that the CZT Imager can localize this GRB correctly to about a few degrees, and it can provide, in conjunction with Swift , spectral parameters similar to those obtained from Fermi /GBM. Hence, the CZT Imager would be a useful addition to the currently operating GRB instruments ( Swift and Fermi ). Specifically, we argue that the CZT Imager will be most useful for the short hard GRBs by providing localization for those detected by Fermi and spectral information for those detected only by Swift . We also provide preliminary results on a new exciting capability of this instrument: the CZT Imager is able to identify Compton scattered events thereby providing polarization information for bright GRBs. GRB 151006A, in spite of being relatively faint, shows hints of a polarization signal at 100–300 keV (though at a low significance level). We point out that the CZT Imager should provide significant time resolved polarization measurements for GRBs that have fluence three times higher than that of GRB 151006A. We estimate that the number of such bright GRBs detectable by the CZT Imager is five to six per year. The CZT Imager can also act as a good hard X-ray monitoring device for possible electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events.

  14. Russian national time scale long-term stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshina, A. P.; Gaigerov, B. A.; Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Pushkin, S. B.

    1994-05-01

    The Institute of Metrology for Time and Space NPO 'VNIIFTRI' generates the National Time Scale (NTS) of Russia -- one of the most stable time scales in the world. Its striking feature is that it is based on a free ensemble of H-masers only. During last two years the estimations of NTS longterm stability based only on H-maser intercomparison data gives a flicker floor of about (2 to 3) x 10(exp -15) for averaging times from 1 day to 1 month. Perhaps the most significant feature for a time laboratory is an extremely low possible frequency drift -- it is too difficult to estimate it reliably. The other estimations, free from possible inside the ensemble correlation phenomena, are available based on the time comparison of NTS relative to the stable enough time scale of outer laboratories. The data on NTS comparison relative to the time scale of secondary time and frequency standards at Golitzino and Irkutsk in Russia and relative to NIST, PTB and USNO using GLONASS and GPS time transfer links gives stability estimations which are close to that based on H-maser intercomparisons.

  15. Comparison of Cole-Cole and Constant Phase Angle modeling in time-domain induced polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajaunie, Myriam; Maurya, Pradip Kumar; Fiandaca, Gianluca

    The Cole-Cole model and the constant phase angle (CPA) model are two prevailing phenomenological descriptions of the induced polarization (IP), used for both frequency domain (FD) and time domain (TD) modeling. The former one is a 4-parameter description, while the latest one involves only two......, forward modeling of quadrupolar sequences on 1D and 2D heterogeneous CPA models shows that the CPA decays differ among each other only by a multiplication factor. Consequently, the inspection of field data in log-log plots gives insight on the modeling needed for fitting them: the CPA inversion cannot...... is reflected in TDIP data, and therefore, at identifying (1) if and when it is possible to distinguish, in time domain, between a Cole-Cole description and a CPA one, and (2) if features of time domain data exist in order to know, from a simple data inspection, which model will be the most adapted to the data...

  16. Wind power impacts and electricity storage - a time scale perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Meibom, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Integrating large amounts of wind power in energy systems poses balancing challenges due to the variable and only partly predictable nature of wind. The challenges cover different time scales from intra-hour, intra-day/day-ahead to several days and seasonal level. Along with flexible electricity...... demand options, various electricity storage technologies are being discussed as candidates for contributing to large-scale wind power integration and these also differ in terms of the time scales at which they can operate. In this paper, using the case of Western Denmark in 2025 with an expected 57% wind...... power penetration, wind power impacts on different time scales are analysed. Results show consecutive negative and high net load period lengths indicating a significant potential for flexibility measures capable of charging/activating demand and discharging/inactivating demand in periods of 1 h to one...

  17. Microsecond time-scale kinetics of transient biochemical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitic, S.; Strampraad, M.J.F.; Hagen, W.R.; de Vries, S.

    2017-01-01

    To afford mechanistic studies in enzyme kinetics and protein folding in the microsecond time domain we have developed a continuous-flow microsecond time-scale mixing instrument with an unprecedented dead-time of 3.8 ± 0.3 μs. The instrument employs a micro-mixer with a mixing time of 2.7 μs

  18. Time-Scale and Time-Frequency Analyses of Irregularly Sampled Astronomical Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roques

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the quality of spectral restoration in the case of irregular sampled signals in astronomy. We study in details a time-scale method leading to a global wavelet spectrum comparable to the Fourier period, and a time-frequency matching pursuit allowing us to identify the frequencies and to control the error propagation. In both cases, the signals are first resampled with a linear interpolation. Both results are compared with those obtained using Lomb's periodogram and using the weighted waveletZ-transform developed in astronomy for unevenly sampled variable stars observations. These approaches are applied to simulations and to light variations of four variable stars. This leads to the conclusion that the matching pursuit is more efficient for recovering the spectral contents of a pulsating star, even with a preliminary resampling. In particular, the results are almost independent of the quality of the initial irregular sampling.

  19. Real-time dual-polarization transmission based on hybrid optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Artur N.; Alimi, Isiaka A.; Ferreira, Ricardo M.; Shahpari, Ali; Lima, Mário; Monteiro, Paulo P.; Teixeira, António L.

    2018-01-01

    We present experimental work on a gigabit-capable and long-reach hybrid coherent UWDM-PON plus FSO system for supporting different applications over the same fiber infrastructure in the mobile backhaul (MBH) networks. Also, for the first time, we demonstrate a reconfigurable real-time DSP transmission/reception of DP-QPSK signals over standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) and FSO links. The receiver presented is based on a commercial field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The considered communication links are based on 20 UDWDM channels with 625 Mbaud and 2.5 GHz channel spacing. We are able to demonstrate the lowest sampling rate required for digital coherent PON by employing four 1.25 Gsa/s ADCs using an electrical front-end receiver that offers only 1 GHz analog bandwidth. We achieved this by implementing a phase and polarization diversity coherent receiver combined with the DP-QPSK modulation formats. The system performance is estimated in terms of receiver sensitivity. The results show the viability of coherent PON and flexible dual-polarization supported by software-defined transceivers for the MBH.

  20. Full-scale and time-scale heating experiments at Stripa: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Hood, Michael; California Univ., Berkeley

    1978-01-01

    Two full-scale heating experiments and a time-scale heating experiment have recently been started in granite 340 meters below surface. The purpose of the full-scale heating experiments is to assess the near-field effects of thermal loading for the design of an underground repository of nuclear wastes. That of the time-scale heating experiments is to obtain field data of the interaction between heaters and its effect on the rock mass during a period of about two years, which corresponds to about twenty years of full-scale operation. Geological features of the rock around each experiment have been mapped carefully, and temperatures, stresses and displacements induced in the rock by heating have been calculated in advance of the experiments. Some 800 different measurements are recorded at frequent intervals by a computer system situated underground. These data can be compared at any time with predictions made earlier on video display units underground

  1. Hydrodynamic time scales for intense laser-heated clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Enrique; Alexeev, Ilya; Fan, Jingyun; Kim, Kiong Y.; McNaught, Stuart J.; Milchberg, Howard M.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements are presented of x-ray (>1.5 keV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV, λ equal to 2-44 nm) emission from argon clusters irradiated with constant-energy (50 mJ), variable-width laser pulses ranging from 100 fs to 10 ns. The results for clusters can be understood in terms of two time scales: a short time scale for optimal resonant absorption at the critical-density layer in the expanding plasma, and a longer time scale for the plasma to drop below critical density. We present a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the intense laser-cluster interaction in which the laser field is treated self-consistently. We find that nonuniform expansion of the heated material results in long-time resonance of the laser field at the critical-density plasma layer. These simulations explain the dependence of generation efficiency on laser pulse width

  2. Scaling properties in time-varying networks with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyewon; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-12-01

    The formation of network structure is mainly influenced by an individual node's activity and its memory, where activity can usually be interpreted as the individual inherent property and memory can be represented by the interaction strength between nodes. In our study, we define the activity through the appearance pattern in the time-aggregated network representation, and quantify the memory through the contact pattern of empirical temporal networks. To address the role of activity and memory in epidemics on time-varying networks, we propose temporal-pattern coarsening of activity-driven growing networks with memory. In particular, we focus on the relation between time-scale coarsening and spreading dynamics in the context of dynamic scaling and finite-size scaling. Finally, we discuss the universality issue of spreading dynamics on time-varying networks for various memory-causality tests.

  3. Ignition in net for different energy confinement time scalings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.; Prevot, F.

    1988-06-01

    A zero-dimensional profile dependent model is used to assess the feasibility of ignition in the extended version of NET. Five recent scalings for the energy confinement time (Goldston, Kaye All, Kaye Big, Shimomura-Odajima, Rebut-Lallia) are compared in the frame of two different scenarii, i.e., H-mode with a flat density profile or L-mode with a peaked density profile. For the flat density H-mode case, ignition is accessible with none of the scalings except Rebut-Lallia's. For the peaked density L-mode case, ignition is accessible with none of the scalings except Rebut-Lallia's. For the two Kaye's scalings, ignition is forbidden in H-mode even with the peaked density profile. For the Rebut-Lallia scaling, ignition is allowed in L-mode even with the flat density profile

  4. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  5. Joule heating and spin-transfer torque investigated on the atomic scale using a spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S; Herzog, G; Schlenhoff, A; Sonntag, A; Wiesendanger, R

    2011-10-28

    The influence of a high spin-polarized tunnel current onto the switching behavior of a superparamagnetic nanoisland on a nonmagnetic substrate is investigated by means of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. A detailed lifetime analysis allows for a quantification of the effective temperature rise of the nanoisland and the modification of the activation energy barrier for magnetization reversal, thereby using the nanoisland as a local thermometer and spin-transfer torque analyzer. Both the Joule heating and spin-transfer torque are found to scale linearly with the tunnel current. The results are compared to experiments performed on lithographically fabricated magneto-tunnel junctions, revealing a very high spin-transfer torque switching efficiency in our experiments.

  6. Precise real-time polarization measurement of terahertz electromagnetic waves by a spinning electro-optic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumatsu, Naoya; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2012-02-01

    We propose and develop a method to quickly and precisely determine the polarization direction of coherent terahertz electromagnetic waves generated by femtosecond laser pulses. The measurement system consists of a conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system with the electro-optic (EO) sampling method, but we add a new functionality in the EO crystal which is continuously rotating with the angular frequency ω. We find a simple yet useful formulation of the EO signal as a function of the crystal orientation, which enables a lock-in-like detection of both the electric-field amplitude and the absolute polarization direction of the terahertz waves with respect to the probe laser pulse polarization direction at the same time. The single measurement finishes around two periods of the crystal rotations (∼21 ms), and we experimentally prove that the accuracy of the polarization measurement does not suffer from the long-term amplitude fluctuation of the terahertz pulses. Distribution of the measured polarization directions by repeating the measurements is excellently fitted by a gaussian distribution function with a standard deviation of σ = 0.56°. The developed technique is useful for the fast direct determination of the polarization state of the terahertz electromagnetic waves for polarization imaging applications as well as the precise terahertz Faraday or Kerr rotation spectroscopy.

  7. Physics in space-time with scale-dependent metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balankin, Alexander S.

    2013-10-01

    We construct three-dimensional space Rγ3 with the scale-dependent metric and the corresponding Minkowski space-time Mγ,β4 with the scale-dependent fractal (DH) and spectral (DS) dimensions. The local derivatives based on scale-dependent metrics are defined and differential vector calculus in Rγ3 is developed. We state that Mγ,β4 provides a unified phenomenological framework for dimensional flow observed in quite different models of quantum gravity. Nevertheless, the main attention is focused on the special case of flat space-time M1/3,14 with the scale-dependent Cantor-dust-like distribution of admissible states, such that DH increases from DH=2 on the scale ≪ℓ0 to DH=4 in the infrared limit ≫ℓ0, where ℓ0 is the characteristic length (e.g. the Planck length, or characteristic size of multi-fractal features in heterogeneous medium), whereas DS≡4 in all scales. Possible applications of approach based on the scale-dependent metric to systems of different nature are briefly discussed.

  8. Length and time scales of atmospheric moisture recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. van der Ent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to quantify the degree to which terrestrial evaporation supports the occurrence of precipitation within a certain study region (i.e. regional moisture recycling due to the scale- and shape-dependence of regional moisture recycling ratios. In this paper we present a novel approach to quantify the spatial and temporal scale of moisture recycling, independent of the size and shape of the region under study. In contrast to previous studies, which essentially used curve fitting, the scaling laws presented by us follow directly from the process equation. thus allowing a fair comparison between regions and seasons. The calculation is based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the period 1999 to 2008. It is shown that in the tropics or in mountainous terrain the length scale of recycling can be as low as 500 to 2000 km. In temperate climates the length scale is typically between 3000 to 5000 km whereas it amounts to more than 7000 km in desert areas. The time scale of recycling ranges from 3 to 20 days, with the exception of deserts, where it is much longer. The most distinct seasonal differences can be observed over the Northern Hemisphere: in winter, moisture recycling is insignificant, whereas in summer it plays a major role in the climate. The length and time scales of atmospheric moisture recycling can be useful metrics to quantify local climatic effects of land use change.

  9. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jon D

    2002-02-19

    The majority of numerical models in climatology and geomagnetism rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or geomagnetic dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's geomagnetic intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise geomagnetic intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with internal fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions.

  10. Case studies of the storm time variation of the polar cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, C.

    1983-01-01

    The latitudinal variations of the polar cusp region were examined during three intense geomagnetic storms. The variations were compared with the intensity of storm time ring current inferred from the Dst index, with the magnitude of the north-south component B/sub z/ of the interplanetary magnetic field and with substorm activity. The common feature is that the rapid equatorward shift occurred during the increase of the ring current growth and during the southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field orientation. The equatorwardmost latitude of the cusp was reached before the peak of the ring current intensity, by a few to several hours, coinciding with the occurrence of the largest magnitude of the southward interplanetary magnetic field component. However, details of the polar cusp latitudinal movement differ from storm to storm. During the three storms studied, the poleward recovery commenced at the peak magnitude of the negative IMF B/sub z/ component, but the recovery proceeded without a clear relation to variations of the interplanetary B/sub z/ component, to the ring current intensity, or to the substorm activity. The lowest cusp latitude observed was at approx.61.7 0 , and the magnitude of this shift seems to be related to the magnitudes of -B/sub z/. It is further observed that the approximate rates of the cusp macroscopic equatorward and poleward movements are about 3 0 and 1.5 0 per hour, respectively

  11. Physical time scale in kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of continuous-time Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrinsky, Santiago A

    2011-03-01

    We rigorously establish a physical time scale for a general class of kinetic Monte Carlo algorithms for the simulation of continuous-time Markov chains. This class of algorithms encompasses rejection-free (or BKL) and rejection (or "standard") algorithms. For rejection algorithms, it was formerly considered that the availability of a physical time scale (instead of Monte Carlo steps) was empirical, at best. Use of Monte Carlo steps as a time unit now becomes completely unnecessary.

  12. Fractional dynamic calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Svetlin G

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogically organized, this monograph introduces fractional calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales in relation to mathematical physics applications and problems. Beginning with the definitions of forward and backward jump operators, the book builds from Stefan Hilger’s basic theories on time scales and examines recent developments within the field of fractional calculus and fractional equations. Useful tools are provided for solving differential and integral equations as well as various problems involving special functions of mathematical physics and their extensions and generalizations in one and more variables. Much discussion is devoted to Riemann-Liouville fractional dynamic equations and Caputo fractional dynamic equations.  Intended for use in the field and designed for students without an extensive mathematical background, this book is suitable for graduate courses and researchers looking for an introduction to fractional dynamic calculus and equations on time scales. .

  13. Time-dependent scaling patterns in high frequency financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Noemi; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Aste, Tomaso

    2016-10-01

    We measure the influence of different time-scales on the intraday dynamics of financial markets. This is obtained by decomposing financial time series into simple oscillations associated with distinct time-scales. We propose two new time-varying measures of complexity: 1) an amplitude scaling exponent and 2) an entropy-like measure. We apply these measures to intraday, 30-second sampled prices of various stock market indices. Our results reveal intraday trends where different time-horizons contribute with variable relative amplitudes over the course of the trading day. Our findings indicate that the time series we analysed have a non-stationary multifractal nature with predominantly persistent behaviour at the middle of the trading session and anti-persistent behaviour at the opening and at the closing of the session. We demonstrate that these patterns are statistically significant, robust, reproducible and characteristic of each stock market. We argue that any modelling, analytics or trading strategy must take into account these non-stationary intraday scaling patterns.

  14. Evaluation of scaling invariance embedded in short time series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Pan

    Full Text Available Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length ~10(2. Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of 0.2,0.3,...,0.9 show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias (≤0.03 and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ≤0.05. Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records.

  15. Evaluation of scaling invariance embedded in short time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie; Zhu, Chenping

    2014-01-01

    Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length ~10(2). Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of 0.2,0.3,...,0.9 show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias (≤0.03) and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ≤0.05). Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records.

  16. Nonlinear triple-point problems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Anderson

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We establish the existence of multiple positive solutions to the nonlinear second-order triple-point boundary-value problem on time scales, $$displaylines{ u^{Delta abla}(t+h(tf(t,u(t=0, cr u(a=alpha u(b+delta u^Delta(a,quad eta u(c+gamma u^Delta(c=0 }$$ for $tin[a,c]subsetmathbb{T}$, where $mathbb{T}$ is a time scale, $eta, gamma, deltage 0$ with $Beta+gamma>0$, $0

  17. Dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Keke, E-mail: pengkeke88@126.com; Luo, Yiping, E-mail: zjstulyp@126.com [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, the dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales are studied. We study the symmetries and quantities based on the calculation of variation and Lie transformation group. Particular focus lies in: the Noether symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity and the Lie symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity if the infinitesimal transformations satisfy the structure equation. As the new application of result, at end of the article, we give a simple example of Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry on time scales.

  18. Electric field and temperature scaling of polarization reversal in silicon doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dayu; Guan, Yan; Vopson, Melvin M.; Xu, Jin; Liang, Hailong; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin; Mueller, Johannes; Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    HfO 2 -based binary lead-free ferroelectrics show promising properties for non-volatile memory applications, providing that their polarization reversal behavior is fully understood. In this work, temperature-dependent polarization hysteresis measured over a wide applied field range has been investigated for Si-doped HfO 2 ferroelectric thin films. Our study indicates that in the low and medium electric field regimes (E < twofold coercive field, 2E c ), the reversal process is dominated by the thermal activation on domain wall motion and domain nucleation; while in the high-field regime (E > 2E c ), a non-equilibrium nucleation-limited-switching mechanism dominates the reversal process. The optimum field for ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) applications was determined to be around 2.0 MV/cm, which translates into a 2.0 V potential applied across the 10 nm thick films

  19. Polar coordinated fuzzy controller based real-time maximum-power point control of photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syafaruddin; Hiyama, Takashi [Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering of Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Karatepe, Engin [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering of Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    It is crucial to improve the photovoltaic (PV) system efficiency and to develop the reliability of PV generation control systems. There are two ways to increase the efficiency of PV power generation system. The first is to develop materials offering high conversion efficiency at low cost. The second is to operate PV systems optimally. However, the PV system can be optimally operated only at a specific output voltage and its output power fluctuates under intermittent weather conditions. Moreover, it is very difficult to test the performance of a maximum-power point tracking (MPPT) controller under the same weather condition during the development process and also the field testing is costly and time consuming. This paper presents a novel real-time simulation technique of PV generation system by using dSPACE real-time interface system. The proposed system includes Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and fuzzy logic controller scheme using polar information. This type of fuzzy logic rules is implemented for the first time to operate the PV module at optimum operating point. ANN is utilized to determine the optimum operating voltage for monocrystalline silicon, thin-film cadmium telluride and triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells. The verification of availability and stability of the proposed system through the real-time simulator shows that the proposed system can respond accurately for different scenarios and different solar cell technologies. (author)

  20. Assessing Sahelian vegetation and stress from seasonal time series of polar orbiting and geostationary satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen Lundegaard

    that short term variations in anomalies from seasonally detrended time series of indices could carry information on vegetation stress was examined and confirmed. However, it was not found sufficiently robust on pixel level to be implemented for monitoring vegetation water stress on a per-pixel basis...... provide good sensitivity to canopy water content, which can make vegetation stress detection possible. Furthermore, the high frequency observations in the optical spectrum now available from geostationary instruments have the potential for detection of changes in vegetation related surface properties...... on short timescales, which are challenging from polar orbiting instruments. Geostationary NDVI and the NIR and SWIR based Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index (SIWSI) indices are compared with extensive field data from the Dahra site, supplemented by data from the Agoufou and Demokeya sites. The indices...

  1. Design of FBG En/decoders in Coherent 2-D Time-polarization OCDMA Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fen-fei; Yang, Ming

    2012-12-01

    A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based en/decoder for the two-dimensional (2-D) time-spreading and polarization multiplexer optical coding is proposed. Compared with other 2-D en/decoders, the proposed en/decoding for an optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system uses a single phase-encoded FBG and coherent en/decoding. Furthermore, combined with reconstruction-equivalent-chirp technology, such en/decoders can be realized with a conventional simple fabrication setup. Experimental results of such en/decoders and the corresponding system test at a data rate of 5 Gbit/s demonstrate that this kind of 2-D FBG-based en/decoders could improve the performances of OCDMA systems.

  2. Hyperentanglement concentration for polarization-spatial-time-bin hyperentangled photon systems with linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Ren, Bao-Cang; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2017-10-01

    Hyperentanglement has significant applications in quantum information processing. Here we present an efficient hyperentanglement concentration protocol (hyper-ECP) for partially hyperentangled Bell states simultaneously entangled in polarization, spatial-mode and time-bin degrees of freedom (DOFs) with the parameter-splitting method, where the parameters of the partially hyperentangled Bell states are known to the remote parties. In this hyper-ECP, only one remote party is required to perform some local operations on the three DOFs of a photon, only the linear optical elements are considered, and the success probability can achieve the maximal value. Our hyper-ECP can be easily generalized to concentrate the N-photon partially hyperentangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with known parameters, where the multiple DOFs have largely improved the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication. All of these make our hyper-ECP more practical and useful in high-capacity long-distance quantum communication.

  3. Cognitive componets of speech at different time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is defined as unsupervised grouping of data leading to a group structure well aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We focus here on speech at different time scales looking for possible hidden ‘cognitive structure’. Statistical regularities...

  4. Development of the Free Time Motivation Scale for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cheryl K.; Caldwell, Linda L.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a self-report measure of adolescent free time motivation based in self-determination theory, using data from 634 seventh graders. The scale measured five forms of motivation (amotivation, external, introjected, identified, and intrinsic motivation). Examination of each of the subscales indicated minimally acceptable levels of fit. The…

  5. Vibration amplitude rule study for rotor under large time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuan; Zuo Jianli; Duan Changcheng

    2014-01-01

    The rotor is an important part of the rotating machinery; its vibration performance is one of the important factors affecting the service life. This paper presents both theoretical analyses and experimental demonstrations of the vibration rule of the rotor under large time scales. The rule can be used for the service life estimation of the rotor. (authors)

  6. Multiple time scales of adaptation in auditory cortex neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanovsky, Nachum; Las, Liora; Farkas, Dina; Nelken, Israel

    2004-11-17

    Neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) of cats show strong stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). In probabilistic settings, in which one stimulus is common and another is rare, responses to common sounds adapt more strongly than responses to rare sounds. This SSA could be a correlate of auditory sensory memory at the level of single A1 neurons. Here we studied adaptation in A1 neurons, using three different probabilistic designs. We showed that SSA has several time scales concurrently, spanning many orders of magnitude, from hundreds of milliseconds to tens of seconds. Similar time scales are known for the auditory memory span of humans, as measured both psychophysically and using evoked potentials. A simple model, with linear dependence on both short-term and long-term stimulus history, provided a good fit to A1 responses. Auditory thalamus neurons did not show SSA, and their responses were poorly fitted by the same model. In addition, SSA increased the proportion of failures in the responses of A1 neurons to the adapting stimulus. Finally, SSA caused a bias in the neuronal responses to unbiased stimuli, enhancing the responses to eccentric stimuli. Therefore, we propose that a major function of SSA in A1 neurons is to encode auditory sensory memory on multiple time scales. This SSA might play a role in stream segregation and in binding of auditory objects over many time scales, a property that is crucial for processing of natural auditory scenes in cats and of speech and music in humans.

  7. Climatic changes on orbital and sub-orbital time scale recorded by the Guliya ice core in Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚檀栋; 徐柏青; 蒲健辰

    2001-01-01

    Based on ice core records in the Tibetan Plateau and Greenland, the features and possible causes of climatic changes on orbital and sub-orbital time scale were discussed. Orbital time scale climatic change recorded in ice core from the Tibetan Plateau is typically ahead of that from polar regions, which indicates that climatic change in the Tibetan Plateau might be earlier than polar regions. The solar radiation change is a major factor that dominates the climatic change on orbital time scale. However, climatic events on sub-orbital time scale occurred later in the Tibetan Plateau than in the Arctic Region, indicating a different mechanism. For example, the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events took place earlier in Greenland ice core record than in Guliya ice core record. It is reasonable to propose the hypothesis that these climatic events were affected possibly by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Therefore, ice sheet is critically important to climatic change on sub-orbital time scale in some ice ages.

  8. THEORETICAL REVIEW The Hippocampus, Time, and Memory Across Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Marc W.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of experimental studies with animals have offered insights about how neural networks within the hippocampus support the temporal organization of memories. These studies have revealed the existence of “time cells” that encode moments in time, much as the well-known “place cells” map locations in space. Another line of work inspired by human behavioral studies suggests that episodic memories are mediated by a state of temporal context that changes gradually over long time scales, up to at least a few thousand seconds. In this view, the “mental time travel” hypothesized to support the experience of episodic memory corresponds to a “jump back in time” in which a previous state of temporal context is recovered. We suggest that these 2 sets of findings could be different facets of a representation of temporal history that maintains a record at the last few thousand seconds of experience. The ability to represent long time scales comes at the cost of discarding precise information about when a stimulus was experienced—this uncertainty becomes greater for events further in the past. We review recent computational work that describes a mechanism that could construct such a scale-invariant representation. Taken as a whole, this suggests the hippocampus plays its role in multiple aspects of cognition by representing events embedded in a general spatiotemporal context. The representation of internal time can be useful across nonhippocampal memory systems. PMID:23915126

  9. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization power spectrum at sub-degree scales with POLARBEAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XQ (United Kingdom); Akiba, Y.; Hasegawa, M. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Miura District, Kanagawa 240-0115 (Japan); Anthony, A. E.; Halverson, N. W. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Elleflot, T.; Feng, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Borrill, J.; Errard, J. [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Chinone, Y.; Flanigan, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Fabbian, G. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Grainger, W. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC, Swindon, SN2 1SZ (United Kingdom); Collaboration: Polarbear Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < ℓ < 2100 and is based on observations of an effective sky area of 25 deg{sup 2} with 3.'5 resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.2% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter A{sub BB} to the measured band powers, A{sub BB}=1.12±0.61(stat){sub −0.12}{sup +0.04}(sys)±0.07(multi), where A{sub BB} = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 ΛCDM value. In this expression, 'stat' refers to the statistical uncertainty, 'sys' to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and 'multi' to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude A{sub BB}.

  10. Enhanced Polarized Emission from the One-parsec-scale Hotspot of 3C 84 as a Result of the Interaction with the Clumpy Ambient Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, H.; Kino, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fujita, Y. [Theoretical Astrophysics, Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Nakamura, M.; Asada, K. [The Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, AS/NTU. No.1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Orienti, M.; Giovannini, G., E-mail: hiroshi.nagai@nao.ac.jp [Instituto di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti, 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2017-11-01

    We present Very Long Baseline Array polarimetric observations of the innermost jet of 3C 84 (NGC 1275) at 43 GHz. A significant polarized emission is detected at the hotspot of the innermost restarted jet, which is located 1 pc south from the radio core. While the previous report presented a hotspot at the southern end of the western limb, the hotspot location has been moved to the southern end of the eastern limb. Faraday rotation is detected within an entire bandwidth of the 43 GHz band. The measured rotation measure (RM) is at most (6.3 ± 1.9) × 10{sup 5} rad m{sup −2} and might be slightly time variable on the timescale of a month by a factor of a few. Our measured RM and the RM previously reported by the CARMA and SMA observations cannot be consistently explained by the spherical accretion flow with a power-law profile. We propose that a clumpy/inhomogeneous ambient medium is responsible for the observed RM. Using an equipartition magnetic field, we derive the electron density of 2 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}. Such an electron density is consistent with the cloud of the narrow line emission region around the central engine. We also discuss the magnetic field configuration from the black hole scale to the parsec scale and the origin of low polarization.

  11. Time scale algorithm: Definition of ensemble time and possible uses of the Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavella, Patrizia; Thomas, Claudine

    1990-01-01

    The comparative study of two time scale algorithms, devised to satisfy different but related requirements, is presented. They are ALGOS(BIPM), producing the international reference TAI at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, and AT1(NIST), generating the real-time time scale AT1 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. In each case, the time scale is a weighted average of clock readings, but the weight determination and the frequency prediction are different because they are adapted to different purposes. The possibility of using a mathematical tool, such as the Kalman filter, together with the definition of the time scale as a weighted average, is also analyzed. Results obtained by simulation are presented.

  12. Cosmic 21 cm delensing of microwave background polarization and the minimum detectable energy scale of inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Kris; Cooray, Asantha

    2005-11-18

    We propose a new method for removing gravitational lensing from maps of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization anisotropies. Using observations of anisotropies or structures in the cosmic 21 cm radiation, emitted or absorbed by neutral hydrogen atoms at redshifts 10 to 200, the CMB can be delensed. We find this method could allow CMB experiments to have increased sensitivity to a background of inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs) compared to methods relying on the CMB alone and may constrain models of inflation which were heretofore considered to have undetectable IGW amplitudes.

  13. Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gazoty

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A direct current (DC resistivity and time domain induced polarization (TDIP survey was undertaken at a decommissioned landfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark, for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminate important geological units that control the hydrology of the surrounding area. It is known that both waste deposits and clay have clear signatures in TDIP data, making it possible to enhance the resolution of geological structures compared to DC surveys alone.

    Four DC/TDIP profiles were carried out crossing the landfill, and another seven profiles in the surroundings provide a sufficiently dense coverage of the entire area. The whole dataset was inverted using a 1-D laterally constrained inversion scheme, recently implemented for TDIP data, in order to use the entire decay curves for reconstructing the electrical parameters of the soil in terms of the Cole-Cole polarization model.

    Results show that it is possible to resolve both the geometry of the buried waste body and key geological structures. In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depth that correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plume spreading out from the landfill and to map a shallow sandy layer rich in clay that likely has a strong influence on the hydrology of the site. This interpretation of the geophysical findings was constrained by borehole data, in terms of geology and gamma ray logging. The results of this study are important for the impact of the resolved geological units on the hydrology of the area, making it possible to construct more realistic scenarios of the variation of the pollution plume as a function of the climate change.

  14. Time scale controversy: Accurate orbital calibration of the early Paleogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, U.; Westerhold, T.; Laskar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Timing is crucial to understanding the causes and consequences of events in Earth history. The calibration of geological time relies heavily on the accuracy of radioisotopic and astronomical dating. Uncertainties in the computations of Earth's orbital parameters and in radioisotopic dating have hampered the construction of a reliable astronomically calibrated time scale beyond 40 Ma. Attempts to construct a robust astronomically tuned time scale for the early Paleogene by integrating radioisotopic and astronomical dating are only partially consistent. Here, using the new La2010 and La2011 orbital solutions, we present the first accurate astronomically calibrated time scale for the early Paleogene (47-65 Ma) uniquely based on astronomical tuning and thus independent of the radioisotopic determination of the Fish Canyon standard. Comparison with geological data confirms the stability of the new La2011 solution back to 54 Ma. Subsequent anchoring of floating chronologies to the La2011 solution using the very long eccentricity nodes provides an absolute age of 55.530 ± 0.05 Ma for the onset of the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), 54.850 ± 0.05 Ma for the early Eocene ash -17, and 65.250 ± 0.06 Ma for the K/Pg boundary. The new astrochronology presented here indicates that the intercalibration and synchronization of U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic geochronology is much more challenging than previously thought.

  15. Decoding the Mobility and Time Scales of Protein Loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yina; Li, Da-Wei; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2015-03-10

    The flexible nature of protein loops and the time scales of their dynamics are critical for many biologically important events at the molecular level, such as protein interaction and recognition processes. In order to obtain a predictive understanding of the dynamic properties of loops, 500 ns molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations of 38 different proteins were performed and validated using NMR chemical shifts. A total of 169 loops were analyzed and classified into three types, namely fast loops with correlation times Web server (http://spin.ccic.ohio-state.edu/index.php/loop). The results demonstrate that loop dynamics with their time scales can be predicted rapidly with reasonable accuracy, which will allow the screening of average protein structures to help better understand the various roles loops can play in the context of protein-protein interactions and binding.

  16. Human learning: Power laws or multiple characteristic time scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottfried Mayer-Kress

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The central proposal of A. Newell and Rosenbloom (1981 was that the power law is the ubiquitous law of learning. This proposition is discussed in the context of the key factors that led to the acceptance of the power law as the function of learning. We then outline the principles of an epigenetic landscape framework for considering the role of the characteristic time scales of learning and an approach to system identification of the processes of performance dynamics. In this view, the change of performance over time is the product of a superposition of characteristic exponential time scales that reflect the influence of different processes. This theoretical approach can reproduce the traditional power law of practice – within the experimental resolution of performance data sets - but we hypothesize that this function may prove to be a special and perhaps idealized case of learning.

  17. Real-time simulation of large-scale floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Qin, Y.; Li, G. D.; Liu, Z.; Cheng, D. J.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2016-08-01

    According to the complex real-time water situation, the real-time simulation of large-scale floods is very important for flood prevention practice. Model robustness and running efficiency are two critical factors in successful real-time flood simulation. This paper proposed a robust, two-dimensional, shallow water model based on the unstructured Godunov- type finite volume method. A robust wet/dry front method is used to enhance the numerical stability. An adaptive method is proposed to improve the running efficiency. The proposed model is used for large-scale flood simulation on real topography. Results compared to those of MIKE21 show the strong performance of the proposed model.

  18. Multi-Scale Dissemination of Time Series Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qingsong; Zhou, Yongluan; Su, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of continuous dissemination of time series data, such as sensor measurements, to a large number of subscribers. These subscribers fall into multiple subscription levels, where each subscription level is specified by the bandwidth constraint of a subscriber......, which is an abstract indicator for both the physical limits and the amount of data that the subscriber would like to handle. To handle this problem, we propose a system framework for multi-scale time series data dissemination that employs a typical tree-based dissemination network and existing time...

  19. Detection of 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM by polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist

    2013-01-01

    320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM is generated by rectangular filtering with a bandwidth of 320 GHz and received by polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation (TD-OFT) followed by passive filtering. After the time-to-frequency mapping in the TD-OFT, the Nyquist-OTDM is converted into...

  20. A model for AGN variability on multiple time-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Lia F.; Schawinski, Kevin; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Caplar, Neven; Treister, Ezequiel; Koss, Michael J.; Urry, C. Megan; Zhang, C. E.

    2018-05-01

    We present a framework to link and describe active galactic nuclei (AGN) variability on a wide range of time-scales, from days to billions of years. In particular, we concentrate on the AGN variability features related to changes in black hole fuelling and accretion rate. In our framework, the variability features observed in different AGN at different time-scales may be explained as realisations of the same underlying statistical properties. In this context, we propose a model to simulate the evolution of AGN light curves with time based on the probability density function (PDF) and power spectral density (PSD) of the Eddington ratio (L/LEdd) distribution. Motivated by general galaxy population properties, we propose that the PDF may be inspired by the L/LEdd distribution function (ERDF), and that a single (or limited number of) ERDF+PSD set may explain all observed variability features. After outlining the framework and the model, we compile a set of variability measurements in terms of structure function (SF) and magnitude difference. We then combine the variability measurements on a SF plot ranging from days to Gyr. The proposed framework enables constraints on the underlying PSD and the ability to link AGN variability on different time-scales, therefore providing new insights into AGN variability and black hole growth phenomena.

  1. Selective visual scaling of time-scale processes facilitates broadband learning of isometric force frequency tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Adam C; Newell, Karl M

    2015-10-01

    The experiment investigated the effect of selectively augmenting faster time scales of visual feedback information on the learning and transfer of continuous isometric force tracking tasks to test the generality of the self-organization of 1/f properties of force output. Three experimental groups tracked an irregular target pattern either under a standard fixed gain condition or with selectively enhancement in the visual feedback display of intermediate (4-8 Hz) or high (8-12 Hz) frequency components of the force output. All groups reduced tracking error over practice, with the error lowest in the intermediate scaling condition followed by the high scaling and fixed gain conditions, respectively. Selective visual scaling induced persistent changes across the frequency spectrum, with the strongest effect in the intermediate scaling condition and positive transfer to novel feedback displays. The findings reveal an interdependence of the timescales in the learning and transfer of isometric force output frequency structures consistent with 1/f process models of the time scales of motor output variability.

  2. Efficient Entanglement Concentration of Nonlocal Two-Photon Polarization-Time-Bin Hyperentangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Hang; Yu, Wen-Xuan; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Gao, Cheng-Yan; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2018-03-01

    We present two different hyperentanglement concentration protocols (hyper-ECPs) for two-photon systems in nonlocal polarization-time-bin hyperentangled states with known parameters, including Bell-like and cluster-like states, resorting to the parameter splitting method. They require only one of two parties in quantum communication to operate her photon in the process of entanglement concentration, not two, and they have the maximal success probability. They work with linear optical elements and have good feasibility in experiment, especially in the case that there are a big number of quantum data exchanged as the parties can obtain the information about the parameters of the nonlocal hyperentangled states by sampling a subset of nonlocal hyperentangled two-photon systems and measuring them. As the quantum state of photons in the time-bin degree of freedom suffers from less noise in an optical-fiber channel, these hyper-ECPs may have good applications in practical long-distance quantum communication in the future.

  3. Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcman, D; Schuss, Z

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function. (topical review)

  4. Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function.

  5. Polarized time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of m-plane AlGaN/GaN MQWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Daniel; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Monavarian, M.; Izioumskaia, N.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Leach, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    The optical properties of GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N multiple quantum wells grown on m-plane oriented substrate are studied in 8K-300K temperature range. The optical spectra reveal strong in-plane optical anisotropies as predicted by group theory. Polarized time resolved temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiments are performed providing access to the relative contributions of the non-radiative and radiative recombination processes. We deduce the variation of the radiative decay time with temperature in the two polarizations.

  6. HMC algorithm with multiple time scale integration and mass preconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, C.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wenger, U.

    2006-01-01

    We present a variant of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning (Hasenbusch acceleration) and multiple time scale integration. We have tested this variant for standard Wilson fermions at β=5.6 and at pion masses ranging from 380 to 680 MeV. We show that in this situation its performance is comparable to the recently proposed HMC variant with domain decomposition as preconditioner. We give an update of the "Berlin Wall" figure, comparing the performance of our variant of the HMC algorithm to other published performance data. Advantages of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning and multiple time scale integration are that it is straightforward to implement and can be used in combination with a wide variety of lattice Dirac operators.

  7. Nonlinear MHD dynamics of tokamak plasmas on multiple time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.; Schnack, D.D.; Brennan, D.P.; Gianakon, T.A.; Sovinec, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Two types of numerical, nonlinear simulations using the NIMROD code are presented. In the first simulation, we model the disruption occurring in DIII-D discharge 87009 as an ideal MHD instability driven unstable by neutral-beam heating. The mode grows faster than exponential, but on a time scale that is a hybrid of the heating rate and the ideal MHD growth rate as predicted by analytic theory. The second type of simulations, which occur on a much longer time scale, focus on the seeding of tearing modes by sawteeth. Pressure effects play a role both in the exterior region solutions and in the neoclassical drive terms. The results of both simulations are reviewed and their implications for experimental analysis is discussed. (author)

  8. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.

    2014-06-01

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids.

  9. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T

    2014-06-07

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids.

  10. Spin-polarized hydrogen Rydberg time-of-flight: Experimental measurement of the velocity-dependent H atom spin-polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Bernadette M.; Lee, Yumin; Doyle, Michael B.; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Suits, Arthur G.; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a new experimental method allowing direct detection of the velocity dependent spin-polarization of hydrogen atoms produced in photodissociation. The technique, which is a variation on the H atom Rydberg time-of-flight method, employs a double-resonance excitation scheme and experimental geometry that yields the two coherent orientation parameters as a function of recoil speed for scattering perpendicular to the laser propagation direction. The approach, apparatus, and optical layout we employ are described here in detail and demonstrated in application to HBr and DBr photolysis at 213 nm. We also discuss the theoretical foundation for the approach, as well as the resolution and sensitivity we achieve

  11. The fission time scale measured with an atomic clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kravchuk, VL; Wilschut, HW; Hunyadi, M; Kopecky, S; Lohner, H; Rogachevskiy, A; Siemssen, RH; Krasznahorkay, A; Hamilton, JH; Ramayya, AV; Carter, HK

    2003-01-01

    We present a new direct method of measuring the fission absolute time scale using an atomic clock based on the lifetime of a vacancy in the atomic K-shell. We studied the reaction Ne-20 + Th-232 -> O-16 + U-236* at 30 MeV/u. The excitation energy of about 115 MeV in such a reaction is in the range

  12. Diffusion time scales and accretion in the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, G.

    1977-01-01

    It is thought that surface abundances in the Sun could be due largely to accretion either of comets or grains, and it has been suggested that if surface convection zones were smaller than is usually indicated by model calculations, accretion would be especially important. Unless the zone immediately below the surface convection zone is sufficiently stable for diffusion to be important, other transport processes, such as turbulence and meridional circulation, more efficient than diffusion, will tend to homogenise the Sun. Diffusion is the slowest of the transport processes and will become important when other transport processes become inoperative. Using diffusion theory the minimum mass of the convection zone can be determined in order that transport processes at the bottom of the zone are not to influence abundances in the convection zone. If diffusion time scales are shorter than the life of the star (Sun) diffusion will modify the abundances in the convection zone. The mass in the convection zone for which diffusion time scales are equal to the life of the star on the main sequence then determines the minimum mass in the convection zone that justifies neglect of transport processes at the bottom of the convection zone. It is calculated here that, for the Sun, this mass is between 3 x 10 -3 and 10 -2 solar mass, and a general explosion is derived for the diffusion time scale as a function of the mass of the convection zone. (U.K.)

  13. Backpropagation and ordered derivatives in the time scales calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffertt, John; Wunsch, Donald C

    2010-08-01

    Backpropagation is the most widely used neural network learning technique. It is based on the mathematical notion of an ordered derivative. In this paper, we present a formulation of ordered derivatives and the backpropagation training algorithm using the important emerging area of mathematics known as the time scales calculus. This calculus, with its potential for application to a wide variety of inter-disciplinary problems, is becoming a key area of mathematics. It is capable of unifying continuous and discrete analysis within one coherent theoretical framework. Using this calculus, we present here a generalization of backpropagation which is appropriate for cases beyond the specifically continuous or discrete. We develop a new multivariate chain rule of this calculus, define ordered derivatives on time scales, prove a key theorem about them, and derive the backpropagation weight update equations for a feedforward multilayer neural network architecture. By drawing together the time scales calculus and the area of neural network learning, we present the first connection of two major fields of research.

  14. Atomistic simulations of graphite etching at realistic time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussems, D U B; Bal, K M; Morgan, T W; van de Sanden, M C M; Neyts, E C

    2017-10-01

    Hydrogen-graphite interactions are relevant to a wide variety of applications, ranging from astrophysics to fusion devices and nano-electronics. In order to shed light on these interactions, atomistic simulation using Molecular Dynamics (MD) has been shown to be an invaluable tool. It suffers, however, from severe time-scale limitations. In this work we apply the recently developed Collective Variable-Driven Hyperdynamics (CVHD) method to hydrogen etching of graphite for varying inter-impact times up to a realistic value of 1 ms, which corresponds to a flux of ∼10 20 m -2 s -1 . The results show that the erosion yield, hydrogen surface coverage and species distribution are significantly affected by the time between impacts. This can be explained by the higher probability of C-C bond breaking due to the prolonged exposure to thermal stress and the subsequent transition from ion- to thermal-induced etching. This latter regime of thermal-induced etching - chemical erosion - is here accessed for the first time using atomistic simulations. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that accounting for long time-scales significantly affects ion bombardment simulations and should not be neglected in a wide range of conditions, in contrast to what is typically assumed.

  15. Stability theory for dynamic equations on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Martynyuk, Anatoly A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is a first in the world to present three approaches for stability analysis of solutions of dynamic equations. The first approach is based on the application of dynamic integral inequalities and the fundamental matrix of solutions of linear approximation of dynamic equations. The second is based on the generalization of the direct Lyapunovs method for equations on time scales, using scalar, vector and matrix-valued auxiliary functions. The third approach is the application of auxiliary functions (scalar, vector, or matrix-valued ones) in combination with differential dynamic inequalities. This is an alternative comparison method, developed for time continuous and time discrete systems. In recent decades, automatic control theory in the study of air- and spacecraft dynamics and in other areas of modern applied mathematics has encountered problems in the analysis of the behavior of solutions of time continuous-discrete linear and/or nonlinear equations of perturbed motion. In the book “Men of Ma...

  16. Quantum universe on extremely small space-time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmichev, V.E.; Kuzmichev, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The semiclassical approach to the quantum geometrodynamical model is used for the description of the properties of the Universe on extremely small space-time scales. Under this approach, the matter in the Universe has two components of the quantum nature which behave as antigravitating fluids. The first component does not vanish in the limit h → 0 and can be associated with dark energy. The second component is described by an extremely rigid equation of state and goes to zero after the transition to large spacetime scales. On small space-time scales, this quantum correction turns out to be significant. It determines the geometry of the Universe near the initial cosmological singularity point. This geometry is conformal to a unit four-sphere embedded in a five-dimensional Euclidean flat space. During the consequent expansion of the Universe, when reaching the post-Planck era, the geometry of the Universe changes into that conformal to a unit four-hyperboloid in a five-dimensional Lorentzsignatured flat space. This agrees with the hypothesis about the possible change of geometry after the origin of the expanding Universe from the region near the initial singularity point. The origin of the Universe can be interpreted as a quantum transition of the system from a region in the phase space forbidden for the classical motion, but where a trajectory in imaginary time exists, into a region, where the equations of motion have the solution which describes the evolution of the Universe in real time. Near the boundary between two regions, from the side of real time, the Universe undergoes almost an exponential expansion which passes smoothly into the expansion under the action of radiation dominating over matter which is described by the standard cosmological model.

  17. Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.

  18. Harmonic Mitigation Using a Polarized Ramp-time Current-Controlled Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence J. Borle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of a shunt active power filter for a three-phase four-wire system to compensate for power quality problems generated by mixed non-linear loads, which are a combination of harmonic, reactive and unbalanced components. The filter is a three-phase current-controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI with a filter inductor at the AC output and a DC-bus capacitor. The CC-VSI is operated to directly control the grid current to be sinusoidal and in phase with the grid voltage without sensing the load currents. The switching is controlled using polarized ramp-time current control, which is based on the concept of zero average current error (ZACE with a fixed switching frequency. The laboratory experiment results indicate that the filter is able to mitigate predominantly the harmonics, as well as the reactive power, so that the grid currents are sinusoidal, in phase with the grid voltages and symmetrical although the grid voltage contains harmonics.

  19. A hierarchy of time-scales and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebel, Stefan J; Daunizeau, Jean; Friston, Karl J

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we suggest that cortical anatomy recapitulates the temporal hierarchy that is inherent in the dynamics of environmental states. Many aspects of brain function can be understood in terms of a hierarchy of temporal scales at which representations of the environment evolve. The lowest level of this hierarchy corresponds to fast fluctuations associated with sensory processing, whereas the highest levels encode slow contextual changes in the environment, under which faster representations unfold. First, we describe a mathematical model that exploits the temporal structure of fast sensory input to track the slower trajectories of their underlying causes. This model of sensory encoding or perceptual inference establishes a proof of concept that slowly changing neuronal states can encode the paths or trajectories of faster sensory states. We then review empirical evidence that suggests that a temporal hierarchy is recapitulated in the macroscopic organization of the cortex. This anatomic-temporal hierarchy provides a comprehensive framework for understanding cortical function: the specific time-scale that engages a cortical area can be inferred by its location along a rostro-caudal gradient, which reflects the anatomical distance from primary sensory areas. This is most evident in the prefrontal cortex, where complex functions can be explained as operations on representations of the environment that change slowly. The framework provides predictions about, and principled constraints on, cortical structure-function relationships, which can be tested by manipulating the time-scales of sensory input.

  20. A hierarchy of time-scales and the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Kiebel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest that cortical anatomy recapitulates the temporal hierarchy that is inherent in the dynamics of environmental states. Many aspects of brain function can be understood in terms of a hierarchy of temporal scales at which representations of the environment evolve. The lowest level of this hierarchy corresponds to fast fluctuations associated with sensory processing, whereas the highest levels encode slow contextual changes in the environment, under which faster representations unfold. First, we describe a mathematical model that exploits the temporal structure of fast sensory input to track the slower trajectories of their underlying causes. This model of sensory encoding or perceptual inference establishes a proof of concept that slowly changing neuronal states can encode the paths or trajectories of faster sensory states. We then review empirical evidence that suggests that a temporal hierarchy is recapitulated in the macroscopic organization of the cortex. This anatomic-temporal hierarchy provides a comprehensive framework for understanding cortical function: the specific time-scale that engages a cortical area can be inferred by its location along a rostro-caudal gradient, which reflects the anatomical distance from primary sensory areas. This is most evident in the prefrontal cortex, where complex functions can be explained as operations on representations of the environment that change slowly. The framework provides predictions about, and principled constraints on, cortical structure-function relationships, which can be tested by manipulating the time-scales of sensory input.

  1. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  2. A novel autonomous real-time position method based on polarized light and geomagnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yinlong; Chu, Jinkui; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhiwen

    2015-01-01

    Many animals exploit polarized light in order to calibrate their magnetic compasses for navigation. For example, some birds are equipped with biological magnetic and celestial compasses enabling them to migrate between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. The Vikings' ability to derive true direction from polarized light is also widely accepted. However, their amazing navigational capabilities are still not completely clear. Inspired by birds' and Vikings' ancient navigational skills. Here we...

  3. A New Limit on Planck Scale Lorentz Violation from Gamma-ray Burst Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2011-01-01

    Constraints on possible Lorentz invariance violation (UV) to first order in E/M(sub Plank) for photons in the framework of effective field theory (EFT) are discussed, taking cosmological factors into account. Then. using the reported detection of polarized soft gamma-ray emission from the gamma-ray burst GRB041219a that is indicative' of an absence of vacuum birefringence, together with a very recent improved method for estimating the redshift of the burst, we derive constraints on the dimension 5 Lorentz violating modification to the Lagrangian of an effective local QFT for QED. Our new constraints are more than five orders of magnitude better than recent constraints from observations of the Crab Nebula.. We obtain the upper limit on the Lorentz violating dimension 5 EFT parameter absolute value of zeta of 2.4 x 10(exp -15), corresponding to a constraint on the dimension 5 standard model extension parameter. Kappa (sup 5) (sub (v)oo) much less than 4.2 X 10(exp -3)4 / GeV.

  4. Decay of surface nanostructures via long-time-scale dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voter, A.F.; Stanciu, N.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have developed a new approach for extending the time scale of molecular dynamics simulations. For infrequent-event systems, the category that includes most diffusive events in the solid phase, this hyperdynamics method can extend the simulation time by a few orders of magnitude compared to direct molecular dynamics. The trajectory is run on a potential surface that has been biased to raise the energy in the potential basins without affecting the transition state region. The method is described and applied to surface and bulk diffusion processes, achieving microsecond and millisecond simulation times. The authors have also developed a new parallel computing method that is efficient for small system sizes. The combination of the hyperdynamics with this parallel replica dynamics looks promising as a general materials simulation tool

  5. Time scaling internal state predictive control of a solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.N. [DEE-FCT/UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Rato, L.M. [INESC-ID/University, Evora (Portugal); Lemos, J.M. [INESC-ID/IST, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2003-12-01

    The control of a distributed collector solar field is addressed in this work, exploiting the plant's transport characteristic. The plant is modeled by a hyperbolic type partial differential equation (PDE) where the transport speed is the manipulated flow, i.e. the controller output. The model has an external distributed source, which is the solar radiation captured along the collector, approximated to depend only of time. From the solution of the PDE, a linear discrete state space model is obtained by using time-scaling and the redefinition of the control input. This method allows overcoming the dependency of the time constants with the operating point. A model-based predictive adaptive controller is derived with the internal temperature distribution estimated with a state observer. Experimental results at the solar power plant are presented, illustrating the advantages of the approach under consideration. (author)

  6. The effect of polymer type on electric breakdown strength on a nanosecond time scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Liang; Su Jian-Cang; Pan Ya-Feng; Zhang Xi-Bo

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concepts of fast polarization,effective electric field and electron impact ionization criterion,the effect of polymer type on electric breakdown strength (EBD) on a nanosecond time scale is investigated,and a formula that qualitatively characterizes the relation between the electric breakdown strength and the polymer type is derived.According to this formula,it is found that the electric breakdown strength decreases with an increase in the effective relative dielectric constants of the polymers.By calculating the effective relative dielectric constants for different types of polymers,the theoretical relation for the electric breakdown strengths of common polymers is predicted.To verify the prediction,the polymers of PE (polyethylene),PTFE (polytetrafluoroethelene),PMMA (organic glass) and Nylon are tested with a nanosecond-pulse generator.The experimental result shows EBD (PTFE) > EBD (PMMA) > EBD (Nylon) > EBD (PE).This result is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  7. Tracing the Inter-Hemispheric Coupling During Polar Summer Periods of 2002-2010 Using TIMED/SABER Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard; Feoflow, Artem; Pesnell, Dean; Kutepov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    It has been found that for more than one polar summer season between 2002-2010, the northern polar mesospheric region near and above the mesospheric maximum was warmer than normal. The strongest warming effect of this type was observed to occur during northern summer 2002. Theoretical studies have implied that these "anomalies" were preceded by unusual dynamical processes occurring in the southern hemisphere. We have analyzed temperature distributions measured by the SABER limb scanning infrared radiometer aboard the NASA TIMED satellite between 2002-2010 at altitudes from 15 to 110 km and for latitudes between 83 deg. S to 83 deg. N. We describe the approach to trace the inter-hemispheric temperature correlatoins and to identify the global features that were unique for the "anomalous" northern polar summers.

  8. Precipitation Analysis at Fine Time Scales Using Multiple Satellites: Real-time and Research Products and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott; Pierce, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-global precipitation analyses at fine time scales (3-hr) are described. TRMM observations (radar and passive microwave) are used to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites instruments, including AMSR and AMSU) and geosynchronous IR observations. The individual data sets are then merged using a priority order based on quality to form the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA). Raingauge information is used to help constrain the satellite-based estimates over land. The TRMM standard research product (Version 6 3B-42 of the TRMM products) will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) in 2004. The real-time version of this merged product has been produced over the past two years and is available on the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov) at 0.25" latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 5O"N-5O0S. Validation of daily totals indicates good results, with limitations noted in mid-latitude winter over land and regions of shallow, orographic precipitation. Various applications of these estimates are described, including: 1) detecting potential floods in near real-time; 2) analyzing Indian Ocean precipitation variations related to the initiation of El Nino; 3) determining characteristics of the African monsoon; and 4) analysis of diurnal variations.

  9. Precipitation Analysis at Fine Time Scales using TRMM and Other Satellites: Real-time and Research Products and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott; Pierce, Harold; Gu, Guo-Jon

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-global precipitation analyses at fine time scales (3-hr) are described. TRMM observations (radar and passive microwave) are used to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites instruments, including AMSR and AMSU) and geosynchronous IR observations. The individual data sets are then merged using a priority order based on quality to form the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA). Raingauge information is used to help constrain the satellite-based estimates over land. The TRMM standard research product (Version 6 3B-42 of the TRMM products) will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) by the end of 2004. The real-time version of this merged product has been produced over the past two years and is available on the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov) at 0.25" latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 5O0N-50"S. Validation of daily totals indicates good results, with limitations noted in mid-latitude winter over land and regions of shallow, orographic precipitation. Various applications of these estimates are described, includmg: 1) detecting potential floods in near real-time; 2) analyzing Indian Ocean precipitation variations related to the initiation of El Nino; 3) determining characteristics of the African monsoon; and 4) analysis of diurnal variations.

  10. The Large Scale Distribution of Water Ice in the Polar Regions of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A.; Wilson, J. K.; Schwadron, N.; Spence, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    For in situ resource utilization, one must know where water ice is on the Moon. Many datasets have revealed both surface deposits of water ice and subsurface deposits of hydrogen near the lunar poles, but it has proved difficult to resolve the differences among the locations of these deposits. Despite these datasets disagreeing on how deposits are distributed on small scales, we show that most of these datasets do agree on the large scale distribution of water ice. We present data from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), LRO's Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), the Neutron Spectrometer on Lunar Prospector (LPNS), LRO's Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP), LRO's Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and Chandrayaan-1's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). All, including those that show clear evidence for water ice, reveal surprisingly similar trends with latitude, suggesting that both surface and subsurface datasets are measuring ice. All show that water ice increases towards the poles, and most demonstrate that its signature appears at about ±70° latitude and increases poleward. This is consistent with simulations of how surface and subsurface cold traps are distributed with latitude. This large scale agreement constrains the origin of the ice, suggesting that an ancient cometary impact (or impacts) created a large scale deposit that has been rendered locally heterogeneous by subsequent impacts. Furthermore, it also shows that water ice may be available down to ±70°—latitudes that are more accessible than the poles for landing.

  11. Multiple time-scale methods in particle simulations of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper surveys recent advances in the application of multiple time-scale methods to particle simulation of collective phenomena in plasmas. These methods dramatically improve the efficiency of simulating low-frequency kinetic behavior by allowing the use of a large timestep, while retaining accuracy. The numerical schemes surveyed provide selective damping of unwanted high-frequency waves and preserve numerical stability in a variety of physics models: electrostatic, magneto-inductive, Darwin and fully electromagnetic. The paper reviews hybrid simulation models, the implicitmoment-equation method, the direct implicit method, orbit averaging, and subcycling

  12. Polar and non-polar organic aerosols from large-scale agricultural-waste burning emissions in Northern India: Implications to organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on characteristics of organic aerosols (polar and non-polar) and total organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio (OM/OC) from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy- and wheat-residue) burning emissions in Northern India. Aerosol samples from an upwind location (Patiala: 30.2°N, 76.3°E) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain were analyzed for non-polar and polar fractions of organic carbon (OC1 and OC2) and their respective mass (OM1 and OM2). On average, polar organic aerosols (OM2) contribute nearly 85% of the total organic mass (OM) from the paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. The water-soluble-OC (WSOC) to OC2 ratio, within the analytical uncertainty, is close to 1 from both paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. However, temporal variability and relatively low WSOC/OC2 ratio (Av: 0.67±0.06) is attributed to high moisture content and poor combustion efficiency during paddy-residue burning, indicating significant contribution (∼30%) of aromatic carbon to OC2. The OM/OC ratio for non-polar (OM1/OC1∼1.2) and polar organic aerosols (OM2/OC2∼2.2), hitherto unknown for open agricultural-waste burning emissions, is documented in this study. The total OM/OC ratio is nearly identical, 1.9±0.2 and 1.8±0.2, from paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Finding buried metallic pipes using a non-destructive approach based on 3D time-domain induced polarization data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Revil, André; Mao, Deqiang; Wang, Deming

    2018-04-01

    The location of buried utility pipes is often unknown. We use the time-domain induced polarization method to non-intrusively localize metallic pipes. A new approach, based on injecting a primary electrical current between a pair of electrodes and measuring the time-lapse voltage response on a set of potential electrodes after shutting down this primary current is used. The secondary voltage is measured on all the electrodes with respect to a single electrode used as a reference for the electrical potential, in a way similar to a self-potential time lapse survey. This secondary voltage is due to the formation of a secondary current density in the ground associated with the polarization of the metallic pipes. An algorithm is designed to localize the metallic object using the secondary voltage distribution by performing a tomography of the secondary source current density associated with the polarization of the pipes. This algorithm is first benchmarked on a synthetic case. Then, two laboratory sandbox experiments are performed with buried metallic pipes located in a sandbox filled with some clean sand. In Experiment #1, we use a horizontal copper pipe while in Experiment #2 we use an inclined stainless steel pipe. The result shows that the method is effective in localizing these two pipes. At the opposite, electrical resistivity tomography is not effective in localizing the pipes because they may appear resistive at low frequencies. This is due to the polarization of the metallic pipes which blocks the charge carriers at its external boundaries.

  14. THE STRUCTURE AND LINEAR POLARIZATION OF THE KILOPARSEC-SCALE JET OF THE QUASAR 3C 345

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, David H.; Wardle, John F. C.; Marchenko, Valerie V., E-mail: roberts@brandeis.edu [Department of Physics MS-057, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454-0911 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Deep Very Large Array imaging of the quasar 3C 345 at 4.86 and 8.44 GHz has been used to study the structure and linear polarization of its radio jet on scales ranging from 2 to 30 kpc. There is a 7-8 Jy unresolved core with spectral index {alpha} {approx_equal} -0.24 (I{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}}). The jet (typical intensity 15 mJy beam{sup -1}) consists of a 2.''5 straight section containing two knots, and two additional non-co-linear knots at the end. The jet's total projected length is about 27 kpc. The spectral index of the jet varies over -1.1 {approx}< {alpha} {approx}< -0.5. The jet diverges with a semi-opening angle of about 9 Degree-Sign , and is nearly constant in integrated brightness over its length. A faint feature northeast of the core does not appear to be a true counter-jet, but rather an extended lobe of this FR-II radio source seen in projection. The absence of a counter-jet is sufficient to place modest constraints on the speed of the jet on these scales, requiring {beta} {approx}> 0.5. Despite the indication of jet precession in the total intensity structure, the polarization images suggest instead a jet re-directed at least twice by collisions with the external medium. Surprisingly, the electric vector position angles in the main body of the jet are neither longitudinal nor transverse, but make an angle of about 55 Degree-Sign with the jet axis in the middle while along the edges the vectors are transverse, suggesting a helical magnetic field. There is no significant Faraday rotation in the source, so that is not the cause of the twist. The fractional polarization in the jet averages 25% and is higher at the edges. In a companion paper, Roberts and Wardle show that differential Doppler boosting in a diverging relativistic velocity field can explain the electric vector pattern in the jet.

  15. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we...... on or in the peak of the breeding season with the largest effect sizes observed in cooler parts of species' climatic ranges. Our results document the potential of combining time scales and integrating both species attributes and environmental variables for global change attribution. We suggest such an approach......Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader...

  16. Cross-Scale Modelling of Subduction from Minute to Million of Years Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, S. V.; Muldashev, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction is an essentially multi-scale process with time-scales spanning from geological to earthquake scale with the seismic cycle in-between. Modelling of such process constitutes one of the largest challenges in geodynamic modelling today.Here we present a cross-scale thermomechanical model capable of simulating the entire subduction process from rupture (1 min) to geological time (millions of years) that employs elasticity, mineral-physics-constrained non-linear transient viscous rheology and rate-and-state friction plasticity. The model generates spontaneous earthquake sequences. The adaptive time-step algorithm recognizes moment of instability and drops the integration time step to its minimum value of 40 sec during the earthquake. The time step is then gradually increased to its maximal value of 5 yr, following decreasing displacement rates during the postseismic relaxation. Efficient implementation of numerical techniques allows long-term simulations with total time of millions of years. This technique allows to follow in details deformation process during the entire seismic cycle and multiple seismic cycles. We observe various deformation patterns during modelled seismic cycle that are consistent with surface GPS observations and demonstrate that, contrary to the conventional ideas, the postseismic deformation may be controlled by viscoelastic relaxation in the mantle wedge, starting within only a few hours after the great (M>9) earthquakes. Interestingly, in our model an average slip velocity at the fault closely follows hyperbolic decay law. In natural observations, such deformation is interpreted as an afterslip, while in our model it is caused by the viscoelastic relaxation of mantle wedge with viscosity strongly varying with time. We demonstrate that our results are consistent with the postseismic surface displacement after the Great Tohoku Earthquake for the day-to-year time range. We will also present results of the modeling of deformation of the

  17. Fine Scale Baleen Whale Behavior Observed Via Tagging Over Daily Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    system to do a comparison between the two. While at Wildlife Computers, I also asked for and they kindly provided a small change in how their MK10...cetacean behavior at intermediate daily time scales. Recent efforts to assess the impacts of sound on marine mammals and to estimate foraging ...efficiency have called for the need to measure daily activity budgets to quantify how much of each day an individual devotes to foraging , resting

  18. Evaluation of direct analysis in real time for the determination of highly polar pesticides in lettuce and celery using modified Quick Polar Pesticides Extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Francisco J; Chan, Danny; Dickinson, Michael; Lloyd, Antony S; Adams, Stuart J

    2017-05-05

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) was evaluated for the determination of a number of highly polar pesticides using the Quick Polar Pesticides Extraction (QuPPe) method. DART was hyphenated to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to get the required selectivity that allows the determination of these compounds in complex samples such as lettuce and celery. Experimental parameters such as desorption temperature, scanning speed, and distances between the DART ion source and MS inlet were optimized. Two different mass analyzers (Orbitrap and QTOF) and two accessories for sample introduction (Dip-it ® tips and QuickStrip™ sample cards) were evaluated. An extra clean-up step using primary-secondary amine (PSA) was included in the QuPPe method to improve sensitivity. The main limitation found was in-source fragmentation, nevertheless QuPPe-DART-HRMS proved to be a fast and reliable tool with quantitative capabilities for at least seven compounds: amitrole, cyromazine, propamocarb, melamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine and 1,2,4-triazole. The limits of detection ranged from 20 to 60μg/kg. Recoveries for fortified samples ranged from 71 to 115%, with relative standard deviations <18%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The instantaneous relationship between polar cap and oval auroras at times of northward interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphree, J.S.; Anger, C.D.; Cogger, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Optical images of the polar cap region at both 5577 and 3914 A obtained from 1400 km above the earth have been used to study the relationship between polar cap and oval aurora during periods when the interplanetary magnetic field is strongly northward, i.e., B > 3.5 nT. When this rather rare condition occurs, distinction between the two types of aurora is no longer as clear as depicted on the basis of statistical definitions of the auroral oval. Diffuse, weak emission can fill in the region between the auroral oval and discrete auroral features in the polar cap. The polar cap discrete features can appear very similar to auroral oval arcs in intensity, intensity ratio, and structure. Even more striking are the situations where discrete polar cap features merge with oval auroras. From this study it is concluded that under conditions of large positive B the region of closed magnetic field lines can expand poleward to occupy much of the high latitude region

  20. The incorporation of fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times and arrival polarizations into seismic tomography: Application to the Parkfield, California area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Peng, Z.; Zhao, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a 3D P-wave velocity (Vp) model of the Parkfield region that utilizes existing P-wave arrival time data, including fault zone head waves (FZHW), plus new data from direct wave secondary arrivals (DWSA). The first-arrival and DWSA travel times are obtained as the global and local minimum travel time paths, respectively. The inclusion of DWSA results in as much as a 10% increase in the across-fault velocity contrast for the Vp model at Parkfield relative to Thurber et al. (2006). Viewed along strike, three pronounced velocity contrast regions are observed: a pair of strong positive velocity contrasts (SW fast), one NW of the 1966 Parkfield hypocenter and the other SE of the 2004 Parkfield hypocenter, and a strong negative velocity contrast (NE fast) between the two hypocenters. The negative velocity contrast partially to entirely encompasses peak coseismic slip estimated in several slip models for the 2004 earthquake, suggesting that the negative velocity contrast played a part in defining the rupture patch of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We expand on this work by modifying our seismic tomography algorithm to incorporate arrival polarizations (azimuths). Synthetic tests will be presented to demonstrate the improvements in velocity structure when arrival polarizations are incorporated. These tests will compare the synthetic model recovered when FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data are inverted to that recovered with the same dataset with the inclusion of arrival polarizations. We plan to extend this work to carry out a full scale seismic tomography/relocation inversion at Parkfield, CA utilizing arrival polarizations from all first-P arrivals, and FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data. This effort requires the determination of polarization data for all P-waves and FZHW's at Parkfield. To this end, we use changes in the arrival azimuth from fault normal to source-receiver direction to identify FZHW and

  1. Superconducting fluctuations and characteristic time scales in amorphous WSi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofu; Lita, Adriana E.; Sidorova, Mariia; Verma, Varun B.; Wang, Qiang; Nam, Sae Woo; Semenov, Alexei; Schilling, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    We study magnitudes and temperature dependencies of the electron-electron and electron-phonon interaction times which play the dominant role in the formation and relaxation of photon-induced hotspots in two-dimensional amorphous WSi films. The time constants are obtained through magnetoconductance measurements in a perpendicular magnetic field in the superconducting fluctuation regime and through time-resolved photoresponse to optical pulses. The excess magnetoconductivity is interpreted in terms of the weak-localization effect and superconducting fluctuations. Aslamazov-Larkin and Maki-Thompson superconducting fluctuations alone fail to reproduce the magnetic field dependence in the relatively high magnetic field range when the temperature is rather close to Tc because the suppression of the electronic density of states due to the formation of short-lifetime Cooper pairs needs to be considered. The time scale τi of inelastic scattering is ascribed to a combination of electron-electron (τe -e) and electron-phonon (τe -p h) interaction times, and a characteristic electron-fluctuation time (τe -f l) , which makes it possible to extract their magnitudes and temperature dependencies from the measured τi. The ratio of phonon-electron (τp h -e) and electron-phonon interaction times is obtained via measurements of the optical photoresponse of WSi microbridges. Relatively large τe -p h/τp h -e and τe -p h/τe -e ratios ensure that in WSi the photon energy is more efficiently confined in the electron subsystem than in other materials commonly used in the technology of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs). We discuss the impact of interaction times on the hotspot dynamics and compare relevant metrics of SNSPDs from different materials.

  2. A Review of Time-Scale Modification of Music Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Driedger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Time-scale modification (TSM is the task of speeding up or slowing down an audio signal’s playback speed without changing its pitch. In digital music production, TSM has become an indispensable tool, which is nowadays integrated in a wide range of music production software. Music signals are diverse—they comprise harmonic, percussive, and transient components, among others. Because of this wide range of acoustic and musical characteristics, there is no single TSM method that can cope with all kinds of audio signals equally well. Our main objective is to foster a better understanding of the capabilities and limitations of TSM procedures. To this end, we review fundamental TSM methods, discuss typical challenges, and indicate potential solutions that combine different strategies. In particular, we discuss a fusion approach that involves recent techniques for harmonic-percussive separation along with time-domain and frequency-domain TSM procedures.

  3. Scale invariance in chaotic time series: Classical and quantum examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Emmanuel; Morales, Irving O.; Stránský, Pavel; Fossion, Rubén; Velázquez, Victor; López Vieyra, J. C.; Frank, Alejandro

    Important aspects of chaotic behavior appear in systems of low dimension, as illustrated by the Map Module 1. It is indeed a remarkable fact that all systems tha make a transition from order to disorder display common properties, irrespective of their exacta functional form. We discuss evidence for 1/f power spectra in the chaotic time series associated in classical and quantum examples, the one-dimensional map module 1 and the spectrum of 48Ca. A Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method is applied to investigate the scaling properties of the energy fluctuations in the spectrum of 48Ca obtained with a large realistic shell model calculation (ANTOINE code) and with a random shell model (TBRE) calculation also in the time series obtained with the map mod 1. We compare the scale invariant properties of the 48Ca nuclear spectrum sith similar analyses applied to the RMT ensambles GOE and GDE. A comparison with the corresponding power spectra is made in both cases. The possible consequences of the results are discussed.

  4. Adaptation and learning: characteristic time scales of performance dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Karl M; Mayer-Kress, Gottfried; Hong, S Lee; Liu, Yeou-Teh

    2009-12-01

    A multiple time scales landscape model is presented that reveals structures of performance dynamics that were not resolved in the traditional power law analysis of motor learning. It shows the co-existence of separate processes during and between practice sessions that evolve in two independent dimensions characterized by time scales that differ by about an order of magnitude. Performance along the slow persistent dimension of learning improves often as much and sometimes more during rest (memory consolidation and/or insight generation processes) than during a practice session itself. In contrast, the process characterized by the fast, transient dimension of adaptation reverses direction between practice sessions, thereby significantly degrading performance at the beginning of the next practice session (warm-up decrement). The theoretical model fits qualitatively and quantitatively the data from Snoddy's [Snoddy, G. S. (1926). Learning and stability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 10, 1-36] classic learning study of mirror tracing and other averaged and individual data sets, and provides a new account of the processes of change in adaptation and learning. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad [Research Computing Center, Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie, E-mail: bchen3@fsu.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.

  6. ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python

  7. Celestial orientation with the sun not in view: lizards use a time-compensated sky polarization compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoret, Francesco; Beltrami, Giulia; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was aimed at testing whether the lizard sky polarization compass is time compensated. For this purpose, ruin lizards, Podarcis sicula, were both trained and tested for orientation inside a Morris water maze under clear skies with the sun not in view. During training, lizards showed a striking bimodal orientation along the training axis, demonstrating their capability of determining the symmetry plane of the sky polarization pattern and thus the use of polarization information in orientation. After reaching criteria, lizards were kept 7 days in a 6-h fast clock-shift treatment and then released with the sun not in view. Six-hour clock-shifted lizards showed a bimodal distribution of directional choices, which was oriented perpendicularly to the training axis, as it was expected on the basis of the clock-shift. The results show that the only celestial diurnal compass mechanism that does not need a direct vision of the sun disk (i.e., the sky polarization compass) is a time-compensated compass.

  8. Real-time photonic sampling with improved signal-to-noise and distortion ratio using polarization-dependent modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Zhang, Zhiyao; Liu, Yong; Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Wei; Tan, Qinggui

    2018-04-01

    A real-time photonic sampling structure with effective nonlinearity suppression and excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance is proposed. The key points of this scheme are the polarization-dependent modulators (P-DMZMs) and the sagnac loop structure. Thanks to the polarization sensitive characteristic of P-DMZMs, the differences between transfer functions of the fundamental signal and the distortion become visible. Meanwhile, the selection of specific biases in P-DMZMs is helpful to achieve a preferable linearized performance with a low noise level for real-time photonic sampling. Compared with the quadrature-biased scheme, the proposed scheme is capable of valid nonlinearity suppression and is able to provide a better SNR performance even in a large frequency range. The proposed scheme is proved to be effective and easily implemented for real time photonic applications.

  9. Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible

  10. Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoxin Dai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-based large-scale photonic integrated circuits are becoming important, due to the need for higher complexity and lower cost for optical transmitters, receivers and optical buffers. In this paper, passive technologies for large-scale photonic integrated circuits are described, including polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction. The design rule for polarization beam splitters based on asymmetrical directional couplers is summarized and several novel designs for ultra-short polarization beam splitters are reviewed. A novel concept for realizing a polarization splitter–rotator is presented with a very simple fabrication process. Realization of silicon-based light non-reciprocity devices (e.g., optical isolator, which is very important for transmitters to avoid sensitivity to reflections, is also demonstrated with the help of magneto-optical material by the bonding technology. Low-loss waveguides are another important technology for large-scale photonic integrated circuits. Ultra-low loss optical waveguides are achieved by designing a Si3N4 core with a very high aspect ratio. The loss is reduced further to <0.1 dB m−1 with an improved fabrication process incorporating a high-quality thermal oxide upper cladding by means of wafer bonding. With the developed ultra-low loss Si3N4 optical waveguides, some devices are also demonstrated, including ultra-high-Q ring resonators, low-loss arrayed-waveguide grating (demultiplexers, and high-extinction-ratio polarizers.

  11. Probing space–time structure of new physics with polarized beams ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. At the international linear collider large beam polarization of both the elec- tron and positron beams will enhance the signature of physics due to interactions that are beyond the standard model. Here we review our recently obtained results on a general model-independent method of determining for an arbitary ...

  12. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Laurie S.; Woerner, August E.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Kelley, Joanna L.; Veeramah, Krishna R.; McManus, Kimberly F.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Hammer, Michael F.; Wall, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471–475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10–15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives. PMID:26671457

  13. First time measurements of polarization observables for the charged cascade hyperon in photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bono, Jason [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The parity violating weak decay of hyperons offers a valuable means of measuring their polarization, providing insight into the production of strange quarks and the matter they compose. Jefferson Lab's CLAS collaboration has utilized this property of hyperons, publishing the most precise polarization measurements for the Lambda and Sigma in both photoproduction and electroproduction to date. In contrast, cascades, which contain two strange quarks, can only be produced through indirect processes and as a result, exhibit low cross sections thus remaining experimentally elusive.

    At present, there are two aspects in cascade physics where progress has been minimal: characterizing their production mechanism, which lacks theoretical and experimental developments, and observation of the numerous excited cascade resonances that are required to exist by flavor SU(3)F symmetry. However, CLAS data were collected in 2008 with a luminosity of 68 pb^-1 using a circularly polarized photon beam with energies up to 5.45 GeV, incident on a liquid hydrogen target. This dataset is, at present, the world's largest for meson photoproduction in its energy range and provides a unique opportunity to study cascade physics with polarization measurements.

    The current analysis explores hyperon production through the yp -> K^+ K^+ Xi^- reaction by providing the first ever determination of spin observables P, Cx and Cz for the cascade. Three of our primary goals are to test the only cascade photoproduction model in existence, examine the underlying processes that give rise to hyperon polarization, and to stimulate future theoretical developments while providing constraints for their parameters. Our research is part of a broader program to understand the production of strange quarks and hadrons with strangeness. The remainder of this document discusses the motivation behind such research, the method of data collection, details of their analysis, and the significance of

  14. Neural Computations in a Dynamical System with Multiple Time Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yuanyuan; Lin, Xiaohan; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    Neural systems display rich short-term dynamics at various levels, e.g., spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) at the single-neuron level, and short-term facilitation (STF) and depression (STD) at the synapse level. These dynamical features typically cover a broad range of time scales and exhibit large diversity in different brain regions. It remains unclear what is the computational benefit for the brain to have such variability in short-term dynamics. In this study, we propose that the brain can exploit such dynamical features to implement multiple seemingly contradictory computations in a single neural circuit. To demonstrate this idea, we use continuous attractor neural network (CANN) as a working model and include STF, SFA and STD with increasing time constants in its dynamics. Three computational tasks are considered, which are persistent activity, adaptation, and anticipative tracking. These tasks require conflicting neural mechanisms, and hence cannot be implemented by a single dynamical feature or any combination with similar time constants. However, with properly coordinated STF, SFA and STD, we show that the network is able to implement the three computational tasks concurrently. We hope this study will shed light on the understanding of how the brain orchestrates its rich dynamics at various levels to realize diverse cognitive functions.

  15. Time-scales of stellar rotational variability and starspot diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Lammer, Helmut; Güdel, Manuel; Lüftinger, Teresa; Johnstone, Colin P.

    2018-01-01

    The difference in stability of starspot distribution on the global and hemispherical scales is studied in the rotational spot variability of 1998 main-sequence stars observed by Kepler mission. It is found that the largest patterns are much more stable than smaller ones for cool, slow rotators, whereas the difference is less pronounced for hotter stars and/or faster rotators. This distinction is interpreted in terms of two mechanisms: (1) the diffusive decay of long-living spots in activity complexes of stars with saturated magnetic dynamos, and (2) the spot emergence, which is modulated by gigantic turbulent flows in convection zones of stars with a weaker magnetism. This opens a way for investigation of stellar deep convection, which is yet inaccessible for asteroseismology. Moreover, a subdiffusion in stellar photospheres was revealed from observations for the first time. A diagnostic diagram was proposed that allows differentiation and selection of stars for more detailed studies of these phenomena.

  16. BOX-COX REGRESSION METHOD IN TIME SCALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATİLLA GÖKTAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Box-Cox regression method with λj, for j = 1, 2, ..., k, power transformation can be used when dependent variable and error term of the linear regression model do not satisfy the continuity and normality assumptions. The situation obtaining the smallest mean square error  when optimum power λj, transformation for j = 1, 2, ..., k, of Y has been discussed. Box-Cox regression method is especially appropriate to adjust existence skewness or heteroscedasticity of error terms for a nonlinear functional relationship between dependent and explanatory variables. In this study, the advantage and disadvantage use of Box-Cox regression method have been discussed in differentiation and differantial analysis of time scale concept.

  17. Prewhitening of hydroclimatic time series? Implications for inferred change and variability across time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Saman; Vogel, Richard

    2018-02-01

    Prewhitening, the process of eliminating or reducing short-term stochastic persistence to enable detection of deterministic change, has been extensively applied to time series analysis of a range of geophysical variables. Despite the controversy around its utility, methodologies for prewhitening time series continue to be a critical feature of a variety of analyses including: trend detection of hydroclimatic variables and reconstruction of climate and/or hydrology through proxy records such as tree rings. With a focus on the latter, this paper presents a generalized approach to exploring the impact of a wide range of stochastic structures of short- and long-term persistence on the variability of hydroclimatic time series. Through this approach, we examine the impact of prewhitening on the inferred variability of time series across time scales. We document how a focus on prewhitened, residual time series can be misleading, as it can drastically distort (or remove) the structure of variability across time scales. Through examples with actual data, we show how such loss of information in prewhitened time series of tree rings (so-called "residual chronologies") can lead to the underestimation of extreme conditions in climate and hydrology, particularly droughts, reconstructed for centuries preceding the historical period.

  18. Planck intermediate results: XLVI. Reduction of large-scale systematic effects in HFI polarization maps and estimation of the reionization optical depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the identification, modelling, and removal of previously unexplained systematic effects in the polarization data of the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) on large angular scales, including new mapmaking and calibration procedures, new and more complete end-to-end simulat...

  19. Mapping possible flowpaths of contaminants through surface and cross-borehole spectral time-domain induced polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Maurya, Pradip Kumar

    Traditional methods for mapping possible flowpaths of contaminants in sedimentary environments by boreholes may often be insufficient. Additional information may be acquired by geophysical methods. In the present study, cross-borehole and surface measurements were performed using time-domain indu......-domain induced polarization (TDIP). After measurements the entire test site was dug out, and the geology was described. A 2D spectral inversion of the combined dataset is presented, which is in great correspondence with the observed geology....

  20. The pace of aging: Intrinsic time scales in demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wrycza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pace of aging is a concept that captures the time-related aspect of aging. It formalizesthe idea of a characteristic life span or intrinsic population time scale. In the rapidly developing field of comparative biodemography, measures that account for inter-speciesdifferences in life span are needed to compare how species age. Objective: We aim to provide a mathematical foundation for the concept of pace. We derive desiredmathematical properties of pace measures and suggest candidates which satisfy these properties. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of pace-standardization, which reveals differences in demographic quantities that are not due to pace. Examples and consequences are discussed. Conclusions: Mean life span (i.e., life expectancy from birth or from maturity is intuitively appealing,theoretically justified, and the most appropriate measure of pace. Pace-standardizationprovides a serviceable method for comparative aging studies to explore differences indemographic patterns of aging across species, and it may considerably alter conclusionsabout the strength of aging.

  1. Mapping the Eskelund landfill using time-domain spectral induced polarization data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaz, Aurélie; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Pedersen, Jesper Bjergsted

    2011-01-01

    Between November 2009 and July 2010, researchers from the HydroGeophysics Group, Aarhus University, carried out a survey in the former municipal landfill, Eskelund (Denmark). Induced polarization measurements (IP) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were used to define the spatial...... boundaries of the dump site. The joint application of these two methods may allow the discrimination between materials displaying an identical signature in resistivity (e.g., brine and clay)...

  2. An Exercise on Magnetic-Anomaly Profiles and the Geomagnetic Polar-Reversal Time Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, James Herbert

    1988-01-01

    Develops an exercise in which students use magnetic-profile data gathered in the South Pacific to test the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis. Uses the Eltanin 19N and 20N profiles. Relates the exercise to 20 current geology texts. (MVL)

  3. The continental Permian-Triassic boundary in the Netherlands: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity time scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szurlies, M.; Geluk, M.C.; Krijgsman, W.; Kürschner, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In Central and NW Europe, the transition from the Permian to the Triassic (i.e., the Zechstein–Buntsandstein boundary interval) is developed mainly in red bed facies. This continental sedimentary succession is marked by relatively high sedimentation rates providing a high temporal resolution

  4. Real time transverse-force sensor based on polarization properties of fiber Bragg grating and cross-sensitivity compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yang; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Baofu; Peng, Hui; Ye, Zhenxing

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method for real-time transverse force sensor based on the measurement of the polarization properties of a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written into standard single mode fiber. Unlike the usual spectral analysis of FBG sensors, we demonstrate here that the amplitude of the first Stokes parameters of a uniform FBG in transmission can be used to obtain transverse force value. The influences of incident angle of linear polarized light launched into FBG on sensor performance are analyzed. Experimental results measured by means of a tunable laser source and a polarimeter are presented. We also propose a kind of grating structure with triangular-shaped transmission spectrum to reduce the influences of cross-sensitivity. The compensation effect can satisfy the requirements of the practical application with optimized grating parameters. (paper)

  5. Ozone time scale decomposition and trend assessment from surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleti, Eirini; Hueglin, Christoph; Takahama, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of ozone precursors have been regulated in Europe since around 1990 with control measures primarily targeting to industries and traffic. In order to understand how these measures have affected air quality, it is now important to investigate concentrations of tropospheric ozone in different types of environments, based on their NOx burden, and in different geographic regions. In this study, we analyze high quality data sets for Switzerland (NABEL network) and whole Europe (AirBase) for the last 25 years to calculate long-term trends of ozone concentrations. A sophisticated time scale decomposition method, called the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) (Huang,1998;Wu,2009), is used for decomposition of the different time scales of the variation of ozone, namely the long-term trend, seasonal and short-term variability. This allows subtraction of the seasonal pattern of ozone from the observations and estimation of long-term changes of ozone concentrations with lower uncertainty ranges compared to typical methodologies used. We observe that, despite the implementation of regulations, for most of the measurement sites ozone daily mean values have been increasing until around mid-2000s. Afterwards, we observe a decline or a leveling off in the concentrations; certainly a late effect of limitations in ozone precursor emissions. On the other hand, the peak ozone concentrations have been decreasing for almost all regions. The evolution in the trend exhibits some differences between the different types of measurement. In addition, ozone is known to be strongly affected by meteorology. In the applied approach, some of the meteorological effects are already captured by the seasonal signal and already removed in the de-seasonalized ozone time series. For adjustment of the influence of meteorology on the higher frequency ozone variation, a statistical approach based on Generalized Additive Models (GAM) (Hastie,1990;Wood,2006), which corrects for meteorological

  6. Review of Tropical-Extratropical Teleconnections on Intraseasonal Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Cristiana; Straus, David M.; Frederiksen, Jorgen S.; Lin, Hai; Maloney, Eric D.; Schumacher, Courtney

    2017-12-01

    The interactions and teleconnections between the tropical and midlatitude regions on intraseasonal time scales are an important modulator of tropical and extratropical circulation anomalies and their associated weather patterns. These interactions arise due to the impact of the tropics on the extratropics, the impact of the midlatitudes on the tropics, and two-way interactions between the regions. Observational evidence, as well as theoretical studies with models of complexity ranging from the linear barotropic framework to intricate Earth system models, suggest the involvement of a myriad of processes and mechanisms in generating and maintaining these interconnections. At this stage, our understanding of these teleconnections is primarily a collection of concepts; a comprehensive theoretical framework has yet to be established. These intraseasonal teleconnections are increasingly recognized as an untapped source of potential subseasonal predictability. However, the complexity and diversity of mechanisms associated with these teleconnections, along with the lack of a conceptual framework to relate them, prevent this potential predictability from being translated into realized forecast skill. This review synthesizes our progress in understanding the observed characteristics of intraseasonal tropical-extratropical interactions and their associated mechanisms, identifies the significant gaps in this understanding, and recommends new research endeavors to address the remaining challenges.

  7. Deep-time evolution of regeneration and preaxial polarity in tetrapod limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröbisch, Nadia B; Bickelmann, Constanze; Olori, Jennifer C; Witzmann, Florian

    2015-11-12

    Among extant tetrapods, salamanders are unique in showing a reversed preaxial polarity in patterning of the skeletal elements of the limbs, and in displaying the highest capacity for regeneration, including full limb and tail regeneration. These features are particularly striking as tetrapod limb development has otherwise been shown to be a highly conserved process. It remains elusive whether the capacity to regenerate limbs in salamanders is mechanistically and evolutionarily linked to the aberrant pattern of limb development; both are features classically regarded as unique to urodeles. New molecular data suggest that salamander-specific orphan genes play a central role in limb regeneration and may also be involved in the preaxial patterning during limb development. Here we show that preaxial polarity in limb development was present in various groups of temnospondyl amphibians of the Carboniferous and Permian periods, including the dissorophoids Apateon and Micromelerpeton, as well as the stereospondylomorph Sclerocephalus. Limb regeneration has also been reported in Micromelerpeton, demonstrating that both features were already present together in antecedents of modern salamanders 290 million years ago. Furthermore, data from lepospondyl 'microsaurs' on the amniote stem indicate that these taxa may have shown some capacity for limb regeneration and were capable of tail regeneration, including re-patterning of the caudal vertebral column that is otherwise only seen in salamander tail regeneration. The data from fossils suggest that salamander-like regeneration is an ancient feature of tetrapods that was subsequently lost at least once in the lineage leading to amniotes. Salamanders are the only modern tetrapods that retained regenerative capacities as well as preaxial polarity in limb development.

  8. Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Neville J; Peel, Louise L; Swann, Marcus J; Cross, Graham H; Reeves, Andrew; Brand, Stuart; Lu, Jian R

    2004-01-01

    A novel method for the analysis of thin biological films, called dual polarization interferometry (DPI), is described. This high resolution (<1 A), laboratory-based technique allows the thickness and refractive index (density) of biological molecules adsorbing or reacting at the solid-liquid interface to be measured in real time (up to 10 measurements per second). Results from the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on to a silicon oxynitride chip surface are presented to demonstrate how time dependent molecular behaviour can be examined using DPI. Mechanistic and structural information relating to the adsorption process is obtained as a function of the solution pH

  9. What is the Time Scale for Orbital Forcing of the Martian Water Cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, M. H.

    2003-01-01

    Calculation of the periodic variations in the martian orbital parameters by Ward and subsequent refinements to the theory have inspired numerous models of variation of the martian water cycle. Most of these models have focused on variations in planetary obliquity on a both a short-term (110 kyr) time scale as well as larger oscillations occuring over millions of years. To a lesser extent, variations in planetary eccentricity have also been considered. The third and fastest mode of variation, the precession of the longitude of perihelion, has generally been deemphasized because, among the three parameters, it is the only one that does not change the integrated annual insolation. But as a result of this precession, the asymmetry in peak summer insolation between the poles exceeds 50%, with the maximum cycling between poles every 25.5 kyrs. The relative contribution of these different elements to orbital forcing of climate takes on particular importance in the context of apparently recent waterrelated features such as gullies or polar layered deposits (PLD). Christensen, for example, recently indentified mantling of heavily gullied crater walls as residual dust-covered snow deposits that were responsible for the formation of the gullies in a previous epoch. Christensen assumed that the snow was originally deposited at a period of high obliquity which was stabilized against sublimation by a lag deposit of dust. It is suggested here that not obliquity, but the shortterm oscillations associated with precession of the perihelion may play the dominant role in the formation of gullies, major strata in the polar layered deposits (PLD), and other water-related features.

  10. Time-scales for runoff and erosion estimates, with implications for spatial scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, M. J.; Irvine, B. J.; Dalen, E. N.

    2009-04-01

    Using rainfall data at high temporal resolution, runoff may be estimated for every bucket-tip, or for aggregated hourly or daily periods. Although there is no doubt that finer resolution gives substantially better estimates, many models make use of coarser time steps because these data are more widely available. This paper makes comparisons between runoff estimates based on infiltration measurements used with high resolution rainfall data for SE Spain and theoretical work on improving the time resolution in the PESERA model from daily to hourly values, for areas where these are available. For a small plot at fine temporal scale, runoff responds to bursts of intense rainfall which, for the Guadalentin catchment, typically lasts for about 30 minutes. However, when a larger area is considered, the large and unstructured variability in infiltration capacity produces an aggregate runoff that differs substantially from estimates using average infiltration parameters (in the Green-Ampt equation). When these estimates are compared with estimates based on rainfall for aggregated hourly or daily periods, using a simpler infiltration model, it can be seen that there a substantial scatter, as expected, but that suitable parameterisation can provide reasonable average estimates. Similar conclusions may be drawn for erosion estimates, assuming that sediment transport is proportional to a power of runoff discharge.. The spatial implications of these estimates can be made explicit with fine time resolution, showing that, with observed low overland flow velocities, only a small fraction of the hillside is generally able to deliver runoff to the nearest channel before rainfall intensity drops and runoff re-infiltrates. For coarser time resolutions, this has to be parameterised as a delivery ratio, and we show that how this ratio can be rationally estimated from rainfall characteristics.

  11. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl; Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-07

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (F{sub rep}) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest F{sub rep} was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  12. Inter-Hemispheric Coupling During Northern Polar Summer Periods of 2002-2010 using TIMED/SABER Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Pesnell, W. D.; Kutepov, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been found that for more than one polar summer season between 2002-2010, the northern polar mesospheric region near and above about 80 km was warmer than normal. The strongest warming effect of this type was observed to occur during northern summer 2002. Theoretical studies have implied that these "anomalies" were preceded by unusual dynamical processes in the southern hemisphere. We have analyzed temperature distributions measured by the SABER limb scanning infrared radiometer aboard the NASA TIMED satellite between 2002-2010 at altitudes from 15 to 110 km and for latitudes between 83 S to 83 N. We describe the approach to trace the inter-hemispheric temperature correlations demonstrating the global features that were unique for the "anomalous" northern polar summers. From our analysis of SABER data from 2002-2010, the anomalous heating for the northern mesopause region during northern summer was accompanied by stratospheric heating in the equatorial region. In the winter hemisphere it is accompanied by heating in the lower stratosphere and mesopause region, and cooling in the stratopause region. Also, all the elements of the temperature anomaly structure appear to develop and fade away nearly simultaneously, thereby suggesting either a global influence or a rapid exchange.

  13. HYSPEC: A crystal time-of-flight hybrid spectrometer for the spallation neutron source with polarization capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.; Zaliznyak, I.A.; Passell, L.; Ghosh, V.J.; Leonhardt, W.J.; Hagen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid spectrometer (HYSPEC) is a unique direct geometry inelastic scattering instrument under construction at the spallation neutron source (SNS). It combines the intensity enhancement features of focusing Bragg crystals with time-of-flight energy analysis. It will be located at beam-line 14B, which views a coupled liquid hydrogen moderator. A neutron beam from the moderator will travel along a curved guide, through a Fermi chopper and will then be focused onto a sample in an external building, 39 m from the source. In this configuration the intensity at the sample position is more than an order of magnitude larger than for other planned inelastic instrument. A movable detector bank 4.5 m from the sample will cover an angular range of 60 deg. in the horizontal plane and 15 deg. in the vertical direction. An important feature of HYSPEC is the ability to do neutron polarization analysis experiments. A Heusler crystal, which polarizes the neutron beam, can be used as the focusing crystal and a series of bender analyzers will analyze the polarization of the scattered beam

  14. Nonequilibrium Physics at Short Time Scales: Formation of Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peliti, L

    2005-01-01

    It is a happy situation when similar concepts and theoretical techniques can be applied to widely different physical systems because of a deep similarity in the situations being studied. The book illustrates this well; it focuses on the description of correlations in quantum systems out of equilibrium at very short time scales, prompted by experiments with short laser pulses in semiconductors, and in complex reactions in heavy nuclei. In both cases the experiments are characterized by nonlinear dynamics and by strong correlations out of equilibrium. In some systems there are also important finite-size effects. The book comprises several independent contributions of moderate length, and I sometimes felt that a more intensive effort in cross-coordination of the different contributions could have been of help. It is divided almost equally between theory and experiment. In the theoretical part, there is a thorough discussion both of the kinematic aspects (description of correlations) and the dynamical ones (evaluation of correlations). The experimental part is naturally divided according to the nature of the system: the interaction of pulsed lasers with matter on the one hand, and the correlations in finite-size systems (nanoparticles and nuclei) on the other. There is also a discussion on the dynamics of superconductors, a subject currently of great interest. Although an effort has been made to keep each contribution self-contained, I must admit that reading level is uneven. However, there are a number of thorough and stimulating contributions that make this book a useful introduction to the topic at the level of graduate students or researchers acquainted with quantum statistical mechanics. (book review)

  15. EON: software for long time simulations of atomic scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chill, Samuel T.; Welborn, Matthew; Terrell, Rye; Zhang, Liang; Berthet, Jean-Claude; Pedersen, Andreas; Jónsson, Hannes; Henkelman, Graeme

    2014-07-01

    The EON software is designed for simulations of the state-to-state evolution of atomic scale systems over timescales greatly exceeding that of direct classical dynamics. States are defined as collections of atomic configurations from which a minimization of the potential energy gives the same inherent structure. The time evolution is assumed to be governed by rare events, where transitions between states are uncorrelated and infrequent compared with the timescale of atomic vibrations. Several methods for calculating the state-to-state evolution have been implemented in EON, including parallel replica dynamics, hyperdynamics and adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo. Global optimization methods, including simulated annealing, basin hopping and minima hopping are also implemented. The software has a client/server architecture where the computationally intensive evaluations of the interatomic interactions are calculated on the client-side and the state-to-state evolution is managed by the server. The client supports optimization for different computer architectures to maximize computational efficiency. The server is written in Python so that developers have access to the high-level functionality without delving into the computationally intensive components. Communication between the server and clients is abstracted so that calculations can be deployed on a single machine, clusters using a queuing system, large parallel computers using a message passing interface, or within a distributed computing environment. A generic interface to the evaluation of the interatomic interactions is defined so that empirical potentials, such as in LAMMPS, and density functional theory as implemented in VASP and GPAW can be used interchangeably. Examples are given to demonstrate the range of systems that can be modeled, including surface diffusion and island ripening of adsorbed atoms on metal surfaces, molecular diffusion on the surface of ice and global structural optimization of nanoparticles.

  16. Time-dependent screening of a positive charge distribution in metals: Excitons on an ultra-short time scale

    OpenAIRE

    Schöne, Wolf-Dieter; Ekardt, Walter

    2000-01-01

    Experiments determining the lifetime of excited electrons in crystalline copper reveal states which cannot be interpreted as Bloch states [S. Ogawa {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. B {\\bf 55}, 10869 (1997)]. In this article we propose a model which explains these states as transient excitonic states in metals. The physical background of transient excitons is the finite time a system needs to react to an external perturbation, in other words, the time which is needed to build up a polarization cloud. ...

  17. Measuring the Largest Angular Scale CMB B-mode Polarization with Galactic Foregrounds on a Cut Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Duncan J.; Larson, David; Marriage, Tobias A.; Abitbol, Maximilian H.; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Miller, Nathan J.; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2015-12-01

    We consider the effectiveness of foreground cleaning in the recovery of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization sourced by gravitational waves for tensor-to-scalar ratios in the range 0\\lt r\\lt 0.1. Using the planned survey area, frequency bands, and sensitivity of the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS), we simulate maps of Stokes Q and U parameters at 40, 90, 150, and 220 GHz, including realistic models of the CMB, diffuse Galactic thermal dust and synchrotron foregrounds, and Gaussian white noise. We use linear combinations (LCs) of the simulated multifrequency data to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of r, the relative scalar amplitude s, and LC coefficients. We find that for 10,000 simulations of a CLASS-like experiment using only measurements of the reionization peak ({\\ell }≤slant 23), there is a 95% C.L. upper limit of r\\lt 0.017 in the case of no primordial gravitational waves. For simulations with r=0.01, we recover at 68% C.L. r={0.012}-0.006+0.011. The reionization peak corresponds to a fraction of the multipole moments probed by CLASS, and simulations including 30≤slant {\\ell }≤slant 100 further improve our upper limits to r\\lt 0.008 at 95% C.L. (r={0.010}-0.004+0.004 for primordial gravitational waves with r = 0.01). In addition to decreasing the current upper bound on r by an order of magnitude, these foreground-cleaned low multipole data will achieve a cosmic variance limited measurement of the E-mode polarization’s reionization peak.

  18. Modeling induced polarization effects in helicopter time domain electromagnetic data: Synthetic case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viezzoli, Andrea; Kaminskiy, Vladislav; Fiandaca, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    constrained multiparametric inversion was evaluated, including recovery of chargeability distributions from shallow and deep targets based on analysis of induced polarization (IP) effects, simulated in airborne TDEM data. Different scenarios were studied, including chargeable targets associated...... processing and the effect of constraints, and a priori information. We have used a 1D layered earth model approximation and lateral constraints. Synthetic simulations were performed for several models and the corresponding Cole-Cole parameters. The possibility to recover these models by means of laterally...... the airborne electromagnetic is most sensitive (e.g., approximately 1 ms), it is possible to recover deep chargeable targets (to depths more than 130 m) in association with high electrical conductivity and in resistive environments. Furthermore, it was found that the recovery of a deep conductor, masked...

  19. Variations in the small-scale galactic magnetic field and short time-scale intensity variations of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Structure functions of the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) of extragalactic radio sources are used to investigate variations in the interstellar magnetic field on length scales of approx.0.01 to 100 pc. Model structure functions derived assuming a power-law power spectrum of irregularities in n/sub e/B, are compared with those observed. The results indicate an outer angular scale for RM variations of approximately less than or equal to 5 0 and evidence for RM variations on scales as small as 1'. Differences in the variance of n/sub e/B fluctuations for various lines of sight through the Galaxy are found. Comparison of pulsar scintillations in right- and left-circular polarizations yield an upper limit to the variations in n/sub e/ on a length scale of approx.10 11 cm. RMs were determined through high-velocity molecular flows in galactic star-formation regions, with the goal of constraining magnetic fields in and near the flows. RMs of 7 extragalactic sources with a approx.20 arcmin wide area seen through Cep A, fall in two groups separated by approx.150 rad m -2 - large given our knowledge of RM variations on small angular scales and possibly a result of the anisotropy of the high-velocity material

  20. A Group Simulation of the Development of the Geologic Time Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, J. Bret

    2000-01-01

    Explains how to demonstrate to students that the relative dating of rock layers is redundant. Uses two column diagrams to simulate stratigraphic sequences from two different geological time scales and asks students to complete the time scale. (YDS)

  1. Attractors of relaxation discrete-time systems with chaotic dynamics on a fast time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslennikov, Oleg V.; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new type of relaxation systems is considered. Their prominent feature is that they comprise two distinct epochs, one is slow regular motion and another is fast chaotic motion. Unlike traditionally studied slow-fast systems that have smooth manifolds of slow motions in the phase space and fast trajectories between them, in this new type one observes, apart the same geometric objects, areas of transient chaos. Alternating periods of slow regular motions and fast chaotic ones as well as transitions between them result in a specific chaotic attractor with chaos on a fast time scale. We formulate basic properties of such attractors in the framework of discrete-time systems and consider several examples. Finally, we provide an important application of such systems, the neuronal electrical activity in the form of chaotic spike-burst oscillations.

  2. Entangled time in flocking: Multi-time-scale interaction reveals emergence of inherent noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizato, Takayuki; Murakami, Hisashi

    2018-01-01

    Collective behaviors that seem highly ordered and result in collective alignment, such as schooling by fish and flocking by birds, arise from seamless shuffling (such as super-diffusion) and bustling inside groups (such as Lévy walks). However, such noisy behavior inside groups appears to preclude the collective behavior: intuitively, we expect that noisy behavior would lead to the group being destabilized and broken into small sub groups, and high alignment seems to preclude shuffling of neighbors. Although statistical modeling approaches with extrinsic noise, such as the maximum entropy approach, have provided some reasonable descriptions, they ignore the cognitive perspective of the individuals. In this paper, we try to explain how the group tendency, that is, high alignment, and highly noisy individual behavior can coexist in a single framework. The key aspect of our approach is multi-time-scale interaction emerging from the existence of an interaction radius that reflects short-term and long-term predictions. This multi-time-scale interaction is a natural extension of the attraction and alignment concept in many flocking models. When we apply this method in a two-dimensional model, various flocking behaviors, such as swarming, milling, and schooling, emerge. The approach also explains the appearance of super-diffusion, the Lévy walk in groups, and local equilibria. At the end of this paper, we discuss future developments, including extending our model to three dimensions.

  3. Real-time multi-target ranging based on chaotic polarization laser radars in the drive-response VCSELs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dongzhou; Xu, Geliang; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Zhenzhen

    2017-09-04

    According to the principle of complete chaos synchronization and the theory of Hilbert phase transformation, we propose a novel real-time multi-target ranging scheme by using chaotic polarization laser radar in the drive-response vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). In the scheme, to ensure each polarization component (PC) of the master VCSEL (MVCSEL) to be synchronized steadily with that of the slave VCSEL, the output x-PC and y-PC from the MVCSEL in the drive system and those in the response system are modulated by the linear electro-optic effect simultaneously. Under this condition, by simulating the influences of some key parameters of the system on the synchronization quality and the relative errors of the two-target ranging, related operating parameters can be optimized. The x-PC and the y-PC, as two chaotic radar sources, are used to implement the real-time ranging for two targets. It is found that the measured distances of the two targets at arbitrary position exhibit strong real-time stability and only slight jitter. Their resolutions are up to millimeters, and their relative errors are very small and less than 2.7%.

  4. A home for science: The life and times of Tropical and Polar field stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P Wenzel; Kelly, Ann H

    2016-12-01

    A 'halfway house' between the generic, purified space of the laboratory and the varied and particular spaces of the field, the field station is a controlled yet uncontained setting from which nature can be accessed and anchored. As living quarters for visiting scientists, field stations are also enmeshed in the routine and rhythms of everyday domestic life, and in longer cycles of habitation, wear, and repair. This introduction considers the empirical and conceptual significance of Polar and Tropical field stations as homes for scientific work and scientific lives. The field station's extra-territorial yet intimate character affects the credibility and circulation of knowledge along science's frontiers. The challenge of making a home in the (non-temperate) field and the mundane experiences of expatriation and appropriation establish particular political dynamics of knowledge-making in these locations. They bring into focus the imaginaries of nature and science that drive transnational research and put into relief the aesthetic and affective dimensions of work and life in these distant homes for science. All these themes are pursued and amplified in a different medium by the artists who contributed to our research and are also featured in this special issue.

  5. Drivers and potential predictability of summer time North Atlantic polar front jet variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J.; Jones, Julie M.; Hanna, Edward; Scaife, Adam A.; Erdélyi, Róbert

    2017-06-01

    The variability of the North Atlantic polar front jet stream is crucial in determining summer weather around the North Atlantic basin. Recent extreme summers in western Europe and North America have highlighted the need for greater understanding of this variability, in order to aid seasonal forecasting and mitigate societal, environmental and economic impacts. Here we find that simple linear regression and composite models based on a few predictable factors are able to explain up to 35 % of summertime jet stream speed and latitude variability from 1955 onwards. Sea surface temperature forcings impact predominantly on jet speed, whereas solar and cryospheric forcings appear to influence jet latitude. The cryospheric associations come from the previous autumn, suggesting the survival of an ice-induced signal through the winter season, whereas solar influences lead jet variability by a few years. Regression models covering the earlier part of the twentieth century are much less effective, presumably due to decreased availability of data, and increased uncertainty in observational reanalyses. Wavelet coherence analysis identifies that associations fluctuate over the study period but it is not clear whether this is just internal variability or genuine non-stationarity. Finally we identify areas for future research.

  6. Changes in channel morphology over human time scales [Chapter 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Buffington

    2012-01-01

    Rivers are exposed to changing environmental conditions over multiple spatial and temporal scales, with the imposed environmental conditions and response potential of the river modulated to varying degrees by human activity and our exploitation of natural resources. Watershed features that control river morphology include topography (valley slope and channel...

  7. Length and time scales of atmospheric moisture recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to quantify the degree to which terrestrial evaporation supports the occurrence of precipitation within a certain study region (i.e. regional moisture recycling) due to the scale- and shape-dependence of regional moisture recycling ratios. In this paper we present a novel approach to

  8. Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a near-real-time (NRT) map of sea ice concentrations for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The near-real-time passive microwave...

  9. The optical polarization of X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    Polarimetric observations of close binaries may reveal the presence of a black-hole secondary. The Einstein photometric effect will introduce a characteristic, time-varying signature upon the interstellar polarization. For several reasons, it is concluded that the short time-scale variability in the polarization in HDE 226868 is caused by Rayleigh scattering from gas streams known to exist in the system. X Persei may have a variable polarization consistent with the predicted effectics and (Auth)

  10. Effect of Stabilization Heat Treatment on Time-Dependent Polarization Losses in Sintered Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuominen S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some companies in the motor and generator industry utilizing sintered NdFeB magnets have adopted pre-ageing heat treatment in order to improve the stability of the magnets. The parameters of this stabilization heat treatment are based mainly on assumptions rather than on any published research results. In this work, the effects of pre-ageing treatment on the time-dependent polarization losses of two different types of commercial sintered NdFeB magnets were studied. The material showing the squarer J(H curve did not benefit from the pre-ageing treatment, since it seems to be stable under a certain critical temperature. In contrast, a stabilizing effect was observed in the material showing rounder J(H curve. After the stabilization heat treatment, the polarization of the magnets was found to be at lower level, but unchanged over a certain period of time. The length of this period depends on the temperature and the duration of the pre-ageing treatment. In addition, our analysis reveals that the stabilization heat treatment performed in an open circuit condition does not stabilize the magnet uniformly.

  11. Doubling the Spectrum of Time-Domain Induced Polarization: Removal of Harmonic Noise and Self-Potential Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiandaca, G.; Olsson, P. I.; Auken, E.; Larsen, J. J.; Maurya, P. K.; Dahlin, T.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of spectral information in the inversion process of time-domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) data is changing the use of the IP method. Data interpretation is evolving from a qualitative description of the soil, able only to discriminate the presence of contrasts in chargeability parameters, towards a quantitative analysis of the investigated media, which allows soil-type characterization. Two major limitations restrict the extraction of the spectral information of TDIP data in the field: i) the difficulty of acquiring reliable early-time measurements, in the millisecond range and ii) the self-potential drift in the measured potentials distorting the shape of the late time IP decays, in the second range. For measuring at early-times, we developed a new method for removing the powerline noise contained in the data through a model-based approach, localizing the fundamental frequency of the powerline signal in the full-waveform IP recordings. By this, we cancel both the fundamental signal and its harmonics. This noise cancellation allows the use of earlier and narrower gates, down to a few milliseconds after the current turn-off. Even earlier gates can be measured but they will be inductively "contaminated" which we at present want to avoid. A proper removal of the self-potential drift present between the potential electrodes is essential for preserving the shape of the TD decays, especially for late times. Usually constant or linear drift-removal algorithms are used, but these algorithms fail in removing the background potentials due to the polarization of the electrodes previously used for current injection. We developed a drift-removal scheme that model the polarization effect and efficiently allows for preserving the shape of the IP decays. The removal of both the harmonic noise and self-potential drift allows for doubling the usable range of TDIP data to more than three decades in time (corresponding to three decays in frequency), and will

  12. Full-scale and time-scale heating experiments at Stripa: preliminary results. Technical project report No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Hood, M.

    1978-12-01

    Two full-scale heating experiments and a time-scale heating experiment have recently been started in granite 340 meters below surface. The purpose of the full-scale heating experiments is to assess the near-field effects of thermal loading for the design of an underground repository of nuclear wastes. That of the time-scale heating experiments is to obtain field data of the interaction between heaters and its effect on the rock mass during a period of about two years, which corresponds to about twenty years of full-scale operation. Geological features of the rock around each experiment have been mapped carefully, and temperatures, stresses and displacements induced in the rock by heating have been calculated in advance of the experiments. Some 800 different measurements are recorded at frequent intervals by a computer system situated underground. These data can be compared at any time with predictions made earlier on video display units underground

  13. Global Precipitation Analyses at Time Scales of Monthly to 3-Hourly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Global precipitation analysis covering the last few decades and the impact of the new TRMM precipitation observations are discussed. The 20+ year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to explore global and regional variations and trends and is compared to the much shorter TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) tropical data set. The GPCP data set shows no significant trend in precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. Regional trends are also analyzed. A trend pattern that is a combination of both El Nino and La Nina precipitation features is evident in the Goodyear data set. This pattern is related to an increase with time in the number of combined months of El Nino and La Nina during the Goodyear period. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENRON variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The GPCP daily, 1 degree latitude-longitude analysis, which is available from January 1997 to the present is described and the evolution of precipitation patterns on this time scale related to El Nino and La Nina is described. Finally, a TRMM-based Based analysis is described that uses TRMM to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I and geosynchronous OR observations and merges the various calibrated observations into a final, Baehr resolution map. This TRMM standard product will be available for the entire TRMM period (January Represent). A real-time version of this merged product is being produced and is available at 0.25 degree latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 50 deg. N -50 deg. S. Examples will be shown, including its use in monitoring flood conditions.

  14. Global terrestrial biogeochemistry: Perturbations, interactions, and time scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braswell, B.H. Jr.

    1996-12-01

    Global biogeochemical processes are being perturbed by human activity, principally that which is associated with industrial activity and expansion of urban and agricultural complexes. Perturbations have manifested themselves at least since the beginning of the 19th Century, and include emissions of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from fossil fuel combustion, agricultural emissions of reactive nitrogen, and direct disruption of ecosystem function through land conversion. These perturbations yield local impacts, but there are also global consequences that are the sum of local-scale influences. Several approaches to understanding the global-scale implications of chemical perturbations to the Earth system are discussed. The lifetime of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is an important concept for understanding the current and future commitment to an altered atmospheric heat budget. The importance of the terrestrial biogeochemistry relative to the lifetime of excess CO{sub 2} is demonstrated using dynamic, aggregated models of the global carbon cycle.

  15. Preliminary observations on polar body extrusion and pronuclear formation in human oocytes using time-lapse video cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, D; Flaherty, S P; Barry, M F; Matthews, C D

    1997-03-01

    In this study, we have used time-lapse video cinematography to study fertilization in 50 human oocytes that had undergone intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Time-lapse recording commenced shortly after ICSI and proceeded for 17-20 h. Oocytes were cultured in an environmental chamber which was maintained under standard culture conditions. Overall, 38 oocytes (76%) were fertilized normally, and the fertilization rate and embryo quality were not significantly different from 487 sibling oocytes cultured in a conventional incubator. Normal fertilization followed a defined course of events, although the timing of these events varied markedly between oocytes. In 35 of the 38 fertilized oocytes (92%), there were circular waves of granulation within the ooplasm which had a periodicity of 20-53 min. The sperm head decondensed during this granulation phase. The second polar body was then extruded, and this was followed by the central formation of the male pronucleus. The female pronucleus formed in the cytoplasm adjacent to the second polar body at the same time as, or slightly after, the male pronucleus, and was subsequently drawn towards the male pronucleus until the two abutted. Both pronuclei then increased in size, the nucleoli moved around within the pronuclei and some nucleoli coalesced. During pronuclear growth, the organelles contracted from the cortex towards the centre of the oocyte, leaving a clear cortical zone. The oocyte decreased in diameter from 112 to 106 microm (P cinematography is an excellent tool for studying fertilization and early embryo development, and have demonstrated that human fertilization comprises numerous complex dynamic events.

  16. Dynamics at Intermediate Time Scales and Management of Ecological Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-10

    thinking about the importance of transients is to recognize the importance of serial autocorrelation in time of forcing terms over realistic ecological time...rich areas helps produce divergent home range responses bet - ween individuals from difference age classes. This model has broad applications for

  17. Grasping Deep Time with Scaled Space in Personal Environs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. H.

    2014-01-01

    of modern man, the age of dinosaurs ended at 650 m and the Big Bang is 137 km away. This choice obviously makes mental calculations easy, and all of time fits inside a geographical area of moderate size and so helps the citizen gain ownership to this learning tool and hence to time. The idea was tested...

  18. Water Vapor, Temperature, and Ice Particles in Polar Mesosphere as Measured by SABER/TIMED and OSIRIS/Odin Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S. V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many new details on the properties of mesospheric ice particles that farm Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) and also cause polar mesospheric summer echoes have been recently revealed, certain aspects of mesospheric ice microphysics and dynamics still remain open. The detailed relation between PMC parameters and properties of their environment, as well as interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in PMC properties that are possibly related to global change, are among those open questions. In this work, mesospheric temperature and water vapor concentration measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite are used to study the properties of PMCs with respect to the surrounding atmosphere. The cloud parameters, namely location, brightness, and altitude, are obtained from the observations made by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) on the Odin satellite. About a thousand of simultaneous common volume measurements made by SABER and OSIRIS in both hemispheres from 2002 until 2008 are used. The correlation between PMC brightness (and occurrence rate) and temperatures at PMC altitudes and at the mesopause is analysed. The relation between PMC parameters, frost point temperature, and gaseous water vapor content in and below the cloud is also discussed. Interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in the above parameters, as well as in PMC peak altitudes and mesopause altitudes are evaluated.

  19. Late Miocene climate and time scale reconciliation: Accurate orbital calibration from a deep-sea perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Frederichs, Thomas; Tian, Jun; Wilkens, Roy; Channell, James E. T.; Evans, Helen; John, Cédric M.; Lyle, Mitch; Röhl, Ursula

    2017-10-01

    Accurate age control of the late Tortonian to early Messinian (8.3-6.0 Ma) is essential to ascertain the origin of benthic foraminiferal δ18O trends and the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (LMCIS), and to examine temporal relationships between the deep-sea, terrasphere and cryosphere. The current Tortonian-Messinian Geological Time Scale (GTS2012) is based on astronomically calibrated Mediterranean sections; however, no comparable non-Mediterranean stratigraphies exist for 8-6 Ma suitable for testing the GTS2012. Here, we present the first high-resolution, astronomically tuned benthic stable isotope stratigraphy (1.5 kyr resolution) and magnetostratigraphy from a single deep-sea location (IODP Site U1337, equatorial Pacific Ocean), which provides unprecedented insight into climate evolution from 8.3-6.0 Ma. The astronomically calibrated magnetostratigraphy provides robust ages, which differ by 2-50 kyr relative to the GTS2012 for polarity Chrons C3An.1n to C4r.1r, and eliminates the exceptionally high South Atlantic spreading rates based on the GTS2012 during Chron C3Bn. We show that the LMCIS was globally synchronous within 2 kyr, and provide astronomically calibrated ages anchored to the GPTS for its onset (7.537 Ma; 50% from base Chron C4n.1n) and termination (6.727 Ma; 11% from base Chron C3An.2n), confirming that the terrestrial C3:C4 shift could not have driven the LMCIS. The benthic records show that the transition into the 41-kyr world, when obliquity strongly influenced climate variability, already occurred at 7.7 Ma and further strengthened at 6.4 Ma. Previously unseen, distinctive, asymmetric saw-tooth patterns in benthic δ18O imply that high-latitude forcing played an important role in late Miocene climate dynamics from 7.7-6.9 Ma. This new integrated deep-sea stratigraphy from Site U1337 can act as a new stable isotope and magnetic polarity reference section for the 8.3-6.0 Ma interval.

  20. Interplay between multiple length and time scales in complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Processes in complex chemical systems, such as macromolecules, electrolytes, interfaces, ... by processes operating on a multiplicity of length .... real time. The design and interpretation of femto- second experiments has required considerable ...

  1. Field and polarity dependence of time-to-resistance increase in Fe-O films studied by constant voltage stress method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriguchi, Koji; Ohta, Hiroaki; Ono, Kouichi; Wei Zhiqiang; Takagi, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Constant voltage stress (CVS) was applied to Fe-O films prepared by a sputtering process to investigate a stress-induced resistance increase leading to a fundamental mechanism for switching behaviors. Under the CVS, an abrupt resistance increase was found for both stress polarities. A conduction mechanism after the resistance increase exhibited non-Ohmic transport. The time-to-resistance increase (t r ) under the CVS was revealed to strongly depend on stress voltage as well as the polarity. From a polarity-dependent resistance increase determined by a time-zero measurement, the voltage and polarity-dependent t r were discussed on the basis of field- and structure-enhanced thermochemical reaction mechanisms

  2. Millennial and sub-millennial scale climatic variations recorded in polar ice cores over the last glacial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Capron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in Greenland ice cores, the millennial scale climatic variability of the last glacial period has been increasingly documented at all latitudes with studies focusing mainly on Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (MIS 3; 28–60 thousand of years before present, hereafter ka and characterized by short Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO events. Recent and new results obtained on the EPICA and NorthGRIP ice cores now precisely describe the rapid variations of Antarctic and Greenland temperature during MIS 5 (73.5–123 ka, a time period corresponding to relatively high sea level. The results display a succession of abrupt events associated with long Greenland InterStadial phases (GIS enabling us to highlight a sub-millennial scale climatic variability depicted by (i short-lived and abrupt warming events preceding some GIS (precursor-type events and (ii abrupt warming events at the end of some GIS (rebound-type events. The occurrence of these sub-millennial scale events is suggested to be driven by the insolation at high northern latitudes together with the internal forcing of ice sheets. Thanks to a recent NorthGRIP-EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML common timescale over MIS 5, the bipolar sequence of climatic events can be established at millennial to sub-millennial timescale. This shows that for extraordinary long stadial durations the accompanying Antarctic warming amplitude cannot be described by a simple linear relationship between the two as expected from the bipolar seesaw concept. We also show that when ice sheets are extensive, Antarctica does not necessarily warm during the whole GS as the thermal bipolar seesaw model would predict, questioning the Greenland ice core temperature records as a proxy for AMOC changes throughout the glacial period.

  3. Field and polarity dependence of time-to-resistance increase in Fe–O films studied by constant voltage stress method

    OpenAIRE

    Eriguchi, Koji; Wei, Zhiqiang; Takagi, Takeshi; Ohta, Hiroaki; Ono, Kouichi

    2009-01-01

    Constant voltage stress (CVS) was applied to Fe–O films prepared by a sputtering process to investigate a stress-induced resistance increase leading to a fundamental mechanism for switching behaviors. Under the CVS, an abrupt resistance increase was found for both stress polarities. A conduction mechanism after the resistance increase exhibited non-Ohmic transport. The time-to-resistance increase (tr) under the CVS was revealed to strongly depend on stress voltage as well as the polarity. Fro...

  4. 1.28 Tbit/s/channel single-polarization DQPSK transmission over 525 km using ultrafast time-domain optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, P.; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Tomiyama, Y.

    2010-01-01

    A single-channel 1.28 Tbit/s transmission over 525 km is demonstrated for the first time with a single-polarization DQPSK signal. Ultrafast time-domain optical Fourier transformation is successfully applied to DQPSK signals and results in improved performance and increased system margin.......A single-channel 1.28 Tbit/s transmission over 525 km is demonstrated for the first time with a single-polarization DQPSK signal. Ultrafast time-domain optical Fourier transformation is successfully applied to DQPSK signals and results in improved performance and increased system margin....

  5. [Construction of the Time Management Scale and examination of the influence of time management on psychological stress response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Tomoya; Takamura, Masahiro; Okazaki, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Satoko

    2016-10-01

    We developed a scale to measure time management and assessed its reliability and validity. We then used this scale to examine the impact of time management on psychological stress response. In Study 1-1, we developed the scale and assessed its internal consistency and criterion-related validity. Findings from a factor analysis revealed three elements of time management, “time estimation,” “time utilization,” and “taking each moment as it comes.” In Study 1-2, we assessed the scale’s test-retest reliability. In Study 1-3, we assessed the validity of the constructed scale. The results indicate that the time management scale has good reliability and validity. In Study 2, we performed a covariance structural analysis to verify our model that hypothesized that time management influences perceived control of time and psychological stress response, and perceived control of time influences psychological stress response. The results showed that time estimation increases the perceived control of time, which in turn decreases stress response. However, we also found that taking each moment as it comes reduces perceived control of time, which in turn increases stress response.

  6. Finite-Time Stability of Large-Scale Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delay in Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. La-inchua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate finite-time stability of a class of nonlinear large-scale systems with interval time-varying delays in interconnection. Time-delay functions are continuous but not necessarily differentiable. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and new integral bounding technique, finite-time stability of large-scale systems with interval time-varying delays in interconnection is derived. The finite-time stability criteria are delays-dependent and are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities which can be solved by various available algorithms. Numerical examples are given to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Perception of short time scale intervals in a hypnotic virtuoso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Arstila, Valtteri; Wearden, John H.; Kallio, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hypnotized individuals underestimate temporal intervals in the range of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, no previous work has investigated whether duration perception is equally disorderly when shorter time intervals are probed. In this study, duration

  8. Dynamic modelling of heavy metals - time scales and target loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posch, M.; Vries, de W.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks in view of food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. However, dynamic models are needed to estimate the times involved in attaining a

  9. Time Scales in the JPL and CfA Ephemerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, E. M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decades, the IAU has repeatedly attempted to correct its definition of the basic fundamental argument used in the emphemerides. Finally, they have defined a time system which is physically possible, according to the accepted standard theory of gravitation.

  10. Coherent spectroscopies on ultrashort time and length scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three spectroscopic techniques are presented that provide simultaneous spatial and temporal resolution: modified confocal microscopy with heterodyne detection, space-time-resolved spectroscopy using coherent control concepts, and coherent two-dimensional nano-spectroscopy. Latest experimental results are discussed.

  11. Does expressive timing in music performance scale proportionally with tempo?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence is presented that expressive timing in music is not relationally invariant with global tempo. Our results stem from an analysis of repeated performances of Beethoven's variations on a Paisiello theme. Recordings were made of two pianists playing the pieces at three tempi. In contrast with

  12. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  13. Modelling financial markets with agents competing on different time scales and with different amount of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmuth, Johannes; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    2006-05-01

    We use agent-based models to study the competition among investors who use trading strategies with different amount of information and with different time scales. We find that mixing agents that trade on the same time scale but with different amount of information has a stabilizing impact on the large and extreme fluctuations of the market. Traders with the most information are found to be more likely to arbitrage traders who use less information in the decision making. On the other hand, introducing investors who act on two different time scales has a destabilizing effect on the large and extreme price movements, increasing the volatility of the market. Closeness in time scale used in the decision making is found to facilitate the creation of local trends. The larger the overlap in commonly shared information the more the traders in a mixed system with different time scales are found to profit from the presence of traders acting at another time scale than themselves.

  14. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  15. 3-D time-domain induced polarization tomography: a new approach based on a source current density formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueid Ahmed, A.; Revil, A.

    2018-04-01

    Induced polarization (IP) of porous rocks can be associated with a secondary source current density, which is proportional to both the intrinsic chargeability and the primary (applied) current density. This gives the possibility of reformulating the time domain induced polarization (TDIP) problem as a time-dependent self-potential-type problem. This new approach implies a change of strategy regarding data acquisition and inversion, allowing major time savings for both. For inverting TDIP data, we first retrieve the electrical resistivity distribution. Then, we use this electrical resistivity distribution to reconstruct the primary current density during the injection/retrieval of the (primary) current between the current electrodes A and B. The time-lapse secondary source current density distribution is determined given the primary source current density and a distribution of chargeability (forward modelling step). The inverse problem is linear between the secondary voltages (measured at all the electrodes) and the computed secondary source current density. A kernel matrix relating the secondary observed voltages data to the source current density model is computed once (using the electrical conductivity distribution), and then used throughout the inversion process. This recovered source current density model is in turn used to estimate the time-dependent chargeability (normalized voltages) in each cell of the domain of interest. Assuming a Cole-Cole model for simplicity, we can reconstruct the 3-D distributions of the relaxation time τ and the Cole-Cole exponent c by fitting the intrinsic chargeability decay curve to a Cole-Cole relaxation model for each cell. Two simple cases are studied in details to explain this new approach. In the first case, we estimate the Cole-Cole parameters as well as the source current density field from a synthetic TDIP data set. Our approach is successfully able to reveal the presence of the anomaly and to invert its Cole

  16. Qualitative aspects of Volterra integro-dynamic system on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Lupulescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the resolvent, asymptotic stability and boundedness of the solution of time-varying Volterra integro-dynamic system on time scales in which the coefficient matrix is not necessarily stable. We generalize at time scale some known properties about asymptotic behavior and boundedness from the continuous case. Some new results for discrete case are obtained.

  17. Time-scale invariance as an emergent property in a perceptron with realistic, noisy neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhusi, Catalin V; Oprisan, Sorinel A

    2013-05-01

    In most species, interval timing is time-scale invariant: errors in time estimation scale up linearly with the estimated duration. In mammals, time-scale invariance is ubiquitous over behavioral, lesion, and pharmacological manipulations. For example, dopaminergic drugs induce an immediate, whereas cholinergic drugs induce a gradual, scalar change in timing. Behavioral theories posit that time-scale invariance derives from particular computations, rules, or coding schemes. In contrast, we discuss a simple neural circuit, the perceptron, whose output neurons fire in a clockwise fashion based on the pattern of coincidental activation of its input neurons. We show numerically that time-scale invariance emerges spontaneously in a perceptron with realistic neurons, in the presence of noise. Under the assumption that dopaminergic drugs modulate the firing of input neurons, and that cholinergic drugs modulate the memory representation of the criterion time, we show that a perceptron with realistic neurons reproduces the pharmacological clock and memory patterns, and their time-scale invariance, in the presence of noise. These results suggest that rather than being a signature of higher order cognitive processes or specific computations related to timing, time-scale invariance may spontaneously emerge in a massively connected brain from the intrinsic noise of neurons and circuits, thus providing the simplest explanation for the ubiquity of scale invariance of interval timing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study on Time-Scales Ratio and Turbulent Prandtl Number in Ducts of Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2006-01-01

    is solved using a two-equation heat flux model. The computed results compare satisfactory with the available experimental data. The time-scale ratio R is defined as the ratio between the dynamic time-scale (k/ε) and the scalar time-scale(0.5θθ/εθ). Based on existing DNS data and calculations in this work...... of heat exchangers for various applications area....

  19. Time scales of solar microwave bursts and scenarios of flare enregy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, A.; Kliem, B.; Hildebrandt, J.

    1989-01-01

    Based on earlier observational evidence that characteristic time scales of different solar microwave burst types are distributed over a wide range (10 -3 -10 4 sec), different mechanisms of energy release have been considered to account for the impulsive flux increase (time scale 3 sec). Among different competing processes the coalescence instability is found to be a promising candidate to combine sufficiently short time scales with substantial energy release. (author). 20 refs.; 1 fig

  20. Long time scale simulation of a grain boundary in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.; Henkelman, G.; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    A general, twisted and tilted, grain boundary in copper has been simulated using the adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method to study the atomistic structure of the non-crystalline region and the mechanism of annealing events that occur at low temperature. The simulated time interval spanned 67 mu s...... was also observed. In the final low-energy configurations, the thickness of the region separating the crystalline grains corresponds to just one atomic layer, in good agreement with reported experimental observations. The simulated system consists of 1307 atoms and atomic interactions were described using...

  1. General analysis for experimental studies of time-reversal-violating effects in slow neutron propagation through polarized matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoreaux, S.K.; Golub, R.

    1994-01-01

    A general technique is developed for the analysis of proposed experimental studies of possible P,T-violating effects in the neutron-nucleus interaction based on low-energy neutron transmission through polarized matter. The analysis is applied to proposed experimental schemes and we determine the levels at which the absolute neutron polarization, magnetic fields, and target polarization must be controlled in order for these experiments to obtain a given sensitivity to P,T-violating effects

  2. Glass scales on the wing of the swordtail butterfly Graphium sarpedon act as thin film polarizing reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Matsushita, Atsuko; Arikawa, Kentaro; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    The wings of the swordtail butterfly Graphium sarpedon (the Common Bluebottle) have blue/green-colored patches that are covered on the underside by two types of scales: white and glass scales. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the white scales are classically structured:

  3. Global Exponential Stability of Delayed Cohen-Grossberg BAM Neural Networks with Impulses on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkun Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of calculus on time scales, the homeomorphism theory, Lyapunov functional method, and some analysis techniques, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of Cohen-Grossberg bidirectional associative memory (BAM neural networks with distributed delays and impulses on time scales. This is the first time applying the time-scale calculus theory to unify the discrete-time and continuous-time Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural network with impulses under the same framework.

  4. Resolving spectral information from time domain induced polarization data through 2-D inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Ramm, James; Binley, A.

    2013-01-01

    these limitations of conventional approaches, a new 2-D inversion algorithm has been developed using the full voltage decay of the IP response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and receiver transfer function. This allows reconstruction of the spectral information contained in the TD...... sampling necessary in the fast Hankel transform. These features, together with parallel computation, ensure inversion times comparable with those of direct current algorithms. The algorithm has been developed in a laterally constrained inversion scheme, and handles both smooth and layered inversions......; the latter being helpful in sedimentary environments, where quasi-layered models often represent the actual geology more accurately than smooth minimum-structure models. In the layered inversion approach, a general method to derive the thickness derivative from the complex conductivity Jacobian is also...

  5. A Novel Multiple-Time Scale Integrator for the Hybrid Monte Carlo Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamleh, Waseem

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Monte Carlo simulations that implement the fermion action using multiple terms are commonly used. By the nature of their formulation they involve multiple integration time scales in the evolution of the system through simulation time. These different scales are usually dealt with by the Sexton-Weingarten nested leapfrog integrator. In this scheme the choice of time scales is somewhat restricted as each time step must be an exact multiple of the next smallest scale in the sequence. A novel generalisation of the nested leapfrog integrator is introduced which allows for far greater flexibility in the choice of time scales, as each scale now must only be an exact multiple of the smallest step size.

  6. Time scales and the problem of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goble, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author argues that decisions about future nuclear development can be made essentially independent of waste management considerations for the next 20 years. His arguments are based on five propositions: 1 Risks and costs of storing spent fuel or high-level waste and transuranics are lower than other directly comparable risks and costs of operating a reactor. 2 Storage of mill tailings is the most serious long-term waste problem; it is not serious enough to rule out the use of nuclear power. 3 There are compelling reasons for beginning to implement a waste management program now. 4 It is important to separate the problem of providing temporary storage from that of finding permanent repositories. 5 A prudent waste management strategy, by 2000, will have identified and evaluated more than enough repository space for the waste generated by that time, independent of the decision made about nuclear futures. 13 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  7. Circulation of the polar thermosphere during geomagnetically quiet and active times as observed by Dynamics Explorer 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormac, F.G.; Killeen, T.L.; Thayer, J.P.; Hernandez, G.; Tschan, C.R.; Ponthieu, J.J.; Spencer, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    Neutral wind measurements obtained by instruments on board the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) spacecraft have been used to study the effects of geomagnetic activity on the circulation of the high-latitude neutral thermosphere for solar maximum conditions during the periods of November 1981 through January 1982 and November 1982 through January 1983. The data have been sorted and ordered according to the two geophysical indices Kp and (auroral electrojet) AE. Simple expressions have been derived which describe (1) the maximum antisunward wind speed in the geomagnetic polar cap, (2) the maximum sunward wind speeds in the dawn and dusk sectors of the auroral oval, and (3) the latitudinal extent of the polar cap antisunward neutral wind as functions of Kp and AE. The results show a positive correlation between the geomagnetic indices and the three characteristic features of the neutral circulation described above. Averaged vector wind fields in geomagnetic coordinates for Kp ≤ 2 and Kp ≥ 4 in both northern and southern hemispheres for the 6 months have been derived from the data. In doing this, a first-order invariance of the neutral wind circulation in geomagnetic coordinates as a function of universal time (UT) was assumed. The results show a two-cell circulation pattern in the northern winter hemisphere for both quiet and active geomagnetic periods. The cell sizes increase with increasing geomagnetic activity. The dusk cell is always dominant. The southern summer hemisphere averages show only the dusk circulation cell for both quiet and active geomagnetic periods. The cell sizes increase with increasing geomagnetic activity. The dusk cell is always dominant. The southern summer hemisphere averages show only the dusk circulation cell for both quiet and active geomagnetic periods. A diminution of this cell occurs for reduced levels of geomagnetic activity

  8. RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF FAULT ZONES: FAULTING IN REAL TIME SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent deformation processes taking place in real time are analyzed on the basis of data on fault zones which were collected by long-term detailed geodetic survey studies with application of field methods and satellite monitoring.A new category of recent crustal movements is described and termed as parametrically induced tectonic strain in fault zones. It is shown that in the fault zones located in seismically active and aseismic regions, super intensive displacements of the crust (5 to 7 cm per year, i.e. (5 to 7·10–5 per year occur due to very small external impacts of natural or technogenic / industrial origin.The spatial discreteness of anomalous deformation processes is established along the strike of the regional Rechitsky fault in the Pripyat basin. It is concluded that recent anomalous activity of the fault zones needs to be taken into account in defining regional regularities of geodynamic processes on the basis of real-time measurements.The paper presents results of analyses of data collected by long-term (20 to 50 years geodetic surveys in highly seismically active regions of Kopetdag, Kamchatka and California. It is evidenced by instrumental geodetic measurements of recent vertical and horizontal displacements in fault zones that deformations are ‘paradoxically’ deviating from the inherited movements of the past geological periods.In terms of the recent geodynamics, the ‘paradoxes’ of high and low strain velocities are related to a reliable empirical fact of the presence of extremely high local velocities of deformations in the fault zones (about 10–5 per year and above, which take place at the background of slow regional deformations which velocities are lower by the order of 2 to 3. Very low average annual velocities of horizontal deformation are recorded in the seismic regions of Kopetdag and Kamchatka and in the San Andreas fault zone; they amount to only 3 to 5 amplitudes of the earth tidal deformations per year.A

  9. Salinization of aquifers at the regional scale by marine transgression: Time scales and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandine Les Landes, A.; Davy, P.; Aquilina, L.

    2014-12-01

    Saline fluids with moderate concentrations have been sampled and reported in the Armorican basement at the regional scale (northwestern France). The horizontal and vertical distributions of high chloride concentrations (60-1400mg/L) at the regional scale support the marine origin and provide constraints on the age of these saline fluids. The current distribution of fresh and "saline" groundwater at depth is the result mostly of processes occurring at geological timescales - seawater intrusion processes followed by fresh groundwater flushing -, and only slightly of recent anthropogenic activities. In this study, we focus on seawater intrusion mechanisms in continental aquifers. We argue that one of the most efficient processes in macrotidal environments is the gravity-driven downconing instability below coastal salinized rivers. 2-D numerical experiments have been used to quantify this process according to four main parameter types: (1) the groundwater system permeability, (2) the salinity degree of the river, (3) the river width and slope, and (4) the tidal amplitude. A general expression of the salinity inflow rates have been derived, which has been used to estimate groundwater salinization rates in Brittany, given the geomorphological and environmental characteristics (drainage basin area, river widths and slopes, tidal range, aquifer permeability). We found that downconing below coastal rivers entail very high saline rates, indicating that this process play a major role in the salinization of regional aquifers. This is also likely to be an issue in the context of climate change, where sea-level rise is expected.

  10. Neural Computations in a Dynamical System with Multiple Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Mi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural systems display rich short-term dynamics at various levels, e.g., spike-frequencyadaptation (SFA at single neurons, and short-term facilitation (STF and depression (STDat neuronal synapses. These dynamical features typically covers a broad range of time scalesand exhibit large diversity in different brain regions. It remains unclear what the computationalbenefit for the brain to have such variability in short-term dynamics is. In this study, we proposethat the brain can exploit such dynamical features to implement multiple seemingly contradictorycomputations in a single neural circuit. To demonstrate this idea, we use continuous attractorneural network (CANN as a working model and include STF, SFA and STD with increasing timeconstants in their dynamics. Three computational tasks are considered, which are persistent activity,adaptation, and anticipative tracking. These tasks require conflicting neural mechanisms, andhence cannot be implemented by a single dynamical feature or any combination with similar timeconstants. However, with properly coordinated STF, SFA and STD, we show that the network isable to implement the three computational tasks concurrently. We hope this study will shed lighton the understanding of how the brain orchestrates its rich dynamics at various levels to realizediverse cognitive functions.

  11. Marine Dispersal Scales Are Congruent over Evolutionary and Ecological Time

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsky, Malin L.

    2016-12-15

    The degree to which offspring remain near their parents or disperse widely is critical for understanding population dynamics, evolution, and biogeography, and for designing conservation actions. In the ocean, most estimates suggesting short-distance dispersal are based on direct ecological observations of dispersing individuals, while indirect evolutionary estimates often suggest substantially greater homogeneity among populations. Reconciling these two approaches and their seemingly competing perspectives on dispersal has been a major challenge. Here we show for the first time that evolutionary and ecological measures of larval dispersal can closely agree by using both to estimate the distribution of dispersal distances. In orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula) populations in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, we found that evolutionary dispersal kernels were 17 km (95% confidence interval: 12–24 km) wide, while an exhaustive set of direct larval dispersal observations suggested kernel widths of 27 km (19–36 km) or 19 km (15–27 km) across two years. The similarity between these two approaches suggests that ecological and evolutionary dispersal kernels can be equivalent, and that the apparent disagreement between direct and indirect measurements can be overcome. Our results suggest that carefully applied evolutionary methods, which are often less expensive, can be broadly relevant for understanding ecological dispersal across the tree of life.

  12. Updating the planetary time scale: focus on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Quantin-Nataf, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Formal stratigraphic systems have been developed for the surface materials of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, and the Galilean satellite Ganymede. These systems are based on geologic mapping, which establishes relative ages of surfaces delineated by superposition, morphology, impact crater densities, and other relations and features. Referent units selected from the mapping determine time-stratigraphic bases and/or representative materials characteristic of events and periods for definition of chronologic units. Absolute ages of these units in some cases can be estimated using crater size-frequency data. For the Moon, the chronologic units and cratering record are calibrated by radiometric ages measured from samples collected from the lunar surface. Model ages for other cratered planetary surfaces are constructed primarily by estimating cratering rates relative to that of the Moon. Other cratered bodies with estimated surface ages include Venus and the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. New global geologic mapping and crater dating studies of Mars are resulting in more accurate and detailed reconstructions of its geologic history.

  13. Science at the Time-scale of the Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Margaret

    2010-03-01

    Replace this text with your abstract Ever since the invention of the laser 50 years ago and its application in nonlinear optics, scientists have been striving to extend coherent laser beams into the x-ray region of the spectrum. Very recently however, the prospects for tabletop coherent sources, with attosecond pulse durations, at very short wavelengths even in the hard x-ray region of the spectrum at wavelengths movie of how electron orbitals in a molecule change shape as a molecule breaks apart, following how fast a magnetic material can flip orientation, understanding how fast heat flows in a nanocircuit, or building a microscope without lenses. [4pt] [1] T. Popmintchev et al., ``Phase matched upconversion of coherent ultrafast laser light into the soft and hard x-ray regions of the spectrum'', PNAS 106, 10516 (2009). [0pt] [2] C. LaOVorakiat et al., ``Ultrafast Soft X-Ray Magneto-Optics at the M-edge Using a Tabletop High-Harmonic Source'', Physical Review Letters 103, 257402 (2009). [0pt] [3] M. Siemens et al. ``Measurement of quasi-ballistic heat transport across nanoscale interfaces using ultrafast coherent soft x-ray beams'', Nature Materials 9, 26 (2010). [0pt] [4] K. Raines et al., ``Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,'' Nature 463, 214 (2010). [0pt] [5] W. Li et al., ``Time-resolved Probing of Dynamics in Polyatomic Molecules using High Harmonic Generation'', Science 322, 1207 (2008).

  14. Probabilistic eruption forecasting at short and long time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Bebbington, Mark S.

    2012-10-01

    Any effective volcanic risk mitigation strategy requires a scientific assessment of the future evolution of a volcanic system and its eruptive behavior. Some consider the onus should be on volcanologists to provide simple but emphatic deterministic forecasts. This traditional way of thinking, however, does not deal with the implications of inherent uncertainties, both aleatoric and epistemic, that are inevitably present in observations, monitoring data, and interpretation of any natural system. In contrast to deterministic predictions, probabilistic eruption forecasting attempts to quantify these inherent uncertainties utilizing all available information to the extent that it can be relied upon and is informative. As with many other natural hazards, probabilistic eruption forecasting is becoming established as the primary scientific basis for planning rational risk mitigation actions: at short-term (hours to weeks or months), it allows decision-makers to prioritize actions in a crisis; and at long-term (years to decades), it is the basic component for land use and emergency planning. Probabilistic eruption forecasting consists of estimating the probability of an eruption event and where it sits in a complex multidimensional time-space-magnitude framework. In this review, we discuss the key developments and features of models that have been used to address the problem.

  15. Biochemical recovery time scales in elderly patients with osteomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S C; Raut, S

    2004-01-01

    Osteomalacia is not rare in the UK and climatically similar countries, particularly in elderly people and those of Asian descent. Overt clinical osteomalacia is usually treated with a loading dose of vitamin D, followed by a regular supplement. However, little is known of the time taken to reach a stable biochemical state after starting treatment. Such information would shed light on the duration of the bone remineralization phase and guide decisions on the length of follow-up. To address this we conducted a 2-year follow-up study of 42 patients (35 female, mean age 80.8 years) with biopsy proven osteomalacia treated with a standard replacement regimen and general nutritional support. Although normocalcaemia was attained within 4 weeks the mean values continued to rise, to a mid-range plateau at 52 weeks. The phosphate and alkaline phosphatase values also took at least a year to reach a stable mean, with a slight further trend towards the mid-range for the entire 104 weeks. The mean serum albumin also rose throughout the first 52 weeks, indicating an effective response to the general nutritional support measures. Our observations suggest that the dynamic relationship between calcium, phosphate and bone requires at least a year, and probably longer, to reach an equilibrium after treatment for osteomalacia in elderly patients. The findings emphasize the need for close medical and social follow-up in this clinical context. PMID:15520146

  16. Multi Scale Multi Temporal Near Real Time Approach for Volcanic Eruptions monitoring, Test Case: Mt Etna eruption 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno, M. F.; Silvestri, M.; Musacchio, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this work a complete processing chain from the detection of the beginning of eruption to the estimation of lava flow temperature on active volcanoes using remote sensing data is presented showing the results for the Mt. Etna eruption on March 2017. The early detection of new eruption is based on the potentiality ensured by geostationary very low spatial resolution satellite (3x3 km in nadiral view), the hot spot/lava flow evolution is derived by S2 polar medium/high spatial resolution (20x20 mt) while the surface temperature is estimated by polar medium/low spatial resolution such as L8, ASTER and S3 (from 90 mt up to 1km).This approach merges two outcome derived by activity performed for monitoring purposes within INGV R&D activities and the results obtained by Geohazards Exploitation Platform ESA funded project (GEP) aimed to the development of shared platform for providing services based on EO data. Because the variety of phenomena to be analyzed a multi temporal multi scale approach has been used to implement suitable and robust algorithms for the different sensors. With the exception of Sentinel 2 (MSI) data, for which the algorithm used is based on NIR-SWIR bands, we exploit the MIR-TIR channels of L8, ASTER, S3 and SEVIRI for generating automatically the surface thermal state analysis. The developed procedure produces time series data and allows to extract information from each single co-registered pixel, to highlight variation of temperatures within specific areas. The final goal is to implement an easy tool which enables scientists and users to extract valuable information from satellite time series at different scales produced by ESA and EUMETSAT in the frame of Europe's Copernicus program and other Earth observation satellites programs such as LANDSAT (USGS) and GOES (NOAA).

  17. Forecasting the Range-wide Status of Polar Bears at Selected Times in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven C. Amstrup; Bruce G. Marcot; David C. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    To inform the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service decision whether or not to list polar bears as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), we forecast the status of the world's polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations 45, 75 and 100 years into the future. We applied the best available information about predicted changes in sea ice in the...

  18. Fission time-scale from the measurement of pre-scission light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and hence can only probe a part of the fission time distribution. .... with the conclusion of recent fission time-scale measurements using the fission probability ... using the statistical model code JOANNE2 suitably modified to include the GDR ...

  19. Measures of spike train synchrony for data with multiple time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satuvuori, Eero; Mulansky, Mario; Bozanic, Nebojsa; Malvestio, Irene; Zeldenrust, Fleur; Lenk, Kerstin; Kreuz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Measures of spike train synchrony are widely used in both experimental and computational neuroscience. Time-scale independent and parameter-free measures, such as the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance and SPIKE-synchronization, are preferable to time scale parametric measures, since by

  20. A Dynamical System Approach Explaining the Process of Development by Introducing Different Time-scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Kamangar, Somayeh Sadat; Moradimanesh, Zahra; Mokhtari, Setareh; Bakouie, Fatemeh

    2018-06-11

    A developmental process can be described as changes through time within a complex dynamic system. The self-organized changes and emergent behaviour during development can be described and modeled as a dynamical system. We propose a dynamical system approach to answer the main question in human cognitive development i.e. the changes during development happens continuously or in discontinuous stages. Within this approach there is a concept; the size of time scales, which can be used to address the aforementioned question. We introduce a framework, by considering the concept of time-scale, in which "fast" and "slow" is defined by the size of time-scales. According to our suggested model, the overall pattern of development can be seen as one continuous function, with different time-scales in different time intervals.

  1. Design and Operation of Automated Ice-Tethered Profilers for Real-Time Seawater Observations in the Polar Oceans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toole, J; Proshutinsky, A; Krishfield, R; Doherty, K; Frye, Daniel E; Hammar, T; Kemp, J; Peters, D; Heydt, K. von der

    2006-01-01

    An automated, easily-deployed Ice-Tethered Profiler (ITP) has been developed for deployment on perennial sea ice in polar oceans to measure changes in upper ocean temperature and salinity in all seasons...

  2. Super-transient scaling in time-delay autonomous Boolean network motifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Huys, Otti, E-mail: otti.dhuys@phy.duke.edu; Haynes, Nicholas D. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lohmann, Johannes [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Gauthier, Daniel J. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Autonomous Boolean networks are commonly used to model the dynamics of gene regulatory networks and allow for the prediction of stable dynamical attractors. However, most models do not account for time delays along the network links and noise, which are crucial features of real biological systems. Concentrating on two paradigmatic motifs, the toggle switch and the repressilator, we develop an experimental testbed that explicitly includes both inter-node time delays and noise using digital logic elements on field-programmable gate arrays. We observe transients that last millions to billions of characteristic time scales and scale exponentially with the amount of time delays between nodes, a phenomenon known as super-transient scaling. We develop a hybrid model that includes time delays along network links and allows for stochastic variation in the delays. Using this model, we explain the observed super-transient scaling of both motifs and recreate the experimentally measured transient distributions.

  3. The multiple time scales of sleep dynamics as a challenge for modelling the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrich, Eckehard; Claussen, Jens Christian; Achermann, Peter

    2011-10-13

    A particular property of the sleeping brain is that it exhibits dynamics on very different time scales ranging from the typical sleep oscillations such as sleep spindles and slow waves that can be observed in electroencephalogram (EEG) segments of several seconds duration over the transitions between the different sleep stages on a time scale of minutes to the dynamical processes involved in sleep regulation with typical time constants in the range of hours. There is an increasing body of work on mathematical and computational models addressing these different dynamics, however, usually considering only processes on a single time scale. In this paper, we review and present a new analysis of the dynamics of human sleep EEG at the different time scales and relate the findings to recent modelling efforts pointing out both the achievements and remaining challenges.

  4. Off-Policy Reinforcement Learning: Optimal Operational Control for Two-Time-Scale Industrial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinna; Kiumarsi, Bahare; Chai, Tianyou; Lewis, Frank L; Fan, Jialu

    2017-12-01

    Industrial flow lines are composed of unit processes operating on a fast time scale and performance measurements known as operational indices measured at a slower time scale. This paper presents a model-free optimal solution to a class of two time-scale industrial processes using off-policy reinforcement learning (RL). First, the lower-layer unit process control loop with a fast sampling period and the upper-layer operational index dynamics at a slow time scale are modeled. Second, a general optimal operational control problem is formulated to optimally prescribe the set-points for the unit industrial process. Then, a zero-sum game off-policy RL algorithm is developed to find the optimal set-points by using data measured in real-time. Finally, a simulation experiment is employed for an industrial flotation process to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Influence of Incident Polarization State on Performance of Real-time Transverse Force Sensing using Stokes Parameters in Fiber Bragg Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Fu, Xinhao; Zhou, Hua; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Baofu; Cai, Guangyu; Guo, Yang

    2017-06-01

    Stokes parameters can be advantageously used to obtain real-time transverse force measurements with uniform FBGs. In this paper, we demonstrate here that the state of polarization (SOP) of incident light can be used to improve the performance of the sensor. The model and the simulations are presented. A 3-paddle fiber polarization controller was used to adjust the azimuth angle and ellipse angle of the light. The experimental results show the great influences of incident SOP on the sensitivity and linear range of the system, which is well agreed with the theoretical prediction. The highest sensitivity of 0.9475/kgf was obtained with good linearity.

  6. REAL-TIME VIDEO SCALING BASED ON CONVOLUTION NEURAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    S Safinaz; A V Ravi Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, video super resolution techniques becomes mandatory requirements to get high resolution videos. Many super resolution techniques researched but still video super resolution or scaling is a vital challenge. In this paper, we have presented a real-time video scaling based on convolution neural network architecture to eliminate the blurriness in the images and video frames and to provide better reconstruction quality while scaling of large datasets from lower resolution frames t...

  7. Spectral time-domain induced polarization and magnetic surveying – an efficient tool for characterization of solid waste deposits in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wemegah, David Dotse; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben

    Time-domain induced polarization (IP) and magnetic data were acquired to map and characterize the decommissioned, un-engineered, municipal solid waste deposit site of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), located in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. Thirteen induced...... polarization profiles 500-800 m long and twenty-six magnetic profiles 600-800 m long were acquired, and two drillings were carried out in order to help in the interpretation of the geophysical data. The study was carried out with the aim of determining the risk posed by the waste deposit to the quality...... for interpreting the polarization data. The chargeability, resistivity, and the normalized chargeability distributions, together with the magnetic results, aided in a full characterization of the site geology, the waste and the associated pollution plume. In particular, clear contrasts in resistivity...

  8. Controlling periodic ripple microstructure formation on 4H-SiC crystal with three time-delayed femtosecond laser beams of different linear polarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wanlin; Yang, Jianjun; Guo, Chunlei

    2017-03-06

    The control of laser-induced periodic ripple microstructures on 4H-SiC crystal surface is studied using temporally delayed collinear three femtosecond laser pulse trains linearly polarized in different directions. The ripple orientation appears to develop independent of the individual laser polarizations and exhibits non-monotonical change with variable time delays, whose variation tendency is also affected by the polarization intersection angles. Remarkably, the ripple period is observed to transfer from high- to low-spatial-frequency regions, accompanied by distinctly improved morphological uniformity and clearness. The results are satisfactorily interpreted based on a physical model of the surface wave excitation on a transient index metasurface, which is confirmed by further experiments. Our investigations indicate that transient noneqilibrium dynamics of the material surface provides an effective way to manipulate the laser-induced microstructures.

  9. Time scale defined by the fractal structure of the price fluctuations in foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yoshiaki

    2010-04-01

    In this contribution, a new time scale named C-fluctuation time is defined by price fluctuations observed at a given resolution. The intraday fractal structures and the relations of the three time scales: real time (physical time), tick time and C-fluctuation time, in foreign exchange markets are analyzed. The data set used is trading prices of foreign exchange rates; US dollar (USD)/Japanese yen (JPY), USD/Euro (EUR), and EUR/JPY. The accuracy of the data is one minute and data within a minute are recorded in order of transaction. The series of instantaneous velocity of C-fluctuation time flowing are exponentially distributed for small C when they are measured by real time and for tiny C when they are measured by tick time. When the market is volatile, for larger C, the series of instantaneous velocity are exponentially distributed.

  10. Bridging time scales in cellular decision making with a stochastic bistable switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldherr Steffen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular transformations which involve a significant phenotypical change of the cell's state use bistable biochemical switches as underlying decision systems. Some of these transformations act over a very long time scale on the cell population level, up to the entire lifespan of the organism. Results In this work, we aim at linking cellular decisions taking place on a time scale of years to decades with the biochemical dynamics in signal transduction and gene regulation, occuring on a time scale of minutes to hours. We show that a stochastic bistable switch forms a viable biochemical mechanism to implement decision processes on long time scales. As a case study, the mechanism is applied to model the initiation of follicle growth in mammalian ovaries, where the physiological time scale of follicle pool depletion is on the order of the organism's lifespan. We construct a simple mathematical model for this process based on experimental evidence for the involved genetic mechanisms. Conclusions Despite the underlying stochasticity, the proposed mechanism turns out to yield reliable behavior in large populations of cells subject to the considered decision process. Our model explains how the physiological time constant may emerge from the intrinsic stochasticity of the underlying gene regulatory network. Apart from ovarian follicles, the proposed mechanism may also be of relevance for other physiological systems where cells take binary decisions over a long time scale.

  11. Enhanced mobility in vertically scaled N-polar high-electron-mobility transistors using GaN/InGaN composite channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Wienecke, Steven; Romanczyk, Brian; Ahmadi, Elaheh; Guidry, Matthew; Zheng, Xun; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2018-02-01

    A GaN/InGaN composite channel design for vertically scaled N-polar high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures is proposed and demonstrated by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. In a conventional N-polar HEMT structure, as the channel thickness (tch) decreases, the sheet charge density (ns) decreases, the electric field in the channel increases, and the centroid of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) moves towards the back-barrier/channel interface, resulting in stronger scattering and lower electron mobility (μ). In this study, a thin InGaN layer was introduced in-between the channel and the AlGaN cap to increase the 2DEG density and reduce the electric field in the channel and therefore increase the electron mobility. The dependence of μ on the InGaN thickness (tInGaN) and the indium composition (xIn) was investigated for different channel thicknesses. With optimized tInGaN and xIn, significant improvements in electron mobility were observed. For a 6 nm channel HEMT structure, the electron mobility increased from 606 to 1141 cm2/(V.s) when the 6 nm thick pure GaN channel was replaced by the 4 nm GaN/2 nm In0.1Ga0.9N composite channel.

  12. Data warehousing technologies for large-scale and right-time data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiufeng, Liu

    heterogeneous sources into a central data warehouse (DW) by Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) at regular time intervals, e.g., monthly, weekly, or daily. But now, it becomes challenging for large-scale data, and hard to meet the near real-time/right-time business decisions. This thesis considers some...

  13. Broadband Structural Dynamics: Understanding the Impulse-Response of Structures Across Multiple Length and Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    Spectral domain response calculated • Time domain response obtained through inverse transform Approach 4: WASABI Wavelet Analysis of Structural Anomalies...differences at unity scale! Time Function Transform Apply Spectral Domain Transfer Function Time Function Inverse Transform Transform Transform  mtP

  14. Characteristic time scales for diffusion processes through layers and across interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Elliot J.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a simple tool for characterizing the time scale for continuum diffusion processes through layered heterogeneous media. This mathematical problem is motivated by several practical applications such as heat transport in composite materials, flow in layered aquifers, and drug diffusion through the layers of the skin. In such processes, the physical properties of the medium vary across layers and internal boundary conditions apply at the interfaces between adjacent layers. To characterize the time scale, we use the concept of mean action time, which provides the mean time scale at each position in the medium by utilizing the fact that the transition of the transient solution of the underlying partial differential equation model, from initial state to steady state, can be represented as a cumulative distribution function of time. Using this concept, we define the characteristic time scale for a multilayer diffusion process as the maximum value of the mean action time across the layered medium. For given initial conditions and internal and external boundary conditions, this approach leads to simple algebraic expressions for characterizing the time scale that depend on the physical and geometrical properties of the medium, such as the diffusivities and lengths of the layers. Numerical examples demonstrate that these expressions provide useful insight into explaining how the parameters in the model affect the time it takes for a multilayer diffusion process to reach steady state.

  15. Time-scale invariances in preseismic electromagnetic radiation, magnetization and damage evolution of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kawada

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the time-scale invariant changes in electromagnetic and mechanical energy releases prior to a rock failure or a large earthquake. The energy release processes are caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, motion of charged dislocation, area-enlargement of sheared asperities and repetitive creep-rate changes. Damage mechanics can be used to represent the time-scale invariant evolutions of both brittle and plastic damages. Irreversible thermodynamics applied to the damage mechanics reveals that the damage evolution produces the variations in charge, dipole and electromagnetic signals in addition to mechanical energy release, and yields the time-scale invariant patterns of Benioff electromagnetic radiation and cumulative Benioff strain-release. The irreversible thermodynamic framework of damage mechanics is also applicable to the seismo-magnetic effect, and the time-scale invariance is recognized in the remanent magnetization change associated with damage evolution prior to a rock failure.

  16. Multiple time scale analysis of pressure oscillations in solid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqas; Maqsood, Adnan; Riaz, Rizwan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, acoustic pressure oscillations for single and coupled longitudinal acoustic modes in Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) are investigated using Multiple Time Scales (MTS) method. Two independent time scales are introduced. The oscillations occur on fast time scale whereas the amplitude and phase changes on slow time scale. Hopf bifurcation is employed to investigate the properties of the solution. The supercritical bifurcation phenomenon is observed for linearly unstable system. The amplitude of the oscillations result from equal energy gain and loss rates of longitudinal acoustic modes. The effect of linear instability and frequency of longitudinal modes on amplitude and phase of oscillations are determined for both single and coupled modes. For both cases, the maximum amplitude of oscillations decreases with the frequency of acoustic mode and linear instability of SRM. The comparison of analytical MTS results and numerical simulations demonstrate an excellent agreement.

  17. OSCILLATION CRITERIA FOR A FOURTH ORDER SUBLINEAR DYNAMIC EQUATION ON TIME SCALE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Some new criteria for the oscillation of a fourth order sublinear and/or linear dynamic equation on time scale are established. Our results are new for the corresponding fourth order differential equations as well as difference equations.

  18. Multiple Positive Symmetric Solutions to p-Laplacian Dynamic Equations on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Hui Su

    2009-01-01

    two examples are given to illustrate the main results and their differences. These results are even new for the special cases of continuous and discrete equations, as well as in the general time-scale setting.

  19. Multiple time scales in modeling the incidence of infections acquired in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wolkewitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When patients are admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU their risk of getting an infection will be highly depend on the length of stay at-risk in the ICU. In addition, risk of infection is likely to vary over calendar time as a result of fluctuations in the prevalence of the pathogen on the ward. Hence risk of infection is expected to depend on two time scales (time in ICU and calendar time as well as competing events (discharge or death and their spatial location. The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply appropriate statistical models for the risk of ICU-acquired infection accounting for multiple time scales, competing risks and the spatial clustering of the data. Methods A multi-center data base from a Spanish surveillance network was used to study the occurrence of an infection due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The analysis included 84,843 patient admissions between January 2006 and December 2011 from 81 ICUs. Stratified Cox models were used to study multiple time scales while accounting for spatial clustering of the data (patients within ICUs and for death or discharge as competing events for MRSA infection. Results Both time scales, time in ICU and calendar time, are highly associated with the MRSA hazard rate and cumulative risk. When using only one basic time scale, the interpretation and magnitude of several patient-individual risk factors differed. Risk factors concerning the severity of illness were more pronounced when using only calendar time. These differences disappeared when using both time scales simultaneously. Conclusions The time-dependent dynamics of infections is complex and should be studied with models allowing for multiple time scales. For patient individual risk-factors we recommend stratified Cox regression models for competing events with ICU time as the basic time scale and calendar time as a covariate. The inclusion of calendar time and stratification by ICU

  20. Time Scale Inequalities of the Ostrowski Type for Functions Differentiable on the Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze R. Nwaeze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, some inequalities of the Ostrowski type for functions (of two variables differentiable on the coordinates were established. In this paper, we extend these results to an arbitrary time scale by means of a parameter λ∈0,1. The aforementioned results are regained for the case when the time scale T=R. Besides extension, our results are employed to the continuous and discrete calculus to get some new inequalities in this direction.

  1. Bounds of Double Integral Dynamic Inequalities in Two Independent Variables on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Saker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in this paper is to establish some explicit bounds of the unknown function in a certain class of nonlinear dynamic inequalities in two independent variables on time scales which are unbounded above. These on the one hand generalize and on the other hand furnish a handy tool for the study of qualitative as well as quantitative properties of solutions of partial dynamic equations on time scales. Some examples are considered to demonstrate the applications of the results.

  2. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  3. Hidden Imprints of Minor Merging in Early-Type Galaxies: Inner Polar Rings and Inclined Large-Scale Gaseous Disks In S0s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sil’chenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I discuss my latest observational data and ideas about decoupled gaseous subsystems in nearby lenticular galaxies. As an extreme case of inclined gaseous disks, I demonstrate a sample of inner polar disks, derive their incidence, about 10% among the volume-limited nearby S0 galaxies, and discuss their origin. However, large-scale decoupled gaseous disks at intermediate inclinations are also a rather common phenomenon among the field S0 galaxies. I suggest that the geometry of outer gas accretion and the final morphology of the galaxy may be tightly related: inclined gas infall may prevent star formation in the accreted disk and force the disk galaxy to be a lenticular.

  4. Precipitation Analysis at Fine Time Scales using TRMM and Other Satellites: Realtime and Research Products and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott; Pierce, Harold; Gu, Guojon

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-global precipitation analyses at fine time scales (3-hr) are described. TRMM observations (radar and passive microwave) are used to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites instruments, including AMSR and AMSU) and geosynchronous IR observations. The individual data sets are then merged using a priority order based on quality to form the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA). Raingauge information is used to help constrain the satellite-based estimates over land. The TRMM standard research product (Version 6 3B-42 of the TRMM products) will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) by the end of 2004. The real-time version of this merged product has been produced over the past two years and is available on the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov) at 0.25 deg latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 50 deg N-50 deg S. Validation of daily totals indicates good results, with limitations noted in mid-latitude winter over land and regions of shallow, orographic precipitation. Various applications of these estimates are described, including: 1) detecting potential floods in near real-time; 2) analyzing Indian Ocean precipitation variations related to the initiation of El Nino; 3) determining characteristics of the African monsoon; and 4) analysis of diurnal variations.

  5. Antipersistent dynamics in short time scale variability of self-potential signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ragosta

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Time scale properties of self-potential signals are investigated through the analysis of the second order structure function (variogram, a powerful tool to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of observational data. In this work we analyse two sequences of self-potential values measured by means of a geophysical monitoring array located in a seismically active area of Southern Italy. The range of scales investigated goes from a few minutes to several days. It is shown that signal fluctuations are characterised by two time scale ranges in which self-potential variability appears to follow slightly different dynamical behaviours. Results point to the presence of fractal, non stationary features expressing a long term correlation with scaling coefficients which are the clue of stabilising mechanisms. In the scale ranges in which the series show scale invariant behaviour, self-potentials evolve like fractional Brownian motions with anticorrelated increments typical of processes regulated by negative feedback mechanisms (antipersistence. On scales below about 6 h the strength of such an antipersistence appears to be slightly greater than that observed on larger time scales where the fluctuations are less efficiently stabilised.

  6. Cycles, scaling and crossover phenomenon in length of the day (LOD) time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano

    2007-06-01

    The dynamics of the temporal fluctuations of the length of the day (LOD) time series from January 1, 1962 to November 2, 2006 were investigated. The power spectrum of the whole time series has revealed annual, semi-annual, decadal and daily oscillatory behaviors, correlated with oceanic-atmospheric processes and interactions. The scaling behavior was analyzed by using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which has revealed two different scaling regimes, separated by a crossover timescale at approximately 23 days. Flicker-noise process can describe the dynamics of the LOD time regime involving intermediate and long timescales, while Brownian dynamics characterizes the LOD time series for small timescales.

  7. Impact of sequential disorder on the scaling behavior of airplane boarding time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Yongjoo; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2013-05-01

    Airplane boarding process is an example where disorder properties of the system are relevant to the emergence of universality classes. Based on a simple model, we present a systematic analysis of finite-size effects in boarding time, and propose a comprehensive view of the role of sequential disorder in the scaling behavior of boarding time against the plane size. Using numerical simulations and mathematical arguments, we find how the scaling behavior depends on the number of seat columns and the range of sequential disorder. Our results show that new scaling exponents can arise as disorder is localized to varying extents.

  8. Understanding relationships among ecosystem services across spatial scales and over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiangxiao; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Booth, Eric G.; Motew, Melissa; Zipper, Samuel C.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Loheide, Steven P., II; Turner, Monica G.

    2018-05-01

    Sustaining ecosystem services (ES), mitigating their tradeoffs and avoiding unfavorable future trajectories are pressing social-environmental challenges that require enhanced understanding of their relationships across scales. Current knowledge of ES relationships is often constrained to one spatial scale or one snapshot in time. In this research, we integrated biophysical modeling with future scenarios to examine changes in relationships among eight ES indicators from 2001–2070 across three spatial scales—grid cell, subwatershed, and watershed. We focused on the Yahara Watershed (Wisconsin) in the Midwestern United States—an exemplar for many urbanizing agricultural landscapes. Relationships among ES indicators changed over time; some relationships exhibited high interannual variations (e.g. drainage vs. food production, nitrate leaching vs. net ecosystem exchange) and even reversed signs over time (e.g. perennial grass production vs. phosphorus yield). Robust patterns were detected for relationships among some regulating services (e.g. soil retention vs. water quality) across three spatial scales, but other relationships lacked simple scaling rules. This was especially true for relationships of food production vs. water quality, and drainage vs. number of days with runoff >10 mm, which differed substantially across spatial scales. Our results also showed that local tradeoffs between food production and water quality do not necessarily scale up, so reducing local tradeoffs may be insufficient to mitigate such tradeoffs at the watershed scale. We further synthesized these cross-scale patterns into a typology of factors that could drive changes in ES relationships across scales: (1) effects of biophysical connections, (2) effects of dominant drivers, (3) combined effects of biophysical linkages and dominant drivers, and (4) artificial scale effects, and concluded with management implications. Our study highlights the importance of taking a dynamic

  9. Inter-Hemispheric Coupling During Recent North Polar Summer Periods as Predicted by MaCWAVE/MIDAS Rocket Data and Traced by TIMED/SABER Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Feofilov, Artem G.; Kutepov, Alexander A.; Pesnell W. Dean; Schmidlin, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    In July, 2002, the MaCWAVE-MIDAS Rocket Program was launched from Andoya Rocket Range (ARR) in Norway. Data from these flights demonstrated that the polar summer mesosphere during this period was unusual, at least above ARR. Theoretical studies have since been published that imply that the abnormal characteristics of this polar summer were generated by dynamical processes occurring in the southern polar winter hemisphere. We have used data from the SABER instrument aboard the NASA Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) Satellite to study these characteristics and compare them with the features observed in the ensuing eight years. For background, the TIMED Satellite was launched on December 7,2001 to study the dynamics and energy of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The SABER instrument is a limb scanning infrared radiometer designed to measure temperature of the region as well as a large number of minor constituents. In this study, we review the MaCWAVE rocket results. Next, we investigate the temperature characteristics of the polar mesosphere as a function of spatial and temporal considerations. We have used the most recent SABER dataset (1.07). Weekly averages are used to make comparisons between the winter and summer hemispheres. Furthermore, the data analysis agrees with recent theoretical studies showing that this behavior is a result of anomalous dynamical events in the southern hemisphere. The findings discussed here clearly show the value of scientific rocket flights used in a discovery mode.

  10. Putting scales into evolutionary time: the divergence of major scale insect lineages (Hemiptera) predates the radiation of modern angiosperm hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vea, Isabelle M.; Grimaldi, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous transformed landscapes and is widely believed to have fuelled the radiations of major groups of phytophagous insects. An excellent group to test this assertion is the scale insects (Coccomorpha: Hemiptera), with some 8,000 described Recent species and probably the most diverse fossil record of any phytophagous insect group preserved in amber. We used here a total-evidence approach (by tip-dating) employing 174 morphological characters of 73 Recent and 43 fossil taxa (48 families) and DNA sequences of three gene regions, to obtain divergence time estimates and compare the chronology of the most diverse lineage of scale insects, the neococcoid families, with the timing of the main angiosperm radiation. An estimated origin of the Coccomorpha occurred at the beginning of the Triassic, about 245 Ma [228–273], and of the neococcoids 60 million years later [210–165 Ma]. A total-evidence approach allows the integration of extinct scale insects into a phylogenetic framework, resulting in slightly younger median estimates than analyses using Recent taxa, calibrated with fossil ages only. From these estimates, we hypothesise that most major lineages of coccoids shifted from gymnosperms onto angiosperms when the latter became diverse and abundant in the mid- to Late Cretaceous. PMID:27000526

  11. The role of topography on catchment‐scale water residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K.J.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Weiler, M.; Kendall, C.; McGlynn, B.L.; Welker, J.M.; Seibert, J.

    2005-01-01

    The age, or residence time, of water is a fundamental descriptor of catchment hydrology, revealing information about the storage, flow pathways, and source of water in a single integrated measure. While there has been tremendous recent interest in residence time estimation to characterize watersheds, there are relatively few studies that have quantified residence time at the watershed scale, and fewer still that have extended those results beyond single catchments to larger landscape scales. We examined topographic controls on residence time for seven catchments (0.085–62.4 km2) that represent diverse geologic and geomorphic conditions in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Our primary objective was to determine the dominant physical controls on catchment‐scale water residence time and specifically test the hypothesis that residence time is related to the size of the basin. Residence times were estimated by simple convolution models that described the transfer of precipitation isotopic composition to the stream network. We found that base flow mean residence times for exponential distributions ranged from 0.8 to 3.3 years. Mean residence time showed no correlation to basin area (r2 organization (i.e., topography) rather than basin area controls catchment‐scale transport. Results from this study may provide a framework for describing scale‐invariant transport across climatic and geologic conditions, whereby the internal form and structure of the basin defines the first‐order control on base flow residence time.

  12. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  13. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lilai, E-mail: llxu@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Gao, Peiqing, E-mail: peiqing15@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China); Cui, Shenghui, E-mail: shcui@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Chun, E-mail: xmhwlc@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  14. Fractional Sobolev’s Spaces on Time Scales via Conformable Fractional Calculus and Their Application to a Fractional Differential Equation on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using conformable fractional calculus on time scales, we first introduce fractional Sobolev spaces on time scales, characterize them, and define weak conformable fractional derivatives. Second, we prove the equivalence of some norms in the introduced spaces and derive their completeness, reflexivity, uniform convexity, and compactness of some imbeddings, which can be regarded as a novelty item. Then, as an application, we present a recent approach via variational methods and critical point theory to obtain the existence of solutions for a p-Laplacian conformable fractional differential equation boundary value problem on time scale T:  Tα(Tαup-2Tα(u(t=∇F(σ(t,u(σ(t, Δ-a.e.  t∈a,bTκ2, u(a-u(b=0, Tα(u(a-Tα(u(b=0, where Tα(u(t denotes the conformable fractional derivative of u of order α at t, σ is the forward jump operator, a,b∈T,  01, and F:[0,T]T×RN→R. By establishing a proper variational setting, we obtain three existence results. Finally, we present two examples to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the existence results.

  15. Double Scaling in the Relaxation Time in the β -Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvov, Yuri V.; Onorato, Miguel

    2018-04-01

    We consider the original β -Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou system; numerical simulations and theoretical arguments suggest that, for a finite number of masses, a statistical equilibrium state is reached independently of the initial energy of the system. Using ensemble averages over initial conditions characterized by different Fourier random phases, we numerically estimate the time scale of equipartition and we find that for very small nonlinearity it matches the prediction based on exact wave-wave resonant interaction theory. We derive a simple formula for the nonlinear frequency broadening and show that when the phenomenon of overlap of frequencies takes place, a different scaling for the thermalization time scale is observed. Our result supports the idea that the Chirikov overlap criterion identifies a transition region between two different relaxation time scalings.

  16. Millennial and sub-millennial scale climatic variations recorded in polar ice cores over the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capron, E.; Landais, A.; Chappellaz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery in Greenland ice cores, the millennial scale climatic variability of the last glacial period has been increasingly documented at all latitudes with studies focusing mainly on Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (MIS 3; 28–60 thousand of years before present, hereafter ka) and characterized...... that when ice sheets are extensive, Antarctica does not necessarily warm during the whole GS as the thermal bipolar seesaw model would predict, questioning the Greenland ice core temperature records as a proxy for AMOC changes throughout the glacial period....

  17. Multi-Scale Entropy Analysis as a Method for Time-Series Analysis of Climate Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Balzter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is mounting that the temporal dynamics of the climate system are changing at the same time as the average global temperature is increasing due to multiple climate forcings. A large number of extreme weather events such as prolonged cold spells, heatwaves, droughts and floods have been recorded around the world in the past 10 years. Such changes in the temporal scaling behaviour of climate time-series data can be difficult to detect. While there are easy and direct ways of analysing climate data by calculating the means and variances for different levels of temporal aggregation, these methods can miss more subtle changes in their dynamics. This paper describes multi-scale entropy (MSE analysis as a tool to study climate time-series data and to identify temporal scales of variability and their change over time in climate time-series. MSE estimates the sample entropy of the time-series after coarse-graining at different temporal scales. An application of MSE to Central European, variance-adjusted, mean monthly air temperature anomalies (CRUTEM4v is provided. The results show that the temporal scales of the current climate (1960–2014 are different from the long-term average (1850–1960. For temporal scale factors longer than 12 months, the sample entropy increased markedly compared to the long-term record. Such an increase can be explained by systems theory with greater complexity in the regional temperature data. From 1961 the patterns of monthly air temperatures are less regular at time-scales greater than 12 months than in the earlier time period. This finding suggests that, at these inter-annual time scales, the temperature variability has become less predictable than in the past. It is possible that climate system feedbacks are expressed in altered temporal scales of the European temperature time-series data. A comparison with the variance and Shannon entropy shows that MSE analysis can provide additional information on the

  18. Studying time of flight imaging through scattering media across multiple size scales (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Light scattering is a primary obstacle to optical imaging in a variety of different environments and across many size and time scales. Scattering complicates imaging on large scales when imaging through the atmosphere when imaging from airborne or space borne platforms, through marine fog, or through fog and dust in vehicle navigation, for example in self driving cars. On smaller scales, scattering is the major obstacle when imaging through human tissue in biomedical applications. Despite the large variety of participating materials and size scales, light transport in all these environments is usually described with very similar scattering models that are defined by the same small set of parameters, including scattering and absorption length and phase function. We attempt a study of scattering and methods of imaging through scattering across different scales and media, particularly with respect to the use of time of flight information. We can show that using time of flight, in addition to spatial information, provides distinct advantages in scattering environments. By performing a comparative study of scattering across scales and media, we are able to suggest scale models for scattering environments to aid lab research. We also can transfer knowledge and methodology between different fields.

  19. Overcoming time scale and finite size limitations to compute nucleation rates from small scale well tempered metadynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Tiwary, Pratyush; Maggioni, Giovanni Maria; Mazzotti, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Condensation of a liquid droplet from a supersaturated vapour phase is initiated by a prototypical nucleation event. As such it is challenging to compute its rate from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. In fact at realistic supersaturation conditions condensation occurs on time scales that far exceed what can be reached with conventional molecular dynamics methods. Another known problem in this context is the distortion of the free energy profile associated to nucleation due to the small, finite size of typical simulation boxes. In this work the problem of time scale is addressed with a recently developed enhanced sampling method while contextually correcting for finite size effects. We demonstrate our approach by studying the condensation of argon, and showing that characteristic nucleation times of the order of magnitude of hours can be reliably calculated. Nucleation rates spanning a range of 10 orders of magnitude are computed at moderate supersaturation levels, thus bridging the gap between what standard molecular dynamics simulations can do and real physical systems.

  20. Urban Freight Management with Stochastic Time-Dependent Travel Times and Application to Large-Scale Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the vehicle routing problem (VRP in large-scale urban transportation networks with stochastic time-dependent (STD travel times. The subproblem which is how to find the optimal path connecting any pair of customer nodes in a STD network was solved through a robust approach without requiring the probability distributions of link travel times. Based on that, the proposed STD-VRP model can be converted into solving a normal time-dependent VRP (TD-VRP, and algorithms for such TD-VRPs can also be introduced to obtain the solution. Numerical experiments were conducted to address STD-VRPTW of practical sizes on a real world urban network, demonstrated here on the road network of Shenzhen, China. The stochastic time-dependent link travel times of the network were calibrated by historical floating car data. A route construction algorithm was applied to solve the STD problem in 4 delivery scenarios efficiently. The computational results showed that the proposed STD-VRPTW model can improve the level of customer service by satisfying the time-window constraint under any circumstances. The improvement can be very significant especially for large-scale network delivery tasks with no more increase in cost and environmental impacts.

  1. Mountain erosion over 10 yr, 10 k.y., and 10 m.y. time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Kirchner; Robert C. Finkel; Clifford S. Riebe; Darryl E. Granger; James L. Clayton; John G. King; Walter F. Megahan

    2001-01-01

    We used cosmogenic 10Be to measure erosion rates over 10 k.y. time scales at 32 Idaho mountain catchments, ranging from small experimental watersheds (0.2 km2) to large river basins (35 000 km2). These long-term sediment yields are, on average, 17 times higher than stream sediment fluxes measured over...

  2. Multi-time, multi-scale correlation functions in turbulence and in turbulent models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biferale, L.; Boffetta, G.; Celani, A.; Toschi, F.

    1999-01-01

    A multifractal-like representation for multi-time, multi-scale velocity correlation in turbulence and dynamical turbulent models is proposed. The importance of subleading contributions to time correlations is highlighted. The fulfillment of the dynamical constraints due to the equations of motion is

  3. Mixing and flushing time scales in the Azhikode Estuary, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Pylee, A.

    Flushing time scales of the Azhikode Estuary, Kerala, India showed pronounced dry season and wet season signals as well as large inter-annual variation. Cumulative flushing time of the estuary varies from 4.8 tide cycles in April to 1.22 tide cycles...

  4. Time Scale Analysis of Interest Rate Spreads and Output Using Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gallegati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper adds to the literature on the information content of different spreads for real activity by explicitly taking into account the time scale relationship between a variety of monetary and financial indicators (real interest rate, term and credit spreads and output growth. By means of wavelet-based exploratory data analysis we obtain richer results relative to the aggregate analysis by identifying the dominant scales of variation in the data and the scales and location at which structural breaks have occurred. Moreover, using the “double residuals” regression analysis on a scale-by-scale basis, we find that changes in the spread in several markets have different information content for output at different time frames. This is consistent with the idea that allowing for different time scales of variation in the data can provide a fruitful understanding of the complex dynamics of economic relationships between variables with non-stationary or transient components, certainly richer than those obtained using standard time domain methods.

  5. Projective synchronization of time-varying delayed neural network with adaptive scaling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Banerjee, Santo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Projective synchronization in coupled delayed neural chaotic systems with modulated delay time is introduced. • An adaptive rule for the scaling factors is introduced. • This scheme is highly applicable in secure communication. -- Abstract: In this work, the projective synchronization between two continuous time delayed neural systems with time varying delay is investigated. A sufficient condition for synchronization for the coupled systems with modulated delay is presented analytically with the help of the Krasovskii–Lyapunov approach. The effect of adaptive scaling factors on synchronization are also studied in details. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the analytic results

  6. Time scales of the stick–slip dynamics of the peeling of an adhesive tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nachiketa; Parida, Nigam Chandra; Raha, Soumyendu

    2015-01-01

    The stick–slip dynamics of the peeling of an adhesive tape is characterized by bifurcations that have been experimentally well studied. In this work, we investigate the time scale in which the the stick–slips happen leading to the bifurcations. This is fundamental to understanding the triboluminescence and acoustic emissions associated with the bifurcations. We establish a relationship between the time scale of the bifurcations and the inherent mathematical structure of the peeling dynamics by studying a characteristic time quantity associated with the dynamics. PMID:25663802

  7. Ten per cent polarized optical emission from GRB 090102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, I A; Mundell, C G; Smith, R J; Kobayashi, S; Guidorzi, C

    2009-12-10

    The nature of the jets and the role of magnetic fields in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remains unclear. In a baryon-dominated jet only weak, tangled fields generated in situ through shocks would be present. In an alternative model, jets are threaded with large-scale magnetic fields that originate at the central engine and that accelerate and collimate the material. To distinguish between the models the degree of polarization in early-time emission must be measured; however, previous claims of gamma-ray polarization have been controversial. Here we report that the early optical emission from GRB 090102 was polarized at 10 +/- 1 per cent, indicating the presence of large-scale fields originating in the expanding fireball. If the degree of polarization and its position angle were variable on timescales shorter than our 60-second exposure, then the peak polarization may have been larger than ten per cent.

  8. Nontarget analysis of polar contaminants in freshwater sediments influenced by pharmaceutical industry using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzic, Senka; Ahel, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical procedure for a reliable identification of nontarget polar contaminants in aquatic sediments was developed, based on the application of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The procedure was applied for the analysis of freshwater sediment that was highly impacted by wastewater discharges from the pharmaceutical industry. A number of different contaminants were successfully identified owing to the high mass accuracy of the QTOFMS system, used in combination with high chromatographic resolution of UHPLC. The major compounds, identified in investigated sediment, included a series of polypropylene glycols (n = 3-16), alkylbenzene sulfonate and benzalkonium surfactants as well as a number of various pharmaceuticals (chlorthalidone, warfarin, terbinafine, torsemide, zolpidem and macrolide antibiotics). The particular advantage of the applied technique is its capability to detect less known pharmaceutical intermediates and/or transformation products, which have not been previously reported in freshwater sediments. - Research highlights: → UHPLC-QTOFMS coupling was applied for nontarget analysis of polar contaminants. → Wide spectrum of polar contaminants was identified in polluted sediments. → Pharmaceuticals and their intermediates were present in high concentrations. - Comprehensive analysis of freshwater sediments by UPLC/QTOF indicated importance of pharmaceutically-derived polar contaminants.

  9. Nontarget analysis of polar contaminants in freshwater sediments influenced by pharmaceutical industry using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzic, Senka, E-mail: terzic@irb.h [Division of Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Ahel, Marijan [Division of Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-02-15

    A comprehensive analytical procedure for a reliable identification of nontarget polar contaminants in aquatic sediments was developed, based on the application of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The procedure was applied for the analysis of freshwater sediment that was highly impacted by wastewater discharges from the pharmaceutical industry. A number of different contaminants were successfully identified owing to the high mass accuracy of the QTOFMS system, used in combination with high chromatographic resolution of UHPLC. The major compounds, identified in investigated sediment, included a series of polypropylene glycols (n = 3-16), alkylbenzene sulfonate and benzalkonium surfactants as well as a number of various pharmaceuticals (chlorthalidone, warfarin, terbinafine, torsemide, zolpidem and macrolide antibiotics). The particular advantage of the applied technique is its capability to detect less known pharmaceutical intermediates and/or transformation products, which have not been previously reported in freshwater sediments. - Research highlights: UHPLC-QTOFMS coupling was applied for nontarget analysis of polar contaminants. Wide spectrum of polar contaminants was identified in polluted sediments. Pharmaceuticals and their intermediates were present in high concentrations. - Comprehensive analysis of freshwater sediments by UPLC/QTOF indicated importance of pharmaceutically-derived polar contaminants.

  10. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-06-01

    Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 - 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 - 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to develop integrated policies and measures for waste management over the long term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A multiple-time-scale approach to the control of ITBs on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborde, L.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D. [EURATOM-CEA Association (DSM-DRFC), CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Moreau, D. [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Ariola, M. [EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE Association, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Cordoliani, V. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Tala, T. [EURATOM-Tekes Association, VTT Processes (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The simultaneous real-time control of the current and temperature gradient profiles could lead to the steady state sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) and so to a stationary optimized plasma regime. Recent experiments in JET have demonstrated significant progress in achieving such a control: different current and temperature gradient target profiles have been reached and sustained for several seconds using a controller based on a static linear model. It's worth noting that the inverse safety factor profile evolves on a slow time scale (resistive time) while the normalized electron temperature gradient reacts on a faster one (confinement time). Moreover these experiments have shown that the controller was sensitive to rapid plasma events such as transient ITBs during the safety factor profile evolution or MHD instabilities which modify the pressure profiles on the confinement time scale. In order to take into account the different dynamics of the controlled profiles and to better react to rapid plasma events the control technique is being improved by using a multiple-time-scale approximation. The paper describes the theoretical analysis and closed-loop simulations using a control algorithm based on two-time-scale state-space model. These closed-loop simulations using the full dynamic but linear model used for the controller design to simulate the plasma response have demonstrated that this new controller allows the normalized electron temperature gradient target profile to be reached faster than the one used in previous experiments. (A.C.)

  12. A multiple-time-scale approach to the control of ITBs on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, L.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Moreau, D.; Ariola, M.; Cordoliani, V.; Tala, T.

    2005-01-01

    The simultaneous real-time control of the current and temperature gradient profiles could lead to the steady state sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) and so to a stationary optimized plasma regime. Recent experiments in JET have demonstrated significant progress in achieving such a control: different current and temperature gradient target profiles have been reached and sustained for several seconds using a controller based on a static linear model. It's worth noting that the inverse safety factor profile evolves on a slow time scale (resistive time) while the normalized electron temperature gradient reacts on a faster one (confinement time). Moreover these experiments have shown that the controller was sensitive to rapid plasma events such as transient ITBs during the safety factor profile evolution or MHD instabilities which modify the pressure profiles on the confinement time scale. In order to take into account the different dynamics of the controlled profiles and to better react to rapid plasma events the control technique is being improved by using a multiple-time-scale approximation. The paper describes the theoretical analysis and closed-loop simulations using a control algorithm based on two-time-scale state-space model. These closed-loop simulations using the full dynamic but linear model used for the controller design to simulate the plasma response have demonstrated that this new controller allows the normalized electron temperature gradient target profile to be reached faster than the one used in previous experiments. (A.C.)

  13. Scaling of the first-passage time of biased diffusion on hierarchical comb structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhifang; Tao Ruibao.

    1989-12-01

    Biased diffusion on hierarchical comb structures is studied within an exact renormalization group scheme. The scaling exponents of the moments of the first-passage time for random walks are obtained. It is found that the scaling properties of the diffusion depend only on the direction of bias. In this particular case, the presence of bias may give rise to a new multifractality. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  14. Antipersistent dynamics in short time scale variability of self-potential signals

    OpenAIRE

    Cuomo, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Lapenna, V.; Macchiato, M.; Ragosta, M.; Telesca, L.

    2000-01-01

    Time scale properties of self-potential signals are investigated through the analysis of the second order structure function (variogram), a powerful tool to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of observational data. In this work we analyse two sequences of self-potential values measured by means of a geophysical monitoring array located in a seismically active area of Southern Italy. The range of scales investigated goes from a few minutes to several days. It is shown that signal...

  15. Timing of millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunier, T; Brook, E J

    2001-01-01

    A precise relative chronology for Greenland and West Antarctic paleotemperature is extended to 90,000 years ago, based on correlation of atmospheric methane records from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 and Byrd ice cores. Over this period, the onset of seven major millennial-scale warmings in A....... This pattern provides further evidence for the operation of a "bipolar see-saw" in air temperatures and an oceanic teleconnection between the hemispheres on millennial time scales....

  16. An alcator-like confinement time scaling law derived from buckingham's PI theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The unsatisfactory state of understanding of particle transport and confinement in tokamaks is well known. The best available theory, neoclassical transport, predicts a confinement time which scales as the square of the magnetic field, and inversely as the number density. Until recently, the best available phenomenological scaling law was the Alcator scaling law. This scaling law has recently been supplanted by the neoAlcator scaling law. Both of these expressions are unsatisfactory, because they not only are unsupported by any physical theory, but also their numerical constants are dimensional, suggesting that additional physical parameters need to be accounted for. A more firmly based scaling law can be derived from Buckingham's pi theorem. We adopt the particle confinement time as the dependent variable (derived dimension), and as independent variables (fundamental dimensions) we use the plasma volume, the average ion charge density, the ion current on the limiter, and the magnetic induction. From Buckingham's pi theorem, we obtain an equation which correctly predicts the absence of magnetic induction dependence, and the direct dependence on the ion density. The dependence on the product of the major radius and the plasma radius is intermediate between the original and neoAlcator scaling laws, and may be consistent with the data if the ion kinetic temperature and limiter area were accounted for

  17. Theoretical restrictions on longest implicit time scales in Markov state models of biomolecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitskiy, Anton V.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2018-01-01

    Markov state models (MSMs) have been widely used to analyze computer simulations of various biomolecular systems. They can capture conformational transitions much slower than an average or maximal length of a single molecular dynamics (MD) trajectory from the set of trajectories used to build the MSM. A rule of thumb claiming that the slowest implicit time scale captured by an MSM should be comparable by the order of magnitude to the aggregate duration of all MD trajectories used to build this MSM has been known in the field. However, this rule has never been formally proved. In this work, we present analytical results for the slowest time scale in several types of MSMs, supporting the above rule. We conclude that the slowest implicit time scale equals the product of the aggregate sampling and four factors that quantify: (1) how much statistics on the conformational transitions corresponding to the longest implicit time scale is available, (2) how good the sampling of the destination Markov state is, (3) the gain in statistics from using a sliding window for counting transitions between Markov states, and (4) a bias in the estimate of the implicit time scale arising from finite sampling of the conformational transitions. We demonstrate that in many practically important cases all these four factors are on the order of unity, and we analyze possible scenarios that could lead to their significant deviation from unity. Overall, we provide for the first time analytical results on the slowest time scales captured by MSMs. These results can guide further practical applications of MSMs to biomolecular dynamics and allow for higher computational efficiency of simulations.

  18. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  19. Lorentz-Symmetry Test at Planck-Scale Suppression With a Spin-Polarized 133Cs Cold Atom Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihan-Le Bars, H; Guerlin, C; Lasseri, R-D; Ebran, J-P; Bailey, Q G; Bize, S; Khan, E; Wolf, P

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a local Lorentz invariance (LLI) test performed with the 133 Cs cold atom clock FO2, hosted at SYRTE. Such a test, relating the frequency shift between 133 Cs hyperfine Zeeman substates with the Lorentz violating coefficients of the standard model extension (SME), has already been realized by Wolf et al. and led to state-of-the-art constraints on several SME proton coefficients. In this second analysis, we used an improved model, based on a second-order Lorentz transformation and a self-consistent relativistic mean field nuclear model, which enables us to extend the scope of the analysis from purely proton to both proton and neutron coefficients. We have also become sensitive to the isotropic coefficient , another SME coefficient that was not constrained by Wolf et al. The resulting limits on SME coefficients improve by up to 13 orders of magnitude the present maximal sensitivities for laboratory tests and reach the generally expected suppression scales at which signatures of Lorentz violation could appear.

  20. The sensitivity of income polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at polarization and its components' sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show....... Increasing the accounting period confirms the reduction in inequality found for shorter periods, but polarization is virtually unchanged, because income group identification increases. Applying different equivalence scales does not change polarization ranking for different years, but identification ranks...

  1. High-resolution time-frequency representation of EEG data using multi-scale wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cui, Wei-Gang; Luo, Mei-Lin; Li, Ke; Wang, Lina

    2017-09-01

    An efficient time-varying autoregressive (TVAR) modelling scheme that expands the time-varying parameters onto the multi-scale wavelet basis functions is presented for modelling nonstationary signals and with applications to time-frequency analysis (TFA) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In the new parametric modelling framework, the time-dependent parameters of the TVAR model are locally represented by using a novel multi-scale wavelet decomposition scheme, which can allow the capability to capture the smooth trends as well as track the abrupt changes of time-varying parameters simultaneously. A forward orthogonal least square (FOLS) algorithm aided by mutual information criteria are then applied for sparse model term selection and parameter estimation. Two simulation examples illustrate that the performance of the proposed multi-scale wavelet basis functions outperforms the only single-scale wavelet basis functions or Kalman filter algorithm for many nonstationary processes. Furthermore, an application of the proposed method to a real EEG signal demonstrates the new approach can provide highly time-dependent spectral resolution capability.

  2. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  3. Analysis of passive scalar advection in parallel shear flows: Sorting of modes at intermediate time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camassa, Roberto; McLaughlin, Richard M.; Viotti, Claudio

    2010-11-01

    The time evolution of a passive scalar advected by parallel shear flows is studied for a class of rapidly varying initial data. Such situations are of practical importance in a wide range of applications from microfluidics to geophysics. In these contexts, it is well-known that the long-time evolution of the tracer concentration is governed by Taylor's asymptotic theory of dispersion. In contrast, we focus here on the evolution of the tracer at intermediate time scales. We show how intermediate regimes can be identified before Taylor's, and in particular, how the Taylor regime can be delayed indefinitely by properly manufactured initial data. A complete characterization of the sorting of these time scales and their associated spatial structures is presented. These analytical predictions are compared with highly resolved numerical simulations. Specifically, this comparison is carried out for the case of periodic variations in the streamwise direction on the short scale with envelope modulations on the long scales, and show how this structure can lead to "anomalously" diffusive transients in the evolution of the scalar onto the ultimate regime governed by Taylor dispersion. Mathematically, the occurrence of these transients can be viewed as a competition in the asymptotic dominance between large Péclet (Pe) numbers and the long/short scale aspect ratios (LVel/LTracer≡k), two independent nondimensional parameters of the problem. We provide analytical predictions of the associated time scales by a modal analysis of the eigenvalue problem arising in the separation of variables of the governing advection-diffusion equation. The anomalous time scale in the asymptotic limit of large k Pe is derived for the short scale periodic structure of the scalar's initial data, for both exactly solvable cases and in general with WKBJ analysis. In particular, the exactly solvable sawtooth flow is especially important in that it provides a short cut to the exact solution to the

  4. New time scale based k-epsilon model for near-wall turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Shih, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    A k-epsilon model is proposed for wall bonded turbulent flows. In this model, the eddy viscosity is characterized by a turbulent velocity scale and a turbulent time scale. The time scale is bounded from below by the Kolmogorov time scale. The dissipation equation is reformulated using this time scale and no singularity exists at the wall. The damping function used in the eddy viscosity is chosen to be a function of R(sub y) = (k(sup 1/2)y)/v instead of y(+). Hence, the model could be used for flows with separation. The model constants used are the same as in the high Reynolds number standard k-epsilon model. Thus, the proposed model will be also suitable for flows far from the wall. Turbulent channel flows at different Reynolds numbers and turbulent boundary layer flows with and without pressure gradient are calculated. Results show that the model predictions are in good agreement with direct numerical simulation and experimental data.

  5. Scale-invariant Green-Kubo relation for time-averaged diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Philipp; Barkai, Eli; Kantz, Holger

    2017-12-01

    In recent years it was shown both theoretically and experimentally that in certain systems exhibiting anomalous diffusion the time- and ensemble-averaged mean-squared displacement are remarkably different. The ensemble-averaged diffusivity is obtained from a scaling Green-Kubo relation, which connects the scale-invariant nonstationary velocity correlation function with the transport coefficient. Here we obtain the relation between time-averaged diffusivity, usually recorded in single-particle tracking experiments, and the underlying scale-invariant velocity correlation function. The time-averaged mean-squared displacement is given by 〈δ2¯〉 ˜2 DνtβΔν -β , where t is the total measurement time and Δ is the lag time. Here ν is the anomalous diffusion exponent obtained from ensemble-averaged measurements 〈x2〉 ˜tν , while β ≥-1 marks the growth or decline of the kinetic energy 〈v2〉 ˜tβ . Thus, we establish a connection between exponents that can be read off the asymptotic properties of the velocity correlation function and similarly for the transport constant Dν. We demonstrate our results with nonstationary scale-invariant stochastic and deterministic models, thereby highlighting that systems with equivalent behavior in the ensemble average can differ strongly in their time average. If the averaged kinetic energy is finite, β =0 , the time scaling of 〈δ2¯〉 and 〈x2〉 are identical; however, the time-averaged transport coefficient Dν is not identical to the corresponding ensemble-averaged diffusion constant.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on the Effects of RATO Timing on the Scale Model Acoustic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tanner; Williams, B.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale test of the Space Launch System (SLS), which is currently being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The purpose of this test is to characterize and understand a variety of acoustic phenomena that occur during the early portions of lift off, one being the overpressure environment that develops shortly after booster ignition. The SLS lift off configuration consists of four RS-25 liquid thrusters on the core stage, with two solid boosters connected to each side. Past experience with scale model testing at MSFC (in ER42), has shown that there is a delay in the ignition of the Rocket Assisted Take Off (RATO) motor, which is used as the 5% scale analog of the solid boosters, after the signal to ignite is given. This delay can range from 0 to 16.5ms. While this small of a delay maybe insignificant in the case of the full scale SLS, it can significantly alter the data obtained during the SMAT due to the much smaller geometry. The speed of sound of the air and combustion gas constituents is not scaled, and therefore the SMAT pressure waves propagate at approximately the same speed as occurs during full scale. However, the SMAT geometry is much smaller allowing the pressure waves to move down the exhaust duct, through the trench, and impact the vehicle model much faster than occurs at full scale. To better understand the effect of the RATO timing simultaneity on the SMAT IOP test data, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using the Loci/CHEM CFD software program. Five different timing offsets, based on RATO ignition delay statistics, were simulated. A variety of results and comparisons will be given, assessing the overall effect of RATO timing simultaneity on the SMAT overpressure environment.

  7. Time scales of magma transport and mixing at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, Auriol S.P.; Edmonds, Marie; Maclennan, John; Morgan, Daniel; Houghton, Bruce; Hartley, Margaret E.; Sides, Isobel

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of volcanic processes is limited by a lack of knowledge of the time scales of storage, mixing, and final ascent of magmas into the shallowest portions of volcanic plumbing systems immediately prior to eruption. It is impossible to measure these time scales directly; however, micro-analytical techniques provide indirect estimates based on the extent of diffusion of species through melts and crystals. We use diffusion in olivine phenocrysts from the A.D. 1959 Kīlauea Iki (Hawai‘i, USA)...

  8. Doubly stochastic Poisson process models for precipitation at fine time-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Nadarajah I.; Onof, Christian; Xie, Dichao

    2012-09-01

    This paper considers a class of stochastic point process models, based on doubly stochastic Poisson processes, in the modelling of rainfall. We examine the application of this class of models, a neglected alternative to the widely-known Poisson cluster models, in the analysis of fine time-scale rainfall intensity. These models are mainly used to analyse tipping-bucket raingauge data from a single site but an extension to multiple sites is illustrated which reveals the potential of this class of models to study the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation at fine time-scales.

  9. Time scale of scour around a pile in combined waves and current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    The time scale of the scour process around a circular vertical pile is studied in combined waves and current. A series of tests were carried out in a flume with pile diameters 40 mm and 75 mm, in both steady current, waves and combined waves and current. In the combined wave and current flow regime...... the waves and the current were co-directional. All the tests were conducted in the live bed regime. The time scale of scour in combined waves and current is governed by three parameters, namely the current-velocity-to-wave-velocity ratio (Ucw), the Keulegan–Carpenter number (KC) and Shields parameter (Θw...

  10. Rapid-mixing studies on the time-scale of radiation damage in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, G.E.; Michael, B.D.; Asquith, J.C.; Shenoy, M.A.; Watts, M.E.; Whillans, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Rapid mixing studies were performed to determine the time scale of radiation damage in cells. There is evidence that the sensitizing effects of oxygen and other chemical dose-modifying agents on the response of cells to ionizing radiation involve fast free-radical processes. Fast response technique studies in bacterial systems have shown that extremely fast processes occur when the bacteria are exposed to oxygen or other dose-modifying agents during irradiation. The time scales observed were consistent with the involvement of fast free-radical reactions in the expression of these effects

  11. New Bounds of Ostrowski–Gruss Type Inequality for (k + 1 Points on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze R. Nwaeze

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present three new bounds of the Ostrowski--Gr\\"uss type inequality for points $x_0,x_1,x_2,\\cdots,x_k$ on time scales. Our results generalize result of Ng\\^o and Liu, and extend results of Ujevi\\'c to time scales with $(k+1$ points. We apply our results to the continuous, discrete, and quantum calculus to obtain many new interesting inequalities. An example is also considered. The estimates obtained in this paper will be very useful in numerical integration especially for the continuous case.

  12. Time-dependent approach to collisional ionization using exterior complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, C. William; Horner, Daniel A.; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2002-01-01

    We present a time-dependent formulation of the exterior complex scaling method that has previously been used to treat electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom accurately at low energies. The time-dependent approach solves a driven Schroedinger equation, and scales more favorably with the number of electrons than the original formulation. The method is demonstrated in calculations for breakup processes in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions for systems involving short-range potentials and in 2D for electron-impact ionization in the Temkin-Poet model for electron-hydrogen atom collisions

  13. Optimized design of polarizers with low ohmic loss and any polarization state for the 28 GHz QUEST ECH/ECCD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Toru Ii, E-mail: tsujimura.tohru@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Idei, Hiroshi [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Kubo, Shin; Kobayashi, Sakuji [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Ohmic loss was calculated on the grooved mirror surface in simulated polarizers. • Polarizers with a low ohmic loss feature were optimally designed for 28 GHz. • Smooth rounded-rectangular grooves were made by mechanical machining. • The designed polarizers can realize all polarization states. - Abstract: In a high-power long-pulse millimeter-wave transmission line for electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECH/ECCD), the ohmic loss on the grooved mirror surface of polarizers is one of the important issues for reducing the transmission loss. In this paper, the ohmic loss on the mirror surface is evaluated in simulated real-scale polarizer miter bends for different groove parameters under a linearly-polarized incident wave excitation. The polarizers with low ohmic loss are optimally designed for a new 28 GHz transmission line on the QUEST spherical tokamak. The calculated optimum ohmic loss is restricted to only less than 1.5 times as large as the theoretical loss for a copper flat mirror at room temperature. The copper rounded-rectangular grooves of the polarizers were relatively easy to make smooth in mechanical machining and the resultant surface roughness was not more than 0.15 μm, which is only 0.38 times as large as the skin depth. The combination of the designed elliptical polarizer and the polarization rotator can also realize any polarization state of the reflected wave.

  14. Early optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst afterglow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Carole G; Steele, Iain A; Smith, Robert J; Kobayashi, Shiho; Melandri, Andrea; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Gomboc, Andreja; Mottram, Chris J; Clarke, David; Monfardini, Alessandro; Carter, David; Bersier, David

    2007-03-30

    We report the optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow, obtained 203 seconds after the initial burst of gamma-rays from GRB 060418, using a ring polarimeter on the robotic Liverpool Telescope. Our robust (2sigma) upper limit on the percentage of polarization, less than 8%, coincides with the fireball deceleration time at the onset of the afterglow. The combination of the rate of decay of the optical brightness and the low polarization at this critical time constrains standard models of GRB ejecta, ruling out the presence of a large-scale ordered magnetic field in the emitting region.

  15. Astronomical tuning and magnetostratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation of South China and Newark Supergroup of North America: Implications for the Late Triassic time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingsong; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Chunju; Ogg, James; Hinnov, Linda; Wang, Yongdong; Zou, Zhuoyan; Li, Liqin

    2017-10-01

    The time scale of the Late Triassic Epoch has a divergence of age models, especially for the durations of competing definitions for its Rhaetian Stage (uppermost Triassic). The astrochronology derived from relative depth of lacustrine-bearing clastic successions and astronomically tuned geomagnetic polarity time scale (APTS) of the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America provides a basis for the Late Triassic time scale. However, the Newark APTS has been challenged regarding its age scale and completeness; therefore an independent astronomical-tuned magnetic polarity zonation is required to verify the upper Newark APTS reference scale. We compiled a 6.5 million year (myr) APTS with magnetic stratigraphy from four sections of the lacustrine-fluvial, dinosaur-track-bearing Xujiahe Formation in the Sichuan Basin of South China that also has dating from detrital zircons and regional biostratigraphy. Variations in natural gamma-ray and magnetic susceptibility that reflect variable continental weathering in the source regions of the Xujiahe Formation are paced by Milankovitch cycles, especially the 100-kyr short eccentricity and 405-kyr long eccentricity. The cycle-tuned magnetostratigraphy of the Xujiahe Formation is compared directly via the magnetic-polarity zones to the depth ranks of the Newark Supergroup that are indicative of relative depths of lacustrine facies. The Sichuan APTS indicates that there is no significant hiatus between the sedimentary succession and the basalt flows at the top of the Newark Supergroup. The Sichuan APTS is compatible with the magnetostratigraphy from the candidate Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Norian-Rhaetian boundary interval at the Pignola-Abriola of South Italy, but does not extend downward to the proposed GSSP in Austria associated with the longer Rhaetian option. The earliest dinosaur tracks in China are from the middle of this Xujiahe Formation, therefore are implied to be middle Rhaetian in age

  16. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  17. Composite and case study analyses of the large-scale environments associated with West Pacific Polar and subtropical vertical jet superposition events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlos, Zachary J.

    Though considerable research attention has been devoted to examination of the Northern Hemispheric polar and subtropical jet streams, relatively little has been directed toward understanding the circumstances that conspire to produce the relatively rare vertical superposition of these usually separate features. This dissertation investigates the structure and evolution of large-scale environments associated with jet superposition events in the northwest Pacific. An objective identification scheme, using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 data, is employed to identify all jet superpositions in the west Pacific (30-40°N, 135-175°E) for boreal winters (DJF) between 1979/80 - 2009/10. The analysis reveals that environments conducive to west Pacific jet superposition share several large-scale features usually associated with East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) northerly cold surges, including the presence of an enhanced Hadley Cell-like circulation within the jet entrance region. It is further demonstrated that several EAWM indices are statistically significantly correlated with jet superposition frequency in the west Pacific. The life cycle of EAWM cold surges promotes interaction between tropical convection and internal jet dynamics. Low potential vorticity (PV), high theta e tropical boundary layer air, exhausted by anomalous convection in the west Pacific lower latitudes, is advected poleward towards the equatorward side of the jet in upper tropospheric isentropic layers resulting in anomalous anticyclonic wind shear that accelerates the jet. This, along with geostrophic cold air advection in the left jet entrance region that drives the polar tropopause downward through the jet core, promotes the development of the deep, vertical PV wall characteristic of superposed jets. West Pacific jet superpositions preferentially form within an environment favoring the aforementioned characteristics regardless of EAWM seasonal strength. Post-superposition, it is shown that the west Pacific

  18. Time-sliced perturbation theory for large scale structure I: general formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Sibiryakov, Sergey [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Ivanov, Mikhail M., E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch, E-mail: mathias.garny@cern.ch, E-mail: mikhail.ivanov@cern.ch, E-mail: sergey.sibiryakov@cern.ch [FSB/ITP/LPPC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    We present a new analytic approach to describe large scale structure formation in the mildly non-linear regime. The central object of the method is the time-dependent probability distribution function generating correlators of the cosmological observables at a given moment of time. Expanding the distribution function around the Gaussian weight we formulate a perturbative technique to calculate non-linear corrections to cosmological correlators, similar to the diagrammatic expansion in a three-dimensional Euclidean quantum field theory, with time playing the role of an external parameter. For the physically relevant case of cold dark matter in an Einstein-de Sitter universe, the time evolution of the distribution function can be found exactly and is encapsulated by a time-dependent coupling constant controlling the perturbative expansion. We show that all building blocks of the expansion are free from spurious infrared enhanced contributions that plague the standard cosmological perturbation theory. This paves the way towards the systematic resummation of infrared effects in large scale structure formation. We also argue that the approach proposed here provides a natural framework to account for the influence of short-scale dynamics on larger scales along the lines of effective field theory.

  19. Influence of the time scale on the construction of financial networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert-Streib, Frank; Dehmer, Matthias

    2010-09-30

    In this paper we investigate the definition and formation of financial networks. Specifically, we study the influence of the time scale on their construction. For our analysis we use correlation-based networks obtained from the daily closing prices of stock market data. More precisely, we use the stocks that currently comprise the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) and estimate financial networks where nodes correspond to stocks and edges correspond to none vanishing correlation coefficients. That means only if a correlation coefficient is statistically significant different from zero, we include an edge in the network. This construction procedure results in unweighted, undirected networks. By separating the time series of stock prices in non-overlapping intervals, we obtain one network per interval. The length of these intervals corresponds to the time scale of the data, whose influence on the construction of the networks will be studied in this paper. Numerical analysis of four different measures in dependence on the time scale for the construction of networks allows us to gain insights about the intrinsic time scale of the stock market with respect to a meaningful graph-theoretical analysis.

  20. Advancing Environmental Prediction Capabilities for the Polar Regions and Beyond during The Year of Polar Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kirstin; Goessling, Helge; Hoke, Winfried; Kirchhoff, Katharina; Jung, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Environmental changes in polar regions open up new opportunities for economic and societal operations such as vessel traffic related to scientific, fishery and tourism activities, and in the case of the Arctic also enhanced resource development. The availability of current and accurate weather and environmental information and forecasts will therefore play an increasingly important role in aiding risk reduction and safety management around the poles. The Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) has been established by the World Meteorological Organization's World Weather Research Programme as the key activity of the ten-year Polar Prediction Project (PPP; see more on www.polarprediction.net). YOPP is an internationally coordinated initiative to significantly advance our environmental prediction capabilities for the polar regions and beyond, supporting improved weather and climate services. Scheduled to take place from mid-2017 to mid-2019, the YOPP core phase covers an extended period of intensive observing, modelling, prediction, verification, user-engagement and education activities in the Arctic and Antarctic, on a wide range of time scales from hours to seasons. The Year of Polar Prediction will entail periods of enhanced observational and modelling campaigns in both polar regions. With the purpose to close the gaps in the conventional polar observing systems in regions where the observation network is sparse, routine observations will be enhanced during Special Observing Periods for an extended period of time (several weeks) during YOPP. This will allow carrying out subsequent forecasting system experiments aimed at optimizing observing systems in the polar regions and providing insight into the impact of better polar observations on forecast skills in lower latitudes. With various activities and the involvement of a wide range of stakeholders, YOPP will contribute to the knowledge base needed to managing the opportunities and risks that come with polar climate change.

  1. Resolution, Scales and Predictability: Is High Resolution Detrimental To Predictability At Extended Forecast Times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, F.

    The traditional views hold that high-resolution limited area models (LAMs) down- scale large-scale lateral boundary information, and that predictability of small scales is short. Inspection of various rms fits/errors has contributed to these views. It would follow that the skill of LAMs should visibly deteriorate compared to that of their driver models at more extended forecast times. The limited area Eta Model at NCEP has an additional handicap of being driven by LBCs of the previous Avn global model run, at 0000 and 1200 UTC estimated to amount to about an 8 h loss in accuracy. This should make its relative skill compared to that of the Avn deteriorate even faster. These views are challenged by various Eta results including rms fits to raobs out to 84 h. It is argued that it is the largest scales that contribute the most to the skill of the Eta relative to that of the Avn.

  2. Temperature-dependent time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of (1-101)-oriented semi-polar AlGaN/GaN MQWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Daniel; Gil, Bernard; Monavarian, Morteza; Zhang, Fan; Okur, Serdal; Izyumskaya, Natalia; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Özgür, Ümit; Morkoç, Hadis

    2015-03-01

    We studied the temperature dependence and the recombination dynamics of the photoluminescence of (1-101)-oriented semi-polar Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW). The polarized low-temperature PL measurements reveal that radiative recombination exhibit an anisotropic behavior. The PL intensity at room temperature is reduced by one order of magnitude with respect to low temperature. The radiative decay time exhibits a mixed behavior: it is roughly constant between 8K to ranging near 140-150K and then rapidly increases with a slope of 10 ps.K-1. This behavior is indicative of coexistence of localized excitons and free excitons which relative proportion are statistically computed.

  3. Time-variable gravity potential components for optical clock comparisons and the definition of international time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, C.; Denker, H.; Timmen, L.

    2016-01-01

    The latest generation of optical atomic clocks is approaching the level of one part in 10 18 in terms of frequency stability and uncertainty. For clock comparisons and the definition of international time scales, a relativistic redshift effect of the clock frequencies has to be taken into account at a corresponding uncertainty level of about 0.1 m 2 s -2 and 0.01 m in terms of gravity potential and height, respectively. Besides the predominant static part of the gravity potential, temporal variations must be considered in order to avoid systematic frequency shifts. Time-variable gravity potential components induced by tides and non-tidal mass redistributions are investigated with regard to the level of one part in 10 18 . The magnitudes and dominant time periods of the individual gravity potential contributions are investigated globally and for specific laboratory sites together with the related uncertainty estimates. The basics of the computation methods are presented along with the applied models, data sets and software. Solid Earth tides contribute by far the most dominant signal with a global maximum amplitude of 4.2 m 2 s -2 for the potential and a range (maximum-to-minimum) of up to 1.3 and 10.0 m 2 s -2 in terms of potential differences between specific laboratories over continental and intercontinental scales, respectively. Amplitudes of the ocean tidal loading potential can amount up to 1.25 m 2 s -2 , while the range of the potential between specific laboratories is 0.3 and 1.1 m 2 s -2 over continental and intercontinental scales, respectively. These are the only two contributors being relevant at a 10 -17 level. However, several other time-variable potential effects can particularly affect clock comparisons at the 10 -18 level. Besides solid Earth pole tides, these are non-tidal mass redistributions in the atmosphere, the oceans and the continental water storage. (authors)

  4. Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe

    1997-01-01

    This book deals with special relativity theory and its application to cosmology. It presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The book will be of interest to cosmologists, astrophysicists, theoretical

  5. Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    This book presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large-scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The relationship between cosmic velocity, acceleration and distances is given. In the appendices gravitation is added in the form of a cosmological g

  6. Time-scale effects on the gain-loss asymmetry in stock indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Simonsen, Ingve; Nagy, Bálint Zsolt; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    The gain-loss asymmetry, observed in the inverse statistics of stock indices is present for logarithmic return levels that are over 2 % , and it is the result of the non-Pearson-type autocorrelations in the index. These non-Pearson-type correlations can be viewed also as functionally dependent daily volatilities, extending for a finite time interval. A generalized time-window shuffling method is used to show the existence of such autocorrelations. Their characteristic time scale proves to be smaller (less than 25 trading days) than what was previously believed. It is also found that this characteristic time scale has decreased with the appearance of program trading in the stock market transactions. Connections with the leverage effect are also established.

  7. Linking Time and Space Scales in Distributed Hydrological Modelling - a case study for the VIC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke; Teuling, Adriaan; Torfs, Paul; Zappa, Massimiliano; Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2015-04-01

    One of the famous paradoxes of the Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea (~450 BC) is the one with the arrow: If one shoots an arrow, and cuts its motion into such small time steps that at every step the arrow is standing still, the arrow is motionless, because a concatenation of non-moving parts does not create motion. Nowadays, this reasoning can be refuted easily, because we know that motion is a change in space over time, which thus by definition depends on both time and space. If one disregards time by cutting it into infinite small steps, motion is also excluded. This example shows that time and space are linked and therefore hard to evaluate separately. As hydrologists we want to understand and predict the motion of water, which means we have to look both in space and in time. In hydrological models we can account for space by using spatially explicit models. With increasing computational power and increased data availability from e.g. satellites, it has become easier to apply models at a higher spatial resolution. Increasing the resolution of hydrological models is also labelled as one of the 'Grand Challenges' in hydrology by Wood et al. (2011) and Bierkens et al. (2014), who call for global modelling at hyperresolution (~1 km and smaller). A literature survey on 242 peer-viewed articles in which the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was used, showed that the spatial resolution at which the model is applied has decreased over the past 17 years: From 0.5 to 2 degrees when the model was just developed, to 1/8 and even 1/32 degree nowadays. On the other hand the literature survey showed that the time step at which the model is calibrated and/or validated remained the same over the last 17 years; mainly daily or monthly. Klemeš (1983) stresses the fact that space and time scales are connected, and therefore downscaling the spatial scale would also imply downscaling of the temporal scale. Is it worth the effort of downscaling your model from 1 degree to 1

  8. Scaling relation between earthquake magnitude and the departure time from P wave similar growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Shunta; Ellsworth, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new scaling relation between earthquake magnitude (M) and a characteristic of initial P wave displacement. By examining Japanese K-NET data averaged in bins partitioned by Mw and hypocentral distance, we demonstrate that the P wave displacement briefly displays similar growth at the onset of rupture and that the departure time (Tdp), which is defined as the time of departure from similarity of the absolute displacement after applying a band-pass filter, correlates with the final M in a range of 4.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7. The scaling relation between Mw and Tdp implies that useful information on the final M can be derived while the event is still in progress because Tdp occurs before the completion of rupture. We conclude that the scaling relation is important not only for earthquake early warning but also for the source physics of earthquakes.

  9. A Systematic Multi-Time Scale Solution for Regional Power Grid Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W. J.; Liu, Z. G.; Cheng, T.; Hu, B. Q.; Liu, X. Z.; Zhou, Y. F.

    2017-10-01

    Many aspects need to be taken into consideration in a regional grid while making schedule plans. In this paper, a systematic multi-time scale solution for regional power grid operation considering large scale renewable energy integration and Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power transmission is proposed. In the time scale aspect, we discuss the problem from month, week, day-ahead, within-day to day-behind, and the system also contains multiple generator types including thermal units, hydro-plants, wind turbines and pumped storage stations. The 9 subsystems of the scheduling system are described, and their functions and relationships are elaborated. The proposed system has been constructed in a provincial power grid in Central China, and the operation results further verified the effectiveness of the system.

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns of drought at various time scales in Shandong Province of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Depeng; Cai, Siyang; Xu, Zongxue; Li, Fulin; Sun, Wenchao; Yang, Xiaojing; Kan, Guangyuan; Liu, Pin

    2018-01-01

    The temporal variations and spatial patterns of drought in Shandong Province of Eastern China were investigated by calculating the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Monthly precipitation and air temperature time series during the period 1960-2012 were collected at 23 meteorological stations uniformly distributed over the region. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the temporal trends of precipitation, air temperature, and the SPEI drought index. S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the spatial patterns of drought. The results showed that an insignificant decreasing trend in annual total precipitation was detected at most stations, a significant increase of annual average air temperature occurred at all the 23 stations, and a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI was mainly detected at the coastal stations for all the time scales. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and severe drought at different time scales generally increased with decades; higher frequency and larger affected area of extreme and severe droughts occurred as the time scale increased, especially for the northwest of Shandong Province and Jiaodong peninsular. The spatial pattern of drought for SPEI-1 contains three regions: eastern Jiaodong Peninsular and northwestern and southern Shandong. As the time scale increased to 3, 6, and 12 months, the order of the three regions was transformed into another as northwestern Shandong, eastern Jiaodong Peninsular, and southern Shandong. For SPEI-24, the location identified by REOF1 was slightly shifted from northwestern Shandong to western Shandong, and REOF2 and REOF3 identified another two weak patterns in the south edge and north edge of Jiaodong Peninsular, respectively. The potential causes of drought and the impact of drought on agriculture in the study area have also been discussed. The temporal variations and spatial patterns

  11. The Space-Time Conservative Schemes for Large-Scale, Time-Accurate Flow Simulations with Tetrahedral Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Friedlander, David J.; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of development of unstructured mesh methods, high-fidelity time-accurate simulations are still predominantly carried out on structured, or unstructured hexahedral meshes by using high-order finite-difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO), or hybrid schemes formed by their combinations. In this work, the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is used to simulate several flow problems including supersonic jet/shock interaction and its impact on launch vehicle acoustics, and direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows using tetrahedral meshes. This paper provides a status report for the continuing development of the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) numerical and software framework under the Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) project. Solution accuracy and large-scale parallel performance of the numerical framework is assessed with the goal of providing a viable paradigm for future high-fidelity flow physics simulations.

  12. Time-domain induced polarization - an analysis of Cole-Cole parameter resolution and correlation using Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Meldgaard; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben

    2017-01-01

    The application of time-domain induced polarization (TDIP) is increasing with advances in acquisition techniques, data processing and spectral inversion schemes. An inversion of TDIP data for the spectral Cole-Cole parameters is a non-linear problem, but by applying a 1-D Markov Chain Monte Carlo......-shaped probability distributions with a single maximum, show that the Cole-Cole parameters can be resolved from TDIP data if an acquisition range above two decades in time is applied. Linear correlations between the Cole-Cole parameters are observed and by decreasing the acquisitions ranges, the correlations...

  13. Multidimensional scaling analysis of financial time series based on modified cross-sample entropy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiayi; Shang, Pengjian; Xiong, Hui

    2018-06-01

    Stocks, as the concrete manifestation of financial time series with plenty of potential information, are often used in the study of financial time series. In this paper, we utilize the stock data to recognize their patterns through out the dissimilarity matrix based on modified cross-sample entropy, then three-dimensional perceptual maps of the results are provided through multidimensional scaling method. Two modified multidimensional scaling methods are proposed in this paper, that is, multidimensional scaling based on Kronecker-delta cross-sample entropy (MDS-KCSE) and multidimensional scaling based on permutation cross-sample entropy (MDS-PCSE). These two methods use Kronecker-delta based cross-sample entropy and permutation based cross-sample entropy to replace the distance or dissimilarity measurement in classical multidimensional scaling (MDS). Multidimensional scaling based on Chebyshev distance (MDSC) is employed to provide a reference for comparisons. Our analysis reveals a clear clustering both in synthetic data and 18 indices from diverse stock markets. It implies that time series generated by the same model are easier to have similar irregularity than others, and the difference in the stock index, which is caused by the country or region and the different financial policies, can reflect the irregularity in the data. In the synthetic data experiments, not only the time series generated by different models can be distinguished, the one generated under different parameters of the same model can also be detected. In the financial data experiment, the stock indices are clearly divided into five groups. Through analysis, we find that they correspond to five regions, respectively, that is, Europe, North America, South America, Asian-Pacific (with the exception of mainland China), mainland China and Russia. The results also demonstrate that MDS-KCSE and MDS-PCSE provide more effective divisions in experiments than MDSC.

  14. Sensitivity of the breastfeeding motivational measurement scale: a known group analysis of first time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups.

  15. Evaluation of real-time operating system for small-scale embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayang Norhayati Abang Jawawi; Rosbi Mamat

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of some real-time operating systems for small-scale embedded systems are evaluated based on some criteria. The evaluation is performed qualitatively and quantitatively. The evaluation results based on a case study on an engineering application will be presented. (author)

  16. Hardy inequality on time scales and its application to half-linear dynamic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řehák Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-scale version of the Hardy inequality is presented, which unifies and extends well-known Hardy inequalities in the continuous and in the discrete setting. An application in the oscillation theory of half-linear dynamic equations is given.

  17. Modeling heat dominated electric breakdown in air, with adaptivity to electron or ion time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agnihotri, A.; Hundsdorfer, W.; Ebert, U.

    2017-01-01

    We model heat dominated electrical breakdown in air in a short planar gap. We couple the discharge dynamics in fluid approximation with the hydrodynamic motion of the air heated by the discharge. To be computationally efficient, we derive a reduced model on the ion time scale, and we switch between

  18. A limit set trichotomy for order-preserving systems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Poetzsche

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we derive a limit set trichotomy for abstract order-preserving 2-parameter semiflows in normal cones of strongly ordered Banach spaces. Additionally, to provide an example, Muller's theorem is generalized to dynamic equations on arbitrary time scales and applied to a model from population dynamics.

  19. Arctic energy budget in relation to sea ice variability on monthly-to-annual time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, F.; Hazeleger, W.

    2015-01-01

    The large decrease in Arctic sea ice in recent years has triggered a strong interest in Arctic sea ice predictions on seasonal-to-decadal time scales. Hence, it is important to understand physical processes that provide enhanced predictability beyond persistence of sea ice anomalies. This study

  20. Fixation of competing strategies when interacting agents differ in the time scale of strategy updating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Weissing, Franz J.; Cao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used assumption in evolutionary game theory is that natural selection acts on individuals in the same time scale; e.g., players use the same frequency to update their strategies. Variation in learning rates within populations suggests that evolutionary game theory may not necessarily be

  1. Time-scale effects in the interaction between a large and a small herbivore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, D. P. J.; Beek, P.; van Wieren, S.E.; Bakker, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    In the short term, grazing will mainly affect plant biomass and forage quality. However, grazing can affect plant species composition by accelerating or retarding succession at longer time-scales. Few studies concerning interactions among herbivores have taken the change in plant species composition

  2. Time scales: from Nabla calculus to Delta calculus and vice versa via duality

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, M. Cristina

    2009-01-01

    In this note we show how one can obtain results from the nabla calculus from results on the delta calculus and vice versa via a duality argument. We provide applications of the main results to the calculus of variations on time scales.

  3. A Visual Method of Time Scale Determination using a PC for Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Variability is one of the extremely observational properties. In the radio bands, variability is caused by the shock in the jet. In this case, emissions increase rapidly following an exponential curve, and then decrease rapidly also in an exponential curve. The variability time scale is important with regard to the physics ...

  4. Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zheng-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ming; Chen, Yen-Sheng

    2006-09-15

    Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motors is studied in this paper. In order to analyse a variety of periodic and chaotic phenomena, we employ several numerical techniques such as phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. Anti-control of chaos can be achieved by adding an external constant term or an external periodic term.

  5. Principal and nonprincipal solutions of symplectic dynamic systems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Dosly

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish the concept of the principal and nonprincipal solution for the so-called symplectic dynamic systems on time scales. We also present a brief survey of the history of these concept for differential and difference equations.

  6. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Time Management for Exercise Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; Rogers, W. Todd

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect preliminary validity evidence for a time management scale for exercise. An initial pool of 91 items was developed from existing literature. Ten exercise/health psychologists evaluated each of the items in terms of relevance and representativeness. Forty-nine items met all criteria. Exploratory factor…

  7. Towards a Unified Formulation of Dynamics and Thermodynamics I. From Microscopic to Macroscopic Time Scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durand, P.; Paidarová, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 2 (2011), s. 225-236 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100400501; GA AV ČR IAA401870702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Liouville equation * time scales * chemical kinetics and dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2011

  8. Assessment of the methods for determining net radiation at different time-scales of meteorological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni An

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available When modeling the soil/atmosphere interaction, it is of paramount importance to determine the net radiation flux. There are two common calculation methods for this purpose. Method 1 relies on use of air temperature, while Method 2 relies on use of both air and soil temperatures. Nowadays, there has been no consensus on the application of these two methods. In this study, the half-hourly data of solar radiation recorded at an experimental embankment are used to calculate the net radiation and long-wave radiation at different time-scales (half-hourly, hourly, and daily using the two methods. The results show that, compared with Method 2 which has been widely adopted in agronomical, geotechnical and geo-environmental applications, Method 1 is more feasible for its simplicity and accuracy at shorter time-scale. Moreover, in case of longer time-scale, daily for instance, less variations of net radiation and long-wave radiation are obtained, suggesting that no detailed soil temperature variations can be obtained. In other words, shorter time-scales are preferred in determining net radiation flux.

  9. Global Stability of Complex-Valued Genetic Regulatory Networks with Delays on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yajing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the global exponential stability of complex-valued genetic regulatory networks with delays is investigated. Besides presenting conditions guaranteeing the existence of a unique equilibrium pattern, its global exponential stability is discussed. Some numerical examples for different time scales.

  10. How the constants in Hille-Nehari theorems depend on time scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, - (2006), s. 1-15 ISSN 1687-1839 R&D Pro jects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/0079; GA ČR(CZ) GP201/01/P041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : dynamic equation * time scales * oscillation criteria Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Theoretical and Numerical Properties of a Gyrokinetic Plasma: Issues Related to Transport Time Scale Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.

    2003-01-01

    Particle simulation has played an important role for the recent investigations on turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. In this paper, theoretical and numerical properties of a gyrokinetic plasma as well as its relationship with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are discussed with the ultimate aim of simulating microturbulence in transport time scale using massively parallel computers

  12. Time scales for spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-12-31

    Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in the spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using a large variety of zero range interactions in the frame of a pseudo-particle model. Scale times for spinodal decomposition are extracted and a possible link with decomposition in real heavy-ion collisions is discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab.

  13. Time scales for spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in the spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using a large variety of zero range interactions in the frame of a pseudo-particle model. Scale times for spinodal decomposition are extracted and a possible link with decomposition in real heavy-ion collisions is discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Time scales for spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter with pseudoparticle models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in the spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using a large variety of zero range interactions in the frame of a pseudoparticle model. Scale times for spinodal decomposition are extracted and a possible link with decomposition in real heavy-ion collisions is discussed

  15. Time scales for spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter with pseudoparticle models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F. (Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Universite de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssiniere, 44072 Nantes (France))

    1993-08-01

    Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in the spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using a large variety of zero range interactions in the frame of a pseudoparticle model. Scale times for spinodal decomposition are extracted and a possible link with decomposition in real heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  16. Non-Abelian Kubo formula and the multiple time-scale method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Li, J.

    1996-01-01

    The non-Abelian Kubo formula is derived from the kinetic theory. That expression is compared with the one obtained using the eikonal for a Chern endash Simons theory. The multiple time-scale method is used to study the non-Abelian Kubo formula, and the damping rate for longitudinal color waves is computed. copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  17. Crystal plasticity based modeling of time and scale dependent behavior of thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erturk, I.; Gao, K.; Bielen, J.A.; Dommelen, van J.A.W.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The micro and sub-micro scale dimensions of the components of modern high-tech products pose challenging engineering problems that require advanced tools to tackle them. An example hereof is time dependent strain recovery, here referred to as anelasticity, which is observed in metallic thin film

  18. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions for n-dimensional neutral dynamic equations on time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Li, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, by using the existence of the exponential dichotomy of linear dynamic equations on time scales and the theory of calculus on time scales, we study the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions for a class of n-dimensional neutral dynamic equations on time scales. We also present an example to illustrate the feasibility of our results. The results of this paper are completely new and complementary to the previously known results even in both the case of differential equations (time scale [Formula: see text]) and the case of difference equations (time scale [Formula: see text]).

  19. The swan song in context: long-time-scale X-ray variability of NGC 4051

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttley, P.; McHardy, I. M.; Papadakis, I. E.; Guainazzi, M.; Fruscione, A.

    1999-07-01

    On 1998 May 9-11, the highly variable, low-luminosity Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 was observed in an unusual low-flux state by BeppoSAX, RXTE and EUVE. We present fits of the 4-15keV RXTE spectrum and BeppoSAX MECS spectrum obtained during this observation, which are consistent with the interpretation that the source had switched off, leaving only the spectrum of pure reflection from distant cold matter. We place this result in context by showing the X-ray light curve of NGC 4051 obtained by our RXTE monitoring campaign over the past two and a half years, which shows that the low state lasted for ~150d before the May observations (implying that the reflecting material is >10^17cm from the continuum source) and forms part of a light curve showing distinct variations in long-term average flux over time-scales > months. We show that the long-time-scale component to X-ray variability is intrinsic to the primary continuum and is probably distinct from the variability at shorter time-scales. The long-time-scale component to variability maybe associated with variations in the accretion flow of matter on to the central black hole. As the source approaches the low state, the variability process becomes non-linear. NGC 4051 may represent a microcosm of all X-ray variability in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs), displaying in a few years a variety of flux states and variability properties which more luminous AGNs may pass through on time-scales of decades to thousands of years.

  20. Evaluation of scalar mixing and time scale models in PDF simulations of a turbulent premixed flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoellinger, Michael; Heinz, Stefan [Department of Mathematics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Numerical simulation results obtained with a transported scalar probability density function (PDF) method are presented for a piloted turbulent premixed flame. The accuracy of the PDF method depends on the scalar mixing model and the scalar time scale model. Three widely used scalar mixing models are evaluated: the interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model, the modified Curl's coalescence/dispersion (CD) model and the Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) model. The three scalar mixing models are combined with a simple model for the scalar time scale which assumes a constant C{sub {phi}}=12 value. A comparison of the simulation results with available measurements shows that only the EMST model calculates accurately the mean and variance of the reaction progress variable. An evaluation of the structure of the PDF's of the reaction progress variable predicted by the three scalar mixing models confirms this conclusion: the IEM and CD models predict an unrealistic shape of the PDF. Simulations using various C{sub {phi}} values ranging from 2 to 50 combined with the three scalar mixing models have been performed. The observed deficiencies of the IEM and CD models persisted for all C{sub {phi}} values considered. The value C{sub {phi}}=12 combined with the EMST model was found to be an optimal choice. To avoid the ad hoc choice for C{sub {phi}}, more sophisticated models for the scalar time scale have been used in simulations using the EMST model. A new model for the scalar time scale which is based on a linear blending between a model for flamelet combustion and a model for distributed combustion is developed. The new model has proven to be very promising as a scalar time scale model which can be applied from flamelet to distributed combustion. (author)

  1. Astronomical calibration of Gauss to Matuyama sapropels in the Mediterranean and implication for the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgen, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The late Pliocene-early Pleistocene sapropel-bearing sequences exposed in the Vrica, Semaforo, Singa and Punta Piccola sections of southern Italy and the Francocastello section on Crete have been calibrated to the new astronomical solutions for the precession of the equinox and the eccentricity of

  2. Robust scaling laws for energy confinement time, including radiated fraction, in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the limitations of scalings in power-law form that are obtained from traditional log regression have become increasingly evident in many fields of research. Given the wide gap in operational space between present-day and next-generation devices, robustness of the obtained models in guaranteeing reasonable extrapolability is a major issue. In this paper, a new technique, called symbolic regression, is reviewed, refined, and applied to the ITPA database for extracting scaling laws of the energy-confinement time at different radiated fraction levels. The main advantage of this new methodology is its ability to determine the most appropriate mathematical form of the scaling laws to model the available databases without the restriction of their having to be power laws. In a completely new development, this technique is combined with the concept of geodesic distance on Gaussian manifolds so as to take into account the error bars in the measurements and provide more reliable models. Robust scaling laws, including radiated fractions as regressor, have been found; they are not in power-law form, and are significantly better than the traditional scalings. These scaling laws, including radiated fractions, extrapolate quite differently to ITER, and therefore they require serious consideration. On the other hand, given the limitations of the existing databases, dedicated experimental investigations will have to be carried out to fully understand the impact of radiated fractions on the confinement in metallic machines and in the next generation of devices.

  3. Earth History databases and visualization - the TimeScale Creator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, James; Lugowski, Adam; Gradstein, Felix

    2010-05-01

    The "TimeScale Creator" team (www.tscreator.org) and the Subcommission on Stratigraphic Information (stratigraphy.science.purdue.edu) of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (www.stratigraphy.org) has worked with numerous geoscientists and geological surveys to prepare reference datasets for global and regional stratigraphy. All events are currently calibrated to Geologic Time Scale 2004 (Gradstein et al., 2004, Cambridge Univ. Press) and Concise Geologic Time Scale (Ogg et al., 2008, Cambridge Univ. Press); but the array of intercalibrations enable dynamic adjustment to future numerical age scales and interpolation methods. The main "global" database contains over 25,000 events/zones from paleontology, geomagnetics, sea-level and sequence stratigraphy, igneous provinces, bolide impacts, plus several stable isotope curves and image sets. Several regional datasets are provided in conjunction with geological surveys, with numerical ages interpolated using a similar flexible inter-calibration procedure. For example, a joint program with Geoscience Australia has compiled an extensive Australian regional biostratigraphy and a full array of basin lithologic columns with each formation linked to public lexicons of all Proterozoic through Phanerozoic basins - nearly 500 columns of over 9,000 data lines plus hot-curser links to oil-gas reference wells. Other datapacks include New Zealand biostratigraphy and basin transects (ca. 200 columns), Russian biostratigraphy, British Isles regional stratigraphy, Gulf of Mexico biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy, high-resolution Neogene stable isotope curves and ice-core data, human cultural episodes, and Circum-Arctic stratigraphy sets. The growing library of datasets is designed for viewing and chart-making in the free "TimeScale Creator" JAVA package. This visualization system produces a screen display of the user-selected time-span and the selected columns of geologic time scale information. The user can change the

  4. Time-domain electric field enhancement on micrometer scale in coupled split ring resonator upon terahertz radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Lehnskov; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We present here a novel design for a coupled split ring resonator antenna optimized for time-domain electric field enhancement in the 0.1 to 1 terahertz (THz) range. The antenna is designed to be sensitive to the incident field polarization and seeks to avoid metal damage due to electron bombardm...

  5. Optimal dynamic voltage scaling for wireless sensor nodes with real-time constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandras, Christos G.; Zhuang, Shixin

    2005-11-01

    Sensors are increasingly embedded in manufacturing systems and wirelessly networked to monitor and manage operations ranging from process and inventory control to tracking equipment and even post-manufacturing product monitoring. In building such sensor networks, a critical issue is the limited and hard to replenish energy in the devices involved. Dynamic voltage scaling is a technique that controls the operating voltage of a processor to provide desired performance while conserving energy and prolonging the overall network's lifetime. We consider such power-limited devices processing time-critical tasks which are non-preemptive, aperiodic and have uncertain arrival times. We treat voltage scaling as a dynamic optimization problem whose objective is to minimize energy consumption subject to hard or soft real-time execution constraints. In the case of hard constraints, we build on prior work (which engages a voltage scaling controller at task completion times) by developing an intra-task controller that acts at all arrival times of incoming tasks. We show that this optimization problem can be decomposed into two simpler ones whose solution leads to an algorithm that does not actually require solving any nonlinear programming problems. In the case of soft constraints, this decomposition must be partly relaxed, but it still leads to a scalable (linear in the number of tasks) algorithm. Simulation results are provided to illustrate performance improvements in systems with intra-task controllers compared to uncontrolled systems or those using inter-task control.

  6. Flow characteristics of a pilot-scale high temperature, short time pasteurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Kozempel, M F

    2004-09-01

    In this study, we present a method for determining the fastest moving particle (FMP) and residence time distribution (RTD) in a pilot-scale high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizer to ensure that laboratory or pilot-scale HTST apparatus meets the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance standards for pasteurization of milk and can be used for obtaining thermal inactivation data. The overall dimensions of the plate in the pasteurizer were 75 x 115 mm, with a thickness of 0.5 mm and effective diameter of 3.0 mm. The pasteurizer was equipped with nominal 21.5- and 52.2-s hold tubes, and flow capacity was variable from 0 to 20 L/h. Tracer studies were used to determine FMP times and RTD data to establish flow characteristics. Using brine milk as tracer, the FMP time for the short holding section was 18.6 s and for the long holding section was 36 s at 72 degrees C, compared with the nominal times of 21.5 and 52.2 s, respectively. The RTD study indicates that the short hold section was 45% back mixed and 55% plug flow for whole milk at 72 degrees C. The long hold section was 91% plug and 9% back mixed for whole milk at 72 degrees C. This study demonstrates that continuous laboratory and pilot-scale pasteurizers may be used to study inactivation of microorganisms only if the flow conditions in the holding tube are established for comparison with commercial HTST systems.

  7. Low-power operation using self-timed circuits and adaptive scaling of the supply voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Niessen, C.; Sparsø, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that for certain types of applications like sampled audio systems, self-timed circuits can achieve very low power consumption, because unused circuit parts automatically turn into a stand-by mode. Additional savings may be obtained by combining the self......-timed circuits with a mechanism that adaptively adjusts the supply voltage to the smallest possible, while maintaining the performance requirements. This paper describes such a mechanism, analyzes the possible power savings, and presents a demonstrator chip that has been fabricated and tested. The idea...... of voltage scaling has been used previously in synchronous circuits, and the contributions of the present paper are: 1) the combination of supply scaling and self-timed circuitry which has some unique advantages, and 2) the thorough analysis of the power savings that are possible using this technique.>...

  8. Periodic Solution of Second-Order Hamiltonian Systems with a Change Sign Potential on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Hui Su

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the second-order Hamiltonian system on time scales 𝕋 of the form uΔΔ(ρ(t+μb(t|u(t|μ−2u(t+∇¯H(t,u(t=0, Δ-a.e. t∈[0,T]𝕋 , u(0−u(T=uΔ(ρ(0−uΔ(ρ(T=0, where 0,T∈𝕋. By using the minimax methods in critical theory, an existence theorem of periodic solution for the above system is established. As an application, an example is given to illustrate the result. This is probably the first time the existence of periodic solutions for second-order Hamiltonian system on time scales has been studied by critical theory.

  9. Measuring parent time scarcity and fatigue as barriers to meal planning and preparation: quantitative scale development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2013-03-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of 9 quantitative items that assess time scarcity and fatigue as parent barriers to planning and preparing meals for their children. A convenience sample of 342 parents of children aged 2-6 years completed a 20-minute online survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure and create summary scales. Internal consistency reliability and measures of construct and concurrent validity were assessed. Two scales were created based on the factor analysis: time and energy for meals and meal planning. Preliminary evidence suggests that both scales are reliable and valid. The time and energy for meals and meal planning scales can be completed quickly by busy and tired parents. As many children do not eat nutritious diets, a better understanding of the barriers that parents face is critical and may help inform interventions tailored to the needs of tired, busy parents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of agitation time on nutrient distribution in full-scale CSTR biogas digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Philipp; Nägele, Hans-Joachim; Oechsner, Hans; Ruile, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of reduced mixing time in a full-scale CSTR biogas reactor from 10 to 5 and to 2min in half an hour on the distribution of DM, acetic acid and FOS/TAC as a measure to cut electricity consumption. The parameters in the digestate were unevenly distributed with the highest concentration measured at the point of feeding. By reducing mixing time, the FOS/TAC value increases by 16.6%. A reduced mixing time of 2min lead to an accumulation of 15% biogas in the digestate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  12. Modeling and Validating Time, Buffering, and Utilization of a Large-Scale, Real-Time Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)756497; The ATLAS collaboration; Garcia Garcia, Pedro Javier; Vandelli, Wainer; Froening, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Data acquisition systems for large-scale high-energy physics experiments have to handle hundreds of gigabytes per second of data, and are typically realized as specialized data centers that connect a very large number of front-end electronics devices to an event detection and storage system. The design of such systems is often based on many assumptions, small-scale experiments and a substantial amount of over-provisioning. In this work, we introduce a discrete event-based simulation tool that models the data flow of the current ATLAS data acquisition system, with the main goal to be accurate with regard to the main operational characteristics. We measure buffer occupancy counting the number of elements in buffers, resource utilization measuring output bandwidth and counting the number of active processing units, and their time evolution by comparing data over many consecutive and small periods of time. We perform studies on the error of simulation when comparing the results to a large amount of real-world ope...

  13. Modeling and Validating Time, Buffering, and Utilization of a Large-Scale, Real-Time Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)756497; The ATLAS collaboration; Garcia Garcia, Pedro Javier; Vandelli, Wainer; Froening, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Data acquisition systems for large-scale high-energy physics experiments have to handle hundreds of gigabytes per second of data, and are typically implemented as specialized data centers that connect a very large number of front-end electronics devices to an event detection and storage system. The design of such systems is often based on many assumptions, small-scale experiments and a substantial amount of over-provisioning. In this paper, we introduce a discrete event-based simulation tool that models the dataflow of the current ATLAS data acquisition system, with the main goal to be accurate with regard to the main operational characteristics. We measure buffer occupancy counting the number of elements in buffers; resource utilization measuring output bandwidth and counting the number of active processing units, and their time evolution by comparing data over many consecutive and small periods of time. We perform studies on the error in simulation when comparing the results to a large amount of real-world ...

  14. Time delay effects on large-scale MR damper based semi-active control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y-J; Agrawal, A K; Dyke, S J

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation on the robustness of large-scale 200 kN MR damper based semi-active control strategies in the presence of time delays in the control system. Although the effects of time delay on stability and performance degradation of an actively controlled system have been investigated extensively by many researchers, degradation in the performance of semi-active systems due to time delay has yet to be investigated. Since semi-active systems are inherently stable, instability problems due to time delay are unlikely to arise. This paper investigates the effects of time delay on the performance of a building with a large-scale MR damper, using numerical simulations of near- and far-field earthquakes. The MR damper is considered to be controlled by four different semi-active control algorithms, namely (i) clipped-optimal control (COC), (ii) decentralized output feedback polynomial control (DOFPC), (iii) Lyapunov control, and (iv) simple-passive control (SPC). It is observed that all controllers except for the COC are significantly robust with respect to time delay. On the other hand, the clipped-optimal controller should be integrated with a compensator to improve the performance in the presence of time delay. (paper)

  15. Dirac electron in a chiral space-time crystal created by counterpropagating circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzdov, G. N.

    2017-10-01

    The family of solutions to the Dirac equation for an electron moving in an electromagnetic lattice with the chiral structure created by counterpropagating circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves is obtained. At any nonzero quasimomentum, the dispersion equation has two solutions which specify bispinor wave functions describing electron states with different energies and mean values of momentum and spin operators. The inversion of the quasimomentum results in two other linearly independent solutions. These four basic wave functions are uniquely defined by eight complex scalar functions (structural functions), which serve as convenient building blocks of the relations describing the electron properties. These properties are illustrated in graphical form over a wide range of quasimomenta. The superpositions of two basic wave functions describing different spin states and corresponding to (i) the same quasimomentum (unidirectional electron states with the spin precession) and (ii) the two equal-in-magnitude but oppositely directed quasimomenta (bidirectional electron states) are also treated.

  16. Correcting Spatial Variance of RCM for GEO SAR Imaging Based on Time-Frequency Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ze; Lin, Peng; Xiao, Peng; Kang, Lihong; Li, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Compared with low-Earth orbit synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a geosynchronous (GEO) SAR can have a shorter revisit period and vaster coverage. However, relative motion between this SAR and targets is more complicated, which makes range cell migration (RCM) spatially variant along both range and azimuth. As a result, efficient and precise imaging becomes difficult. This paper analyzes and models spatial variance for GEO SAR in the time and frequency domains. A novel algorithm for GEO SAR imaging with a resolution of 2 m in both the ground cross-range and range directions is proposed, which is composed of five steps. The first is to eliminate linear azimuth variance through the first azimuth time scaling. The second is to achieve RCM correction and range compression. The third is to correct residual azimuth variance by the second azimuth time-frequency scaling. The fourth and final steps are to accomplish azimuth focusing and correct geometric distortion. The most important innovation of this algorithm is implementation of the time-frequency scaling to correct high-order azimuth variance. As demonstrated by simulation results, this algorithm can accomplish GEO SAR imaging with good and uniform imaging quality over the entire swath. PMID:27428974

  17. Modeling and simulation of nuclear fuel in scenarios with long time scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, Carlos E.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J., E-mail: eduardo.espinosa@ufrgs.br, E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DENUC/PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear reactors play a key role in defining the energy matrix. A study by the Fraunhofer Society shows in different time scales for long periods of time the distribution of energy sources. Regardless of scale, the use of nuclear energy is practically constant. In these scenarios, the nuclear fuel behavior over time is of interest. For kinetics of long-term scales, changing the chemical composition of fuel is significant. Thus, it is appropriate to consider fission products called neutron poisons. Such products are of interest in the nuclear reactor, since they become parasitic neutron absorbers and result in long thermal heat sources. The objective of this work is to solve the kinetics system coupled to neutron poison products. To solve this system, we use similar ideas to the method of Adomian decomposition. Initially, one separates the system of equations as the sum of a linear part and a non-linear part in order to solve a recursive system. The nonlinearity is treated as Adomian polynomial. We present numerical results of the effects of changing the power of a reactor, scenarios such as start-up and shut-down. For these results we consider time dependent reactivity, such as linear reactivity, quadratic polynomial and oscillatory. With these results one can simulate the chemical composition of the fuel due to the reuse of the spent fuel in subsequent cycles. (author)

  18. Modeling Climate Responses to Spectral Solar Forcing on Centennial and Decadal Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, G.; Cahalan, R.; Rind, D.; Jonas, J.; Pilewskie, P.; Harder, J.

    2012-01-01

    We report a series of experiments to explore clima responses to two types of solar spectral forcing on decadal and centennial time scales - one based on prior reconstructions, and another implied by recent observations from the SORCE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment) SIM (Spectral 1rradiance Monitor). We apply these forcings to the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Global/Middle Atmosphere Model (GCMAM). that couples atmosphere with ocean, and has a model top near the mesopause, allowing us to examine the full response to the two solar forcing scenarios. We show different climate responses to the two solar forCing scenarios on decadal time scales and also trends on centennial time scales. Differences between solar maximum and solar minimum conditions are highlighted, including impacts of the time lagged reSponse of the lower atmosphere and ocean. This contrasts with studies that assume separate equilibrium conditions at solar maximum and minimum. We discuss model feedback mechanisms involved in the solar forced climate variations.

  19. Atomic and molecular dynamics triggered by ultrashort light pulses on the atto- to picosecond time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Time-resolved investigations of ultrafast electronic and molecular dynamics were not possible until recently. The typical time scale of these processes is in the picosecond to attosecond realm. The tremendous technological progress in recent years made it possible to generate ultrashort pulses, which can be used to trigger, to watch, and to control atomic and molecular motion. This tutorial focuses on experimental and theoretical advances which are used to study the dynamics of electrons and molecules in the presence of ultrashort pulses. In the first part, the rotational dynamics of molecules, which happens on picosecond and femtosecond time scales, is reviewed. Well-aligned molecules are particularly suitable for angle-dependent investigations like x-ray diffraction or strong-field ionization experiments. In the second part, the ionization dynamics of atoms is studied. The characteristic time scale lies, here, in the attosecond to few-femtosecond regime. Although a one-particle picture has been successfully applied to many processes, many-body effects do constantly occur. After a broad overview of the main mechanisms and the most common tools in attosecond physics, examples of many-body dynamics in the attosecond world (e.g., in high-harmonic generation and attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy) are discussed.

  20. Modeling and simulation of nuclear fuel in scenarios with long time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, Carlos E.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors play a key role in defining the energy matrix. A study by the Fraunhofer Society shows in different time scales for long periods of time the distribution of energy sources. Regardless of scale, the use of nuclear energy is practically constant. In these scenarios, the nuclear fuel behavior over time is of interest. For kinetics of long-term scales, changing the chemical composition of fuel is significant. Thus, it is appropriate to consider fission products called neutron poisons. Such products are of interest in the nuclear reactor, since they become parasitic neutron absorbers and result in long thermal heat sources. The objective of this work is to solve the kinetics system coupled to neutron poison products. To solve this system, we use similar ideas to the method of Adomian decomposition. Initially, one separates the system of equations as the sum of a linear part and a non-linear part in order to solve a recursive system. The nonlinearity is treated as Adomian polynomial. We present numerical results of the effects of changing the power of a reactor, scenarios such as start-up and shut-down. For these results we consider time dependent reactivity, such as linear reactivity, quadratic polynomial and oscillatory. With these results one can simulate the chemical composition of the fuel due to the reuse of the spent fuel in subsequent cycles. (author)