WorldWideScience

Sample records for poland science keywords

  1. A keyword history of Marketing Science

    OpenAIRE

    Mela, Carl; Roos, Jason; Deng, Yanhui

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting that keywords and common practical frameworks align. Various trends exist. Some words, like "pricing," remain popular over time. Others, like "game theory" and "hierarchical Bayes," have become mor...

  2. A keyword history of Marketing Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. Mela (Carl); J.M.T. Roos (Jason); Y. Deng (Yanhui)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting

  3. Invited Paper --A Keyword History of Marketing Science

    OpenAIRE

    Carl F. Mela; Jason Roos; Yiting Deng

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting that keywords and common practical frameworks align. Various trends exist. Some words, like "pricing," remain popular over time. Others, like "game theory" and "hierarchical Bayes," have become more popular. F...

  4. Earth Science Keyword Stewardship: Access and Management through NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keyword Management System (KMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, T.; Olsen, L. M.; Ritz, S.; Morahan, M.; Aleman, A.; Cepero, L.; Gokey, C.; Holland, M.; Cordova, R.; Areu, S.; Cherry, T.; Tran-Ho, H.

    2012-12-01

    Discovering Earth science data can be complex if the catalog holding the data lacks structure. Controlled keyword vocabularies within metadata catalogues can improve data discovery. NASA's Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) Keyword Management System (KMS) is a recently released a RESTful web service for managing and providing access to controlled keywords (science keywords, service keywords, platforms, instruments, providers, locations, projects, data resolution, etc.). The KMS introduces a completely new paradigm for the use and management of the keywords and allows access to these keywords as SKOS Concepts (RDF), OWL, standard XML, and CSV. A universally unique identifier (UUID) is automatically assigned to each keyword, which uniquely identifies each concept and its associated information. A component of the KMS is the keyword manager, an internal tool that allows GCMD science coordinators to manage concepts. This includes adding, modifying, and deleting broader, narrower, or related concepts and associated definitions. The controlled keyword vocabulary represents over 20 years of effort and collaboration with the Earth science community. The maintenance, stability, and ongoing vigilance in maintaining mutually exclusive and parallel keyword lists is important for a "normalized" search and discovery, and provides a unique advantage for the science community. Modifications and additions are made based on community suggestions and internal review. To help maintain keyword integrity, science keyword rules and procedures for modification of keywords were developed. This poster will highlight the use of the KMS as a beneficial service for the stewardship and access of the GCMD keywords. Users will learn how to access the KMS and utilize the keywords. Best practices for managing an extensive keyword hierarchy will also be discussed. Participants will learn the process for making keyword suggestions, which subsequently help in building a controlled keyword

  5. Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords and Their Applications in Earth Science Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, A.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview and discussion of the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords and their applications in Earth science data discovery. The GCMD Keywords are a hierarchical set of controlled keywords covering the Earth science disciplines, including: science keywords, service keywords, data centers, projects, location, data resolution, instruments and platforms. Controlled vocabularies (keywords) help users accurately, consistently and comprehensively categorize their data and also allow for the precise search and subsequent retrieval of data. The GCMD Keywords are a community resource and are developed collaboratively with input from various stakeholders, including GCMD staff, keyword users and metadata providers. The GCMD Keyword Landing Page and GCMD Keyword Community Forum provide access to keyword resources and an area for discussion of topics related to the GCMD Keywords. See https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords

  6. The use of abstracts and keywords in Social Sciences: an evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lima Gonçalves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make an evaluation of abstracts and keywords used in periodicals published by Brazilian authors in the area of Social Sciences, in order to identify the main characteristics of these practices and how they can affect the information retrieval and representation. About 151 abstracts written by professors of the University of São Paulo were evaluated, with a view to discovering how the authors use the types of abstracts (descriptive, informative or descriptive-informative; As a second topic, we examined keywords, in an attempt to analyse how these keywords complement the abstracts, and to see if keywords can be used as tools to represent concepts in related disciplines. The results showed that the Brazilian social scientistis perfer descriptive abstracts, and that, in spite of the lack of standards, the keywords they supply can be used as a complement to the abstracts, and as indicators of interdisciplinary relations. Our conclusion is that, in spite of the importance of abstracts and keywords as informational tools, they are not properly used in the Social Sciences, and this fact may have negative effects on information retrieval.

  7. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  8. Cognitive science in Poland: learning outcomes and literary omission

    OpenAIRE

    Koneczniak, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    In the article I examine selected specifications of learning outcomes which can be achieved by students of cognitive science in Poland. The main objective is to find explicit connections between cognitive and literary studies on the levels of knowledge, skills and social competences. The decision to address such a subject stems from, on the one hand, the explicit absence of literary research in common descriptions of cognitive studies and, on the other hand, occurrence of cognitive-literary r...

  9. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnicki, S.; Budzinski, K.; Juda, J.; Michna, J.; Szpilewicz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Poland is an important case study in understanding the role of international cooperation in reducing the risk of global climate change. A the world's fourth largest coal producer, the nation occupies a key position in the political economy of a changing Europe. More importantly, Poland is pursuing energy policy reforms that half of the world must follow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prosper economically. Poland is undergoing profound economic and environmental change. This nation of 38 million people hopes to shift from planning to markets to allocate economic resources, and at the same time to conserve and protect environmental resources. Per capita incomes are only one-fourth of West Germany's, for example, but per capita energy use (and emissions of carbon dioxide) is just as high. High energy intensity causes much of Poland's serious air and water pollution. Economic efficiency could help reduce carbon and sulfur emissions, but the capital required to improve the energy infrastructure is scarce. The combination of these problems has reduced GNP per capita 9 percent over the last decade

  10. Survey of keyword adjustment of published articles medical subject headings in journal of mazandaran university of medical sciences (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Siamian, Hasan; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED. Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009-2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no adjustment with MeSH. The results showed that only

  11. Keyword Search in Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Chang, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    It has become highly desirable to provide users with flexible ways to query/search information over databases as simple as keyword search like Google search. This book surveys the recent developments on keyword search over databases, and focuses on finding structural information among objects in a database using a set of keywords. Such structural information to be returned can be either trees or subgraphs representing how the objects, that contain the required keywords, are interconnected in a relational database or in an XML database. The structural keyword search is completely different from

  12. Unconventional forms of popularization of science - festivals 'Science on Stage" in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Aneta

    2010-05-01

    could enter the show rooms and had an opportunity to try their hand at carrying out experiments prepared for them beforehand. All presentations were evaluated by a jury consisting of research workers of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Warsaw University, University of Silesia and members of the Polish Physical Society. Within each category three best presentations were selected, and their authors then represented Poland at the international festival. From many years the chairman of the National Organizing Committee of the festival has been professor Wojciech Nawrocik, the winner of the prestigious competition "Propagator of Science", organized by Polish Press Agency and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. Each festival was inaugurated with a performance prepared by the youngest participants of the festival - kindergarten children, who are outside of the competition. The theme of the last one was: "Preschoolers also are waiting for the Higgs particle!". Next edition of "Science on Stage 4" festival will be held on 24-25 September 2010, also at the Department of Physics at the University of Poznań. Its aim is to show the contribution of physics, other natural and technical sciences in solving energy problems of the world and Poland, and also finding new solutions in power engineering, which will meet a rapidly rising demand for clean and cheap energy.

  13. Collective spatial keyword querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However, the quer......With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However...

  14. Spatial Keyword Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Chen, Lisi; Cong, Gao

    2012-01-01

    The web is increasingly being used by mobile users. In addition, it is increasingly becoming possible to accurately geo-position mobile users and web content. This development gives prominence to spatial web data management. Specifically, a spatial keyword query takes a user location and user...

  15. Cultural Keywords in Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach is used as a unifying framework for the studies. This approach offers an attractive methodology for doing explorative discourse analysis on emic and culturally-sensitive grounds. Cultural Keywords in Discourse will be of interest to researchers and students...

  16. Development of Science and Technology Parks in Poland: Opportunities for New Modes of Cooperation in the Biopharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Staszkow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to verify the development of science and technology parks in Poland as well as the opportunities of development of new forms of cooperation with the use of science and technology parks in the bio pharmaceutical industry in Poland. The first section reviews the origins and definitions of science and technology parks in order to clarify and systematize the concepts used in existing research and practice. Subsequently, the ensuing sections discuss the evolution of science and technology parks and different organizational models of STPS. Further, the analysis centres on science and technology parks in Poland. Then the importance of science and technology parks for the development of new modes of cooperation in the bio pharmaceutical industry is elaborated upon. The paper ends with a set of implications and conclusions.

  17. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  18. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    delivery of PHC services in Sub-Sahara African nations. What is Quality of Health Care? The concept of quality in .... difficulty in getting transport to a health facility. He however noted that the unfriendly attitude of the health ... supervision, and financial and logistics management. Thus they view quality more from a population ...

  19. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    Pre-tested structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire patterned after the WHO multi-country study questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20.0 software. Bivariate analysis between socio-demographic variables and presence of domestic violence was done.

  20. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    quitting. History of alcohol consumption and use of other psychoactive substances such as cannabis, cocaine, heroin and amphetamines was also obtained. All participants irrespective of smoking status were also assessed for their knowledge of the harmful health effects of tobacco smoking. “Is cigarette smoking dangerous ...

  1. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    system and has the potential to touch the lives of most people, particularly at the grassroots of. Nigerian communities where health needs are most. 3 acute and intense. However, over and over again, this level of health. 4,5 care has been described as the weakest. Recent assessments of our national health indices show.

  2. Keywords:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    prevalence of diabetes, information concerning. Nigerian physicians' knowledge, attitude and practices regarding diabetes care is scarce. The general medical practitioners are front-line healthcare providers in Nigeria. They, therefore, have an important role to play in the management of diabetes mellitus, particularly in this ...

  3. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    tripling since 1990 in Nigeria, the prevalence rate for contraceptive use for any modern method in 2008 and 2013 were 9.7% and 9.8% respectively. Studies ... Family planning. Men. Spousal communication. Reproductive health decision making. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 28(1) 38-44 ...

  4. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    management of PHC is still a tall dream and current efforts at making PHC more socially relevant all aim to improve utilization and. 7,8 sustainability of the PHC system. An important component of patients' participation in health care in their evaluation of the care they receive. This form of evaluation which had been. 9.

  5. Teaching anthropology in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchowski, M.; Červinková, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2016), s. 47-51 E-ISSN 2239-625X Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : teaching anthropology * Poland * pedagogy * educational anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. ESIP Documentation Cluster Session: GCMD Keyword Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords are a hierarchical set of controlled Earth Science vocabularies that help ensure Earth science data and services are described in a consistent and comprehensive manner and allow for the precise searching of collection-level metadata and subsequent retrieval of data and services. Initiated over twenty years ago, the GCMD Keywords are periodically analyzed for relevancy and will continue to be refined and expanded in response to user needs. This talk explores the current status of the GCMD keywords, the value and usage that the keywords bring to different tools/agencies as it relates to data discovery, and how the keywords relate to SWEET (Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology) Ontologies.

  7. THE SCIENCE OF SCIENCE (NAUKOZNAWSTWO) IN POLAND: THE CHANGING THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND POLITICAL CONTEXTS--A HISTORICAL SKETCH FROM THE 1910S TO 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokowski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The article sketches the history of naukoznawstwo (literally meaning the science connoisseurship or the science of science or science studies) in Poland from the 1910s to the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. It outlines the changing research perspectives of this interdisciplinary field of knowledge in Poland against a background of changing political conditions caused by the reconfigurations of the political order. The first part of the article concerns the period from the 1910s, when Poland was occupied by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, through the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918, the reconstruction of the state in 1918-1939; the second part--World War II; the third part--the period from the initial period of Soviet dominance (1944-1954) in Poland and simultaneously the beginnings of the Cold War (1947-1954), the period 1955-1956 (when the Polish state was liberated from Sovietization), through the different political crises in October 1956, March 1968, December 1970, and June 1976, to the emergence of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity in September 1980, the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. The article outlines the fundamental achievements of prominent Polish scholars (among others K. Twardowski, M. Ossowska, S. Ossowski, T. Kotarbiński, K. Ajdukiewicz, S. Michalski, F. Znaniecki, B. Suchodolski, L. Fleck, M. Choynowski, Z. Modzelewski, S. Amsterdamski), politicians (among others B. Bierut, E. Krasowska), politicians and scholars (H. Jabłoński, S. Kulczyński), as well as committees (among others the Academic Section of the Józef Mianowski Fund, The Science of Science Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences), schools of thought (among others the Lvov-Warsaw School of Philosophy), and academic units (among others the Science of Science Seminar in Kraków, the Department for the History of Science and Technology of the Polish

  8. Professor Michal Kleiber, Minister of Science, Chairman of the State Committee for Scientific Research Republic of Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Visit of the Polish Minister of Sciences and Information Technology, Professor Michal Kleiber (centre), in front of the large support structures ("trucks") constructed in Poland for the ATLAS experiment, accompanied by members of Polish delegation, ATLAS representatives, and Cracow physicists and engineers (from left to right): Dr Jacek Blocki, Prof. Jerzy Niewodniczanski (President, National Atomic Energy Agency), Dr Szymon Gadomski, Dr Tommi Nyman (ATLAS experiment), Prof. Michal Turala, Edward Gornicki, Dr Peter Jenni (ATLAS spokesman), Mr Piotr Golonka, H.E. Mr Stanislaw Przygodski (Ambassador, Deputy Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations in Geneva), Prof. Jan Godlewski, Ryszard Sosnowski (Vice-President of CERN Council), Dr Marek Stodulski and Mr Jerzy HalikPolish Minister of Sciences and Information Technology, on 17th October 2003.

  9. Imagining Nuclear Future in Socialist Poland. Plans and Dreams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůželová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2017), s. 35-54 ISSN 0023-589X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Poland * Czechoslovakia * nuclear energy Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  10. Keywords in musical free improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents some keywords and concepts concerning free improvised music and its recent developments drawing from ongoing bibliographical research. A radical pluralism stems from musicians' backgrounds and the mixtures and fusions of styles and idioms resulting from these mixtures....... Seemingly very different "performance-driven" and "play-driven" attitudes exist, even among musicians who share the practice of performing at concerts. New models of musical analysis aiming specifically at free improvised music provide strategical observations of interaction and structure....

  11. Uso de resumos e palavras-chave em Ciências Sociais: uma avaliação (English The use of abstracts and keywords in Social Sciences: an evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lima Gonçalves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avalia resumos e palavras-chave de artigos de periódicos publicados em Ciências Sociais por autores brasileiros, a fim de identificar as principais características desses elementos e como isso afeta a representação e recuperação de informação nessa área. Para isso, foi feita uma avaliação de 151 resumos de artigos produzidos por professores da Universidade de São Paulo em três disciplinas, Antropologia, Ciência Política e Sociologia, na tentativa de descobrir como os autores exploraram os tipos de resumo (descritivo, informativo ou descritivo-informativo; num segundo tópico, foram avaliadas as palavras-chave que acompanhavam o resumo e o seu potencial como complemento deste e como ferramenta para relacionar disciplinas. Observou-se que os autores preferem resumos descritivos em detrimento dos informativos, e que, apesar da falta de padronização, as palavras-chave fornecidas pelos autores podem ser usadas como complemento dos resumos e como indicador de algumas relações interdisciplinares. Conclui-se que, apesar da importância de resumos e palavras-chave como elementos de representação de informação, suas funções são pouco exploradas nas Ciências Sociais, o que pode afetar negativamente a recuperação da informação. Abstract: his study aims to make an evaluation of abstracts and keywords used in periodicals published by Brazilian authors in the area of Social Sciences, in order to identify the main characteristics of these practices and how they can affect the information retrieval and representation. About 151 abstracts written by professors of the University of São Paulo were evaluated, with a view to discovering how the authors use the types of abstracts (descriptive, informative or descriptive-informative; As a second topic, we examined keywords, in an attempt to analyse how these keywords complement the abstracts, and to see if keywords can be used as tools to represent concepts in related disciplines. The

  12. Trademark Licensing in Keyword Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Zejda, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the use of trademarks as keywords in sponsored links campaigns - in particular the impact of such usage on consumer confusion. It is thus important to highlight that there are a number of reasons why a consumer uses search engines. For example, it may be that a consumer searches for a type of product or service that appeals to them; the consumer may engage in comparison-shopping; or the consumer may already know the specific brand that he or she intends to purchase. Seco...

  13. The Text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The texts of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Science, and of the Minutes of Signature thereof are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. This Agreement entered into force on 10 April 1970.

  14. Fast Keyword Spotting in Telephone Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we present a system designed for detecting keywords in telephone speech. We focus not only on achieving high accuracy but also on very short processing time. The keyword spotting system can run in three modes: a an off-line mode requiring less than 0.1xRT, b an on-line mode with minimum (2 s latency, and c a repeated spotting mode, in which pre-computed values allow for additional acceleration. Its performance is evaluated on recordings of Czech spontaneous telephone speech using rather large and complex keyword lists.

  15. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part II. Science, research, development, higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  16. Keyword analysis of community planning documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This file contains total hits per keyword expressed as percentage of total hits for the eight domains of the human well-being index. Additional categorical data is...

  17. Social keywords in postcolonial melanesian discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten; Priestley, Carol

    2017-01-01

    In postcolonial Melanesia, cultural discourses are increasingly organised around creole words, i.e. keywords of Bislama (Vanuatu) and Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea). These words constitute (or represent) important emerging ethnolinguistic worldviews, which are partly borne out of the colonial era...

  18. Remarks about the Bill of 23 March 2017 of the “Directive of the Minister of Science and Higher Education, Republic of Poland, dated ………… 2017”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kokowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discuses the Bill of 23 March 2017 of the “Directive of the Minister of Science and Higher Education, Republic of Poland, dated ………… 2017”. It indicates serious flaws of this Bill regarding legislation and the science of science (including bibliometrics, and proposes significant amendments to the content of the provisions of this Directive.

  19. The importance of the keyword-generation method in keyword mnemonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alfredo; Amor, Angeles; González, María Angeles

    2004-01-01

    Keyword mnemonics is under certain conditions an effective approach for learning foreign-language vocabulary. It appears to be effective for words with high image vividness but not for words with low image vividness. In this study, two experiments were performed to assess the efficacy of a new keyword-generation procedure (peer generation). In Experiment 1, a sample of 363 high-school students was randomly into four groups. The subjects were required to learn L1 equivalents of a list of 16 Latin words (8 with high image vividness, 8 with low image vividness), using a) the rote method, or the keyword method with b) keywords and images generated and supplied by the experimenter, c) keywords and images generated by themselves, or d) keywords and images previously generated by peers (i.e., subjects with similar sociodemographic characteristics). Recall was tested immediately and one week later. For high-vivideness words, recall was significantly better in the keyword groups than the rote method group. For low-vividness words, learning method had no significant effect. Experiment 2 was basically identical, except that the word lists comprised 32 words (16 high-vividness, 16 low-vividness). In this experiment, the peer-generated-keyword group showed significantly better recall of high-vividness words than the rote method groups and the subject generated keyword group; again, however, learning method had no significant effect on recall of low-vividness words.

  20. Social keywords in postcolonial melanesian discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten; Priestley, Carol

    2017-01-01

    , and partly out of postcolonial ethno-rhetoric. This chapter explores the word kastom ‘traditional culture’ in Bislama and pasin bilong tumbuna ‘the ways of the ancestors’ in Tok Pisin. Specific attention is paid to the shift from “negative “ to “positive” semantics, following from the re......In postcolonial Melanesia, cultural discourses are increasingly organised around creole words, i.e. keywords of Bislama (Vanuatu) and Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea). These words constitute (or represent) important emerging ethnolinguistic worldviews, which are partly borne out of the colonial era...

  1. Multi-approach non-destructive survey in Western Lesser Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brejcha, Roman; Pisz, M.; Wroniecki, P.

    -, Spring (2012), s. 11-13 ISSN N Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : non-destructive archaeology * remote sensing * geophysics * Lesser Poland Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. Before the Exodus: Czechoslovakia as a Transit Country for Jewish Refugees from Poland Until the Pogrom in Kielce, 1945-1946

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Friedl, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2017), s. 129-154 ISSN 0084-3296 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-01233S Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Jewish refugees * Czechoslovakia * Poland * Bricha Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  3. Automatic keywording of High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dallman, David Peter

    1999-01-01

    Bibliographic databases were developed from the traditional library card catalogue in order to enable users to access library documents via various types of bibliographic information, such as title, author, series or conference date. In addition these catalogues sometimes contained some form of indexation by subject, such as the Universal (or Dewey) Decimal Classification used for books. With the introduction of the eprint archives, set up by the High Energy Physics (HEP) Community in the early 90s, huge collections of documents in several fields have been made available on the World Wide Web. These developments however have not yet been followed up from a keywording point of view. We will see in this paper how important it is to attribute keywords to all documents in the area of HEP Grey Literature. As libraries are facing a future with less and less manpower available and more and more documents, we will explore the possibility of being helped by automatic classification software. We will specifically menti...

  4. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stuart J [Richland, WA; Cowley,; E, Wendy [Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Cramer, Nicholas O [Richland, WA

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  5. Learning about Poland Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these symptoms occur on one side of the body (unilateral). Also, it is important to note that Poland anomaly does not typically affect intelligence. Top of page What causes Poland anomaly? The ...

  6. Heat flow variation with depth in Poland: evidence from equilibrium temperature logs in 2.9-km-deep well Torun-1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, Jan; Wróblewska, M.; Szewczyk, J.; Čermák, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 2 (2008), s. 307-315 ISSN 1437-3254 Grant - others:Polish Ministry of Science(PL) 4 T12B 00429 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : equilibrium deep temperature logs * heat flow variation with depth * Northwestern Poland Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2008

  7. Quicky location determination based on geographic keywords of natural language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Danhuai; Cui, Weihong

    2007-06-01

    In location determination based on natural language, it is common to find the location by describing relationship between the undetermined position and one or several determined position. That indicates that the uncertainty of location determination processing is derived from the one of natural language procedure, the one of spatial position description and the one of spatial relationship description. Most of current researches and regular GIS software take certainty as prerequisite and try to avoid uncertainty and its influence. The research reported in this paper is an attempt to create a new combing method of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Fuzzy set theory and spatial information science named Quickly Location Determination based on Geographic Keywords (QLDGK) to rise to the challenge of location searching technique based on natural language. QLDGK have two technical gists. The first one is geographic-keywords-library and special natural-language-separation-model-library that increases the language processing efficiency. The second one is fuzzy theory based definition of spatial relationship, spatial metric and spatial orientation that extends the searching scope and defines variant confidences on variant searching outcome. QLDGK takes consideration on both higher query efficiency and the lower omission rate. The above method has been proved workable and efficient by QLDGK prototype system which was tested by about 12000 emergency call reports from K-city, Southwest of China, and achieved the test result with 78% accuracy in highest confidence and 8% omitting ration.

  8. TX-Kw: An Effective Temporal XML Keyword Search

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Bin-Thalab; Neamat El-Tazi; Mohamed E.El-Sharkawi

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the great success of information retrieval (IR) style keyword search on the web, keyword search on XML has emerged recently. Existing methods cannot resolve challenges addressed by using keyword search in Temporal XML documents. We propose a way to evaluate temporal keyword search queries over Temporal XML documents. Moreover, we propose a new ranking method based on the time-aware IR ranking methods to rank temporal keyword search queries results. Extensive experiments have been ...

  9. Proceedings of the XIII International School and Symposium on Synchrotron Radiation in Natural Science 2016, Ustroń-Jaszowiec, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Maciej; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Piszora, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research was prepared to present recent achievements in synchrotron radiation science and mark the 25th anniversary of the Polish Synchrotron Radiation Society (PSRS) which fell in 2016. It presents selected papers submitted after the 13th International School and Symposium on Synchrotron Radiation in Natural Science (ISSRNS 2016) which was organized by PSRS in cooperation with the Adam Mickiewicz University. It is worth noting that PSRS is probably one of the earliest founded scientific societies focused on promoting the use of synchrotron radiation research (for details visit the PSRS home page: http://www.synchrotron.org.pl.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Poland syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Poland syndrome Poland syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Poland syndrome is a disorder in which affected individuals ...

  11. Science-Economy-Technology Concordance Matrix for Development and Implementation of Regional Smart Specializations in the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Bondaruk, Jan; Pichlak, Magdalena; Trząski, Leszek; Uszok, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The regional smart specializations include the innovative activities within a common science-economy-technology sector, which open the opportunities to gain a competitive advantage. The original procedure of science-economy-technology concordance matrix development on an example of smart specializations of the Silesian Voivodeship was presented in the paper. The procedure developed includes recognition of the research and economic components of the regional smart specialization and the connection between the economic components of the regional specialization and the technological innovation through the international patent classification. It also comprises recognition of key enabling technologies (KETs) and high technologies (of high R&D intensity) other than KET in the economic and technological dimensions of innovation as well as the high R&D intensity services in the economic dimension of innovation. The in-depth expert analyses with the application of the Delphi method were also taken into account. The methodological approach developed and the visualization method applied are both of cognitive and practical importance since they contribute significantly to the creation of efficient development policies, to the enhancement and facilitation of cross-sectoral cooperation, and to the focusing on the fields of key importance in terms of the competitive advantage of a region.

  12. Science-Economy-Technology Concordance Matrix for Development and Implementation of Regional Smart Specializations in the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Smoliński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The regional smart specializations include the innovative activities within a common science-economy-technology sector, which open the opportunities to gain a competitive advantage. The original procedure of science-economy-technology concordance matrix development on an example of smart specializations of the Silesian Voivodeship was presented in the paper. The procedure developed includes recognition of the research and economic components of the regional smart specialization and the connection between the economic components of the regional specialization and the technological innovation through the international patent classification. It also comprises recognition of key enabling technologies (KETs and high technologies (of high R&D intensity other than KET in the economic and technological dimensions of innovation as well as the high R&D intensity services in the economic dimension of innovation. The in-depth expert analyses with the application of the Delphi method were also taken into account. The methodological approach developed and the visualization method applied are both of cognitive and practical importance since they contribute significantly to the creation of efficient development policies, to the enhancement and facilitation of cross-sectoral cooperation, and to the focusing on the fields of key importance in terms of the competitive advantage of a region.

  13. Evolutionary features of academic articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence network: Based on two-mode affiliation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Wang, Yue; Huang, Jiachen; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-05-01

    Keeping abreast of trends in the articles and rapidly grasping a body of article's key points and relationship from a holistic perspective is a new challenge in both literature research and text mining. As the important component, keywords can present the core idea of the academic article. Usually, articles on a single theme or area could share one or some same keywords, and we can analyze topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword networks and keywords co-occurrence networks to realize the in-depth analysis of the articles. This paper seeks to integrate statistics, text mining, complex networks and visualization to analyze all of the academic articles on one given theme, complex network(s). All 5944 ;complex networks; articles that were published between 1990 and 2013 and are available on the Web of Science are extracted. Based on the two-mode affiliation network theory, a new frontier of complex networks, we constructed two different networks, one taking the articles as nodes, the co-keyword relationships as edges and the quantity of co-keywords as the weight to construct articles co-keyword network, and another taking the articles' keywords as nodes, the co-occurrence relationships as edges and the quantity of simultaneous co-occurrences as the weight to construct keyword co-occurrence network. An integrated method for analyzing the topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence networks is proposed, and we also defined a new function to measure the innovation coefficient of the articles in annual level. This paper provides a useful tool and process for successfully achieving in-depth analysis and rapid understanding of the trends and relationships of articles in a holistic perspective.

  14. Public-key Encryption with Registered Keyword Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang; Chen, Liqun

    Public-key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS) enables a server to test whether a tag from a sender and a trapdoor from a receiver contain the same keyword. In this paper, we highlight some potential security concern, i.e. a curious server is able to answer whether any selected keyword is

  15. Web page sorting algorithm based on query keyword distance relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In order to optimize the problem of page sorting, according to the search keywords in the web page in the relationship between the characteristics of the proposed query keywords clustering ideas. And it is converted into the degree of aggregation of the search keywords in the web page. Based on the PageRank algorithm, the clustering degree factor of the query keyword is added to make it possible to participate in the quantitative calculation. This paper proposes an improved algorithm for PageRank based on the distance relation between search keywords. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  16. Tertiary Education in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The polish tertiary education report was undertaken by the World Bank and the European Investment Bank in consultation with the Ministry of National Education and Sports of Poland (MoNES). The modernization of higher education and other tertiary education services has become an increasing focus of public concern in Poland. A major purpose of the report is to discuss important issues in Pol...

  17. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  18. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  19. Rare and new Laboulbeniales from Poland. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a consecutive paper in the series concerning Polish Laboulbeniales, several species new for Poland are reported. Similarly as in the earlier papers of this series, all specimens were found by the author (if not otherwise indicated. The specimens are kept in the author's collection at the Mycology Laboratory of the Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

  20. Complementary or Discrete Contexts in Online Indexing : A Comparison of User, Creator, and Intermediary Keywords.

    OpenAIRE

    Kipp, Margaret E. I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper (forthcoming in the Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science) and presented at the CAIS Conference in 2006 examines the context of online indexing from the viewpoint of three different groups: users, authors, and intermediaries. User, author and intermediary keywords were collected from journal articles tagged on citeulike and analysed. Descriptive statistics and thesaural term comparison shows that there are important differences in the context of keywords from the thre...

  1. Producing Homogeneity as a Historical Tradition. Neo-conservatism, Precarity and Citizenship Education in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinková, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2016), s. 43-55 ISSN 2051-0969 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : citizenship * precarity * Poland * citizenship education * neoliberalism Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. Attribute-Based Proxy Re-Encryption with Keyword Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zheng, Qingji; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Keyword search on encrypted data allows one to issue the search token and conduct search operations on encrypted data while still preserving keyword privacy. In the present paper, we consider the keyword search problem further and introduce a novel notion called attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search (), which introduces a promising feature: In addition to supporting keyword search on encrypted data, it enables data owners to delegate the keyword search capability to some other data users complying with the specific access control policy. To be specific, allows (i) the data owner to outsource his encrypted data to the cloud and then ask the cloud to conduct keyword search on outsourced encrypted data with the given search token, and (ii) the data owner to delegate other data users keyword search capability in the fine-grained access control manner through allowing the cloud to re-encrypted stored encrypted data with a re-encrypted data (embedding with some form of access control policy). We formalize the syntax and security definitions for , and propose two concrete constructions for : key-policy and ciphertext-policy . In the nutshell, our constructions can be treated as the integration of technologies in the fields of attribute-based cryptography and proxy re-encryption cryptography. PMID:25549257

  3. Output Keywords in Context in an HTML File with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson builds on Keywords in Context (Using N-grams, where n-grams were extracted from a text. Here, you will learn how to output all of the n-grams of a given keyword in a document downloaded from the Internet, and display them clearly in your browser window.

  4. The current state of bioeconomy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ewa; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of scientific achievements to market a product is a key issue and the best description of significance of science for society. In the case of experts in the natural sciences in Poland, we observe a high intellectual potential of researchers and several scientific discoveries. However, Polish inventions are very rarely available on the market and the number of national and international patent applications done by Polish scientists is very limited. For the development of bioeconomy, the progress in biotechnology is critical.

  5. [Efficacy of the keyword mnemonic method in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alfredo; Pérez-Fabello, María José; Camino, Estefanía

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments were used to assess the efficacy of the keyword mnemonic method in adults. In Experiment 1, immediate and delayed recall (at a one-day interval) were assessed by comparing the results obtained by a group of adults using the keyword mnemonic method in contrast to a group using the repetition method. The mean age of the sample under study was 59.35 years. Subjects were required to learn a list of 16 words translated from Latin into Spanish. Participants who used keyword mnemonics that had been devised by other experimental participants of the same characteristics, obtained significantly higher immediate and delayed recall scores than participants in the repetition method. In Experiment 2, other participants had to learn a list of 24 Latin words translated into Spanish by using the keyword mnemonic method reinforced with pictures. Immediate and delayed recall were significantly greater in the keyword mnemonic method group than in the repetition method group.

  6. Efficient continuously moving top-k spatial keyword query processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    Web users and content are increasingly being geo-positioned. This development gives prominence to spatial keyword queries, which involve both the locations and textual descriptions of content. We study the efficient processing of continuously moving top-k spatial keyword (MkSK) queries over spatial...... keyword data. State-of-the-art solutions for moving queries employ safe zones that guarantee the validity of reported results as long as the user remains within a zone. However, existing safe zone methods focus solely on spatial locations and ignore text relevancy. We propose two algorithms for computing...

  7. Tag cloud generation for results of multiple keywords queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study tag cloud generation for retrieved results of multiple keyword queries. It is motivated by many real world scenarios such as personalization tasks, surveillance systems and information retrieval tasks defined with multiple keywords. We adjust the state-of-the-art tag cloud...... generation techniques for multiple keywords query results. Consequently, we conduct the extensive evaluation on top of three distinct collaborative tagging systems. The graph-based methods perform significantly better for the Movielens and Bibsonomy datasets. Tag cloud generation based on maximal coverage...

  8. An approach for discovering keywords from Spanish tweets using Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel AYALA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most approaches to keywords discovery when analyzing microblogging messages (among them those from Twitter are based on statistical and lexical information about the words that compose the text. The lack of context in the short messages can be problematic due to the low co-occurrence of words. In this paper, we present a new approach for keywords discovering from Spanish tweets based on the addition of context information using Wikipedia as a knowledge base. We present four different ways to use Wikipedia and two ways to rank the new keywords. We have tested these strategies using more than 60000 Spanish tweets, measuring performance and analyzing particularities of each strategy.

  9. An introduction to XML query processing and keyword search

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jiaheng

    2013-01-01

    This book systematically and comprehensively covers the latest advances in XML data searching. It presents an extensive overview of the current query processing and keyword search techniques on XML data.

  10. Lecture Video Indexing and Retrieval Using Topic Keywords

    OpenAIRE

    B. J. Sandesh; Saurabha Jirgi; S. Vidya; Prakash Eljer; Gowri Srinivasa

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework to help users to search and retrieve the portions in the lecture video of their interest. This is achieved by temporally segmenting and indexing the lecture video using the topic keywords. We use transcribed text from the video and documents relevant to the video topic extracted from the web for this purpose. The keywords for indexing are found by applying the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) topic modeling techniques on the web documents. Our prop...

  11. Nuclear power component in foresight on energy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczurek, J.; Chwaszczewski, S.; Czerski, P.; Luszcz, M.

    2007-01-01

    On behalf of Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the first technology foresight study on future developments in the energy sector is being conducted in Poland. The study aimed to identify energy-related technologies, scenarios, and a mix of energy sources and infrastructure developments that will ensure security of energy supply for Poland. This paper provides a short description of the methodology applied as well as preliminary results and findings of all subtasks of the foresight study referring to the perspective of nuclear power option in Poland, embracing a time horizon of 24 years. (author)

  12. New evidence of Ursus minims from the territory of Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, Jan; Lipecki, G.; Krawczyk, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2008), s. 78-80 ISSN 0038-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Ursus minimus * Pliocene * dentition * Rebielice Królewskie (Poland) Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  13. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  14. Keywords in Context (Using n-grams with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Like in Output Data as HTML File, this lesson takes the frequency pairs collected in Counting Frequencies and outputs them in HTML. This time the focus is on keywords in context (KWIC which creates n-grams from the original document content – in this case a trial transcript from the Old Bailey Online. You can use your program to select a keyword and the computer will output all instances of that keyword, along with the words to the left and right of it, making it easy to see at a glance how the keyword is used. Once the KWICs have been created, they are then wrapped in HTML and sent to the browser where they can be viewed. This reinforces what was learned in Output Data as HTML File, opting for a slightly different output. At the end of this lesson, you will be able to extract all possible n-grams from the text. In the next lesson, you will be learn how to output all of the n-grams of a given keyword in a document downloaded from the Internet, and display them clearly in your browser window.

  15. Aging in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. An answer summarization method based on keyword extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Qiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the redundancy of answer summary generated from community q&a dataset without topic tags, we propose an answer summarization algorithm based on keyword extraction. We combine tf-idf with word vector to change the influence transferred ratio equation in TextRank. And then during summarizing, we take the ratio of the number of sentences containing any keyword to the total number of candidate sentences as an adaptive factor for AMMR. Meanwhile we reuse the scores of keywords generated by TextRank as a weight factor for sentence similarity computing. Experimental results show that the proposed answer summarization is better than the traditional MMR and AMMR.

  17. Poland's Syndrome: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    The Poland's anomaly was first described in 1841 by Sir Alfred Poland as a syndrome presenting with absence or underdevelopment of pectoralis ... He was the second child in a family of four. There was no familial history of similar .... hypoplasia: a middle degree of Poland syndrome. Acta Radiologica 1996; 37: 759-762. 8.

  18. Poland- Ukraine Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  19. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  20. Interdisciplinarity of Nano Research Fields : A Keyword Mining Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Notten, A.; Surpatean, A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a keyword mining approach, this paper explores the interdisciplinary and integrative dynamics in five nano research fields. We argue that the general trend of integration in nano research fields is converging in the long run, although the degree of this convergence depends greatly on the

  1. Joint Top-K Spatial Keyword Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dinming; Yiu, Man Lung; Cong, Gao

    2012-01-01

    keyword queries. Empirical studies show that the proposed solution is efficient on real data sets. We also offer analytical studies on synthetic data sets to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution. Index Terms IEEE Terms Electronic mail , Google , Indexes , Joints , Mobile communication...

  2. Using the Keyword Mnemonics Method among Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alfredo; Camino, Estefania; Perez-Fabello, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of word image vividness on the immediate and long-term recall (one-day interval) of words using either the rote repetition learning method or the keyword mnemonics method in a sample of adults aged 55 to 70 years. Subjects learned a list of concrete and abstract words using either rote…

  3. English Teaching Profile: Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Poland begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, adult, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…

  4. Keyword-based Ciphertext Search Algorithm under Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xunyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of network storage services, cloud storage have the advantage of high scalability , inexpensive, without access limit and easy to manage. These advantages make more and more small or medium enterprises choose to outsource large quantities of data to a third party. This way can make lots of small and medium enterprises get rid of costs of construction and maintenance, so it has broad market prospects. But now lots of cloud storage service providers can not protect data security.This result leakage of user data, so many users have to use traditional storage method.This has become one of the important factors that hinder the development of cloud storage. In this article, establishing keyword index by extracting keywords from ciphertext data. After that, encrypted data and the encrypted index upload cloud server together.User get related ciphertext by searching encrypted index, so it can response data leakage problem.

  5. The Pollution Effect: Optimizing Keyword Auctions by Favoring Relevant Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Greg; Meek, Christopher; Chickering, Max

    2011-01-01

    Most search engines sell slots to place advertisements on the search results page through keyword auctions. Advertisers offer bids for how much they are willing to pay when someone enters a search query, sees the search results, and then clicks on one of their ads. Search engines typically order the advertisements for a query by a combination of the bids and expected clickthrough rates for each advertisement. In this paper, we extend a model of Yahoo's and Google's advertising auctions to inc...

  6. Visualization as Seen through its Research Paper Keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias; Sedlmair, Michael; Chen, Jian; Moller, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive multi-pass analysis of visualization paper keywords supplied by authors for their papers published in the IEEE Visualization conference series (now called IEEE VIS) between 1990-2015. From this analysis we derived a set of visualization topics that we discuss in the context of the current taxonomy that is used to categorize papers and assign reviewers in the IEEE VIS reviewing process. We point out missing and overemphasized topics in the current taxonomy and start a discussion on the importance of establishing common visualization terminology. Our analysis of research topics in visualization can, thus, serve as a starting point to (a) help create a common vocabulary to improve communication among different visualization sub-groups, (b) facilitate the process of understanding differences and commonalities of the various research sub-fields in visualization, (c) provide an understanding of emerging new research trends, (d) facilitate the crucial step of finding the right reviewers for research submissions, and (e) it can eventually lead to a comprehensive taxonomy of visualization research. One additional tangible outcome of our work is an online query tool (http://keyvis.org/) that allows visualization researchers to easily browse the 3952 keywords used for IEEE VIS papers since 1990 to find related work or make informed keyword choices.

  7. Nuclear Physics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This will be a short presentation of low and high energy nuclear physics in Poland, its history, essential results, and the present status. Nuclear physics in Poland has a tradition of hundred years. Research started just after the discovery of radium and polonium by Polish-born Maria Sklodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Maria Sklodowska-Curie employed numerous Polish assistants in her Paris laboratory and supported radioactivity studies in Warsaw, her birth place, then under the occupation of tsarist Russia. In the first decades of the XXth century Poland was one of the leading countries in radioactivity studies. In the late 1930-ies a cyclotron was constructed in Warsaw and an ambitious 'Star of Poland' project was launched to study the cosmic rays. Unfortunately, the Second World War stopped all scientific activity in Poland. A large fraction of Polish physicists perished in the period 1939-1945. After the World War nuclear physics of low and high energy was rebuilt in Warsaw and Krakow. Already in 1952 Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski discovered the first hypernucleus. This important discovery was essential to understand the properties of numerous new particles found in cosmic rays. Polish physicists entered intensive collaboration with both CERN and Dubna and took part also in research at other centers in Europe (DESY, GSI, GANIL, Julich, SACLAY) and the United States (Fermilab). At present the research is concentrated in Warsaw and Krakow (the two largest centers), and smaller teams, mostly theorists, are also in Bialystok, Katowice, Kielce, Lublin, Lodz and Wroclaw. Several years ago a heavy ion cyclotron was built in Warsaw. Among the important discoveries made by Polish nuclear physicists one may mention the theoretical works on superheavy elements and the recent discovery of the two-proton radioactivity

  8. Physical and mental health aspects of elderly in social care in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzyn-Matusiak D

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Dobrzyn-Matusiak,1 Czeslaw Marcisz,2 Ewelina Bąk,3 Halina Kulik,1 Ewa Marcisz4 1Department of Nursing Propaedeutics, 2Department of Gerontology and Geriatric Nursing, School of Health Care, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bielsko-Biała, Bielsko-Biała, Poland; 4Department of Anxiety Disorders, Hospital of Ministry of Internal Affairs, Katowice, Poland Background: The objective of the study was to evaluate health aspects in elderly individuals in social, institutional, and home care in Poland.Methods: A total of 300 elderly individuals in care in Poland were included in the study. The subjects were divided into three groups: residents of long-term care institutions (group I, residents of adult day-care homes (group II, and community-dwelling subjects (group III. Each group consisted of 100 subjects. Questionnaires evaluating the following physical and mental dimensions of health were used: SF-36 Health Survey, basic activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Mini–mental state examination.Results: It was found that the health aspects of the elderly varied depending on whether care was provided in an institutionalized or a home environment, and the lowest health status was found in the elderly receiving in-home care. Furthermore, home-based elderly indicated significant limitations in performing basic activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living, as well as a higher prevalence of depression and cognitive impairment.Conclusion: The elderly in long-term institutionalized care, both in a residential home and adult day-care homes, were characterized by a better physical and mental health status than those receiving in-home care. It seemed that worse health status, including the more frequent depression occurrence and cognitive function disorders in the elderly using the nursing care at their homes

  9. Keyword Search over Data Service Integration for Accurate Results

    CERN Document Server

    Zemleris, Vidmantas; Robert Gwadera

    2013-01-01

    Virtual data integration provides a coherent interface for querying heterogeneous data sources (e.g., web services, proprietary systems) with minimum upfront effort. Still, this requires its users to learn the query language and to get acquainted with data organization, which may pose problems even to proficient users. We present a keyword search system, which proposes a ranked list of structured queries along with their explanations. It operates mainly on the metadata, such as the constraints on inputs accepted by services. It was developed as an integral part of the CMS data discovery service, and is currently available as open source.

  10. Corpus analysis and automatic detection of emotion-including keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; He, Xiangqing; Liu, Ying

    2013-12-01

    Emotion words play a vital role in many sentiment analysis tasks. Previous research uses sentiment dictionary to detect the subjectivity or polarity of words. In this paper, we dive into Emotion-Inducing Keywords (EIK), which refers to the words in use that convey emotion. We first analyze an emotion corpus to explore the pragmatic aspects of EIK. Then we design an effective framework for automatically detecting EIK in sentences by utilizing linguistic features and context information. Our system outperforms traditional dictionary-based methods dramatically in increasing Precision, Recall and F1-score.

  11. Citation searches are more sensitive than keyword searches to identify studies using specific measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Pratt, Gregory F; Saraykar, Smita S; Volk, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two search methods in identifying studies that used the Control Preferences Scale (CPS), a health care decision-making instrument commonly used in clinical settings. We searched the literature using two methods: (1) keyword searching using variations of "Control Preferences Scale" and (2) cited reference searching using two seminal CPS publications. We searched three bibliographic databases [PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS)] and one full-text database (Google Scholar). We report precision and sensitivity as measures of effectiveness. Keyword searches in bibliographic databases yielded high average precision (90%) but low average sensitivity (16%). PubMed was the most precise, followed closely by Scopus and WOS. The Google Scholar keyword search had low precision (54%) but provided the highest sensitivity (70%). Cited reference searches in all databases yielded moderate sensitivity (45-54%), but precision ranged from 35% to 75% with Scopus being the most precise. Cited reference searches were more sensitive than keyword searches, making it a more comprehensive strategy to identify all studies that use a particular instrument. Keyword searches provide a quick way of finding some but not all relevant articles. Goals, time, and resources should dictate the combination of which methods and databases are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PKIS: practical keyword index search on cloud datacenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jae Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper highlights the importance of the interoperability of the encrypted DB in terms of the characteristics of DB and efficient schemes. Although most prior researches have developed efficient algorithms under the provable security, they do not focus on the interoperability of the encrypted DB. In order to address this lack of practical aspects, we conduct two practical approaches--efficiency and group search in cloud datacenter. The process of this paper is as follows: first, we create two schemes of efficiency and group search--practical keyword index search--I and II; second, we define and analyze group search secrecy and keyword index search privacy in our schemes; third, we experiment on efficient performances over our proposed encrypted DB. As the result, we summarize two major results: (1our proposed schemes can support a secure group search without re-encrypting all documents under the group-key update and (2our experiments represent that our scheme is approximately 935 times faster than Golle's scheme and about 16 times faster than Song's scheme for 10,000 documents. Based on our experiments and results, this paper has the following contributions: (1 in the current cloud computing environments, our schemes provide practical, realistic, and secure solutions over the encrypted DB and (2 this paper identifies the importance of interoperability with database management system for designing efficient schemes.

  13. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) POLAND AT CERN Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the «Poland at CERN» exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, buildin...

  14. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  15. Abortion in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother.

  16. Poland's syndrome revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokin, Alexander A; Robicsek, Francis

    2002-12-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. Literary data suggest its sporadic nature. The prevailing theory of its cause is hypoplasia of the subclavian artery or its branches, which may lead to a range of developmental changes. The incidence of Poland's syndrome varies between groups (male versus female patients, congenital versus familial cases, and so on) and ranges from 1 in 7,000 to 1 in 100,000 live births. Cases of Poland's syndrome associated with leukemia, carcinoma of the hypoplastic breast, and other conditions, confirm the relationship between developmental defects and tumors, and require oncologic awareness. Various manifestations, age, and gender require different surgical approaches. Our experience, which includes 27 patients (15 male, 12 female), 20 of whom (12 male, 8 female) underwent operation, suggests that the repair should be done in two stages in children and in a single stage in adults. Reconstruction and/or stabilization of the aplastic ribs may be achieved using bone grafts or prosthetic mesh. Muscle flaps and breast implants may be used to correct muscle deficiency and breast hypoplasia and to help achieve a complete cosmetic repair.

  17. Defining Smart City. A Conceptual Framework Based on Keyword Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Mosannenzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Smart city” is a concept that has been the subject of increasing attention in urban planning and governance during recent years. The first step to create Smart Cities is to understand its concept. However, a brief review of literature shows that the concept of Smart City is the subject of controversy. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework to define Smart City. To this aim, an extensive literature review was done. Then, a keyword analysis on literature was held against main research questions (why, what, who, when, where, how and based on three main domains involved in the policy decision making process and Smart City plan development: Academic, Industrial and Governmental. This resulted in a conceptual framework for Smart City. The result clarifies the definition of Smart City, while providing a framework to define Smart City’s each sub-system. Moreover, urban authorities can apply this framework in Smart City initiatives in order to recognize their main goals, main components, and key stakeholders.

  18. Imagined Affordance: Reconstructing a Keyword for Communication Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nagy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology studies, emerging theories of materiality, affect, and mediation all necessitate a richer and more nuanced definition for affordance than the field currently uses. To solve this, we develop the concept of imagined affordance. Imagined affordances emerge between users’ perceptions, attitudes, and expectations; between the materiality and functionality of technologies; and between the intentions and perceptions of designers. We use imagined affordance to evoke the importance of imagination in affordances—expectations for technology that are not fully realized in conscious, rational knowledge. We also use imagined affordance to distinguish our process-oriented, socio-technical definition of affordance from the “imagined” consensus of the field around a flimsier use of the term. We also use it in order to better capture the importance of mediation, materiality, and affect. We suggest that imagined affordance helps to theorize the duality of materiality and communication technology: namely, that people shape their media environments, perceive them, and have agency within them because of imagined affordances.

  19. Hepatotoxic cyanobacterial blooms in lakes of northern Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mankiewicz, J.; Komárková, Jaroslava; Izydorczyk, K.; Jurczak, T.; Tarczynska, M.; Zalewski, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2005), s. 499-506 ISSN 1520-4081 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004 Grant - others:MIDI-CHIP(PL) EVK2-CT1999-00026, EVK2-2002-00546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : cyanobacteria * cyanotoxins * N-Poland lakes * recreational water * PPIA * HPLC Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.215, year: 2005

  20. Secuencia de Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Rosa Lemus Lago

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de síndrome o secuencia de Poland, en un niño de 3 años, caracterizado por ausencia del pectoral mayor derecho, una sindactilia parcial entre el 2do. y el 3er. dedo de la mano derecha, además un anillo constrictor congénito en la muñeca derecha y menos profundo en la izquierda. Se hace el árbol genealógico, se revisan los antecedentes patológicos familiares, prenatales, perinatales, posnatales, así como la morbilidad y el desarrollo del niño.

  1. Clean air for Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Coal power generation produces gases which pollute the environment and cause damage to vegetation and human health. Where alternative sources of energy are not economically viable, the only solution is to ensure that gas emissions are reduced to a minimum. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Department of Research and Isotopes to demonstrate a technology which will show Poland, and possibly other countries, a way to attain European emission standards without the need to compromise industrial growth. (IAEA)

  2. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  3. On environmental problems in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, H.; Kenez, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The book contains articles by five authors on the following subjects: General literature in German and Polish language on environmental problems in Poland; legal issues of environmental protection - laws for the protection and development of the environment; environmental health hazards - hazards at work; protection of the sea environment in the region of the Baltic Sea - pollution of the Baltic Sea; the water situation in Poland - the large-scale project 'Weichsel 2000'; the ecological situation of the lakes of Masovia; air pollution and its effects - the dying of Silesian forests; Chernobyl and the Polish reaction; the 27 ecologically endangered areas in Poland. (HSCH) [de

  4. Microbeam X-ray analysis in Poland - past and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusinski, J.

    2010-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of electron beam X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) in Poland. Since the introduction by Prof. Bojarski of EMPA over 45 years ago, tremendous advances in methodologies and in instrumentation have been made in order to improve the precision of quantitative compositional analysis, spatial resolution and analytical sensitivity. This was possible due to the activity of Applied Crystallography Committee at the Polish Academy of Sciences, as well as the groups of researches working in the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (Gliwice), the Technical University of Warsaw, the Silesian Technical University (Katowice), the AGH-University of Sciences and Technology (Krakow), and the Institute of Materials Science and Metallurgy Polish Academy of Sciences (Krakow). Based on the research examples realized by these teams, conferences, seminars and congresses organized, as well as books and academic textbooks issued, the evolution of electron beam X-ray microanalysis in Poland is demonstrated.

  5. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, bu...

  6. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the ´Poland at CERNª exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, building 33, - the exhi...

  7. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, b...

  8. Sulphur in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland belongs to one of the last countries with native sulphur mining. Its history begun in 15th century. Deposit area of Tarnobrzeg re-presents 80% of all known sulphur reserves in this country. All of explored deposits in this area were created by metasomatic alteration of sulphur bearing limestones with sulphur mineralised liquids, which arised from melt gypsum. The average content is 25 - 30% of sulphur in Tarnobrzeg area. Considerable parts of deposits are created by calcite and native sulphur. Gypstone, baryte and stroncianite have only minera-logic occurencies. The extensive native sulphur deposits account for 88% of the country´s sulphur production. There were five sulphur mines in operation: Jeziórko, Grêbów, Machów I, Machów II and Basznia, but operations in Basznia were ended in 1992 and Machów and Machów II were liquidated. The sixth mine Osiek is currently producing. Only the Machów I mine operated an open-pit extraction and refining process, the other four mines producing sulphur using a modified Frasch method that gives elemental sulphur of up to 99,9% purity. Sulphur is an important export commodity with foreign sales totalling around 1.5 - 2.5 Mt/y. Modern benefication methods, which allowing to achieve sulphur from hydrocarbons, are causing decrease of native sulphur prices in the world and bringing about reduction of mining activities for this raw material in Poland.

  9. [Keywords network analysis of articles in the North Korean Journal of preventive medicine 1997-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Chung, Dongjun; Choi, Mankyu

    2008-11-01

    There are very few researches on North Korea's academic activities. Furthermore, it is doubtful that the available data are reliable. This study investigated research activities and knowledge structure in the field of Preventive Medicine in North Korea with a network analysis using co-authors and keywords. The data was composed of the North Korean Journal of preventive medicine ranged from Vol. 1 of 1997 to Vol. 4 of 2006. It was the matrix of 1,172 articles by 1,567 co-authors. We applied R procedure for keywords abstraction, and then sought for the outcome of network forms by spring-KK and shrinking network. To comprehend the whole networks explicitly demonstrated that the academic activities in North Korea's preventive medicine were predisposed to centralization as similar as South Korea's, but on the other aspect they were prone to one-off intermittent segmentation. The principal co-author networks were formulated around some outstanding medical universities seemingly in addition to possible intervention by major researchers. The knowledge structure of network was based on experimentation judging from keywords such as drug, immunity, virus detection, infection, bacteria, anti-inflammation, etc. Though North Korea is a socialist regime, there were network of academic activities, which were deemed the existence of inducive mechanism affordable for free research. Article keywords has laid greater emphasis on experiment-based bacterial detection, sustainable immune system and prevention of infection. The kind of trend was a consistent characteristic in preventive medicine of North Korea having close correlation with Koryo medical science.

  10. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  11. Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Myxogastrea in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamaga Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Berk. ex Torrend Nann.-Bremek. is rare in Poland, known previously from only one locality. Sixty years after the original report, this paper presents two new localities of it in separate regions of Poland. Although S. trechisporus is recorded mostly on Sphagnum sp., the taxon does not seem to be attached to a specific substrate; rather it is associated with acidic habitats.

  12. Chickenpox in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Śląskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.

  13. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Value of angiography and embolisation in treatment of head and neck vascular malformations at Otolaryngology Department, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Maciej; Kopeć, Tomasz; Juszkat, Robert; Szyfterl, Witold; Borucki, Łukasz

    2008-01-01

    Angiography is an invasive, radiological investigation of vascular system. It plays an important role within variety of diagnostic tools in head and neck pathologies. In selected cases with well defined tumor supply vessels, angiography may be combined with intravascular obliteration. This possibility widen indications, which comprise diagnostic arteriographies - visualization of blood supply and extension of vascularization; therapeutic and diagnostic arteriographies - palliative or radical in character, dependent on pathology; and therapeutic angiographies as adjuvant therapy prior to surgical treatment. Authors present their experience with endovascular techniques application in head and neck pathologies. Material comprised 59 angiographies performed in patients treated at Otolaryngology Department at Poznań University of Medical Sciences between 2000-2007. In conclusion authors emphasize advantages and disadvantages, as well as, the role of the endovascular treatment in head and neck surgery.

  15. Poland health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  16. Chickenpox in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children between 0-14 years old and among those who are not vaccinated, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. AIM. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1;2). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used (3). In 2014, 221 628 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 575.9 and was lower than in 2013 (463.6). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship (35 321), the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship (5 346). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years. The chickenpox incidence among men was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (543.4). The incidence among rural residents (595.0) was higher by 9.8 % than among urban residents. Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 467. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 63 608. In 2014, there was increase in the incidence of chickenpox in Poland. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  17. Measles in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Karasek, Ewa; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    In 1998 Poland, along with all other Member States in the WHO European Region, implemented Measles Elimination Program coordinated by WHO. It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPH-NIH. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", and measles case-based reports from 2012 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In total, there were 70 measles cases registered in Poland in 2012 (incidence 0.18 per 100 000). The highest incidence rate was observed among infants (2.08 per 100 000) and children aged 1 year (2.47 per 100 000). In 2012, 37 cases (52,9%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 83.6% do 99.6% (primary vaccination in children born in 2011-2006) and from 76.6% do 96.7% (booster dose in children born in 2003-2001). Performance of the surveillance system was insufficient with only 127 measles-compatible cases reported in 2012 (33% of expected reports). Fifty cases (71%) were confirmed by IgM ELISA test. The epidemiological situation of measles deteriorated in 2012 in comparison to proceding year. The results indicate a need to further promote Measles Elimination Program in Poland, maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  18. Mumps in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps, introduced initially as recommended, from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease in Poland. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In total, there were 2779 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2012. Incidence of mumps was 7.2 per 100 000 and it was higher by 7.5% in comparison with 2011 and lower by 19.4% in comparison to median for the years 2006-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (71.8 per 100 000). Incidence in women (5.9) was lower than in men (8.6). In 2012, 25 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2012 was 97.9%. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  19. Sediments of Biśnik Cave (Poland): Lithology and stratigraphy of the Middle Palaeolithic site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajcarz, M. T.; Bosák, Pavel; Šlechta, Stanislav; Pruner, Petr; Komar, M.; Dresler, J.; Madeyska, T.

    326/327, April (2014), s. 6-19 ISSN 1040-6182 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : karsology * caves * Biśnik Cave (Poland) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.062, year: 2014

  20. A new moldavite sub-strewn field in Lower Silesia, Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skála, Roman; Jonášová, Šárka; Žák, Karel; Ďurišová, Jana; Brachaniec, T.; Magna, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, SI, Supplement 1 (2016), A581-A581 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /79./. 07.08.2016-12.08.2016, Berlin] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : moldavites * tektites * Lower Silesia, Poland * Ries impact structure * geochemistry Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  1. Museum Institutions in Monuments - Positive and Negative Aspects of Adaptation: The New Amber Museum and Museum of Science in Gdansk, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowska, Ksenia

    2017-10-01

    The issue of the creation and location of new museums is a current topic. The decision of where and how to create new museum facilities will impact successful function in the future. Museums are either located in newly designed buildings or in existing buildings. In general, existing buildings adapted for museum use are either formally under conservational protection or not. With regard to museum location in preserved monuments, the author notes that the true impact on authentic monumental building structure still needs intense research. The adaptation of the Great Mill and St. Catherine’s Church - two preserved medieval objects located in the historical city center of Gdansk - provide case studies to investigate positive and negative aspects. In both cases, the author carried out architectural projects for the functional purposes of museums: The New Amber Museum and Museum of Science. The author concludes that mutual benefits of adaptation result from: the financial means of the museum institution to invest long-term; the institutional respect of the museum towards heritage, which translates into respect for conservational protection; and the competitive advantage created by the monumental features of the building and the privileged location in a well-established, branded space. Negative aspects result from: space limitations of monuments that disable the museum from extending its exposition and thus prevent institutional development; the overly restrictive requirements of restoration that take priority over the museum mission; and the lack of technically functional space required for contemporary museum technologies, which forces unconventional engineering solutions that are more expensive than the location of the museum in a newly constructed building.

  2. Orthodox Education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Orthodox educational system has been meeting important tasks, which is raising a general mental level of clergy and faithful. Its foundation was driven by needs of the Orthodox Church. Educating a young generation in the spirit of the Orthodoxy happened to be the main task of the enlightened class. Brotherhood, monastery and parish school were to be part of this program. The Orthodox education shaped religious life, helped preserve the religious and national identity of the believers. An evidence of that is the fact, that only those localities preserved “the Greek faith “, in which next to the monasteries were schools. Higher education, and especially Mohyla Academy, shaped by the then elite, played a vital role in the history of Orthodox Church in the Republic and neighboring countries. A similar role had to play in the interwar period College of Orthodox Theology at the University of Warsaw and in post-war Orthodox Section of the Christian Academy of Theology Presented here outline of history of Orthodox education in Poland indicates to the, appreciated by clergy and hierarchy, need of development of theological schools. Theological schools played and still play important role in shaping the attitudes of clergy and faithful. Schools provide necessary pastoral resources, shape Orthodox cultural and scientific environment. Theological education has remained an essential element for the proper functioning of Orthodox Church in the Polish Republic.

  3. Making a Home in Poland: The Jewish Sightseeing Movement and Its Photographic Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Pasternak, Gil; Ziętkiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We delivered this paper at the conference 'Discovering “Peripheries”: Photographic Histories in Central and Eastern Europe'. Institute of Art, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland, 31 May - 1 June 2016 (organised by Society “Liber pro arte” in collaboration with the Polish Association of Photography Historians and the peer-reviewed journal “Dagerotyp”). Our paper focused on the photographic practices the Poland-based Jewish sightseeing movement employed between the two World Wars, to...

  4. Hybrid ontology for semantic information retrieval model using keyword matching indexing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayan, K R; Mala, G S Anandha

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology.

  5. Chickenpox in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2013 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In 2013, 178 501 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 463.6 and was lower than in 2012 (540.5). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship, the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship. The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (6 545.1 per 100,000). The chickenpox incidence among men (491.7) was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (437.3). The incidence among rural residents (497.2) was higher than among urban residents (441.7). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 184. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 57 168. In 2013, there was decrease in the incidence of chickenpox [corrected] in Poland with small fluctuations. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  6. Mumps in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In total, there were 2 436 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2013. Incidence of mumps was 6.3 per 100,000 and it was lower by 12.5% in comparison with 2012 and lower by 18.2% in comparison with median for the years 2007-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (54.0 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.5) was higher than in women (5.2). In 2013, 38 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.5% and it was lower by 0.4% in comparison with year 2012. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  7. Rubella in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella to be confirmed with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012". In 2012, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of rubella - 6 263 cases (in 2011, 4 290 cases) - and the increase in incidence (from 11.1 per 100 thousand. 16.3). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (118.0 per 100 000). As in 2011, the incidence of rubella in boys and men was higher than the incidence in girls and women (25.6 versus 7.5). In 2012, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2012, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  8. Mumps in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common disease among the children. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used. In total, there were 2 508 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2014. Incidence of mumps was 6.5 per 100,000 and it was higher by 3.1 % in comparison with 2013 and lower by 9.7 % in comparison with median for the years 2008-2012. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 4 years (61.3 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.8 per 100,000) was higher than in women (5.3). In 2014, 31 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.0% and it was lower by 0.5 % in comparison with year 2013 (97.5 %). Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  9. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  10. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2012 compared to the previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews contained in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2012" (NIZP-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2013), reports from investigations obtained from the sanitary epidemiological stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2012 and earlier years is based on the data from the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were classified according to the case definition. In Poland in 2012, it was reported a total of 8 444 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis including 8 267 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 177 of extraintestinal one. The incidence was 21.9/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case met more than 94% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in 2011, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (69.4%) hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella remains. In outbreaks proportion of hospitalizations accounted for one third of the cases. Predominated children under the age of 5 years. Seven people died of salmonellosis. In 2012, it was reported 181 outbreaks caused by Salmonella in which 1 511 people still. They were mostly small family outbreaks. The most common etiological agent of salmonellosis in Poland is S. enteritidis, but slightly increases the percentage cases, for which no serologic type was determined. In 2012 it stood at 14%. This proportion was highest in the Pomorskie province and amounted to 58%. Keeping up for more than 10 years in the percentage of salmonellosis hospitalization rate at 70%, indicates underreporting of the disease in the country and mostly detection of the cases requiring hospital treatment. Growing proportion of

  11. Radiation monitoring network in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland the radioactive contamination of the environment and food has been controlled since the early sixties by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SPSP). The service comprises a network of measuring stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (COPSP). Actually, there are 100 measurement stations. The main task of such station is systematic measurement of radioactivity level in samples of environment components and food. Nine stations of SPSP acting within meteorological stations, ten stations of low level air radioactivity measurements (Aerosols Sampling Stations-500) and eleven permanent monitoring stations (PMS) form the radiation monitoring warning system in Poland. (author)

  12. Gypsophila perfoliata (Caryophyllaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoszek Wacław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gypsophila perfoliata L. is a maritime sand-dune species naturally occurring in Asia and southeastern Europe. In Europe it also is found in ruderal habitats rarely, mainly along railway lines. In Poland the species was first recorded in the 1950s; it was found only at railway stations where iron ore was offloaded from the Kryvyi Rih region, Ukraine. Recently it was found in a new type of habitat: the roadside of a main road in the Carpathians. The paper characterizes the current status, distribution and habitat spectrum of this alien species in Poland.

  13. [Salmonellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Furman, Sylwia; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the epidemiology of salmonellosis in Poland in 2010. The study was based on data from: "the Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland 2010", information from laboratories based in sanitary stations, the forms of outbreaks investigations conducted by sanitary stations and data from Demographic Surveys Departament based in the Central Statistical Office. All cases were classified according to the case definition used by surveillance. A total of9 732 salmonellosis cases were reported in Poland. Among them 8 549 cases were intestinal and 183 were extraintestinal. The incidence rate was 25.5 per 100 000 inhabitants. Over 95% of cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was higher than in the previous two years, despite this an overall decreasing trend was observed in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. Cases of salmonellosis occurred primarily among children under 5-years old. There were no deaths reported due to salmonellosis. There is still a high percentage, about 70%, hospital admissions of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella. The percentage of hospitalization in outbreaks is almost two and a half times lower -29%. In 2010, 189 outbreaks caused by Salmonella were reported, affecting 1 662 people (almost 18% of all reported cases of intestinal salmonellosis). Most were small family outbreaks. Still the most common etiologic agent in Poland is S. Enteritidis. When compared with previous years, in 2010 there was an increase in the number of cases caused by S. Mbandaka, S. Infantis and S. Virchow. The number of screening tests for carriers among food handlers decreased by over 10% however the percentage diagnosed with positive result increased from 0.3% to 0.5%. Human salmonellosis is still a significant public health problem in Poland. The very high percentage (70%) of hospitalization, persisting for many years indicates that diagnosis and reporting ofsalmonellosis in Poland is

  14. Top-k Keyword Search Over Graphs Based On Backward Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Jia-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keyword search is one of the most friendly and intuitive information retrieval methods. Using the keyword search to get the connected subgraph has a lot of application in the graph-based cognitive computation, and it is a basic technology. This paper focuses on the top-k keyword searching over graphs. We implemented a keyword search algorithm which applies the backward search idea. The algorithm locates the keyword vertices firstly, and then applies backward search to find rooted trees that contain query keywords. The experiment shows that query time is affected by the iteration number of the algorithm.

  15. CERN accelerator school: Introductory course in Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the 'Introduction to Accelerator Physics' course was held in Zakopane, Poland. This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw, and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America. The intensive programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars given by local Polish lecturers, 5 tutorials where the students were split into four groups, a poster session where students could present their own work and 7 hours of guided and private study. The participants appreciated these study periods, which encouraged collaboration and knowledge-sharing in solving problems and gave them the opportunity to get t...

  16. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2012. About 2 500-3 000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology are recorded in Poland every year. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2012, was based on the results of analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP. et al., Warsaw, 2013, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2012 in Poland 3 088 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. More than 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of inflammatory meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2012 compared to 2011 did not change significantly.

  17. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2013". In 2013 in Poland 3,116 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013 compared to 2012 did not change significantly.

  18. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  19. Is Poland an Innovative Country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybowska, Dorota; Chybowski, Leszek; Souchkov, Valeri

    2018-03-01

    The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland's innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).

  20. Tetanus in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    For many years the number of tetanus cases reported in Poland remaing below fifty with marked random variations. Almost all disease occur in people unvaccinated. Some of them, especially in people over age 60, are fatal. The aim of the study is to present the data of epidemiological surveillance of tetanus in Poland in 2014. Analyzed material are the individual reports of cases of tetanus sent to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-PZH and bulletin data “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014”. In 201 number of tetanus cases recorded in Poland was 13. It amounted to six men and seven women. Among those 9 was over 59 years of age. Out of them 4 people died. All were women over 69 years of age. Tetanus is an infectious disease acquired in the environment and associated with the contamination of wounds. Infections and deaths could be prevented by vaccination. Particular risk life and health carries illness after 60 years of age.

  1. Integrated Education in Contemporary Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanel, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the most important aspects, organizational principles and achievements in the field of integrated education in Poland. The author outlines the dynamics of the development of institutions of integrated education and institutions with integrated sections between 1989 and 2010. She describes the actual state of teaching…

  2. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  3. English Language Teaching Profile: Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    A profile of English language teaching in Poland is provided in outline form. The following topics are dealt with: the role of English in the country, teaching hours per week in English at each educational level, English language versus English literature, public examinations, syllabuses and textbooks, specialized English programs, adult English…

  4. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  5. Measles in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, Poland has been actively participating in the Measles Elimination Program, coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO). It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPH-NIH. In order to confirm or exclude the case of measles specific measles IgM antibodies should be measured using Elisa test, or molecular testing (PCR) should be performed to detect the presence measles virus RNA in biological material. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013", and measles case-based reports from 2013 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In total, there were 84 measles cases registered in Poland in 2013 (incidence 0.22 per 100,000). The highest incidence rate was observed among infants (2.18 per 100,000) and children aged 1 year (1.27 per 100,000). In 2013, 56 cases (66.7%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 82.8% do 99.5% (primary vaccination in children born in 2012-2007) and from 73.6% to 93.2% (booster dose in children born in 2004-2001). In 2013, 127 measles-compatible cases were reported (67% of expected reports). Two hundred seven cases (80%) were confirmed by IgM ELISA test. In 2013, the epidemiological situation of measles deteriorated in comparison to proceding year. The sensitivity of measles surveillance improved but is still

  6. Measles in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna

    Since 1998, Poland has been actively participating in the Measles Elimination Program, coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO). It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPHNIH. In order to confirm or exclude the case of measles specific measles IgM antibodies should be measured using Elisa test, or molecular testing (PCR) should be performed to detect the presence measles virus RNA in biological material. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system, measles case-based reports from 2014 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations and data published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP Czarkowski et all., Warszawa 2015, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In total, there were 110 measles cases registered in Poland in 2014 (incidence 0.29 per 100,000), from which 87 cases (79%) were confirmed with laboratory test. That was more than in 2013 - when 84 cases were reported and incidence was 0,22. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 1 year (3,43 per 100,000). In 2014, 76 cases (69%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 79.7% do 94.8% (primary vaccination in children born in 2004-2013) and from 77.7% to 85.8% (booster dose in children born in 2005-2011). In 2013, 127 measles-compatible cases were reported (67% of expected reports). In whole country the total number of suspects

  7. Pertussis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rudowska, Jolanta

    In Poland, they are still recorded high number of cases whooping cough - five-year median for 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 are similar and amount to 5.2 and 5.5 per 100 000 population. The trend of the incidence of pertussis in a high percentage of adults that was observed in years between 2009-2011 (the results of the National Research Epidemiology of Pertussis), in subsequent years, ie. 2012-2014 was halted. Still the most effective strategy to prevent illness is the vaccination according to the current vaccination calendar. The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of pertussis in Poland in 2014, including vaccine coverage of children. Assessment of the epidemiology of pertussis in Poland was based on analysis of individual reports of suspected cases of pertussis sent to the NIPH-NIH by the regional sanitaryepidemiological stations, data from the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2011” and bulletin “Immunizations in Poland in 2014 “ (MP Czarkowski et al, Warsaw 2015, NIPH-NIH, GIS). In 2014, number of registered cases of whooping cough was 2 100. The incidence was 5.5 per 100,000 and it was slightly lower than in the previous year (5.5/100,000). The highest incidence (46%) occurred in children aged 15 years and older. 601 people were hospitalised (28.6% of total). In 2014, there were no deaths from whooping cough. The incidence of whooping cough observed in 2014 is comparable to the previous year and it indicates a fixed circulation of bacteria in the environment and still continuing infection vulnerability of the population.

  8. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews included in annual bulletin "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2013", information from sanitary station laboratories as well as forms of outbreak investigations obtained from the sanitary stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2013 and earlier years is based on the data of the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were qualified according to the current definition. In Poland in 2013, a total of 7 578 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis were reported including 7 407 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 171 of parenteral one. The incidence was 19,7/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case were met by more than 96% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in previous year, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (more than 72%) of hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella continues. In the outbreaks the proportion of hospitalizations accounted only for 35% of all cases. Predominantly children below 5 years of age suffer from the illness. Salmonellosis was an indicated cause of death only in 10 of the cases. In 2013 179 outbreaks were reported, in which Salmonella was found to be the etiological agent. Majority of them were small household outbreaks and they cumulated for a total number of cases of 1 218. The most common species of Salmonella responsible for infection in Poland is S. Enteritidis. For many years, up to date a slight increase is observed in reported cases of the disease, but without known serotype of Salmonella. In 2013 it was 16% and (as in previous year) it was the highest in pomorskie voivodeship (58%). High percentage of

  9. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  10. [Malaria in Poland in 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Seventeen cases of malaria were reported in Poland in 2003. All of them were imported: 13 from Africa, 2 from Asia and 1 from Indonesia. In 8 cases P. falciparum etiology was confirmed. Among the cases 14 were men and 3 were women. The youngest patient was 10 and the oldest 63, 11 of the patients were in the age group 21 to 40 years. Most commonly the reasons for travel were tourism or family visits (6 cases), professional (4 cases) and missionary (4 cases) travel. One death from falciparum malaria was reported in Poland in 2003. In 4 cases some kind of chemoprophylaxis was documented. In other prophylaxis was not used or not documented.

  11. [Malaria in Poland in 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Twenty mine cases of malaria were reported in Poland in 2004. All of them were imported: 22 from Africa, 2 from Asia and 3 from South America In 2 cases country of origin was unknown. In 14 cases P. falciparumn etiology was confirmed. Among the cases 20 were men and 9 were women. Age of the patients was 11 to 250 years. 6 of the patients were in the age group 11 to 20 years. Most commonly the reasons for travel were tourism or family visits and professional travel. One death from falciparumn malaria was reported in Poland in 2004. In 11 cases some kind of chemoprophylaxis was documented. In other prophylaxis was not used or not documented.

  12. [Malaria in Poland in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    Twenty cases of malaria were reported in Poland in 2005. All of them were imported including 3 cases of relapse: 16 from Africa, 2 from South America, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. In 16 cases P. falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 4--P. vivax. Among the cases 14 were men and 6 were women. The youngest patient was 1 and the oldest 56, 11 of the patients were in the age group 21 to 40 years. Most commonly the reasons for travel were tourism or family visits (9 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). In 7 cases some kind of chemoprophylaxis was documented, including at least 4 for whom it was judged inappropriate. In other prophylaxis was not used (5 cases) or the information was missing. No malaria deaths were reported in Poland in 2005.

  13. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Balandynowicz, H.W. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  14. Poland syndrome: rare presentation in two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocmen, Hayrettin; Akkas, Yucel; Doganay, Selim

    2010-08-27

    Poland syndrome was first described in 1840 by Alfred Poland while still a medical student and the other components of the syndrome were described at London Guy's Hospital following the dissection of a cadaver's hand, which had hypoplasia and syndactyly. The incidence of Poland syndrome has been reported to be 1 in 30,000 live births. In the present case report, two Poland syndrome patients with ipsilateral hypomastia and a reduction in the axillary/pectoral hairs diagnosed during adulthood are presented; one patient was affected on the left side and had widespread cafe au lait spots, and the other patient had respiratory dysfunction due to multiple rib anomalies.

  15. Text analysis of MEDLINE for discovering functional relationships among genes: evaluation of keyword extraction weighting schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Navathe, Shamkant B; Pivoshenko, Alex; Dasigi, Venu G; Dingledine, Ray; Ciliax, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    One of the key challenges of microarray studies is to derive biological insights from the gene-expression patterns. Clustering genes by functional keyword association can provide direct information about the functional links among genes. However, the quality of the keyword lists significantly affects the clustering results. We compared two keyword weighting schemes: normalised z-score and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF). Two gene sets were tested to evaluate the effectiveness of the weighting schemes for keyword extraction for gene clustering. Using established measures of cluster quality, the results produced from TFIDF-weighted keywords outperformed those produced from normalised z-score weighted keywords. The optimised algorithms should be useful for partitioning genes from microarray lists into functionally discrete clusters.

  16. Notes on some noteworthy lichens and allied fungi found in the Białowieza primeval forest in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukwa, M.; Schiefelbein, U.; Czarnota, P.; Halda, J.; Kubiak, D.; Palice, Zdeněk; Naczk, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2008), s. 1-11 ISSN 0862-8904 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600050635 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : lichen diversity * Bialovieza NP * NE Poland Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  17. Chrysophycean stomatocysts from Morskie Oko and Żabie Oko lakes in the Tatra National Park, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cabała

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen chrysophycean stomatocysts are reported from the lakes Morskie Oko and Żabie Oko in the Tatra National Park, Poland. Of these, six morphotypes are new to Poland, and two morphotypes plus one forma are new to science. These stomatocysts are illustrated with SEM micrographs and described according to International Statospore Working Group (ISWG guidelines. The comparison of stomatocyst community between Morskie Oko and Żabie Oko lakes is given.

  18. A Novel Model for Lattice-Based Authorized Searchable Encryption with Special Keyword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugeng Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data stored in the cloud servers, keyword search, and access controls are two important capabilities which should be supported. Public-keyword encryption with keyword search (PEKS and attribute based encryption (ABE are corresponding solutions. Meanwhile, as we step into postquantum era, pairing related assumption is fragile. Lattice is an ideal choice for building secure encryption scheme against quantum attack. Based on this, we propose the first mathematical model for lattice-based authorized searchable encryption. Data owners can sort the ciphertext by specific keywords such as time; data users satisfying the access control hand the trapdoor generated with the keyword to the cloud sever; the cloud sever sends back the corresponding ciphertext. The security of our schemes is based on the worst-case hardness on lattices, called learning with errors (LWE assumption. In addition, our scheme achieves attribute-hiding, which could protect the sensitive information of data user.

  19. Sustainable Rural Development Policy in Poland – Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiej Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses issues of sustainable development in rural areas in Poland from the perspective of natural resources management. Sustainable development of rural areas is the way of managing which links economic, social and ethical principles with ecological safety. This may be reached by proper management, directed on cautious usage of ecosystems’ self-controlling mechanisms, with the progress of science and technology. Agriculture in Poland is one of the most important sectors from an economic perspective and its importance is greater in Poland than in other countries in the EU. It has an influence not only on the social and economic situation of the rural population, but also on the natural environment, structure of landscape and biodiversity. From ecological point of view, functions of rural areas are not only being a place for production of food, resources for industry and green energy, but also supplying environmental goods such as protection of biodiversity and influencing air and water quality as well as landscape. The author presents ways to reduce the pressure of agricultural activities on water resources in the region, catchment and farm scale

  20. Poland's syndrome: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi Junior, Joao Lourenco, E-mail: joaobazzijr@gmail.com [Clinica Via Imagem, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Matta, Eduardo Simoes da [Pro Circulacao - Clinica de Angiologia, Cirurgia Vascular e Ecografia Vascular, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Luciano [Materclinica Materno Infantil, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Felipe Raasch [Universidade Catolica de Pelotas (UCPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Fac. of Medicine

    2012-05-15

    Poland's syndrome is a rare non-inherited congenital anomaly. The authors describe the classic radiologic findings of Poland's syndrome by reporting the case of a male four-year old patient with asymmetry of hands and chest, illustrating the fundamental imaging criteria for a conclusive diagnosis. (author)

  1. Poland: Changing the Whole System at Once

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handke, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polish education reforms begun in 1999 have helped dramatically raise that nation's performance on international examinations. Broad goals set by Poland's education ministry included improving the overall education level of Polish citizens, equity, and implementing national standards with local autonomy. As part of the new reforms, Poland required…

  2. Meottomyces dissimulans (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first sites of Meottomyces dissimulans (Berk. & Broome Vizzini in Poland. About a dozen basidiomata in all stages of development were observed in poplar and alder-willow thickets. The macro- and micromorphological characters of the Polish specimens are described and illustrated, and the distribution of the species in Poland is given.

  3. Social Inclusion of Foreigners in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa-Behtane, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Poland has a relatively short history of immigration compared to other member states of the European Union. However, in recent decades, the number of foreigners in Poland has increased significantly. Intercultural relations may take the form of hostility, conflict, antagonism, segregation, separation, neutral co-presence, partial social…

  4. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  5. Serologic survey of potential vertebrate hosts for West Nile Virus in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Wegner, E.; Halouzka, Jiří; Tryjanowski, P.; Jerzak, L.; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo; Kruszewicz, A. G.; Jaworski, Z.; Włodarczyk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2008), s. 247-254 ISSN 0882-8245 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : antibodies – West Nile virus – Usutu virus – Flavivirus * Poland * birds * horses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2008

  6. Patent Keyword Extraction Algorithm Based on Distributed Representation for Patent Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many text mining tasks such as text retrieval, text summarization, and text comparisons depend on the extraction of representative keywords from the main text. Most existing keyword extraction algorithms are based on discrete bag-of-words type of word representation of the text. In this paper, we propose a patent keyword extraction algorithm (PKEA based on the distributed Skip-gram model for patent classification. We also develop a set of quantitative performance measures for keyword extraction evaluation based on information gain and cross-validation, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM classification, which are valuable when human-annotated keywords are not available. We used a standard benchmark dataset and a homemade patent dataset to evaluate the performance of PKEA. Our patent dataset includes 2500 patents from five distinct technological fields related to autonomous cars (GPS systems, lidar systems, object recognition systems, radar systems, and vehicle control systems. We compared our method with Frequency, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF, TextRank and Rapid Automatic Keyword Extraction (RAKE. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm provides a promising way to extract keywords from patent texts for patent classification.

  7. Title, Description, and Subject are the Most Important Metadata Fields for Keyword Discoverability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Yang, L. (2016. Metadata effectiveness in internet discovery: An analysis of digital collection metadata elements and internet search engine keywords. College & Research Libraries, 77(1, 7-19. http://doi.org/10.5860/crl.77.1.7 Objective – To determine which metadata elements best facilitate discovery of digital collections. Design – Case study. Setting – A public research university serving over 32,000 graduate and undergraduate students in the Southwestern United States of America. Subjects – A sample of 22,559 keyword searches leading to the institution’s digital repository between August 1, 2013, and July 31, 2014. Methods – The author used Google Analytics to analyze 73,341 visits to the institution’s digital repository. He determined that 22,559 of these visits were due to keyword searches. Using Random Integer Generator, the author identified a random sample of 378 keyword searches. The author then matched the keywords with the Dublin Core and VRA Core metadata elements on the landing page in the digital repository to determine which metadata field had drawn the keyword searcher to that particular page. Many of these keywords matched to more than one metadata field, so the author also analyzed the metadata elements that generated unique keyword hits and those fields that were frequently matched together. Main Results – Title was the most matched metadata field with 279 matched keywords from searches. Description and Subject were also significant fields with 208 and 79 matches respectively. Slightly more than half of the results, 195 keywords, matched the institutional repository in one field only. Both Title and Description had significant match rates both independently and in conjunction with other elements, but Subject keywords were the sole match in only three of the sampled cases. Conclusion – The Dublin Core elements of Title, Description, and Subject were the most frequently matched fields in keyword

  8. Tuberculosis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria

    To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2014 in Poland and to compare with the data on the same phenomena in EU/EEA countries. Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drugsusceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2014, data from National Institute of Public Health- NationalInstitute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office ondeaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for DiseasePrevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe. Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2016. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2016”. 6 698 TB cases were reported in Poland in 2014. The incidence rate was 17.4 cases per 100 000, withlarge variability between voivodeships from 9.3 to 26.5 per 100 000. The mean annual decrease of TB incidence in 2010- 2014 was 2.1%. 6 066 cases had no history of previous treatment i.e. 15.8 per 100 000. 632 cases i.e. 1.6 per 100 000 – 9.4% of all registered subjects were relapses. The number of all notified pulmonary tuberculosis cases in 2014 was 6311 i.e. 16.4 per 100 000. Pulmonary cases represented 94.2% of all TB cases. In the presented year 387 extrapulmonary TB cases were reported. Children with TB (70 cases) accounted for 1.0% of all cases notified in Poland. The incidence of tuberculosis increases with age from 1.2 per 100 000 among children to 30.4 per 100 000 among patients 65 years old and older. The incidence among men i.e. 24.6 per 100 000 was 2.3 times higher than among women i.e. 10.7 per 100 000. The biggest difference in the TB incidence between the two sex groups occurred in persons aged 45 to 49 years – 40.4 vs. 9.3. The TB incidence in rural population was lower than in urban, respectively 17.0 per 100 000 and 17.7 per 100 000. The number of all registered culture positive TB cases, including relapses, was 4

  9. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  10. Engineering production education in e-learning example in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosak-Szyrocka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It can be observed that the modern world which is subjected to a variety of changes, in particular socio-economic and civilizational ones, known commonly as the so called information revolution creates the need for intense search for new, more effective educational models. All the changes are linked to the formation of network society, information society and knowledge-based economy, which are termed differently in science. The paper discusses research conducted among 698 students of Czestochowa University of Technology and Wroclaw University of Technology in Poland. The aim of the following work is to indicate main problem areas and provide solutions to them.

  11. CERN accelerator school: an introductory course in Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the â€ワIntroduction to Accelerator Physics” course was held in Zakopane, Poland.  This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America.

  12. KEYWORD SEARCH IN TEXT CUBE: FINDING TOP-K RELEVANT CELLS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — KEYWORD SEARCH IN TEXT CUBE: FINDING TOP-K RELEVANT CELLS BOLIN DING, YINTAO YU, BO ZHAO, CINDY XIDE LIN, JIAWEI HAN, AND CHENGXIANG ZHAI Abstract. We study the...

  13. Efficient Keyword-Based Search for Top-K Cells in Text Cube

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous studies on supporting free-form keyword queries over RDBMSs provide users with linked-structures (e.g.,a set of joined tuples) that are relevant to a given...

  14. Book Review: Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left by Ian Parker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Z Clyne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyal Clyne reviews Ian Parker's "Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left" (Winchester and Washington: Zero books ISBN: 978-1-78535-642-1, a book that unlocks complex Left-struggle issues in short and accessible essays.

  15. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature.

  16. Where am I? Location archetype keyword extraction from urban mobility patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostakos, Vassilis; Juntunen, Tomi; Goncalves, Jorge; Hosio, Simo; Ojala, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Can online behaviour be used as a proxy for studying urban mobility? The increasing availability of digital mobility traces has provided new insights into collective human behaviour. Mobility datasets have been shown to be an accurate proxy for daily behaviour and social patterns, and behavioural data from Twitter has been used to predict real world phenomena such as cinema ticket sale volumes, stock prices, and disease outbreaks. In this paper we correlate city-scale urban traffic patterns with online search trends to uncover keywords describing the pedestrian traffic location. By analysing a 3-year mobility dataset we show that our approach, called Location Archetype Keyword Extraction (LAKE), is capable of uncovering semantically relevant keywords for describing a location. Our findings demonstrate an overarching relationship between online and offline collective behaviour, and allow for advancing analysis of community-level behaviour by using online search keywords as a practical behaviour proxy.

  17. Where am I? Location archetype keyword extraction from urban mobility patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Kostakos

    Full Text Available Can online behaviour be used as a proxy for studying urban mobility? The increasing availability of digital mobility traces has provided new insights into collective human behaviour. Mobility datasets have been shown to be an accurate proxy for daily behaviour and social patterns, and behavioural data from Twitter has been used to predict real world phenomena such as cinema ticket sale volumes, stock prices, and disease outbreaks. In this paper we correlate city-scale urban traffic patterns with online search trends to uncover keywords describing the pedestrian traffic location. By analysing a 3-year mobility dataset we show that our approach, called Location Archetype Keyword Extraction (LAKE, is capable of uncovering semantically relevant keywords for describing a location. Our findings demonstrate an overarching relationship between online and offline collective behaviour, and allow for advancing analysis of community-level behaviour by using online search keywords as a practical behaviour proxy.

  18. Tuberculosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2012 in Poland and to compare with the corresponding EU data. Analysis of case- based clinical and demographic data on TB patients from Central TB Register, of data submitted by laboratories on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2012, data from National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report "Tuberculosis Surveillance in Europe, 2014 (situation in 2012). 7 542 TB cases were reported in Poland in 2012. The incidence rate was 19.6 cases per 100 000, with large variability between voivodships from 10.6 to 30.2. The mean annual decrease of TB incidence in 2008-2012 was 2.4%. 6 665 cases had no history of previous treatment; 17.3 per 100 000. The number of all notified pulmonary tuberculosis cases was 7 018; 18.2 per 100 000. The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all registered cases was 6.9% (524 cases). In 2012, 36 patients had fibrous-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis (0.5% of all cases of pulmonary tuberculosis). TB was diagnosed in 95 children (1.3% of all cases, incidence 1.6). The incidence of tuberculosis increased progressively with age to 34.8 among patients 65 years old and older. The mean age of new TB cases was 53.1 years. The incidence among men (27.4) was more than two times higher than among women (12.2). The incidence rate in rural population was lower than in urban; 20.2 vs. 18.6. Bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary cases (4870) constituted 69,4% of all pulmonary TB cases. The number of smear positive pulmonary TB cases was 2 778 (39.6% of all pulmonary cases). In 2012 in the all group of TB patients in Poland there were 276 (3.7%) of homeless and 1 905 (25.3%) of unemployed. There were 48 foreigners registered among all cases of tuberculosis in Poland (0.6%) and 243 cases

  19. Social and legal determinants for the marketing of GM products in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardowski, Tomasz; Małyska, Aleksandra

    2012-02-15

    The development of biotechnology is influenced by many factors unique for a specific region. In Poland the lack of legislative solutions (to facilitate the promotion of the inventions) and the public resistance against certain sectors of biotechnology are significant factors limiting any further development. Although, science and technology are the front runners in any innovation, the significance of social and legal aspects is difficult to overestimate. In our opinion those factors are interconnected and crucial for marketing of innovative products, therefore, we indicate and explain the most important issues restraining the implementation of innovative biotechnology in the context of national specificity in Poland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. What Determines State Capture in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Alwasiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the determinants of ex-ante state capture in Poland. Methodology: In order to establish the determinants of ex-ante state capture a logistic regression is estimated. Findings: The study shows that in Poland the majority of legal acts were passed with the aim to satisfy the interest of particular groups. Furthermore, the regression analysis shows that the likelihood of state capture increases during the period of higher economic growth and local elections. The likelihood of state capture, however, declines during presidential elections. The results we attribute to different interests of political parties in the period of local and presidential elections. Finally, we fi nd that the state capture increased over the years in Poland. Additionally, we show that the EU accession did not prevent state capture in Poland. In contrast, the fi nancial crisis of 2007 resulted in a wake-up effect and the likelihood of state capture declined in Poland. Research limitations: In the study we employ proxies for state capture, yet we assume that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in Poland. However, due to its nature corruption is very diffi cult to assess and measure. Originality: The study uses a unique dataset on ex-ante state capture that was identifi ed in the legal acts that have been passed in the period 1990–2011 in Poland.

  1. Nuclear power in Poland. Prospect and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwaszczewski, S.

    1995-01-01

    Poland started the works on construction of first nuclear power plant in 1992. The social protest as well as deep political and economical changes in Poland induced the decision of the Polish government to abandon the construction of the nuclear power plant in Zarnowiec. After the period of political and economical transformation, in 1992 Polish economy starts to grow up, also growth of the electric power consumption. Are there prospect for utilization in Poland the nuclear power plant? This work is devoted to analyse such question. The present structure of power and fuel materials in Poland were analysed and the possible direction of changes was shown for the period up to 2020 year. It was stated, that the economical development in Poland should be bound with the growth of the consumption of most effective fuel and energy. These fuel or energy should be imported to Poland. Therefore, the nuclear power should be treated as one of possible ways of the balance of electric power in Poland. Particularly, that it will be expected the special ecological conditions in the energy production in Europe. In the present work, was shown, that the nuclear power was discriminated in the analysis of the development of power and fuel system in Poland. The incorrect values of economical parameters concerning of the nuclear power plant was used in the analysing numerical programs. The investment costs, design time and fuel price for nuclear energy was analysed, and shown, that in the proper conditions, the cost of the electric energy produced in the nuclear power plant is compared with the costs of electric energy produced in the conventional power stations. In this work, the proposals of the basic nuclear and radiological safety standards for the nuclear power plant in Poland are shown. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Nuclear Physics in Poland 1996-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Dobaczewski, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Palacz, M.; Styczen, J.

    2007-12-01

    This Report is a result of the Polish Nuclear Physics Network (PNPN) action having as objective the mapping study of the basic and applied research in this domain in Poland. In the often employed slang it constitutes one of the '' deliverables '' of the EWON (East-West Outreach) Network, operating within the I3- (Integrated Infrastructure Initiative) EURONS, one of the Nuclear Physics projects in the Six Framework Programme (FP6). However, although prepared within the nuclear structure EURONS framework, this mapping study also reports on the activities in the hadron physics in Poland (organized in the FP6 within a second Nuclear Physics project I3-Hadron Physics) as well as in Nuclear Theory and Applications of Nuclear Physics. The Report contains references to activities and published papers from the last ten years: 1996 - 2006. In some cases also slightly older data are included, if necessary, for the completeness of the reported subjects. The Report is organized as follows. After the information on Polish Nuclear Physics Network (a part of the EWON Network), a few overview papers describe the main domains of the PNPN scientific activity. The contents of these papers were previously presented during the NuPECC meeting, held in Krakow June 9, 2006. A number (89) of more detailed contributions (together with appropriate references) emanating from various research groups follows the review articles. Some of the contributions provide concise summaries of wide research activities. Other authors preferred to report separately or individually on narrower topics. Most of the presented activities were conducted within the international collaborations. However, the adopted policy was that only Polish researchers are indicated as authors of the contributions, whereas the international collaborations are reflected by (all) authors of cited publications. The Polish Nuclear Physics Long-Range Plan prepared recently by the Nuclear Physics Committee of the National Atomic Energy

  3. Endogone lactiflua (Zygomycota, Endogonales occurs in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological properties of sporocarps and spores of Endogone lactiflua (Zygomycota, Endogonales, a fungus for the first time found in Poland, are described and illustrated. Endogone lactiflua was wet sieved and decanted from a sample taken from the zone extending from the upper soil layer to rhizosphere of Pinus sylvestris growing in a forest dune in northern Poland. The recovered spores mainly occurred in large and compact sporocarps, although both small aggregates with a few spores and single zygosporangia of this fungus were also isolated. Endogone lactiflua is the fourth species of the genus Endogone found to occur in Poland. The distribution of the fungus in the world is also presented.

  4. Automatic Decision Support for Clinical Diagnostic Literature Using Link Analysis in a Weighted Keyword Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuqing; Sun, Ying; Soergel, Dagobert

    2017-12-23

    We present a novel approach to recommending articles from the medical literature that support clinical diagnostic decision-making, giving detailed descriptions of the associated ideas and principles. The specific goal is to retrieve biomedical articles that help answer questions of a specified type about a particular case. Based on the filtered keywords, MeSH(Medical Subject Headings) lexicon and the automatically extracted acronyms, the relationship between keywords and articles was built. The paper gives a detailed description of the process of by which keywords were measured and relevant articles identified based on link analysis in a weighted keywords network. Some important challenges identified in this study include the extraction of diagnosis-related keywords and a collection of valid sentences based on the keyword co-occurrence analysis and existing descriptions of symptoms. All data were taken from medical articles provided in the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) clinical decision support track 2015. Ten standard topics and one demonstration topic were tested. In each case, a maximum of five articles with the highest relevance were returned. The total user satisfaction of 3.98 was 33% higher than average. The results also suggested that the smaller the number of results, the higher the average satisfaction. However, a few shortcomings were also revealed since medical literature recommendation for clinical diagnostic decision support is so complex a topic that it cannot be fully addressed through the semantic information carried solely by keywords in existing descriptions of symptoms. Nevertheless, the fact that these articles are actually relevant will no doubt inspire future research.

  5. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2014 in comparison to the previous years. The evaluation was based on the data from the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland 2014”, information from the laboratories of sanitary-epidemiological stations and reports from the epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of salmonellosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, as well as the data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. Cases were classified according to the definitions adopted in the UE. In 2014, a total number of 8 392 cases of salmonellosis derived from animals were reported, including 8 197 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 195 cases of extraintestinal. The total incidence was 21.8/100 000. Almost 96% of the cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was, for the first time since many years, higher than in the previous year, but still lower than the median for 2008-2012. A very high percentage (approximately 70%) of hospitalizations remains among patients diagnosed with salmonellosis. Approximately 33% of all cases in outbreaks of salmonellosis were hospitalized. The highest incidence was among children under the age of 5 years. Salmonellosis was reported as the cause of death for 13 patients. In 2014 there were 171 outbreaks reported with Salmonella as an etiological agent. Majority of them were small outbreaks limited to the family in singular household, and the total number of cases in those outbreaks amounted to 1 229 people. In Poland the most common etiological agent of salmonellosis is (and have been for many years) S. Enteritidis. In 2014, the first time in many years, an increase was recorded in the annual number of cases of salmonellosis. A very high percentage of hospitalizations for salmonellosis cases indicates a relatively rare practice among GPs in ordering

  6. [JEAN EMMANUEL GILIBERT AND FRENCH SCIENTISTS IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA IN 1770-1780].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvois, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The author is trying to remind us of great role of French culture and French people in spreading the ideas of Enlightenment in Poland. Common use of French language in high societies in 18th century and excellent knowledge of books from Paris created favourite conditions for contacts of Poland with France. The best evidence of common culture of Enlightenment was the Commission of National Education (KEN) and the deep social changes. The direct contacts of French thinkers, writers and scientists with Poland also caused the changes of horizons of aristocracy and gentry. We will remind the main animators of this movement followed A. Jobert. J.E. Gilibert takes a very important place among the animators of Enlightenment. Author intends to present the phases of knowing him, generally mentioning the main conclusions of many research on Gilibert. At the same time author leaves to next speakers a detailed analyze of Gilbert's contribution to the development of Polish science.

  7. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, J.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-03-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1-xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapour phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapour phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. At present, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  8. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180. From l to r: Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  9. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180 with Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  10. Country policy profile - Poland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Poland is 15%. Poland promotes renewable electricity through a quota system, tax relief and subsidies, as well as loans. There are three subsidy models and a loan scheme, which support heat generated from renewable energy sources. In dimension to transport renewable energy is promoted primarily by bio-fuels. The Republic of Poland established two programmes for renewable energy plants: a training programme, which is dedicated to installers in RES sector and certification system pertaining solar thermal installations. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Poland and was regularly updated (updated until December 2015)

  11. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  12. The employee's productivity in the health care sector in Poland and their impact on the treatment process of patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiek A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Rosiek,1,2 Aleksandra Rosiek-Kryszewska,3 Łukasz Leksowski,4 Tomasz Kornatowski,2 Krzysztof Leksowski2,5 1Ross-Medica, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Public Health Department, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 4Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Rehabilitation, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 5Department of General Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Military Clinical Hospital in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland Background: Increasing the engagement of employees in the treatment process of patients may benefit a hospital and employee productivity and may result in better patient care and satisfaction with medical services. Given this, the first step in improving the quality of patient care is better availability of doctors for patients in a hospital ward.Methods: The research for this paper was conducted in six health care units in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian province in Poland. The research assessed how the elements relating to employees’ behavior and things characteristic to medical service influence patients’ willingness to recommend a hospital.Results: Patients’ perception of services is linked with the behavior of medical employees and their engagement in the treatment process.Conclusion: Our research indicates that individual employee recognition and collective recognition of hospital employees as a whole were identified as the most important factors in employee engagement in the treatment process (employee productivity and patients’ satisfaction with medical service. Keywords: employee’s productivity, workplace interventions to enhance health, hospitals, organizational health, medical staff, public health

  13. Seasonal variation in internet keyword searches: a proxy assessment of sex mating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Patrick M; Markey, Charlotte N

    2013-05-01

    The current study investigated seasonal variation in internet searches regarding sex and mating behaviors. Harmonic analyses were used to examine the seasonal trends of Google keyword searches during the past 5 years for topics related to pornography, prostitution, and mate-seeking. Results indicated a consistent 6-month harmonic cycle with the peaks of keyword searches related to sex and mating behaviors occurring most frequently during winter and early summer. Such results compliment past research that has found similar seasonal trends of births, sexually transmitted infections, condom sales, and abortions.

  14. Papers of Scientific Session on Prospects of Atomistic Application in Poland. 5. Assembly of Polish Nuclear Society; Referaty Sesji Naukowej: Perspektywy Wykorzystania Atomistyki w Polsce. 5. Walny Zjazd Polskiego Towarzystwa Nukleonicznego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The broad review of nuclear techniques application in industry, environmental protection, medicine and science in Poland has been done. Also the future prospects and development possibilities have been discussed on that base. Nuclear options for future energy generation development in Poland have been discussed taking into account economic analysis and new technical solutions in nuclear reactor construction and safety assurance.

  15. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mathematics, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150 080, People's Republic of China; Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland; Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; Institut of ...

  16. The Use of Keywords for Delivering Immediate Performance Feedback on Teacher Competence Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coninx, Nele; Kreijns, Karel; Jochems, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that feedback that is specific, immediate and goal-oriented is effective on (pre-service) teachers' performance. Synchronous coaching gives this kind of feedback. Due to immediateness of feedback, pre-service teachers can suffer from cognitive load. We propose a set of standardised keywords through which this performance feedback…

  17. Using Mnemonic Keywords in General Music Classes: Music History Meets Cognitive Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Frederick J.; Brigham, Michele M.

    1998-01-01

    Sixth graders received music history instruction regarding musical periods and composers over two weeks. They were taught in alternating weeks using either interactive illustrations of mnemonic keywords or realistic line drawing portraits of the composers as recall aids. The mnemonic illustrations produced substantially higher scores on students'…

  18. Identification of Keywords From Twitter and Web Blog Posts to Detect Influenza Epidemics in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyekyung; Sung Cho, Hyeon; Shim, Eunyoung; Lee, Jong Koo; Lee, Kihwang; Song, Gilyoung; Cho, Youngtae

    2017-07-31

    Social media data are a highly contextual health information source. The objective of this study was to identify Korean keywords for detecting influenza epidemics from social media data. We included data from Twitter and online blog posts to obtain a sufficient number of candidate indicators and to represent a larger proportion of the Korean population. We performed the following steps: initial keyword selection; generation of a keyword time series using a preprocessing approach; optimal feature selection; model building and validation using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest regression (RFR). A total of 15 keywords optimally detected the influenza epidemic, evenly distributed across Twitter and blog data sources. Model estimates generated using our SVM model were highly correlated with recent influenza incidence data. The basic principles underpinning our approach could be applied to other countries, languages, infectious diseases, and social media sources. Social media monitoring using our approach may support and extend the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging influenza. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 8).

  19. MinHash-Based Fuzzy Keyword Search of Encrypted Data across Multiple Cloud Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of data searching, most data owners store their data files in different cloud servers in the form of cipher-text. Thus, efficient search using fuzzy keywords becomes a critical issue in such a cloud computing environment. This paper proposes a method that aims at improving the efficiency of cipher-text retrieval and lowering storage overhead for fuzzy keyword search. In contrast to traditional approaches, the proposed method can reduce the complexity of Min-Hash-based fuzzy keyword search by using Min-Hash fingerprints to avoid the need to construct the fuzzy keyword set. The method will utilize Jaccard similarity to rank the results of retrieval, thus reducing the amount of calculation for similarity and saving a lot of time and space overhead. The method will also take consideration of multiple user queries through re-encryption technology and update user permissions dynamically. Security analysis demonstrates that the method can provide better privacy preservation and experimental results show that efficiency of cipher-text using the proposed method can improve the retrieval time and lower storage overhead as well.

  20. Leveraging Bibliographic RDF Data for Keyword Prediction with Association Rule Mining (ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Kushwaha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Semantic Web (Web 3.0 has been proposed as an efficient way to access the increasingly large amounts of data on the internet. The Linked Open Data Cloud project at present is the major effort to implement the concepts of the Seamtic Web, addressing the problems of inhomogeneity and large data volumes. RKBExplorer is one of many repositories implementing Open Data and contains considerable bibliographic information. This paper discusses bibliographic data, an important part of cloud data. Effective searching of bibiographic datasets can be a challenge as many of the papers residing in these databases do not have sufficient or comprehensive keyword information. In these cases however, a search engine based on RKBExplorer is only able to use information to retrieve papers based on author names and title of papers without keywords. In this paper we attempt to address this problem by using the data mining algorithm Association Rule Mining (ARM to develop keywords based on features retrieved from Resource Description Framework (RDF data within a bibliographic citation. We have demonstrate the applicability of this method for predicting missing keywords for bibliographic entries in several typical databases. −−−−− Paper presented at 1st International Symposium on Big Data and Cloud Computing Challenges (ISBCC-2014 March 27-28, 2014. Organized by VIT University, Chennai, India. Sponsored by BRNS.

  1. Discrete Strategies in Keyword Auctions and Their Inefficiency for Locally Aware Bidders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Markakis (Vangelis); O. Telelis (Orestis); A. Saberi

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study formally discrete bidding strategies for the game induced by the Generalized Second Price keyword auction mechanism. Such strategies have seen experimental evaluation in the recent literature as parts of iterative best response procedures, which have been shown not to converge.

  2. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H

    2015-01-01

    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction.

  3. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala Devi Munisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider’s premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization.

  4. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisamy, Shyamala Devi; Chokkalingam, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider's premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization.

  5. Effect of Reading Ability and Internet Experience on Keyword-Based Image Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pei-Lan; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Image searches are now crucial for obtaining information, constructing knowledge, and building successful educational outcomes. We investigated how reading ability and Internet experience influence keyword-based image search behaviors and performance. We categorized 58 junior-high-school students into four groups of high/low reading ability and…

  6. Interest in Anesthesia as Reflected by Keyword Searches using Common Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renyu; García, Paul S; Fleisher, Lee A

    2012-01-23

    Since current general interest in anesthesia is unknown, we analyzed internet keyword searches to gauge general interest in anesthesia in comparison with surgery and pain. The trend of keyword searches from 2004 to 2010 related to anesthesia and anaesthesia was investigated using Google Insights for Search. The trend of number of peer reviewed articles on anesthesia cited on PubMed and Medline from 2004 to 2010 was investigated. The average cost on advertising on anesthesia, surgery and pain was estimated using Google AdWords. Searching results in other common search engines were also analyzed. Correlation between year and relative number of searches was determined with pSearches for the keyword "anesthesia" or "anaesthesia" diminished since 2004 reflected by Google Insights for Search (psearch for "anesthesia side effects" is trending up over the same time period while the search for "anesthesia and safety" is trending down. The search phrase "before anesthesia" is searched more frequently than "preanesthesia" and the search for "before anesthesia" is trending up. Using "pain" as a keyword is steadily increasing over the years indicated. While different search engines may provide different total number of searching results (available posts), the ratios of searching results between some common keywords related to perioperative care are comparable, indicating similar trend. The peer reviewed manuscripts on "anesthesia" and the proportion of papers on "anesthesia and outcome" are trending up. Estimates for spending of advertising dollars are less for anesthesia-related terms when compared to that for pain or surgery due to relative smaller number of searching traffic. General interest in anesthesia (anaesthesia) as measured by internet searches appears to be decreasing. Pain, preanesthesia evaluation, anesthesia and outcome and side effects of anesthesia are the critical areas that anesthesiologists should focus on to address the increasing concerns.

  7. [Tetanus in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological assessment of the incidence of tetanus in Poland in 2010 was based on the analysis of aggregate data provided by the State Sanitary Inspection and published an annual newsletter: Infectious diseases and intoxications in Poland in 2010, compiled by MP Czarkowski, E Cielebak, B Kondej, E Staszewska, Warsaw in 2011 and based on an annual newsletter: Vaccinations in Poland in 2010, compiled by MP Czarkowski, E Cielebak, B Kondej, E Staszewska, Warsaw 2011. A more accurate characterization of disease was based on the individual reports sent to the Department of Epidemiology, NIPH-NIH. In the last decade the incidence of tetanus has remained below 0.08/100 000 inhabitants. The average annual incidence was lower than in the previous decade, but within the last ten years to the annual variation is difficult to assign a distinct incidence tendency. Rather, they correspond to random fluctuations. In 2010, 16 cases were reported, including which occurred in 2009. All cases was reported as probable--diagnosis based on clinical signs and information about injuries. Overall incidence was 0.042/100 000, which was small and not significanty different from incidence in 2009 (0.05/100 000). All cases in 2010, were over 59 years of age, which is a strong expression of the trend observed for years that the disease is present in older age groups where the level of vaccination against tetanus is particularly low. Among people infected, there were three men and 13 women. Four cases ended with deaths. Three of these were women, among whom mortality was 23.1%, and one death occurred in a man, mortality 33.3%. Three deaths occurred among the 6 cases in people over 79 years of age, mortality 50%. The incubation period of the disease in 3 cases was less than 7 days, in 4 cases 8-14 days, in 4 cases 15-21 days, in 2 cases 22 days and more. Portals of entry of infection in 7 cases accounted for abrasion or laceration, in 6 cases the puncture wound in one it was bitten wound, and

  8. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  9. Lyme disease in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    In Poland registration of all cases of Lyme disease is conducted by the Epidemiological Unit of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Most cases of Lyme disease occur in the North- East region of Poland; however, it is important to note that the disease is no longer solely a problem of this region of Poland. The aim of this work is to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2012 as compared to the situation in the previous years. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland was made on the basis of an analysis of individual notifications of suspected Lyme disease submitted to NIZP-NIH by the Provincial Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations; as well as data from "Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2012" bulletin, and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" bulletin (MP Czarkowski and Co, Warsaw 2013, NIPH-NIH, NCI). In 2012 there were 8 782 registered cases of Lyme disease and it is 4.3% higher than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country amounted to 23.8 per 100 000 people. The highest incidence rate was recorded in Podlaskie province - 75.5 per 100 000 people. 2 063 people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease. In 2012 incidence rate of Lyme disease was gradually dropping down. The registered number of cases was reduced by 4.1% in comparison to the previous year. There is still a fairly low percentage of cases detected with diagnostic test called Western blot method.

  10. ‚The Spirit of the Time Left its Stamp on These Works‘. Writing the History of the Shoah at the Jewish Historical Institute in Stalinist Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stach, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2016), s. 185-211 ISSN 2084-3518 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-01775Y Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Poland * Jewish history * holocaust memory Subject RIV: AB - History http://www.enrs.eu/studies_files/4/

  11. Information extraction from full text scientific articles: Where are the keywords?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Iratxeta Carolina

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, many of the methods for information extraction of biological information from scientific articles are restricted to the abstract of the article. However, full text articles in electronic version, which offer larger sources of data, are currently available. Several questions arise as to whether the effort of scanning full text articles is worthy, or whether the information that can be extracted from the different sections of an article can be relevant. Results In this work we addressed those questions showing that the keyword content of the different sections of a standard scientific article (abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion is very heterogeneous. Conclusions Although the abstract contains the best ratio of keywords per total of words, other sections of the article may be a better source of biologically relevant data.

  12. Phonetic spelling filter for keyword selection in drug mention mining from social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpalkhute, Pranoti; Patki, Apurv; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Social media postings are rich in information that often remain hidden and inaccessible for automatic extraction due to inherent limitations of the site's APIs, which mostly limit access via specific keyword-based searches (and limit both the number of keywords and the number of postings that are returned). When mining social media for drug mentions, one of the first problems to solve is how to derive a list of variants of the drug name (common misspellings) that can capture a sufficient number of postings. We present here an approach that filters the potential variants based on the intuition that, faced with the task of writing an unfamiliar, complex word (the drug name), users will tend to revert to phonetic spelling, and we thus give preference to variants that reflect the phonemes of the correct spelling. The algorithm allowed us to capture 50.4 - 56.0 % of the user comments using only about 18% of the variants.

  13. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  14. Education of geodesy and cartography at the School of Higher Education In National Economy In Kutno, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzinski, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    School of Higher (university degree) Education in National Economy in Kutno is one of the rather younger university schools in Poland that were established in the last years of the XX century. It was founded in 1998, but the convenient location of Kutno in Central Poland seems to be a good opportunity for students coming from all parts of Poland. The School is continuously developed, number of faculties and new study directions and specialisations are steadily growing. The offer of the School include studies in the stationary, extra-mural and post-graduate systems in two Engineering (or licenciate) and M.Sc. levels. At the moment the geodesy and cartography is a part of the Faculty of Technical Sciences; students can chose one of three specialisations: 1.Economic geodesy, property and estate management, 2. Rural (agriculture) geodesy and property engineering and 3. Geoinformatic sciences.

  15. An Interval Estimation Method of Patent Keyword Data for Sustainable Technology Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiho Uhm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology forecasting (TF is forecasting the future state of a technology. It is exciting to know the future of technologies, because technology changes the way we live and enhances the quality of our lives. In particular, TF is an important area in the management of technology (MOT for R&D strategy and new product development. Consequently, there are many studies on TF. Patent analysis is one method of TF because patents contain substantial information regarding developed technology. The conventional methods of patent analysis are based on quantitative approaches such as statistics and machine learning. The most traditional TF methods based on patent analysis have a common problem. It is the sparsity of patent keyword data structured from collected patent documents. After preprocessing with text mining techniques, most frequencies of technological keywords in patent data have values of zero. This problem creates a disadvantage for the performance of TF, and we have trouble analyzing patent keyword data. To solve this problem, we propose an interval estimation method (IEM. Using an adjusted Wald confidence interval called the Agresti–Coull confidence interval, we construct our IEM for efficient TF. In addition, we apply the proposed method to forecast the technology of an innovative company. To show how our work can be applied in the real domain, we conduct a case study using Apple technology.

  16. Bibliometric investigation on preventive medicine in North Korea: a coauthor and keyword network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the 2 preventive medicine journals in North Korea by using coauthor and keyword network analysis on the basis of medical informatics and bibliometrics. Used were the Journal of Chosun Medicine (JCM) and the Journal of Preventive Medicine (JPM) (from the first volume of 1997 to the fourth volume of 2006) as data. Extracted were 1734 coauthors from 1104 articles and 1567 coauthors from 1172 articles, respectively. Huge single components were extracted in the coauthor analysis, which indicated a tendency toward structuralization. However, the 2 journals differed in that JPM showed a relative tendency toward specialization, whereas JCM showed one toward generalization. Seventeen and 33 keywords were extracted from each journal in the keyword analysis; JCM mainly concerned pathological research, whereas JPM mainly concerned virus and basic medicine studies that were based on infection and immunity. In contrast to South Korea, North Korea has developed Juche medicine, which came from self-reliance ideology and gratuitous medical service. According to the present study, their ideology was embodied by the discovery of bacteria, study on immune system, and emphasis on pathology, on the basis of experimental epidemiology. However, insufficient research has been conducted thus far on population health and its related determinants.

  17. Using Gazetteers to Extract Sets of Keywords from Free-Flowing Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Crymble

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available If you have a copy of a text in electronic format stored on your computer, it is relatively easy to keyword search for a single term. Often you can do this by using the built-in search features in your favourite text editor. However, scholars are increasingly needing to find instances of many terms within a text or texts. For example, a scholar may want to use a gazetteer to extract all mentions of English placenames within a collection of texts so that those places can later be plotted on a map. Alternatively, they may want to extract all male given names, all pronouns, stop words, or any other set of words. Using those same built-in search features to achieve this more complex goal is time consuming and clunky. This lesson will teach you how to use Python to extract a set of keywords very quickly and systematically from a set of texts. It is expected that once you have completed this lesson, you will be able to generalise the skills to extract custom sets of keywords from any set of locally saved files.

  18. Taking Word Clouds Apart: An Empirical Investigation of the Design Space for Keyword Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Cristian; Franconeri, Steven; Bertini, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present a set of four user studies aimed at exploring the visual design space of what we call keyword summaries: lists of words with associated quantitative values used to help people derive an intuition of what information a given document collection (or part of it) may contain. We seek to systematically study how different visual representations may affect people's performance in extracting information out of keyword summaries. To this purpose, we first create a design space of possible visual representations and compare the possible solutions in this design space through a variety of representative tasks and performance metrics. Other researchers have, in the past, studied some aspects of effectiveness with word clouds, however, the existing literature is somewhat scattered and do not seem to address the problem in a sufficiently systematic and holistic manner. The results of our studies showed a strong dependency on the tasks users are performing. In this paper we present details of our methodology, the results, as well as, guidelines on how to design effective keyword summaries based in our discoveries.

  19. New and interesting records of freshwater Verrucaria in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Krzewicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verrucaria madida is reported as new to Poland. Three other associated species, V. aquatilis, V. hydrela and V. rheitrophila, are compared. The known distribution in Poland and the ecology of these freshwater species are presented.

  20. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  1. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  2. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  3. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  4. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... interested in students from this region. Commercial Setting Poland Poland is a prime target from which U.S... size. The dual pricing reflects the Commercial Service's user fee schedule that became effective May 1...

  5. Zoonotic microsporidia in dogs and cats in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piekarska, J.; Kicia, M.; Wesołowska, M.; Kopacz, Z.; Gorczykowski, M.; Szczepankiewicz, D.; Kváč, Martin; Sak, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 246, 15 November (2017), s. 108-111 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cat * dog * Encephalitozoon spp. * Enterocytozoon bieneusi * zoonosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.356, year: 2016

  6. Poland wants to thwart Russian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaux, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    The Polish authorities are doing everything in their power to block Nord Stream 2, the Russian natural gas pipeline project that will double (by 2019) Nord Stream 1 through the Baltic Sea. Gazprom's Nord Stream 2 (in which European companies such as Engie (France), Uniper and Wintershall (Germany), OMV (Austria) and Shell are involved) will poses a risk, according to Poland, to the gas supply of central European countries (and notably Ukraine). Poland also intends to stop all its gas imports from Russia after 2022 (end of the Yamal contract): the country is therefore developing its capacity to increase its own natural gas production and has just inaugurated a liquefied natural gas terminal on the Baltic Sea. A gas pipeline is also in project, that will link Norway to Poland. For power generation, the nuclear energy option is also studied

  7. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Karina; ); Piasecki, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable development principle was introduced into the legal system of Poland when the Constitution of the Polish Republic was adopted in 1997. Paradoxically, in Poland - one of the few countries in the world which have introduced the concept of sustainable development at the level of the Constitution, it is difficult to find a reference to it in the political debate. The national sustainable development strategy Poland 2025 has met no response among society and today it seems to be hardly remembered by anybody. An average citizen does not know the concept of sustainable development, or has a vague notion of it, often identifying it exclusively with environmental protection. Solving social problems (the labour market, education, health protection, equality of the sexes, etc.) is not associated with sustainable development whatsoever, and neither is engagement into achieving these development targets on the global scale

  8. Economic costs of electricity production in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeldman, M.; Solinski, J.

    1994-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the calculation of the economic costs of the production of electricity. This methodology is applied to assess electricity production cost in Poland by type of power station for the years 1995 and 2000. In addition, an overview is presented of the methods used by the OECD countries, particularly in the Netherlands. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the real economic costs to generate electricity in Poland are about two times higher compared with the traditional book-keeping data; 2) the investment costs will become the most important cost component in the near future; and 3) there are considerables differences in production cost per kWh for the different types of power plants in Poland. 4 appendices, 14 refs

  9. Sepsis: Medical errors in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Marta; Jurek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Health, safety and medical errors are currently the subject of worldwide discussion. The authors analysed medico-legal opinions trying to determine types of medical errors and their impact on the course of sepsis. The authors carried out a retrospective analysis of 66 medico-legal opinions issued by the Wroclaw Department of Forensic Medicine between 2004 and 2013 (at the request of the prosecutor or court) in cases examined for medical errors. Medical errors were confirmed in 55 of the 66 medico-legal opinions. The age of victims varied from 2 weeks to 68 years; 49 patients died. The analysis revealed medical errors committed by 113 health-care workers: 98 physicians, 8 nurses and 8 emergency medical dispatchers. In 33 cases, an error was made before hospitalisation. Hospital errors occurred in 35 victims. Diagnostic errors were discovered in 50 patients, including 46 cases of sepsis being incorrectly recognised and insufficient diagnoses in 37 cases. Therapeutic errors occurred in 37 victims, organisational errors in 9 and technical errors in 2. In addition to sepsis, 8 patients also had a severe concomitant disease and 8 had a chronic disease. In 45 cases, the authors observed glaring errors, which could incur criminal liability. There is an urgent need to introduce a system for reporting and analysing medical errors in Poland. The development and popularisation of standards for identifying and treating sepsis across basic medical professions is essential to improve patient safety and survival rates. Procedures should be introduced to prevent health-care workers from administering incorrect treatment in cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Erbis, Serkan; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Kamarthi, Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map.

  11. The Recent Trend in a Human Resource Management Journal: A Keyword Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Kürşad Özlen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous changes in technology, economic, social and psychological understandings and structures have influence on both Human Resources and their management. Organizations approach their human capital in a more sensitive way in order to win the loyalty and commitment of them, while increasing profit and maximizing the efficiency/effectiveness of its work power. Human Resources Management helps achieving these goals by recruiting, training, developing, motivating and rewarding employees. Therefore, the identification of current research interests is essential to lead them in defining organizational human resources strategies. The main purpose of this research is to identify top rated factors related to Human Resource Management by analyzing all the abstracts of the published papers in a Human Resource Management journal from the beginning of 2005 till the end of 2012. As a result of analyzing the keywords of all abstracts, the frequencies of the keyword categories are identified. Except the keywords related to Human Resources (17.6%, it is observed that the studies for the period consider the following: Employee rights and their career (18.3%, management (14.6%, contextual issues (10%, organizational strategies (9.5%, performance measurement and training (9.5%, behavioral issues and employee motivation (5.7, organizational culture (5.4%, technical issues (4.1%, etc. It should be noted that the researchers (a mainly stress on practice more than theory and (b consider the organization less than the individual. Interestingly, employee motivation is found to be less considered by the researchers. This study is believed to be useful for future studies and the industry by identifying the hot and top rated factors related to Human Resource Management.

  12. Statistics of co-occurring keywords in confined text messages on Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Joachim; Angheluta, L.; Jensen, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Online social media such as the micro-blogging site Twitter has become a rich source of real-time data on online human behaviors. Here we analyze the occurrence and co-occurrence frequency of keywords in user posts on Twitter. From the occurrence rate of major international brand names, we provide...... examples of predictions of brand-user behaviors. From the co-occurrence rates, we further analyze the user-perceived relationships between international brand names and construct the corresponding relationship networks. In general the user activity on Twitter is highly intermittent and we show...

  13. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is evaluation of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2012. Assessment of epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was based on results from analysis of the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012", "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", reports from individual cases and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks linked to hepatitis A, sent by Epidemiological Departments in Sanitary Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-NIH. In Poland, 71 cases of hepatitis A were registered in 2012. The incidence of 0.17/ per 100 000 inhabitants was slightly higher than previous year. The incidence of hepatitis A ranged from 0.08/100 000 in Łódzkie and Podlaskie to 0.35/100 000 in Śląskie. The incidence of hepatitis A in men and women was at an approximate level and amounted to 0.19 and 0.18/100 000 respectively. The peak of incidence was recorded during the summer and autumn-winter months. In 2012 imported cases constituted 52.1% of all cases of hepatitis A. There were five outbreaks involving of 11 registered cases in 2012. In 2012, there was a slight increase in the incidence of hepatitis A in compared with the previous year. However, apart from that there were no significant changes in the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A. In Poland there is still very low endemicity for hepatitis A. Decreased incidence and the small number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A facilitates the accumulation of a fairly numerous population of persons susceptible to infection which is connected with the possibility to increase the number of cases of hepatitis A. Despite the fact that the current epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland is good, the disease still requires monitoring and analysis within the framework of epidemiological surveillance system.

  14. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The evaluation was carried out on the basis of the results of the analysis of data from the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013", the information from individual diseases forms and epidemiological investigations forms for hepatitis A outbreaks, sent by sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology of NIZP-PZH. In 2013, 48 cases of hepatitis A were registered in Poland. The incidence per 100,000 inhabitants was 0.12, and in particular provinces it ranged from 0.05 in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province to 0.26 in the Wielkopolska province. The incidence of hepatitis A for men and women was at a similar level and amounted to 0.13 and 0.12/100,000. In 2013 imported cases accounted for 45.8% of the total number of hepatitis A cases. There were three outbreaks, where the total of 13 people fell ill. 2013 saw a slight decrease in the number of cases compared to the previous year. Besides, there were no significant changes in the hepatitis A epidemiological situation. In Poland, there is still very low endemicity. Since several years, there has been a decline in the number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A. All of this affects the accumulation of a fairly large population of people susceptible to the infection, which may increase incidence. Although the current hepatitis A epidemiological situation in Poland is good, it still requires monitoring, analysis and constant observation within the structured epidemiological surveillance.

  15. Chernobyl 90Sr in bilberries from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a detailed survey on the contamination of Polish forests 90 Sr activity concentrations were determined in bilberries. Elevated 90 Sr levels were found in several samples from north-eastern Poland. The calculated maximum 90 Sr surface contamination was 2 kBq*m -2 . The correlation between 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in bilberries was good for two sets of samples originating from two geographical areas of Poland indicating the local differences in radionuclide depositions from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  16. Tricholoma ustaloides (Agaricales, Basidiomycota in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current distribution of Tricholoma ustaloides Romagn. in Poland is presented, based on literature data and the results of mycological investigations in oak-hornbeam forest associations in the Kotlina Raciborska basin. The paper reports the morphology of the discovered basidiomata, the habitat where they were found, and ITS sequence data for the specimens, and briefly discusses similar species and the ecology of the presented fungus. The location given in the paper is currently the only known station of T. ustaloides in Poland. The importance of secondary habitats for survival of this taxon is stressed.

  17. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    ’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level...

  18. Preferences and attitudes of older adults of Bialystok, Poland toward the use of over-the-counter drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybulski M

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mateusz Cybulski,1 Lukasz Cybulski,2 Elzbieta Krajewska-Kulak,1 Magda Orzechowska,1 Urszula Cwalina3 1Department of Integrated Medical Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland; 2National Security Student, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland; 3Department of Statistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess preferences and attitudes toward the use of over-the-counter (OTC drugs among residents of Bialystok aged 60 or older. Patients and methods: The study included 170 people, inhabitants of Bialystok aged over 60: 85 students of the University of a Healthy Senior and the University of Psychogeriatric Prophylaxis, and 85 students of the University of the Third Age in Bialystok. The study made use of a diagnostic survey conducted via a questionnaire prepared by the authors. Results: The vast majority of respondents bought OTC drugs for own use. About one-third of the respondents from each analyzed group bought OTC drugs less often than once every 3 months. Over half of the respondents bought OTC drugs due to a cold. A majority of the respondents were of the opinion that OTC drugs should be sold only in pharmacies. Over 40% of seniors took 1 OTC drug regularly. Most respondents also took vitamins and supplements. The main sources of information on OTC drugs for the studied seniors were their doctor and pharmacist. Respondents did not always consult the treatment method with a doctor or pharmacist. Over half of the respondents familiarized themselves with the contents of the OTC drug package leaflet. Over three-quarters of the respondents were familiar with drug disposal methods; however, despite declarations of being familiar with these principles, a significant percentage did not bring back medication to a pharmacy or clinic, or threw the drugs

  19. Automatische Indexierung auf Basis von Titeln und Autoren-Keywords – ein Werkstattbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Toepfer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Automatische Verfahren sind für Bibliotheken essentiell, um die Erschliessung stetig wachsender Datenmengen zu stemmen. Die Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft sammelt seit Längerem Erfahrungen im Bereich automatischer Indexierung und baut hier eigene Kompetenzen auf. Aufgrund rechtlicher Restriktionen werden unter anderem Ansätze untersucht, die ohne Volltextnutzung arbeiten. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Einblick in ein laufendes Teilprojekt, das unter Verwendung von Titeln und Autoren [1]-Keywords auf eine Nachnormierung der inhaltsbeschreibenden Metadaten auf den Standard-Thesaurus Wirtschaft (STW abzielt. Wir erläutern den Hintergrund der Arbeit, betrachten die Systemarchitektur und stellen erste vielversprechende Ergebnisse eines dokumentenorientierten Verfahrens vor. Automatic systems are indispensable for libraries in order to make the rapidly growing number of publications accessible to their users. In the past the ZBW – German National Library of Economics – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics has gained practical experience in this field. Due to legal constraints it currently investigates methods that solely use author generated descriptive metadata. This article gives an insight into on-going developments and relates them to past activities. We report on a promising document-oriented approach, which uses author keywords and titles in combination to automatically assign subject headings from the STW Thesaurus for Economics to a document.

  20. Metadata Effectiveness in Internet Discovery: An Analysis of Digital Collection Metadata Elements and Internet Search Engine Keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed digital item metadata and keywords from Internet search engines to learn what metadata elements actually facilitate discovery of digital collections through Internet keyword searching and how significantly each metadata element affects the discovery of items in a digital repository. The study found that keywords from Internet…

  1. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. I. The genus Parmotrema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jabłońska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study on four Parmotrema species in Poland, P. arnoldii, P. crinitum, P. perlatum and P. stuppeum. They are mainly known from southern part of the country, mostly in the Carpathians. P. perlatum is reported also from Northern Poland and Central Poland. For P. stuppeum, so far known from single locality only, three new sites are reported. All the species seem to be rare and endangered in Poland. This work is the first part of a larger series which will present data on selected genera of the lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland.

  2. Complexity in Risks Facing Pension Plans: Nonmarket Financial Risk in the United States and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Samborski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses agency, regulatory capture, counterparty and political risks as aspects of the nonmarket financial risks that pension plans and their participants bear, using as examples the United States and Poland. The intent of the paper is to expand beyond financial market risks the discussion of financial risks that pension plans and participants bear in funded pension systems. Thus, this paper fits into the broader discussion of the relative merits of funded and unfunded pensions. The paper also relates to analysis of the increasingly complex environment in which pension plans operate. Keywords: pension plans, nonmarket financial risks, agency risks, regulatory capture risks, counterparty risks, political risks.

  3. A Privacy-Preserving Intelligent Medical Diagnosis System Based on Oblivious Keyword Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the concerns people have is how to get the diagnosis online without privacy being jeopardized. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving intelligent medical diagnosis system (IMDS, which can efficiently solve the problem. In IMDS, users submit their health examination parameters to the server in a protected form; this submitting process is based on Paillier cryptosystem and will not reveal any information about their data. And then the server retrieves the most likely disease (or multiple diseases from the database and returns it to the users. In the above search process, we use the oblivious keyword search (OKS as a basic framework, which makes the server maintain the computational ability but cannot learn any personal information over the data of users. Besides, this paper also provides a preprocessing method for data stored in the server, to make our protocol more efficient.

  4. A Study of Practical Proxy Reencryption with a Keyword Search Scheme considering Cloud Storage Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

  5. A study of practical proxy reencryption with a keyword search scheme considering cloud storage structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Ho; Lee, Im-Yeong

    2014-01-01

    Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

  6. Multi-stream LSTM-HMM decoding and histogram equalization for noise robust keyword spotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllmer, Martin; Marchi, Erik; Squartini, Stefano; Schuller, Björn

    2011-09-01

    Highly spontaneous, conversational, and potentially emotional and noisy speech is known to be a challenge for today's automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems, which highlights the need for advanced algorithms that improve speech features and models. Histogram Equalization is an efficient method to reduce the mismatch between clean and noisy conditions by normalizing all moments of the probability distribution of the feature vector components. In this article, we propose to combine histogram equalization and multi-condition training for robust keyword detection in noisy speech. To better cope with conversational speaking styles, we show how contextual information can be effectively exploited in a multi-stream ASR framework that dynamically models context-sensitive phoneme estimates generated by a long short-term memory neural network. The proposed techniques are evaluated on the SEMAINE database-a corpus containing emotionally colored conversations with a cognitive system for "Sensitive Artificial Listening".

  7. Forecasting U.S. Home Foreclosures with an Index of Internet Keyword Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. Kent

    Finding data to feed into financial and risk management models can be challenging. Many analysts attribute a lack of data or quality information as a contributing factor to the worldwide financial crises that seems to have begun in the U.S. subprime mortgage market. In this paper, a new source of data, key word search statistics recently available from Google, are applied in a experiment to develop a short-term forecasting model for the number of foreclosures in the U.S. housing market. The keyword search data significantly improves forecast of foreclosures, suggesting that this data can be useful for financial risk management. More generally, the new data source shows promise for a variety of financial and market analyses.

  8. Testing keywords internationally to define and apply undergraduate assessment standards in art and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What language should be featured in assessment standards for international students? Have universities adjusted their assessment methods sufficiently to match the increased demand for studying abroad? How might art and design benefit from a more stable definition of standards? These are some questions this paper seeks to address by reporting the results of recent pedagogic research at the School of the Arts, Loughborough University, in the United Kingdom. Language use is at the heart of this issue, yet it is generally overlooked as an essential tool that links assessment, feedback and action planning for international students. The paper reveals existing and new data that builds on research since 2009, aimed at improving students’ assessment literacy. Recommendations are offered to stimulate local and global discussion about keyword use for defining undergraduate assessment standards in art and design.

  9. A Step Beyond Simple Keyword Searches: Services Enabled by a Full Content Digital Journal Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    The problems of managing and searching large archives of scientific journal articles can potentially be addressed through data mining and statistical techniques matured primarily for quantitative scientific data analysis. A journal paper could be represented by a multivariate descriptor, e.g., the occurrence counts of a number key technical terms or phrases (keywords), perhaps derived from a controlled vocabulary ( e . g . , the American Meteorological Society's Glossary of Meteorology) or bootstrapped from the journal archive itself. With this technique, conventional statistical classification tools can be leveraged to address challenges faced by both scientists and professional societies in knowledge management. For example, cluster analyses can be used to find bundles of "most-related" papers, and address the issue of journal bifurcation (when is a new journal necessary, and what topics should it encompass). Similarly, neural networks can be trained to predict the optimal journal (within a society's collection) in which a newly submitted paper should be published. Comparable techniques could enable very powerful end-user tools for journal searches, all premised on the view of a paper as a data point in a multidimensional descriptor space, e.g.: "find papers most similar to the one I am reading", "build a personalized subscription service, based on the content of the papers I am interested in, rather than preselected keywords", "find suitable reviewers, based on the content of their own published works", etc. Such services may represent the next "quantum leap" beyond the rudimentary search interfaces currently provided to end-users, as well as a compelling value-added component needed to bridge the print-to-digital-medium gap, and help stabilize professional societies' revenue stream during the print-to-digital transition.

  10. A step beyond simple keyword searches: Services enabled by a full content digital journal archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccippio, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    The problems of managing and searching large archives of scientific journal articles can potentially be addressed through data mining and statistical techniques matured primarily for quantitative scientific data analysis. A journal paper could be represented by a multivariate descriptor, e.g., the occurrence counts of a number key technical terms or phrases (keywords), perhaps derived from a controlled vocabulary (e.g., the American Meteorological Society's Glossary of Meteorology) or bootstrapped from the journal archive itself. With this technique, conventional statistical classification tools can be leveraged to address challenges faced by both scientists and professional societies in knowledge management. For example, cluster analyses can be used to find bundles of "most-related" papers, and address the issue of journal bifurcation (when is a new journal necessary, and what topics should it encompass). Similarly, neural networks can be trained to predict the optimal journal (within a society's collection) in which a newly submitted paper should be published. Comparable techniques could enable very powerful end-user tools, all premised on the view of a paper as a data point in a multidimensional descriptor space, e.g.: "find papers most similar to the one I am reading", "build a personalized subscription service, based on the content of the papers I am interested in, rather than preselected keywords", "find suitable reviewers, based on the content of their own published works", etc. Such services may represent the next "quantum leap" beyond the rudimentary search interfaces currently provided to end-users, as well as a compelling value-added component needed to help bridge the print-to-digital-medium gap, and help stabilize professional societies' revenue stream during the print-to-digital transition.

  11. Parents' Perceptions of Integrated Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragiel, Józefa

    2016-01-01

    Integrated education in Poland has been implemented since 1993. This alternative form of education very quickly resulted in an increased number of integrated classes in mainstream schools and a decreased percentage of students with disabilities in segregated education. Research indicates that the process of "opening of society to…

  12. Misuse of OTC drugs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprutko, Tomasz; Koligat, Dorota; Michalak, Michał; Wieczorek, Marta; Józiak, Malwina; Ratajczak, Monika; Szydłowska, Kinga; Miazek, Joanna; Kus, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2016-08-01

    The misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs became a global public health concern. Although abuse with dextrometorphan (DXM), pseudoefedrine (PSD), codeine (COD) or benzydamine (BND) may lead even to psychosis, drugs containing these substances are relatively cheap and freely available. In Poland the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in 2015, however it seems that there are still some points which could be improved. Study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015 using a specially designed questionnaire delivered to pharmacists from the Greater Poland region. Questionnaire consisting of 11 closed questions was distributed by direct contact and via the Internet. From over 2500 distributed questionnaires, we received 761 sheets and 680 were included. The misuse of OTC drugs is increasing in Poland from pharmacists point of view. The most popular substance was PSD followed by COD and DXM. The main reason of misuse of these drugs could be related to the use of Internet and free access to these medications. In respondents (58.2%) opinion OTC drugs containing analyzed substances should be moved into the prescription status. The misuse of OTC drugs should be considered as a very dangerous phenomenon. Although the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in Poland in 2015, there are some facets requiring improvement. Social education may play a key role in the limitation of misuse of OTC drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign…

  14. Poland's syndrome associated with chronic granulocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R; Afonso, E; Benedito, M; Maricato, L

    1991-10-01

    Poland's syndrome has been sporadically associated with haematological neoplasms, namely acute lymphoblastic and myeloblastic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The authors present the case of a child in whom this syndrome coexists with a Philadelphia negative, chronic granulocytic leukaemia, which has only required one course of treatment with busulphan in two and a half years of follow-up.

  15. Post-accession economic development of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold ORŁOWSKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic performance of Poland in the post-accession period. Poland joined the EU in 2004, after a long and difficult economic transition. The whole post-accession period could be divided into two sub-periods: the pre-crisis period of 2004-07, and the turbulent period of 2008-11. During the pre-crisis period, Poland recorded a fast growth, with a built-up of macroeconomic disequilibria. During the turbulent period, the economy was dealing successfully with the global financial crisis. The growth slowed down and the disequilibria were reduced. The paper discusses the growth patterns in the both sub-periods and tries to explain the factors that contributed to the good economic performance during the financial crisis. The astonishingly good economic growth results cannot be attributed to a single factor, but to a combination of many factors contributing at the same time. However, Poland has many valuable assets that may help in dealing with the further economic turbulences.

  16. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  17. Agrocybe putaminum (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, New for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrocybe putaminum (Maire Singer, a species hitherto unknown in Poland, is reported from two localities in the southwestern part of the country, with descriptions and illustrations of the morphological characters of the newly collected basidiomata. The delimitation of A. putaminum is briefly discussed, and information on the ecology of the fungus and its world distribution is provided.

  18. The Unnatural Approach: Language Learning in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchisky, Dennis

    The instructional settings and teacher-learner relationships observed in English-as-a-second-language classes at the secondary and university levels in Poland by an American senior Fulbright lecturer are characterized by very formal instruction with heavy emphasis on pronunciation and grammar exercises, large classes with little opportunity for…

  19. English-Language Writing Instruction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    Second language writing scholars have undertaken descriptions of English-language writing instruction in a variety of international settings, describing the role of various contextual factors in shaping English-language writing instruction. This article describes English-language writing instruction at various levels in Poland, noting how it is…

  20. Regional competitiveness in Poland: Creating an index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Miszczuk, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper looks at the competitiveness from a regional perspective and examines the basic factor which have influence on this phenomenon. This article aims at evaluating Poland¿s regional competitive performance by constructing an overall index, which is composed in accordance with the

  1. Popular Toys in Poland: Yesterday and Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinska, Teresa

    1984-01-01

    Describes the toys made by rural craftsmen in Poland. These toys, some of the liveliest manifestations of folk art, are appreciated by rural society. Efforts are now being made to familiarize urban children with this type of toy, both through a museum and through folk toy corners in nursery schools. (Author/CB)

  2. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  3. SEED INDUSTRY IN POLAND AND ITS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Piwowar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the seed industry in Poland and assessment of changes in supply, demand and prices on the market of classified seed of cereals in Poland. The discussion relates to the main groups of participants making up the breeding and seed industry, i.e. the breeding, seed, as well as breeding and seed entities. The characteristics of entities from the breeding and seed industry’s environment has also been presented. The article presents the analyses of the cereal seed market in Poland between the years 2008-2012, including the changes in supply, demand and market prices. The analyses indicated an increase in sales of the certified seeds in Poland by 25.3%. Winter wheat was the dominant seed in terms of trade structure throughout the entire period. The increase in sales of classified seeds in the cereal segment took place in conditions of significant seed prices’ increase in the studied period.

  4. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    green revolution". — seemed to confirm the value of science and technology to international development. Yet studies showed that, at that time, only about two percent of ... gap in science and technology between the Third World and the industrial- ..... Finance; Treasury Board; Industry, Trade and Commerce; Agriculture;.

  5. Hepatitis C in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parda, Natalia; Henszel, Lukasz; Stępień, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    In Poland, an estimated 2 000 HCV infections are reported annually, of which chronic stage of infections predominates (>95%). It is estimated that seroprevalence of anti-HCV and prevalence of active infections in the general population amount to ca 0.95% (more than 320 000 persons) and 0.6% (230 000 persons), respectively. The alarming finding is that approximately 90% of persons diagnosed with HCV infection are unaware of the condition and consequently hepatitis C virus may be transmitted to their contacts. The objective of the present article is to determine the epidemiology of HCV infections in Poland in 2012 comparing to the preceding years. The assessment of epidemiological situation of HCV infections in Poland was based on the analysis of aggregated data from the State Sanitary Inspection, published in "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and CSI). The data on mortality due to hepatitis C, which was obtained from the Demographic Surveys and Labour Market Department of Central Statistical Office, were also employed. In 2012, Poland reported 2 292 HCV infections, meeting 2005 definition (incidence 5.95), of which 1.4% were co-infections with HCV and HBV (33 cases). Compared to the data of 2011, the incidence was slightly lower (2 338; 6.07). Given 2009 definition, a total of 2 265 cases were reported (5.88), which constituted an increase of 3.5% compared to the data from the previous year (2 241; 5.82). Overall, 217 fatal cases due to hepatitis C were reported in 2012, of whom only 9 (4%) were due to acute stage of infection. Compared to the data from 2011, the epidemiological situation of hepatitis C in Poland has not changed significantly. The alarming fact is the increasing number of deaths due to hepatitis C. Probably, it suggests delayed diagnosis of HCV infections. Thus, it is a necessity to promote early diagnosis of HCV infections which can

  6. PSE: A tool for browsing a large amount of MEDLINE/PubMed abstracts with gene names and common words as the keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoneya Takashi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MEDLINE/PubMed (hereinafter called PubMed is one of the most important literature databases for the biological and medical sciences, but it is impossible to read all related records due to the sheer size of the repository. We usually have to repeatedly enter keywords in a trial-and-error manner to extract useful records. Software which can reduce such a laborious task is therefore required. Results We developed a web-based software, the PubMed Sentence Extractor (PSE, which parses large number of PubMed abstracts, extracts and displays the co-occurrence sentences of gene names and other keywords, and some information from EntrezGene records. The result links to whole abstracts and other resources such as the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Men and Reference Sequence. While PSE executes at the sentence-level when evaluating the existence of keywords, the popular PubMed operates at the record-level. Therefore, the relationship between the two keywords, a gene name and a common word, is more accurately captured by PSE than PubMed. In addition, PSE shows the list of keywords and considers the synonyms and variations on gene names. Through these functions, PSE would reduce the task of searching through records for gene information. Conclusion We developed PSE in order to extract useful records efficiently from PubMed. This system has four advantages over a simple PubMed search; the reduction in the amount of collected literatures, the showing of keyword lists, the consideration for synonyms and variations on gene names, and the links to external databases. We believe PSE is helpful in collecting necessary literatures efficiently in order to find research targets. PSE is freely available under the GPL licence as additional files to this manuscript.

  7. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards.

  8. Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index 1970-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A. C.; Powers, J. V.; Rummel, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in 1970 and have continued through publication of the 1986 bibliography supplement. Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution, and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas. The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms.

  9. The Interaction Network Ontology-supported modeling and mining of complex interactions represented with multiple keywords in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Arzucan; Hur, Junguk; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    The Interaction Network Ontology (INO) logically represents biological interactions, pathways, and networks. INO has been demonstrated to be valuable in providing a set of structured ontological terms and associated keywords to support literature mining of gene-gene interactions from biomedical literature. However, previous work using INO focused on single keyword matching, while many interactions are represented with two or more interaction keywords used in combination. This paper reports our extension of INO to include combinatory patterns of two or more literature mining keywords co-existing in one sentence to represent specific INO interaction classes. Such keyword combinations and related INO interaction type information could be automatically obtained via SPARQL queries, formatted in Excel format, and used in an INO-supported SciMiner, an in-house literature mining program. We studied the gene interaction sentences from the commonly used benchmark Learning Logic in Language (LLL) dataset and one internally generated vaccine-related dataset to identify and analyze interaction types containing multiple keywords. Patterns obtained from the dependency parse trees of the sentences were used to identify the interaction keywords that are related to each other and collectively represent an interaction type. The INO ontology currently has 575 terms including 202 terms under the interaction branch. The relations between the INO interaction types and associated keywords are represented using the INO annotation relations: 'has literature mining keywords' and 'has keyword dependency pattern'. The keyword dependency patterns were generated via running the Stanford Parser to obtain dependency relation types. Out of the 107 interactions in the LLL dataset represented with two-keyword interaction types, 86 were identified by using the direct dependency relations. The LLL dataset contained 34 gene regulation interaction types, each of which associated with multiple keywords. A

  10. Ownership, intra-industry trade and factor intensities: the case of Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between intra-industry trade (IIT) for foreign, private domestic and public domestic companies in Poland and the size of multinational activity measured by the stock of FDI. Using a unique database on imports and exports from companies in Poland 1993......-2002 divided along three ownership types, the paper finds in a pooled regression model a positive association between the size of foreign presence and the level of IIT for foreign-owned companies, but no significant spill-over effects from foreign presence to the level and development of IIT for private...... and public domestic companies. A negative IIT growth for private and public companies and a small positive growth for foreign-owned companies in science-based industries indicate that advanced technological spill-over effects to the Polish economy are still in their infancy....

  11. Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wójcik-Jurkiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland The paper addresses the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reporting. The concept of CSR reporting is increasingly being discussed among practitioners and academics. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the trends of CSR reporting in Poland and to try to implement them in WIG 30 companies. The research confirmed the existing information chaos in these disclosures of socially responsible issues in various reports. An analysis of domestic and foreign literature has been performed which pointed to the multidimensionality of actions taken by companies in the context of CSR reporting. The research points to the need to apply standards regarding the disclosure of non-financial information in the form of reports for public limited companies.

  12. Development of laser technology in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Gajda, J

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents chosen development threads of laser technology and associated branches of optoelectronics in this country. An occasion to summarize the work and show their current status is the 50 th anniversary of construction of the first laser. The first laser in Poland was launched successfully in 1969, almost simultaneously at WAT and PW. Domestic achievements in this area are summarized every three years by Symposium on Laser Technology held traditionally in Swinoujscie. The work carried on in Poland concerns technology of laser materials, construction of new lasers and associated equipment as well as laser applications. Many technical teams participate in laser oriented European structural and framework projects. Ths is an invited paper to present participation of Polish teams in such European projects as EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research, FLASH - Free ELctron Laser in DESY Hamburg, E-XFEL - European X-Ray FEL, ELI - Extreme Light Infrastructure, and HIPER.

  13. Health care under transformation in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymowska, K

    2001-05-01

    The general health insurance introduced in Poland in 1999 is essentially a social insurance. In this article, the main features of the present health care system are discussed, i.e. the sources and principles of financing, ownership relations, structures, entitlements to obtain medical services and the rules of access to services. Emphasis has been put on the operations of various entities operating within the health care sector, including opportunistic conduct of the providers of services financed from public sources, cost dumping, establishing provider alliances, methods of cost control, and the fact that some patients leave the publicly financed system. In Poland, a parallel private system has been developing for many years. Systemic transformations have not changed that direction, but increased considerably the significance of household income and education as the factors that differentiate patient in equality. This article is concluded with the note on the opportunities for the development of supplementary private insurance.

  14. Distribution of Vulpia species (Poaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Frey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of four species of the genus Vulpia [V. myuros (L. C.C. Gmel., V. bromoides (L. S.F. Gray, V. ciliata Dumort. and V. geniculata (L. Link] reported in Poland has been studied. Currently, V. myuros and especially V. bromoides are very rare species, and their greatest concentration can be found only in the Lower Silesia region. The number of their localities decreased after 1950 and it seems resonable to include both species in the "red list" of threatened plants in Poland: V. myuros in the EN category, V. bromoides in the CR category. V. ciliata and V. geniculata are very rare ephemerophytes and their localities not confirmed during ca 60 years are of historical interest only.

  15. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboń Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the opinion of the surveyed representatives of the organic food producers, a competitive advantage of their offer depends the most on the health values, brand, reputation, and taste. Moreover, information on products and the form and place of their sale are significant. The analysis shows that the knowledge is the most eagerly obtained from the Internet. Thus, producers should publish their profiles and pages on social media and business portals.

  16. Scarlet fever in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszewska-Jakubik, Ewa; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    Assessment of the epidemiological situation of scarlet fever in Poland in 2014. The evaluation was performed by reviewing surveillance data published in the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” as well as in previous bulletins, and unpublished data collected under Statistical survey program of official statistics. These data relate to cases of scarlet fever registered by health sanitary inspection on the basis of statutory notification of scarlet fever reported by physicians. In 2014, annual, incidence rate of scarlet fever in Poland was about 9% lower in comparison to previous year. There were 22 855 cases all over the country and the incidence was 59.5 per 100,000 population; depending on the voivodeship ranged from 19.5 in podkarpackie to 93.2 in pomorskie. The highest incidence was noted among 4-year-old children (981.4) and 5-year-old children (971.0). However the incidence among children and young people up to 15 years accounted for 95.7% of all cases. The incidence among men (67.2) was higher by 28.5% than incidence among women (52.3). Incidence rate in urban areas, in any size town, was higher than in rural areas. Overall incidence in urban areas was 66.4; in rural areas - 49.0. 1,11% of patients were hospitalized. There were no reported deaths related to scarlet fever. In the surveillance of scarlet fever it is necessary to ensure that the collected data will be valid and reliable. Very low specificity of this surveillance may not only impinge on the assessment of epidemiological situation of this disease in Poland but also overshadow the situation of other diseases, including diseases under elimination program (rubella, measles). This is one of the greatest challenges facing sanitary inspection in the coming years.

  17. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-01-01

    Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  18. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta) in central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek; Maciej Ziułkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  19. Present status of bariatric surgery in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, Micha? R.; Stanowski, Edward; Pa?nik, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : The first survey of bariatric surgery in Poland was published in 2007. New trends are observed worldwide, and there is a current need to investigate the status of bariatric surgery in Polish institutions. This survey was initiated to gain an overview of Polish bariatric surgery during 2007–2014. Aim : To analyze the number and types of bariatric procedures performed in Polish institutions in 2014 and to perform a trend analysis from 2007 to 2014. Material and methods ...

  20. Lyme disease in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in Poland. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete can occur in the whole country, which, according to ECDC, should be considered as an endemic area. Borrelia strains are transmitted to humans and certain other animals by Ixodes (1). Human infection is caused by saliva or tick vomit. Reservoir spirochete are numerous species of animals, mainly rodents. Lyme disease, due to its multifocal character, rich symptomatology and diagnostic problems, is a serious challenge for clinicians and epidemiologists The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2015 in comparison to the previous years The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2015” (2) Despite observed in recent years the tendency to growth of number of cases, in 2015 was marked by growth inhibition incidence of Lyme disease.In 2015, 13 625 cases were registered in Poland, ie by 0.7% less than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country was 35.4 per 100 000 population - the highest was recorded in the Podlaskie voivodeship - 96.3 per 100 000 inhabitants. In 2015, 1905 (14%) people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease In 2015, for the first time in a few years, the growth rate of Lyme disease has been stopped. Registered 0.7% less cases than in the previous year. There is still a need for bringing awareness of the need for diagnostic laboratory testing according to recommendations, which will improve the accuracy of the diagnosis

  1. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  2. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  3. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  4. MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANKRUPTCY OF ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bieniasz; Zbigniew Gołaś

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyse the phenomenon of enterprises’ bankruptcy in Poland in 2004-2013 and attempt to build regression models defining the relationship between the number of bankrupted companies and selected macroeconomic parameters of the national economy. The analysis is based on Coface Poland reports presenting the phenomenon of bankruptcy in Poland of branches, provinces, legal forms of companies and types of bankruptcy proceedings. Studies have shown that the ...

  5. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A.; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A.; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I.

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies. Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with conge...

  6. Batrachospermum atrum (Rhodophyta – first record in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Wojciech A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives new data on the occurrence of Batrachospermum atrum (Hudson Harvey, a freshwater Rhodophyta species rare in Poland. It was found growing on stony bottom in a small stream in northwestern Poland; at this site it was associated mainly with Potamogeton nodosus Poir., green algae Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing and Mougeotia sp. Its occurrence in Poland and some ecological data are discussed, and original photographs of the plant and its habitat are presented.

  7. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  8. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Moebius-Poland syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostapha Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Moebius es una sintomatología poco frecuente en la que los pares craneales sexto y séptimo están involucrados. Esta implicación resulta en parálisis facial. Se han descrito unos 500 casos en la literatura médica mundial y algunos de ellos han recibido tratamiento quirúrgico. Además el síndrome ha recibido otros nombres, tales como aplasia congénita nuclear, aplasia nuclear infantil, parálisis congénita oculofacial y diplejía facial. El síndrome de Poland es otra anomalía congénita muy poco frecuente de la pared torácica, caracterizado por ausencia unilateral parcial o total del músculo pectoral mayor y braquisindactilia ipsilateral. Sin embargo, el síndrome de Moebius-Poland es más raro, ya que el primer caso fue reportado recientemente en el año 2007 por Diego López de Lara et al. En este artículo se presentará este caso poco frecuente, que es una combinación entre ambos síndromes Moebius y Poland en un paciente masculino de tres meses de edad.

  10. Funding Innovation in Poland through Crowdfunding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozioł-Nadolna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding innovative projects is one of the most serious problems faced by business owners in Poland. Therefore, due to the difficulties of obtaining external sources of financing, crowdfunding may constitute a new source of fundraising for innovative ventures. Therefore, crowdfunding – as a way of raising capital for projects – is the subject of the discussion in this article. The research aim of the article is to identify and evaluate crowdfunding platforms as well as the innovative projects carried out by these platforms in Poland in 2014-2016. The first part characterizes crowdfunding as a source of funding innovation and presents the nature of crowdfunding, its characteristics and models. The empirical part is based on inductive-deductive inference, desk research, i.e. the analysis of crowdfunding market in Poland in two research periods and a case study analysis. The article shows the results of the research on the Polish crowdfunding market in 2014-2016. The author also presents a case study of funding innovation on the Kickstarter.com platform by a Polish company Sher.ly.

  11. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies . Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility. To our knowldge, this is the first report of such an association between Poland-Mobius syndrome and congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  12. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) inhabiting Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kołodziejska-Lesisz, J; Kluciński, W

    2017-09-26

    Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland. As far as we know, there is no published data regarding pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in human patients in Poland.

  13. Additions to the biota of lichenized fungi of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of five lichenized fungi from Poland are provided. Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lecanora quercicola, Rhizocarpon superficiale and Strigula ziziphi are new to Poland. Of these, Strigula ziziphi is reported also as new to Central Europe and Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta as new to the Carpathians. Additionally, Thelenella muscorum var. octospora is recorded from its second locality in Poland as new to the Polish Carpathians. Hypostictic acid chemosyndrome has been noticed for the first time in European (Poland and South American (Bolivia populations of Rhizocarpon superficiale.

  14. The foreign policy of Poland and the Kaliningrad region in 1989—2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chełminiak Marcin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to analyse the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Polish foreign policy after 1989. The analysis focuses on the political and regional determinants, which had the greatest impact on the Poland-Kaliningrad region relations. The methodology used in the article is not unusual for political science and is based on analysing original (documents and secondary (scholarly publications, press articles sources. The authors also use the system and decision analysis methods. The analysis covers the period after 1989, when the geopolitical changes brought about by the collapse of the Yalta-Potsdam order resulted in Poland redefine the priorities of its foreign policy. One of the most important challenges for the Polish diplomacy after 1989 was the development of economic and political relations with the Russian Federation. Cross-border cooperation between Poland and the Kaliningrad Region is conducted, inter alia, through euroregional structures functioning in the border areas. The analysis of this issue is vital for further cooperation in the Polish-Russian borderland, especially after the conclusion of the local border traffic agreement in 2012. The authors come to a conclusion that the implementation of the local border traffic agreement can improve cross-border relations but it will not significantly change the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Polish foreign policy.

  15. Rinodina degeliana: a corticolous lichen species overlooked in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Rinodina degeliana in Poland are described. The morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of the species are discussed and characters that help to differentiate R. degaliana from similar lichens are presented. The species is relatively frequent in lime-hornbeam forests of northern and central Poland.

  16. Inflation stabilization, fiscal defecits and public debtmanagement in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Budina, N.

    1999-01-01

    Poland edged towards hyperinflation towards the latter half of 1989,but inflation fell dramatically after drastic reformswere enacted in January of 1990. We analyse the consistency betweenfiscal deficits and inflation targets and assessPoland's domestic and foreign debt management policies and the

  17. Dimensions of health among the elderly in Poland and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knurowski, T.; Lazic, D.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the WHO definition of health, we aimed at exploring the model of health and identifying the most important dimensions of health among the elderly in two Central European countries: Poland and Croatia. Randomly chosen elderly aged 65-85 from Krakow (Poland) and from Zagreb and some

  18. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  19. Serbia 1914, Poland 1939… A comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanjski Vojćeh S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The circumstances of implicating Serbia (in 1914 and Poland (in 1939 into world wars by the forces provoking these conflicts, as well as the history of the heroic resistance of both mentioned organisms against the aggressors having numerous advantages, deserve to be constantly reminded as great lessons for the next generations of Europeans. The anniversaries of the break out of both world wars constitute a great opportunity for this type of reminder. In the presented text, compiling the Serbian experiences of the war started in 1914 with the Polish experience of the war which broke out a quarter of century later, the author stresses the follow­ing issues: - the reaction of Serbia/Poland on declaring the wars 1914/1939 (in detail, and also (in general: - the situation of war seclusion of Serbia/Poland in 1914/1939 experienced despite having the allies, - huge discrepancies of the aggressors' and the defenders' forces, as well as the resistance, exceeding the estimated opportunities, of the attacked countries towards the enemies, - the scale of the Serbian martyrdom in the 1st and Polish in the 2nd world wars, - the appearance of the war success, redeemed with extremely great sacrifice, and the presence of the threat for the Serbian/ Polish nation in the order shaped as a result 1st/2nd world war. The fragments of sources quoted in the article as well as the authors' considerations, are exhibited as key terms and simultane­ously as the common features of the Serbs and the Poles, enhanced at the moments of threat for both the nations and their countries: faith (in victory, in the help of Providence, honour, the spirit of fight and being ready for uncompromising resistance to aggressors. These val­ues constitute an essential element of comparison in the search of understanding the Serbian and Polish history and attitudes as well as the choices made by the Serbs and the Poles.

  20. [Medical student curriculum in psychiatry in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    The author describes present medical student curricula in psychiatry in Polish medical schools based on the questionnaire sent to all the lecturers of the subject in Poland. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the schedule of lectures, seminars and classes (the list of topics) as well as the number of hours of the forms of activities like interpersonal training, discussion groups, internship, etc. We also asked on which year of studies the course in psychiatry took place. The questionnaire included our request to describe the level of integration of psychiatry and other pre-clinical and clinical subjects as well as to enclose a recommended reading list (handbooks and other items of literature). The last question dealt with the problem of assessment of lectures and classes by students. The results of the questionnaire reveal great differences in the curricula of psychiatry in various schools in Poland. The differences lie both in the courses and the number of hours devoted to teaching psychiatry (in most schools it was 120 hours or less). In 7 schools students learn psychiatry in the 6th i.e. the last year of their studies. In 2 schools lectures in psychiatry are given in the th year. In Kraków and Gdańsk the courses in psychiatry consist of 150 and 160 hours respectively. The author proposes unification of the curricula in psychiatry concerning both the number of hours of classes and lectures, and topics as well as introducing the diagnostic and classifying criteria ICD-10 (WHO) since Poland is going to join EU.

  1. Present status of bariatric surgery in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał R. Janik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The first survey of bariatric surgery in Poland was published in 2007. New trends are observed worldwide, and there is a current need to investigate the status of bariatric surgery in Polish institutions. This survey was initiated to gain an overview of Polish bariatric surgery during 2007–2014. Aim : To analyze the number and types of bariatric procedures performed in Polish institutions in 2014 and to perform a trend analysis from 2007 to 2014. Material and methods : A questionnaire regarding the numbers and types of bariatric procedures performed between 2007 and 2014 was e-mailed to all members of the Bariatric Society (a branch of the Association of Polish Surgeons and to 28 surgical departments. Trend analyses from 2007 to 2014 were performed. Results: Among the surgical departments, 16 (57% responded. The results showed that 1499 bariatric procedures were performed in Poland in 2014, with 96.4% done laparoscopically. The highest number was from Masovian Voivodeship. The most commonly reported procedures were laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG (60.7%, followed by laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (19.2%, mini gastric bypass (11.1%, and adjustable gastric banding (7.6%. Most significant was the rise in prevalence of LSG from 8.0% to 60.4% of the total bariatric procedures from 2007 to 2014. Conclusions : Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is currently the most frequently performed bariatric procedure in Poland. The accuracy of the national survey of procedures would be enhanced if we could create a national registry.

  2. THE E-HEALTH SYSTEMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław PÓLKOWSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are disruptive technologies that have caused major changes in health system in Poland. Current digital economy is driven by modern information and new IT tools, which offer hospitals, doctors and patient access to any type of information, regardless of its form of existence, storage type or geographical location. These tools encourage the development of new activities, health services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the the current state of development of e-services in Poland in the context of nowadays health system. In the first part of the paper, the authors present various programmes, which enable the access to the medical services and patients’ data online. The next part of the paper is devoted to examining the technical aspects of the said programmes and presenting their advantages as well as the areas which might be improved.The last part of the work will be focused on the websites of the selected health institutions. According to the authors, WWW services provide much information on how the process of computer systems are being implemented, what data the services include and the capacity of the equipment as well as the software, human resources and the knowledge in this sphere. Moreover this section highlights the latest trends in e-health with particular emphasis on aspects such as the use of private and public cloud computer and t heir integration with web sites of health institutions. This study brings its contribution to the understanding of the change of health system in Poland behavior by using a new perspective e-health systems and IT tools above by doctors, officers and patients.

  3. A comparison of the perceptions and aspirations of third-year physiotherapy students trained in three educational settings in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Joanna; Białoszewski, Dariusz; Sierdziński, Janusz; Jarosz, Mirosław J; Majcher, Piotr; Barczyk, Katarzyna; Bauer, Aleksandra; Cabak, Anna; Grzegorczyk, Joanna; Płaszewski, Maciej; Kułak, Wojciech; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Prokopowicz, Katarzyna

    2010-03-01

    In Poland, physiotherapy is offered at three types of school: medical universities, universities of physical education, and schools that do not specialise in either the medical sciences or physical education. This study explored the knowledge of students who were completing their physiotherapy studies about working in Poland and other countries of the European Union (EU), and about their vocational plans. Students were asked, through self-assessment, about aspects of the professional skills they had gained. Quantitative questionnaire-based study of students in three university settings. Eleven university-level schools in Poland offering studies in physiotherapy and representing three orientations: medical sciences (MS), physical education (PE) and other universities (OU). The study sample comprised of 954 third-year Bachelor programme students. The differences in university profiles did not influence the vocational plans of the students, with more than 70% (668/954) declaring that they would look for work outside Poland: 76% (725/954) in the UK and 69% (658/954) in Germany. Most students stated that finding work as a physiotherapist is difficult in Poland (686/954,72%) and easy in other EU countries (763/954, 80%). Differences in university profiles had an effect on the students' assessments of their professional skills, as students from universities without a long-standing tradition of training in physiotherapy declared that they were less well prepared to work as physiotherapists; the difference was statistically significant for 12 of the 16 domains examined (Puniversities. It appears advisable to launch, under the auspices of an EU programme, an integrated employment information system for physiotherapists that would offer updated information on current demand in individual EU countries.

  4. Campylobacteriosis in Poland in 2013 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Kucharczyk, Bożena

    Evaluation of the epidemiological situation of campylobacteriosis in Poland in 2013 and 2014 in comparison with the situation in the previous years. The evaluation of the epidemiological situation was carried out on the basis of the analysis of the data contained in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland” for the years 2012- 2014, extended by the information from the individual questionnaires of diseases and forms of the epidemiological investigations of outbreaks of campylobacteriosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology and also on data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. In 2013 in Poland it was registered 552 cases of campylobacteriosis, while in 2014 the number of registered cases was 652. It is respectively by almost 30% and 50% more than in 2012. The overall incidence for 2013 was 1.43 and for 2014 it was 1.69 per 100 000. In 2013 all reported cases were classified as confirmed, whereas in 2014 – number of confirmed cases was 650, and two as probable. Both in 2013 and in 2014 incidence much higher than the total for the in three provinces: Śląskie (respectively 3.89 and 4.7/ 100 000), Warmińsko- Mazurskie (4.42 and 3.53/ 100 000) and Lubuskie (3.03 and 4.51/100000) incidence was both in 2013 and 2014 Markedly higher then for the country as a whole. The percentage of hospitalization was higher than in previous years and amounted in 2013 to 71.4% and in 2014 to 74.4%. In 2013 Campylobacter species was identified in more than 83% of patients and in almost 87% in 2014. In 2013 over 77% and in 2014 as much as 82% of cases were caused by C. jejuni, and correspondingly more than 6% and almos 5% by C.coli. As in previous years, the majority of cases, in 2013 - 435 (79%) and in 2014 - 491 (75%) occurred in the age group 0-4. In 2013 therte were recorded two, and 2014 - 7 outbreaks caused by Campylobacter jejuni. In Poland, despite the gradual

  5. Auriculariopsis albomellea (Agaricales, Schizophyllaceae new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the taxonomy, ecology, general distribution and threatened status of Auriculariopsis albomellea Bondartsev Kotl. (Basidiomycetes. In Europe it is known only from Czech Republic, France, Sweden and Ukraine, in Africa from Canary Islands, in North America from Canada and United States. In Poland the fungus was found for the first time in NE part of the country, in a pine forest, on dead twigs of Pinus sylvestris. Habitat and distribution of this saprobic fungus in Africa, Europe and North America are described, list of synonyms and important references are cited, Polish name is proposed.

  6. Energy and economic development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Chwaszczewski, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the 21 st century energy cooperation is one of the key factors of fundamental importance for the maintenance of sustainable development. Broadly perceived energy issues offer extensive opportunities for international cooperation and economic integration through the implementation of major infrastructural projects. Energy cooperation should also take into account such key factors as energy efficiency and environment protection. In all these areas cooperation will be based both on instruments available in the framework of regional collaboration in the framework of the European Policy. The result of that policy should be to set up a new nuclear power station in Poland and prepare experts in this area. (author)

  7. Coal and its perspectives in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1993-01-01

    The seminar held in Warsaw by the CIFOPE from 23 to 25 november 1992 was centered around the restructuring of the coal industry and its implications for the Polish economy in the context of the current deep-running economic reforms. Partly based on French experience, this seminar shed some light on long-term problems for Poland like the kind of industrial policy that will be needed to avoid desertification problems, the need for price reform in the pursuit of profitability, and the networks and financial aids needed to restructure on such a large scale, considering that coal is a key sector in the Polish economy

  8. Chara strigosa A. Braun (Characeae in Poland

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    Andrzej Hutorowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chara strigosa is reported from several lakes in Poland. The finds were published by Izabella Dąmbska in 1966, but have not been recognised internationally, presumably because Dąmbska's article was published in a local paper in Polish. We give a short description of Charetum strigosa first described by Dąmbska. One of the lakes with C. strigosa is reported with luxuriant growth of a blue-green bacteria common in water blooms. There is a need to survey these lakes in order to prevent an increasing eutrophication.

  9. Social Activation of the Elderly in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Pędziwiatr, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    Artykuł wpłynął do redakcji 21.08.2015; po recenzjach zaakceptowany 21.04.2016. The issue concerning activation of the elderly is mainly presented in raports or special programmes aimed at preventing the seperation of senior citizens from the society. The examination of social activity among the old is frequently conducted in scientific literature.The first part of this research paper focuses on the selected ways and forms of social activation of older people in Poland, including Senior in...

  10. HOME LONG-TERM CARE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kułagowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  11. Shrinking Cities in Poland: Demographic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musiał-Malago Monika

    2017-01-01

    This paper purports to present the issue of “shrinking” cities in Poland. The author has included a general characteristics of the process, considering only the aspect of changes in the population. A typology of population movements was introduced on the basis of a relation between the actual birth rate and the migration balance, whereas the typology was based on Webb’s procedure. The author has also made an attempt to classify the shrinking cities based on the definition adopted by the Shrinking Cities International Research Network (SCIRN. A detailed analysis was conducted on large cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants and covered the period from 2000 to 2016.

  12. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Motreanu2 Nikolaos S Papageorgiou3. Institute of Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, ul. Nawojki 11, 30072 Cracow, Poland; Département de Mathematiques, Université de Perpignan, 66860 Perpignan, France; Department of Mathematics, National Technical University, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780, Greece ...

  13. Selected aspects of environmental protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarska-Pempkowaik, Hanna; Bolt, Adam

    2001-01-01

    Environmental deterioration in Poland particularly in 1970's, was a result of an incorrect investment policy and indifferent attitude to the principles of the preservation of nature. Water resources, as part of the environment were affected accordingly. Shortage in water resources is caused by deterioration activity of the industrial, the progressing urban development, overconsumption caused by low prices of water and low status the legislation connected with the natural environment. The European integration processes going on make it necessary to adapt the Polish standards and technological solutions in the sphere of the environmental protection to the standards required by the European Union. The destroyed natural environment cannot secure living at a relatively high standard. Hence the concept of ecological safety based on the conviction that there is no high quality J. life without a high quality of the surrounding environment' has more followers. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the nature and scope of water pollution in Poland with an emphasis on current threats to water quality, with achievements in last decade and background of other European countries. (Original)

  14. Combating illegal nuclear traffic - Poland's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1998-01-01

    International non-proliferation efforts have been taken to reduce the risk related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources. The physical security of nuclear facilities to prevent acts of sabotage or terrorism and to protect nuclear materials against loss or seizure is an essential element of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Iraq case and the end of the Cold War have influenced the development of co-operation and openness in many countries. Poland due to: - its geolocation, - a growing number of post Chernobyl contamination transports and - high risk to become a transit country in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources, initiated deployment of the fixed installation instruments at the border check-points. Since the end of 1990 to now 103 such devices have been installed. Broader involvement in combating illicit nuclear trafficking of Border Guards, Customs Services, Police and Intelligence Security has been noticed. Paper presents Poland's experience in implementing national prevention measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risk and in detecting capabilities against illicit nuclear traffic. (author)

  15. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  16. Human exposure to pollutants in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, J.J.; Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Serious environmental problems caused by decades of mismanagement of Poland's natural resources have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media--air, water, food, and soil--have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Some environmental problems are so severe that the sources of pollution and the mitigation techniques needed are obvious, requiring no further research, but rather common sense, monies, and determination to implement the necessary controls and mitigation procedures. This paper will not address these obvious cases. Rather it will address that spectrum of environmental problems which requires a better understanding of public health risk in order to develop effective risk management strategies. Because these problems are numerous and monies limited, policy makers will need to set priorities both for research projects and control options. Using environmental concentration data presently available from Poland (especially for air), the paper will estimate human exposures, will point out research and monitoring needs, and hopefully, will lend credence to the concept that environmental policies and risk reduction strategies will be most effective if the Total Human Exposure Concept is used as the guiding scientific principle in risk assessment and management programs.

  17. Monitoring the otter recolonisation of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Romanowsky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    The Standard Method was used for three field censuses of the otter Lutra lutra distribution in Poland. In the first national survey in 1991-1994 evidence of otters was found throughout the country, with 80% of positive sites on 2000 sites visited. Only two areas, Silesia in the south and Central Poland, had very few signs of otters. The following censuses in Central and Eastern Poland (1996-1998 and 2003 showed the otter expanded its range and recolonised much area of Central Poland, including about 700 km of rivers in the catchment of River Bzura. The number of positive 10x10 km UTM squares increased twice as compared to first survey (1991-1994. The rate of expansion was very high in comparison to other studies in European countries. This could be due to the functional cohesion of network of rivers and lakelands in Poland. The expansion of otters was accompanied by change in habitat selection: preference for optimal habitats (unregulated rivers with tree and other vegetation cover decreased while suboptimal and marginal habitats (e.g. channels, regulated rivers in towns were occupied more frequently as compared to first survey. The negative side-effect of the expansion of the species is the increase of damages on fishponds, with consequent increase of pressure by fishpond owners to permit shooting of otters and/or to promote damage compensation.
    Riassunto
    Analisi della ricolonizzazione della Lontra in Polonia. Tre censimenti di campo sono stati condotti, mediante metodologia standard, allo scopo di definire la distribuzione della Lontra Lutra lutra in Polonia. Il primo rilevamento nazionale, condotto nel 1991-1994, ha evidenziato una presenza diffusa nel paese, con l’80% dei siti positivi su 2000 siti campionati. Solo due zone, la Sislesia nel sud, e la Polonia centrale, avevano evidenziato una scarsa presenza della specie. I censimenti condotti successivamente in Polonia centrale e orientale (1996

  18. Selected Determinants of Mezzanine Financing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A very significant form of company activity determining its development and even survival is innovation activity. Raising capital for the implementation of innovation is an important but not the only factor in the introduction of innovation. Characteristics of innovation, and in particular the risk of failure, make for a significant difficulty in obtaining external financing, particularly from third parties, which is an obstacle to their development and implementation. The subject of discussion in the article is the hybrid formula mezzanine type of financing innovative projects implemented both in start-up companies and in already well established companies. The purpose of the article is to discuss the possibilities and to perform an analysis of the practices followed by mezzanine funds in Poland in respect to the innovation activities of Polish companies. Research presented in the article was conducted on the basis of information on investments performed by mezzanine funds in Poland. Of particular importance for the innovativeness of the economy is to have companies from the SME sector, and therefore we also carried out research in this group. Innovations are often initiated in special purpose companies, start-up, etc., that operate in the SME sector. Therefore, the financing of innovation cannot be ignored as a thread of innovation in SMEs. The study involved interviews in several companies in the sector. The study concerned the possibilities of financing innovation involving mezzanine, knowledge of hybrid forms of financing, preparedness for hybrid financing. Studies are not representative, but are rather sounding a view to clarify any further research. Hypothesis: mezzanine financing, utilizing its specific benefits, is increasingly used to finance the gap in the financing of innovation, in particular special purpose companies in the SME sector. So the hypothesis raises two strands of research. The first concerned the financing of innovation

  19. Evaluation of health care service quality in Poland with the use of SERVQUAL method at the specialist ambulatory health care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manulik S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stanisław Manulik,1 Joanna Rosińczuk,2 Piotr Karniej3 1Non-Public Health Care Institution, “Ambulatory of Cosmonauts” Ltd. Liability Company, 2Department of Nervous System Diseases, Faculty of Health Science, 3Department of Organization and Management, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Introduction: Service quality and customer satisfaction are very important components of competitive advantage in the health care sector. The SERVQUAL method is widely used for assessing the quality expected by patients and the quality of actually provided services.Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to determine if patients from state and private health care facilities differed in terms of their qualitative priorities and assessments of received services.Materials and methods: The study included a total of 412 patients: 211 treated at a state facility and 201 treated at a private facility. Each of the respondents completed a 5-domain, 22-item SERVQUAL questionnaire. The actual quality of health care services in both types of facilities proved significantly lower than expected.Results: All the patients gave the highest scores to the domains constituting the core aspects of health care services. The private facility respondents had the highest expectations with regard to equipment, and the state facility ones regarding contacts with the medical personnel.Conclusion: Health care quality management should be oriented toward comprehensive optimization in all domains, rather than only within the domain identified as the qualitative priority for patients of a given facility. Keywords: health care service quality, patients’ expectations, qualitative priorities, outpatient health care facilities

  20. Early medieval touchstones from Sowinki, Greater Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin; Krzyszowski, A.; Zavřel, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, 1-2 (2013), s. 177-186 ISSN 0016-8874 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * graveyards * touchstones * metals * electron microscopy * social structure Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Research article Abstract Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PPP). Our investigation deals ... The University of the Western Cape (UWC) in Cape Town, South Africa, is a public university that was ..... posters in public places informing students about upcoming protest marches and student mass meetings;.

  2. Moving Spatial Keyword Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    propose two algorithms for computing safe zones that guarantee correct results at any time and that aim to optimize the server-side computation as well as the communication between the server and the client. We exploit tight and conservative approximations of safe zones and aggressive computational space...

  3. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. III. Parmelia serrana, new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ossowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Parmelia serrana A. Crespo, M.C. Molina & D. Hawksw. is reported here for the first time from Poland. The species has been recorded from more than 20 localities and exclusively on the bark of trees. Its general distribution, habitat requirements, morphology, secondary chemistry are provided and the differences between this species and similar taxa, especially P. saxatilis and P. ernstiae, are discussed.

  4. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  5. [Dysentery and amoebiasis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Dysentery as infective and contagious disease is registered by all EU and EFTA countries only as shigellosis according to etiological classification of the infectious diseases. The cases are also registered by ECDC. According to ECDC Report for 2006-2008 the incidence rate in Poland Sanitary Stations, send to the National Register of Infectious Diseases, evaluated, calculated and published by Department of Epidemiology National Institute of Public Health (NIZP-PZH) in Annual Bulletin "Infections and Intoxications in Poland in 2010", Warsaw NIZP-PZH and GIS (Chief Sanitary Inspectorate ) 2010. Laboratory data were collected as reports from all Regional Sanitary Laboratories send to NIZP-PZH Department of Bacteriology, data from epidemiological investigation of outbreaks including data from identification of Shigella strains obtained from the Reference Laboratory for Gram-negative Bacilli of NIZP-PZH Bacteriology Department. In 2010 thirty cases of shigellosis were registered (incidence was 0.08/100 000 inhabitants) the same number of cases and incidence was observed in 2009, nearly the same in 2008 - 33 cases (incidence 0.09). The numbers were lower than the median in 2004-2008 (64 cases, incidence 0.17/100 000). According to laboratory reports in all 16 Regional Sanitary Stations only 14 persons were Shigella positive, in spite that more than 600 000 were examined: 10 persons were infected by S. sonnei, 4 by S. flexneri. Only one strain of S. sonnei was isolated from a patient with diarrhea. It was in the Regional Sanitary Station laboratory of the małopolskie voievodeshaft. No one strain of S. boydii or S. dysenteriae was isolated. Most of the dysentery cases were examined by other laboratories than laboratories of sanitary epidemiological service. The obligation of private payment for bacteriological examination of suspected cases is one of reason that patient is treated with antibacterial drugs without determination of etiological agent of the infection. It

  6. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  7. The comparative effects of song, picture and the keyword method on L2 vocabulary recognition and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of three methods of vocabulary presentation, i.e., picture, song, and the keyword method on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary recognition and production. The participants were 102 Iranian lower-intermediate EFL learners in Zaban Sara English language institute in Kermanshah. To make sure that they had no previous knowledge of the target words, a pretest was administered. Those words about which the participants had prior knowledge were excluded from instruction. After administering the pretest, the participants were divided into three groups. Each group was instructed through a specified method of vocabulary presentation including picture, song, and the keyword method for a whole semester. The participants' receptive vocabulary knowledge was tested through a multiple-choice test and their productive vocabulary knowledge through a fill-in-the blank test. The collected data were analyzed using two separate one-way ANOVA procedures. The results of both tests showed that the group instructed through picture had the best performance, followed closely by the group instructed through the keyword method. The group taught through the song method performed significantly worse than both the picture group and the keyword method group.

  8. The Effects of Keyword Cues and 3R Strategy on Children's e-Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that electronic books (e-books) promote learning, but few works have examined the use of e-books along with an adaptive reading strategy for children. The current study implemented a method to extract keyword cues from e-books to support e-book reading with the read, recite and review (3R) strategy, and then examined the…

  9. Reading the World's Classics Critically: A Keyword-Based Approach to Literary Analysis in Foreign Language Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Nuria Alonso; Caplan, Alison

    2014-01-01

    While there are a number of important critical pedagogies being proposed in the field of foreign language study, more attention should be given to providing concrete examples of how to apply these ideas in the classroom. This article offers a new approach to the textual analysis of literary classics through the keyword-based methodology originally…

  10. Comparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Poland and Denmark for Road Construction in Relation to Wildlife and Nature Protection : Report for Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Adrados, L. C.; Briggs, L

    Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212......Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212...

  11. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow's milk allergy in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest JF

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Julian F Guest,1,2 Diana Weidlich,1 Maciej Kaczmarski,3 Elzbieta Jarocka-Cyrta,4 Natalia Kobelska-Dubiel,5 Agnieszka Krauze,6 Iwona Sakowska-Maliszewska,7 Anna Zawadzka-Krajewska8 1Catalyst Health Economics Consultants, Northwood, Middlesex, 2Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College, London, UK; 3Department of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology, and Allergology, Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, 4Uniwersytet Warmińsko‑Mazurski, Wydział Nauk Medycznych, Katedra Pediatrii Klinicznej, Olsztyn, 5Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, 6Klinika Pneumonologii i Alergologii Wieku Dziecięcego, Warsaw, 7Poradnia Gastroenterologiczna Centrum Pediatrii, Sosnowiec, 8Department of Pediatric Pneumonology and Allergology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG as an initial treatment for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone and amino acid formulas (AAF in Poland from the perspective of the Polish National Health Fund (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia [NFZ] and parents. Methods: Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of cow’s milk allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The model also estimated the cost to the NFZ and parents (Polish Zloty [PLN] at 2013–2014 prices for managing infants over 18 months after starting one of the formulas as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulas. Results: The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants who were fed eHCF + LGG (0.82 compared with those fed eHCF alone (0.53 or an AAF (0.22. An infant who is initially managed with eHCF + LGG is expected to consume fewer health care resources than infants managed with the other

  12. Computerized reserves assessment improves colliery planning. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozor, L.; Wrobel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe systems developed in Poland for the computerised assessment of coal reserves. The Zasoby system calculates coal reserves and evaluates selected natural properties of seams within the boundaries of an arbitrary mining property, based entirely on exploratory borehole data. The IOS-10 system is based on the Polish data bank for bituminous coal deposits. It is not suitable for use in mine design procedures, but is widely used for the statistical recording of reserves in areas currently being worked. The major part of the paper is devoted to a description of the Geo-3 system, used for the computation of reserves in prospective areas from borehole data, as well as in active mining areas or partially worked-out deposits. The computation method is explained and examples of the results obtained are given.

  13. Rheumatology training in Poland vs. United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarewicz, Karina; Chinoy, Hector

    2017-01-01

    When evaluating the quality of Rheumatology specialty training, it can be useful to explore similarities and differences between countries. In this article we compare the training in the UK and Poland. The two training programmes are similar in length and in the competencies that must be achieved, although they do have significant differences in the way the training is structured. The UK-based system is more out-patient based, which can be advantageous, as after completion of training the doctor is more confident in treating common rheumatological problems. On the other hand, having exposure to paediatric rheumatology and orthopaedics like one has in Polish-based training, despite a short placement time, is definitely beneficial for the trainee in gaining all-round knowledge. In conclusion, each system has its merits and can be further enhanced by observing how junior doctors are sub-speciality trained in different countries.

  14. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Mid-2016 Poland revamped its national support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources, started to phase out a certificates-backed renewable electricity quota scheme, and put in place a feed-in tariff/feed-in premium (FiT/FiP) system in place with the support levels being determined by approved tender bids. Furthermore, a fiscal and soft loan instrument is used for supplementary support. Three subsidy instruments and a soft loan instrument are deployed for the promotion of renewable heat. Renewable energy in transport is promoted through a bio-fuels quota scheme

  15. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of lichenicolous fungi collected in 129 localities in Poland in the years 1968 and 1970-2003 are reported in the paper. They are as follows: Athelia arachnoidea (Berk. Jülich, Tremella cladoniae Diederich et M.S. Chrst., T. hypogymniae Diederich et M.S. Chris., T. lichecola Diederich, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw., Polycoccum superficiale D. Hawksw. et Miądlikowska, Nectria lecanodes Ces., Pronectria erythrinella (Nyl. Lowen, Cortocifraga fuckelii (Rehm D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., C. peltigerae (Nyl. D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. et Roum., Lichenoconium erodens M.S. Christ. et D. Hawksw., L. lecanorae (Jaap D. Hawksw., L. pyxidatae (Oudem. Petrak et Sydow, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Lindsay Petrak et Sydow, Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw., Illosporium carneum Fr., Karsteniomyces peltigerae (P. Karst. D. Hawksw. and Taeniolella beschiana Diederich.

  16. PRISON EDUCATION IN POLAND: SPECIFICS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Becker-Pestka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems presented in the text refer to the education of convicts in Poland. It has been based on current Polish legal regulations, statistical data and specialist literature. The problems which refer to the education of convicts in Poland are regulated by the Act of 6th June 1997, the Executive Penal Code, the Act on the Education System and executive acts to the above-mentioned regulations. The current situation in the labour market requires people to acquire education and to improve their qualifications. People without education, who are excluded from the access to professional development and in-service training, find themselves in an extremely difficult situation. The lack of qualification and vocational skills usually leads to exclusion from the labour market. People who serve their sentences in prisons find themselves in a particularly difficult situation, because their lack of education may push them back into crime. A very positive tendency that may be observed in Poland is a growing demand for prison education. Convicts may acquire knowledge and raise their qualifications at various levels and in various fields. They may follow the curricula at the level of a primary or secondary school; they may pass their Matura certificate and, after the consent of relevant authorities, they can continue their education at the university level. Convicts may also learn a new profession, change their professional qualifications or acquire new additional skills during specialist courses. The qualifications acquired in this way shall meet current demand in the labour market, and convicts may find employment after they leave prisons. Education allows them to improve their self-esteem and self-reliance, to catch up with any deficiencies and to work on their self-discipline. At the same time, education offers opportunities to expand knowledge, to return to the society and to the labour market. It is important for convicts to obtain opportunities for

  17. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  18. Shale-gas potential in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadro, J.

    2009-04-01

    Shale-gas formations are known to be associated with source rocks. Major oil and gas provinces in Poland have been reviewed with respect to source rock quality using a petroleum play concept. As a result, three potential shale-gas plays were distinguished: (1) Silurian of the western slope of the East European Craton, (2) Carboniferous of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline, (3) Miocene of the Carpathian Foredeep Basin. Only the Silurian of the East European Craton and the Carboniferous of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline were further evaluated to delineate prospective areas as the Carpathian Foredeep Basin was not available for exploration license. The screening criteria used in this evaluation were main geochemical parameters: total organic carbon (TOC), thermal maturity and kerogen type, as well as depth, thickness and lateral extent of potential organic-rich shale formations. Three prospective areas have been delineated within the Silurian of the East European Craton: (1) Baltic Basin, (2) Podlasie Depression and (3) Lublin Basin, whereas one prospective area was high graded in the Carboniferous of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline. This evaluation was carried out based on the existing data gathered for the most part by the Polish Geological Institute. The four shale-gas prospective areas have been characterized using lithology and depositional environments, geochemical data, structural evolution and burial history of Silurian and Carboniferous strata, as well as thickness of the organic-rich shales. Published data concerning successful shale gas plays in the U.S. were collected to make a comparison with the prospective shale-gas formations of Poland. The Polish government granted several exploration concessions over the last two years in each of the prospective areas. In the initial stage of exploration activities, EurEnergy have been focused on acquisition of more detailed geochemical data (based on existing core samples), preparation of geological and structural studies as well

  19. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P.

    2017-01-01

    This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. References to epidemiological situation in other countries are limited to situations that may affect current or potential occurrence of the disease in Poland. The main source of epidemiological information for this summary is the data from the reports of the State Sanitary Inspection included in the annual bulletins “Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland in 2015” and “Vaccination in Poland in 2015” (1, 2). The epidemiological situation of particular diseases is further elaborated in the Epidemiological Chronicle of the same issue of the Epidemiological Review. Data on deaths are based on the presentation of the Demographic and Labor Market Department of the Central Statistical Office on deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2015 and earlier. For a long time, the most common diseases among epidemiological surveillance it is upper respiratory tract infections classified as “influenza and suspected influenza”. In 2015, the number of cases was 3,843,438 (9 994,7 / 100,000). As to compare with the 2014’s incidence, this was an increase of 22.6%. In 2015, incidence of intestinal infections with etiology of salmonella increased by 2.8% compared to the previous year, but compared to the median of 2009-2013 was 2.5% lower. A serious epidemiological problem is a strong upward trend in nosocomial infections including infections caused by

  20. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  1. Fatal cardiovascular risk in Poland as determined via Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Trzeciak

    2017-05-01

    Automatic monitoring of the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in Poland provides information for epidemiological studies. The system meets the characteristics of diagnostic programmes that can assist epidemiologic-based and therapeutic decisions.

  2. Civil Military Relations and Defense Reform in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomaszycki, Marek

    2006-01-01

    .... From the beginning, these changes in the European order included security problems. This paper describes changes in the national security of Poland since 1989 with a focus on the Polish Armed Forces (PAF...

  3. Typhula quisquiliaris (Cantharellales - a species new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the first Polish record of Typhula quisquiliaris is given in this paper. The species was found in Katowice: Panewniki (SW Poland, Silesian Upland, in pine forest, on dead stalks of Pteridium aquilinum.

  4. MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANKRUPTCY OF ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to analyse the phenomenon of enterprises’ bankruptcy in Poland in 2004-2013 and attempt to build regression models defining the relationship between the number of bankrupted companies and selected macroeconomic parameters of the national economy. The analysis is based on Coface Poland reports presenting the phenomenon of bankruptcy in Poland of branches, provinces, legal forms of companies and types of bankruptcy proceedings. Studies have shown that the greatest risk of bankruptcy refers to metals production and fabricated metal products enterprises, manufacture of food products and beverages, wholesale trade, construction, micro and small enterprises, enterprises under the age of 10 years and companies from Mazovia region, Silesia and Lower Silesia. The estimated parameters of the regression models showed that the number of bankruptcies in Poland is strongly determined i.a. by the number of registered companies, GDP growth, dynamics of changes in fixed capital formation and changes in foreign exchange rates.

  5. Squamanita odorata (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, new mycoparasitic fungus for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rare and interesting fungus Squamanita odorata (Cool Imbach, a parasite on Hebeloma species, is reported for the first time from Poland, briefly described and illustrated based on Polish specimens. Its taxonomy, ecology and distribution are discussed.

  6. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  7. The distribution of Nymphaea candida C. Presl (Nymphaeaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wajda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea candida C. Presl is a rare species limited in its distribution to NE Poland. It has often been confused with N. alba L., a much more frequent species. It is probably a threatened species.

  8. Dangerous Goods Transport Problems in the European Union and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to threat assessment of dangerous goods (DG in transportation of the European Union and the Republic of Poland. Dangerous goods in the European Union are carried by inland waterways, rail and road. In Poland 87.5% of DG have been carried by road and 12.5% by rail in 2014. DG can cause an accident and lead to fires, explosions and chemical poisoning or burning with considerable harm to people and the environment. There is not monitoring system in Poland to control in real time road transportation of dangerous goods. Proposition of National System of Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Poland was presented. Realization of mentioned kind of system may significantly contribute to improving safety of people and environment.

  9. Between Stalinism and Infrastructural Globalism. The International Geophysical Year (1957-8) in Czechoslovakia, Poland and the German Democratic Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olšáková, Doubravka

    -, č. 115 (2017), s. 97-122 ISSN 0001-6829 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Eastern Europe * cold war science * infrastructural globalism Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  10. Privatization and Corporate Governance in Poland: Problems and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Kozarzewski

    2006-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problems of the impact of privatization on corporate governance formation in Poland. It discusses the dilemmas of choosing a model for privatization and corporate governance, legal background, mechanisms of corporate governance formation depending on a privatization method applied, and the evolution of these structures in the course of systemic transformation in Poland. The Author comes to the conclusion that the processes of privatization and corporate governance ...

  11. Puccinia scillae (Uredinales, a new species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rust species new for Poland, that affects the ornamental plant Scilla siberica Haw. The distribution of the fungus and its host plants, both introduced and native in Europe, have been investigated. The data from neighbouring countries indicate that the parasite has been probably overlooked in Poland till now. There is a possibility, however, that the species is currently spreading in central and north-eastern Europe.

  12. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features

  13. Soft restructuring process in metallurgical enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the range and outcomes of soft restructuring in metallurgical enterprises in Poland. The term ‘soft restructuring’ applies to changes in metallurgical enterprises’ employment policy during the period of political transformation in Poland. Steelworks performance under the market economy conditions demanded introducing changes in staff resources. Changes referred both to the staff structure as well as employees’ skills and gradual engaging of the staff in building the steelworks’ competitive advantage.

  14. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  15. Cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sroka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland. The starting point is the presentation of the concept of business models, which is defined as a way of doing business based on cooperation between enterprises. This paper presents two collaborative business models, namely outsourcing and alliance networks, comparing the theoretical assumptions with the results of research carried out in steel enterprises in Poland.

  16. Carnap on unified science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klev, Ansten

    -, č. 59 (2016), s. 53-67 ISSN 0039-3681 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Rudolf Carnap * Unity of Science * Logical Empiricism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0039368116300206

  17. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teresinska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bozena; Krolicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Miroslaw

    2014-01-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  18. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresinska, Anna [Institute of Cardiology, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Birkenfeld, Bozena [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Szczecin (Poland); Krolicki, Leszek [Warsaw Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Dziuk, Miroslaw [Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-15

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes

  19. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresińska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  20. Chinese Tourists in Cracow, Poland: Their Profile, Expectations, and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkiewicz Paulina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism, benefiting many destinations worldwide. Even if for Poland it is not an important source market yet, the Polish authorities have undertaken some marketing activities in China. The main aim of the paper is to explore the profile, motivations, and perceptions of the Chinese tourists visiting Cracow. The secondary aim is to check the effectiveness of the marketing efforts dedicated to the Chinese market undertaken by Poland since 2010. Material and methods. Data for the study (n = 100 were collected using a paper survey in English carried out among mainland Chinese tourists in Cracow in 2015. Results. The Chinese usually visit Poland for the first time, often in transit. They are prompted by the information found online and by word of mouth. Their main reasons to come are tradition, culture, historical sites, landscapes, and low costs. These expectations are well fulfilled, and the tourists′ overall satisfaction is very high. The Chinese find Poland to be different from other Western European countries. For them, Poland is a remarkable, traditional, safe, and developing country. Yet, their knowledge about the destination is limited. The main problem encountered is the language barrier, both online and once on site. The marketing efforts undertaken by Poland in the Chinese market have had weak and ambivalent effects. Conclusions. In order to attract Chinese tourists, there is a need to intensify expenditure not only on promotion (mainly online but also on the removal of language-based communication problems. There is also scope for expanding the tourist offer dedicated to Chinese tourists - both in Poland and in cooperation with other Central European countries.

  1. The Impact of Trust on Entrepreneurship in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Młokosiewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the global rankings of generalized trust, Poland occupies a lowly positon. Only 1/3 of Poles have a strong trust in strangers and roughly the same number believe that trust in business generally pays of. At the same tme, only half of them believe that a market economy based on private enterprise is the best economic system for the country. According to the literature review a major factor in the development of entrepreneurship is trust in other economic actors. The aim of the artcle is to present the relaton between trust and entrepreneurial actvites in Poland. In this paper the hypothesis was adopted that the level of trust in the public sphere, especially in business relatons in Poland, had an impact on the intensity of entrepreneurial actvites. The analysed period comprises the years from 2002 to 2016. The artcle presents changes in the potental for social trust, including trust in business. Indicators of confdence include the percentage of people that have trust in diferent actors in Poland. A further part of the paper is devoted to the phenomenon of entrepreneurship in Poland. Among the indicators of entrepreneurship are the number of newly registered and deregistered enttes, and enttes that are new or deregistered from the REGON register per 10 thousand of populaton. Moreover, the innovaton actvity of enterprises in Poland has been described. At the end, relatons between trust and entrepreneurial actvites in Poland were examined. The data was analysed statstcally with Pearson’s correlaton coefcients. The analysis of confdence and entrepreneurship is based mainly on the data published by the Polish Central Statstcal Ofce and Public Opinion Research Centre.

  2. Science and Technical Indicators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laiblová Kadlecová, Ivana; Lhoták, Martin; Mika, Pavel

    -, č. 3 (2014) E-ISSN 1805-2800 Keywords : bibliometrics Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Lib rarianship, Information Studies http://www. lib .cas.cz/casopis-informace/science-and-technical-indicators/

  3. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojakowska I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  4. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the 134 Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of 137 Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  5. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Radioactive Contamination Department, Warsaw (Poland)

    2003-06-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the {sup 134}Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of {sup 137}Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  6. The development of power engineering in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litorowicz, J.; Reymann, Z.; Steller, K.

    1983-01-01

    Due to the energy crisis and the substantial rise in prices for mineral fuels and raw materials, along with searches for new energy sources, Poland (PNR) has begun works to restore and modernize those sources which in economic aspects were considered unprofitable, including low power hydroelectric power plants (GES). The development of such hydroelectric power plants must also be reevaluated from the ecological aspect. The ecological significance of a hydroelectric power plant lies in preventing a further lowering of the ground waters, the use of cascades for holding high water and for regulating its drainage with a threat of flooding, oxygen enrichment of water, prevention of erosion and silting of rivers, purification of water currents using protective grids with a favorable effect on the forests and the fishing industries located along the water currents used and the creation of conditions for relaxation, sports and turism. The restoration of hydraulic turbines is the basic condition for outfitting the hydroelectric power plants. Different designs for such turbines relative to the assigned capacity are examined.

  7. External quality audits in radiotherapy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulski, W.; Rostkowska, J.; Kania, M.; Gwiazdowska, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw is a continuation of the Radiation Measurements Laboratory created in 1937, following the suggestions of Marie Curie, the founder of the Institute. The present SSDL is a member of the WHO/IAEA international network and is periodically audited by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The SSDL is in charge of the calibration of all radiotherapy dosimeters in Poland, and it also co-ordinates all activities carried out in radiotherapy quality assurance programmes nation-wide. The External Audit Group (EAG) was set-up according to the recommendations of the IAEA, as a part of the SSDL. The EAG is in charge of the management of the project and organization of the TLD measurements. The SSDL takes the responsibilities of the metrological aspects of the programme. The results of the efforts, aimed at the development of a quality audit programme and methodology in radiotherapy, are presented

  8. Medieval Multilingualism in Poland: Creating a Corpus of Greater Poland Court Oaths (Rotha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopaczyk Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the research plan for the preparation of a searchable electronic repository of the earliest extant legal oaths from medieval Poland drawing on the expertise in historical corpus-building developed for the history of English. The oaths survive in the overwhelmingly Latin land books from the period between 1386 and 1446 for six localities Greater Poland, in which the land courts operated: Poznań, Kościan, Pyzdry, Gniezno, Konin and Kalisz. A diplomatic edition of the oaths was published in five volumes by Polish historical linguists (Kowalewicz & Kuraszkiewicz 1959–1966. The edition is the only comprehensive resource of considerable scope (over 6300 oaths from the years 1386–1446 for the study of the earliest attestations of the Polish language beyond glosses. Recognising some limitations, but most of all its unparalleled coverage of the coexistence of Latin and the vernacular, the ROThA project embarks on transforming the edition into an open up-to-date digital resource. We thus aim to facilitate research into the history of Polish and Latin as well as of the legal system and the related social and linguistic issues of the period.

  9. A highly divergent Puumala virus lineage in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Drewes, Stephan; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Sadowska, Edyta T; Mikowska, Magdalena; Heckel, Gerald; Koteja, Paweł; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2017-05-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) represents one of the most important hantaviruses in Central Europe. Phylogenetic analyses of PUUV strains indicate a strong genetic structuring of this hantavirus. Recently, PUUV sequences were identified in the natural reservoir, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), collected in the northern part of Poland. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of PUUV in bank voles from southern Poland. A total of 72 bank voles were trapped in 2009 at six sites in this part of Poland. RT-PCR and IgG-ELISA analyses detected three PUUV positive voles at one trapping site. The PUUV-infected animals were identified by cytochrome b gene analysis to belong to the Carpathian and Eastern evolutionary lineages of bank vole. The novel PUUV S, M and L segment nucleotide sequences showed the closest similarity to sequences of the Russian PUUV lineage from Latvia, but were highly divergent to those previously found in northern Poland, Slovakia and Austria. In conclusion, the detection of a highly divergent PUUV lineage in southern Poland indicates the necessity of further bank vole monitoring in this region allowing rational public health measures to prevent human infections.

  10. Poland: A Dark Side of Church Cultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultural policy of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland is incorporated into state-run cultural policies. The organs of public authority enforce the objectives of Church regardless of Church’s actual ability to influence the society. It should be pointed out that the secularization of religion in Poland is frequently misinterpreted and usually equated with its deprivatization. It is worth mentioning that Catholicism is the dominant religion of the country and the Roman Catholic Church has hold a special position in Poland and play a major role in the country’s social and political life. In practice, however, Polish society appears to be religiously indifferent. This paper proves that the official, state-run cultural policy in Poland is based on favoritism of the Roman Catholic Church, regardless of Church’s actual ability to wield influence on society. Thus, there is a variety of implicit and explicit cultural policies implemented by the authorities to support Church. This work also aims at addressing the question of social attitudes to women, especially the one concerning the UN and EU law embracing women’s rights, until recently still not implemented in Poland. This paper further explores some peculiarities of this topic as an example of a specific outcome of Church cultural policy and its impact on both the past and present-day society.

  11. Poland's Services Trade with the European Union During the Preaccession Period

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Mongiało

    2004-01-01

    The fact that, since 1 May 2004, Poland has the status of European Union member involves certain consequences for Poland's competitiveness in the international services trade market. What competitive position will Poland finally occupy among the EU countries in the postaccession period will to a large extent depend on Poland's present position in the services trade with the EU countries. So, the paper tries to present, on the basis of the most recent available statistical data published by th...

  12. NRT Atmospheric Water Vapour Retrieval on the Area of Poland at IGG WUELS AC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplon, Jan; Bosy, Jaroslaw; Sierny, Jan; Hadas, Tomasz; Rohm, Witold; Wilgan, Karina; Ryczywolski, Marcin; Oruba, Artur; Kroszczynski, Krzysztof

    2013-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are designed for positioning, navigation and amongst other possible applications it can also be used to derive information about the state of the atmosphere. Continuous observations from GNSS receivers provide an excellent tool for studying the neutral atmosphere, currently in near real-time. The Near Real-Time (NRT) neutral atmosphere and water vapour distribution models are currently obtained with high resolution from Ground Base Augmentation Systems (GBAS), where reference stations are equipped with GNSS and meteorological sensors. The Poland territory is covered by dense network of GNSS stations in the frame of GBAS system called ASG-EUPOS (www.asgeupos.pl). This system was established in year 2008 by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography in the frame of the EUPOS project (www.eupos.org) for providing positioning services. The GNSS data are available from 130 reference stations located in Poland and neighbour countries. The ground meteorological observations in the area of Poland and neighbour countries are available from ASG-EUPOS stations included in EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations, airports meteorological stations (METAR messages stations), and stations managed by national Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (SYNOP messages stations). Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (IGG) of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences had created permanent NRT service of ZTD (Zenith Total Delay) estimation for the area of Poland from GPS observations called IGGHZG. The first part of the paper presents the methodology of NRT GNSS data processing for ASG-EUPOS stations for ZTD estimation and its comparison to the results coming from EPN ACs and Military University of Technology in Warsaw AC (MUT AC). Second part covers the procedure of IWV (atmospheric Integrated Water Vapour content) estimation at IGG from IGGHZG product and ZHD (Zenith Hydrostatic Delay) derived from Saastamoinen formula (1972

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Czopowicz, Michał; Nagy, Dan Alexandru; Potarniche, Adrian Valentin; Aoanei, Monica Adriana; Imomov, Nuriddin; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Welz, Mirosław; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7%) and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%). To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans. © L. Witkowski et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  14. Short communication: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling and genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, T; Puacz, E; Lisowski, A; Siedlecki, P; Dudziak, W; Międzobrodzki, J; Krukowski, H

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant causative agent of bovine mastitis, a disease that remains a major economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. In this study, the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the genetic composition of 80 S. aureus mastitis isolates collected from 14 dairy farms in Eastern Poland were determined. Of the 10 antimicrobial agents evaluated, only testing for penicillin G produced drug resistance. As 41% of the S. aureus isolates were penicillin resistant, this drug along with other β-lactamase-sensitive β-lactams, should rather not be considered for the treatment of bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. Upon genotyping, with a triplex PCR method, a total of 11 distinct PCR types were produced. The population structure of S. aureus isolates was highly clonal, with 1 predominant genotype circulating on each farm. The observed similarities in the genotype composition of S. aureus populations from geographically distant farms underscore the significance of interfarm transmission of S. aureus in Poland. This, in turn, argues for the establishment of a nationwide surveillance program for bovine mastitis due to this pathogen. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ministerial presentation: Poland [International ministerial conference on nuclear power for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewska, E.Z.

    2005-01-01

    E. Wroblewska, on behalf of His Excellency J. Hausner, Minister of Economic Affairs and Labour, Poland, stated that in Poland the attitude of society to nuclear power is becoming more friendly. A recently produced document, Energy Policy of Poland until 2050, indicates the need to commence nuclear power exploitation around 2021

  16. 2000 years of human activity in Tuchola Pinewoods (northern Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Lutyńska, Monika; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    conditions forcing the people to give up their settlement and move. The second time of a significant increase of human activities began in Late Medieval time and lasted to the modern time. Pollen analysis shows the beginning of strong deforestation since XV century with the most intensification during industrial revolution (second part XIX century) where pine trees became the dominant species. Intense clear cutting in the lake's vicinity removed its natural "windshelter" and exposed the lake to longer lasting water column mixing. As a consequence varves nearly disappeared whereas the detrital indicators (e.g. Ti) increased due to an open landscape around the lake. The diatom analysis for the last 2000 years revealed several temporary changes for different species. Strongest fluctuation occurred for the species Stephanodiscus parvus and Cyclotella comensis where the latter show similar occurrences as Tetraedron (Chlorophyta). Recent lake monitoring (including diatom analysis) together with hydrological and meteorological data will help to understand under which conditions different diatom species form. This knowledge will be crucial for the interpretation of past changes. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grant NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  17. Central European Parliaments over Two Decades - Diminishing Stability? Parliaments in Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mansfeldová, Zdenka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2011), s. 128-146 ISSN 1357-2334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/07/1395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : parliamentarism * democracy * institutional development Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all?content=10.1080/13572334.2011.574023

  18. TEACHING NEW VOCABULARY TO IRANIAN YOUNG FL LEARNERS: USING TWO METHODS TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE AND KEYWORD METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Toghyani Khorasgani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Early language learning for children is increasingly common, and the majority of parents and the public do not see it as superfluous or overburdening children. Moreover, teaching a foreign language to very young children has been an increasingly dominant trend in most globalized societies. While there is abundant literature that supports teaching a foreign language at an early age through language immersion programs, little is known about the efficiency of strategies used to explicitly teach new vocabulary words in a foreign language to young learners. This empirical investigation aimed to assess and compare the efficiency of two mnemonics that have been traditionally used to explicitly teach new foreign language words: the Keyword Method (KWM and the Total Physical Response (TPR. Results indicate that the KWM is more effective than TPR in teaching new vocabulary words in a foreign language to early elementary school children.

  19. Increasing prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brola, Waldemar; Sobolewski, Piotr; Flaga, Stanisław; Fudala, Małgorzata; Jantarski, Konrad

    Epidemiologic data on multiple sclerosis (MS) in Poland are limited. Our objectives were to assess a mean annual incidence rate, and MS prevalence on December 31, 2015 in the Swietokrzyskie province (central Poland). We analyzed data of 1525 patients, collected in the Polish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. On December 31, 2015, overall crude prevalence of MS was not less than 121.3/100,000 (95% CI, 114.6-128.4). Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in females (167.1; 95% CI, 155.6-179.1) than in males (73.2; 95% CI, 64.2-82.6; PPoland confirmed that central Poland is a high risk area for MS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  20. Variability of precipitation in Poland under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Małgorzata

    2018-02-01

    The surface warming has been widespread over the entire globe. Central Europe, including Poland, is not an exception. Global temperature increases are accompanied by changes in other climatic variables. Climate change in Poland manifests itself also as change in annual sums of precipitation. They have been slightly growing but, what is more important, seasonal and monthly distributions of precipitation have been also changing. The most visible increases have been observed during colder half-year, especially in March. A decreasing contribution of summer precipitation total (June-August) to the annual total is observed. Climate projections for Poland predict further warming and continuation of already observed changes in the quantity of precipitation as well as its spatial and seasonal distribution.

  1. 'Other' Posts in 'Other' Places: Poland through a Postcolonial Lens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayblin, Lucy; Piekut, Aneta; Valentine, Gill

    2016-02-01

    Postcolonial theory has tended to focus on those spaces where European colonialism has had a territorial and political history. This is unsurprising, as much of the world is in this sense 'postcolonial'. But not all of it. This article focuses on Poland, often theorised as peripheral to 'old Europe', and explores the application of postcolonial analyses to this 'other' place. The article draws upon reflections arising from a study of responses to ethnic diversity in Warsaw, Poland. In doing so we conclude that postcolonialism does indeed offer some important insights into understanding Polish attitudes to other nationalities, and yet more work also needs to be done to make the theoretical bridge. In the case of Poland we propose the 'triple relation' be the starting point for such work.

  2. Controlling the production and distribution of drugs in communist Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Between 1944 and 1989--the period of communist power in Poland--the national pharmaceutical market experienced several dramatic changes. The country was a prodigious importer of drugs following the Second World War, with a large portion of the medicine received being donated by various aid organisations. In the 1960s, Poland became a significant exporter of drugs to the Eastern Bloc countries, but dropped down the list of meaningful producers again after the post-1989 transformation. For four and a half decades the pharmaceutical market in Poland had been a scene of political and ideological struggle. The companies, owned and controlled by the state, were poorly managed, being neither innovative nor competitive. This fact, along with the state's irrational and inconsequent drug policy, caused an almost permanent shortage in drug supplies for patients: ironic for a socialist system in which universal and free health care was a basic principle.

  3. Geographical distribution of 90Sr contamination in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaca, P.; Mietelski, J.W.; Skwarzec, B.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results on determination of 90 Sr in bilberry and cowberry leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the use of these plants as bio-monitors of radiostrontium contamination in Poland. Radiostrontium was determined by mean of liquid scintillation spectrometry preceded by radiochemical separation using Sr-resin and 85 Sr tracer. The approximate map of 90 Sr contamination of Poland is presented. The activity ratio between 90 Sr and obtained earlier data for 137 Cs in the same samples is discussed. The enhancement of radiostrontium content observed in northeastern Poland seems to be the trace of hot-particles fallout from initial Chernobyl cloud, which passed over Polish territory toward Scandinavia. (orig.)

  4. Callistosporium pinicola (Basidiomycota, a fungus species new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomata of Callistosporium pinicola were collected in years 2012–2013, on strongly decayed fallen trunks of Picea abies and Abies alba on two remote sites, localized in North-eastern and southern Poland. These localities represent the first records of this fungus in Poland. A full description and illustration of C. pinicola based on Polish specimens are provided and the distinguishing features and delimitation of the species are briefly discussed. The ecology of C. pinicola, its general distribution and threat are also presented. As all specimens of C. pinicola were collected only in recent years we suggest that this species is increasing its distribution in Poland. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that, because of its cryptic nature, C. pinicola has been much overlooked in the past.

  5. An annotated checklist of the Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidomorpha of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowski Wacław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comprehensive compilation of 764 taxa (species and subspecies, distributed over 167 genera, belonging to 17 subfamilies, three families and three superfamilies of Aphidomorpha recorded to date from Poland. The systematic positions of 19 taxa have been revised in accordance with recent changes in nomenclature. The presence in the Polish aphidofauna of Drepanosiphum oregonensis and Coloradoa huculaki, previously included without any distribution data in checklists of Polish aphids, has been confirmed. One species Sitobion (Sitobion alopecuri is recognized as being new to Poland. At least 44 species (6% of local fauna of Aphidomorpha are alien to Poland; among them 11 species collected from plants imported or cultivated in indoor conditions are listed.

  6. Spa and Wellness Tourism in Poland - A New Geographical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widawski Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the situation of the spa resorts in Poland from the geographical point of view, emphasizing especially the tourist context of their existence. This article firstly deals with the brief history of spas in Poland and the definition of the phenomenon, presented in the Polish literature and legal acts. The main part of the paper presents the geographical analysis of the phenomenon: spatial distribution of the activities allowed by law, localization concerning the different kind of landscapes that accompanies the spas, natural and curative resources and the medical treatments based on their potential. In addition, the tourist context analysed with the support of the statistical data of the accommodation units, tourist sand its preferences, and health tourist establishments in the spa resorts and its usage is also crucial. The perspectives of the spa tourism development in Poland concerning the potential and obstacles are presented.

  7. Geographical distribution of {sup 90}Sr contamination in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaca, P.; Mietelski, J.W. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN), Krakow (Poland); Skwarzec, B. [Univ. of Gdansk, Dept. of Chemistry, Gdansk (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents results on determination of {sup 90}Sr in bilberry and cowberry leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the use of these plants as bio-monitors of radiostrontium contamination in Poland. Radiostrontium was determined by mean of liquid scintillation spectrometry preceded by radiochemical separation using Sr-resin and {sup 85}Sr tracer. The approximate map of {sup 90}Sr contamination of Poland is presented. The activity ratio between {sup 90}Sr and obtained earlier data for {sup 137}Cs in the same samples is discussed. The enhancement of radiostrontium content observed in northeastern Poland seems to be the trace of hot-particles fallout from initial Chernobyl cloud, which passed over Polish territory toward Scandinavia. (orig.)

  8. [Factors constituting a threat to humans of rabies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroka, D

    1993-01-01

    Today, there are two steps of human rabies impendence: a. exposures to rabid or rabies suspected animals b. human deaths due to rabies. Red foxes, dangerous rabies reservoir are responsible for the main tendency and spread of rabies in Poland (over 2000 cases in 1992). This has a direct bearing on the treatment of exposed persons and on rabies among unvaccinated domestic animals. The number of persons requesting post exposure rabies treatment is also increasing--6500 vaccinees in 1992. During last eight years no case of human death was registered in Poland. Mass parenteral canine vaccination campaign and effective control methods of rabies in dogs in Poland are the mostly successful and significant elements separating wild animal rabies from human society. Any inaccuracy on this field would be the risk of transmission of wild rabies to human surrounding.

  9. THE TRADE POSITION OF POLAND IN THE ICT SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Talar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis and assessment of trade in the ICT services performance of Poland. This study is looked at the trade position, essentially on the basis of the share in the world ICT services exports, revealed comparative advantage (RCA, and trade coverage ratio. It also identifies trends of the world trade in the ICT services. The statistics are derived from the basis of UNCTAD and Eurostat. International trade in the ICT ser-vices sector has specific characteristics and the interpretation of results of this trade is to take account of the particular nature of the ICT services. Poland is currently not revealed comparative advantage in the ICT services exports, but has had positive balance. Practically all trade indicators for Poland show very strong growth, which indicate a significant improvement in its ICT services trade position.

  10. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  11. Landscape of oncoplastic breast surgery across Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacinska, Agnieszka; Hodorowicz-Zaniewska, Diana; Bocian, Artur; Michalik, Dariusz; Matkowski, Rafal; Kurylcio, Andrzej; Pyka, Pawel; Charytonowicz, Michal; Berkan, Maciej

    2017-12-30

    Oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques are essential tools in the armamentarium of contemporary breast surgeons. The aim of the study was to identify oncoplastic reconstructive patterns in breast cancer centers across Poland. A questionnaire of 18 questions was sent by email to the members of the Polish Society of Surgical Oncology and the Polish Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Esthetic Surgery via their dedicated websites. The numbers of breast cancer patients operated on in each center ranged from 120 to 904 per year. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) predominated in all but one center (range 50-70%). Immediate breast reconstructions (IBR) accounted for 6-42% of procedures, The most frequent type of IBR was either a two-stage expander followed by a permanent implant or one-stage implant- based with or without synthetic mesh. The most frequent type of delayed breast reconstruction (DBR) was a two-stage expander followed by implant-based reconstruction. None of the surveyed cancer centers performed free flap reconstruction. Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps were performed in the plastic surgery department. Reconstructions based on pedicled flaps were performed in cancer centers. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM) and fat transfer were used in selected centers. In the clinical scenario of adjuvant radiotherapy, delayed breast reconstruction was favored. The full range of oncoplastic BCS was performed. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) and complications were assessed. Our findings can act as a platform for further improvement in skills, certification, data collection and audit, including patient reported expectation measures. There is also an urgent need to address pan-European inconsistencies in procedural reimbursement.

  12. Abortion, church and politics in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, H

    1992-01-01

    In early 1991 the abortion debate in Poland entered its new stage. The prolife and prochoice options had already clashed in the early 1930s over a new penal code and backstreet abortions. According to the code of 1932, induced abortion was allowed in cases of rape, incest, or for medical indications. Abortion was legalized in 1956, but subsequently it came under attack from Catholic circles, and by 1989 the Unborn Child Protection Bill was drafted which criminalized abortion. Only 11% of Polish women use modern contraceptives. The less efficient methods are the most prevalent: the natural method (Ogino-Knaus calendar), 35% of couples; coitus interruptus, 34%; condoms, 15%; oral contraceptives 7%; chemical spermicides, 2.5%; and the IUD 2%. According to size of Catholic Church estimate there are 600,000 abortions yearly. In contrast, official statistics indicate that the number of abortions is decreasing: 137,950 in 1980; 105,300 in 1988; 80,100 in 1989; 59,400 in 1990. In January 1991 the Constitutional Tribunal dismissed the motion of the Polish Feminist Association against the restrictive regulations of the Ministry of Health concerning abortion. After a parliamentary stalemate on the Unborn Child Protection Bill a commission consisting of 46 persona (1.2 of them women, 20 persons from the prochoice and 24 from the prolife lobby) continued the debate on the bill. Public opinion polls conducted by independent groups in November 1990 showed that about 60% of citizens were against the Senate's draft. Since then interest in the abortion issue has dwindled, and only 200 women and men took part in a prochoice demonstration in front of the parliament on January 25, 1991. In the spring of 1989 and in September 1990 thousands had participated in similar demonstrations. The prevailing attitude is that if the antiabortion bill is passed nothing can be done.

  13. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  14. Extreme Precipitation in Poland in the Years 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Miroslawa

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of extreme precipitation, including the dominant trends, were analysed for eight stations located in different parts of Poland for the period 1951-2010. Five indices enabling the assessment of the intensity and frequency of both extremely dry and wet conditions were applied. The indices included the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10), maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD), maximum 5-day precipitation total (R5d), simple daily intensity index (SDII), and the fraction of annual total precipitation due to events exceeding the 95th percentile calculated for the period 1961-1990. Annual trends were calculated using standard linear regression method, while the fit of the model was assessed with the F-test at the 95% confidence level. The analysed changes in extreme precipitation showed mixed patterns. A significant positive trend in the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10) was observed in central Poland, while a significant negative one, in south-eastern Poland. Based on the analysis of maximum 5-day precipitation totals (R5d), statistically significant positive trends in north-western, western and eastern parts of the country were detected, while the negative trends were found in the central and northeastern parts. Daily precipitation, expressed as single daily intensity index (SDII), increased over time in northern and central Poland. In southern Poland, the variation of SDII index showed non-significant negative tendencies. Finally, the fraction of annual total precipitation due to the events exceeding the 1961-1990 95th percentile increased at one station only, namely, in Warsaw. The indicator which refers to dry conditions, i.e. maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) displayed negative trends throughout the surveyed area, with the exception of Szczecin that is a representative of north-western Poland.

  15. Very large hail occurrence in Poland from 2007 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilorz, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Very large hail is known as a presence of a hailstone greater or equal to 5 cm in diameter. This phenomenon is rare but its significant consequences, not only to agriculture but also to automobiles, households and people outdoor makes it essential thing to examine. Hail appearance is strictly connected with storms frequency and its kind. The most hail-endangered kind of storm is supercell storm. Geographical distribution of hailstorms was compared with geographical distribution of storms in Poland. Similarities were found. The area of the largest number of storms is southeastern Poland. Analyzed European Severe Weather Database (ESWD) data showed that most of very large hail reports occurred in this part of Poland. The probable reason for this situation is the longest period of lasting tropical airmasses in southeastern Poland. Spatial distribution analysis shows also more hail incidents over Upper Silesia, Lesser Poland, Subcarpathia and Świętokrzyskie regions. The information source about hail occurrence was ESWD - open database, where everyone can add report and find reports which meet given search criteria. 69 hailstorms in the period of 2007 - 2015 were examined. They caused 121 very large hail reports. It was found that there is large disproportion in number of hailstorms and hail reports between individual years. Very large hail season in Poland begins in May and ends in September with cumulation in July. Most of hail occurs between 12:00 and 17:00 UTC, but there were some cases of very large (one extremely large) hail at night and early morning hours. However very large hail is a spectacular phenomenon, its local character determines potentially high information loss rate and it is the most significant problem in hail research.

  16. Structural and functional markers of health depending on lifestyle in elderly women from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzek A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anna Skrzek,1 Zofia Ignasiak,2 Teresa Sławińska,2 Jarosław Domaradzki,2 Jarosław Fugiel,2 Anna Sebastjan,2 Krystyna Rożek11Faculty of Physiotherapy, 2Faculty of Physical Education, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Wroclaw, PolandObjective: To comparatively analyze the rate and magnitude of age-related changes between two groups of elderly women with different lifestyles living in Poland: women attending a University of the Third Age (active lifestyle and less-active peers not involved in any seniors association.Methods: The study was conducted in 2010–2012. The study design was approved by the Senate Ethics Committee for Scientific Research of the University School of Physical Education. In total, 417 women were recruited. Basic somatic characteristics, body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, respiratory function, postural stability, and body posture were measured. Regression analysis and Student’s t-tests for independent samples were calculated.Results and conclusion: The best results among the tests assessing functional biological markers of health were found in the group of elderly women attending a University of the Third Age. The rate of change was larger in the group of seniors leading a less-active lifestyle, indicating the important role of a preventive gerontological approach and the participation of seniors in programs that accentuate the need for physical activity. Keywords: age-related changes, bone mineral density, markers of health, lifestyle, elderly women

  17. Technical and Economic Aspects of Low Emission Reduction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, M.; Łasiński, K.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the problem of excessive air pollution in Poland caused mainly by low emission. The emission arises in result of heating flats by means of old and energetically inefficient heating installations. In Poland and Bulgaria the inhaled air is of the worst quality out of all EU countries. The paper presents economic and technical problems related to low emission occurring during the combustion of solid fuels in local boiler houses. Furthermore, the most significant economic issues, connected with the reduction of low emission are discussed, as well as technological possibilities of efficient reduction of the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. Conclusions are presented at the end of the article.

  18. The integration of Poland into the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    FAUCOMPRET, Erik; KONINGS, Jozef

    2001-01-01

    Poland was among the first Eastern European countries to apply for membership of the European Union. In view of Poland’s tragic history and the economic liberalisation that has taken place since 1989, we believe that the EU should adopt a generous approach toward its application. Unfortunately it looks as if the EU wants Poland to conform with all its laws before it can join. Our research suggests that the EU should pursue an open trade, labour and investment policy. Poland’s membership will ...

  19. Using of the banking services by individual farmers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the structure and dynamics of credit indebtedness of agricultural holdings and farmers’ bank deposits in Poland in 1996-2009. The aim of this article was to describe the financial relationships agricultural holdings with banks, and characteristics farmers as purchasers of banking services, including the identification of specific attitudes and behaviours of farmers in the banking market, which differ from other groups of bank customers (non-agricultural entrepreneurs, individuals. Agricultural holdings were analysed as a sector. The source of empirical data were statistics of NBP (National Bank of Poland, GUS (Central Statistical Office and FADN.

  20. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  1. An overview of occupational voice disorders in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.

  2. Preserved ability to recognize keywords related to remote events in the absence of retrieval of relevant knowledge: a case of postencephalitic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiura, Takashi; Ohtake, Hiroya; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Miura, Rina; Ogawa, Tatsuji; Yamadori, Atsushi

    2003-02-01

    We describe a case of severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia resulting from herpes simplex encephalitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed pathological changes in the bilateral hippocampi, parahippocampal gyri, fusiform gyri, medial temporal poles, posterior part of the cingulate gyri, and insula. The patient showed severe amnesia for autobiographical episodic memory in relation to events that had occurred throughout her life, but temporally graded amnesia for autobiographical semantic memory, and severe amnesia without a temporal gradient for public events and famous people. However, using a multiple-choice method, she showed a high level of accuracy when choosing keywords related to public or personal events, although this did not prompt her recollection of the events. An important indication of these results is that, even with severe retrograde amnesia, memories of past events are not completely lost. We propose that an event may be stored in a fragmented form, consisting of many components, and that normal recall of an event may require recombination or reconstruction of these components. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science (USA)

  3. The concept of CSR in accounting theory and practice in Poland: an empirical study 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Macuda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Right now, the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR lies within the scope of interest of various fields of social science and practice, including the science and practice of accounting. Numerous research works stress how accounting, particularly in terms of corporate reporting, is closely connected to the concept of CSR. The number of studies concerning especially CSR reporting has increased in recent years all over the world, but in Poland CSR reporting is a new field not yet covered by many current research papers. The main purpose of this work is to present the concept of CSR in the theory and practice of accounting. Design/methodology/approach. The research paper comprises a literature review and a content analysis. The literature review was conducted in the first part of the work, which was devoted to the presentation of the idea of corporate social responsibility in the context of accounting and corporate reporting, and also in the second part, which contains an overview of the most well-known and comprehensive global standards related to CSR reporting. The content analysis was used in the final part of the work to examine the disclosures of CSR in annual reports and separate reports (Management commentary, communications on a population of Polish stock exchange companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE Main Market as of 31 October 2013, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index and the RESPECT Index –the first Polish, and one of the few European indexes of socially responsible companies. Findings. It has been determined that among Polish public companies listed on the WSE, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index, only 6% operate in a socially responsible manner according to the RESPECT criteria, and less than 4.6% of all companies listed in the WIG-Poland and 70% of RESPECT index companies prepare separate CSR reports. Out of all the companies that prepare separate CSR reports, 93% prepare ESG

  4. The concept of CSR in accounting theory and practice in Poland: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Macuda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Right now, the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR lies within the scope of interest of various fields of social science and practice, including the science and practice of accounting. Numerous research works stress how accounting, particularly in terms of corporate reporting, is closely connected to the concept of CSR. The number of studies concerning especially CSR reporting has increased in recent years all over the world, but in Poland CSR reporting is a new field not yet covered by many current research papers. The main purpose of this work is to present the concept of CSR in the theory and practice of accounting. Design/methodology/approach. The research paper comprises a literature review and a content analysis. The literature review was conducted in the first part of the work, which was devoted to the presentation of the idea of corporate social responsibility in the context of accounting and corporate reporting, and also in the second part, which contains an overview of the most well-known and comprehensive global standards related to CSR reporting. The content analysis was used in the final part of the work to examine the disclosures of CSR in annual reports and separate reports (Management commentary, communications on a population of Polish stock exchange companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE Main Market as of 31 October 2013, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index and the RESPECT Index –the first Polish, and one of the few European indexes of socially responsible companies. Findings. It has been determined that among Polish public companies listed on the WSE, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index, only 6% operate in a socially responsible manner according to the RESPECT criteria, and less than 4.6% of all companies listed in the WIG-Poland and 70% of RESPECT index companies prepare separate CSR reports. Out of all the companies that prepare separate CSR reports, 93% prepare ESG

  5. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  6. Biweekly list of papers on radiation chemistry and photochemistry. Annual cumulation with keyword and author indexes. Volume 16. 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Biweekly List of Papers on Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry is a current-awareness service published by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center (RCDC), with special emphasis on the kinetics and other properties of transient ions, radicals, and excited species. Papers are included on the radiation chemistry and photochemistry of organic and inorganic systems, biological molecules and polymers, with references to ESR and luminescence studies. Complete coverage is attempted only for those studies which are initiated by light or ionizing radiation, and which provide quantitative physical chemical data such as quantum yields, specific rates, G values, etc. No attempt is made to cover topics such as mechanistic and preparative photochemistry, photosynthesis, photography, and irradiation of metals. The references listed herein are obtained from scanning about 60 current journals as well as Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atomindex and several other publications listing current references. The reference lists, which are issued biweekly, are cumulated annually with the addition of keyword and author indexes. Indexed cumulations were published semiannually for Vol. 4-6 (1971-73) and are published annually for Vol. 7+ (1974+); back copies are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

  7. Comparison Of Keyword Based Clustering Of Web Documents By Using Openstack 4j And By Traditional Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiza Anand

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As the number of hypertext documents are increasing continuously day by day on world wide web. Therefore clustering methods will be required to bind documents into the clusters repositories according to the similarity lying between the documents. Various clustering methods exist such as Hierarchical Based K-means Fuzzy Logic Based Centroid Based etc. These keyword based clustering methods takes much more amount of time for creating containers and putting documents in their respective containers. These traditional methods use File Handling techniques of different programming languages for creating repositories and transferring web documents into these containers. In contrast openstack4j SDK is a new technique for creating containers and shifting web documents into these containers according to the similarity in much more less amount of time as compared to the traditional methods. Another benefit of this technique is that this SDK understands and reads all types of files such as jpg html pdf doc etc. This paper compares the time required for clustering of documents by using openstack4j and by traditional methods and suggests various search engines to adopt this technique for clustering so that they give result to the user querries in less amount of time.

  8. A sketch on the current debate on scientometrics and bibliometrics versus the forgotten science of science (in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał KOKOWSKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the debate on scientometrics and bibliometrics, taking place in Poland in the last 25 years, a very serious methodical and methodological mistake has been committed by neglecting the reflection about the science of science, especially of historical and methodological character. The following article discusses this issue. This aim was achieved with the use of a method of interdisciplinary research originating from the scope of the science of science and the history of the science of science. This method was applied to the analysis of selected major publications on scientometrics and bibliometrics in the past 25 years, with special emphasis on Polish context. The results are discussed in the article, i.e. a the context of the current debate on scientometrics and bibliometrics in Poland; b the history of Polish scientometric analyses based on foreign indexation databases; c the current discussion on scientometrics and bibliometrics in Poland and d the key aspect ignored in the current debate, namely the inseparable connection of scientometrics and bibliometrics with the science of science. The study leads to the following conclusions: it is postulated that the informetric (scientometric, bibliometric, Webometric, etc. studies return to the scientific discourse, which would be consciously developed in the context of the integrated science of science. This knowledge should be utilized in the development of the current science policy, i.e. the organizational structure of science and higher education and the formation of rules of appraisal of scientific institutions, individual employees and scientific journals.

  9. What kind of scientometrics and bibliometrics do we need in Poland? (in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał KOKOWSKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study and review article is to examine the scientific basis of scientometrics and bibliometrics, i.e. to show their real “detection and measurement” capabilities. The analysis is conducted from the author’s perspective of the integrated science of science and the history and methodology of the science of science following this perspective. Particular emphasis is placed on the history and methodology of scientometrics and bibliometrics and the history and methodology of science. This perspective is a new approach to the subject matter and determines a how to select publications and their interpretations and b which hierarchy the analyzed issues should follow. The article describes the view, dominant both in the world and in Poland, on the basics of scientometrics and bibliometrics and their numerous serious scientific restrictions, such as: a the incompatibility of the so­‑called scientometric laws and the Garfield law of concentration with the empirical data; b the domain bias, the language bias and the geographical bias of indexation databases; c various practices of scientific communication; d the local (national or state­‑level orientation of humanities, social sciences and citation indexes; e the disadvantages of the impact factor (IF, the manipulations with its values and the “impact factor game”; f  the numerous problems with and abuses of citations, e.g. the Mendel syndrome, the “classic” publication bias, the palimpsestic syndrome, the effect of the disappearance of citations, the so­‑called Matthew effect, the theft of citations, the so­‑called secondary and tertiary citations, negative citations, “fashionable nonsenses”, forced citations, the pathologies of the so­‑called citation cartels or cooperative citations, the guest authorship and the honorable authorship; g the distinction between the “impact of publication” and the “importance of publication” or the

  10. The first locality of Chalciporus rubinus (Boletales, Basidiomycota in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chalciporus rubinus (W.G. Sm. Singer, described in 1868 from England, was found in a city park in Wrocław. This is the first record of the species from Poland. Macro- and micromorphological characters of the Polish specimens are described and illustrated. The delimitation of Ch. rubinus, the knowledge of its distribution, ecology and conservation status is summarised.

  11. A Brief Overview of the History of Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzynska, Katarzyna; Anczewska, Marta; Switaj, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Poland's complex history strongly influenced the development of educational system. Together with the Catholic church, formal and informal education helped to preserve national identity and prepare society for future independence during the partition period. In the communist era, education was the chief mode of restructuring the society and…

  12. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation after Stroke in Poland 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Jozef A.; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging…

  13. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  14. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: The Case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2003-01-01

    therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  15. Equity Block Transfers in Transition Economies : Evidence from Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojanowski, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper investigates valuation effects of share block transfers and employs agency theory to explain the determinants of block premia. A sample of transactions from Poland is used to measure benefits and costs of ownership concentration. Block premia are found to be substantially lower than in

  16. The Institutional Implications of the Unfair Terms Directive in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I focus on the institutional implications of the EU Unfair Terms Directive (93/13) in Poland in the broader context of the welfare state model prevalent in that post-socialist EU Member State. I depart from the assumption that there is, in principle, a link between the intensity of the

  17. Support and Education of Gifted Students in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limont, Wieslawa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the support and education of gifted students in Poland. The author presents a definition of ability. Rudimentary documents and acts of the Polish Ministry of National Education regarding the education of gifted students are introduced. The systems of general and special education are discussed--including artistic and sports…

  18. Developing low carbon policies for road transport in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Rahman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of work done for the World Bank to develop low carbon policies for road transport in Poland. Here, we outline the development of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, develop a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on social-economic-, infrastructure-, car market, vehicle

  19. An updated distribution of Solidago × niederederi (Asteraceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliszko Artur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an updated map of the distribution of Solidago ×niederederi, a natural hybrid between S. canadensis and S. virgaurea, in Poland is presented using the ATPOL cartogram method. A compiled list of 55 localities of the hybrid within 40 cartogram units (10-km squares is provided and its negative impact on S. virgaurea is highlighted.

  20. Epichloë clarkii - a new graminicolous species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epichloë clarkii White, described in 1993 from England has been noted from Wielkopolski National Park in Poland. The eggs and feed marks of hyperparasitic fly, Botanophila sp. have been found on teleomorph stromata of E. clarkii.

  1. Panaeolus subfirmus (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, a species new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Panaeolus subfirmus P. Karst. is reported for the first time from Poland, and described and illustrated based on Polish specimens. Its ecology, general distribution and taxonomy are also presented. A key for determination all Polish species of Panaeolus (Fr. Quél. is provided.

  2. Entoloma albotomentosum (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, a species new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Entoloma albotomentosum Noordel. & Hauskn., a member of the subgenus Claudopus and section Claudopus, is reported from Poland. A full description and illustration of the species based on Polish specimens are given and its taxonomy, ecology, and general distribution are also provided.

  3. Flagelloscypha minutissima (Basidiomycetes, a new for Poland minute cyphellaceous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piątek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first records of Flagelloscypha minutissima (Burt Donk are reported from Poland, being easternmost on the European continent. A brief description and illustration of the species based on Polish specimens are given and its ecology, distribution, and taxonomy are surveyed.

  4. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella (lichenized Ascomycota found in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Czarnota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two hepaticolous fungi, Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella rarely recorded in Europe have recently been found in Polish Western Carpathians. Both species are also reported here for the first time from Poland. Notes on their taxonomy, ecology and distribution are provided.

  6. Laboulbeniales from Poland parasitizing on semi-aquatic insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sarna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new species of Coleoptera parasites (Hydrophilomyces limnebii sp. n. on Limnebius aluta and L. truncatellus and new subspecies (Rhynchophoromyces anacaenae Scheloske ssp. nasutellus ssp. n. on Anacaena limbata are described. The localities of three species new in Poland are given.

  7. Armillaria ectypa, a rare fungus of mire in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stasińska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria ectypa is a saprotroph that occurs on active raised bogs and alkaline fens, as well as Aapa mires and transitional bogs. It is a very rare and threatened Eurasian species and one of the 33 fungal species proposed for inclusion into the Bern Convention. Its distribution in Poland, ecological notes and morphology of basidiocarp based on Polish specimens are presented.

  8. PPP projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna TOMOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper informs about public – private partnerships projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia, describing various modes of capital entry. The PPI database of the World Bank is used. Advantages of PPP schemes are discussed for further development of infrastructure sectors.

  9. Radiotherapy facilities, equipment, and staffing in Poland: 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfuss, Marian; Byrski, Edward; Malicki, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose To evaluate the current status of radiotherapy facilities, staffing, and equipment, treatment and patients in Poland for the years 2005–2011 following implementation of the National Cancer Programme. Methods A survey was sent to the radiotherapy centres in Poland to collect data on available equipment, staffing, and treatments in the years 2005–2011. Results In 2011, 76,000 patients were treated with radiotherapy at 32 centres vs. 63,000 patients at 23 centres in 2005. Number of patients increased by 21%. In 2011, there were 453 radiation oncologists – specialists (1 in 168 patients), 325 medical physicists (1 in 215 patients), and 883 radiotherapy technicians (1 in 86 patients) vs. 320, 188, and 652, respectively, in 2005. The number of linear accelerators increased by 60%, from 70 units in 2005 to 112 in 2011. The current linac/patient ratio in Poland is 1 linac per 678 patients. Waiting times from diagnosis to the start of treatment has decreased. Conclusion Compared to 2005, there are more treatment facilities, more and better equipment (linacs), and more cancer care specialists. There are still large differences between the 16 Polish provinces in terms of equipment availability and ease of access to treatment. However, radiotherapy services in Poland have improved dramatically since the year 2005. PMID:24416548

  10. Professional Training of Specialists in International Marketing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program…

  11. Hypoxylon terricola Miller a new species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Truszkowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxylon terricola Milter, known from a single collection in Michigan in USA and three sites in Southern France, has been found in Poland; isolated from the soil under Dactylis glomerata L. culture and from the dishwater of the roots of D. glomerata L. groving in the vicinity of the spruce (Picea abies (L. K a r s t mountainers forest.

  12. A DECADE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN POLAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipska, Iga; McAuslane, James Neil; Leufkens, Bert; Hövels, Anke

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to illustrate and provide a better understanding of the role of health technology assessment (HTA) processes in decision making for drug reimbursement in Poland and how this approach could be considered by other countries of limited resources. METHODS: We

  13. Investigation of Changes Implemented into Teaching Modern History in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna Teresa; Trzcinska, Eleonora

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze teaching of modern history in Poland and the teachers' role in the process of democratization. Forty-eight high school history teachers responded to a questionnaire investigating the curricula, textbooks, supplemental teaching materials and methods of teaching. The results demonstrate that since 1989 these…

  14. Educational Struggles and Citizenship Education. The Case of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popow, Monika; Sáez-Rosenkranz, Isidora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the relation between educational struggles and citizenship education in contemporary Poland. It adopts the critical pedagogy perspective and broadly defines the concept of educational struggle as struggling over the content of education, as social tensions in the field of education, as well as the students' and…

  15. Distribution of Chara braunii Gmellin 1826 (Charophyta in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Urbaniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and ecology of Chara braunii Gmellin 1826 in Poland is described, based on herbaria collections, literature data and own investigations. Maps showing the distribution of Ch. braunii are presented, as well as a list of localities with brief descriptions of the habitats. Additionally, some remarks on the distribution limit in the northern hemisphere are given.

  16. Poland's Syndrome: A case report | Gashegu | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poland's Syndrome is a rare congenital condition. It is classically characterized by absence of unilateral chest wall muscles and sometimes ipsilateral symbrachydactyly (abnormally short and webbed fingers). The condition typically presents with unilateral absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major ...

  17. Sedimentological and geochemical characteristic of varved lake sediment of the Lake Jelonek (North Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowski, M. A.; Filbrandt-Czaja, A.; Ott, F.; Slowinski, M. M.; Tjallingii, R.; Błaszkiewicz, M.; Brauer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Lake Jelonek is located in Northern Poland. The lake covers an area of 19,9 ha and has a maximum depth of 13,8 m. Three overlapping series of 14,3 m - long sediment records have been cored with an UWITEC 90 mm diameter piston corer from the deepest part of the lake. The cores were split in half, lithologically described, photographed and correlated with each other by 28 marker layers to construct a composite profile covering 1426cm. Here we present detailed varve micro-facies for different sediment intervals and the preliminary chronology based on AMS 14C dating of 10 terrestrial macro remains samples and the Askja AD-1875 tephra. Here we present initial results from thin section analyses for two intervals. First (I) the uppermost 0-256 cm and second (II) the interval from 768-1296 cm. Intercalated between these two varved interval is a thick section (512 cm) of homogeneous organic-ditomaceous sediments. We present varve micro-facies data in combination with µ-XRF element scanning for comprehensive reconstruction of the sedimentation processes in Lake Jelonek. Varve counting reveals that the lower floating varve interval covers the time period from 1850 - 10500 cal a BP, while the uppermost 256 cm varved sediments comprise ca 925 years (2008-1083 AD). The main goal is to synchronize the sediment record from Lake Jelonek with European and Worldly records, to achieve a comprehensive knowledge of landscape forming processes and to distinguish between local, regional and global impacts during the past. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis -ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association; grant number VH-VI-415, National Science Centre, Poland grant 2015/19/N/ST10/02655 and from the Science and Research Funds for 2015-2016 allocated to a co-financed international project, CONTRACT No. 3500/ICLEA/15/2016/0.

  18. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 10. Dawn of Science - The Healing Art. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 15 Issue 10 October 2010 pp 870-874. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/10/0870-0874. Keywords.

  19. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 7. Dawn of Science-The Galilean World. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 7 July 2011 pp 663-669. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/07/0663-0669. Keywords.

  20. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Dawn of Science - All was Light - 11. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 324-329. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/04/0324-0329. Keywords.

  1. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 11. Dawn of Science - The Questions of Life. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 11 ... Keywords. Francesco Redi; Antony Van Leeuwenhoek; Marcello Malphigi; Lazzaro Spallanzani; John Ray; Carl Linnaeus; microscopes.

  2. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 5. Dawn of Science - The Quest for Power. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 17 Issue 5 May 2012 pp 436-440. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/05/0436-0440. Keywords.

  3. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 6. Dawn of Science - The Paths of Planets. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 6 June 2011 pp 582-587. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/06/0582-0587. Keywords.

  4. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 6. Dawn of Science - The Paths of Planets. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 6 June 2011 pp 582-587. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/06/0582-0587. Keywords.

  5. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 7. Dawn of Science-The Galilean World. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 7 July 2011 pp 663-669. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/07/0663-0669. Keywords.

  6. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 9. Dawn of Science - Archimedes. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 15 Issue 9 September 2010 pp 774-778. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/09/0774-0778. Keywords.

  7. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  8. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  9. High energy physics in Poland: the first 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    High energy physics in Poland started in 1933 when Stanislaw Ziemecki and Konstanty Narkiewicz-Jodko performed measurements of the latitude effect for cosmic rays. Subsequently, experiments with cosmic rays were carried out in balloon flights in a deep salt mine. Other Polish pioneers in this field were Ignacy Adamczewski, Czeslaw Bialobrzeski, Marian Miesowicz, Szczepan Szczeniowski and Jan Wesolowski. The ambitious 'Star of Poland' project of a stratospheric balloon flight to study cosmic rays up to an altitude of 30000 meters was not successful, first because of the fire accident and then of the outbreak of World War II. The destruction of laboratories during the war has slowed down the development of high energy physics in Poland by at least twelve years. However, in the late forties Marian Miesowicz started important cosmic ray studies in Cracow. In 1952 research using nuclear emulsions was initiated in Warsaw by Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski. Two years later Marian Miesowicz and Jerzy Gierula began similar research in Cracow. In the late fifties Aleksander Zawadzki in Lodz started comprehensive studies of extensive air showers. Already in 1963 the number of experimental and theoretical papers on high energy physics published in Poland exceeded 100. Strong experimental and theoretical groups have been established in Cracow, Lodz and Warsaw. To supplement research with emulsions and bubble chambers the construction of electronic detectors for on-line experiments has been instituted. Thus, in the early eighties Polish high energy physicists were ready to participate in large projects such as DELPHI at LEP and ZEUS and H1 at HERA. The discovery of hypernuclei by Danysz and Pniewski in 1952 may be regarded as the most important achievement of physics in post-war Poland. (author). 108 refs, 26 figs, 1 tab

  10. Higher Education in Poland: Four Years After.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Janusz

    1993-01-01

    Successes and failures in Polish higher education reform since the fall of communism are outlined. Successes include legal support for reform, access to higher education, new schools, international collaboration, enhancement of academic careers. Problems include inadequate structure for science, little structural change in higher education,…

  11. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013: an analysis of population-based data in relation to socio-economic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banas T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Banas,1 Grzegorz Juszczyk,2 Kazimierz Pitynski,1 Dorota Nieweglowska,1 Artur Ludwin,1 Aleksandra Czerw2 1Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, 2Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Objectives: This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC, corpus uteri cancer (CUC, and ovarian cancer (OC in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes.Materials and methods: Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013 were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013 were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC.Results: A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21, with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66. During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93 was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74. After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49, as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66.Conclusion: After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in

  12. Tuberculosis in homeless persons in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Kuś, Jan; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Siemion-Szcześniak, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The fall in rates of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries has been accompanied by the concentration of cases in the social risk groups including homeless persons. Comparison of TB features in homeless persons and in non-homeless patients. TB cases reported to National TB Register in Poland in whom information about the social status was available (the data about the social status were collected obligatorily in the years 2004-2013 only) were analysed. The results of DSTs were obtained from laboratory records and were available for the cases reported since 2010. Treatment outcome after 12 months was analysed for the cases registered between 2004-2012. The significance (Si) of the differences in proportions was assessed with chi-square test. Phomeless persons (HP) and 72,989 other patients (OP) with TB were included. In the group of HP, there was a greater proportion of males in comparison with OP (90.5% vs. 66.3%) (Si). The mean age of HP was 49.8 years (SD±10.9); of OP-52.9 years (SD±17.5) (Si). 16.6% of HP and 10.4% of OP were previously treated for TB (Si). The previous treatment was adequate in 62.2% of HP and in 85.8% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was in 98.0%, extrapulmonary TB in 2.0% of HP and, respectively, in 92.5% and 7.5% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was confirmed by culture in 76.3% of HP and in 64.5% of OP (Si). Sputum smears were positive in 70.7% of HP and in 62.5% of OP (Si). Caseous pneumonia occurred in 2.7% of homeless subjects and in 1.1% of OP (Si); infiltrative TB in 95.5% of HP and in 97.5% of OP (Si). Resistance to isoniazid was observed in 2.9% of HP and in 3.1% of OP; to rifampicin in 0.0% of HP and in 0.2% of OP; to isoniazid and rifampicin in 0.4% of HP and in 0.8% of OP. These differences were not Si. Treatment success rate among HP was 44.1%; default rate 24.8%; 4.0% of HP died from tuberculosis; 3.2% died from other causes; 5.2% were transferred and their outcomes were unknown; 0.4% were still on treatment; 0.4% had treatment failure; in 17

  13. Telecommunication Support System Using Keywords and Their Relevant Information in Videoconferencing — Presentation Method for Keeping Audience's Concentration at Distance Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kikuo; Kondo, Kimio; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Fumihiko

    We developed a prototype system to support telecommunication by using keywords selected by the speaker in a videoconference. In the traditional presentation style, a speaker talks and uses audiovisual materials, and the audience at remote sites looks at these materials. Unfortunately, the audience often loses concentration and attention during the talk. To overcome this problem, we investigate a keyword presentation style, in which the speaker holds keyword cards that enable the audience to see additional information. Although keyword captions were originally intended for use in video materials for learning foreign languages, they can also be used to improve the quality of distance lectures in videoconferences. Our prototype system recognizes printed keywords in a video image at a server, and transfers the data to clients as multimedia functions such as language translation, three-dimensional (3D) model visualization, and audio reproduction. The additional information is collocated to the keyword cards in the display window, thus forming a spatial relationship between them. We conducted an experiment to investigate the properties of the keyword presentation style for an audience. The results suggest the potential of the keyword presentation style for improving the audience's concentration and attention in distance lectures by providing an environment that facilitates eye contact during videoconferencing.

  14. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Search. Search. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Title. Author. Keywords. Fulltext. Submit. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 5. Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 5. November 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues ...

  15. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Search. Search. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Title. Author. Keywords. Fulltext. Submit. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 128, Issue 2. Current Issue Volume 128 | Issue 2. April 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues ...

  16. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Search. Search. Bulletin of Materials Science. Title. Author. Keywords. Fulltext. Submit. Bulletin of Materials Science. Current Issue : Vol. 41, Issue 1. Current Issue Volume 41 | Issue 1. February 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Issue · Forthcoming ...

  17. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 1. Discrete Event Simulation. Matthew Jacob ... Keywords. Simulation; modelling; computer programming. Author Affiliations. Matthew Jacob1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012.

  18. Big Words, Little Results: the Chinese Investments in Poland from the Political Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Lubina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017 statistics showed that Chinese Foreign Direct Investments (FDI in Poland for 2016 amounted to a more than half of all Chinese FDI in Poland for the 2000–2016. Yet the overall amount of Chinese FDI remains modest in comparison with Western Europe or even with Hungary. Despite much proclaimed Sino-Polish rapprochement in 2015–2016 and high hopes for OBOR/BRI initiative in Poland, cooperation with China has not been a breakthrough for Poland in terms of economic results. There have not been ground-breaking Sino-Polish projects and Polish government’s desire to strengthen ties with China loosened in late 2016/early 2017 (though it may revive now.There are several reasons for that, from the perception of Poland as non-attractive for majority Chinese investments, via lack of overall Polish strategy of attracting these investors to discrepancies of economic interests between Poland and China.

  19. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 33; Issue 1. Structure, optical and thermal decomposition characters of LDPE graft copolymers synthesized by gamma irradiation ... Keywords. Gamma irradiation; graft copolymerization; spectroscopic analysis; XRD; kinetics of thermal decomposition; activation energy.

  20. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ultrafelsic granite; A-type granite; peninsular Malaysia; Johor island; eastern belt. ... Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. SapuraKencana Petroleum Bhd, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Science & Technology Faculty, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, ...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND EDUCATION SYSTEM IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Falencka-Jabłońska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pro-environmental education and the effectiveness of its methods are a necessity, decisive for preserving natural resources for successive generations. Educating proper attitudes towards the surrounding nature must be based on sound knowledge gained, supported by observation, experience and experiment. Teaching conducted at all levels environmental science should be based not on boxed knowledge, but on causal thinking skills. Establishing hypotheses and their verification, as well as the variety of methods of understanding the laws of nature, will influence the effective prevention of environmental degradation in the 21st century.

  2. DIFFERENTIATION OF WELFARE OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN POLAND IN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Hanusik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in focus was the material welfare of households. In particular, there were analysed the level and differentiation of the welfare of rural households in 2012, after more than twenty years of developing of market economy in Poland. In addition, there was examined the relationship between income, consumer spending and household equipment and the level and differentiation of measures of the welfare distinguished by the criterion of the main sources of income of households groups. In the study both econometrical and statistical analysis was used. The study was based on primarily source of information coming from the panel study of household budgets conducted by the Central Statistical Office, as well as the data contained in the statistical yearbooks of the Republic of Poland.

  3. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  4. Beyond convergence: Poland and Turkey en route to high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Raiser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the policy reform experiences of Poland and Turkey en route to high income. For both countries, globalization has presented unprecedented opportunities to catch up, unleased by integration into European and global markets and the establishment of macroeconomic discipline. These opportunities were reinforced by the creation of economic institutions to strengthen competition and support private entrepreneurship, catalyzed by the convergence process with the European Union. Both Poland and Turkey have shown resilience following the 2008 global crisis, but continued success will require renewed structural reform measures. Dealing with the challenging of aging while at the same time finding a way to sustain productivity growth through greater domestic innovation is shaping Poland’s policy agenda. Turkey's structural and demographic potential as well as its strategic location between the markets of Europe and Asia offers attractive value proposition to investors, which could be further enhanced with improvements in business regulations and economic governance.

  5. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered.

  6. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauff, J.

    2000-01-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO2 emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector isthought to be a realistic option in the ne...... needed for Poland. It should include a close look at the implications of EU climateprotection policies and the effects of the liberalization of international electricity markets on domestic policy options....... to gather relevant experiences for the possible future introduction of a comprehensive system and for the emerging international emissionstrading system.To determine whether a pilot system is desirable, however, an extensive and comparative analysis of different climate protection policy options is still...

  7. Poland syndrome (anomaly with congenital hemangioma: A new association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Najeeba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral defect of pectoral muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly constitute Poland syndrome. Absence or hypoplasia of the breast and nipple, axillary hair loss and dermatoglyphic abnormalities have also been reported in this syndrome. The primary defect could be in the development of the proximal subclavian artery with early deficit of blood flow to the distal limb and the pectoral region, resulting in partial loss of tissue in those regions. However, the association of congenital hemangioma with Poland sequence has not been observed so far. Such an association is being reported here in a 1-year-old infant, second-born of nonconsanguineous parents, who also had polydactyly instead of the documented syndactyly.

  8. Problem of rubella in Poland after compensatory outbreak in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczuk, Edyta; Częścik, Agnieszka; Pancer, Katarzyna; Gut, Włodzimierz

    The attempt to estimate the real number of rubella cases in the years 2015-2016 in Poland was presented in this paper. The relations between number of reported cases of measles in 2006-2015y., the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of rubella among cases suspected of measles and the proportion of rubella among patients suspected of measles in the last 10 years as well as the results of serological examination in samples from 74 patients suspected of rubella collected in the first half of 2016 year were analysed. The sera from patients suspected of rubella were collected in cooperation with the State Sanitary Inspection. The analysis of data collected during the study-cases of suspected measles (2006-2016) and rubella infections (in 2016y.) indicated high over-registration of rubella in recent years in Poland, which is associated with a very low rate of laboratory confirmed cases.

  9. New localities of Protostropharia alcis (Basidiomycota, Agaricales in Poland

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    Marek Halama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides new records of Protostropharia alcis in Poland. So far this species was known in the country only from several latest localities in the Biebrza National Park (Biebrza Basin and the Kampinos National Park (Warsaw Basin. The new localities are situated in the Wigierski National Park (the East Sudetian Lake District and in the north-western slope of Mt Wierzejska (the Holy Cross Mountains, where P. alcis was collected on dung of herbivores (eurasian elk and red dear within several types of forest communities. All specimens of P. alcis were collected in recent years, from late September to early October, in the period 2012-2013. A full description and illustration of P. alcis based on gathered collections are given. Its delimitation, the knowledge of its ecology, general distribution, and threat is also briefly discussed. Based on the new and known distribution data for P. alcis in Poland, its red list category is proposed.

  10. Masculist Groups in Poland: Aids of Mainstream Antifeminism

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    Katarzyna Wojnicka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role masculist groups currently play in fostering resistance to feminist-influenced efforts to advance the autonomy and equality of women in Poland, where the strong influence of the Polish Catholic Church continues to shape attitudes and actions in professional, governmental and civil society spheres. The paper argues that Polish public discourse since 1989 has been strongly dominated by antifeminist rhetoric advanced by masculist groups. This rhetoric is not only used in the media and in political discourse; it also influences legislation and thus hinders efforts to secure a satisfactory level of equality for women, evidenced in struggles over abortion reform, the Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women, and the trivialisation of rape. The findings of the paper are based on qualitative social research on men’s social movements in Poland between 2009 and 2012 and on qualitative media discourse analysis of articles published between 2009 and 2014.

  11. The consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Przekota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Each region in Poland has a different economic potential due to its own specific features. Taking account of the specific nature of individual regions is important for the management of the country as a whole and of its particular regions. Existing disparities in the economic development may lead to many negative phenomena, such as internal migration or regional marginalization. Excessive price and income inequalities may weaken economic growth throughout the country. It is important for the coherence of the whole country that the disparities between regions are not too big. The study determines the consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland. The analysis was conducted using the coefficient of variation, correlation coefficient, regression coefficient and medium pace. The regions differ in terms of development, dynamic growth and wages. However, prices are much less diverse.

  12. Participative environmental management and social capital in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; De Groot, Wouter T

    2011-01-01

    Eastern European countries, such as Poland, are often used as exemplary in social capital studies. Upon entering the European Union, the low social capital level in Poland posed problems with implementing new regulations, particularly in the environmental policy field. Environmental issues often...... present a high degree of complexity – and European legislation requires multi-stakeholder involvement in decision-making processes. Thus, the dilemma: on the one hand, there is a demand to engage and consult many actors; on the other hand, low social capital contributes to an administrative culture...... with a ubiquitous top-down approach taken by institutional decision-makers. The paper addresses this problem from the perspective of social capital theory. A study of administrative culture and decision-making processes shows the way decisions are currently made. We also propose a way to achieve more participative...

  13. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVE COOPERATIVES IN POLAND

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    Małgorzata Matyja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction, the article presents a brief reflection on collaborative farming in Poland and abroad. There is also a formulated objective of the study, which is to show the essence of agricultural productive cooperatives’ activity and their role in the farmers’ and local communities’ protection. The following section presents used research methods and the subjective, spatial and temporal scope of own research. Subsequent parts of the article relate to the description of the history of APCs in Poland with an explanation of the causes of their foundation and liquidating, presentation the essence and the role of cooperative activi-ties in agriculture with an indication of the advantages of collective farming and characteris-tics of agricultural, economic and social activities of Polish APCs. At the end of the article there is the summary of the undertaken considerations and conclusions.

  14. Physical Investment Financing: The Cases of Poland and Latvia

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    Żak Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present and compare the major sources of financing of physical investments in Poland and Latvia and to attempt to identify their determinants. The subject of the diagnosis is the corporate sector in Poland and i Latvia in the years 2005-2015.The article uses methodology, developed by C. Mayer, J. Corbett and T. Jenkinson, that is based on the net sources of finance. The financial data analysed in the article come from the capital and financial accounts, constituting the element of the integrated system of national accounts. Assuming that in a given period of time, the sources of finance (revenue are equal to their use (expenditure, it is possible to estimate the structure of financing of physical investments in the corporate sector. The practical dimension of the analysis should be viewed as an indication for identifying changes in the area of financing of physical investments in enterprises in the two countries.

  15. Technical and Economic Aspects of Low Emission Reduction in Poland

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    Dzikuć M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problem of excessive air pollution in Poland caused mainly by low emission. The emission arises in result of heating flats by means of old and energetically inefficient heating installations. In Poland and Bulgaria the inhaled air is of the worst quality out of all EU countries. The paper presents economic and technical problems related to low emission occurring during the combustion of solid fuels in local boiler houses. Furthermore, the most significant economic issues, connected with the reduction of low emission are discussed, as well as technological possibilities of efficient reduction of the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. Conclusions are presented at the end of the article.

  16. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. II. The genus Cetrelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kukwa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the genus Cetrelia in Poland, four taxa have been identified, two of which, C. chicitae and C. monachorum, are reported for the first time from the country. All taxa differ in chemistry and subtle morphological characters. Cetrelia monachorum is the commonest member of the genus in Poland (237 records, whereas C. chicitae is known only from 6 records. All taxa are endangered, and three, C. cetrarioides, C. chicitae and C. olivetorum, appear to be critically so, thus deserving the category CR; although C. monachorum is the most frequent, it is not common and should be treated as endangered (EN. The distribution of all taxa, their habitat requirements, as well as morphology and secondary chemistry, are discussed.

  17. Survival and Competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strains 20 Years after Introduction into Field Locations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narożna, Dorota; Pudełko, Krzysztof; Króliczak, Joanna; Golińska, Barbara; Sugawara, Masayuki; Mądrzak, Cezary J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-08-15

    It was previously demonstrated that there are no indigenous strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum forming nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with soybean plants in arable field soils in Poland. However, bacteria currently classified within this species are present (together with Bradyrhizobium canariense) as indigenous populations of strains specific for nodulation of legumes in the Genisteae tribe. These rhizobia, infecting legumes such as lupins, are well established in Polish soils. The studies described here were based on soybean nodulation field experiments, established at the Poznań University of Life Sciences Experiment Station in Gorzyń, Poland, and initiated in the spring of 1994. Long-term research was then conducted in order to study the relation between B. japonicum USDA 110 and USDA 123, introduced together into the same location, where no soybean rhizobia were earlier detected, and nodulation and competitive success were followed over time. Here we report the extra-long-term saprophytic survival of B. japonicum strains nodulating soybeans that were introduced as inoculants 20 years earlier and where soybeans were not grown for the next 17 years. The strains remained viable and symbiotically competent, and molecular and immunochemical methods showed that the strains were undistinguishable from the original inoculum strains USDA 110 and USDA 123. We also show that the strains had balanced numbers and their mobility in soil was low. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the extra-long-term persistence of soybean-nodulating strains introduced into Polish soils and the first analyzing the long-term competitive relations of USDA 110 and USDA 123 after the two strains, neither of which was native, were introduced into the environment almost 2 decades ago. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Volvariella surrecta - a new species in the mycoflora of Poland

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    Dorota Celka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Volvariella surrecta (Knapp Sing. (Pluteaceae in Poland. Its fruit bodies were found on 20 October 2000 in an oak-hornbeam wood in the southern part of Pomań. The parasitic V. surrecta grew on decaying sporophores of Lepista nebularis and Melanoleuca brevipes. The article also describes the macroscopic and microscpic characteristics of the discovered specimens.

  19. Syndrome de Poland | Jellouli | Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le syndrome de Poland correspond à l'absence ou l'hypoplasie unilatérale du grand pectoral associée à des anomalies homolatérales de la main, le plus souvent une symbrachydactylie. Garçon âgé de 5 ans, issu d'un mariage non consanguin et d'une grossesse de déroulement normal sans notion de prise ...

  20. Materials for the flora of myxomycetes of central Poland

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    Ewa Kalinowska-Kucharska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The author investigated the Myxomycetes flora in the environment of Łódź. A collection made between 1967-1972 contains 58 species an 3 varieties. Among Myxomycetes found in this territory are species rare in Poland: Badhamia affinis Rost, Comatrichia pulchella (Bab. Rost., Clastoderma debaryanum Blytt., Lycogala conicum Pers., Lycogala exiguum Morgan, Trichia incospicua Rost. and Trichia olivacea (Maylan Krzem.

  1. Transformation on steel products distribution in Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stefko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel industry is one of the most globalized branch, globalization has had the influence on iron ore supply, steel production and distribution as well. In last years, steel products distribution process has changed significantly, because of rising competitiveness due to common world market influence and main global players actions. The paper presents changes in steel products distribution in Poland and Slovakia focusing on main steel producers activity in distribution as well as distributors response on new market situation.

  2. Transformation on steel products distribution in Poland and Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    R. Stefko; B. Slusarczyk; S. Kot; C. Kolmasiak

    2012-01-01

    Steel industry is one of the most globalized branch, globalization has had the influence on iron ore supply, steel production and distribution as well. In last years, steel products distribution process has changed significantly, because of rising competitiveness due to common world market influence and main global players actions. The paper presents changes in steel products distribution in Poland and Slovakia focusing on main steel producers activity in distribution as well as distributors ...

  3. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawicki Kacper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February. The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 – 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 – 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method, three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3 and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  4. Environmental aspects of hard coal mines closure in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaber, M.; Krogulski, K.; Gawlik, L.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental problems that arise during the closure processes of hard coal mines in Poland are undertaken in the paper. The problems of changes in water balance in rock mass are described with a stress put on underground water management. Regulation concerning ground reclamation and utilisation and removal of existing heat and power plants which after the mines closure will continue to supply surrounding consumers are stressed and the possible solutions are shown. 13 refs

  5. Music in Nazi-Occupied Poland between 1939 and 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naliwajek-Mazurek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a survey of research on music in territories of occupied Poland conducted by the author in recent years, as well as a review of selected existing literature on this topic. A case study illustrates a principal thesis of this essay according to which music was used by the German Nazis in the General Government as a key elements of propaganda and in appropriation of conquered territories as both physical and symbolic spaces.

  6. Assessment of cyanobacteria impact on bathing water quality in Poland

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    Krzysztof Skotak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of bathing water is of key importance for bathers’ health, mainly due to the fact, that each year millions of people use bathing sites as places for recreation and sport activities. Most of the bathing sites are of adequate quality of water, but still there are cases of health risk because bathing water is polluted. One of the main health risk factor in bathing water are cyanobacteria and their blooms. Cyanobacteria are microorganisms of morphological features of bacteria and algae. They live in colonies, which in large quantities show up as streaks, dense foam on the water surface. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of cyanobacteria blooms on health regarding bathing water quality in Poland. Materials and methods: Assessment covered all bathing sites in Poland supervised by Polish National Sanitary Inspection (PIS in the period from 2007 to 2009. The base was data collected during bathing water monitoring conducted by PIS and their formal decisions of bathing bans introduced in response to revealed bathing water pollution. Results and discussion: The results of assessment indicate, that about one-fourth of all bathing bans in Poland was due to cyanobacteria blooms. Conclusions: Every fifth bathing sites located on artificial lake or water reservoir and every tenth on the sea bathing sites were polluted. Average period of bathing ban due to cyanobacteria blooms in Poland varies. Relatively the shortest bathing bans were observed on the sea bathing sites (no longer than one week on average. Much longer were bathing bans on lakes and artificial lakes (one month on average.

  7. Business History in Poland: Current State and Future Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Pikos; Tomasz Olejniczak

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the gap in the business history literature devoted to Central and Eastern Europe and discusses the potential of conducting business history research in Poland. Methodology: This is an explorative and tentative study based on a recently developed database of 387 Polish companies which are more than 100 years old. Findings: The article explores the reasons behind the lack of business history debate in the Polish academia and discusses its future potential. We argu...

  8. Tyhula subvariabilis new species in the mycoflora of Poland

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    Maria Dynowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Typhula subvariabilis Berthier is a new species in the mycoflora of Poland. U has been discovered on the leaves of Corylus avellana L. at Wójtowo near Olsztyn. Considering the morphology and anatomy of the fruit bodies the presented species resemble those of T. variabilis Riess (B e r t h i e r, 1976. The most significant differences between the two species concern the structure of the sclerotia (Dynowska, 1986.

  9. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawicki, Kacper; Czarnecka, Małgorzata; Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February). The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 - 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 - 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method), three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3) and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  10. The determinants of Polish movies’ box office performance in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Gmerek

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of financial performance of movies produced in Poland between 2000 and 2011. To understand the reason for a motion picture’s success in the theatrical channel various factors concerning total domestic box office performance were regressed from the box office results of 207 movies. This study proposes that the success of a movie can be determined by three elements: product attributes, distribution-related variables and information sources. The results ...

  11. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF OLDER PEOPLE IN POLAND – SELECTED ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Różański, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the issues of educational activity of the elderly in Poland. Defining the term “old age” and drawing attention to the issue of human adaptation to old age were the starting points of the discussion. Next, the most important issues concerning the activity of seniors were raised. Further discussed were the conditions and objectives of the educational activity of older people. An attention was also drawn to the role of institutions, promoting education and culture, in ...

  12. Anaphylaxis in Poland: the epidemiology and direct costs

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    Karina Jahnz-Rozyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Epidemiological data on anaphylaxis have been underestimated both in Poland and worldwide. Aim : To evaluate the prevalence of anaphylaxis in Poland, including a classification by gender, age and residential region. Material and methods : The data used in the analysis were derived from two sources, the National Health Fund records of healthcare services for 2008–2015 (official statistics and a questionnaire-based survey conducted in 2015 on a sample of 305 allergists practicing in different regions of Poland. Results : In 2015, 3144 people received treatment for anaphylactic shock (T78.0, T78.2, T80.5, T88.6 with an estimated prevalence rate of anaphylaxis of 8.2 per 100,000 (8.4 for females and 7.9 for males. The highest prevalence rate was found for women aged 50–54 years (14.5 per 100,000. There was a very large difference in the prevalence of anaphylaxis between rural and urban areas (13.1 vs. 0.8 per 100,000. In 2015, the Polish NHF spent PLN 3.5 million (EUR 835,000 on the management of anaphylaxis. Of the allergists surveyed, 73% had been currently managing patients who had experienced anaphylactic shock. The most common causes of anaphylaxis included insect venom (41.4%, food (29.8% and drugs (17.4%. Conclusions : A central anaphylaxis registry should be established in Poland. This is the only approach that would allow collecting a wide range of reliable information on the cases, management and consequences of anaphylaxis. Ongoing management of patients who have experienced anaphylactic shock should be improved.

  13. Labour Market Transition in Portugal, Spain, and Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Paulino

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of economic transition on labour market institutions and labour market outcomes. We focus, in particular, on the transition process of Portugal and Spain towards a modern system of industrial relations. Analysis of the effects of structural reforms on major labour market outcomes in the two Iberian countries is then used to discuss the case of Poland, with an emphasis on the process of labour adjustment implied by increased European economic integration and indu...

  14. Professional Training Of Specialists In International Marketing In Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowski Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program specifications and structures at Polish universities, namely University of Lodz and Collegium Civitas, have been analyzed. It has been defined that...

  15. A DECADE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN POLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipska, Iga; McAuslane, Neil; Leufkens, Hubert; Hövels, Anke

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate and provide a better understanding of the role of health technology assessment (HTA) processes in decision making for drug reimbursement in Poland and how this approach could be considered by other countries of limited resources. We analyzed the evolution of the HTA system and processes in Poland over the past decade and current developments based on publicly available information. The role of HTA in drug-reimbursement process in Poland has increased substantially over the recent decade, starting in 2005 with the formation the Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (AOTMiT). The key success factors in this development were effective capacity building based on the use of international expertise, the implementation of transparent criteria into the drug reimbursement processes, and the selective approach to the adoption of innovative medicines based on the cost-effectiveness threshold among other criteria. While Poland is regarded as a leader in Central and Eastern Europe, there is room for improvement, especially with regard to the quality of HTA processes and the consistency of HTA guidelines with reimbursement law. In the "pragmatic" HTA model use by AOTMiT, the pharmaceutical company is responsible for the preparation of a reimbursement dossier of good quality in line with HTA guidelines while the assessment team in AOTMiT is responsible for critical review of that dossier. Adoption of this model may be considered by other countries with limited resources to balance differing priorities and ensure transparent and objective access to medicines for patients who need them.

  16. SMALL HYDRO PLANTS IN LAND USE SYSTEM PLANNING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bernatek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower plants are present in the land use system planning in Poland. At the national level the important role of spatial planning in the development of renewable energy was highlighted, included small hydroplants. However, it seems that at the regional level this demand has not been realized. The necessity of developing small hydroplants as a renewable energy was highlighted, but negative environmental impact was not indicated. At local level legal instrument of small hydropower plants is specified.

  17. ANALYSIS OF CRIME RATE DETERMINANTS IN THE SUBREGIONS OF POLAND

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    Kinga Kądziołka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine relationships between crime rate and socio – economic, demographic and environmental factors in the subregions of Poland. There was used Ward’s method to reduce number of factors and make a choice of explanatory variables used in econometric models. There were compared results of different methods of choice explanatory variables. The worst fitted to empirical data was model where ex-planatory variables were chosen using gravity center method.

  18. Chinese tourists in Cracow, Poland : their profile, expectations, and perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Guszkiewicz, Paulina; Nessel, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism, benefiting many destinations worldwide. Even if for Poland it is not an important source market yet, the Polish authorities have undertaken some marketing activities in China. The main aim of the paper is to explore the profile, motivations, and perceptions of the Chinese tourists visiting Cracow. The secondary aim is to check the effectiveness of the marketing efforts dedicated to the Chinese market undertaken ...

  19. Chinese Tourists in Cracow, Poland: Their Profile, Expectations, and Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Guszkiewicz Paulina; Nessel Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism, benefiting many destinations worldwide. Even if for Poland it is not an important source market yet, the Polish authorities have undertaken some marketing activities in China. The main aim of the paper is to explore the profile, motivations, and perceptions of the Chinese tourists visiting Cracow. The secondary aim is to check the effectiveness of the marketing efforts dedicated to the Chinese market undertaken ...

  20. Output and utilization of hard coal in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciszak, E.; Skrzypek, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The forecast of fuel energy consumption structure in Poland and the world until 1999, 2000 and 2001 is presented. Considerable proportion of coal in energy balance of Polish economy will be kept in the nearest future, but it claims to enter the new enterprises, which improves the quality of coals and promote the new pro-ecological technology of coal utilization. 7 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs