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Sample records for pol iii transcripts

  1. Enhancer SINEs Link Pol III to Pol II Transcription in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Policarpi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression depends on the cooperation of multiple mechanisms, including the functional interaction of promoters with distally located enhancers. Here, we show that, in cortical neurons, a subset of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs located in the proximity of activity-regulated genes bears features of enhancers. Enhancer SINEs (eSINEs recruit the Pol III cofactor complex TFIIIC in a stimulus-dependent manner and are transcribed by Pol III in response to neuronal depolarization. Characterization of an eSINE located in proximity to the Fos gene (FosRSINE1 indicated that the FosRSINE1-encoded transcript interacts with Pol II at the Fos promoter and mediates Fos relocation to Pol II factories, providing an unprecedented molecular link between Pol III and Pol II transcription. Strikingly, knockdown of the FosRSINE1 transcript induces defects of both cortical radial migration in vivo and activity-dependent dendritogenesis in vitro, demonstrating that FosRSINE1 acts as a strong enhancer of Fos expression in diverse physiological contexts. : Spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression requires the interaction between promoters and distally located enhancers. Policarpi et al. identify a subset of SINEs that functions as enhancers for activity-dependent neuronal genes. The enhancer SINE FosRSINE1 regulates Fos transcription and is necessary for both activity-dependent dendritogenesis and proper brain development. Keywords: neuroscience, epigenetics, transcription, enhancers, SINEs, neuronal activity, neuronal development

  2. Alteration of BRCA1 expression affects alcohol-induced transcription of RNA Pol III-dependent genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qian; Shi, Ganggang; Zhang, Yanmei; Lu, Lei; Levy, Daniel; Zhong, Shuping

    2015-02-01

    Emerging evidence has indicated that alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Deregulation of RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription enhances cellular Pol III gene production, leading to an increase in translational capacity to promote cell transformation and tumor formation. We have reported that alcohol intake increases Pol III gene transcription to promote cell transformation and tumor formation in vitro and in vivo. Studies revealed that tumor suppressors, pRb, p53, PTEN and Maf1 repress the transcription of Pol III genes. BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor and its mutation is tightly related to breast cancer development. However, it is not clear whether BRCA1 expression affects alcohol-induced transcription of Pol III genes. At the present studies, we report that restoring BRCA1 in HCC 1937 cells, which is a BRCA1 deficient cell line, represses Pol III gene transcription. Expressing mutant or truncated BRCA1 in these cells does not affect the ability of repression on Pol III genes. Our analysis has demonstrated that alcohol induces Pol III gene transcription. More importantly, overexpression of BRCA1 in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cells (MCF-7) decreases the induction of tRNA(Leu) and 5S rRNA genes by alcohol, whereas reduction of BRCA1 by its siRNA slightly increases the transcription of the class of genes. This suggests that BRCA1 is associated with alcohol-induced deregulation of Pol III genes. These studies for the first time demonstrate the role of BRCA1 in induction of Pol III genes by alcohol and uncover a novel mechanism of alcohol-associated breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stimulation of Pol III-dependent 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA gene expression by AP-1 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Richa; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-07-01

    RNA polymerase III transcribes structurally diverse group of essential noncoding RNAs including 5S ribosomal RNA (5SrRNA) and U6 snRNA. These noncoding RNAs are involved in RNA processing and ribosome biogenesis, thus, coupling Pol III activity to the rate of protein synthesis, cell growth, and proliferation. Even though a few Pol II-associated transcription factors have been reported to participate in Pol III-dependent transcription, its activation by activator protein 1 (AP-1) factors, c-Fos and c-Jun, has remained unexplored. Here, we show that c-Fos and c-Jun bind to specific sites in the regulatory regions of 5S rRNA (type I) and U6 snRNA (type III) gene promoters and stimulate their transcription. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation studies suggested that endogenous AP-1 factors bind to their cognate promoter elements during the G1/S transition of cell cycle apparently synchronous with Pol III transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the interaction of c-Jun with histone acetyltransferase p300 promoted the recruitment of p300/CBP complex on the promoters and facilitated the occupancy of Pol III transcriptional machinery via histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling. The findings of our study, together, suggest that AP-1 factors are novel regulators of Pol III-driven 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA expression with a potential role in cell proliferation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. FACT facilitates chromatin transcription by RNA polymerases I and III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Joanna L; Tan, Bertrand C-M; Panov, Kostya I

    2009-01-01

    Efficient transcription elongation from a chromatin template requires RNA polymerases (Pols) to negotiate nucleosomes. Our biochemical analyses demonstrate that RNA Pol I can transcribe through nucleosome templates and that this requires structural rearrangement of the nucleosomal core particle....... The subunits of the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription), SSRP1 and Spt16, co-purify and co-immunoprecipitate with mammalian Pol I complexes. In cells, SSRP1 is detectable at the rRNA gene repeats. Crucially, siRNA-mediated repression of FACT subunit expression in cells results...... in a significant reduction in 47S pre-rRNA levels, whereas synthesis of the first 40 nt of the rRNA is not affected, implying that FACT is important for Pol I transcription elongation through chromatin. FACT also associates with RNA Pol III complexes, is present at the chromatin of genes transcribed by Pol III...

  5. RNA polymerase III transcription - regulated by chromatin structure and regulator of nuclear chromatin organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascali, Chiara; Teichmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription is regulated by modifications of the chromatin. DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones, such as acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation have been linked to Pol III transcriptional activity. In addition to being regulated by modifications of DNA and histones, Pol III genes and its transcription factors have been implicated in the organization of nuclear chromatin in several organisms. In yeast, the ability of the Pol III transcription system to contribute to nuclear organization seems to be dependent on direct interactions of Pol III genes and/or its transcription factors TFIIIC and TFIIIB with the structural maintenance of chromatin (SMC) protein-containing complexes cohesin and condensin. In human cells, Pol III genes and transcription factors have also been shown to colocalize with cohesin and the transcription regulator and genome organizer CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF). Furthermore, chromosomal sites have been identified in yeast and humans that are bound by partial Pol III machineries (extra TFIIIC sites - ETC; chromosome organizing clamps - COC). These ETCs/COC as well as Pol III genes possess the ability to act as boundary elements that restrict spreading of heterochromatin.

  6. Genomic binding profiles of functionally distinct RNA polymerase III transcription complexes in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Wang, Jie; Raha, Debasish; White, Robert J; Snyder, Michael; Weng, Zhiping; Struhl, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Genome-wide occupancy profiles of five components of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) machinery in human cells identified the expected tRNA and noncoding RNA targets and revealed many additional Pol III-associated loci, mostly near short interspersed elements (SINEs). Several genes are targets of an alternative transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB) containing Brf2 instead of Brf1 and have extremely low levels of TFIIIC. Strikingly, expressed Pol III genes, unlike nonexpressed Pol III genes, are situated in regions with a pattern of histone modifications associated with functional Pol II promoters. TFIIIC alone associates with numerous ETC loci, via the B box or a novel motif. ETCs are often near CTCF binding sites, suggesting a potential role in chromosome organization. Our results suggest that human Pol III complexes associate preferentially with regions near functional Pol II promoters and that TFIIIC-mediated recruitment of TFIIIB is regulated in a locus-specific manner.

  7. Mitotic Transcriptional Activation: Clearance of Actively Engaged Pol II via Transcriptional Elongation Control in Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaiwei; Woodfin, Ashley R; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R; Box, Andrew C; Rickels, Ryan A; Gao, Xin; Haug, Jeffrey S; Jaspersen, Sue L; Shilatifard, Ali

    2015-11-05

    Although it is established that some general transcription factors are inactivated at mitosis, many details of mitotic transcription inhibition (MTI) and its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We have identified mitotic transcriptional activation (MTA) as a key regulatory step to control transcription in mitosis for genes with transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to activate and transcribe until the end of the gene to clear Pol II from mitotic chromatin, followed by global impairment of transcription reinitiation through MTI. Global nascent RNA sequencing and RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrate the existence of transcriptionally engaged Pol II in early mitosis. Both genetic and chemical inhibition of P-TEFb in mitosis lead to delays in the progression of cell division. Together, our study reveals a mechanism for MTA and MTI whereby transcriptionally engaged Pol II can progress into productive elongation and finish transcription to allow proper cellular division. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of RNA polymerase III transcription during transformation of human IMR90 fibroblasts with defined genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrieu-Gaillard, Stéphanie; Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Boldina, Galina; Tourasse, Nicolas J; Allard, Delphine; André, Fabrice; Macari, Françoise; Choquet, Armelle; Lagarde, Pauline; Drutel, Guillaume; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Petitet, Marion; Lesluyes, Tom; Lartigue-Faustin, Lydia; Dupuy, Jean-William; Chibon, Frédéric; Roeder, Robert G; Joubert, Dominique; Vagner, Stéphan; Teichmann, Martin

    2018-01-01

    RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcribes small untranslated RNAs that are essential for cellular homeostasis and growth. Its activity is regulated by inactivation of tumor suppressor proteins and overexpression of the oncogene c-MYC, but the concerted action of these tumor-promoting factors on Pol III transcription has not yet been assessed. In order to comprehensively analyse the regulation of Pol III transcription during tumorigenesis we employ a model system that relies on the expression of five genetic elements to achieve cellular transformation. Expression of these elements in six distinct transformation intermediate cell lines leads to the inactivation of TP53, RB1, and protein phosphatase 2A, as well as the activation of RAS and the protection of telomeres by TERT, thereby conducting to full tumoral transformation of IMR90 fibroblasts. Transformation is accompanied by moderately enhanced levels of a subset of Pol III-transcribed RNAs (7SK; MRP; H1). In addition, mRNA and/or protein levels of several Pol III subunits and transcription factors are upregulated, including increased protein levels of TFIIIB and TFIIIC subunits, of SNAPC1 and of Pol III subunits. Strikingly, the expression of POLR3G and of SNAPC1 is strongly enhanced during transformation in this cellular transformation model. Collectively, our data indicate that increased expression of several components of the Pol III transcription system accompanied by a 2-fold increase in steady state levels of a subset of Pol III RNAs is sufficient for sustaining tumor formation.

  9. Arabidopsis Pol II-Dependent in Vitro Transcription System Reveals Role of Chromatin for Light-Inducible rbcS Gene Transcription1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Ayaka; Iwata, Shinya; Iwata, Yuka; Igarashi, Hisako; Hamada, Takahiro; Sonobe, Seiji; Sugiura, Masahiro; Yukawa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In vitro transcription is an essential tool to study the molecular mechanisms of transcription. For over a decade, we have developed an in vitro transcription system from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)-cultured cells (BY-2), and this system supported the basic activities of the three RNA polymerases (Pol I, Pol II, and Pol III). However, it was not suitable to study photosynthetic genes, because BY-2 cells have lost their photosynthetic activity. Therefore, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in vitro transcription systems were developed from green and etiolated suspension cells. Sufficient in vitro Pol II activity was detected after the minor modification of the nuclear soluble extracts preparation method; removal of vacuoles from protoplasts and L-ascorbic acid supplementation in the extraction buffer were particularly effective. Surprisingly, all four Arabidopsis Rubisco small subunit (rbcS-1A, rbcS-1B, rbcS-2B, and rbcS-3B) gene members were in vitro transcribed from the naked DNA templates without any light-dependent manner. However, clear light-inducible transcriptions were observed using chromatin template of rbcS-1A gene, which was prepared with a human nucleosome assembly protein 1 (hNAP1) and HeLa histones. This suggested that a key determinant of light-dependency through the rbcS gene transcription was a higher order of DNA structure (i.e. chromatin). PMID:26662274

  10. File list: Pol.Neu.50.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.Bld.20.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Pol.Plc.50.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Pol.Myo.10.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Pol.Lar.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Pol.Oth.20.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Pol.Adp.20.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Pol.Adl.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Pan.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Pol.Utr.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Pol.Brs.50.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Pol.Lar.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Pol.Unc.10.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Pol.ALL.20.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Pol.Unc.50.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.Dig.05.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Pol.ALL.50.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Bon.05.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. File list: Pol.Adp.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Adp.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Pol.Dig.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Pol.Myo.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Pol.Epd.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Pol.Plc.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Pol.Brs.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.Brs.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.PSC.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Pol.Prs.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Pol.Oth.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Pol.Utr.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Pol.CDV.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Pol.Brs.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Pol.Kid.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Pol.ALL.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Pol.Liv.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: Pol.Myo.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: Pol.Lng.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. File list: Pol.Kid.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. File list: Pol.ALL.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: Pol.Oth.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: Pol.Lar.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: Pol.Liv.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: Pol.Gon.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: Pol.Bld.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.ALL.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: Pol.Plc.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: Pol.Emb.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: Pol.Oth.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: Pol.Bon.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: Pol.Unc.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: Pol.Gon.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Gonad ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Gon.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.Emb.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: Pol.PSC.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: Pol.Adl.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: Pol.Myo.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Myo.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Muscle... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Myo.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Plc.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. File list: Pol.Lar.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: Pol.Bon.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Bon.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Bone h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bon.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Oth.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Others... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Oth.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Kid.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Kid.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Kidney... SRX016996 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Kid.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.CDV.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Cardio...vascular http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.CDV.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Prs.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Prs.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Prosta...te http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Prs.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Bld.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Blood ...SRX017006,SRX015143,SRX150560,SRX018610,SRX150396,SRX015144 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Emb.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell ce10 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Embryo... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Emb.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Epd.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: Pol.Utr.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Utr.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Uterus... SRX017001,SRX018606,SRX017002 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Utr.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Kid.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Kid.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Kidney... SRX016996 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Kid.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Pan.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: Pol.Adl.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: Pol.Myo.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: Pol.Liv.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: Pol.Gon.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: Pol.NoD.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: Pol.NoD.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. File list: Pol.NoD.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. Distinct co-evolution patterns of genes associated to DNA polymerase III DnaE and PolC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelen Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial genomes displaying a strong bias between the leading and the lagging strand of DNA replication encode two DNA polymerases III, DnaE and PolC, rather than a single one. Replication is a highly unsymmetrical process, and the presence of two polymerases is therefore not unexpected. Using comparative genomics, we explored whether other processes have evolved in parallel with each polymerase. Results Extending previous in silico heuristics for the analysis of gene co-evolution, we analyzed the function of genes clustering with dnaE and polC. Clusters were highly informative. DnaE co-evolves with the ribosome, the transcription machinery, the core of intermediary metabolism enzymes. It is also connected to the energy-saving enzyme necessary for RNA degradation, polynucleotide phosphorylase. Most of the proteins of this co-evolving set belong to the persistent set in bacterial proteomes, that is fairly ubiquitously distributed. In contrast, PolC co-evolves with RNA degradation enzymes that are present only in the A+T-rich Firmicutes clade, suggesting at least two origins for the degradosome. Conclusion DNA replication involves two machineries, DnaE and PolC. DnaE co-evolves with the core functions of bacterial life. In contrast PolC co-evolves with a set of RNA degradation enzymes that does not derive from the degradosome identified in gamma-Proteobacteria. This suggests that at least two independent RNA degradation pathways existed in the progenote community at the end of the RNA genome world.

  4. Functional characterization of Pol III U6 promoters for gene knockdown and knockout in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuping; Wang, Yajun; Zeng, Baosheng; Liu, Zhaoxia; Xu, Xuejiao; Meng, Qian; Huang, Yongping; Yang, Guang; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M; You, Minsheng

    2017-10-01

    RNA polymerase type III (Pol-III) promoters such as U6 are commonly used to express small RNAs, including short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). Functional U6 promoters are widely used in CRISPR systems, and their characterization can facilitate genome editing of non-model organisms. In the present study, six U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) promoters containing two conserved elements of a proximal sequence element (PSEA) and a TATA box, were identified and characterized in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) genome. Relative efficiency of the U6 promoters to express shRNA induced EGFP knockdown was tested in a P. xylostella cell line, revealing that the PxU6:3 promoter had the strongest expression effect. Further work with the PxU6:3 promoter showed its efficacy in EGFP knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 system in the cells. The expression plasmids with versatile Pxabd-A gene specific sgRNA driven by the PxU6:3 promoter, combined with Cas9 mRNA, could induce mutagenesis at specific genomic loci in vivo. The phenotypes induced by sgRNA expression plasmids were similar to those done in vitro transcription sgRNAs. A plasmid with two tandem arranged PxU6:3:sgRNA expression cassettes targeting Pxabd-A loci was generated, which caused a 28,856 bp fragment deletion, suggesting that the multi-sgRNA expression plasmid can be used for multi-targeting. Our work indicates that U6 snRNA promoters can be used for functional studies of genes with the approach of reverse genetics in P. xylostella. These essential promoters also provide valuable potential for CRISPR-derived gene drive as a tactic for population control in this globally significant pest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. RNA Pol II promotes transcription of centromeric satellite DNA in beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Pezer

    Full Text Available Transcripts of centromeric satellite DNAs are known to play a role in heterochromatin formation as well as in establishment of the kinetochore. However, little is known about basic mechanisms of satellite DNA expression within constitutive heterochromatin and its regulation. Here we present comprehensive analysis of transcription of abundant centromeric satellite DNA, PRAT from beetle Palorus ratzeburgii (Coleoptera. This satellite is characterized by preservation and extreme sequence conservation among evolutionarily distant insect species. PRAT is expressed in all three developmental stages: larvae, pupae and adults at similar level. Transcripts are abundant comprising 0.033% of total RNA and are heterogeneous in size ranging from 0.5 kb up to more than 5 kb. Transcription proceeds from both strands but with 10 fold different expression intensity and transcripts are not processed into siRNAs. Most of the transcripts (80% are not polyadenylated and remain in the nucleus while a small portion is exported to the cytoplasm. Multiple, irregularly distributed transcription initiation sites as well as termination sites have been mapped within the PRAT sequence using primer extension and RLM-RACE. The presence of cap structure as well as poly(A tails in a portion of the transcripts indicate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription and a putative polymerase II promoter site overlaps the most conserved part of the PRAT sequence. The treatment of larvae with alpha-amanitin decreases the level of PRAT transcripts at concentrations that selectively inhibit pol II activity. In conclusion, stable, RNA polymerase II dependant transcripts of abundant centromeric satellite DNA, not regulated by RNAi, have been identified and characterized. This study offers a basic understanding of expression of highly abundant heterochromatic DNA which in beetle species constitutes up to 50% of the genome.

  6. Crystal Structure and Regulation of the Citrus Pol III Repressor MAF1 by Auxin and Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soprano, Adriana Santos; Giuseppe, Priscila Oliveira de; Shimo, Hugo Massayoshi; Lima, Tatiani Brenelli; Batista, Fernanda Aparecida Heleno; Righetto, Germanna Lima; Pereira, José Geraldo de Carvalho; Granato, Daniela Campos; Nascimento, Andrey Fabricio Ziem; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes; Figueira, Ana Carolina Migliorini; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

    2017-09-05

    MAF1 is the main RNA polymerase (Pol) III repressor that controls cell growth in eukaryotes. The Citrus ortholog, CsMAF1, was shown to restrict cell growth in citrus canker disease but its role in plant development and disease is still unclear. We solved the crystal structure of the globular core of CsMAF1, which reveals additional structural elements compared with the previously available structure of hMAF1, and explored the dynamics of its flexible regions not present in the structure. CsMAF1 accumulated in the nucleolus upon leaf excision, and this translocation was inhibited by auxin and by mutation of the PKA phosphorylation site, S45, to aspartate. Additionally, mTOR phosphorylated recombinant CsMAF1 and the mTOR inhibitor AZD8055 blocked canker formation in normal but not CsMAF1-silenced plants. These results indicate that the role of TOR on cell growth induced by Xanthomonas citri depends on CsMAF1 and that auxin controls CsMAF1 interaction with Pol III in citrus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence that Mediator is essential for Pol II transcription, but is not a required component of the preinitiation complex in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Natalia; Jin, Yi; Wong, Koon Ho; Struhl, Kevin

    2017-07-12

    The Mediator complex has been described as a general transcription factor, but it is unclear if it is essential for Pol II transcription and/or is a required component of the preinitiation complex (PIC) in vivo. Here, we show that depletion of individual subunits, even those essential for cell growth, causes a general but only modest decrease in transcription. In contrast, simultaneous depletion of all Mediator modules causes a drastic decrease in transcription. Depletion of head or middle subunits, but not tail subunits, causes a downstream shift in the Pol II occupancy profile, suggesting that Mediator at the core promoter inhibits promoter escape. Interestingly, a functional PIC and Pol II transcription can occur when Mediator is not detected at core promoters. These results provide strong evidence that Mediator is essential for Pol II transcription and stimulates PIC formation, but it is not a required component of the PIC in vivo.

  8. La escuela de Mira-El-Río: su significado en la política educativa de Carlos III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma PERNIL ALARCÓN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La personalidad de Carlos III exige ser traducida más en el significado de sus acciones políticas de reforma social que en la existencia de grandes gestos de actitudes absolutistas personales. La problemática planteada a la Corona se hace patente en la búsqueda de soluciones a través de las reformas exigidas y de los organismos que se crean como exigencia de una eficacia mediante una política de integración y de colaboración estamental.

  9. A direct proofreader-clamp interaction stabilizes the Pol III replicase in the polymerization mode

    KAUST Repository

    Jergic, Slobodan; Horan, Nicholas P.; Elshenawy, Mohamed; Mason, Claire E.; Urathamakul, Thitima; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Robinson, Andrew J.; Goudsmits, Joris M H; Wang, Yao; Pan, Xuefeng; Beck, Jennifer L.; Van Oijen, Antoine M.; Huber, Thomas L.; Hamdan, Samir; Dixon, Nicholas E.

    2013-01-01

    Processive DNA synthesis by the αÉ"θ core of the Escherichia coli Pol III replicase requires it to be bound to the β 2 clamp via a site in the α polymerase subunit. How the É" proofreading exonuclease subunit influences DNA synthesis by α was not previously understood. In this work, bulk assays of DNA replication were used to uncover a non-proofreading activity of É". Combination of mutagenesis with biophysical studies and single-molecule leading-strand replication assays traced this activity to a novel β-binding site in É" that, in conjunction with the site in α, maintains a closed state of the αÉ"θ-β 2 replicase in the polymerization mode of DNA synthesis. The É"-β interaction, selected during evolution to be weak and thus suited for transient disruption to enable access of alternate polymerases and other clamp binding proteins, therefore makes an important contribution to the network of protein-protein interactions that finely tune stability of the replicase on the DNA template in its various conformational states. © 2013 European Molecular Biology Organization.

  10. A direct proofreader-clamp interaction stabilizes the Pol III replicase in the polymerization mode

    KAUST Repository

    Jergic, Slobodan

    2013-02-22

    Processive DNA synthesis by the αÉ"θ core of the Escherichia coli Pol III replicase requires it to be bound to the β 2 clamp via a site in the α polymerase subunit. How the É" proofreading exonuclease subunit influences DNA synthesis by α was not previously understood. In this work, bulk assays of DNA replication were used to uncover a non-proofreading activity of É". Combination of mutagenesis with biophysical studies and single-molecule leading-strand replication assays traced this activity to a novel β-binding site in É" that, in conjunction with the site in α, maintains a closed state of the αÉ"θ-β 2 replicase in the polymerization mode of DNA synthesis. The É"-β interaction, selected during evolution to be weak and thus suited for transient disruption to enable access of alternate polymerases and other clamp binding proteins, therefore makes an important contribution to the network of protein-protein interactions that finely tune stability of the replicase on the DNA template in its various conformational states. © 2013 European Molecular Biology Organization.

  11. Delineation of the Exact Transcription Termination Signal for Type 3 Polymerase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongliang Gao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 3 Pol III promoters such as U6 are widely used for expression of small RNAs, including short hairpin RNA for RNAi applications and guide RNA in CRISPR genome-editing platforms. RNA polymerase III uses a T-stretch as termination signal, but the exact properties have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we systematically measured the in vivo termination efficiency and the actual site of termination for different T-stretch signals in three commonly used human Pol III promoters (U6, 7SK, and H1. Both the termination efficiency and the actual termination site depend on the T-stretch signal. The T4 signal acts as minimal terminator, but full termination efficiency is reached only with a T-stretch of ≥6. The termination site within the T-stretch is quite heterogeneous, and consequently small RNAs have a variable U-tail of 1–6 nucleotides. We further report that such variable U-tails can have a significant negative effect on the functionality of the crRNA effector of the CRISPR-AsCpf1 system. We next improved these crRNAs by insertion of the HDV ribozyme to avoid U-tails. This study provides detailed design guidelines for small RNA expression cassettes based on Pol III.

  12. TRE5-A retrotransposition profiling reveals putative RNA polymerase III transcription complex binding sites on the Dictyostelium extrachromosomal rDNA element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Spaller

    Full Text Available The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a haploid genome in which two thirds of the DNA encodes proteins. Consequently, the space available for selfish mobile elements to expand without excess damage to the host genome is limited. The non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon TRE5-A maintains an active population in the D. discoideum genome and apparently adapted to this gene-dense environment by targeting positions ~47 bp upstream of tRNA genes that are devoid of protein-coding regions. Because only ~24% of tRNA genes are associated with a TRE5-A element in the reference genome, we evaluated whether TRE5-A retrotransposition is limited to this subset of tRNA genes. We determined that a tagged TRE5-A element (TRE5-Absr integrated at 384 of 405 tRNA genes, suggesting that expansion of the current natural TRE5-A population is not limited by the availability of targets. We further observed that TRE5-Absr targets the ribosomal 5S gene on the multicopy extrachromosomal DNA element that carries the ribosomal RNA genes, indicating that TRE5-A integration may extend to the entire RNA polymerase III (Pol III transcriptome. We determined that both natural TRE5-A and cloned TRE5-Absr retrotranspose to locations on the extrachromosomal rDNA element that contain tRNA gene-typical A/B box promoter motifs without displaying any other tRNA gene context. Based on previous data suggesting that TRE5-A targets tRNA genes by locating Pol III transcription complexes, we propose that A/B box loci reflect Pol III transcription complex assembly sites that possess a function in the biology of the extrachromosomal rDNA element.

  13. Comparative transcript profiling of the fertile and sterile flower buds of pol CMS in B. napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong; Yang, Zonghui; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong

    2014-04-03

    The Polima (pol) system of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and its fertility restoration gene Rfp have been used in hybrid breeding in Brassica napus, which has greatly improved the yield of rapeseed. However, the mechanism of the male sterility transition in pol CMS remains to be determined. To investigate the transcriptome during the male sterility transition in pol CMS, a near-isogenic line (NIL) of pol CMS was constructed. The phenotypic features and sterility stage were confirmed by anatomical analysis. Subsequently, we compared the genomic expression profiles of fertile and sterile young flower buds by RNA-Seq. A total of 105,481,136 sequences were successfully obtained. These reads were assembled into 112,770 unigenes, which composed the transcriptome of the bud. Among these unigenes, 72,408 (64.21%) were annotated using public protein databases and classified into functional clusters. In addition, we investigated the changes in expression of the fertile and sterile buds; the RNA-seq data showed 1,148 unigenes had significantly different expression and they were mainly distributed in metabolic and protein synthesis pathways. Additionally, some unigenes controlling anther development were dramatically down-regulated in sterile buds. These results suggested that an energy deficiency caused by orf224/atp6 may inhibit a series of genes that regulate pollen development through nuclear-mitochondrial interaction. This results in the sterility of pol CMS by leading to the failure of sporogenous cell differentiation. This study may provide assistance for detailed molecular analysis and a better understanding of pol CMS in B. napus.

  14. RNA polymerase II mediated transcription from the polymerase III promoters in short hairpin RNA expression vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, Mohammad; Ishihara, Shunji; Aziz, Monowar; Kazumori, Hideaki; Ishimura, Norihisa; Yuki, Takafumi; Kadota, Chikara; Kadowaki, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    RNA polymerase III promoters of human ribonuclease P RNA component H1, human U6, and mouse U6 small nuclear RNA genes are commonly used in short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vectors due their precise initiation and termination sites. During transient transfection of shRNA vectors, we observed that H1 or U6 promoters also express longer transcripts enough to express several reporter genes including firefly luciferase, green fluorescent protein EGFP, and red fluorescent protein JRed. Expression of such longer transcripts was augmented by upstream RNA polymerase II enhancers and completely inhibited by downstream polyA signal sequences. Moreover, the transcription of firefly luciferase from human H1 promoter was sensitive to RNA polymerase II inhibitor α-amanitin. Our findings suggest that commonly used polymerase III promoters in shRNA vectors are also prone to RNA polymerase II mediated transcription, which may have negative impacts on their targeted use

  15. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  16. O marxismo indo-americano de Mariátegui e a polêmica com a III Internacional Comunista.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Guillén

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da perspectiva marxista indo-americana de José Carlos Mariátegui, o artigo visa a exposição de fatores teóricos e históricos que culminaram na polêmica com a III Internacional Comunista na América Latina. A problemática evidencia a originalidade do pensamento de Mariátegui, cujo eixo central é a interpretação dos fatos históricos, políticos e sociais latino-americanos sob a perspectiva dialética do desenvolvimento desigual e combinado para explicar a dinâmica particular da realidade peruana.

  17. Mechanism of selective recruitment of RNA polymerases II and III to snRNA gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergai, Oleksandr; Cousin, Pascal; Gouge, Jerome; Satia, Karishma; Praz, Viviane; Kuhlman, Tracy; Lhôte, Philippe; Vannini, Alessandro; Hernandez, Nouria

    2018-05-01

    RNA polymerase II (Pol II) small nuclear RNA (snRNA) promoters and type 3 Pol III promoters have highly similar structures; both contain an interchangeable enhancer and "proximal sequence element" (PSE), which recruits the SNAP complex (SNAPc). The main distinguishing feature is the presence, in the type 3 promoters only, of a TATA box, which determines Pol III specificity. To understand the mechanism by which the absence or presence of a TATA box results in specific Pol recruitment, we examined how SNAPc and general transcription factors required for Pol II or Pol III transcription of SNAPc-dependent genes (i.e., TATA-box-binding protein [TBP], TFIIB, and TFIIA for Pol II transcription and TBP and BRF2 for Pol III transcription) assemble to ensure specific Pol recruitment. TFIIB and BRF2 could each, in a mutually exclusive fashion, be recruited to SNAPc. In contrast, TBP-TFIIB and TBP-BRF2 complexes were not recruited unless a TATA box was present, which allowed selective and efficient recruitment of the TBP-BRF2 complex. Thus, TBP both prevented BRF2 recruitment to Pol II promoters and enhanced BRF2 recruitment to Pol III promoters. On Pol II promoters, TBP recruitment was separate from TFIIB recruitment and enhanced by TFIIA. Our results provide a model for specific Pol recruitment at SNAPc-dependent promoters. © 2018 Dergai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. New insights into the promoterless transcription of DNA coligo templates by RNA polymerase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Lodoe; Seidl, Christine I; Ryan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Chemically synthesized DNA can carry small RNA sequence information but converting that information into small RNA is generally thought to require large double-stranded promoters in the context of plasmids, viruses and genes. We previously found evidence that circularized oligodeoxynucleotides (coligos) containing certain sequences and secondary structures can template the synthesis of small RNA by RNA polymerase III in vitro and in human cells. By using immunoprecipitated RNA polymerase III we now report corroborating evidence that this enzyme is the sole polymerase responsible for coligo transcription. The immobilized polymerase enabled experiments showing that coligo transcripts can be formed through transcription termination without subsequent 3' end trimming. To better define the determinants of productive transcription, a structure-activity relationship study was performed using over 20 new coligos. The results show that unpaired nucleotides in the coligo stem facilitate circumtranscription, but also that internal loops and bulges should be kept small to avoid secondary transcription initiation sites. A polymerase termination sequence embedded in the double-stranded region of a hairpin-encoding coligo stem can antagonize transcription. Using lessons learned from new and old coligos, we demonstrate how to convert poorly transcribed coligos into productive templates. Our findings support the possibility that coligos may prove useful as chemically synthesized vectors for the ectopic expression of small RNA in human cells.

  19. Reconstitution of the yeast RNA polymerase III transcription system with all recombinant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Cécile; Lefebvre, Olivier; Landrieux, Emilie; Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Sentenac, André; Acker, Joel

    2006-04-28

    Transcription factor TFIIIC is a multisubunit complex required for promoter recognition and transcriptional activation of class III genes. We describe here the reconstitution of complete recombinant yeast TFIIIC and the molecular characterization of its two DNA-binding domains, tauA and tauB, using the baculovirus expression system. The B block-binding module, rtauB, was reconstituted with rtau138, rtau91, and rtau60 subunits. rtau131, rtau95, and rtau55 formed also a stable complex, rtauA, that displayed nonspecific DNA binding activity. Recombinant rTFIIIC was functionally equivalent to purified yeast TFIIIC, suggesting that the six recombinant subunits are necessary and sufficient to reconstitute a transcriptionally active TFIIIC complex. The formation and the properties of rTFIIIC-DNA complexes were affected by dephosphorylation treatments. The combination of complete recombinant rTFIIIC and rTFIIIB directed a low level of basal transcription, much weaker than with the crude B'' fraction, suggesting the existence of auxiliary factors that could modulate the yeast RNA polymerase III transcription system.

  20. Similarities in transcription factor IIIC subunits that bind to the posterior regions of internal promoters for RNA polymerase III

    OpenAIRE

    Matsutani Sachiko

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) transcribes the genes for small RNAs like tRNAs, 5S rRNA, and several viral RNAs, and short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs). The genes for these RNAs and SINEs have internal promoters that consist of two regions. These two regions are called the A and B blocks. The multisubunit transcription factor TFIIIC is required for transcription initiation of RNAP III; in transcription of tRNAs, the B-block binding subunit of TFII...

  1. Nucleosome Positioning and NDR Structure at RNA Polymerase III Promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Alexandra Søgaard; Lay, Fides D; Jones, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin is structurally involved in the transcriptional regulation of all genes. While the nucleosome positioning at RNA polymerase II (pol II) promoters has been extensively studied, less is known about the chromatin structure at pol III promoters in human cells. We use a high...

  2. Rbs1, a new protein implicated in RNA polymerase III biogenesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Małgorzata; Makała, Ewa; Płonka, Marta; Bazan, Rafał; Gewartowski, Kamil; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Boguta, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) complex assembly and its transport to the nucleus. We demonstrate that a missense cold-sensitive mutation, rpc128-1007, in the sequence encoding the C-terminal part of the second largest Pol III subunit, C128, affects the assembly and stability of the enzyme. The cellular levels and nuclear concentration of selected Pol III subunits were decreased in rpc128-1007 cells, and the association between Pol III subunits as evaluated by coimmunoprecipitation was also reduced. To identify the proteins involved in Pol III assembly, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the rpc128-1007 mutation and selected the Rbs1 gene, whose overexpression enhanced de novo tRNA transcription in rpc128-1007 cells, which correlated with increased stability, nuclear concentration, and interaction of Pol III subunits. The rpc128-1007 rbs1Δ double mutant shows a synthetic growth defect, indicating that rpc128-1007 and rbs1Δ function in parallel ways to negatively regulate Pol III assembly. Rbs1 physically interacts with a subset of Pol III subunits, AC19, AC40, and ABC27/Rpb5. Additionally, Rbs1 interacts with the Crm1 exportin and shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus. We postulate that Rbs1 binds to the Pol III complex or subcomplex and facilitates its translocation to the nucleus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Active Center Control of Termination by RNA Polymerase III and tRNA Gene Transcription Levels In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshab Rijal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP III to efficiently recycle from termination to reinitiation is critical for abundant tRNA production during cellular proliferation, development and cancer. Yet understanding of the unique termination mechanisms used by RNAP III is incomplete, as is its link to high transcription output. We used two tRNA-mediated suppression systems to screen for Rpc1 mutants with gain- and loss- of termination phenotypes in S. pombe. 122 point mutation mutants were mapped to a recently solved 3.9 Å structure of yeast RNAP III elongation complex (EC; they cluster in the active center bridge helix and trigger loop, as well as the pore and funnel, the latter of which indicate involvement of the RNA cleavage domain of the C11 subunit in termination. Purified RNAP III from a readthrough (RT mutant exhibits increased elongation rate. The data strongly support a kinetic coupling model in which elongation rate is inversely related to termination efficiency. The mutants exhibit good correlations of terminator RT in vitro and in vivo, and surprisingly, amounts of transcription in vivo. Because assessing in vivo transcription can be confounded by various parameters, we used a tRNA reporter with a processing defect and a strong terminator. By ruling out differences in RNA decay rates, the data indicate that mutants with the RT phenotype synthesize more RNA than wild type cells, and than can be accounted for by their increased elongation rate. Finally, increased activity by the mutants appears unrelated to the RNAP III repressor, Maf1. The results show that the mobile elements of the RNAP III active center, including C11, are key determinants of termination, and that some of the mutations activate RNAP III for overall transcription. Similar mutations in spontaneous cancer suggest this as an unforeseen mechanism of RNAP III activation in disease.

  4. Metáforas de la multitud. III Congreso Internacional Estética y Política

    OpenAIRE

    Corella Lacasa, Miguel; García Puchades, Wenceslao

    2015-01-01

    Con la crisis del Estado-nación, de los imaginarios colectivos de la modernidad y del sistema de representación política partidista, un fantasma recorre el mundo entero sin acabar de tomar rostro. Una multitud de anónimos irrumpe en la escena social y política generando nuevas formas de organización ciudadana vinculadas, entre otros factores, a las posibilidades abiertas por la web 2.0. El Tercer Congreso Internacional Estética y Política se propone estudiar estas Metáforas de la multitud...

  5. BRF1 mutations alter RNA polymerase III–dependent transcription and cause neurodevelopmental anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hög, Friederike; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Tan, Perciliz L.; Sowada, Nadine; Medeira, Ana; Gueneau, Lucie; Thiele, Holger; Kousi, Maria; Lepri, Francesca; Wenzeck, Larissa; Blumenthal, Ian; Radicioni, Antonio; Schwarzenberg, Tito Livio; Mandriani, Barbara; Fischetto, Rita; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J.; Altmüller, Janine; Reymond, Alexandre; Nürnberg, Peter; Merla, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Katsanis, Nicholas; Cramer, Patrick; Kubisch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes tRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs to regulate protein synthesis. Dysregulation of Pol III transcription has been linked to cancer, and germline mutations in genes encoding Pol III subunits or tRNA processing factors cause neurogenetic disorders in humans, such as hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Here we describe an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia and intellectual disability, as well as facial dysmorphic features, short stature, microcephaly, and dental anomalies. Whole-exome sequencing revealed biallelic missense alterations of BRF1 in three families. In support of the pathogenic potential of the discovered alleles, suppression or CRISPR-mediated deletion of brf1 in zebrafish embryos recapitulated key neurodevelopmental phenotypes; in vivo complementation showed all four candidate mutations to be pathogenic in an apparent isoform-specific context. BRF1 associates with BDP1 and TBP to form the transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB), which recruits Pol III to target genes. We show that disease-causing mutations reduce Brf1 occupancy at tRNA target genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and impair cell growth. Moreover, BRF1 mutations reduce Pol III–related transcription activity in vitro. Taken together, our data show that BRF1 mutations that reduce protein activity cause neurodevelopmental anomalies, suggesting that BRF1-mediated Pol III transcription is required for normal cerebellar and cognitive development. PMID:25561519

  6. Members of WRKY Group III transcription factors are important in TYLCV defense signaling pathway in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Meng-Yao; Wu, Peng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Que, Feng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-10-07

    Transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV) has posed serious threats to plant growth and development. Plant innate immune systems against various threats involve WRKY Group III transcription factors (TFs). This group participates as a major component of biological processes in plants. In this study, 6 WRKY Group III TFs (SolyWRKY41, SolyWRKY42, SolyWRKY53, SolyWRKY54, SolyWRKY80, and SolyWRKY81) were identified, and these TFs responded to TYLCV infection. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that SolyWRKY41 and SolyWRKY54 were nuclear proteins in vivo. Many elements, including W-box, were found in the promoter region of Group III TFs. Interaction network analysis revealed that Group III TFs could interact with other proteins, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (MAPK) and isochorismate synthase (ICS), to respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. Positive and negative expression patterns showed that WRKY Group III genes could also respond to TYLCV infection in tomato. The DNA content of TYLCV resistant lines after SolyWRKY41 and SolyWRKY54 were subjected to virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was lower than that of the control lines. In the present study, 6 WRKY Group III TFs in tomato were identified to respond to TYLCV infection. Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and VIGS analyses demonstrated that Group III genes served as positive and negative regulators in tomato-TYLCV interaction. WRKY Group III TFs could interact with other proteins by binding to cis elements existing in the promoter regions of other genes to regulate pathogen-related gene expression.

  7. OPA3, mutated in 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III, encodes two transcripts targeted primarily to mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizing, Marjan; Dorward, Heidi; Ly, Lien

    2010-01-01

    3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type III (3-MGCA type III), caused by recessive mutations in the 2-exon gene OPA3, is characterized by early-onset bilateral optic atrophy, later-onset extrapyramidal dysfunction, and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid. Her...... in the mitochondrion rather than the peroxisome and implicate loss of OPA3A rather than gain of OPA3B in disease etiology....

  8. RNase III-Binding-mRNAs Revealed Novel Complementary Transcripts in Streptomyces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šetinová, D.; Šmídová, K.; Pohl, P.; Music, I.; Bobek, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, JAN 15 2018 (2018), č. článku 2693. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cis-antisense RNA * RNase III * Streptomyces Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  9. Similarities in transcription factor IIIC subunits that bind to the posterior regions of internal promoters for RNA polymerase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsutani Sachiko

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase III (RNAP III transcribes the genes for small RNAs like tRNAs, 5S rRNA, and several viral RNAs, and short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs. The genes for these RNAs and SINEs have internal promoters that consist of two regions. These two regions are called the A and B blocks. The multisubunit transcription factor TFIIIC is required for transcription initiation of RNAP III; in transcription of tRNAs, the B-block binding subunit of TFIIIC recognizes a promoter. Although internal promoter sequences are conserved in eukaryotes, no evidence of homology between the B-block binding subunits of vertebrates and yeasts has been reported previously. Results Here, I reported the results of PSI-BLAST searches using the B-block binding subunits of human and Shizosacchromyces pombe as queries, showing that the same Arabidopsis proteins were hit with low E-values in both searches. Comparison of the convergent iterative alignments obtained by these PSI-BLAST searches revealed that the vertebrate, yeast, and Arabidopsis proteins have similarities in their N-terminal one-third regions. In these regions, there were three domains with conserved sequence similarities, one located in the N-terminal end region. The N-terminal end region of the B-block binding subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tentatively identified as a HMG box, which is the DNA binding motif. Although I compared the alignment of the N-terminal end regions of the B-block binding subunits, and their homologs, with that of the HMG boxes, it is not clear whether they are related. Conclusion Molecular phylogenetic analyses using the small subunit rRNA and ubiquitous proteins like actin and α-tubulin, show that fungi are more closely related to animals than either is to plants. Interestingly, the results obtained in this study show that, with respect to the B-block binding subunits of TFIIICs, animals appear to be evolutionarily closer to plants

  10. Similarities in transcription factor IIIC subunits that bind to the posterior regions of internal promoters for RNA polymerase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Sachiko

    2004-08-09

    In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) transcribes the genes for small RNAs like tRNAs, 5S rRNA, and several viral RNAs, and short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs). The genes for these RNAs and SINEs have internal promoters that consist of two regions. These two regions are called the A and B blocks. The multisubunit transcription factor TFIIIC is required for transcription initiation of RNAP III; in transcription of tRNAs, the B-block binding subunit of TFIIIC recognizes a promoter. Although internal promoter sequences are conserved in eukaryotes, no evidence of homology between the B-block binding subunits of vertebrates and yeasts has been reported previously. Here, I reported the results of PSI-BLAST searches using the B-block binding subunits of human and Shizosacchromyces pombe as queries, showing that the same Arabidopsis proteins were hit with low E-values in both searches. Comparison of the convergent iterative alignments obtained by these PSI-BLAST searches revealed that the vertebrate, yeast, and Arabidopsis proteins have similarities in their N-terminal one-third regions. In these regions, there were three domains with conserved sequence similarities, one located in the N-terminal end region. The N-terminal end region of the B-block binding subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tentatively identified as a HMG box, which is the DNA binding motif. Although I compared the alignment of the N-terminal end regions of the B-block binding subunits, and their homologs, with that of the HMG boxes, it is not clear whether they are related. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using the small subunit rRNA and ubiquitous proteins like actin and alpha-tubulin, show that fungi are more closely related to animals than either is to plants. Interestingly, the results obtained in this study show that, with respect to the B-block binding subunits of TFIIICs, animals appear to be evolutionarily closer to plants than to fungi.

  11. Global transcriptional profiling of Burkholderia pseudomallei under salt stress reveals differential effects on the Bsa type III secretion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singsuksawat Ekapot

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis where the highest reported incidence world wide is in the Northeast of Thailand, where saline soil and water are prevalent. Moreover, recent reports indicate a potential pathogenic role for B. pseudomallei in cystic fibrosis lung disease, where an increased sodium chloride (NaCl concentration in airway surface liquid has been proposed. These observations raise the possibility that high salinity may represent a favorable niche for B. pseudomallei. We therefore investigated the global transcriptional response of B. pseudomallei to increased salinity using microarray analysis. Results Transcriptome analysis of B. pseudomallei under salt stress revealed several genes significantly up-regulated in the presence of 320 mM NaCl including genes associated with the bsa-derived Type III secretion system (T3SS. Microarray data were verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR. Western blot analysis confirmed the increased expression and secretion of the invasion-associated type III secreted proteins BipD and BopE in B. pseudomallei cultures at 170 and 320 mM NaCl relative to salt-free medium. Furthermore, salt-treated B. pseudomallei exhibited greater invasion efficiency into the lung epithelial cell line A549 in a manner partly dependent on a functional Bsa system. Conclusions B. pseudomallei responds to salt stress by modulating the transcription of a relatively small set of genes, among which is the bsa locus associated with invasion and virulence. Expression and secretion of Bsa-secreted proteins was elevated in the presence of exogenous salt and the invasion efficiency was enhanced. Our data indicate that salinity has the potential to influence the virulence of B. pseudomallei.

  12. Polyadenylation of RNA transcribed from mammalian SINEs by RNA polymerase III: Complex requirements for nucleotide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulina, Olga R; Golubchikova, Julia S; Ustyantsev, Ilia G; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that only transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase II (e.g., mRNA) were subject to AAUAAA-dependent polyadenylation. However, we previously showed that RNA transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III) from mouse B2 SINE could be polyadenylated in an AAUAAA-dependent manner. Many species of mammalian SINEs end with the pol III transcriptional terminator (TTTTT) and contain hexamers AATAAA in their A-rich tail. Such SINEs were united into Class T(+), whereas SINEs lacking the terminator and AATAAA sequences were classified as T(-). Here we studied the structural features of SINE pol III transcripts that are necessary for their polyadenylation. Eight and six SINE families from classes T(+) and T(-), respectively, were analyzed. The replacement of AATAAA with AACAAA in T(+) SINEs abolished the RNA polyadenylation. Interestingly, insertion of the polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) and pol III transcription terminator in T(-) SINEs did not result in polyadenylation. The detailed analysis of three T(+) SINEs (B2, DIP, and VES) revealed areas important for the polyadenylation of their pol III transcripts: the polyadenylation signal and terminator in A-rich tail, β region positioned immediately downstream of the box B of pol III promoter, and τ region located upstream of the tail. In DIP and VES (but not in B2), the τ region is a polypyrimidine motif which is also characteristic of many other T(+) SINEs. Most likely, SINEs of different mammals acquired these structural features independently as a result of parallel evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Replication restart in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli involving pols II, III, V, PriA, RecA and RecFOR proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Savithri; Woodgate, Roger; Goodman, Myron F

    2002-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, UV-irradiated cells resume DNA synthesis after a transient inhibition by a process called replication restart. To elucidate the role of several key proteins involved in this process, we have analysed the time dependence of replication restart in strains carrying a combination of mutations in lexA, recA, polB (pol II), umuDC (pol V), priA, dnaC, recF, recO or recR. We find that both pol II and the origin-independent primosome-assembling function of PriA are essential for the immediate recovery of DNA synthesis after UV irradiation. In their absence, translesion replication or 'replication readthrough' occurs approximately 50 min after UV and is pol V-dependent. In a wild-type, lexA+ background, mutations in recF, recO or recR block both pathways. Similar results were obtained with a lexA(Def) recF strain. However, lexA(Def) recO or lexA(Def) recR strains, although unable to facilitate PriA-pol II-dependent restart, were able to perform pol V-dependent readthrough. The defects in restart attributed to mutations in recF, recO or recR were suppressed in a recA730 lexA(Def) strain expressing constitutively activated RecA (RecA*). Our data suggest that in a wild-type background, RecF, O and R are important for the induction of the SOS response and the formation of RecA*-dependent recombination intermediates necessary for PriA/Pol II-dependent replication restart. In con-trast, only RecF is required for the activation of RecA that leads to the formation of pol V (UmuD'2C) and facilitates replication readthrough.

  14. Sobre la decadencia económica y urbana de Gades en el contexto político del siglo III

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    Noé Villaverde Vega

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available No parece casual que durante los s. i a. de C y ii de C, se atestigüe una estrecha relación de Gades con personajes de las más altas esferas políticas romanas, pues durante dicho periodo esta localidad, obtuvo una notable expansión al amparo de los beneficios fiscales otorgados por el Estado romano. Por contra, el ascenso al poder de la Dinastía Severiana, caracterizado por una despiadada aniquilación de sus oponentes, entre los cuales destacaba la aristocracia bélica prácticamente en pleno, parece haber determinado la pérdida de influencias hasta entonces detentadas por el ámbito hispánico meridional en la cancillería romana. En consecuencia a fines del s. II o principios del s. III, se advierte la repercusión negativa que la nueva normativa severíana tendrían sobre las localidades costeras del fretum gaditamum, quienes súbitamente privadas de privilegios que garantizaban su prosperidad, fueron obligadas a una estricta reconversión recesiva; todo se evidencia con particular gravedad en Gades, localidad que en el transcurso del s. III resultaría completamente arruinada, llegando incluso a perder su, acaso milenaria, categoría urbana.It's evident the conexión of Gades with the most influential dignataries of the highest politicat spheres after its adhesión to Rome, especially from V-' century BC to 2nd AD when the southern Híspanla shipping trade, from which Gades the main exponent, got a substantial expansión under the projection of tax allowances given by the Román government. Conversely, Severian Dinasty's hse to power. charactehzed by a merciless destruction of every oponent among whom nearly all the baetican ahstocracy were, seens to have caused the loss of power commanded up till the by the Southern Hispania área, consequently of Gades, on the Román chancellery's resolutions. Accordingly Severían policy about shipiing and taxation appears to have implied a deep economical «crisis» for the Strait territory

  15. NM23-H2 may play an indirect role in transcriptional activation of c-myc gene expression but does not cleave the nuclease hypersensitive element III1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Carey, Steven S.; Zuohe, Song; Gokhale, Vijay M.; Hu, Xiaohui; Murata, Lauren B.; Maes, Estelle M.; Weichsel, Andrzej; Sun, Daekyu; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.; Montfort, William R.; Hurley, Laurence H.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of G-quadruplex structures within the nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) III 1 region of the c-myc promoter and the ability of these structures to repress c-myc transcription have been well established. However, just how these extremely stable DNA secondary structures are transformed to activate c-myc transcription is still unknown. NM23-H2/nucleoside diphosphate kinase B has been recognized as an activator of c-myc transcription via interactions with the NHE III 1 region of the c-myc gene promoter. Through the use of RNA interference, we confirmed the transcriptional regulatory role of NM23-H2. In addition, we find that further purification of NM23-H2 results in loss of the previously identified DNA strand cleavage activity, but retention of its DNA binding activity. NM23-H2 binds to both single-stranded guanine- and cytosine-rich strands of the c-myc NHE III 1 and, to a lesser extent, to a random single-stranded DNA template. However, it does not bind to or cleave the NHE III 1 in duplex form. Significantly, potassium ions and compounds that stabilize the G-quadruplex and i-motif structures have an inhibitory effect on NM23-H2 DNA-binding activity. Mutation of Arg 88 to Ala 88 (R88A) reduced both DNA and nucleotide binding but had minimal effect on the NM23-H2 crystal structure. On the basis of these data and molecular modeling studies, we have proposed a stepwise trapping-out of the NHE III 1 region in a single-stranded form, thus allowing single-stranded transcription factors to bind and activate c-myc transcription. Furthermore, this model provides a rationale for how the stabilization of the G-quadruplex or i-motif structures formed within the c-myc gene promoter region can inhibit NM23-H2 from activating c-myc gene expression.

  16. Stage-specific regulation of four HD-ZIP III transcription factors during polar pattern formation in Larix leptolepis somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shui-gen; Li, Wan-feng; Han, Su-ying; Yang, Wen-hua; Qi, Li-wang

    2013-06-15

    Polar auxin transport provides a developmental signal for cell fate specification during somatic embryogenesis. Some members of the HD-ZIP III transcription factors participate in regulation of auxin transport, but little is known about this regulation in somatic embryogenesis. Here, four HD-ZIP III homologues from Larix leptolepis were identified and designated LaHDZ31, 32, 33 and 34. The occurrence of a miR165/166 target sequence in all four cDNA sequences indicated that they might be targets of miR165/166. Identification of the cleavage products of LaHDZ31 and LaHDZ32 in vivo confirmed that they were regulated by miRNA. Their mRNA accumulation patterns during somatic embryogenesis and the effects of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) on their transcript levels and somatic embryo maturation were investigated. The results showed that the four genes had higher transcript levels at mature stages than at the proliferation stage, and that NPA treatment down-regulated the mRNA abundance of LaHDZ31, 32 and 33 at cotyledonary embryo stages, but had no effect on the mRNA abundance of LaHDZ34. We concluded that these four members of Larix HD-ZIP III family might participate in polar auxin transport and the development of somatic embryos, providing new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Decoding the principles underlying the frequency of association with nucleoli for RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belagal, Praveen; Normand, Christophe; Shukla, Ashutosh; Wang, Renjie; Léger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Dez, Christophe; Bhargava, Purnima; Gadal, Olivier

    2016-10-15

    The association of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-transcribed genes with nucleoli seems to be an evolutionarily conserved property of the spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes. However, recent studies of global chromosome architecture in budding yeast have challenged this view. We used live-cell imaging to determine the intranuclear positions of 13 Pol III-transcribed genes. The frequency of association with nucleolus and nuclear periphery depends on linear genomic distance from the tethering elements-centromeres or telomeres. Releasing the hold of the tethering elements by inactivating centromere attachment to the spindle pole body or changing the position of ribosomal DNA arrays resulted in the association of Pol III-transcribed genes with nucleoli. Conversely, ectopic insertion of a Pol III-transcribed gene in the vicinity of a centromere prevented its association with nucleolus. Pol III-dependent transcription was independent of the intranuclear position of the gene, but the nucleolar recruitment of Pol III-transcribed genes required active transcription. We conclude that the association of Pol III-transcribed genes with the nucleolus, when permitted by global chromosome architecture, provides nucleolar and/or nuclear peripheral anchoring points contributing locally to intranuclear chromosome organization. © 2016 Belagal et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. A Novel Collection of snRNA-Like Promoters with Tissue-Specific Transcription Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pagano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified a novel dataset of snRNA-like trascriptional units in the human genome. The investigation of a subset of these elements showed that they play relevant roles in physiology and/or pathology. In this work we expand our collection of small RNAs taking advantage of a newly developed algorithm able to identify genome sequence stretches with RNA polymerase (pol III type 3 promoter features thus constituting putative pol III binding sites. The bioinformatic analysis of a subset of these elements that map in introns of protein-coding genes in antisense configuration suggest their association with alternative splicing, similarly to other recently characterized small RNAs. Interestingly, the analysis of the transcriptional activity of these novel promoters shows that they are active in a cell-type specific manner, in accordance with the emerging body of evidence of a tissue/cell-specific activity of pol III.

  19. Transcription-induced DNA supercoiling: New roles of intranucleosomal DNA loops in DNA repair and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, N S; Pestov, N A; Kulaeva, O I; Clark, D J; Studitsky, V M

    2016-05-26

    RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription through chromatin is accompanied by formation of small intranucleosomal DNA loops. Pol II captured within a small loop drives accumulation of DNA supercoiling, facilitating further transcription. DNA breaks relieve supercoiling and induce Pol II arrest, allowing detection of DNA damage hidden in chromatin structure.

  20. Gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion systems from the rumen microbiome are correlated with methane yield in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Janine; Soni, Priya; Li, Yang; Ganesh, Siva; Kelly, William J; Leahy, Sinead C; Shi, Weibing; Froula, Jeff; Rubin, Edward M; Attwood, Graeme T

    2017-08-08

    Ruminants are important contributors to global methane emissions via microbial fermentation in their reticulo-rumens. This study is part of a larger program, characterising the rumen microbiomes of sheep which vary naturally in methane yield (g CH 4 /kg DM/day) and aims to define differences in microbial communities, and in gene and transcript abundances that can explain the animal methane phenotype. Rumen microbiome metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were analysed by Gene Set Enrichment, sparse partial least squares regression and the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test to estimate correlations between specific KEGG bacterial pathways/genes and high methane yield in sheep. KEGG genes enriched in high methane yield sheep were reassembled from raw reads and existing contigs and analysed by MEGAN to predict their phylogenetic origin. Protein coding sequences from Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens strains were analysed using Effective DB to predict bacterial type III secreted proteins. The effect of S. dextrinosolvens strain H5 growth on methane formation by rumen methanogens was explored using co-cultures. Detailed analysis of the rumen microbiomes of high methane yield sheep shows that gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion system genes are positively correlated with methane yield in sheep. Most of the bacterial type III secretion system genes could not be assigned to a particular bacterial group, but several genes were affiliated with the genus Succinivibrio, and searches of bacterial genome sequences found that strains of S. dextrinosolvens were part of a small group of rumen bacteria that encode this type of secretion system. In co-culture experiments, S. dextrinosolvens strain H5 showed a growth-enhancing effect on a methanogen belonging to the order Methanomassiliicoccales, and inhibition of a representative of the Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade. This is the first report of bacterial type III secretion system genes being associated with high

  1. Structural Basis for Recognition and Sequestration of UUUOH 3 ' Temini of Nascent RNA Polymerase III Transcripts by La, a Rheumatic Disease Autoantigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplova,M.; Yuan, Y.; Phan, A.; Malinina, L.; Ilin, S.; Teplov, A.; Patel, D.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear phosphoprotein La was identified as an autoantigen in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome. La binds to and protects the UUUOH 3' terminii of nascent RNA polymerase III transcripts from exonuclease digestion. We report the 1.85 Angstroms crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of human La, consisting of La and RRM1 motifs, bound to r(U1-G2-C3-U4-G5-U6-U7-U8-U9OH). The U7-U8-U9OH 3' end, in a splayed-apart orientation, is sequestered within a basic and aromatic amino acid-lined cleft between the La and RRM1 motifs. The specificity-determining U8 residue bridges both motifs, in part through unprecedented targeting of the {beta} sheet edge, rather than the anticipated face, of the RRM1 motif. Our structural observations, supported by mutation studies of both La and RNA components, illustrate the principles behind RNA sequestration by a rheumatic disease autoantigen, whereby the UUUOH 3' ends of nascent RNA transcripts are protected during downstream processing and maturation events.

  2. A difícil arte de "deslizar sobre o mundo" ou Montaigne, um político discreto ("De poupar a própria vontade" - III, 10

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    Andre Scoralick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available De 1581 a 1585, Montaigne foi prefeito de Bordeaux. Foi acusado por detratores de não se ter aplicado o bastante e de não ter feito nada de marcante durante seus dois mandatos. Ao responder às acusações no ensaio "De poupar a própria vontade" (III, 10, o autor encontra a ocasião para uma crítica das paixões em geral e, em particular, das que pertencem ao contexto político. Isto porque ele visava, com sua aparente falta de aplicação aos deveres de prefeito, evitar a paixão que tantas vezes se oculta por trás do engajamento - a ambição, desejo de honras, glória, renome. Sobretudo, esperava evitar um duplo perigo, ao mesmo tempo ético e político: comprometer a própria liberdade numa busca servil da glória e subordinar o bem coletivo ao interesse pessoal. No presente estudo, procuraremos reconstituir a trama argumentativa do ensaio em questão, acompanhando de perto os argumentos que sustentam a crítica montaigniana das paixões, bem como a terapia muito particular a que o ensaísta as submete, a qual lhe permite fazer do episódio da Mairie de Bordeaux um modelo de conciliação entre o cuidado de si e o cumprimento dos deveres políticos.From 1581 to 1585 Montaigne was the mayor of Bordeaux. He was accused by detractors of not having been sufficiently dedicated to his functions and of having done nothing remarkable during his two terms. In answering to such charges in the essay "Of Managing the Will" (III, 10, the author finds the occasion for criticising passions in general and, in particular, those concerning the political context. The reason for it is that he sought, with his apparent lack of commitment to the mayor's duties, to avoid the passions which usually hide behind such an engagement: ambition, desire for honours, glory, renown. Above all he hoped to avoid a double danger, both ethical and political: to compromise his freedom in a servile pursuit of glory and to subordinate the common good to his personal advantage

  3. Genetic interactions of MAF1 identify a role for Med20 in transcriptional repression of ribosomal protein genes.

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    Ian M Willis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional repression of ribosomal components and tRNAs is coordinately regulated in response to a wide variety of environmental stresses. Part of this response involves the convergence of different nutritional and stress signaling pathways on Maf1, a protein that is essential for repressing transcription by RNA polymerase (pol III in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we identify the functions buffering yeast cells that are unable to down-regulate transcription by RNA pol III. MAF1 genetic interactions identified in screens of non-essential gene-deletions and conditionally expressed essential genes reveal a highly interconnected network of 64 genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, RNA pol II transcription, tRNA modification, ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and other processes. A survey of non-essential MAF1 synthetic sick/lethal (SSL genes identified six gene-deletions that are defective in transcriptional repression of ribosomal protein (RP genes following rapamycin treatment. This subset of MAF1 SSL genes included MED20 which encodes a head module subunit of the RNA pol II Mediator complex. Genetic interactions between MAF1 and subunits in each structural module of Mediator were investigated to examine the functional relationship between these transcriptional regulators. Gene expression profiling identified a prominent and highly selective role for Med20 in the repression of RP gene transcription under multiple conditions. In addition, attenuated repression of RP genes by rapamycin was observed in a strain deleted for the Mediator tail module subunit Med16. The data suggest that Mediator and Maf1 function in parallel pathways to negatively regulate RP mRNA and tRNA synthesis.

  4. The political-economic education of the rulers in the discourses to the king Philip III by Pedro de Valencia (1555-1620 La educación político-económica del gobernante en los discursos al rey Felipe III de Pedro de Valencia (1555-1620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Luis PARADINAS FUENTES

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Present-day economical crisis resembles partly that one suffered in Spain at the beginning of the 17th century. In those days, the Spanish Crown, which like all modern States had needed to carry out new functions such as deciding the ell into a deep economic crisis. Many treatises and discourses, several of them addressed to the king Philip III were written to change the economic policy of the State, which was considered responsible for the evils affecting Spain. Some of these texts have been studied by the historians of economics, but not by the historians of education, however they can be, in our opinion, included in that literary genre whose objective was the education of the princes. In this work we will analyse the writings dedicated to that king by the Spanish humanist Pedro de Valencia with the aim of educating the rulers of the Monarchy so that they could acquire the necessary intellectual and moral virtues to accomplish their duties. There are in his texts many teachings that are still valid nowadays.La crisis económica actual tiene ciertos paralelismos con la que sufrió España en el comienzo del siglo XVII. En aquel tiempo, la Corona española, que como todos los Estados modernos para poder consolidarse había tenido necesidad de cumplir nuevas funciones como las de decidir la política fiscal y la monetaria, entró en una profunda crisis económica. Con la intención de cambiar la política económica del Estado, a la que se hacía responsable de los males que aquejaban a España, se redactaron multitud de discursos y tratados, muchos de los cuales se dirigieron directamente al rey Felipe III. Algunos de estos escritos han sido estudiados por los historiadores de la economía, pero no por los de la educación, a pesar de que, según nuestra opinión, pueden incluirse dentro del género de literatura que tenía como objetivo la educación de los príncipes. En este trabajo vamos a analizar los que dedicó a dicho monarca el

  5. Mediator links transcription and DNA repair by facilitating Rad2/XPG recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyboulet, Fanny; Cibot, Camille; Eychenne, Thomas; Neil, Helen; Alibert, Olivier; Werner, Michel; Soutourina, Julie

    2013-12-01

    Mediator is a large multiprotein complex conserved in all eukaryotes. The crucial function of Mediator in transcription is now largely established. However, we found that this complex also plays an important role by connecting transcription with DNA repair. We identified a functional contact between the Med17 Mediator subunit and Rad2/XPG, the 3' endonuclease involved in nucleotide excision DNA repair. Genome-wide location analyses revealed that Rad2 is associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II)- and Pol III-transcribed genes and telomeric regions in the absence of exogenous genotoxic stress. Rad2 occupancy of Pol II-transcribed genes is transcription-dependent. Genome-wide Rad2 occupancy of class II gene promoters is well correlated with that of Mediator. Furthermore, UV sensitivity of med17 mutants is correlated with reduced Rad2 occupancy of class II genes and concomitant decrease of Mediator interaction with Rad2 protein. Our results suggest that Mediator is involved in DNA repair by facilitating Rad2 recruitment to transcribed genes.

  6. RNA polymerase II transcriptional fidelity control and its functional interplay with DNA modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chong, Jenny; Shin, Ji Hyun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate genetic information transfer is essential for life. As a key enzyme involved in the first step of gene expression, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) must maintain high transcriptional fidelity while it reads along DNA template and synthesizes RNA transcript in a stepwise manner during transcription elongation. DNA lesions or modifications may lead to significant changes in transcriptional fidelity or transcription elongation dynamics. In this review, we will summarize recent progress towards understanding the molecular basis of RNA Pol II transcriptional fidelity control and impacts of DNA lesions and modifications on Pol II transcription elongation. PMID:26392149

  7. Fluctuations of pol I and fibrillarin contents of the nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornáček, M; Kováčik, L; Mazel, T; Cmarko, D; Bártová, E; Raška, I; Smirnov, E

    2017-07-04

    Nucleoli are formed on the basis of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters called Nucleolus Organizer Regions (NORs). Each NOR contains multiple genes coding for RNAs of the ribosomal particles. The prominent components of the nucleolar ultrastructure, fibrillar centers (FC) and dense fibrillar components (DFC), together compose FC/DFC units. These units are centers of rDNA transcription by RNA polymerase I (pol I), as well as the early processing events, in which an essential role belongs to fibrillarin. Each FC/DFC unit probably corresponds to a single transcriptionally active gene. In this work, we transfected human-derived cells with GFP-RPA43 (subunit of pol I) and RFP-fibrillarin. Following changes of the fluorescent signals in individual FC/DFC units, we found two kinds of kinetics: 1) the rapid fluctuations with periods of 2-3 min, when the pol I and fibrillarin signals oscillated in anti-phase manner, and the intensities of pol I in the neighboring FC/DFC units did not correlate. 2) fluctuations with periods of 10 to 60 min, in which pol I and fibrillarin signals measured in the same unit did not correlate, but pol I signals in the units belonging to different nucleoli were synchronized. Our data indicate that a complex pulsing activity of transcription as well as early processing is common for ribosomal genes.

  8. Enhancement of single guide RNA transcription for efficient CRISPR/Cas-based genomic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Maruyama, Shohei; Nakano, Yuko

    2017-06-01

    Genomic engineering using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein is a promising approach for targeting the genomic DNA of virtually any organism in a sequence-specific manner. Recent remarkable advances in CRISPR/Cas technology have made it a feasible system for use in therapeutic applications and biotechnology. In the CRISPR/Cas system, a guide RNA (gRNA), interacting with the Cas protein, recognizes a genomic region with sequence complementarity, and the double-stranded DNA at the target site is cleaved by the Cas protein. A widely used gRNA is an RNA polymerase III (pol III)-driven single gRNA (sgRNA), which is produced by artificial fusion of CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-activation crRNA (tracrRNA). However, we identified a TTTT stretch, known as a termination signal of RNA pol III, in the scaffold region of the sgRNA. Here, we revealed that sgRNA carrying a TTTT stretch reduces the efficiency of sgRNA transcription due to premature transcriptional termination, and decreases the efficiency of genome editing. Unexpectedly, it was also shown that the premature terminated sgRNA may have an adverse effect of inducing RNA interference. Such disadvantageous effects were avoided by substituting one base in the TTTT stretch.

  9. Battles and hijacks: Noncoding transcription in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ariel, Federico

    2015-06-01

    Noncoding RNAs have emerged as major components of the eukaryotic transcriptome. Genome-wide analyses revealed the existence of thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in several plant species. Plant lncRNAs are transcribed by the plant-specific RNA polymerases Pol IV and Pol V, leading to transcriptional gene silencing, as well as by Pol II. They are involved in a wide range of regulatory mechanisms impacting on gene expression, including chromatin remodeling, modulation of alternative splicing, fine-tuning of miRNA activity, and the control of mRNA translation or accumulation. Recently, dual noncoding transcription by alternative RNA polymerases was implicated in epigenetic and chromatin conformation dynamics. This review integrates the current knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms acting through plant noncoding transcription. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Molecular characterization of 5S ribosomal RNA genes and transcripts in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Campos, Rodrigo; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E; Nepomuceno-Mejía, Tomás; Rojas-Sánchez, Saúl; Vélez-Ramírez, Daniel E; Padilla-Mejía, Norma E; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa; Manning-Cela, Rebeca; Martínez-Calvillo, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic 5S rRNA, synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), is an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit. Most organisms contain hundreds of 5S rRNA genes organized into tandem arrays. However, the genome of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major contains only 11 copies of the 5S rRNA gene, which are interspersed and associated with other Pol III-transcribed genes. Here we report that, in general, the number and order of the 5S rRNA genes is conserved between different species of Leishmania. While in most organisms 5S rRNA genes are normally associated with the nucleolus, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence experiments showed that 5S rRNA genes are mainly located at the nuclear periphery in L. major. Similarly, the tandemly repeated 5S rRNA genes in Trypanosoma cruzi are dispersed throughout the nucleus. In contrast, 5S rRNA transcripts in L. major were localized within the nucleolus, and scattered throughout the cytoplasm, where mature ribosomes are located. Unlike other rRNA species, stable antisense RNA complementary to 5S rRNA is not detected in L. major.

  11. The Mediator complex and transcription regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, Zachary C.; Ebmeier, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    The Mediator complex is a multi-subunit assembly that appears to be required for regulating expression of most RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcripts, which include protein-coding and most non-coding RNA genes. Mediator and pol II function within the pre-initiation complex (PIC), which consists of Mediator, pol II, TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF and TFIIH and is approximately 4.0 MDa in size. Mediator serves as a central scaffold within the PIC and helps regulate pol II activity in ways that remain poorly understood. Mediator is also generally targeted by sequence-specific, DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) that work to control gene expression programs in response to developmental or environmental cues. At a basic level, Mediator functions by relaying signals from TFs directly to the pol II enzyme, thereby facilitating TF-dependent regulation of gene expression. Thus, Mediator is essential for converting biological inputs (communicated by TFs) to physiological responses (via changes in gene expression). In this review, we summarize an expansive body of research on the Mediator complex, with an emphasis on yeast and mammalian complexes. We focus on the basics that underlie Mediator function, such as its structure and subunit composition, and describe its broad regulatory influence on gene expression, ranging from chromatin architecture to transcription initiation and elongation, to mRNA processing. We also describe factors that influence Mediator structure and activity, including TFs, non-coding RNAs and the CDK8 module. PMID:24088064

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Pol III-related leukodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 Sep 9;89(3):415-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.07.014. Erratum in: Am ... Jan 15;300(1-2):179-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2010.09.009. Epub 2010 Sep ... Sep 15;320(1-2):102-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2012.07.005. Epub 2012 Jul ...

  13. A Herpesviral Immediate Early Protein Promotes Transcription Elongation of Viral Transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Fox

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 genes are transcribed by cellular RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II. While four viral immediate early proteins (ICP4, ICP0, ICP27, and ICP22 function in some capacity in viral transcription, the mechanism by which ICP22 functions remains unclear. We observed that the FACT complex (comprised of SSRP1 and Spt16 was relocalized in infected cells as a function of ICP22. ICP22 was also required for the association of FACT and the transcription elongation factors SPT5 and SPT6 with viral genomes. We further demonstrated that the FACT complex interacts with ICP22 throughout infection. We therefore hypothesized that ICP22 recruits cellular transcription elongation factors to viral genomes for efficient transcription elongation of viral genes. We reevaluated the phenotype of an ICP22 mutant virus by determining the abundance of all viral mRNAs throughout infection by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq. The accumulation of almost all viral mRNAs late in infection was reduced compared to the wild type, regardless of kinetic class. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq, we mapped the location of RNA Pol II on viral genes and found that RNA Pol II levels on the bodies of viral genes were reduced in the ICP22 mutant compared to wild-type virus. In contrast, the association of RNA Pol II with transcription start sites in the mutant was not reduced. Taken together, our results indicate that ICP22 plays a role in recruiting elongation factors like the FACT complex to the HSV-1 genome to allow for efficient viral transcription elongation late in viral infection and ultimately infectious virion production.

  14. Syndromes associated with Homo sapiens pol II regulatory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, M; Demmon, S; Pares-Matos, E I

    2000-01-01

    The molecular basis of human characteristics is an intriguing but an unresolved problem. Human characteristics cover a broad spectrum, from the obvious to the abstract. Obvious characteristics may include morphological features such as height, shape, and facial form. Abstract characteristics may be hidden in processes that are controlled by hormones and the human brain. In this review we examine exaggerated characteristics presented as syndromes. Specifically, we focus on human genes that encode transcription factors to examine morphological, immunological, and hormonal anomalies that result from deletion, insertion, or mutation of genes that regulate transcription by RNA polymerase II (the Pol II genes). A close analysis of abnormal phenotypes can give clues into how sequence variations in regulatory genes and changes in transcriptional control may give rise to characteristics defined as complex traits.

  15. Transcription initiation complex structures elucidate DNA opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschka, C; Hantsche, M; Dienemann, C; Burzinski, C; Plitzko, J; Cramer, P

    2016-05-19

    Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes begins with assembly of the RNA polymerase (Pol) II initiation complex and promoter DNA opening. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of yeast initiation complexes containing closed and open DNA at resolutions of 8.8 Å and 3.6 Å, respectively. DNA is positioned and retained over the Pol II cleft by a network of interactions between the TATA-box-binding protein TBP and transcription factors TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIIE, and TFIIF. DNA opening occurs around the tip of the Pol II clamp and the TFIIE 'extended winged helix' domain, and can occur in the absence of TFIIH. Loading of the DNA template strand into the active centre may be facilitated by movements of obstructing protein elements triggered by allosteric binding of the TFIIE 'E-ribbon' domain. The results suggest a unified model for transcription initiation with a key event, the trapping of open promoter DNA by extended protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts.

  16. A Herpesviral Immediate Early Protein Promotes Transcription Elongation of Viral Transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Hannah L; Dembowski, Jill A; DeLuca, Neal A

    2017-06-13

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genes are transcribed by cellular RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). While four viral immediate early proteins (ICP4, ICP0, ICP27, and ICP22) function in some capacity in viral transcription, the mechanism by which ICP22 functions remains unclear. We observed that the FACT complex (comprised of SSRP1 and Spt16) was relocalized in infected cells as a function of ICP22. ICP22 was also required for the association of FACT and the transcription elongation factors SPT5 and SPT6 with viral genomes. We further demonstrated that the FACT complex interacts with ICP22 throughout infection. We therefore hypothesized that ICP22 recruits cellular transcription elongation factors to viral genomes for efficient transcription elongation of viral genes. We reevaluated the phenotype of an ICP22 mutant virus by determining the abundance of all viral mRNAs throughout infection by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). The accumulation of almost all viral mRNAs late in infection was reduced compared to the wild type, regardless of kinetic class. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we mapped the location of RNA Pol II on viral genes and found that RNA Pol II levels on the bodies of viral genes were reduced in the ICP22 mutant compared to wild-type virus. In contrast, the association of RNA Pol II with transcription start sites in the mutant was not reduced. Taken together, our results indicate that ICP22 plays a role in recruiting elongation factors like the FACT complex to the HSV-1 genome to allow for efficient viral transcription elongation late in viral infection and ultimately infectious virion production. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 interacts with many cellular proteins throughout productive infection. Here, we demonstrate the interaction of a viral protein, ICP22, with a subset of cellular proteins known to be involved in transcription elongation. We determined that ICP22 is required to recruit the FACT complex and other transcription

  17. Repression of class I transcription by cadmium is mediated by the protein phosphatase 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Le Roux, Gwenaëlle; Ducrot, Cécile; Chédin, Stéphane; Labarre, Jean; Riva, Michel; Carles, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Toxic metals are part of our environment, and undue exposure to them leads to a variety of pathologies. In response, most organisms adapt their metabolism and have evolved systems to limit this toxicity and to acquire tolerance. Ribosome biosynthesis being central for protein synthesis, we analyzed in yeast the effects of a moderate concentration of cadmium (Cd2+) on Pol I transcription that represents >60% of the transcriptional activity of the cells. We show that Cd2+ rapidly and drastically shuts down the expression of the 35S rRNA. Repression does not result from a poisoning of any of the components of the class I transcriptional machinery by Cd2+, but rather involves a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent cellular signaling pathway that targets the formation/dissociation of the Pol I–Rrn3 complex. We also show that Pol I transcription is repressed by other toxic metals, such as Ag+ and Hg2+, which likewise perturb the Pol I–Rrn3 complex, but through PP2A-independent mechanisms. Taken together, our results point to a central role for the Pol I–Rrn3 complex as molecular switch for regulating Pol I transcription in response to toxic metals. PMID:23640330

  18. Separation of replication and transcription domains in nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, E; Borkovec, J; Kováčik, L; Svidenská, S; Schröfel, A; Skalníková, M; Švindrych, Z; Křížek, P; Ovesný, M; Hagen, G M; Juda, P; Michalová, K; Cardoso, M C; Cmarko, D; Raška, I

    2014-12-01

    In mammalian cells, active ribosomal genes produce the 18S, 5.8S and 28S RNAs of ribosomal particles. Transcription levels of these genes are very high throughout interphase, and the cell needs a special strategy to avoid collision of the DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase machineries. To investigate this problem, we measured the correlation of various replication and transcription signals in the nucleoli of HeLa, HT-1080 and NIH 3T3 cells using a specially devised software for analysis of confocal images. Additionally, to follow the relationship between nucleolar replication and transcription in living cells, we produced a stable cell line expressing GFP-RPA43 (subunit of RNA polymerase I, pol I) and RFP-PCNA (the sliding clamp protein) based on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. We found that replication and transcription signals are more efficiently separated in nucleoli than in the nucleoplasm. In the course of S phase, separation of PCNA and pol I signals gradually increased. During the same period, separation of pol I and incorporated Cy5-dUTP signals decreased. Analysis of single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) images indicated that transcriptionally active FC/DFC units (i.e. fibrillar centers with adjacent dense fibrillar components) did not incorporate DNA nucleotides. Taken together, our data show that replication of the ribosomal genes is spatially separated from their transcription, and FC/DFC units may provide a structural basis for that separation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid Genome-wide Recruitment of RNA Polymerase II Drives Transcription, Splicing, and Translation Events during T Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Davari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Activation of immune cells results in rapid functional changes, but how such fast changes are accomplished remains enigmatic. By combining time courses of 4sU-seq, RNA-seq, ribosome profiling (RP, and RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II ChIP-seq during T cell activation, we illustrate genome-wide temporal dynamics for ∼10,000 genes. This approach reveals not only immediate-early and posttranscriptionally regulated genes but also coupled changes in transcription and translation for >90% of genes. Recruitment, rather than release of paused RNA Pol II, primarily mediates transcriptional changes. This coincides with a genome-wide temporary slowdown in cotranscriptional splicing, even for polyadenylated mRNAs that are localized at the chromatin. Subsequent splicing optimization correlates with increasing Ser-2 phosphorylation of the RNA Pol II carboxy-terminal domain (CTD and activation of the positive transcription elongation factor (pTEFb. Thus, rapid de novo recruitment of RNA Pol II dictates the course of events during T cell activation, particularly transcription, splicing, and consequently translation. : Davari et al. visualize global changes in RNA Pol II binding, transcription, splicing, and translation. T cells change their functional program by rapid de novo recruitment of RNA Pol II and coupled changes in transcription and translation. This coincides with fluctuations in RNA Pol II phosphorylation and a temporary reduction in cotranscriptional splicing. Keywords: RNA Pol II, cotranscriptional splicing, T cell activation, ribosome profiling, 4sU, H3K36, Ser-5 RNA Pol II, Ser-2 RNA Pol II, immune response, immediate-early genes

  20. Influenza Virus Mounts a Two-Pronged Attack on Host RNA Polymerase II Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, David L V; Tellier, Michael; Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Nojima, Takayuki; Proudfoot, Nick J; Murphy, Shona; Fodor, Ervin

    2018-05-15

    Influenza virus intimately associates with host RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and mRNA processing machinery. Here, we use mammalian native elongating transcript sequencing (mNET-seq) to examine Pol II behavior during viral infection. We show that influenza virus executes a two-pronged attack on host transcription. First, viral infection causes decreased Pol II gene occupancy downstream of transcription start sites. Second, virus-induced cellular stress leads to a catastrophic failure of Pol II termination at poly(A) sites, with transcription often continuing for tens of kilobases. Defective Pol II termination occurs independently of the ability of the viral NS1 protein to interfere with host mRNA processing. Instead, this termination defect is a common effect of diverse cellular stresses and underlies the production of previously reported downstream-of-gene transcripts (DoGs). Our work has implications for understanding not only host-virus interactions but also fundamental aspects of mammalian transcription. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inference of RNA polymerase II transcription dynamics from chromatin immunoprecipitation time course data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciira wa Maina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gene transcription mediated by RNA polymerase II (pol-II is a key step in gene expression. The dynamics of pol-II moving along the transcribed region influence the rate and timing of gene expression. In this work, we present a probabilistic model of transcription dynamics which is fitted to pol-II occupancy time course data measured using ChIP-Seq. The model can be used to estimate transcription speed and to infer the temporal pol-II activity profile at the gene promoter. Model parameters are estimated using either maximum likelihood estimation or via Bayesian inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. The Bayesian approach provides confidence intervals for parameter estimates and allows the use of priors that capture domain knowledge, e.g. the expected range of transcription speeds, based on previous experiments. The model describes the movement of pol-II down the gene body and can be used to identify the time of induction for transcriptionally engaged genes. By clustering the inferred promoter activity time profiles, we are able to determine which genes respond quickly to stimuli and group genes that share activity profiles and may therefore be co-regulated. We apply our methodology to biological data obtained using ChIP-seq to measure pol-II occupancy genome-wide when MCF-7 human breast cancer cells are treated with estradiol (E2. The transcription speeds we obtain agree with those obtained previously for smaller numbers of genes with the advantage that our approach can be applied genome-wide. We validate the biological significance of the pol-II promoter activity clusters by investigating cluster-specific transcription factor binding patterns and determining canonical pathway enrichment. We find that rapidly induced genes are enriched for both estrogen receptor alpha (ERα and FOXA1 binding in their proximal promoter regions.

  2. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  3. PARDISEKO III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, H.; Sack, C.

    1975-05-01

    This report gives a detailed description of the latest version of the PARDISEKO code, PARDISEKO III, with particular emphasis on the numerical and programming methods employed. The physical model and its relation to nuclear safety as well as a description and the results of confirming experiments are treated in detail in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre report KFK-1989. (orig.) [de

  4. Unidad 4: Crear Polígonos

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Trigueros, Isabel María

    2015-01-01

    En esta unidad aprenderéis a crear vuestros propios polígonos con Google Earth para delimitar un área geográfica. Podréis modificar el tamaño de los polígonos, el color del área y su perímetro, incluso elaborar polígonos en 3D para superponer distintas variables sobre un paisaje concreto.

  5. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Una paz esquiva

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  6. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Una nueva estrategia de paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  7. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Una paz secuestrada

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  8. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Los momentos de la paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  9. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Siempre es tarde para la paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  10. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Viraje en el proceso de paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  11. eRNAs promote transcription by establishing chromatin accessibility at defined genomic loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousavi, Kambiz; Zare, Hossein; Dell'orso, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    )RNA acted to activate the downstream myogenic genes. The deployment of transcriptional machinery to appropriate loci is contingent on chromatin accessibility, a rate-limiting step preceding Pol II assembly. By nuclease sensitivity assay, we found that eRNAs regulate genomic access of the transcriptional...... complex to defined regulatory regions. In conclusion, our data suggest that eRNAs contribute to establishing a cell-type-specific transcriptional circuitry by directing chromatin-remodeling events....

  12. Fermilab III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The total ongoing plans for Fermilab are wrapped up in the Fermilab III scheme, centrepiece of which is the proposal for a new Main Injector. The Laboratory has been awarded a $200,000 Illinois grant which will be used to initiate environmental assessment and engineering design of the Main Injector, while a state review panel recommended that the project should also benefit from $2 million of funding

  13. Fermilab III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    The total ongoing plans for Fermilab are wrapped up in the Fermilab III scheme, centrepiece of which is the proposal for a new Main Injector. The Laboratory has been awarded a $200,000 Illinois grant which will be used to initiate environmental assessment and engineering design of the Main Injector, while a state review panel recommended that the project should also benefit from $2 million of funding.

  14. The Mediator complex: a central integrator of transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Taatjes, Dylan J.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA polymerase II (pol II) enzyme transcribes all protein-coding and most non-coding RNA genes and is globally regulated by Mediator, a large, conformationally flexible protein complex with variable subunit composition (for example, a four-subunit CDK8 module can reversibly associate). These biochemical characteristics are fundamentally important for Mediator's ability to control various processes important for transcription, including organization of chromatin architecture and regulation of pol II pre-initiation, initiation, re-initiation, pausing, and elongation. Although Mediator exists in all eukaryotes, a variety of Mediator functions appear to be specific to metazoans, indicative of more diverse regulatory requirements. PMID:25693131

  15. Sangres políticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gatti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Trabajamos en las tensiones entre dos continentes en permanente disputa: “sangre” y “política”, “realidad” y “dispositivo”, “naturaleza” y “cultura”. Son viejos asuntos, y viejas tensiones, pero que no dejan de actualizarse y que ahora se manifiestan por doquier en cuestiones como la biometría, los mapas genéticos, la identificación de desaparecidos, las políticas de la identidad indígena o de género o de menores o de drogas, la gestación subrogada o la gestión de la marginalidad. Los diez textos recogidos en este número especial discuten desde una mirada interdisciplinaria sobre la presencia de la sangre —en sus distintas declinaciones— en la definición contemporánea de lo que entendemos por identidad, derechos humanos o ciudadanía.

  16. Política, marketing e neoliberalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Roberto Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available O texto contém uma análise da relação política e sua possível consciência no seu momento específico compreendido pelo processo eleitoral (Londrina - eleições 92. Como este processo eleitoral em nossos dias, nutre-se de algumas técnicas conhecidas como Marketing Político-Eleitoral, e de como estas, contribuem para uma dinâmica de esvaziamento da vida política propriamente dita. Procura ainda, conectar esse esvaziamento político e suas consequências, com o avanço da concepção neoliberal cujo ápice parece fazer coincidir a política como mais uma manifestação de Mercado.

  17. The transcriptional landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The application of new and less biased methods to study the transcriptional output from genomes, such as tiling arrays and deep sequencing, has revealed that most of the genome is transcribed and that there is substantial overlap of transcripts derived from the two strands of DNA. In protein coding...... regions, the map of transcripts is very complex due to small transcripts from the flanking ends of the transcription unit, the use of multiple start and stop sites for the main transcript, production of multiple functional RNA molecules from the same primary transcript, and RNA molecules made...... by independent transcription from within the unit. In genomic regions separating those that encode proteins or highly abundant RNA molecules with known function, transcripts are generally of low abundance and short-lived. In most of these cases, it is unclear to what extent a function is related to transcription...

  18. Direct Regulation of tRNA and 5S rRNA Gene Transcription by Polo-like Kinase 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairley, Jennifer A.; Mitchell, Louise E.; Berg, Tracy; Kenneth, Niall S.; von Schubert, Conrad; Sillje, Herman H. W.; Medema, Rene H.; Nigg, Erich A.; White, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Polo-like kinase Plk1 controls numerous aspects of cell-cycle progression. We show that it associates with tRNA and 5S rRNA genes and regulates their transcription by RNA polymerase Ill (pol Ill) through direct binding and phosphorylation of transcription factor Brit During interphase, Plk1 promotes

  19. A Protein Complex Required for Polymerase V Transcripts and RNA- Directed DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Julie A.

    2010-05-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with gene silencing. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation is established by DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2), which is targeted by small interfering RNAs through a pathway termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) [1, 2]. Recently, RdDM was shown to require intergenic noncoding (IGN) transcripts that are dependent on the Pol V polymerase. These transcripts are proposed to function as scaffolds for the recruitment of downstream RdDM proteins, including DRM2, to loci that produce both siRNAs and IGN transcripts [3]. However, the mechanism(s) through which Pol V is targeted to specific genomic loci remains largely unknown. Through affinity purification of two known RdDM components, DEFECTIVE IN RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 1 (DRD1) [4] and DEFECTIVE IN MERISTEM SILENCING 3 (DMS3) [5, 6], we found that they copurify with each other and with a novel protein, RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 1 (RDM1), forming a complex we term DDR. We also found that DRD1 copurified with Pol V subunits and that RDM1, like DRD1 [3] and DMS3 [7], is required for the production of Pol V-dependent transcripts. These results suggest that the DDR complex acts in RdDM at a step upstream of the recruitment or activation of Pol V. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Protein Complex Required for Polymerase V Transcripts and RNA- Directed DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Julie A.; Ausí n, Israel; Johnson, Lianna M.; Vashisht, Ajay  A Amar; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Wohlschlegel, James  A A.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with gene silencing. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation is established by DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2), which is targeted by small interfering RNAs through a pathway termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) [1, 2]. Recently, RdDM was shown to require intergenic noncoding (IGN) transcripts that are dependent on the Pol V polymerase. These transcripts are proposed to function as scaffolds for the recruitment of downstream RdDM proteins, including DRM2, to loci that produce both siRNAs and IGN transcripts [3]. However, the mechanism(s) through which Pol V is targeted to specific genomic loci remains largely unknown. Through affinity purification of two known RdDM components, DEFECTIVE IN RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 1 (DRD1) [4] and DEFECTIVE IN MERISTEM SILENCING 3 (DMS3) [5, 6], we found that they copurify with each other and with a novel protein, RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 1 (RDM1), forming a complex we term DDR. We also found that DRD1 copurified with Pol V subunits and that RDM1, like DRD1 [3] and DMS3 [7], is required for the production of Pol V-dependent transcripts. These results suggest that the DDR complex acts in RdDM at a step upstream of the recruitment or activation of Pol V. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Retrotransposons. An RNA polymerase III subunit determines sites of retrotransposon integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridier-Nahmias, Antoine; Tchalikian-Cosson, Aurélie; Baller, Joshua A; Menouni, Rachid; Fayol, Hélène; Flores, Amando; Saïb, Ali; Werner, Michel; Voytas, Daniel F; Lesage, Pascale

    2015-05-01

    Mobile genetic elements are ubiquitous. Their integration site influences genome stability and gene expression. The Ty1 retrotransposon of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrates upstream of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-transcribed genes, yet the primary determinant of target specificity has remained elusive. Here we describe an interaction between Ty1 integrase and the AC40 subunit of Pol III and demonstrate that AC40 is the predominant determinant targeting Ty1 integration upstream of Pol III-transcribed genes. Lack of an integrase-AC40 interaction dramatically alters target site choice, leading to a redistribution of Ty1 insertions in the genome, mainly to chromosome ends. The mechanism of target specificity allows Ty1 to proliferate and yet minimizes genetic damage to its host. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Edad y cultura política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL JUSTEL

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la evolución de algunos aspectos de la cultura política y democrática durante los años ochenta: información y competencia política, participación política, actitudes hacia los partidos y orientaciones políticas. Los datos proceden de sendas encuestas realizadas en 1980 y 1989. Mediante análisis de cohortes de edad, controlando sexo y nivel de estudios, se comprueba el grado diferencial de expansión de actitudes democráticas en los grupos de edad, controlando sexo y nivel de estudios, se comprueba el grado diferencial de expansión de actitudes democráticas en los grupos de edad, el efecto homogeneizador que conlleva y el influjo estratégico de la educación. En el marco teórico de la socialización política en edad adulta y de las relaciones entre sistema social y sistema político, se interpretan los cambios de actitudes distinguiendo efectos de ciclo vital, de cohorte y de periodo. Al mismo tiempo, se discuten algunas consecuencias políticas del envejecimiento poblacional y se constata de un grado notable de plasticidad actitudinal y de adhesión creciente a la democracia de las cohortes de edad avanzada.

  3. Novel functions of prototype foamy virus Gag glycine- arginine-rich boxes in reverse transcription and particle morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllers, Erik; Uhlig, Tobias; Stirnnagel, Kristin; Fiebig, Uwe; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Lindemann, Dirk

    2011-02-01

    Prototype foamy virus (PFV) Gag lacks the characteristic orthoretroviral Cys-His motifs that are essential for various steps of the orthoretroviral replication cycle, such as RNA packaging, reverse transcription, infectivity, integration, and viral assembly. Instead, it contains three glycine-arginine-rich boxes (GR boxes) in its C terminus that putatively represent a functional equivalent. We used a four-plasmid replication-deficient PFV vector system, with uncoupled RNA genome packaging and structural protein translation, to analyze the effects of deletion and various substitution mutations within each GR box on particle release, particle-associated protein composition, RNA packaging, DNA content, infectivity, particle morphology, and intracellular localization. The degree of viral particle release by all mutants was similar to that of the wild type. Only minimal effects on Pol encapsidation, exogenous reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, and genomic viral RNA packaging were observed. In contrast, particle-associated DNA content and infectivity were drastically reduced for all deletion mutants and were undetectable for all alanine substitution mutants. Furthermore, GR box I mutants had significant changes in particle morphology, and GR box II mutants lacked the typical nuclear localization pattern of PFV Gag. Finally, it could be shown that GR boxes I and III, but not GR box II, can functionally complement each other. It therefore appears that, similar to the orthoretroviral Cys-His motifs, the PFV Gag GR boxes are important for RNA encapsidation, genome reverse transcription, and virion infectivity as well as for particle morphogenesis.

  4. A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis–G1 transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C.-S.; Bartman, Caroline R.; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J.; Keller, Cheryl A.; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S.; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C.; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis–G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis–G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer–promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis–G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis–G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis–G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states. PMID:27340175

  5. A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis-G1 transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C-S; Bartman, Caroline R; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J; Keller, Cheryl A; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A

    2016-06-15

    During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer-promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis-G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states. © 2016 Hsiung et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Fuels and Petroleum, Oil & Lubricants (POL) Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuels and Lubricants Technology Team operates and maintains the Fuels and POL Labs at TARDEC. Lab experts adhere to standardized American Society for Testing and...

  7. The chemical structure of DNA sequence signals for RNA transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. G.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed recognition sites for RNA transcription for E. coli NRA polymerase, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, and eukaryotic RNA polymerase Pol II are evaluated in the light of the requirements for efficient recognition. It is shown that although there is good experimental evidence that specific nucleic acid sequence patterns are involved in transcriptional regulation in bacteria and bacterial viruses, among the sequences now available, only in the case of the promoters recognized by bacteriophage T7 polymerase does it seem likely that the pattern is sufficient. It is concluded that the eukaryotic pattern that is investigated is not restrictive enough to serve as a recognition site.

  8. Structural basis for the initiation of eukaryotic transcription-coupled DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Lahiri, Indrajit; Wang, Wei; Wier, Adam; Cianfrocco, Michael A; Chong, Jenny; Hare, Alissa A; Dervan, Peter B; DiMaio, Frank; Leschziner, Andres E; Wang, Dong

    2017-11-30

    Eukaryotic transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is an important and well-conserved sub-pathway of nucleotide excision repair that preferentially removes DNA lesions from the template strand that block translocation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB, also known as ERCC6) protein in humans (or its yeast orthologues, Rad26 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhp26 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe) is among the first proteins to be recruited to the lesion-arrested Pol II during the initiation of eukaryotic TCR. Mutations in CSB are associated with the autosomal-recessive neurological disorder Cockayne syndrome, which is characterized by progeriod features, growth failure and photosensitivity. The molecular mechanism of eukaryotic TCR initiation remains unclear, with several long-standing unanswered questions. How cells distinguish DNA lesion-arrested Pol II from other forms of arrested Pol II, the role of CSB in TCR initiation, and how CSB interacts with the arrested Pol II complex are all unknown. The lack of structures of CSB or the Pol II-CSB complex has hindered our ability to address these questions. Here we report the structure of the S. cerevisiae Pol II-Rad26 complex solved by cryo-electron microscopy. The structure reveals that Rad26 binds to the DNA upstream of Pol II, where it markedly alters its path. Our structural and functional data suggest that the conserved Swi2/Snf2-family core ATPase domain promotes the forward movement of Pol II, and elucidate key roles for Rad26 in both TCR and transcription elongation.

  9. Dataset of transcriptional landscape of B cell early activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Garruss

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Signaling via B cell receptors (BCR and Toll-like receptors (TLRs result in activation of B cells with distinct physiological outcomes, but transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that drive activation and distinguish these pathways remain unknown. At early time points after BCR and TLR ligand exposure, 0.5 and 2 h, RNA-seq was performed allowing observations on rapid transcriptional changes. At 2 h, ChIP-seq was performed to allow observations on important regulatory mechanisms potentially driving transcriptional change. The dataset includes RNA-seq, ChIP-seq of control (Input, RNA Pol II, H3K4me3, H3K27me3, and a separate RNA-seq for miRNA expression, which can be found at Gene Expression Omnibus Dataset GSE61608. Here, we provide details on the experimental and analysis methods used to obtain and analyze this dataset and to examine the transcriptional landscape of B cell early activation.

  10. Modelling the CDK-dependent transcription cycle in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansó, Miriam; Fisher, Robert P

    2013-12-01

    CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases) ensure directionality and fidelity of the eukaryotic cell division cycle. In a similar fashion, the transcription cycle is governed by a conserved subfamily of CDKs that phosphorylate Pol II (RNA polymerase II) and other substrates. A genetic model organism, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, has yielded robust models of cell-cycle control, applicable to higher eukaryotes. From a similar approach combining classical and chemical genetics, fundamental principles of transcriptional regulation by CDKs are now emerging. In the present paper, we review the current knowledge of each transcriptional CDK with respect to its substrate specificity, function in transcription and effects on chromatin modifications, highlighting the important roles of CDKs in ensuring quantity and quality control over gene expression in eukaryotes.

  11. La carrera política y el capital político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alcántara-Sáez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de una propuesta de naturaleza teórica para el estudio de las carreras políticas desde la perspectiva de la existencia de tres momentos diferentes (entrada, desempeño y salida, en conformidad con el uso del capital político que gestionan los políticos. Se abordan teóricamente distintos patrones de capital político así como su impacto sobre las trayectorias políticas seguidas. El peso del tiempo transcurrido y los ingresos recibidos por la actividad política son igualmente considerados. Político es aquella persona que es elegida en un proceso electoral y/o que es nominada en un puesto de confianza por alguien elegido, también lo es quien tiene un cargo orgánico en una institución como un partido político. A ello debe sumarse recibir una remuneración por esa actividad.

  12. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Colombia. Crónica de un proceso de paz fracasado

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  13. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - El proceso de paz en sala de emergencia

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  14. Involvement of specialized DNA polymerases Pol II, Pol IV and DnaE2 in DNA replication in the absence of Pol I in Pseudomonas putida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, Julia; Jatsenko, Tatjana; Saumaa, Signe; Teras, Riho; Tark-Dame, Mariliis; Horak, Rita; Kivisaar, Maia

    2011-01-01

    The majority of bacteria possess a different set of specialized DNA polymerases than those identified in the most common model organism Escherichia coli. Here, we have studied the ability of specialized DNA polymerases to substitute Pol I in DNA replication in Pseudomonas putida. Our results revealed that P. putida Pol I-deficient cells have severe growth defects in LB medium, which is accompanied by filamentous cell morphology. However, growth of Pol I-deficient bacteria on solid rich medium can be restored by reduction of reactive oxygen species in cells. Also, mutants with improved growth emerge rapidly. Similarly to the initial Pol I-deficient P. putida, its adapted derivatives express a moderate mutator phenotype, which indicates that DNA replication carried out in the absence of Pol I is erroneous both in the original Pol I-deficient bacteria and the adapted derivatives. Analysis of the spectra of spontaneous Rif r mutations in P. putida strains lacking different DNA polymerases revealed that the presence of specialized DNA polymerases Pol II and Pol IV influences the frequency of certain base substitutions in Pol I-proficient and Pol I-deficient backgrounds in opposite ways. Involvement of another specialized DNA polymerase DnaE2 in DNA replication in Pol I-deficient bacteria is stimulated by UV irradiation of bacteria, implying that DnaE2-provided translesion synthesis partially substitutes the absence of Pol I in cells containing heavily damaged DNA.

  15. Transcriptional regulation by competing transcription factor modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Hermsen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks lie at the heart of cellular computation. In these networks, intracellular and extracellular signals are integrated by transcription factors, which control the expression of transcription units by binding to cis-regulatory regions on the DNA. The designs of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cis-regulatory regions are usually highly complex. They frequently consist of both repetitive and overlapping transcription factor binding sites. To unravel the design principles of these promoter architectures, we have designed in silico prokaryotic transcriptional logic gates with predefined input-output relations using an evolutionary algorithm. The resulting cis-regulatory designs are often composed of modules that consist of tandem arrays of binding sites to which the transcription factors bind cooperatively. Moreover, these modules often overlap with each other, leading to competition between them. Our analysis thus identifies a new signal integration motif that is based upon the interplay between intramodular cooperativity and intermodular competition. We show that this signal integration mechanism drastically enhances the capacity of cis-regulatory domains to integrate signals. Our results provide a possible explanation for the complexity of promoter architectures and could be used for the rational design of synthetic gene circuits.

  16. Human Pol ζ purified with accessory subunits is active in translesion DNA synthesis and complements Pol η in cisplatin bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sam; Gregory, Mark T; Yang, Wei

    2014-02-25

    DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ) is a eukaryotic B-family DNA polymerase that specializes in translesion synthesis and is essential for normal embryogenesis. At a minimum, Pol ζ consists of a catalytic subunit Rev3 and an accessory subunit Rev7. Mammalian Rev3 contains >3,000 residues and is twice as large as the yeast homolog. To date, no vertebrate Pol ζ has been purified for biochemical characterization. Here we report purification of a series of human Rev3 deletion constructs expressed in HEK293 cells and identification of a minimally catalytically active human Pol ζ variant. With a tagged form of an active Pol ζ variant, we isolated two additional accessory subunits of human Pol ζ, PolD2 and PolD3. The purified four-subunit Pol ζ4 (Rev3-Rev7-PolD2-PolD3) is much more efficient and more processive at bypassing a 1,2-intrastrand d(GpG)-cisplatin cross-link than the two-subunit Pol ζ2 (Rev3-Rev7). We show that complete bypass of cisplatin lesions requires Pol η to insert dCTP opposite the 3' guanine and Pol ζ4 to extend the primers.

  17. WRKY transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469

  18. Agendamento de Políticas Públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Rosa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aborda-se o conceito de advocacy e contra-agendamento como uma forma de a Sociedade Civil incluir suas causas na mídia, objetivando a tematização e a possibilidade de transformar-se em política pública. Analisa-se a reportagem “Uma conquista longe das ruas”; resultado de um agendamento compartilhado e que, em muitos aspectos, serve de referência para cobertura de políticas públicas sociais.

  19. Characterization of Mycobacterium smegmatis PolD2 and PolD1 as RNA/DNA polymerases homologous to the POL domain of bacterial DNA ligase D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Bhattarai, Hitesh; Yan, Han-Guang; Shuman, Stewart; Glickman, Michael S

    2012-12-21

    Mycobacteria exploit nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) to repair DNA double-strand breaks. The core NHEJ machinery comprises the homodimeric DNA end-binding protein Ku and DNA ligase D (LigD), a modular enzyme composed of a C-terminal ATP-dependent ligase domain (LIG), a central 3'-phosphoesterase domain (PE), and an N-terminal polymerase domain (POL). LigD POL is proficient at adding templated and nontemplated deoxynucleotides and ribonucleotides to DNA ends in vitro and is the catalyst in vivo of unfaithful NHEJ events involving nontemplated single-nucleotide additions to blunt DSB ends. Here, we identify two mycobacterial proteins, PolD1 and PolD2, as stand-alone homologues of the LigD POL domain. Biochemical characterization of PolD1 and PolD2 shows that they resemble LigD POL in their monomeric quaternary structures, their ability to add templated and nontemplated nucleotides to primer-templates and blunt ends, and their preference for rNTPs versus dNTPs. Deletion of polD1, polD2, or both from a Mycobacterium smegmatis strain carrying an inactivating mutation in LigD POL failed to reveal a role for PolD1 or PolD2 in templated nucleotide additions during NHEJ of 5'-overhang DSBs or in clastogen resistance. Whereas our results document the existence and characteristics of new stand-alone members of the LigD POL family of RNA/DNA polymerases, they imply that other polymerases can perform fill-in synthesis during mycobacterial NHEJ.

  20. Characterization of a Novel Class I Transcription Factor A (CITFA) Subunit That Is Indispensable for Transcription by the Multifunctional RNA Polymerase I of Trypanosoma brucei

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, T. N.

    2012-10-26

    Trypanosoma brucei is the only organism known to have evolved a multifunctional RNA polymerase I (pol I) system that is used to express the parasite\\'s ribosomal RNAs, as well as its major cell surface antigens, namely, the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) and procyclin, which are vital for establishing successful infections in the mammalian host and the tsetse vector, respectively. Thus far, biochemical analyses of the T. brucei RNA pol I transcription machinery have elucidated the subunit structure of the enzyme and identified the class I transcription factor A (CITFA). CITFA binds to RNA pol I promoters, and its CITFA-2 subunit was shown to be absolutely essential for RNA pol I transcription in the parasite. Tandem affinity purification (TAP) of CITFA revealed the subunits CITFA-1 to -6, which are conserved only among kinetoplastid organisms, plus the dynein light chain DYNLL1. Here, by tagging CITFA-6 instead of CITFA-2, a complex was purified that contained all known CITFA subunits, as well as a novel proline-rich protein. Functional studies carried out in vivo and in vitro, as well as a colocalization study, unequivocally demonstrated that this protein is a bona fide CITFA subunit, essential for parasite viability and indispensable for RNA pol I transcription of ribosomal gene units and the active VSG expression site in the mammalian-infective life cycle stage of the parasite. Interestingly, CITFA-7 function appears to be species specific, because expression of an RNA interference (RNAi)-resistant CITFA-7 transgene from Trypanosoma cruzi could not rescue the lethal phenotype of silencing endogenous CITFA-7.

  1. Downregulation of rRNA transcription triggers cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Responding to various stimuli is indispensable for the maintenance of homeostasis. The downregulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA transcription is one of the mechanisms involved in the response to stimuli by various cellular processes, such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Cell differentiation is caused by intra- and extracellular stimuli and is associated with the downregulation of rRNA transcription as well as reduced cell growth. The downregulation of rRNA transcription during differentiation is considered to contribute to reduced cell growth. However, the downregulation of rRNA transcription can induce various cellular processes; therefore, it may positively regulate cell differentiation. To test this possibility, we specifically downregulated rRNA transcription using actinomycin D or a siRNA for Pol I-specific transcription factor IA (TIF-IA in HL-60 and THP-1 cells, both of which have differentiation potential. The inhibition of rRNA transcription induced cell differentiation in both cell lines, which was demonstrated by the expression of the common differentiation marker CD11b. Furthermore, TIF-IA knockdown in an ex vivo culture of mouse hematopoietic stem cells increased the percentage of myeloid cells and reduced the percentage of immature cells. We also evaluated whether differentiation was induced via the inhibition of cell cycle progression because rRNA transcription is tightly coupled to cell growth. We found that cell cycle arrest without affecting rRNA transcription did not induce differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, our results demonstrate the first time that the downregulation of rRNA levels could be a trigger for the induction of differentiation in mammalian cells. Furthermore, this phenomenon was not simply a reflection of cell cycle arrest. Our results provide a novel insight into the relationship between rRNA transcription and cell differentiation.

  2. Ingeniero, político, economista, inventor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Montaña Cuéllar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Técnica y utopía. Biografía intelectual y política de Alejandro López, 1876-1940. Alberto Mayor Mora. Fondo Editorial Universidad Eafit, colección Cielos de Arena, Medellín, 2001, 621 págs., il.

  3. El marketing político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro H. Cifuentes G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Si un candidato desea ser elegido, las técnicas de marketing aplicadas a la política, le son imprescindibles. El marketing político (Politing es el análisis  metódico de los diferentes segmentos que integran el ámbito político de una sociedad y de los factores que puedan modificarlos. Se aplican al candidato, a los votantes, al análisis de la publicidad política, a los simpatizantes, a desconocedores  del partido y a los indecisos. Los candidatos colombianos lo están aplicando, y compañías nuestras exportan servicios  de asesoría de países suramericanos.Promocionar  un candidato implica estructurar una compañía tal como una empresa, aplicando técnicas de ventas, de fijación de cuotas y de planeación estratégica.

  4. Factor requirements for transcription in the Archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae.

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, S A; Bell, S D; Jackson, S P

    1997-01-01

    Archaea (archaebacteria) constitute a domain of life that is distinct from Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes). Although archaeal cells share many morphological features with eubacteria, their transcriptional apparatus is more akin to eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II and III than it is to eubacterial transcription systems. Thus, in addition to possessing a 10 subunit RNA polymerase and a homologue of the TATA-binding protein (TBP), Archaea possess a polypeptide termed TFB that is h...

  5. Blogs, artefactos y política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Albornoz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo problematiza la acepción de lo público en el espacio virtual que surge en la blogosfera política ecuatoriana en el contexto de la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente. A partir del análisis de la extensión de la política a los lugares virtuales, se aborda la blogosfera como proyecto político y la tecnología como formas de ordenamiento del mundo que la sociedad estabiliza. Se considera a la blogosfera política un espacio público regulado con la capacidad de ordenar y clasificar el mundo virtual por medio de dispositivos sociales, políticos y tecnológicos. Finalmente se propone el estudio del nuevo espacio público virtual desde un enfoque tecno-social que dé cuenta del entorno virtual como espacio formador de conductas.This article problematizes the acceptance of the public in the virtual space emerging in the Ecuadorian political blogosphere, in the context of the National Constitutional Assembly. Beginning with an analysis of the spread of politics to virtual spaces, the blogosphere is approached as a political project, and technology as ways of ordering the world that society stabilizes. The political blogosphere is taken to be a regulated public space with the ability to order and classify the virtual world by means of social, political and technological tools. Finally, the study of this new virtual public space from a techno-social focus is proposed, taking into account virtual surroundings as a space in which conducts are formed.

  6. Promoter2.0: for the recognition of PolII promoter sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen; Knudsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Motivation : A new approach to the prediction of eukaryotic PolII promoters from DNA sequence takesadvantage of a combination of elements similar to neural networks and genetic algorithms to recognize a set ofdiscrete subpatterns with variable separation as one pattern: a promoter. The neural...... of optimization, the algorithm was able todiscriminate between vertebrate promoter and non-promoter sequences in a test set with a correlationcoefficient of 0.63. In addition, all five known transcription start sites on the plus strand of the completeadenovirus genome were within 161 bp of 35 predicted...

  7. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III and As(III/Sb(III-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Li

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III]/antimonite [Sb(III]-oxidizing strain. The As(III oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III, ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  8. Políticas activas en las prestaciones por desempleo

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Jiménez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo explica el tema de las políticas activas y políticas activas en las prestaciones por desempleo, tanto a nivel nacional como internacional. Para explicarlo se definen las políticas activas y sus funciones, tanto de formación, orientación y reinserción laboral. También se hace mención a las reformas llevadas a cabo en las diferentes políticas y el surgimiento de nuevos programas como función de políticas activas encaminadas a la reinserción laboral. Departamento de Derech...

  9. Satellite III non-coding RNAs show distinct and stress-specific patterns of induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Sonali; Parihar, Rashmi; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2009-01-01

    The heat shock response in human cells is associated with the transcription of satellite III repeats (SatIII) located in the 9q12 locus. Upon induction, the SatIII transcripts remain associated with the locus and recruit several transcription and splicing factors to form the nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). The nSBs are thought to modulate epigenetic changes during the heat shock response. We demonstrate here that the nSBs are induced by a variety of stressors and show stress-specific patterns of induction. While the transcription factor HSF1 is required for the induction of SatIII locus by the stressors tested, its specific role in the transcriptional process appears to be stress dependent. Our results suggest the existence of multiple transcriptional loci for the SatIII transcripts and that their activation might depend upon the type of stressors. Thus, induction of SatIII transcripts appears to be a generic response to a variety of stress conditions.

  10. Identification of EhTIF-IA: The putative E. histolytica orthologue of the human ribosomal RNA transcription initiation factor-IA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ankita; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Jhingan, Gagan Deep

    2016-03-01

    Initiation of rDNA transcription requires the assembly of a specific multi-protein complex at the rDNA promoter containing the RNA Pol I with auxiliary factors. One of these factors is known as Rrn3P in yeast and Transcription Initiation Factor IA (TIF-IA) in mammals. Rrn3p/TIF-IA serves as a bridge between RNA Pol I and the pre-initiation complex at the promoter. It is phosphorylated at multiple sites and is involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in a growth-dependent manner. In the early branching parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, the rRNA genes are present exclusively on circular extra chromosomal plasmids. The protein factors involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in E. histolytica are not known. We have identified the E. histolytica equivalent of TIF-1A (EhTIF-IA) by homology search within the database and was further cloned and expressed. Immuno-localization studies showed that EhTIF-IA co-localized partially with fibrillarin in the peripherally localized nucleolus. EhTIF-IA was shown to interact with the RNA Pol I-specific subunit RPA12 both in vivo and in vitro. Mass spectroscopy data identified RNA Pol I-specific subunits and other nucleolar proteins to be the interacting partners of EhTIF-IA. Our study demonstrates for the first time a conserved putative RNA Pol I transcription factor TIF-IA in E. histolytica.

  11. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  12. “Jump Start and Gain” Model for Dosage Compensation in Drosophila Based on Direct Sequencing of Nascent Transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferrari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dosage compensation in Drosophila is mediated by the MSL complex, which increases male X-linked gene expression approximately 2-fold. The MSL complex preferentially binds the bodies of active genes on the male X, depositing H4K16ac with a 3′ bias. Two models have been proposed for the influence of the MSL complex on transcription: one based on promoter recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II, and a second featuring enhanced transcriptional elongation. Here, we utilize nascent RNA sequencing to document dosage compensation during transcriptional elongation. We also compare X and autosomes from published data on paused and elongating polymerase in order to assess the role of Pol II recruitment. Our results support a model for differentially regulated elongation, starting with release from 5′ pausing and increasing through X-linked gene bodies. Our results highlight facilitated transcriptional elongation as a key mechanism for the coordinated regulation of a diverse set of genes.

  13. Polímeros inteligentes. Informe de vigilancia tecnológica

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Serrano, Encarnación; Urbina Fraile, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Este informe de Vigilancia Tecnológica ha sido cofinanciado con Fondos FEDER y se ha realizado dentro del marco del Contrato Programa suscrito entre la Dirección General de Universidades e Investigación de la Comunidad de Madrid y la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, con la colaboración del Parque Científico de Leganés que gestiona el Círculo de Innovación en Materiales, Tecnología Aeroespacial y Nanotecnología. Los sistemas poliméricos inteligentes o polímeros sensibles al estímulo son...

  14. Amor y política.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando Bernal.

    1998-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende hacer una serie de consideraciones que apuntan sobre todo a extraer una definición de lo que es «la política» para el psicoanálisis a partir de una observación que hace Jacques Alain Miller en su texto Lógicas de la vida amorosa sobre cómo Freud introduce una «teoría política» a partir de su texto Psicología de las masas y análisis del yo.En dicho texto Freud hace ver el poder ordenador y apaciguador del amor) significante amo) en la medida en que una masa no es más que ...

  15. Hans Kelsen: pensador político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hasta la publicación de Sobre la esencia y el valor de la democracia, Hans Kelsen era solo conocido como experto en derecho público. El valor de este artículo de Lagi radica en rescatar de la obra kelseniana un aspecto casi por completo olvidado por la crítica, a saber, sus análisis sobre el significado y las características de la democracia parlamentaria en los Estados modernos. Se aborda la cuestión no solo desde el debate teórico sino también desde su contexto histórico¿político. La teoría política de Kelsen es considerada una parte integral de su doctrina central, presentada en Teoría pura del derecho, su obra más conspicua. Un análisis del trabajo sobre la esencia y el valor de la democracia nos restituye la imagen de un Kelsen como original pensador político. Se analizan las dos ediciones de Sobre la esencia y el valor de la democracia (1920¿1929 con estos propósitos: comprender por qué decidió dedicarse a la teoría de la democracia un teórico que rigurosamente defendió la separación de la esfera jurídica respecto de la historia, la filosofía y la política; y por qué no se limitó a explicar la esencia de la democracia sino que decidió concentrarse en clarificar qué se entiende por valor de la democracia.

  16. Mutations on the DNA binding surface of TBP discriminate between yeast TATA and TATA-less gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenova, Ivanka; Warfield, Linda; Hahn, Steven

    2014-08-01

    Most RNA polymerase (Pol) II promoters lack a TATA element, yet nearly all Pol II transcription requires TATA binding protein (TBP). While the TBP-TATA interaction is critical for transcription at TATA-containing promoters, it has been unclear whether TBP sequence-specific DNA contacts are required for transcription at TATA-less genes. Transcription factor IID (TFIID), the TBP-containing coactivator that functions at most TATA-less genes, recognizes short sequence-specific promoter elements in metazoans, but analogous promoter elements have not been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We generated a set of mutations in the yeast TBP DNA binding surface and found that most support growth of yeast. Both in vivo and in vitro, many of these mutations are specifically defective for transcription of two TATA-containing genes with only minor defects in transcription of two TATA-less, TFIID-dependent genes. TBP binds several TATA-less promoters with apparent high affinity, but our results suggest that this binding is not important for transcription activity. Our results are consistent with the model that sequence-specific TBP-DNA contacts are not important at yeast TATA-less genes and suggest that other general transcription factors or coactivator subunits are responsible for recognition of TATA-less promoters. Our results also explain why yeast TBP derivatives defective for TATA binding appear defective in activated transcription. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Las rentas de las exportaciones y la política comercial con oligopolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ávalos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Para una industria oligopólica, este ensayo analiza la manera cómo la políti -ca comercial puede depender de la naturaleza competitiva de los mercados.Estudiamos los efectos de las fusiones nacionales y extranjeras en la políticaco mer cial óp ti ma del país de re fe ren cia y en las ren tas de las ex por ta cio nes yel bienestar interno. Hay cuatro resultados principales: i se de mues tra quesi el país de referencia aplica su política comercial óptima, siempre perderáa resultas de una fusión extranje ra; ii cuan do el país de re fe ren cia apli ca supolítica comercial óptima, una fusión extranjera disminuirá las rentas de lasexportaciones; iii cuando el gobierno responde óptimamente a una fusióninterna, ésta no afectará el bienestar nacional, y iv cuan do el go bier no res -pon de óp ti ma men te a una fu sión in ter na, ésta no afec ta rá las ren tas de lasexportaciones.

  18. Archaeal RNA polymerase arrests transcription at DNA lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Alexandra M; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Transcription elongation is not uniform and transcription is often hindered by protein-bound factors or DNA lesions that limit translocation and impair catalysis. Despite the high degree of sequence and structural homology of the multi-subunit RNA polymerases (RNAP), substantial differences in response to DNA lesions have been reported. Archaea encode only a single RNAP with striking structural conservation with eukaryotic RNAP II (Pol II). Here, we demonstrate that the archaeal RNAP from Thermococcus kodakarensis is sensitive to a variety of DNA lesions that pause and arrest RNAP at or adjacent to the site of DNA damage. DNA damage only halts elongation when present in the template strand, and the damage often results in RNAP arresting such that the lesion would be encapsulated with the transcription elongation complex. The strand-specific halt to archaeal transcription elongation on modified templates is supportive of RNAP recognizing DNA damage and potentially initiating DNA repair through a process akin to the well-described transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) pathways in Bacteria and Eukarya.

  19. Elecciones 2003: spots políticos y cultura política

    OpenAIRE

    Concepción Virriel

    2004-01-01

    El presente trabajo aborda el tema de las elecciones federales de 2003, en especial el fenómeno del abstencionismo. Para ello se vincula el comportamiento electoral en dichas elecciones con la cultura política, en donde los aspectos básicos son la cultura del fraude heredada de los gobiernos priístas y la redefinición de los partidos políticos ante una nueva coyuntura, y cómo éstos aspectos influyeron en la forma de comunicarse mediante sus spots. El análisis de dichos spots comprende el anál...

  20. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written......ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...

  1. Prototype Theory Based Feature Representation for PolSAR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Xiaojing; Yang Xiangli; Huang Pingping; Yang Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a new feature representation approach for Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) image based on prototype theory. First, multiple prototype sets are generated using prototype theory. Then, regularized logistic regression is used to predict similarities between a test sample and each prototype set. Finally, the PolSAR image feature representation is obtained by ensemble projection. Experimental results of an unsupervised classification of PolSAR images show that our...

  2. As armadilhas do tripé da política macroeconômica brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉ NASSIF

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo analisa o chamado tripé da política macroeconômica brasileira, que desde 1999 tem combinado um regime de metas de inflação, um regime de taxa de câmbio flutuante e metas de superávit fiscal primário. A menos que o seu modus operandi seja alterado, o tripé não será capaz de libertar a economia brasileira de outra "possível trindade": altas taxas de juros reais, a apreciação da taxa de câmbio real e crescimento econômico muito baixo. Depois de analisar brevemente a base teórica sob o tripé macroeconômico, o artigo mostra por que este regime de política macroeconômica, se avaliado numa perspectiva de longo ou médio prazo, não tem sido capaz de garantir a estabilidade dos preços nem o crescimento econômico. Além da sugestão de romper com a estratégia brasileira de crescer com poupança externa, o documento também sugere três principais formas de mudar o modus operandi do tripé brasileiro: i aumentar o horizonte de tempo para atingir a meta de inflação, como tem sido o experiência da maioria dos países que adotam esse regime de política monetária; ii restaurar o papel anticíclico da política fiscal brasileira; e iii adotar uma combinação de mecanismos que visem prevenir que a moeda brasileira entre em uma nova tendência cíclica da apreciação em termos reais.

  3. Desarrollo vocacional y política pública

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Anthony G.

    2000-01-01

    El trabajo analiza la base para el interés político en los servicios de desarrollo vocacional, y la manera en la cual esta base está siendo fortalecida por las actuales transformaciones en el trabajo y en el desarrollo vocacional. Se exploran los papeles potenciales de la política pública en los servicios de desarrollo vocacional así como las formas en las que dichos servicios pueden influenciar el proceso de la creación de políticas. Se identifican una gama de temas de política relacionados ...

  4. Política, violencia y literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohut, Karl

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como punto de partida la opinión general de que América Latina es el continente violento por excelencia y la hipótesis defendida por Ariel Dorfman (1972 se analiza aquí la cuestión de la violencia política, ciñéndose a la literatura de la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Tras discutir las definiciones (divergentes de la violencia propuestas por la filosofía política, se pasa a una fenomenología de la violencia en la literatura, examinando hasta qué punto y en qué sentido ésta sería el carácter distintivo de la literatura latinoamericana. Finalmente, se analiza la metarreflexión sobre la violencia política en la literatura ficcional, centrándose en tres puntos: (1 el (presunto ser violento del mundo latinoamericano, (2 la violencia estatal, y (3 la violencia de la resistencia. Se constata, entre otras cosas, que ha habido una tendencia a atacar la violencia estatal y defender la de la resistencia; tendencia comprensible en tiempos de dictadura, pero que se vuelve problemática bajo una democracia. Dos preguntas cierran este trabajo: hasta qué punto la violencia es un fenómeno de la cultura, que crece en su mismo seno, y no un fenómeno extracultural dirigido contra ella, y hasta dónde la libertad individual y la seguridad cívica pueden ser conciliadas, punto que ha ocupado un lugar central en la discusión internacional después de los acontecimientos del 11 de septiembre.

  5. Basal transcription machinery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-29

    Mar 29, 2007 ... The holoenzyme of prokaryotic RNA polymerase consists of the core enzyme, made of two , , ' and subunits, which lacks promoter selectivity and a sigma () subunit which enables the core enzyme to initiate transcription in a promoter dependent fashion. A stress sigma factor s, in prokaryotes ...

  6. Machine Dictation and Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Evelyn; And Others

    This instructional package contains both an instructor's manual and a student's manual for a course in machine dictation and transcription. The instructor's manual contains an overview with tips on teaching the course, letters for dictation, and a key to the letters. The student's manual contains an overview of the course and of the skills needed…

  7. Transcriptional Regulation in Haematopoiesis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Felicia K B

    with the capacity to both self-renew and differentiate. This thesis is built upon two studies, which investigate two different aspects of the haematopoietic system; heterogeneity within the HSC compartment (presented in manuscript I), and the interplay between transcription factors controlling granulocyte/ monocyte...

  8. La polémica del nacionalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Posada

    1961-10-01

    Full Text Available La polémica empezó con el artículo de Hernando Téllez, hace veinte días. Con el pretexto de defender a los escritores de su propia generación, a quienes, según él, se viene acusando sistemáticamente de producir una literatura desarraigada y ausente de la vida nacional, Téllez se lanzó a combatir las teorías de " nacionalismo literario'' que actualmente se agitan en Colombia.

  9. Dos Partidos Políticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquessuel Dantas de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha se refere ao interessante texto de Simone Weil (Note sur la suppression générale des partis politiques - de 1940, escrito em Londres, traduzido e publicado pela iniciativa audaciosa da Editora Ayiné. Originalmente publicado na coletânea intitulada ÉCRITS DE LONDRES et dernières lettres - Éditions Gallimard (1957, este texto apresenta de forma singular o que significa um partido político; algo de muita importância para e na vida social do homem moderno.

  10. Amor y política.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Bernal.

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende hacer una serie de consideraciones que apuntan sobre todo a extraer una definición de lo que es «la política» para el psicoanálisis a partir de una observación que hace Jacques Alain Miller en su texto Lógicas de la vida amorosa sobre cómo Freud introduce una «teoría política» a partir de su texto Psicología de las masas y análisis del yo.En dicho texto Freud hace ver el poder ordenador y apaciguador del amor significante amo en la medida en que una masa no es más que el amor uniendo a muchas personas y reiterado en cada una de ellas. Las fuerzas armadas y la Iglesia son un buen ejemplo de ello.Pero a pesar de la cohesión amorosa de la humanidad por el poder unificante del amor, resta siempre un malestar. El malestar que persiste en la cultura testimonia del fracaso del amor para resolver el empuje del hombre a satisfacerse con el mal. El significante amo no parece entonces solucionar la paradoja del goce. De aquí que preguntarse sobre adónde vaya el goce en el orden social sea también, para el psicoanálisis, una cuestión política. Jacques- Alain Miller observa, en su texto Lógicas de la vida amorosa, cómo, a partir de la Psicología de las masas y análisis del yo, se puede extraer de Freud una «teoría política», que se vincula muy estrechamente con el amor. Esto porque La Psicología de las masas... enseña sobre el poder ordenador y apaciguador del amor, o mejor, del significante «amor» como significante Amo, lo que se puede escribir de la siguiente manera con ayuda de la «teoría de los discursos» o «teoría del vínculo social» de Lacan.

  11. Políticas de reconhecimento uma novidade das políticas sociais do PT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krischke, Paulo Jose Duval da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho levanta a hipótese de que as ações de governo do PT estão inovando significativamente na necessária convergência (cf. Fraser, 1999; Honnetch, 2003 entre as tradicionais políticas de redistribuição sócio-econômica, e uma nova diretriz de reconhecimento das diferenças sócio-políticas e culturais. O argumento retoma a trajetória sindical do PT e os efeitos das políticas participativas, nas mudanças da cultura política em várias partes do país. Entre esses efeitos, o crescente apoio à democracia parece relacionar-se ao reconhecimento do direito à diferença e ao pluralismo - principalmente entre a juventude e naqueles locais onde o PT tem governado na última década

  12. Global effects of the CSR-1 RNA interference pathway on transcriptional landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecere, Germano; Hoersch, Sebastian; O’Keeffe, Sean; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Grishok, Alla

    2014-01-01

    Argonaute proteins and their small RNA co-factors short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are known to inhibit gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Argonaute CSR-1 binds thousands of endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) antisense to germline transcripts and associates with chromatin in a siRNA-dependent manner. However, its role in gene expression regulation remains controversial. Here, we used a genome-wide profiling of nascent RNA transcripts to demonstrate that the CSR-1 RNAi pathway promotes sense-oriented Pol II transcription. Moreover, a loss of CSR-1 function resulted in global increase in antisense transcription and ectopic transcription of silent chromatin domains, which led to reduced chromatin incorporation of centromere-specific histone H3. Based on these findings, we propose that the CSR-1 pathway has a role in maintaining the directionality of active transcription thereby propagating the distinction between transcriptionally active and silent genomic regions. PMID:24681887

  13. Mediator phosphorylation prevents stress response transcription during non-stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian; Matic, Ivan; Maier, Kerstin C; Schwalb, Björn; Roether, Susanne; Strässer, Katja; Tresch, Achim; Mann, Matthias; Cramer, Patrick

    2012-12-28

    The multiprotein complex Mediator is a coactivator of RNA polymerase (Pol) II transcription that is required for the regulated expression of protein-coding genes. Mediator serves as an end point of signaling pathways and regulates Pol II transcription, but the mechanisms it uses are not well understood. Here, we used mass spectrometry and dynamic transcriptome analysis to investigate a functional role of Mediator phosphorylation in gene expression. Affinity purification and mass spectrometry revealed that Mediator from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is phosphorylated at multiple sites of 17 of its 25 subunits. Mediator phosphorylation levels change upon an external stimulus set by exposure of cells to high salt concentrations. Phosphorylated sites in the Mediator tail subunit Med15 are required for suppression of stress-induced changes in gene expression under non-stress conditions. Thus dynamic and differential Mediator phosphorylation contributes to gene regulation in eukaryotic cells.

  14. Dinâmica Institucional, Políticas Públicas e o Desempenho Político Ambiental Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Freitas Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo buscou analisar os efeitos da interdependência entre instituições políticas e modelos de desenvolvimento no desempenho de políticas ambientais no Brasil. A hipótese central do trabalho é que, dada a interdependência entre os organismos responsáveis pelas políticas ambientais e padrões de desenvolvimento pouco responsivos à complexidade ambiental, ocorre uma dispersão de poder decisório incentivando o modelo de desenvolvimento de alto carbono. Além de revisão da literatura em Políticas Públicas e Economia Ecológica, foram operacionalizadas (1 uma análise do desenho político-institucional brasileiro e (2 o quadro de gastos públicos do governo federal brasileiro com meio ambiente. Dois resultados foram observados: 1o o desenho e as competências das instituições políticas responsáveis pela formulação e implementação de políticas públicas interferem na maior eficiência de políticas ambientais; 2o quanto maior a abertura institucional, maior a tendência de paralisia decisória na formulação e implementação de políticas públicas ambientais.

  15. Mediator Undergoes a Compositional Change during Transcriptional Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Natalia; Jin, Yi; Wong, Koon Ho; Struhl, Kevin

    2016-11-03

    Mediator is a transcriptional co-activator recruited to enhancers by DNA-binding activators, and it also interacts with RNA polymerase (Pol) II as part of the preinitiation complex (PIC). We demonstrate that a single Mediator complex associates with the enhancer and core promoter in vivo, indicating that it can physically bridge these transcriptional elements. However, the Mediator kinase module associates strongly with the enhancer, but not with the core promoter, and it dissociates from the enhancer upon depletion of the TFIIH kinase. Severing the kinase module from Mediator by removing the connecting subunit Med13 does not affect Mediator association at the core promoter but increases occupancy at enhancers. Thus, Mediator undergoes a compositional change in which the kinase module, recruited via Mediator to the enhancer, dissociates from Mediator to permit association with Pol II and the PIC. As such, Mediator acts as a dynamic bridge between the enhancer and core promoter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Croce, Gramsci e a "autonomia da política"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Bianchi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Na reflexão que Gramsci desenvolveu nos Quaderni del carcere, o tema da autonomia da política ocupa uma importante posição. Foi com base nessa reflexão que Gramsci desenvolveu sua pesquisa a respeito de política e da possibilidade de uma ciência política. Segundo Benedetto Croce, cabia a Nicolau Maquiavel o mérito de ter afirmado pela primeira vez a autonomia da política. Para Croce, essa autonomia permitia estabelecer uma distinção radical entre ética e política e entre "filosofia da política" e "ciência empírica da política". Gramsci tomou criticamente a reflexão croceana como ponto de partida de sua leitura de Maquiavel. O reconhecimento da autonomia da política implicava que esta não poderia ser reduzida à religião ou à ética. Como campo do conhecimento e como atividade, a ciência política e a política tinham regras próprias, que as distinguiam de outras formas do conhecimento e da atividade humana. Mas tal "autonomia" não implicava, para o marxista sardo, uma separação radical entre política e moral. Por essa razão, Gramsci encontrava em Maquiavel um precursor da filosofia da práxis em sentido pleno, ou seja, o criador de uma "ciência-ação revolucionária".

  17. Cultura Política na Antiguidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Petrúcio Farias Júnior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Pretendemos discutir nesse artigo algumas implicações do termo cultura política na Antiguidade, especificamente, na sociedade romana imperial. Dessa forma, acreditamos que as considerações que apresentaremos a seguir contribuam para reflexão da utilização desse termo, produto das investigações contemporâneas, sobre os estudos das sociedades antigas. Para a historiadora Profa. Dra. Margarida Maria de Carvalho, tais reflexões representam ainda uma lacuna na historiografia concernente a essa temática. Isso posto, discorreremos, inicialmente, sobre o conceito de cultura e seus desdobramentos para, em seguida, refletirmos sobre o viés interpretativo que fundamenta estudos históricos que se desenvolvem sob o beneplácito da linha de pesquisa intitulada História e Cultura Política.

  18. Adeus à política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Mendonça Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata as questões do "Estado" e da "Política" partindo do exemplo concreto do processo de institucionalização, no Brasil, de práticas profissionais em psicologia reconhecidas como Análise Institucional (vertente grupalista francesa consideravelmente difundida nos últimos 20 anos. Trabalho para expor uma face menos visível da judicialização que funciona ao nível das concepções, crenças e valores entre os operadores dos equipamentos onde se materializam as políticas públicas engendradas pelo excesso legalista. Dentre as modalidades desse apego à lei, toma-se em análise aquela mais próxima de nossas práticas de funcionalismo público marcando o índice de grau máximo de sua institucionalização: a aceitação consensual da competência como critério de legitimidade na operação dos "instrumentos da violência institucional".

  19. Política de los intelectuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorov Tzevetan

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available ¿Qué es un intelectual? Por lo que a mi respecta, limito el uso de este término de la siguiente manera: es un estudioso o un artista (categoria que incluye a los escritores que no se contenta con realizar trabajos cientificos o con la creación de una obra de arte, que no se contenta, por lo tanto, con una méra búsqueda de lo verdadero y con un méro desarrollo de lo bello, sino que siente asimismo comprometido con la noción de bienestar público, con los valores de la sociedad en la que vive, es alguien que participa en el debate sobre esos mismos valores. El intelectual así entendido se halla muy lejos del artista o del estudioso a quienes no preocupan en absoluto las dimensiones políticas o éticas de sus obras; muy lejos también, del predicador o del político profesional, que no crean obra alguna.

  20. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize...... the putative differences between the rat brain MT isoforms, namely MT-I+II and MT-III, in the freeze lesion model of brain damage, and for developing an ELISA for MT-III suitable for brain samples. In the normal rat brain, MT-III was mostly present primarily in astrocytes. However, lectin staining indicated...

  1. DNA Topoisomerases in Transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Morten Terpager

    2015-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis summarizes the main results of my studies on the interplay between DNA topoisomerases and transcription. The work was performed from 2011 to 2015 at Aarhus University in the Laboratory of Genome Research, and was supervised by associate professor Anni H. Andersen. Most of the ex......This Ph.D. thesis summarizes the main results of my studies on the interplay between DNA topoisomerases and transcription. The work was performed from 2011 to 2015 at Aarhus University in the Laboratory of Genome Research, and was supervised by associate professor Anni H. Andersen. Most...... topoisomerase-DNA cleavage complex. The second study is an investigation of how topoisomerases influence gene regulation by keeping the genome in an optimal topological state....

  2. Deciphering Transcriptional Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind

    The myriad of cells in the human body are all made from the same blueprint: the human genome. At the heart of this diversity lies the concept of gene regulation, the process in which it is decided which genes are used where and when. Genes do not function as on/off buttons, but more like a volume...... mostly near the start of the gene known as the promoter. This region contains patterns scattered in the DNA that the TFs can recognize and bind to. Such binding can prompt the assembly of the pre-initiation complex which ultimately leads to transcription of the gene. In order to achieve the regulation...... on what characterizes a hippocampus promoter. Pairing CAGE with TF binding site prediction we identi¿ed a likely key regulator of hippocampus. Finally, we developed a method for CAGE exploration. While the DeepCAGE library characterized a full 1.4 million transcription initiation events it did not capture...

  3. Human PrimPol activity is enhanced by RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Lahera, Antonio; Blanco, Luis

    2017-04-10

    Human PrimPol is a primase belonging to the AEP superfamily with the unique ability to synthesize DNA primers de novo, and a non-processive DNA polymerase able to bypass certain DNA lesions. PrimPol facilitates both mitochondrial and nuclear replication fork progression either acting as a conventional TLS polymerase, or repriming downstream of blocking lesions. In vivo assays have shown that PrimPol is rapidly recruited to sites of DNA damage by interaction with the human replication protein A (RPA). In agreement with previous findings, we show here that the higher affinity of RPA for ssDNA inhibits PrimPol activities in short ssDNA templates. In contrast, once the amount of ssDNA increases up to a length in which both proteins can simultaneously bind ssDNA, as expected during replicative stress conditions, PrimPol and RPA functionally interact, and their binding capacities are mutually enhanced. When using M13 ssDNA as template, RPA stimulated both the primase and polymerase activities of PrimPol, either alone or in synergy with Polε. These new findings supports the existence of a functional PrimPol/RPA association that allows repriming at the exposed ssDNA regions formed in the leading strand upon replicase stalling.

  4. O conceito de liberdade política em Montesquieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Nizza da Silva

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available O primeiro passo na análise do conceito de liberdade política, tal como êle se nos apresenta em De l'esprit des lois, deverá assina-lar uma diferença, fundamental para Montesquieu, entre "liberdade filosófica" e "liberdade política".

  5. Los spots factor, esencial del marketing político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Jesús Origel Gutiérrez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available EI objetivo del presente trabajo es demostrar que en las elecciones presidenciales de julio de 2000, la forma de hacer política en México se modificó al introducir en las campanas electorales el marketing político y nuevas estrategias de comunicación, en especial los spots televisivos

  6. Asymmetric cell division requires specific mechanisms for adjusting global transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Adriana; Medina, Daniel A; García-Martínez, José; Begley, Victoria; Singh, Abhyudai; Chávez, Sebastián; Muñoz-Centeno, Mari C; Pérez-Ortín, José E

    2017-12-01

    Most cells divide symmetrically into two approximately identical cells. There are many examples, however, of asymmetric cell division that can generate sibling cell size differences. Whereas physical asymmetric division mechanisms and cell fate consequences have been investigated, the specific problem caused by asymmetric division at the transcription level has not yet been addressed. In symmetrically dividing cells the nascent transcription rate increases in parallel to cell volume to compensate it by keeping the actual mRNA synthesis rate constant. This cannot apply to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where this mechanism would provoke a never-ending increasing mRNA synthesis rate in smaller daughter cells. We show here that, contrarily to other eukaryotes with symmetric division, budding yeast keeps the nascent transcription rates of its RNA polymerases constant and increases mRNA stability. This control on RNA pol II-dependent transcription rate is obtained by controlling the cellular concentration of this enzyme. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Development of DNA affinity techniques for the functional characterization of purified RNA polymerase II transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garfinkel, S.; Thompson, J.A.; Cohen, R.B.; Brendler, T.; Safer, B.

    1987-01-01

    Affinity adsorption, precipitation, and partitioning techniques have been developed to purify and characterize RNA Pol II transcription components from whole cell extracts (WCE) (HeLa) and nuclear extracts (K562). The titration of these extracts with multicopy constructs of the Ad2 MLP but not pUC8, inhibits transcriptional activity. DNA-binding factors precipitated by this technique are greatly enriched by centrifugation. Using this approach, factors binding to the upstream promoter sequence (UPS) of the Ad2 MLP have been rapidly isolated by Mono Q, Mono S, and DNA affinity chromatography. By U.V. crosslinking to nucleotides containing specific 32 P-phosphodiester bonds within the recognition sequence, this factor is identified as a M/sub r/ = 45,000 polypeptide. To generate an assay system for the functional evaluation of single transcription components, a similar approach using synthetic oligonucleotide sequences spanning single promoter binding sites has been developed. The addition of a synthetic 63-mer containing the UPS element of the Ad2 MLP to HeLa WCE inhibited transcription by 60%. The addition of partially purified UPS binding protein, but not RNA Pol II, restored transcriptional activity. The addition of synthetic oligonucleotides containing other regulatory sequences not present in the Ad2 MLP was without effect

  8. Production and processing of siRNA precursor transcripts from the highly repetitive maize genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Hale

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutations affecting the maintenance of heritable epigenetic states in maize identify multiple RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM factors including RMR1, a novel member of a plant-specific clade of Snf2-related proteins. Here we show that RMR1 is necessary for the accumulation of a majority of 24 nt small RNAs, including those derived from Long-Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the most common repetitive feature in the maize genome. A genetic analysis of DNA transposon repression indicates that RMR1 acts upstream of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RDR2 (MOP1. Surprisingly, we show that non-polyadenylated transcripts from a sampling of LTR retrotransposons are lost in both rmr1 and rdr2 mutants. In contrast, plants deficient for RNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV function show an increase in polyadenylated LTR RNA transcripts. These findings support a model in which Pol IV functions independently of the small RNA accumulation facilitated by RMR1 and RDR2 and support that a loss of Pol IV leads to RNA Polymerase II-based transcription. Additionally, the lack of changes in general genome homeostasis in rmr1 mutants, despite the global loss of 24 nt small RNAs, challenges the perceived roles of siRNAs in maintaining functional heterochromatin in the genomes of outcrossing grass species.

  9. Structures of transcription pre-initiation complex with TFIIH and Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilbach, S; Hantsche, M; Tegunov, D; Dienemann, C; Wigge, C; Urlaub, H; Cramer, P

    2017-11-09

    For the initiation of transcription, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) assembles with general transcription factors on promoter DNA to form the pre-initiation complex (PIC). Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PIC and PIC-core Mediator complex at nominal resolutions of 4.7 Å and 5.8 Å, respectively. The structures reveal transcription factor IIH (TFIIH), and suggest how the core and kinase TFIIH modules function in the opening of promoter DNA and the phosphorylation of Pol II, respectively. The TFIIH core subunit Ssl2 (a homologue of human XPB) is positioned on downstream DNA by the 'E-bridge' helix in TFIIE, consistent with TFIIE-stimulated DNA opening. The TFIIH kinase module subunit Tfb3 (MAT1 in human) anchors the kinase Kin28 (CDK7), which is mobile in the PIC but preferentially located between the Mediator hook and shoulder in the PIC-core Mediator complex. Open spaces between the Mediator head and middle modules may allow access of the kinase to its substrate, the C-terminal domain of Pol II.

  10. Factor requirements for transcription in the Archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, S A; Bell, S D; Jackson, S P

    1997-05-15

    Archaea (archaebacteria) constitute a domain of life that is distinct from Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes). Although archaeal cells share many morphological features with eubacteria, their transcriptional apparatus is more akin to eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II and III than it is to eubacterial transcription systems. Thus, in addition to possessing a 10 subunit RNA polymerase and a homologue of the TATA-binding protein (TBP), Archaea possess a polypeptide termed TFB that is homologous to eukaryotic TFIIB. Here, we investigate the factor requirements for transcription of several promoters of the archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae and its associated virus SSV. Through in vitro transcription and immunodepletion, we demonstrate that S. shibatae TBP, TFB and RNA polymerase are not complexed tightly with one another and that each is required for efficient transcription of all promoters tested. Furthermore, full transcription is restored by supplementing respective depleted extracts with recombinant TBP or TFB, indicating that TBP-associated factors or TFB-associated factors are not required. Indeed, gel-filtration suggests that Sulfolobus TBP and TFB are not associated stably with other proteins. Finally, all promoters analysed are transcribed accurately and efficiently in an in vitro system comprising recombinant TBP and TFB, together with essentially homogeneous preparation of RNA polymerase. Transcription in Archaea is therefore fundamentally homologous to that in eukaryotes, although factor requirements appear to be much less complex.

  11. Transcriptional networks controlling adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, R; Mandrup, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    " of the transcription factor networks operating at specific time points during adipogenesis. Using such global "snapshots," we have demonstrated that dramatic remodeling of the chromatin template occurs within the first few hours following adipogenic stimulation and that many of the early transcription factors bind...... in a cooperative fashion to transcription factor hotspots. Such hotspots are likely to represent key chromatin nodes, where many adipogenic signaling pathways converge to drive the adipogenic transcriptional reprogramming....

  12. Survey of Current US Army POL Doctrine, Procedures, Personnel, and Equipment for the Supply and Inland Distribution of Bulk POL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    Refueling Under Armor ......................... 34 Page i ,t .J APPENDICES A. POL Unit Missions and Capabilities ....................... A-I B. Roster...refueling Open versus closed port refueling Requirement for Refueling Under Armor Robotic refueler V % Page 34 S.< ’p. ". APPgeDI A-"" • " ’ ’ POL " it

  13. A política da Igreja Universal e seus reflexos nos campos religioso e político brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oro Ari Pedro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto versa sobre a inserção da Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus (IURD na política nacional e seus efeitos nos campos religioso e político. Em razão da eficácia de seu carisma institucional, a Universal procedeu, dentro do próprio grupo religioso, a uma ressemantização do ato de votar em particular e da percepção da política em geral, inscrevendo-os em sua lógica religiosa. Isso é uma importante chave explicativa para o elevado grau de fidelidade de votos e o êxito político cada vez maior constatado nas últimas eleições. Ademais, a prática política da Universal está produzindo um efeito mimético em outra igrejas evangélicas, que tendem a imitar seu modelo de fazer política. Sua inserção política, sobretudo por intermédio do Partido Liberal, não passa despercebida pelos partidos, constituindo-se, assim, em um ator relevante na atual conjuntura política brasileira.

  14. Estudo Pré-Clínico de Stent com Polímero Biodegradável e Liberação Abluminal de Sirolimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Kiyochi Takimura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Stents recobertos com polímeros bioabsorvíveis e fármacos apenas na face abluminal podem ser mais seguros que stents farmacológicos com polímeros permanentes. Objetivo: Relatar os resultados experimentais com o stent Inspiron(r, um stent recoberto com polímero bioabsorvível e com liberação de sirolimus apenas da face abluminal, recentemente aprovado para uso clínico. Métodos: Foram implantados 45 stents nas artérias coronárias de 15 porcos e, no 28° dia pós-implante, foram obtidos os resultados angiográficos, de ultrassonografia intracoronária e de histomorfologia. Cinco grupos foram avaliados: Grupo I (nove stents sem recobrimento; Grupo II (nove stents com polímero bioabsorvível nas faces luminal e abluminal; Grupo III (oito stents com polímero bioabsorvível na face abluminal; Grupo IV (nove stents com polímero bioabsorvível e sirolimus nas faces luminal e abluminal; e Grupo V (dez stents com polímero bioabsorvível e sirolimus na face abluminal exclusivamente. Resultados: Observamos, para os Grupos I, II, III, IV e V respectivamente: porcentual de estenose de 29 ± 20; 36 ± 14; 33 ± 19; 22 ± 13 e 26 ± 15 (p = 0,443; perda luminal tardia (em mm de 1,02 ± 0,60; 1,24 ± 0,48; 1,11 ± 0,54; 0,72 ± 0,44 e 0,78 ± 0,39 (p = 0,253; área neointimal (em mm2 de 2,60 ± 1,99; 2,74 ± 1,51; 2,74 ± 1,30; 1,30 ± 1,14 e 0,97 ± 0,84 (p = 0,001; Grupos IV e V versus Grupos I, II e III e porcentual de área neointimal de 35 ± 25; 38 ± 18; 39 ± 19; 19 ± 18 e 15 ± 12 (p = 0,001; Grupo IV e V versus Grupo I, II e III. Os escores de injúria e inflamação foram baixos e sem diferenças entre os grupos. Conclusão: O stent Inspiron(r foi seguro e inibiu significativamente a hiperplasia neointimal observada no 28° dia pós-implante em artérias coronárias porcinas.

  15. SOUTH POL: Revealing the Polarized Southern Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Antonio Mario Mario; Ramírez, Edgar; Ribeiro, Nadili; Seriacopi, Daiane; Rubinho, Marcelo; Ferrari, Tiberio; Rodrigues, Claudia; Schoenell, William; Herpich, Fabio; Pereyra, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly built polarimeter for T80-S, an 84 cm robotic telescope installed at Cerro Tololo (CTIO), Chile. It will initially cover the sky South of declination -15 deg with a polarimetric accuracy Solar System.The polarimeter has just been commissioned in mid-November, 2017. The data reduction pipeline has already been built. We will describe the instrument and the data reduction, as well as a few of the science cases. The survey is expected to begin midway through the 1st semester of 2018. Both catalog data and raw images will be made available.

  16. Cultura e políticas sociais : uma visão a partir da cultura política

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, Helena Ariane Borges

    2008-01-01

    A dissertação parte do questionamento de por que fatores culturais não são considerados na formulação de políticas públicas. Para tanto são analisadas e discutidas duas vertentes tradicionalmente separadas na ciência política: culturalismo e institucionalismo, que aqui serão trabalhadas em um nível de análise menos abstrato, relacionando elementos de cultura política com políticas públicas. Com isto o trabalho procura mostrar a relevância do estudo de fatores culturais em políticas sociais e ...

  17. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2018.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  18. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2017.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  19. Workshop 96. Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Part III of the proceedings contain 155 contributions in various fields of science and technology including nuclear engineering, environmental science, and biomedical engineering. Out of these, 10 were selected to be inputted in INIS. (P.A.).

  20. Workshop 96. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Part III of the proceedings contain 155 contributions in various fields of science and technology including nuclear engineering, environmental science, and biomedical engineering. Out of these, 10 were selected to be inputted in INIS. (P.A.)

  1. A Polícia e suas Polícias: Clientela, Hierarquia, Soldado e Bandido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ferreira de Azevedo

    Full Text Available Resumo A polícia militar representa um braço do Estado e apresenta-se para a população de forma contundente, ostensiva e, por vezes, brutal, não só para a sociedade como para ela mesma. Através da Análise Institucional do Discurso, a pesquisa aqui relatada teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de reconhecimento e desconhecimento das relações no trabalho que permeiam o discurso de soldados da polícia militar: como estes falam de seu trabalho e, através desta fala, posicionam-se e posicionam sua clientela, sua hierarquia, seu objeto de trabalho (os “bandidos” e eles próprios. Buscou-se também analisar que lugar a violência ocupou neste discurso. Dez soldados da polícia militar do Estado de São Paulo foram entrevistados e a transcrição destas estrevistas foi analisada. A partir das análises, é possível refletir sobre a dubiedade do verdadeiro objetivo do trabalho policial, deslizando facilmente do cuidado da população desamparada ao cuidado de si, desamparado sob a pressão da farda.

  2. A structural role for the PHP domain in E. coli DNA polymerase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Tiago; Guenther, Joel; Kelch, Brian; Anaya, Jordan; Prabhakar, Arjun; O'Donnell, Mike; Kuriyan, John; Lamers, Meindert H

    2013-05-14

    In addition to the core catalytic machinery, bacterial replicative DNA polymerases contain a Polymerase and Histidinol Phosphatase (PHP) domain whose function is not entirely understood. The PHP domains of some bacterial replicases are active metal-dependent nucleases that may play a role in proofreading. In E. coli DNA polymerase III, however, the PHP domain has lost several metal-coordinating residues and is likely to be catalytically inactive. Genomic searches show that the loss of metal-coordinating residues in polymerase PHP domains is likely to have coevolved with the presence of a separate proofreading exonuclease that works with the polymerase. Although the E. coli Pol III PHP domain has lost metal-coordinating residues, the structure of the domain has been conserved to a remarkable degree when compared to that of metal-binding PHP domains. This is demonstrated by our ability to restore metal binding with only three point mutations, as confirmed by the metal-bound crystal structure of this mutant determined at 2.9 Å resolution. We also show that Pol III, a large multi-domain protein, unfolds cooperatively and that mutations in the degenerate metal-binding site of the PHP domain decrease the overall stability of Pol III and reduce its activity. While the presence of a PHP domain in replicative bacterial polymerases is strictly conserved, its ability to coordinate metals and to perform proofreading exonuclease activity is not, suggesting additional non-enzymatic roles for the domain. Our results show that the PHP domain is a major structural element in Pol III and its integrity modulates both the stability and activity of the polymerase.

  3. A questão da continuidade da política macroeconômica entre o governo Cardoso e Lula (1995-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Nayme Novelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é compreender a continuidade da política macroeconômica entre o governo Cardoso e o governo Lula. O artigo organiza-se em três seções. Na primeira, descreve-se sucintamente a política macroeconômica dos governos Cardoso e Lula. Na segunda, apresenta-se e discute-se o debate da literatura especializada a respeito da hipótese da continuidade da política macroeconômica entre os dois governos. Na terceira seção, é feito um mapeamento dos dirigentes estatais, em que ressaltamos certos aspectos que contribuíram para tal continuidade entre os dois governos. Sem desconsiderar a ação dos beneficiários últimos dos resultados de tal política, identificamos três fatores para explicar a manutenção da política macroeconômica: i a própria estrutura do capitalismo brasileiro e sua inserção na economia mundial; ii a força das idéias ortodoxas difundidas pela mídia e dominantes na equipe econômica (Ministério da Fazenda e Banco Central do Brasil, que foi recrutada no mesmo "campo"; iii a aceitação das "regras do jogo" da democracia pelo Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT.

  4. Genome-wide RNA polymerase II profiles and RNA accumulation reveal kinetics of transcription and associated epigenetic changes during diurnal cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendal Le Martelot

    Full Text Available Interactions of cell-autonomous circadian oscillators with diurnal cycles govern the temporal compartmentalization of cell physiology in mammals. To understand the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of diurnal rhythms in mouse liver genome-wide, we generated temporal DNA occupancy profiles by RNA polymerase II (Pol II as well as profiles of the histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K36me3. We used these data to quantify the relationships of phases and amplitudes between different marks. We found that rhythmic Pol II recruitment at promoters rather than rhythmic transition from paused to productive elongation underlies diurnal gene transcription, a conclusion further supported by modeling. Moreover, Pol II occupancy preceded mRNA accumulation by 3 hours, consistent with mRNA half-lives. Both methylation marks showed that the epigenetic landscape is highly dynamic and globally remodeled during the 24-hour cycle. While promoters of transcribed genes had tri-methylated H3K4 even at their trough activity times, tri-methylation levels reached their peak, on average, 1 hour after Pol II. Meanwhile, rhythms in tri-methylation of H3K36 lagged transcription by 3 hours. Finally, modeling profiles of Pol II occupancy and mRNA accumulation identified three classes of genes: one showing rhythmicity both in transcriptional and mRNA accumulation, a second class with rhythmic transcription but flat mRNA levels, and a third with constant transcription but rhythmic mRNAs. The latter class emphasizes widespread temporally gated posttranscriptional regulation in the mouse liver.

  5. Strand displacement by DNA polymerase III occurs through a tau-psi-chi link to single-stranded DNA-binding protein coating the lagging strand template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; McHenry, Charles S

    2009-11-13

    In addition to the well characterized processive replication reaction catalyzed by the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme on single-stranded DNA templates, the enzyme possesses an intrinsic strand displacement activity on flapped templates. The strand displacement activity is distinguished from the single-stranded DNA-templated reaction by a high dependence upon single-stranded DNA binding protein and an inability of gamma-complex to support the reaction in the absence of tau. However, if gamma-complex is present to load beta(2), a truncated tau protein containing only domains III-V will suffice. This truncated protein is sufficient to bind both the alpha subunit of DNA polymerase (Pol) III and chipsi. This is reminiscent of the minimal requirements for Pol III to replicate short single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB)-coated templates where tau is only required to serve as a scaffold to hold Pol III and chi in the same complex (Glover, B., and McHenry, C. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 23476-23484). We propose a model in which strand displacement by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme depends upon a Pol III-tau-psi-chi-SSB binding network, where SSB is bound to the displaced strand, stabilizing the Pol III-template interaction. The same interaction network is probably important for stabilizing the leading strand polymerase interactions with authentic replication forks. The specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)) for the strand displacement reaction is approximately 300-fold less favorable than reactions on single-stranded templates and proceeds with a slower rate (150 nucleotides/s) and only moderate processivity (approximately 300 nucleotides). PriA, the initiator of replication restart on collapsed or misassembled replication forks, blocks the strand displacement reaction, even if added to an ongoing reaction.

  6. La memoria social y la memoria política

    OpenAIRE

    Lifschitz, Javier Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    El artículo trata sobre la constitución del campo de la memoria política. Discute inicialmente la perspectiva de la memoria social y aborda, a partir de autores como Bourdieu y Habermas, la idea de un campo de la memoria política. Identifica dos momentos de inflexión en la constitución de ese campo. Un primer momento, en que la memoria política se inscribe en los procesos estatales de construcción de una memoria nacional y un segundo momento, que tiene como referencia principalmente el contex...

  7. Arma del contrapoder: Humor político y medios

    OpenAIRE

    César Ulloa Tapia

    2008-01-01

    El humor político en los medios de comunicación tiene enorme acogida en las audiencias ya que logra lo que pueden editoriales, análisis académicos y demás espacios de opinión. Es la mejor manera de denunciar, advertir, sancionar e incluso develar lo que hace o deja de hacer el poder político. El humor político está considerado como contrapoder. El periodismo que usa el humor es eficaz, tanto en el mensaje como en su efecto, pues describe las situaciones y recurre a comparaciones y símiles....

  8. Transcript structure and domain display: a customizable transcript visualization tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenneth A; Ma, Kaiwang; Homayouni, Arielle; Rushton, Paul J; Shen, Qingxi J

    2016-07-01

    Transcript Structure and Domain Display (TSDD) is a publicly available, web-based program that provides publication quality images of transcript structures and domains. TSDD is capable of producing transcript structures from GFF/GFF3 and BED files. Alternatively, the GFF files of several model organisms have been pre-loaded so that users only needs to enter the locus IDs of the transcripts to be displayed. Visualization of transcripts provides many benefits to researchers, ranging from evolutionary analysis of DNA-binding domains to predictive function modeling. TSDD is freely available for non-commercial users at http://shenlab.sols.unlv.edu/shenlab/software/TSD/transcript_display.html : jeffery.shen@unlv.nevada.edu. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Menin and RNF20 recruitment is associated with dynamic histone modifications that regulate signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1-activated transcription of the interferon regulatory factor 1 gene (IRF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buro Lauren J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT activation of gene expression is both rapid and transient, and when properly executed it affects growth, differentiation, homeostasis and the immune response, but when dysregulated it contributes to human disease. Transcriptional activation is regulated by alterations to the chromatin template. However, the role of histone modification at gene loci that are activated for transcription in response to STAT signaling is poorly defined. Results Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we profiled several histone modifications during STAT1 activation of the interferon regulatory factor 1 gene (IRF1. Methylated lysine histone proteins H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K79me3, H3K36me3 and monoubiquitinated histone ubH2B are dynamic and correlate with interferon (IFNγ induction of STAT1 activity. Chemical inhibition of H3K4 methylation downregulates IRF1 transcription and decreases RNA polymerase II (Pol II occupancy at the IRF1 promoter. MEN1, a component of a complex proteins associated with Set1 (COMPASS-like complex and the hBRE1 component, RNF20, are localized to IRF1 in the uninduced state and are further recruited when IRF1 is activated. RNAi-mediated depletion of RNF20 lowers both ubH2B and H3K4me3, but surprisingly, upregulates IFNγ induced IRF1 transcription. The dynamics of phosphorylation in the C-terminal domain (CTD of Pol II are disrupted during gene activation as well. Conclusions H2B monoubiquitination promotes H3K4 methylation, but the E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF20, is repressive of inducible transcription at the IRF1 gene locus, suggesting that ubH2B can, directly or indirectly, affect Pol II CTD phosphorylation cycling to exert control on ongoing transcription.

  10. Transcription of human 7S K DNA in vitro and in vivo is exclusively controlled by an upstream promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, H.; Benecke, B.J.

    1988-02-25

    The authors have analyzed the transcription of a recently isolated human 7S K RNA gene in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to hitherto characterized class III genes (genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III), the coding sequence of this gene is not required for faithful and efficient transcription by RNA polymerase III. In fact, a procaryotic vector DNA sequence was efficiently transcribed by RNA polymerase III under the control of the 7S K RNA gene upstream sequence in vitro and in vivo. S/sub 1/-nuclease protection analyses confirmed that the 7S K 5'flanking sequence was sufficient for accurate transcription initiation. These data demonstrate that 7S K DNA represents a novel class III gene, the promoter elements of which are located outside the coding sequence.

  11. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  12. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, P; Helin, K

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation...... of the transcriptional response is essential for cells to progress through the cell cycle in a normal manner. The involvement of cytoplasmic and nuclear accessory molecules, and the general nuclear membrane transport components, are essential for this process. Although nuclear import and export for different...... transcription factor families are regulated by similar mechanisms, there are several differences that allow for the specific activation of each transcription factor. This review discusses the general import and export pathways found to be common amongst many different transcription factors, and highlights...

  13. Transcriptional Silencing of Retroviral Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik; Duch, M.; Pedersen, F.S.

    1996-01-01

    . Extinction of long-term vector expression has been observed after implantation of transduced hematopoietic cells as well as fibroblasts, myoblasts and hepatocytes. Here we review the influence of vector structure, integration site and cell type on transcriptional silencing. While down-regulation of proviral...... transcription is known from a number of cellular and animal models, major insight has been gained from studies in the germ line and embryonal cells of the mouse. Key elements for the transfer and expression of retroviral vectors, such as the viral transcriptional enhancer and the binding site for the t......RNA primer for reverse transcription may have a major influence on transcriptional silencing. Alterations of these elements of the vector backbone as well as the use of internal promoter elements from housekeeping genes may contribute to reduce transcriptional silencing. The use of cell culture and animal...

  14. Stimulation of ribosomal RNA gene promoter by transcription factor Sp1 involves active DNA demethylation by Gadd45-NER pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Pallavi; Pandey, Vijaya; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    The well-studied Pol II transcription factor Sp1 has not been investigated for its regulatory role in rDNA transcription. Here, we show that Sp1 bound to specific sites on rDNA and localized into the nucleoli during the G1 phase of cell cycle to activate rDNA transcription. It facilitated the recruitment of Pol I pre-initiation complex and impeded the binding of nucleolar remodeling complex (NoRC) to rDNA resulting in the formation of euchromatin active state. More importantly, Sp1 also orchestrated the site-specific binding of Gadd45a-nucleotide excision repair (NER) complex resulting in active demethylation and transcriptional activation of rDNA. Interestingly, knockdown of Sp1 impaired rDNA transcription due to reduced engagement of the Gadd45a-NER complex and hypermethylation of rDNA. Thus, the present study unveils a novel role of Sp1 in rDNA transcription involving promoter demethylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. DNA topology and transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzine, Fedor; Levens, David; Baranello, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is a complex assembly that compacts DNA inside the nucleus while providing the necessary level of accessibility to regulatory factors conscripted by cellular signaling systems. In this superstructure, DNA is the subject of mechanical forces applied by variety of molecular motors. Rather than being a rigid stick, DNA possesses dynamic structural variability that could be harnessed during critical steps of genome functioning. The strong relationship between DNA structure and key genomic processes necessitates the study of physical constrains acting on the double helix. Here we provide insight into the source, dynamics, and biology of DNA topological domains in the eukaryotic cells and summarize their possible involvement in gene transcription. We emphasize recent studies that might inspire and impact future experiments on the involvement of DNA topology in cellular functions. PMID:24755522

  16. Eukaryotic transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staby, Lasse; O'Shea, Charlotte; Willemoës, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gene-specific transcription factors (TFs) are key regulatory components of signaling pathways, controlling, for example, cell growth, development, and stress responses. Their biological functions are determined by their molecular structures, as exemplified by their structured DNA-binding domains...... regions with function-related, short sequence motifs and molecular recognition features with structural propensities. This review focuses on molecular aspects of TFs, which represent paradigms of ID-related features. Through specific examples, we review how the ID-associated flexibility of TFs enables....... It is furthermore emphasized how classic biochemical concepts like allostery, conformational selection, induced fit, and feedback regulation are undergoing a revival with the appreciation of ID. The review also describes the most recent advances based on computational simulations of ID-based interaction mechanisms...

  17. La ciencia política, ciencia noética del orden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cárdenas Támara.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work has the following fundamental purposes: i to respond by way of a critical review to the statements on political science's object of study made by Rodrigo Losada and Andrés Casas in their recently published book Enfoques para el análisis político. Historia, epistemología y perspectivas de la ciencia política (Approaches for Political Analysis. History, Epistemology and Perspectives of Political Science, 2008; ii to reflect on the theoretical reductionism in the conceptualization of the object of study of political science, present in some contemporary schools of thought, and, iii to suggest the need to expand our understanding of our political reality from the intellectual perspective proposed by Eric Voegelin, who argued that political science is a noetic scientific discipline centered on the study of order and the experience of order in societies and human cultures. The contribu-tion of the article refers to the reconstitution and resignification of political science as a scientific noetic discipline and to the multiple transdisciplinary fields that such a condition makes possible.

  18. Lo social desde la política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Salinas Figueredo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Sin desconocer las aproximaciones existentes sobre aspectos fundamentales de la problemática social en América Latina, por ejemplo la pobreza y la índole de política que de manera predominante se formula para encararla, la trayectoria argumental de este trabajo se encamina a mostrar la importancia de trabajar hacia el desarrollo de una perspectiva más amplia. Las referencias empíricas cotejadas no se refieren a hechos puntuales, sino a indicadores que pautan tendencias. Siendo los propósitos aquí reunidos de naturaleza comprensiva, se parte de la premisa según la cual escasamente se problematiza lo social y la propia política social, sus vínculos con la política general, el modelo de desarrollo y el tipo de democracia que la política predominante busca proyectar.

  19. III-V microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nougier, JP

    1991-01-01

    As is well known, Silicon widely dominates the market of semiconductor devices and circuits, and in particular is well suited for Ultra Large Scale Integration processes. However, a number of III-V compound semiconductor devices and circuits have recently been built, and the contributions in this volume are devoted to those types of materials, which offer a number of interesting properties. Taking into account the great variety of problems encountered and of their mutual correlations when fabricating a circuit or even a device, most of the aspects of III-V microelectronics, from fundamental p

  20. Murine mammary tumor virus pol-related sequences in human DNA: characterization and sequence comparison with the complete murine mammary tumor virus pol gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, K.C.; Sweet, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Sequences in the human genome with homology to the murine mammary tumor virus (MMTV) pol gene were isolated from a human phage library. Ten clones with extensive pol homology were shown to define five separate loci. These loci share common sequences immediately adjacent to the pol-like segments and, in addition, contain a related repeat element which bounds this region. This organization is suggestive of a proviral structure. The authors estimate that the human genome contains 30 to 40 copies of these pol-related sequences. The pol region of one of the cloned segments (HM16) and the complete MMTV pol gene were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide homology between these pol sequences is 52% and is concentrated in the terminal regions. The MMTV pol gene contains a single long open reading frame encoding 899 amino acids and is demarcated from the partially overlapping putative gag gene by termination codons and a shift in translational reading frame. The pol sequence of HM16 is multiply terminated but does contain open reading frames which encode 370, 105, and 112 amino acids residues in separate reading frames. The authors deduced a composite pol protein sequence for HM16 by aligning it to the MMTV pol gene and then compared these sequences with other retroviral pol protein sequences. Conserved sequences occur in both the amino and carboxyl regions which lie within the polymerase and endonuclease domains of pol, respectively

  1. Politeia: la política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Briceño Jáuregui

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Se trata solamente de La Política, una versión reciente que está en proceso de publicación. Aristóteles sostiene que la felicidad completa del individuo no es posible sino en la sociedad, especialmente en la polis, que es la sociedad por excelencia. El individuo no puede por sí mismo satisfacer sus necesidad es materiales ni alcanzar la virtud. Para mostrarlo examina primero los diferentes grupos humanos, a partir de la familia; analiza luego las diversas politeias (constituciones de entonces, algunas de las cuales condena. Distingue siguiendo a su maestro Platón tres politeias (formas de gobierno legítimas monarquía, aristocracia, democracia, que dan lugar a su vez a tres desviaciones de las mismas tiranía , oligarquía y demagogia respectivamente. Termina señalando la importancia humana y cívica de la educación.

  2. Política y Geometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Lillo Villalobos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aplican conceptos matemáticos al planteamiento deun problema de competición política. Se desarrolla y se implementaademás un método que usa herramientas relacionadas con la geometríacomputacional para la resolución de dicho problema, probándose dicho método en un ejemplo basado en la política española.

  3. O neopragmatismo de Richard Rorty e a reflexão política contemporânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Eduardo Ferraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina o pensamento filosófico de Richard Rorty e, em particular, sua dimensão política, delineando seu tratamento original e crítico de temas centrais à teoria política contemporânea. O objetivo do texto é triplo: chamar a atenção para a fertilidade das ideias de um autor ainda pouco lido no Brasil (i, assinalar as notáveis consequências corrosivas da abordagem rortyana para pressupostos e pretensões fundantes de importantes vertentes da teoria política (ii, e, numa ótica mais positiva, apontar o potencial inspirador dos escritos desse autor para a reflexão sobre novos modos de justificação da democracia (iii. Salientam-se também, nesse último caso, os limites impostos a esse tipo de empreitada político-intelectual. A abordagem empregada consiste em demarcar os contornos gerais do projeto filosófico do autor, seguindo-se uma apresentação dos tópicos mais propriamente políticos da obra de Rorty. Mais especificamente, o artigo explora a proposta rortyana de substituição da noção de verdade pela de justificação, assinalando-se suas consequências para pretensões de verdade, objetividade e universalismo, presentes em diversas linhas da teoria política. Nesse veio, o artigo discute as eventuais implicações relativistas das teses rortyanas, chegando-se, por essa rota, às ideias de contingência, imaginação e persuasão, núcleos conceituais vitais à reflexão em tela. Um breve contraste com posições de autores como Habermas e Rawls, caros ao próprio Rorty, é esboçado no propósito de tornar mais clara a especificidade da abordagem rortyana da política. Transitando, do modo assinalado, por esses tópicos, o texto resulta em um panorama sintético da perspectiva rortyana acerca do que vem a ser, contemporaneamente, uma "política democrática", liberta de "universalismos" e "objetividades", na qual ganham estatuto decisivo questões de justificação, tolerância e coexist

  4. Cultura política y partidos en Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva Moreno

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un intento de análisis y reflexión sobre la cultura política de uno de los componentes de todo sistema político que se precie de ser democrático (al menos formalmente: los partidos políticos. Se estudia la cultura política de los partidos políticos en Jalisco a partir del análisis de las representaciones y valores que los partidos políticos tienen sobre la democracia interna, para después contrastarlas con algunas prácticas referentes al liderazgo, dirección y formas de competencia. Debido a que las dimensiones de la democracia son muy amplias y variadas, nos centramos en dos indicadores: la forma en que se da la competencia por los cargos de dirección interna y el carácter de la dirección y el liderazgo.

  5. Herencia política y económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley C. Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca resaltar la relevancia de la vida política de Hilferding en el actual contexto de la crisis financiera global y la probablemente alta radicalización de las posiciones políticas de los países dominantes como resultado de aquella. Como se argumenta, había un alto grado de coherencia entre el pensamiento económico de Hilferding y su actuación política. Justamente por el hecho de que el proyecto socialista alemán durante la Republica Weimar no logró sus objetivos, el pensamiento político y económico de su líder intelectual es altamente relevante en el escenario global actual, donde la crisis económica y descomposición social y política que la acompañen reclaman a los principales políticos del mundo un entendimiento económico más amplio y profundo para que las tragedias de Europa central de los años treinta y cuarenta del siglo XX no se reproduzcan.

  6. Mentir en la vida política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez de la Escalera, Ana María

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the act of lying is seen as a necessary component of the political discourse of the polis. Plato and Arendt are examined as the representatives of a line of thought in which the political realm needs the act of lying. The actual problematic of lying in politics is debated.

    El texto «Mentir en política» aborda el papel que la mentira ha jugado en el lenguaje de la política y el lugar problemático que la Filosofía política le ha otorgado. Se escogen dos autores, Platón y Arendt, para mostrar la necesidad de incluir el discurso mentiroso como un componente esencial de la vida política de la ciudad. En breve, se trata de analizar los límites que la ciudad impone al discurso de lo político y de la política.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA replication: a PrimPol perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Laura J.

    2017-01-01

    PrimPol, (primase–polymerase), the most recently identified eukaryotic polymerase, has roles in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA maintenance. PrimPol is capable of acting as a DNA polymerase, with the ability to extend primers and also bypass a variety of oxidative and photolesions. In addition, PrimPol also functions as a primase, catalysing the preferential formation of DNA primers in a zinc finger-dependent manner. Although PrimPol's catalytic activities have been uncovered in vitro, we still know little about how and why it is targeted to the mitochondrion and what its key roles are in the maintenance of this multicopy DNA molecule. Unlike nuclear DNA, the mammalian mitochondrial genome is circular and the organelle has many unique proteins essential for its maintenance, presenting a differing environment within which PrimPol must function. Here, we discuss what is currently known about the mechanisms of DNA replication in the mitochondrion, the proteins that carry out these processes and how PrimPol is likely to be involved in assisting this vital cellular process. PMID:28408491

  8. Summary of Session III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002

  9. Sequence and transcription analysis of the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzarides, T.; Bankier, A.T.; Satchwell, S.C.; Weston, K.; Tomlinson, P.; Barrell, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    DNA sequence analysis has revealed that the gene coding for the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA polymerase is present within the long unique region of the virus genome. Identification is based on extensive amino acid homology between the predicted HCMV open reading frame HFLF2 and the DNA polymerase of herpes simplex virus type 1. The authors present here a 5280 base-pair DNA sequence containing the HCMV pol gene, along with the analysis of transcripts encoded within this region. Since HCMV pol also shows homology to the predicted Epstein-Barr virus pol, they were able to analyze the extent of homology between the DNA polymerases of three distantly related herpes viruses, HCMV, Epstein-Barr virus, and herpes simplex virus. The comparison shows that these DNA polymerases exhibit considerable amino acid homology and highlights a number of highly conserved regions; two such regions show homology to sequences within the adenovirus type 2 DNA polymerase. The HCMV pol gene is flanked by open reading frames with homology to those of other herpes viruses; upstream, there is a reading frame homologous to the glycoprotein B gene of herpes simplex virus type I and Epstein-Barr virus, and downstream there is a reading frame homologous to BFLF2 of Epstein-Barr virus

  10. Prediction of Active Site and Distal Residues in E. coli DNA Polymerase III alpha Polymerase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuram, Ramya; Coulther, Timothy A; Hollander, Judith M; Keston-Smith, Elise; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Beuning, Penny J

    2018-02-20

    The process of DNA replication is carried out with high efficiency and accuracy by DNA polymerases. The replicative polymerase in E. coli is DNA Pol III, which is a complex of 10 different subunits that coordinates simultaneous replication on the leading and lagging strands. The 1160-residue Pol III alpha subunit is responsible for the polymerase activity and copies DNA accurately, making one error per 10 5 nucleotide incorporations. The goal of this research is to determine the residues that contribute to the activity of the polymerase subunit. Homology modeling and the computational methods of THEMATICS and POOL were used to predict functionally important amino acid residues through their computed chemical properties. Site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical assays were used to validate these predictions. Primer extension, steady-state single-nucleotide incorporation kinetics, and thermal denaturation assays were performed to understand the contribution of these residues to the function of the polymerase. This work shows that the top 15 residues predicted by POOL, a set that includes the three previously known catalytic aspartate residues, seven remote residues, plus five previously unexplored first-layer residues, are important for function. Six previously unidentified residues, R362, D405, K553, Y686, E688, and H760, are each essential to Pol III activity; three additional residues, Y340, R390, and K758, play important roles in activity.

  11. Transcription profile of Escherichia coli: genomic SELEX search for regulatory targets of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihama, Akira; Shimada, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2016-03-18

    Bacterial genomes are transcribed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), which achieves gene selectivity through interaction with sigma factors that recognize promoters, and transcription factors (TFs) that control the activity and specificity of RNAP holoenzyme. To understand the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, the identification of regulatory targets is needed for all these factors. We then performed genomic SELEX screenings of targets under the control of each sigma factor and each TF. Here we describe the assembly of 156 SELEX patterns of a total of 116 TFs performed in the presence and absence of effector ligands. The results reveal several novel concepts: (i) each TF regulates more targets than hitherto recognized; (ii) each promoter is regulated by more TFs than hitherto recognized; and (iii) the binding sites of some TFs are located within operons and even inside open reading frames. The binding sites of a set of global regulators, including cAMP receptor protein, LeuO and Lrp, overlap with those of the silencer H-NS, suggesting that certain global regulators play an anti-silencing role. To facilitate sharing of these accumulated SELEX datasets with the research community, we compiled a database, 'Transcription Profile of Escherichia coli' (www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/tec/). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Engajamento cívico e escolaridade superior: as eleições de 2014 e o comportamento político dos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Vieira Dias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo tem como objetivo analisar a influência da escolaridade sobre o comportamento político dos brasileiros. Supõe-se que a escolaridade é capaz de despertar um comportamento mais interessado, participativo e coerente, portanto, engajado, dos cidadãos. Nesse sentido, busca-se verificar (i se os cidadãos brasileiros são informados e interessados por política; (ii motivados em participar das eleições e outras atividades políticas e (iii sua avaliação e satisfação em relação ao processo democrático. Destaca-se o comportamento daqueles que possuem o ensino superior completo, em comparação aos demais níveis de escolaridade, no intuito de identificar padrões comportamentais distintos. A partir dos dados obtidos pelo ESEB 2014, além da análise descritiva dos dados, aplicou-se o modelo de regressão logística, relacionando a variável escolaridade superior a outras variáveis agrupadas em quatro categorias: (a aspectos socioeconômicos; (b informação e interesse por política; (c participação nas eleições, em atividades políticas tradicionais e em outras atividades políticas; (d avaliação e satisfação política. Dessa maneira, verifica-se (i que os brasileiros são pouco ou nada interessados por política; (ii participam das eleições mas não das atividades tradicionais e novas formas de engajamento político; (iii apoiam e estão razoavelmente satisfeitos com a democracia. Em relação aos mais escolarizados, temos o predomínio de mulheres, um público mais jovem e com renda familiar sutilmente superior à dos menos escolarizados. Aqueles que possuem o ensino superior completo tendem a se comportar de forma distinta: são levemente mais informados e interessados por política; apesar dos baixos percentuais encontrados, são os que mais participam das atividades políticas em geral; são os que mais apoiam a democracia, porém os mais insatisfeitos com o seu funcionamento. Esse estudo nos permite

  13. PHF13 is a molecular reader and transcriptional co-regulator of H3K4me2/3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Ho-Ryun; Xu, Chao; Fuchs, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    and its molecular chromatin context. Size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry, X-ray crystallography and ChIP sequencing demonstrate that PHF13 binds chromatin in a multivalent fashion via direct interactions with H3K4me2/3 and DNA, and indirectly via interactions with PRC2 and RNA Pol......II. Furthermore, PHF13 depletion disrupted the interactions between PRC2, RNA PolII S5P, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 and resulted in the up and down regulation of genes functionally enriched in transcriptional regulation, DNA binding, cell cycle, differentiation and chromatin organization. Together our findings argue...... that PHF13 is an H3K4me2/3 molecular reader and transcriptional co-regulator, affording it the ability to impact different chromatin processes....

  14. Cervantes y la Corte: Lecturas biográficas, patrocinio e interpretaciones políticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario CRESPO LÓPEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La vida y la obra de Miguel de Cervantes contienen datos de indudable interés para el estudio de la política de la Edad Moderna y de las conexiones áulicas entre el creador literato y los grupos de poder de su época. Lo que conocemos de la biografía de Cervantes, sus inquietudes vitales, los argumentos de sus obras y los misterios que rodearon su mecenazgo y participación en la «república de las letras» se relacionan no sólo con el contexto político de desencanto tras la grandeza imperial de Felipe II sino también con la relación con personajes concretos de la Corte de Felipe III y con algunos acontecimientos, como la expulsión de los moriscos, que marcaron tanto el reinado como la propia obra cervantina. Lo cierto es que no existen demasiadas fuentes a partir de las cuales puedan estudiarse estas conexiones, pero es indudable que el creador está unido a una época en la que debe sobrevivir y a la que debe gran parte de sus preocupaciones literarias. En este trabajo se esbozan algunas conexiones políticas de Cervantes, recuperando parte de la bibliografía de los llamados «cervantistas» decimonónicos.ABSTRACT: Miguel de Cervantes' life and work contain interesting data to study the Modern Age politics and courts connections between the writer and the power ful groups at that time. Cervantes biography, his vital inquietudes, the plot in his works, the misteries of his literary sustenance and his participation in the «república de las letras» can be relationed not only with the political context of disenchantment after Philip II imperial grandeeship but also with the relation with concrete persons in the Court of Philip III and with some events, like Morisco's expulsion, that determine the reign and own Cervantes' work. There are not enough data to study those connections, but it is indubitable that the writer lives in a time where he must survive and where he shows his literary worries. This work sketches some

  15. Silencing of human T-cell leukemia virus type I gene transcription by epigenetic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Nancy

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL after a long latent period. Among accessory genes encoded by HTLV-I, the tax gene is thought to play a central role in oncogenesis. However, Tax expression is disrupted by several mechanims including genetic changes of the tax gene, deletion/hypermethylation of 5'-LTR. To clarify the role of epigenetic changes, we analyzed DNA methylation and histone modification in the whole HTLV-I provirus genome. Results The gag, pol and env genes of HTLV-I provirus were more methylated than pX region, whereas methylation of 5'-LTR was variable and 3'-LTR was not methylated at all. In ATL cell lines, complete DNA methylation of 5'-LTR was associated with transcriptional silencing of viral genes. HTLV-I provirus was more methylated in primary ATL cells than in carrier state, indicating the association with disease progression. In seroconvertors, DNA methylation was already observed in internal sequences of provirus just after seroconversion. Taken together, it is speculated that DNA methylation first occurs in the gag, pol and env regions and then extends in the 5' and 3' directions in vivo, and when 5'-LTR becomes methylated, viral transcription is silenced. Analysis of histone modification in the HTLV-I provirus showed that the methylated provirus was associated with hypoacetylation. However, the tax gene transcript could not be detected in fresh ATL cells regardless of hyperacetylated histone H3 in 5'-LTR. The transcription rapidly recovered after in vitro culture in such ATL cells. Conclusion These results showed that epigenetic changes of provirus facilitated ATL cells to evade host immune system by suppressing viral gene transcription. In addition, this study shows the presence of another reversible mechanism that suppresses the tax gene transcription without DNA methylation and hypoacetylated histone.

  16. Raymond Aron ante el maquiavelismo político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Cano, Jerónimo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a simplification of Raymond Aron´s thought to consider him as a mere neo-liberal political thinker. The French sociologist, a well-known political realist, took part in the famous controversy about Machiavellianism that was Aron´s intellectual watershed from the Forties. Starting from that controversy the aim of the present paper is to inquire into his contribution to the so-called “moderate Machiavellianism”, whose Arcanum is that it is not always possible to choose the optimal means to face the right political action. Machiavellianism is not a merely scientific or epistemological question, but something that deeply determines all political actions.

    La presentación de Raymond Aron como un escritor político neoliberal constituye una simplificación de su pensamiento. El sociólogo francés, que pertenece a la tradición del realismo político, tuvo una destacada intervención en la famosa polémica sobre el maquiavelismo que marcó un punto de inflexión en su pensamiento. Este artículo examina su contribución a esa inagotable polémica intelectual desde los años 40 y constata, finalmente, su encuadramiento en el denominado “maquiavelismo moderado”, cuyo arcano político es que, en política, no siempre se pueden elegir los medios de la acción. El maquiavelismo no es, en este sentido, un asunto científico o epistemológico, sino que determina profundamente toda acción política.

  17. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Trigger Hypoxia-Induced Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, N. S.; Maltepe, E.; Goldwasser, E.; Mathieu, C. E.; Simon, M. C.; Schumacker, P. T.

    1998-09-01

    Transcriptional activation of erythropoietin, glycolytic enzymes, and vascular endothelial growth factor occurs during hypoxia or in response to cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in Hep3B cells. However, neither the mechanism of cellular O2 sensing nor that of cobalt is fully understood. We tested whether mitochondria act as O2 sensors during hypoxia and whether hypoxia and cobalt activate transcription by increasing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results show (i) wild-type Hep3B cells increase ROS generation during hypoxia (1.5% O2) or CoCl2 incubation, (ii) Hep3B cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA (ρ 0 cells) fail to respire, fail to activate mRNA for erythropoietin, glycolytic enzymes, or vascular endothelial growth factor during hypoxia, and fail to increase ROS generation during hypoxia; (iii) ρ 0 cells increase ROS generation in response to CoCl2 and retain the ability to induce expression of these genes; and (iv) the antioxidants pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and ebselen abolish transcriptional activation of these genes during hypoxia or CoCl2 in wild-type cells, and abolish the response to CoCl2 in ρ 0 cells. Thus, hypoxia activates transcription via a mitochondria-dependent signaling process involving increased ROS, whereas CoCl2 activates transcription by stimulating ROS generation via a mitochondria-independent mechanism.

  18. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    e, 40 µM complex, 10 hrs after dissolution, f, 40 µM complex, after irradiation dose 15 Gy. and H-atoms result in reduction of Co(III) to Co. (II). 6. It is interesting to see in complex containing multiple ligands what is the fate of electron adduct species formed by electron addition. Reduction to. Co(II) and intramolecular transfer ...

  19. Calculus III essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.

  20. Controlling cellular P-TEFb activity by the HIV-1 transcriptional transactivator Tat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Muniz

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 transcriptional transactivator (Tat is essential for synthesis of full-length transcripts from the integrated viral genome by RNA polymerase II (Pol II. Tat recruits the host positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb to the HIV-1 promoter through binding to the transactivator RNA (TAR at the 5'-end of the nascent HIV transcript. P-TEFb is a general Pol II transcription factor; its cellular activity is controlled by the 7SK small nuclear RNA (snRNA and the HEXIM1 protein, which sequester P-TEFb into transcriptionally inactive 7SK/HEXIM/P-TEFb snRNP. Besides targeting P-TEFb to HIV transcription, Tat also increases the nuclear level of active P-TEFb through promoting its dissociation from the 7SK/HEXIM/P-TEFb RNP by an unclear mechanism. In this study, by using in vitro and in vivo RNA-protein binding assays, we demonstrate that HIV-1 Tat binds with high specificity and efficiency to an evolutionarily highly conserved stem-bulge-stem motif of the 5'-hairpin of human 7SK snRNA. The newly discovered Tat-binding motif of 7SK is structurally and functionally indistinguishable from the extensively characterized Tat-binding site of HIV TAR and importantly, it is imbedded in the HEXIM-binding elements of 7SK snRNA. We show that Tat efficiently replaces HEXIM1 on the 7SK snRNA in vivo and therefore, it promotes the disassembly of the 7SK/HEXIM/P-TEFb negative transcriptional regulatory snRNP to augment the nuclear level of active P-TEFb. This is the first demonstration that HIV-1 specifically targets an important cellular regulatory RNA, most probably to promote viral transcription and replication. Demonstration that the human 7SK snRNA carries a TAR RNA-like Tat-binding element that is essential for the normal transcriptional regulatory function of 7SK questions the viability of HIV therapeutic approaches based on small drugs blocking the Tat-binding site of HIV TAR.

  1. Orthoretroviral-like prototype foamy virus gag-pol expression is compatible with viral replication

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    Reh Juliane

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foamy viruses (FVs unlike orthoretroviruses express Pol as a separate precursor protein and not as a Gag-Pol fusion protein. A unique packaging strategy, involving recognition of briding viral RNA by both Pol precursor and Gag as well as potential Gag-Pol protein interactions, ensures Pol particle encapsidation. Results Several Prototype FV (PFV Gag-Pol fusion protein constructs were generated to examine whether PFV replication is compatible with an orthoretroviral-like Pol expression. During their analysis, non-particle-associated secreted Pol precursor protein was discovered in extracellular wild type PFV particle preparations of different origin, copurifying in simple virion enrichment protocols. Different analysis methods suggest that extracellular wild type PFV particles contain predominantly mature p85PR-RT and p40IN Pol subunits. Characterization of various PFV Gag-Pol fusion constructs revealed that PFV Pol expression in an orthoretroviral manner is compatible with PFV replication as long as a proteolytic processing between Gag and Pol proteins is possible. PFV Gag-Pol translation by a HIV-1 like ribosomal frameshift signal resulted in production of replication-competent virions, although cell- and particle-associated Pol levels were reduced in comparison to wild type. In-frame fusion of PFV Gag and Pol ORFs led to increased cellular Pol levels, but particle incorporation was only marginally elevated. Unlike that reported for similar orthoretroviral constructs, a full-length in-frame PFV Gag-Pol fusion construct showed wildtype-like particle release and infectivity characteristics. In contrast, in-frame PFV Gag-Pol fusion with C-terminal Gag ORF truncations or non-removable Gag peptide addition to Pol displayed wildtype particle release, but reduced particle infectivity. PFV Gag-Pol precursor fusion proteins with inactivated protease were highly deficient in regular particle release, although coexpression of p71Gag

  2. Infinite Particle Systems: Complex Systems III

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    Editorial Board

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2002-2005, a group of German and Polish mathematicians worked under a DFG research project No 436 POL 113/98/0-1 entitled "Methods of stochastic analysis in the theory of collective phenomena: Gibbs states and statistical hydrodynamics". The results of their study were summarized at the German-Polish conference, which took place in Poland in October 2005. The venue of the conference was Kazimierz Dolny upon Vistula - a lovely town and a popular place for various cultural, scientific, and even political events of an international significance. The conference was also attended by scientists from France, Italy, Portugal, UK, Ukraine, and USA, which predetermined its international character. Since that time, the conference, entitled "Infinite Particle Systems: Complex Systems" has become an annual international event, attended by leading scientists from Germany, Poland and many other countries. The present volume of the "Condensed Matter Physics" contains proceedings of the conference "Infinite Particle Systems: Complex Systems III", which took place in June 2007.

  3. TFIIH and P-TEFb coordinate transcription with capping enzyme recruitment at specific genes in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladevall, Laia; St Amour, Courtney V; Rosebrock, Adam; Schneider, Susanne; Zhang, Chao; Allen, Jasmina J; Shokat, Kevan M; Schwer, Beate; Leatherwood, Janet K; Fisher, Robert P

    2009-03-27

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are subunits of transcription factor (TF) IIH and positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). To define their functions, we mutated the TFIIH-associated kinase Mcs6 and P-TEFb homologs Cdk9 and Lsk1 of fission yeast, making them sensitive to inhibition by bulky purine analogs. Selective inhibition of Mcs6 or Cdk9 blocks cell division, alters RNA polymerase (Pol) II carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation, and represses specific, overlapping subsets of transcripts. At a common target gene, both CDKs must be active for normal Pol II occupancy, and Spt5-a CDK substrate and regulator of elongation-accumulates disproportionately to Pol II when either kinase is inhibited. In contrast, Mcs6 activity is sufficient-and necessary-to recruit the Cdk9/Pcm1 (mRNA cap methyltransferase) complex. In vitro, phosphorylation of the CTD by Mcs6 stimulates subsequent phosphorylation by Cdk9. We propose that TFIIH primes the CTD and promotes recruitment of P-TEFb/Pcm1, serving to couple elongation and capping of select pre-mRNAs.

  4. TFIIH and P-TEFb Coordinate Transcription with Capping Enzyme Recruitment at Specific Genes in Fission Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladevall, Laia; St. Amour, Courtney V.; Rosebrock, Adam; Schneider, Susanne; Zhang, Chao; Allen, Jasmina J.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Schwer, Beate; Leatherwood, Janet K.; Fisher, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are subunits of transcription factor (TF) IIH and positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). To define their functions, we mutated the TFIIH-associated kinase Mcs6 and P-TEFb homologs Cdk9 and Lsk1 of fission yeast, making them sensitive to bulky purine analogs. Selective inhibition of Mcs6 or Cdk9 blocks cell division, alters RNA polymerase (Pol) II carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation and represses specific, overlapping subsets of transcripts. At a common target gene, both CDKs must be active for normal Pol II occupancy, and Spt5—a CDK substrate and regulator of elongation—accumulates disproportionately to Pol II when either kinase is inhibited. In contrast, Mcs6 activity is sufficient, and necessary, to recruit the Cdk9/Pcm1 (mRNA cap methyltransferase) complex. In vitro, phosphorylation of the CTD by Mcs6 stimulates subsequent phosphorylation by Cdk9. We propose that TFIIH primes the CTD and promotes recruitment of P-TEFb/Pcm1, serving to couple elongation and capping of select pre-mRNAs. PMID:19328067

  5. Por que rir da Filosofia Política?: Abertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessa Renato

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As diferentes intervenções que compuseram este debate têm como referência comum uma reflexão sobre os lugares da Filosofia Política na tradição disciplinar que designamos como Ciência Política. Recusando a perspectiva que dissocia a Filosofia Política da dimensão empiricamente orientada da disciplina, os argumentos apresentados destacam o papel de fertilização de formas de vida cumprido pela primeira. A agenda dos pesquisadores devotados à boa faina da investigação empírica foi, e segue sendo, em grande medida definida e configurada por exercícios prévios de invenção social e política e por decisões de ordem ontológica, epistemológica e retórica. Neste sentido, a distinção entre ciência e filosofia é, além de obscurantista e marcada por enorme otimismo epistemológico, sintoma de um desconhecimento forte com relação à história do conhecimento político.

  6. Polímeros como modificadores asfálticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia SocaI da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Neste trabalho foram preparadas diferentes misturas de ligante asfáltico modificado com polímeros. Foram utilizadas quatro amostras de polímeros, sendo duas de SBS, uma de SEBS e uma de Polietileno Modificado, as quais foram caracterizadas quanto a sua estrutura e propriedades térmicas através de técnicas de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear (RMN, Cromatografia por Permeação a Gel (GPC, Análise Termogravimétrica (TGA e Calorimetria Diferencial de Varredura (DSC. O ligante modificado foi avaliado quanto a sua viscosidade, retorno elástico, comportamento reológico e estabilidade à estocagem. Foram correlacionadas a estrutura química e as transições térmicas dos polímeros com as características do ligante modificado. Os polímeros do tipo SBS foram os melhores modificadores de asfalto, quando comparado com os demais polímeros avaliados.

  7. El Desequilibrio de lo Político en Hegel

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    Juan Ignacio Arias Krause

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El problema político de la sociedad civil se fundamenta en su doble forma de manifestarse: por un lado, en ella se revela el carácter externo u objetivo del Estado y, por otro, produce una escisión al interior del mismo Estado. Tal problema que aparece como contradictorio (el ser exterior e interior a la vez es presentado en el pensamiento político de Hegel, en vistas a superar las dicotomías que en la teoría política moderna aparecían como insalvables. Esta superación Hegel la realiza mediante una interiorización de aquellos elementos que anteriormente habían sido marginados de la política, como son lo natural y el dominio privado, los que emergerían en la sociedad civil. En este artículo se exponen estos elementos en vistas a mostrar cómo es en este movimiento de interiorización y exteriorización de ellos donde se posibilita el acontecer de lo político.

  8. Association of mitochondrial lysyl-tRNA synthetase with HIV-1 GagPol involves catalytic domain of the synthetase and transframe and integrase domains of Pol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalak V. F.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Analyze the interaction between Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS and HIV-1 GagPol to know whether a particular N-terminal sequence of mitochondrial LysRS triggers a specific recognition with GagPol. Methods. Yeast two-hybrid analysis, immunoprecipitation. Results. We have shown that LysRS associates with the Pol domain of GagPol. Conclusions. A model of the assembly of the LysRS:tRNA3Lys:GagPol packaging complex is proposed.

  9. Salazarismo y política exterior

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    Juan Carlos JIMÉNEZ REDONDO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El sistema internacional jugó para la Portugal de Salazar un papel esencial al actuar como fuente privilegiada de la que extraer los recursos materiales (económicos, tecnológicos o financieros e inmateriales (factores de legitimación que garantizaron el programa de reforma política de la dictadura y que permitieron al país desempeñar un papel internacional desproporcionadamente relevante si consideramos su condición de pequeña potencia periférica europea. La novedad del salazarismo respecto a períodos anteriores consistió en la adecuación de esas necesidades de apertura al exterior con una fuerte percepción de los intereses nacionales, dentro de una estrategia pragmática que le permitió acomodarse a la acelerada evolución del sistema internacional y, sobre todo, al cambio que se produjo en el sistema internacional de acuerdo a la dinámica de la Guerra Fría y sus distintas fases. Palabras clave: Salazarismo, OTAN, EFTA, Botelho Moniz, Guerra colonial, descolonización. ABSTRACT: The international system played for the Portugal of Salazar an essential role when acting like privileged source of which to extract the material resources (economic, technological or financial and immaterial (legitimation factors that guaranteed the program of political reform of the dictatorship and that allowed the country to play very out of proportion excellent a role international if we considered its condition of small European peripheral power. The newness of the salazarism with respect to previous periods consisted of the adjustment of those necessities of opening to the outside with a strong perception of the national interests, within a pragmatic strategy that allowed to comply him to the accelerated evolution of the international system and, mainly, to the change that took place in the international system according to the dynamics of the cold war and its different phases. Keywords: Salazarism, NATO, EFTA, Botelho Moniz, Colonial

  10. ¿Arte y política o política en el arte?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Araque Osorio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este es nuestro segundo número dedicado al tema “Arte y Política” y valdría la pena preguntarnos¿por qué dos números sobre un tema que está en boca de todo el mundo?-Académicamente se trata a diario y aparece recurrentemente en periódicos, revistas ynoticieros-. Lo cierto es, que el arte genera necesidades, conforma comunidades y sociedades,moldea conductas, da status, constituye identidad e incluso destaca virtudes y pudepropiciar que algunas verdades no tan reales en el imaginario colectivo, se trasformen eninvenciones o quimeras.También, es cierto que la influencia de los medios masivos de comunicación está presenteen el gusto que demuestran las comunidades por el arte y los artistas. Hoy en día por ejemplo:el artista, el título de la obra y la justificación o sustentación que se haga de ella, puedenser más importantes que la obra. Si a esto agregamos que es en las oficinas es donde losmass media deciden sobre que arte promocionar e impulsar y que obras desconocer oignorar, tendríamos que afirmar que en la contemporaneidad el vínculo entre arte y políticava más allá de una relación formal y se convierte en una forma de poder.

  11. Asia Central en la política exterior rusa

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    Javier Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas rusas hacia Asia Central han estado condicionadas por la herencia histórica anterior a la disolución de la URSS, pero también por los cambios en el sistema internacional y en la propia Rusia acaecidos desde entonces. ¿En qué medida la actuación de Rusia ha sido coherente y estable, basada en una estrategia para Asia Central fundamentada en los intereses nacionales? En este artículo examinamos los fundamentos de la política exterior rusa en relación con Asia Central, dividiéndola en tres apartados: político, económico y de seguridad.

  12. Ajuste macro, política monetaria y empleo

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    Jorge Iván González

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra que la política monetaria restrictiva ha sido uno de los factores que más ha incidido en el crecimiento del desempleo en Colombia durante la segunda mitad de los años noventa. La tasa de sacrificio de la política monetaria no ha sido cero, porque el costo de reducir la inflación ha sido muy elevado. La responsabilidad que tiene el manejo de la política monetaria en la crisis del sector real se hace más visible si se tiene en cuenta que no hay evidencia de que la menor demanda de trabajo esté asociada a los costos laborales y a las inflexibilidades del mercado laboral.

  13. Elecciones, Jóvenes y Política

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    Anna María Fernández Poncela

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto muestra el papel de la juventud en un posible cambio político, especialmente en el espacio elec toral. Se centra, en concreto, en la postura político - elec toral de los jóvenes en nuestros días y de cara al fu turo cercano; por una parte, comparada con otros grupos de edad; por otra, específicamente en tre los universitarios, y finalmente intentando vislumbrar los escenarios del porvenir al respecto. Para ello se emplearán datos de una encuesta nacional, encuestas universitarias y sondeos de opinión en torno a la convocatoria de 1997, sobre todo en los resultados de las preguntas sobre la simpatía política y preferencias electorales, a quiénes se votó y a quiénes se votará.

  14. Naturaleza humana y política en Denis Diderot

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    Pablo Scotto Benito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone relacionar la concepción que Diderot tiene del ser humano con sus ideas políticas. A pesar de que no se pueda hallar en la obra del “filósofo” un tratado sistemático en el que el estudio de la naturaleza humana sirva como fundamentación de un determinado sistema político, la epistemología empirista y el monismo materialista diderotianos, con la consecuente revalorización de las pasiones corporales, conducen a una moral y una política universalistas, acordes con la naturaleza humana y centradas en la felicidad de los individuos.

  15. RNA-guided transcriptional regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M.; Mali, Prashant G.; Esvelt, Kevin M.

    2016-02-23

    Methods of modulating expression of a target nucleic acid in a cell are provided including introducing into the cell a first foreign nucleic acid encoding one or more RNAs complementary to DNA, wherein the DNA includes the target nucleic acid, introducing into the cell a second foreign nucleic acid encoding a nuclease-null Cas9 protein that binds to the DNA and is guided by the one or more RNAs, introducing into the cell a third foreign nucleic acid encoding a transcriptional regulator protein or domain, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein, and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain are expressed, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain co-localize to the DNA and wherein the transcriptional regulator protein or domain regulates expression of the target nucleic acid.

  16. Transcriptional control of megakaryocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, A N

    2007-10-15

    Megakaryocytes are highly specialized cells that arise from a bipotent megakaryocytic-erythroid progenitor (MEP). This developmental leap requires coordinated activation of megakaryocyte-specific genes, radical changes in cell cycle properties, and active prevention of erythroid differentiation. These programs result from upregulation of megakaryocyte-selective transcription factors, downregulation of erythroid-selective transcription factors and ongoing mediation of common erythro-megakaryocytic transcription factors. Unlike most developmental programs, no single lineage-unique family of master regulators exerts executive control over the megakaryocytic plan. Rather, an assemblage of non-unique factors and signals converge to determine lineage and differentiation. In human megakaryopoiesis, hereditary disorders of platelet production have confirmed contributions from three distinct transcription factor families. Murine models have extended this repertoire to include multiple additional factors. At a mechanistic level, the means by which these non-unique factors collaborate in the establishment of a perfectly unique cell type remains a central question.

  17. La política como espectáculo

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    Juan E. Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La política siempre estuvo ligada al espectáculo, la pompa y el teatro. La antigua oratoria imperial, eclesiástica y solemne; los debates cargados de ironías en asambleas y parlamentos; y los actuales espectáculos políticos televisados difieren más en la forma y el alcance (curiosamente más democrático que en su ausencia comunicacional. El autor piensa, que hay mucho de siniestro y peligroso en la trivialización del camino al poder cuando lo que está en juego parece ser la vida misma.

  18. La ciencia de la política.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolívar Meza, Rosendo

    2007-01-01

    Presentación. Ramos Jiménez, Alfredo Los círculos bolivarianos. El mito de la unidad del pueblo. Arenas, Nelly y Gómez Calcaño, Luis Lo massmediático y las sociedades contemporáneas. Un acercamiento a la relación medios-democracia. Briceño Romero, Ysabel La economía ambiental y la política ambiental. Caraballo, Leonardo Javier Veinte años de democracia en la Argentina. ¿Qué democracia? Kers, Mercedes y Leiras, Santiago C. La ciencia de la política. Bolívar ...

  19. La agricultura peruana: problemas, potencialidades y políticas

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Figueroa

    1986-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por objeto presentar, primero, los problemas estructurales de la agricultura peruana, luego sus potencialidades y, finalmente, los elementos para el diseño de políticas económicas. Debo admitir que este objetivo es muy ambicioso para ser desarrollado en un artículo y por un investigador individual. Por ello espero que el artículo logre, más bien, ordenar los elementos básicos para la discusión de la política económica dirigida al desarrollo agrícola del Perú....

  20. Intelectuais, cultura política e ditadura no Brasil

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    Michel Goulart da Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se neste artigo a produção de uma cultura política compartilhada por intelectuais no contexto da ditadura civil-militar, que governou o Brasil entre os anos de 1964 e 1985. Apresenta-se numa primeira parte a relação estabelecida pelos intelectuais com o regime autoritário, principalmente a partir das reflexões realizadas pelo sociólogo Florestan Fernandes durante a ditadura. Numa segunda parte trabalha-se a noção de cultura política conservadora, compartilhada por uma parcela dos intelectuais brasileiros.

  1. O desafio político do desenvolvimento sustentado

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães,Roberto P.

    1995-01-01

    A unanimidade que hoje parece haver em favor do desenvolvimento sustentado contrasta com a ausência de iniciativas políticas significativas para transformar as instituições econômicas, sociais e políticas que estão comprometidas com o estilo vigente de desenvolvimento. Em particular, há uma patente contradição entre o discurso antiestatista hegemônico e as exigências do desenvolvimento sustentado, que incluem um Estado ainda mais forte, em suas capacidades reguladoras e de planificação, que o...

  2. Responsabilidad social corporativa y conexiones políticas

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos Gallego, Nicolás Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    La inclusión de políticas de Responsabilidad Social en la actividad productiva es una estrategia que en la actualidad se ve asociada al buen desempeño empresarial. Paralelo a esto, se lleva a cabo un ejercicio de respaldo a causas políticas que define el comportamiento de las compañías en términos de gobierno corporativo. Se encuentra una relación positiva y significativa entre ambos conceptos sugiriendo una relación complementaria entre ambos y asociada a causas filantrópicas más allá de lo...

  3. National Capital Planning Commission Meeting Transcripts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — Transcripts of the monthly (with the exception of August) National Capital Planning Commission meeting transcripts are provided for research to confirm actions taken...

  4. Regulation of an H-ras-related transcript by parathyroid hormone in rat osteosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. K.; Weaver, W. R.; Clohisy, J. C.; Brakenhoff, K. D.; Kahn, A. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    The rat osteosarcoma cell line UMR 106-01 is a commonly used model system for the study of osteoblast function. However, it also expresses a phenotype characteristic of transformed cells. To test whether the latter could be accounted for by aberrant oncogene expression, we probed Northern blots of UMR and other osteoblastic cells with a panel of oncogene probes. These blots, when probed with a cDNA specific for v-H-ras, revealed a 7.0-kilobase (kb) H-ras-related transcript (designated HRRT) in UMR 106-01 cells that was not expressed in other osteoblastic cells. Osteoblast-enriched calvarial cells expressed the typical 1.1-kb H-ras mRNA, which was absent in UMR cells. Additionally, Western blots of lysates of UMR cells documented the presence of three proteins immunologically related to H-rasp21. To determine whether HRRT represented a recombinant retrovirus product, Northern blots were probed with a cDNA specific for the highly conserved gag-pol region of Moloney murine leukemia virus. These blots showed parallel cross-reactivity with an apparently identical transcript of 7.0 kb. The 7.0-kb transcripts detected by both v-H-ras and gag-pol probes declined to the same extent after treatment with concentrations of PTH known to inhibit proliferation of these cells. PTH regulated the abundance of HRRT in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with greatest repression of the transcript after 8 h of treatment with 10(-8) M PTH. The decrease in HRRT could not be completely accounted for by changes in transcriptional activity, as determined by nuclear run-on assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  5. La justicia como problema político. Del constructivismo moral kantiano al constructivismo político rawlsiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Jaramillo Marín

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo expone la justicia como un problema político desde la perspectiva del filósofo John Rawls. En su desarrollo se señalan las implicaciones del constructivismo kantiano en el constructivismo político rawlsiano. Se discute cómo la conexión entre estos dos tipos de constructivismo, proporciona un procedimiento de construcción, en el que agentes racionalmente autónomos, sujetos a condiciones razonables, elaboran acuerdos sobre principios públicos de justicia para lograr un sistema justo de cooperación que trascienda generacionalmente. Se concluye, mostrando las limitaciones y alcances de esta propuesta en el pensamiento filosófico y político contemporáneo.

  6. Roles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerases Polη and Polζ in response to irradiation by simulated sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmin, Stanislav G.; Pavlov, Youri I.; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Sage, Evelyne

    2003-01-01

    Sunlight causes lesions in DNA that if unrepaired and inaccurately replicated by DNA polymerases yield mutations that result in skin cancer in humans. Two enzymes involved in translesion synthesis (TLS) of UV-induced photolesions are DNA polymerase η (Polη) and polymerase ζ (Polζ), encoded by the RAD30A and REV3 genes, respectively. Previous studies have investigated the TLS roles of these polymerases in human and yeast cells irradiated with monochromatic, short wavelength UVC radiation (254 nm). However, less is known about cellular responses to solar radiation, which is of higher and mixed wavelengths (310–1100 nm) and produces a different spectrum of DNA lesions, including Dewar photoproducts and oxidative lesions. Here we report on the comparative cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of simulated sunlight (SSL) and UVC radiation on yeast wild-type, rad30Δ, rev3Δ and rev3Δ rad30Δ strains. The results with SSL support several previous interpretations on the roles of these two polymerases in TLS of photodimers and (6–4) photoproducts derived from studies with UVC. They further suggest that Polη participates in the non-mutagenic bypass of SSL-dependent cytosine-containing Dewar photoproducts and 8-oxoguanine, while Polζ is mainly responsible for the mutagenic bypass of all types of Dewar photoproducts. They also suggest that in the absence of Polζ, Polη contributes to UVC- and SSL-induced mutagenesis, possibly by the bypass of photodimers containing deaminated cytosine. PMID:12888515

  7. As assimetrias entre as políticas setoriais e a política de planejamento regional no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Mendes da Rocha Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O modo de conduzir a formulação das políticas de desenvolvimento regional tem se constituído em ampla arena de embates acadêmicos e técnicos e levado a reflexões sobre os rumos das múltiplas políticas que acompanham esse processo de planejamento regional. Isso, em parte, decorre do processo de globalização e das políticas neoliberais que o acompanham, as quais possuem um forte apelo à competitividade. Essa estratégia de buscar espaços "privilegiados" se fez presente de uma forma intensa em alguns setores produtivos, que, ao usar o espaço como mercadoria, utilizam seu conjunto de atributos (naturais e artificiais para realizarem-se e reproduzirem-se como parte do sistema. Assim, a proposta de estudo pretende responder a questão: em que medida as políticas públicas setoriais têm dialogado com as políticas de planejamento e desenvolvimento regional no âmbito do governo federal? No caso das políticas de planejamento regional, o recorte espacial é visto como um instrumento que, ao ser aplicado, pode se mostrar capaz de viabilizar a integração de ações multissetorializadas, o que em certa dimensão apontaria para uma maior eficiência do Estado na busca por restabelecer o equilíbrio esgarçado, tornando mais eficiente o planejamento.

  8. File list: Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Cardiomyocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Cardiomyocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Cardiomyocytes ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Cardiomyocytes.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Cardiomyocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Cardiomyocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Cardiomyocytes ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Cardiomyocytes.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Cardiomyocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Cardiomyocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Cardiomyocytes ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Cardiomyocytes.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Cardiomyocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Cardiomyocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Cardiomyocytes ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Cardiomyocytes.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_palates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_palates mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic palates http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_palates.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_palates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_palates mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic palates http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_palates.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Kid.20.AllAg.Nephrectomy_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Kid.20.AllAg.Nephrectomy_sample hg19 RNA polymerase Kidney Nephrectomy sample h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Kid.20.AllAg.Nephrectomy_sample.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Kid.10.AllAg.Nephrectomy_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Kid.10.AllAg.Nephrectomy_sample hg19 RNA polymerase Kidney Nephrectomy sample h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Kid.10.AllAg.Nephrectomy_sample.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Kid.05.AllAg.Nephrectomy_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Kid.05.AllAg.Nephrectomy_sample hg19 RNA polymerase Kidney Nephrectomy sample h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Kid.05.AllAg.Nephrectomy_sample.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Polymorphonuclear... leukocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Polymorphonuclear... leukocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Polymorphonuclear... leukocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic pancreas ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic pancreas ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic pancreas ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  4. File list: Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Octopaminergic_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Octopaminergic_neurons dm3 RNA polymerase Adult Octopaminergic neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Octopaminergic_neurons.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Octopaminergic_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Octopaminergic_neurons dm3 RNA polymerase Adult Octopaminergic neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Octopaminergic_neurons.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Adl.50.AllAg.Octopaminergic_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.50.AllAg.Octopaminergic_neurons dm3 RNA polymerase Adult Octopaminergic neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Adl.50.AllAg.Octopaminergic_neurons.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Octopaminergic_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Octopaminergic_neurons dm3 RNA polymerase Adult Octopaminergic neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Octopaminergic_neurons.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  12. La justicia como problema político. Del constructivismo moral kantiano al constructivismo político rawlsiano

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Jaramillo Marín; Yesid Echeverry Enciso

    2009-01-01

    El artículo expone la justicia como un problema político desde la perspectiva del filósofo John Rawls. En su desarrollo se señalan las implicaciones del constructivismo kantiano en el constructivismo político rawlsiano. Se discute cómo la conexión entre estos dos tipos de constructivismo, proporciona un procedimiento de construcción, en el que agentes racionalmente autónomos, sujetos a condiciones razonables, elaboran acuerdos sobre principios públicos de justicia para lograr un sistema justo...

  13. La escisión entre Ciencia Política y realidad política: el caso de la Seguridad Democrática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Ramírez González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La política de seguridad democrática, adoptada por el Presidente Álvaro Uribe Vélez durante su periodo de gobierno, resultó en un viraje fundamental en los rumbos del país luego del fallido proceso de paz del gobierno Pastrana. En este sentido, el presente trabajo busca demostrar que la Ciencia Política abordó el fenómeno político en contravía con el curso de los hechos, de tal manera que mientras la política de Seguridad Democrática propugnaba por un aumento en la ofensiva militar, la visión desde la Ciencia Política se concentraba en la manera de llegar a unos diálogos de paz o una salida concertada al conflicto. Esto, por tanto, se puede traducir en un rechazo al punto de vista preponderante y a una postura alternativa en el estudio de la realidad política nacional. Para demostrar lo anterior, se realiza una revisión documental aplicada a artículos académicos en cuatro revistas de Ciencia Política del país: Análisis Político, Colombia Internacional, Papel Político y Estudios Políticos durante el periodo de publicación de 2002 a 2012.

  14. A política do ensaio político de catálogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Stallabrass

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto foi originalmente publicado no livro Villa Lituania, que aborda o trabalho homônimo, apresentado pela dupla de artistas lituanos Nomeda & Gediminas Urbonas na 52ª Bienal de Veneza, em 2007. O título designa o edifício que até 1940 sediou, em Roma, a primeira embaixada da república independente da Lituania, mantido sob jurisdição das autoridades russas mesmo após a queda do bloco soviético, em 1989, e considerado, pela ex-república soviética, território nacional ocupado. O trabalho implicou na construção de um pombal na Villa Lituania e numa série de ações de conotação política e social em Veneza, Roma e Vilna, cidade onde a dupla reside. Os artistas são conhecidos internacionalmente pela dimensão política e social que pretendem infundir a suas ações. Não obstante a forte carga ideológica que envolveu a intervenção de Nomeda & Gediminas Urbonas na Bienal de Veneza, neste ensaio o autor, tributário da tradição marxista, demonstra notável ceticismo em relação à potência crítica do discurso marxista evocado em parte significativa da arte contemporânea.This text has been originally published in the book Villa Lituania, which approaches the homonymous work presented by the lithuanian artists Nomeda & Gediminas Urbonas, at the 52ª Venice Biennial, in 2007. The title is the name of the building used until 1940 as the seat for the first independent Lithuania Republic's embassy, in Rome, nevertheless kept under the jurisdiction of Russian authorities since the fall of the soviet bloc, in 1989, and considered, by the ex-soviet Republic, national territory under foreign occupation. The work involved the creation of a pigeon loft at Villa Lituania building, as well as a series of actions targeted at social and politic issues in Venice, Rome and Vilnius, where the tandem lives. Socially and politically addressed actions have made the artists internationally known. Notwithstanding the strong ideological drive

  15. Construtivismo Político: Além do Realismo e Antirrealismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Coitinho Silveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2011v10n1p1 O artigo tem o objetivo de investigar as características centrais do modelo ético coerentista utilizado por Rawls nos textos A Theory of Justice (TJ I, § 4, 9, Political Liberalism (PL III, “Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory” (KCMT, “Themes in Kant’s Moral Philosophy” (TKMP, Lectures on History of Moral Philosophy (LHMP: 69-83; 235-252, “Reply to Habermas” (RH § 2, The Law of Peoples (LP I, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement (JF I; V, Collected Papers (CP. Especificamente, quero ver como seu construtivismo político oferece uma alternativa ao problema debatido entre realistas e antirrealistas, a saber, se existem fatos morais independente das crenças ou se estes dependem da estrutura mental do agente, sendo uma alternativa tanto ao construtivismo moral kantiano como ao intuicionismo racional. Quero defender que o construtivismo político é um modelo contratualista coerentista holístico e que faz uso de uma ontologia social, conduzindo a um modelo pragmático de justificação em um âmbito público que supera este impasse em ontologia moral. Para tal, inicio com a controvérsia entre realistas e antirrealistas e, após, analiso a teoria rawlseana à luz deste debate. Por fim, procuro estabelecer algumas considerações conclusivas sobre este problema.

  16. I Pol Makkartni v podarok / Aleksei Shipulin ; interv. Jelena Skulskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shipulin, Aleksei

    2004-01-01

    Moskvas elav Eesti kodanikust dokumentalist teeb Eestis vene telekanalile "Kultura" dokumentaalfilmi Lennart Merist. Režissöör jutustab ka oma varasematest filmidest nagu "Paul McCartney. 72 tundi Venemaal" ("Pol Makkartni. 72 tshassa v Rossii") ja "Serõi voronok. Komu tõ nuzhen?"

  17. Fast Superpixel Segmentation Algorithm for PolSAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As a pre-processing technique, superpixel segmentation algorithms should be of high computational efficiency, accurate boundary adherence and regular shape in homogeneous regions. A fast superpixel segmentation algorithm based on Iterative Edge Refinement (IER has shown to be applicable on optical images. However, it is difficult to obtain the ideal results when IER is applied directly to PolSAR images due to the speckle noise and small or slim regions in PolSAR images. To address these problems, in this study, the unstable pixel set is initialized as all the pixels in the PolSAR image instead of the initial grid edge pixels. In the local relabeling of the unstable pixels, the fast revised Wishart distance is utilized instead of the Euclidean distance in CIELAB color space. Then, a post-processing procedure based on dissimilarity measure is empolyed to remove isolated small superpixels as well as to retain the strong point targets. Finally, extensive experiments based on a simulated image and a real-world PolSAR image from Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR are conducted, showing that the proposed algorithm, compared with three state-of-the-art methods, performs better in terms of several commonly used evaluation criteria with high computational efficiency, accurate boundary adherence, and homogeneous regularity.

  18. Políticas en la organización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Rubio Salas

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Toda organización por así decirlo obtiene una serie de políticas que la destacan y la diferencian de las demás, sin embargo se pueden definir en  planes de acción que reflejan e identifican la personalidad y estilo de vida de esta.

  19. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia M. Al-Hummayani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month.

  20. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Hamchaoui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO32], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m. adopting an octahedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m. exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octahedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO32]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO32]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4+ cations and the O atoms of the framework.

  1. Fast ejendom III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    Bogen er det tredje bind af tre planlagte bind om fast ejendom: I Overdragelsen, II Bolighandlen og III Ejerbeføjelsen. Fremstillingens giver et grundigt overblik over centrale områder af en omfattende regulering af fast ejendom, med angivelse af litteratur, hvor læseren kan søge yderligere...... oplysning. En ejer af fast ejendom er på særdeles mange områder begrænset i sin råden sammenlignet med ejeren af et formuegode i almindelighed. Fremstillingen tager udgangspunkt i ejerens perspektiv (fremfor samfundets eller myndighedernes). Både den privatretlige og offentligretlige regulering behandles......, eksempelvis ejendomsdannelsen, servitutter, naboretten, hævd, zoneinddelingen, den fysiske planlægning, beskyttelse af natur, beskyttelse af kultur, forurening fra fast ejendom, erstatning for forurening, jordforurening, ekspropriation, byggeri og adgang til fast ejendom....

  2. La Defensa, Política de Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-Alonso, Alejandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The areas of the State Policy are set, specially focussing on the Defense as it is closely related to concepts like National Interest and Anglo-Saxon bipartisan policy. Nevertheless, the political alternation will cause differences. It is also necessary to tell the difference between the State Policy and the Policy carried out by the State. That’s why the democratic Parliaments play a fundamental role in shaping the defence policy. Although the Parliament symbolizes the National Sovereignty there can be and there are actually differences with the Public Opinion. This sort of divorce is not really new as, in Spain, it became evident in a very intensive way on the occasion of decisions such as the Spanish entry into the NATO. A State Policy related to Defense, kept during a long time and resistant to political alternation would certainly be the best instrument to reach a culture of defense.Se establecen los ámbitos de las políticas de estado, con especial énfasis en la Defensa al estar esta vinculada al concepto de interés nacional, y al anglosajón bipartisan policy. No obstante, la alternancia política va a crear discrepancias. Conviene diferenciar la “Política de Estado” y la “Política del Estado”. Por ello, los Parlamentos democráticos juegan un papel fundamental en la conformación de la política de defensa. Pese a que el Parlamento representa a la soberanía nacional pueden producirse, y de hecho se producen, discrepancias con la opinión pública. Este divorcio no es nuevo y en España se ha manifestado de forma muy intensa con ocasión de tomas de decisión como la incorporación a la OTAN. Una política de Estado en defensa, mantenida en el tiempo y resistente a las alternancias políticas sería el instrumento más adecuado para lograr una cultura de defensa.

  3. Políticas públicas: bienestar, reconocimiento, simulacro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bayce

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas públicas son hijas del crecimiento de los Estados posrrenacentistas y de las necesidades de planificación administrativa de sociedades de masas. Las políticas conservadoras afirman la subsidiariedad del Estado, se centran en la familia y en el temor a la democracia y a los sindicatos. Las liberales se anclan en la corrección de fallas del mercado y de contingencias biológicas. Las socialdemócratas, más ambiciosas, aspiran a una previsión de todas las contingencias y desigualdades ilegítimas, desde un Estado orientador del mercado y no subsidiario. Los Estados de Bienestar surgen del intento de superar recesiones, desempleo y malestar social desde la inversión, hasta deficitaria, de Estados que esperan luego recuperar su inversión. Las nociones de soberanía y de derechos humanos dificultan ese retorno y nutren un crecimiento progresivo de los imaginarios de consumo que erosionan un sistema inicialmente exitoso, desde que no son más inversiones e intervenciones de emergencia sino parte del cálculo de bienestares colectivos e individuales. Son víctimas de su éxito. Pese a que los neoliberales subrayan las insuficiencias teóricas y los fallos históricos de las políticas públicas clásicas, llegados al poder todos las aplican porque la cultura política los supone y enfrentarla sería electoralmente suicida. Hasta los marxistas lo hacen. Sin embargo, la sociedad de consumo y la cultura posmoderna van creando un progresivo hiato entre la moderna oferta tecnoburocrática iluminista de satisfactores, y la más reciente demanda, socialmente mucho más exigente y variada. Deberían disfrutar, por ende, de utilidad marginal político-electoral decreciente. Pero en la medida en que son apreciadas, no por su sustancia material, sino por el ‘reconocimiento’ simbólico que implican, y porque las poblaciones-objetivo han internalizado como legítimas las ofertas iluministas, paterno-maternales, las políticas públicas todav

  4. Global transcriptional repression in C. elegans germline precursors by regulated sequestration of TFIID component TAF-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Nishi, Yuichi; Robertson, Scott M.; Lin, Rueyling

    2008-01-01

    In C. elegans, four asymmetric divisions, beginning with the zygote (P0), generate transcriptionally repressed germline blastomeres (P1–P4) and somatic sisters that become transcriptionally active. The protein PIE-1 represses transcription in the later germline blastomeres, but not in the earlier germline blastomeres P0 and P1. We show here that OMA-1 and OMA-2, previously shown to regulate oocyte maturation, repress transcription in P0 and P1 by binding to and sequestering in the cytoplasm TAF-4, a component critical for assembly of TFIID and the pol II preinitiation complex. OMA-1/2 binding to TAF-4 is developmentally regulated, requiring phosphorylation by the DYRK kinase MBK-2, which is activated at meiosis II following fertilization. OMA-1/2 are normally degraded after the first mitosis, but ectopic expression of wildtype OMA-1 is sufficient to repress transcription in both somatic and later germline blastomeres. We propose that phosphorylation by MBK-2 serves as a developmental switch, converting OMA-1/2 from oocyte to embryo regulators. PMID:18854162

  5. Global transcriptional repression in C. elegans germline precursors by regulated sequestration of TAF-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Nishi, Yuichi; Robertson, Scott M; Lin, Rueyling

    2008-10-03

    In C. elegans, four asymmetric divisions, beginning with the zygote (P0), generate transcriptionally repressed germline blastomeres (P1-P4) and somatic sisters that become transcriptionally active. The protein PIE-1 represses transcription in the later germline blastomeres but not in the earlier germline blastomeres P0 and P1. We show here that OMA-1 and OMA-2, previously shown to regulate oocyte maturation, repress transcription in P0 and P1 by binding to and sequestering in the cytoplasm TAF-4, a component critical for assembly of TFIID and the pol II preinitiation complex. OMA-1/2 binding to TAF-4 is developmentally regulated, requiring phosphorylation by the DYRK kinase MBK-2, which is activated at meiosis II after fertilization. OMA-1/2 are normally degraded after the first mitosis, but ectopic expression of wild-type OMA-1 is sufficient to repress transcription in both somatic and later germline blastomeres. We propose that phosphorylation by MBK-2 serves as a developmental switch, converting OMA-1/2 from oocyte to embryo regulators.

  6. O contratualismo como método: política, direito e neocontratualismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. N. Chiappin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar o contratualismo como método e como o resultado de uma sistematização de outros métodos de construção do conhecimento. Enquanto o contratualismo clássico tem como paradigmas os modelos, geométrico e mecânico, da Física de Galileu e de Descartes - em particular, o modelo de escolha racional com Descartes -, o contratualismo rawlsiano tem como paradigma alguns modelos da microeconomia - em particular, o modelo de equilíbrio geral. O método contratualista tem como projeto a transformação, no século XVII, da política e do Direito em uma disciplina científica, assumindo que, no século XVII: (i o modelo do conhecimento é o modelo geométrico e o conhecimento é conhecimento certo; (ii o modelo de indivíduo admite-o como racional e auto-interessado; (iii há uma teoria racional da ação e decisão humana. Portanto, para viabilizar o projeto de transformar a política e o Direito em ciência, o contratualismo é aqui interpretado não substantivamente, mas instrumentalmente, como método para acessar os fundamentos do mundo político. O método contratualista persegue uma combinação do modelo científico do conhecimento das causas eficientes e de suas relações aos efeitos, com o modelo de conhecimento das causas finais como estudo dos fins ou das características funcionais das coisas. Para interpretarmos o contratualismo como método, admitimos o novo modelo da relação entre conhecimento e tecnologia elaborado pela ciência moderna, que sustenta que o conhecimento da natureza é um conhecimento de conquista e domínio capaz de produzir mecanismos tecnológicos de intervenção na natureza com o objetivo de, conhecendo e manipulando as causas, obter os efeitos desejados.

  7. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in Yersinia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea A Schiano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper regulation of gene expression is required by bacterial pathogens to respond to continually changing environmental conditions and the host response during the infectious process. While transcriptional regulation is perhaps the most well understood form of controlling gene expression, recent studies have demonstrated the importance of post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene regulation that allow for more refined management of the bacterial response to host conditions. Yersinia species of bacteria are known to use various forms of post-transcriptional regulation for control of many virulence-associated genes. These include regulation by cis- and trans-acting small non-coding RNAs, RNA-binding proteins, RNases, and thermoswitches. The effects of these and other regulatory mechanisms on Yersinia physiology can be profound and have been shown to influence type III secretion, motility, biofilm formation, host cell invasion, intracellular survival and replication, and more. In this review, we will discuss these and other post-transcriptional mechanisms and their influence on virulence gene regulation, with a particular emphasis on how these processes influence the virulence of Yersinia in the host.

  8. Global transcriptional regulatory network for Escherichia coli robustly connects gene expression to transcription factor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Sastry, Anand; Mih, Nathan; Kim, Donghyuk; Tan, Justin; Lloyd, Colton J.; Gao, Ye; Yang, Laurence; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) have been studied intensely for >25 y. Yet, even for the Escherichia coli TRN—probably the best characterized TRN—several questions remain. Here, we address three questions: (i) How complete is our knowledge of the E. coli TRN; (ii) how well can we predict gene expression using this TRN; and (iii) how robust is our understanding of the TRN? First, we reconstructed a high-confidence TRN (hiTRN) consisting of 147 transcription factors (TFs) regulating 1,538 transcription units (TUs) encoding 1,764 genes. The 3,797 high-confidence regulatory interactions were collected from published, validated chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data and RegulonDB. For 21 different TF knockouts, up to 63% of the differentially expressed genes in the hiTRN were traced to the knocked-out TF through regulatory cascades. Second, we trained supervised machine learning algorithms to predict the expression of 1,364 TUs given TF activities using 441 samples. The algorithms accurately predicted condition-specific expression for 86% (1,174 of 1,364) of the TUs, while 193 TUs (14%) were predicted better than random TRNs. Third, we identified 10 regulatory modules whose definitions were robust against changes to the TRN or expression compendium. Using surrogate variable analysis, we also identified three unmodeled factors that systematically influenced gene expression. Our computational workflow comprehensively characterizes the predictive capabilities and systems-level functions of an organism’s TRN from disparate data types. PMID:28874552

  9. DnaB gene product-independence of DNA polymerase III-directed repair synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.; Hellermann, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out into the role of dnaB gene product in X-ray-induced repair synthesis carried out by DNA polymerase III in toluene-treated Escherichia coli K-12. A polAl polBlOO dnaB mutant deficient in both DNA polymerase I and II activities was used, and it was shown that the level of X-ray-induced, ATP-dependent, non-conservative DNA synthesis was, unlike semi-conservative DNA synthesis, unaffected by a temperature shift from 30 0 to 42 0 C. The dnaB gene product was not therefore necessary for DNA polymerase III-directed repair synthesis, which occurred in the absence of replicative synthesis. (U.K.)

  10. A interincompreensão gera polêmica: alteridade e heterogeneidade nos discursos das cantoras Anitta e Pitty sobre comportamento sexual feminino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane de Araújo Gonzaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a analisar a situação de polêmica entre as cantoras Anitta e Pitty, durante um programa televiso, em torno do comportamento das mulheres no domínio da sexualidade. Os objetivos específicos são: (i verificar como a alteridade e a heterogeneidade delimitam posições discursivas; (ii descrever a situação de polêmica e a mobilização de simulacros no processo de interincompreensão regrada e (iii analisar a situação de polêmica e demonstrar que a alteridade e a heterogeneidade materializam embates legitimados historicamente no campo da sexualidade. Situado na Análise do Discurso francesa, este trabalho utiliza referencial teórico-metodológico baseado nos pressupostos de Authier-Revuz (1990, 1998, acerca da alteridade e da heterogeneidade enunciativa, e nas considerações de Maingueneau (1993, 2005 sobre o primado do interdiscurso e a polêmica como interincompreensão regrada. O método de análise baseia-se na descrição e interpretação de marcas linguísticas (glosas, pronomes, dêiticos, vocabulário que materializam jogos de alteridade, movimentos de já-ditos e regras sobre o dizível e o indizível no discurso. Por fim, a análise conclui que os enunciados são heterogeneamente marcados e que as posições discursivas produzem situação de polêmica, pois são atravessadas por simulacros, estereótipos e embates históricos entre os gêneros no domínio da sexualidade.

  11. AGO6 functions in RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in shoot and root meristems in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changho Eun

    Full Text Available RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM is a small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated epigenetic modification that contributes to transposon silencing in plants. RdDM requires a complex transcriptional machinery that includes specialized RNA polymerases, named Pol IV and Pol V, as well as chromatin remodelling proteins, transcription factors, RNA binding proteins, and other plant-specific proteins whose functions are not yet clarified. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DICER-LIKE3 and members of the ARGONAUTE4 group of ARGONAUTE (AGO proteins are involved, respectively, in generating and using 24-nt siRNAs that trigger methylation and transcriptional gene silencing of homologous promoter sequences. AGO4 is the main AGO protein implicated in the RdDM pathway. Here we report the identification of the related AGO6 in a forward genetic screen for mutants defective in RdDM and transcriptional gene silencing in shoot and root apical meristems in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identification of AGO6, and not AGO4, in our screen is consistent with the primary expression of AGO6 in shoot and root growing points.

  12. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    tradition and history. For the maintenance and advancement of the area some challenges and goals were established to be developed in the period from 2013 to 2016. Descrever a situação atual da área Medicina III da Capes e detectar os desafios para o próximo quadriênio de avaliação. Os documentos e relatórios de reuniões de área a partir de 2004 até 2013 da Medicina III da Capes foram lidos assim como os relatórios e as fichas de avaliação de cada Programa de Pós Graduação (PPG) da área e a subpágina da área no site da Capes. Os dados referentes ao Processo de Avaliação, à Ficha de Avaliação e aos dados do Corpo Docente, Discente e Produção científica de todos os PPG da Medicina III foram computados e analisados. A partir desses dados foram detectados os desafios da área para o próximo quadriênio (2013-2016). Dentre os 3.806 PPG, a Medicina III apresentava 41 PPG durante última avaliação trienal e evoluiu de 18% para 43% de PPG > conceito muito bom (Triênios 2001-2003 e 2010-2012). A maioria dos PPG se localizavam na Região Sudeste (32), três no Sul e dois no Nordeste. Não havia nenhum PPG no Norte ou Centro-Oeste. Em 2013 e 2014 foram aprovadas quatro mestrados profissionais e um mestrado e doutorado acadêmico. A média de docente permanente no triênio foi de 558 docentes com cerca de três alunos titulados/docente. O número de doutores titulados tem aumentado assim como a razão Doutorado/Mestrado. A proporção de publicações em periódicos de maior impacto (A1, A2, B1 e B2) saltou de 30% para 50% demonstrando resposta positiva da comunidade à política da área. Os desafios detectados foram: diminuir assimetria regional, elevar o número de mestres e doutores de excelência, reavaliação das revistas nacionais, estimular e definir indicadores de internacionalização, inclusão de pós-doutores e definição de seus indicadores, análise da nucleação do PPG, PPG 3x3, inclusão ensino médio e fundamental, mestrado

  13. Exogenous reference gene normalization for real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis under dynamic endogenous transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen; Gallaher, Zachary; Czaja, Krzysztof

    2012-05-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is widely used to investigate transcriptional changes following experimental manipulations to the nervous system. Despite the widespread utilization of qPCR, the interpretation of results is marred by the lack of a suitable reference gene due to the dynamic nature of endogenous transcription. To address this inherent deficiency, we investigated the use of an exogenous spike-in mRNA, luciferase, as an internal reference gene for the 2(-∆∆Ct) normalization method. To induce dynamic transcription, we systemically administered capsaicin, a neurotoxin selective for C-type sensory neurons expressing the TRPV-1 receptor, to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. We later isolated nodose ganglia for qPCR analysis with the reference being either exogenous luciferase mRNA or the commonly used endogenous reference β-III tubulin. The exogenous luciferase mRNA reference clearly demonstrated the dynamic expression of the endogenous reference. Furthermore, variability of the endogenous reference would lead to misinterpretation of other genes of interest. In conclusion, traditional reference genes are often unstable under physiologically normal situations, and certainly unstable following the damage to the nervous system. The use of exogenous spike-in reference provides a consistent and easily implemented alternative for the analysis of qPCR data.

  14. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  15. RNA-binding proteins involved in post-transcriptional regulation in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke eVan Assche

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional regulation is a very important mechanism to control gene expression in changing environments. In the past decade, a lot of interest has been directed towards the role of small RNAs in bacterial post-transcriptional regulation. However, small RNAs are not the only molecules controlling gene expression at this level, RNA-binding proteins play an important role as well. CsrA and Hfq are the two best studied bacterial proteins of this type, but recently, additional proteins involved in post-transcriptional control have been identified. This review focuses on the general working mechanisms of post-transcriptionally active RNA-binding proteins, which include (i adaptation of the susceptibility of mRNAs and sRNAs to RNases, (ii modulating the accessibility of the ribosome binding site of mRNAs, (iii recruiting and assisting in the interaction of mRNAs with other molecules and (iv regulating transcription terminator / antiterminator formation, and gives an overview of both the well-studied and the newly identified proteins that are involved in post-transcriptional regulatory processes. Additionally, the post-transcriptional mechanisms by which the expression or the activity of these proteins is regulated, are described. For many of the newly identified proteins, however, mechanistic questions remain. Most likely, more post-transcriptionally active proteins will be identified in the future.

  16. Transcriptional Elongation Factor Elongin A Regulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yasukawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elongin A increases the rate of RNA polymerase II (pol II transcript elongation by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme. Elongin A also acts as a component of a cullin-RING ligase that can target stalled pol II for ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. It is not known whether these activities of Elongin A are functionally interdependent in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Elongin A-deficient (Elongin A−/− embryos exhibit abnormalities in the formation of both cranial and spinal nerves and that Elongin A−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs show a markedly decreased capacity to differentiate into neurons. Moreover, we identify Elongin A mutations that selectively inactivate one or the other of the aforementioned activities and show that mutants that retain the elongation stimulatory, but not pol II ubiquitylation, activity of Elongin A rescue neuronal differentiation and support retinoic acid-induced upregulation of a subset of neurogenesis-related genes in Elongin A−/− ESCs.

  17. Fronteras morales y políticas sexuales: apuntes sobre 'la política LGBT' y el deseo del Estado

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Franklin Gil

    2013-01-01

    A partir de un seguimiento de políticas (gubernamentales, de los movimientos sociales y de la vida cotidiana) en la ciudad de Bogotá (Colombia), relacionadas con la ampliación de ciudadanías sexuales, este artículo trata sobre los territorios morales que dichas políticas crean, y sobre los cuerpos que desea el Estado o que reclaman ser deseados por él. Particularmente se analizan la 'política LGBT' y la 'política gay' en un contexto local y su paradójica contribución a la normalización de la ...

  18. Dark matter detection - III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of todays particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the Universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the Universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world- wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  19. Transcriptional regulation of hepatic lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Viscarra, Jose; Kim, Sun-Joong; Sul, Hei Sook

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acid and fat synthesis in the liver is a highly regulated metabolic pathway that is important for very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production and thus energy distribution to other tissues. Having common features at their promoter regions, lipogenic genes are coordinately regulated at the transcriptional level. Transcription factors, such as upstream stimulatory factors (USFs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C (SREBP1C), liver X receptors (LXRs) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) have crucial roles in this process. Recently, insights have been gained into the signalling pathways that regulate these transcription factors. After feeding, high blood glucose and insulin levels activate lipogenic genes through several pathways, including the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and AKT-mTOR pathways. These pathways control the post-translational modifications of transcription factors and co-regulators, such as phosphorylation, acetylation or ubiquitylation, that affect their function, stability and/or localization. Dysregulation of lipogenesis can contribute to hepatosteatosis, which is associated with obesity and insulin resistance.

  20. Structural insights into transcription complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, I.; Blanco, A.G.; Boelens, R.; Cavarelli, J.; Coll, M.; Folkers, G.E.; Nie, Y.; Pogenberg, V.; Schultz, P.; Wilmanns, M.; Moras, D.; Poterszman, A.

    2011-01-01

    Control of transcription allows the regulation of cell activity in response to external stimuli and research in the field has greatly benefited from efforts in structural biology. In this review, based on specific examples from the European SPINE2-COMPLEXES initiative, we illustrate the impact of

  1. Transcription factor-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jeffrey A; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides for a system comprising a BmoR transcription factor, a .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase, and a pBMO promoter operatively linked to a reporter gene, wherein the pBMO promoter is capable of expression of the reporter gene with an activated form of the BmoR and the .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase.

  2. Complexes of 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenc, W.; Bernat, M; Gluchowska, H.W.; Sarzynski, J.

    2010-01-01

    The complexes of 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III) have been synthesized as polycrystalline hydrated solids, and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, magnetic studies and also by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric measurements. The analysed complexes have the following colours: violet for Nd(III), white for Gd(III) and cream for Ho(III) compounds. The carboxylate groups bind as bidentate chelating (Ho) or bridging ligands (Nd, Gd). On heating to 1173K in air the complexes decompose in several steps. At first, they dehydrate in one step to form anhydrous salts, that next decompose to the oxides of respective metals. The gaseous products of their thermal decomposition in nitrogen were also determined and the magnetic susceptibilities were measured over the temperature range of 76-303K and the magnetic moments were calculated. The results show that 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III) are high-spin complexes with weak ligand fields. The solubility value in water at 293K for analysed 4-chlorophenoxyacetates is in the order of 10 -4 mol/dm 3 . (author)

  3. DNA polymerase iota (Pol ι) promotes invasion and metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shitao; Shang, Zeng-Fu; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Shuyu; Wu, Jinchang; Huang, Min; Ding, Wei-Qun; Zhou, Jundong

    2016-05-31

    DNA polymerase iota (Pol ι) is an error-prone DNA polymerase involved in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) that contributes to the accumulation of DNA mutations. We recently showed that Pol ι is overexpressed in human esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) tissues which promotes ESCC' progression. The present study was aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms by which Pol ι enhances the invasiveness and metastasis of ESCC cells. We found that the expression of Pol ι is significantly higher in ESCCs with lymph node metastasis compared to those without lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed an inverse correlation between Pol ι expression and patient prognosis. The expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), two essential regulators of cells' invasiveness, were positively associated with Pol ι expression in ESCC tissues. Ectopic expression of Pol ι enhanced the motility and invasiveness of ESCC cells as evaluated by wound-healing and transwell assays, respectively. A xenograft nude mouse model showed that Pol ι promotes the colonization of ESCC cells in the liver, lung and kidney. Signaling pathway analysis identified the JNK-AP-1 cascade as a mediator of the Pol ι-induced increase in the expression of MMP-2/9 and enhancement of ESCC progression. These data demonstrate the underlying mechanism by which Pol ι promotes ESCC progression, suggesting that Pol ι is a potential novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for ESCC.

  4. O trabalho familiar extrativista sob a influência de políticas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Maria da Mota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a relação entre a organização do trabalho familiar no extrativismo e a participação em programas de políticas públicas no estado de Sergipe. Com abordagem predominantemente qualitativa, a pesquisa foi realizada com mulheres autodesignadas catadoras de mangaba e marisqueiras, reconhecidas como pertinentes ao segmento dos denominados povos e comunidades tradicionais e afiliadas ao Programa Bolsa Família (PBF, ao Seguro Desemprego do Pescador Artesanal (SDPA e ao Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA. A metodologia constou de observações e entrevistas com diferentes atores envolvidos na atividade extrativista e nos programas de políticas públicas. As principais conclusões mostram que os programas de políticas públicas influenciam: i na reorganização do cotidiano do trabalho no extrativismo, principalmente no tocante à diminuição do envolvimento de crianças e jovens na atividade e quanto à intensidade das jornadas; ii no reforço aos papéis tradicionais de homens e mulheres, no caso do PBF, e na diluição de fronteiras entre esses mesmos papéis no PAA; iii na diminuição do volume de trabalho no caso do SDPA e no aumento no PAA; e iv nos diferentes sentidos que são atribuídos ao trabalho.

  5. A reestruturação político-administrativa do Império Romano na Época de Diocleciano e da Tetrarquia (284-305

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Pereira Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, temos por objetivo analisar os fundamentos da reestruturação político-administrativa do Império Romano durante o governo de Diocleciano, considerando as pré-condições do século III, e as características que conformaram o poder imperial romano durante a época de Diocleciano e da Tetrarquia (284-305.

  6. Repriming by PrimPol is critical for DNA replication restart downstream of lesions and chain-terminating nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kaori; Guilliam, Thomas A; Tsuda, Masataka; Yamamoto, Junpei; Bailey, Laura J; Iwai, Shigenori; Takeda, Shunichi; Doherty, Aidan J; Hirota, Kouji

    2016-08-02

    PrimPol is a DNA damage tolerance enzyme possessing both translesion synthesis (TLS) and primase activities. To uncover its potential role in TLS-mediated IgVλ hypermutation and define its interplay with other TLS polymerases, PrimPol(-/-) and PrimPol(-/-)/Polη(-/-)/Polζ (-/-) gene knockouts were generated in avian cells. Loss of PrimPol had no significant impact on the rate of hypermutation or the mutation spectrum of IgVλ. However, PrimPol(-/-) cells were sensitive to methylmethane sulfonate, suggesting that it may bypass abasic sites at the IgVλ segment by repriming DNA synthesis downstream of these sites. PrimPol(-/-) cells were also sensitive to cisplatin and hydroxyurea, indicating that it assists in maintaining / restarting replication at a variety of lesions. To accurately measure the relative contribution of the TLS and primase activities, we examined DNA damage sensitivity in PrimPol(-/-) cells complemented with polymerase or primase-deficient PrimPol. Polymerase-defective, but not primase-deficient, PrimPol suppresses the hypersensitivity of PrimPol(-/-) cells. This indicates that its primase, rather than TLS activity, is pivotal for DNA damage tolerance. Loss of TLS polymerases, Polη and Polζ has an additive effect on the sensitivity of PrimPol(-/-) cells. Moreover, we found that PrimPol and Polη-Polζ redundantly prevented cell death and facilitated unperturbed cell cycle progression. PrimPol(-/-) cells also exhibited increased sensitivity to a wide variety of chain-terminating nucleoside analogs (CTNAs). PrimPol could perform close-coupled repriming downstream of CTNAs and oxidative damage in vitro. Together, these results indicate that PrimPol's repriming activity plays a central role in reinitiating replication downstream from CTNAs and other specific DNA lesions.

  7. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  8. Políticas de seguridad informática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Dussan Clavijo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La globalización de la economía ha exigido que las empresas implementen plataformas tecnológicas que soporten la nueva forma de hacer negocios. El uso de Internet para este fin, conlleva a que se desarrollen proyectos de seguridad informática que garanticen la integridad, disponibilidad y accesibilidad de la información. La creación de políticas de seguridad es una labor fundamental que involucra las personas, los procesos y los recursos de la compañía. Este articulo presenta los puntos clave a tener en cuenta para diseñar una política de seguridad basándose en la norma ISO 17799.

  9. Os direitos humanos e a política internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Rocha Reis

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da questão do crescente reconhecimento internacional dos direitos humanos desde o fim da II Guerra Mundial e discute os efeitos desse processo sobre a política internacional. De modo geral os argumentos sobre o papel dos direitos humanos na política internacional dividem-se entre os que acham que eles não passam de retórica para encobrir interesses particulares, e os que enxergam na sua afirmação um potencial transformador da ordem internacional. No contexto atual,em que se discute a adoção de mecanismos coercitivos mais fortes para a proteção dos direitos humanos, como as intervenções humanitárias, por exemplo, essa discussão torna-se mais complexa e mais urgente.

  10. A política da guerra em Maquiavel

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho,Maria Francisca Pinheiro; Menezes,Marilde Loiola de

    2013-01-01

    Ao considerar que os objetivos do governante são a conquista e a manutenção do poder, Nicolau Maquiavel sugere ser o estado de guerra uma situação permanente na arte de governar. Este artigo aborda o pensamento político do autor, a partir de sua análise sobre a guerra. Visa apreender o sentido que ele confere à política e os fundamentos de uma teoria sobre a guerra, construída com base no diálogo com as experiências dos antigos e as circunstâncias históricas de seu tempo. O trabalho está estr...

  11. Gênero e política no pensamento de Maquiavel

    OpenAIRE

    Pitkin, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    O texto é parte de uma análise mais ampla da teórica política Hanna Pitkin sobre as relações de gênero na obra de Nicolau Maquiavel. Apresenta uma análise das representações do feminino nos textos do autor florentino. Há um inventário detalhado, no artigo, de quais são as imagens das mulheres e como elas são mobilizadas. Com ele, Pitkin discute as implicações políticas dessas imagens. A oposição entre o masculino e o feminino é apresentada como um componente importante das compreensões do pod...

  12. Contextos políticos pre-electorales

    OpenAIRE

    Iñíguez Rímoli, Nathalie; Fernández, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    El presente artículo está enmarcado en el proyecto de investigación “El éxito de las campañas políticas locales en el contexto de campañas de carácter nacional en la Argentina: el caso de la ciudad de La Plata en las elecciones de los años 1999 y 2005”. En el mismo se busca establecer la relación correspondiente entre las campañas electorales de los años 1999 y 2005, para lograr la caracterización del contexto de construcción y legitimación de las campañas políticas locales en el marco de las...

  13. Hopf Bifurcation of Compound Stochastic van der Pol System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojuan Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopf bifurcation analysis for compound stochastic van der Pol system with a bound random parameter and Gaussian white noise is investigated in this paper. By the Karhunen-Loeve (K-L expansion and the orthogonal polynomial approximation, the equivalent deterministic van der Pol system can be deduced. Based on the bifurcation theory of nonlinear deterministic system, the critical value of bifurcation parameter is obtained and the influence of random strength δ and noise intensity σ on stochastic Hopf bifurcation in compound stochastic system is discussed. At last we found that increased δ can relocate the critical value of bifurcation parameter forward while increased σ makes it backward and the influence of δ is more sensitive than σ. The results are verified by numerical simulations.

  14. Crystal structure of DNA polymerase III β sliding clamp from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Wen-Jun; Lin, Shi-Qiang; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Xian-En; Bi, Li-Jun; Jiang, Tao

    2011-02-11

    The sliding clamp is a key component of DNA polymerase III (Pol III) required for genome replication. It is known to function with diverse DNA repair proteins and cell cycle-control proteins, making it a potential drug target. To extend our understanding of the structure/function relationship of the sliding clamp, we solved the crystal structure of the sliding clamp from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), a human pathogen that causes most cases of tuberculosis (TB). The sliding clamp from M. tuberculosis forms a ring-shaped head-to-tail dimer with three domains per subunit. Each domain contains two α helices in the inner ring that lie against two β sheets in the outer ring. Previous studies have indicated that many Escherichia coli clamp-binding proteins have a conserved LF sequence, which is critical for binding to the hydrophobic region of the sliding clamp. Here, we analyzed the binding affinities of the M. tuberculosis sliding clamp and peptides derived from the α and δ subunits of Pol III, which indicated that the LF motif also plays an important role in the binding of the α and δ subunits to the sliding clamp of M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Governamentalidade e a genealogia da política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Gordon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo oferece uma série de reflexões a respeito de uma fase dos trabalhos de Michel Foucault e de alguns de seus colaboradores apresentada no volume The Foucault effect: studies in governmentality (1991, coeditado pelo autor. Tais reflexões se organizam em três partes. Primeiro, há uma revisão de alguns aspectos das aulas de Foucault sobre governamentalidade que, por diferentes razões, foram deixados de lado quando o livro foi publicado. Em seguida, faz-se um balanço de temas importantes que, embora presentes no livro, não receberam suficiente atenção dos leitores. Finalmente, no eixo que ocupa a maior parte do artigo, examinam-se as últimas discussões de Foucault a respeito do que o autor denomina múltiplos nascimentos da política, a fim de demonstrar a continuidade da pertinência do empreendimento foucaultiano nos anos 1970, tornado possível devido à noção de governamentalidade, ao mesmo tempo tão estranha e operacional. Tal atualidade é indicada não somente pelo incremento dos estudos sobre governamentalidade após o aparecimento dos cursos que Foucault deu no Collège de France, mas principalmente pelos dilemas e aporias que a cultura política em que estamos mergulhados nos trouxe. Nesse sentido, o artigo se encerra com uma espécie de agenda de pesquisa para dar continuidade ao trabalho inacabado de Foucault, uma agenda que nos convida a aprofundar nossa compreensão das relações entre a filosofia crítica, a racionalidade política e a cultura política, compreendidas como um conjunto de formas de conduta e de sociabilidade, modos de vida e estilos de subjetivação e dizer verdadeiro.

  16. Política oriental de India: Mitos y realidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan Shivkumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La política exterior de la India desde su independencia el 15 agosto de 1947, ha sido de cooperación y conciliación, y no de confrontación. Ésta podría haber sido ampliada cuando los infiltrados pakistaníes entraron en el territorio de la India en 1948, ya que el entonces Primer Ministro instó a que este asunto se remitiera al recién formado Consejo Mundial de Naciones Unidas. Si se recorre la historia, encontraríamos que las tres guerras entre India y Pakistán fueron iniciadas por Pakistán ante lo cual la India tuvo que defender su territorio. Similar situación surgió cuando China rompió unilateralmente el acuerdo de Pancha Sheel, invadiendo el territorio de la India. Este artículo hace un modesto intento de trazar la política de la India hacia el cercano oriente o hacia las naciones del sureste. Describe los vínculos históricos y culturales entre la India y las naciones del sur de Asia oriental y la consolidación definitiva de la “política hacia el oriente de la India”. En este artículo se toman en consideración los intereses económicos y estratégicos de la región y se espera que pudiera permitir a los lectores entender la política de la India hacia las naciones del sudeste de Asia.

  17. Áreas de polígonos via determinantes

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbinatti, Paulo Henrique [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present a study on areas of polygons through their vertex coordinates. We treat the subject using determinants of order 2 and basic Euclidean Geometry O objetivo deste trabalho e apresentar um estudo sobre o c alculo de areas de pol gonos atrav es das coordenadas de seus v ertices. Faremos isto utilizando determinantes de ordem 2 e conceitos b asicos de Geometria Euclidiana Plana

  18. FHC: o intelectual como político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Lafer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo parte do exame dos múltiplos papéis que nas sociedades contemporâneas os intelectuais desempenham na vida política. Aponta a tendência à imperícia no trato da realidade política por parte dos intelectuais no exercício do poder. Neste contexto, discute-se como e por que FHC é um raro caso de um intelectual bem-sucedido na vida política de um país complexo, de escala continental, com as características do Brasil contemporâneo. Aquilata-se, finalmente, a maneira pela qual FHC conjugou teoria e experiência nos seus juízos políticos perante as especificidades das conjunturas com as quais lidou na presidência e como combinou, na sua liderança, a dimensão da mudança e da pacificação, tendo sempre presente o "quadro mental" e o sentido de direção da sua visão intelectual.The point of departure of the article is a discussion of the social roles intellectuals play in the political life of modern societies. Subsequently an analysis of the difficulties that intellectuals tend to have, when exercising power, in dealing with political realities is presented. In this context the article discusses the why and the how FHC is a rare case of a successful intellectual in the politics of a complex democratic country, of continental dimension, with the specificities of contemporary Brazil. The association of theory and experience in the political judgment of FHC in dealing with the realities he faced as President is explored as well as his style of leadership that blended change and pacification, always bearing in mind the sense of direction of his outlook as an intellectual.

  19. Políticas del posgrado en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Martiniano Arredondo Galván

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo define, documenta y analiza la evolución de las políticas públicas de la educación superior en México, específicamente del posgrado. Se subraya que el desarrollo del posgrado en el país ha estado supeditado al devenir de la educación superior y al de la ciencia y la tecnología. A su vez se hace hincapié en que las políticas públicas han sido promovidas e instrumentadas por una diversidad de organismos e instancias ubicadas en la administración pública. Un punto medular del trabajo está en las consideraciones en torno a las políticas públicas del posgrado actual; las cuales están supeditadas y gravitan sobre el instrumento que conjuntamente la SEP y el CONACYT han establecido en los últimos años: el Programa de Fortalecimiento del Posgrado Nacional, el cual instituye un nuevo Padrón Nacional de Posgrado que clasifica los programas como competentes a nivel internacional y como de alto nivel; así como su reconocimiento en cuanto a su complejidad y heterogeneidad.

  20. Controlling optics contamination at the PolLux STXM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, B.; Pilet, N.; Sarafimov, B.; Witte, K.; Raabe, J.

    2018-04-01

    Contamination of X-ray mirror surfaces by carbon is a common issue that can significantly degrade the optical performance of the instrument. The effects can be severe at photon energies near the carbon K-edge (ca. 300 eV), where the X-rays are strongly attenuated, but also significant at higher photon energies where the carbon coating affects the reflectivity and surface shape of the mirrors. [1] The Swiss Light Source has typically relied on in-situ plasma cleaning to control mirror contamination and the PolLux scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) beamline has also been employing further contamination reduction strategies in recent years. In particular, in 2014 we installed a 1×10‑8 mbar background pressure of O2 on the PolLux first mirror chamber. We present a history of efforts to control optical contamination at the PolLux beamline and report on the observed efficiencies of the different processes employed both for the in-vacuum optics and critical components of the frequently vented STXM experiment chamber.

  1. Política de antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pisonero Socías

    Full Text Available La utilización inadecuada de los antimicrobianos ha traído como consecuencia un incremento de la resistencia de los microorganismos y un aumento en los costos hospitalarios. Esta situación provoca mala calidad en el servicio. Durante 2 años se aplicó una política racional inducida a reducir el uso, o poner en reposo, a los antimicrobianos poco efectivos o inefectivos, en todo el servicio médico del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Joaquín Albarrán", de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. Se aplicaron procederes y métodos creados por un equipo multidisciplinario. La forma de restricción del uso de antimicrobianos, a partir de un Grupo de Control, muestra alentadores resultados. En el trabajo se explican las funciones de este grupo. Se obtuvieron resultados concretos en la disminución de la resistencia microbiana frente a los antimicrobianos más utilizados. Son significativos los datos que muestran la reducción de costos y volúmenes de antibióticos usados en relación con el año de referencia, período en el que aún no se practicaba la política actual. La investigación demostró, que esta política es aplicable en cualquier hospital, a bajo costo y con resultados a corto plazo

  2. Bartleby o la política del caos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Camilo Torres Estrada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un análisis del cuento de Herman Melville: “Bartleby, el escribiente”. Este análisis parte de un acercamiento a la literatura desde una noción de política inspirada en autores como Jacques Derrida y Jacques Rancière, pero que se aparta de esta filosofía cuando, por encima del propio texto y sus posibilidades, se pretende encontrar en él heterotopías, esperanzas y comunidades por venir. Esta noción de política acerca a la literatura al mundo efectivo, transfigurando los modos de ser y no ser. Así, el personaje de Bartleby se presenta en medio del mundo de la representación como un agente del caos. En esto consiste la política del escribiente: su incursión devela las farsas del mundo construido y soñado por los hombres; pero esta destrucción que causa es inútil: el mundo de la representación ha sentido su absurdo, no sabe qué hacer con dicho agente del caos, pero no es suficiente para arruinarlo. Bartleby, quien se ha indeterminado y ha abandonado las dualidades de ser y no ser, tampoco puede seguir viviendo: ya no hay espacio para la vida sin referencias en un mundo humano y ficticio.

  3. Reformas constitucionales y competencia política en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2017-03-01

    El presente artículo explica  las  causas  y  efectos del cambio institucional en contextos políticos en los que no hay garantía sobre el cumplimiento estricto de  las reglas.  Analizando  la  reforma  política  de  2005  que  posibilitó  (por primera vez  que   en   Bolivia   los   prefectos   o  gobernadores  puedan  ser elegidos por voto popular,  se  halla  evidencia  que  indica  que  cuando  hay crisis  de  legitimidad,  las  coaliciones  declinantes  impulsan  cambios inclu-yentes  que  reducen   sus   futuras   pérdidas  electorales  y  no  pueden  ser revertidos por las coaliciones ascendentes que llegan al poder. No obstante, éstas intentan limitar el grado de inclusión de las reglas a través de cambios normativos de menor nivel que disminuyen la competencia política.

  4. Light induces translocation of NF-κB p65 to the mitochondria and suppresses expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III) in the rat retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Hiroshi, E-mail: htomita@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Soft-Path Engineering Research Center (SPERC), Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Clinical Research, Innovation and Education Center, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8574 (Japan); Tabata, Kitako, E-mail: ktabata@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Takahashi, Maki, E-mail: mqdelta@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Nishiyama, Fumiaki, E-mail: t2114018@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Sugano, Eriko, E-mail: sseriko@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Soft-Path Engineering Research Center (SPERC), Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) plays various roles in cell survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. In the rat retina, NF-κB activity increases after exposure to damaging light, resulting in degeneration of photoreceptors. Here, we report that in dark-adapted rats exposed for 6 h to bright white light, the p65 subunit of retinal NF-κB translocates to the mitochondria, an event associated with a decrease in expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III). However, sustained exposure for 12 h depleted p65 from the mitochondria, and enhanced COX III expression. Treatment with the protective antioxidant PBN prior to light exposure prevents p65 depletion in the mitochondria and COX III upregulation during prolonged exposure, and apoptosis in photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that COX III expression is sensitive to the abundance of NF-κB p65 in the mitochondria, which, in turn, is affected by exposure to damaging light. - Highlights: • Damaging light exposure of the retina induces NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation. • NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation is associated with the decrease of COX III expression. • Prolonged light exposure depletes mitochondrial p65 resulting in the increase in COX III expression. • NF-κB p65 and COX III expression play an important role in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration.

  5. Light induces translocation of NF-κB p65 to the mitochondria and suppresses expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III) in the rat retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroshi; Tabata, Kitako; Takahashi, Maki; Nishiyama, Fumiaki; Sugano, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) plays various roles in cell survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. In the rat retina, NF-κB activity increases after exposure to damaging light, resulting in degeneration of photoreceptors. Here, we report that in dark-adapted rats exposed for 6 h to bright white light, the p65 subunit of retinal NF-κB translocates to the mitochondria, an event associated with a decrease in expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III). However, sustained exposure for 12 h depleted p65 from the mitochondria, and enhanced COX III expression. Treatment with the protective antioxidant PBN prior to light exposure prevents p65 depletion in the mitochondria and COX III upregulation during prolonged exposure, and apoptosis in photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that COX III expression is sensitive to the abundance of NF-κB p65 in the mitochondria, which, in turn, is affected by exposure to damaging light. - Highlights: • Damaging light exposure of the retina induces NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation. • NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation is associated with the decrease of COX III expression. • Prolonged light exposure depletes mitochondrial p65 resulting in the increase in COX III expression. • NF-κB p65 and COX III expression play an important role in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration.

  6. La política supranacional : un nuevo campo de conocimiento para abordar las políticas educativas en un mundo globalizado

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Javier M.

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo trata de explicar la aparición de la Política Educativa Supranacional como área del saber pedagógico, en íntima conexión con la Política Educativa, la Educación Comparada y la Educación Internacional, tratando de acotar s

  7. Noncanonical Effects of IRF9 in Intestinal Inflammation: More than Type I and Type III Interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Isabella; Rosebrock, Felix; Hainzl, Eva; Heider, Susanne; Majoros, Andrea; Wienerroither, Sebastian; Strobl, Birgit; Stockinger, Silvia; Kenner, Lukas; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcription factor with its Stat1, Stat2, and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) subunits is employed for transcriptional responses downstream of receptors for type I interferons (IFN-I) that include IFN-α and IFN-β and type III interferons (IFN-III), also called IFN-λ. Here, we show in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis that IRF9 deficiency protects animals, whereas the combined loss of IFN-I and IFN-III receptors worsens their condition. We explain the different phenotypes by demonstrating a function of IRF9 in a noncanonical transcriptional complex with Stat1, apart from IFN-I and IFN-III signaling. Together, Stat1 and IRF9 produce a proinflammatory activity that overrides the benefits of the IFN-III response on intestinal epithelial cells. Our results further suggest that the CXCL10 chemokine gene is an important mediator of this proinflammatory activity. We thus establish IFN-λ as a potentially anticolitogenic cytokine and propose an important role for IRF9 as a component of noncanonical Stat complexes in the development of colitis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Alternative staffing services. Contract transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, C

    1992-03-01

    Contract medical transcription services can be of great assistance in meeting the demands for transcription, without jeopardizing patient, physician, or institutional confidentiality. You simply must require the contract service to provide at least the same degree of protection and preservation of confidentiality that you should require inhouse. To achieve this you must make these requirements explicit, comprehensive, comprehensible, believable, and enforceable. Discuss the requirements with prospective contractors. Review them at least annually with existing contractors and when contracts are due for renewal. Be sure to specify the consequence of breaching confidentiality, and if there are breaches, enforce the terms of the contract. Consult your institution's legal counsel both in developing the contract and in enforcing its provisions. Take into consideration your department's and institution's policies, AHIMA's statement on confidentiality, as well as local, state, and federal laws. Above all, never lose sight of the patient. Ultimately, it is not patient information that you are obligated to protect. It is the patient.

  9. Política nacional de assistência social: uma avaliação política

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Victor Martins Lopes de

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho tem com objetivo principal realizar uma avaliação política da Política Nacional de Assistência Social através de uma leitura crítica de seus textos legais. Nesse sentido, realizou-se uma fundamentação teórica pautada na discussão das diferentes concepções de Estado encontradas na teoria social clássica bem como na teoria social crítica, sendo feito também uma discussão a respeito da administração como forma de dominação, nos apropriamos do debate acerca da burocracia presente em...

  10. Basel III D: Swiss Finish to Basel III

    OpenAIRE

    Christian M. McNamara; Natalia Tente; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances. Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge. It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III – enhanced requirements applicable...

  11. Outcome of tyrosinaemia type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, C J; Holme, E; Standing, S; Preece, M A; Green, A; Ploechl, E; Ugarte, M; Trefz, F K; Leonard, J V

    2001-12-01

    Tyrosinaemia type III is a rare disorder caused by a deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, the second enzyme in the catabolic pathway of tyrosine. The majority of the nine previously reported patients have presented with neurological symptoms after the neonatal period, while others detected by neonatal screening have been asymptomatic. All have had normal liver and renal function and none has skin or eye abnormalities. A further four patients with tyrosinaemia type III are described. It is not clear whether a strict low tyrosine diet alters the natural history of tyrosinaemia type III, although there remains a suspicion that treatment may be important, at least in infancy.

  12. The post-transcriptional operon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenenbaum, Scott A.; Christiansen, Jan; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    model (PTO) is used to describe data from an assortment of methods (e.g. RIP-Chip, CLIP-Chip, miRNA profiling, ribosome profiling) that globally address the functionality of mRNA. Several examples of post-transcriptional operons have been documented in the literature and demonstrate the usefulness...... of the model in identifying new participants in cellular pathways as well as in deepening our understanding of cellular responses....

  13. Thermodecomposition of lanthanides (III) and ytrium (III) glucoheptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giolito, J.

    1987-01-01

    The lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) glucoheptonates as well the D-glucoheptono 1-4 lactone were studied using common analytical methods, elemental microanalysis of carbon and hydrogen, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. These compounds were prepared from the reaction between the lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) hydroxides and glucoheptonic acid aqueous solution obtained by means of the delta lactone hydrolysis of this acid. After stoichiometric reaction the compounds were precipitated by the addition of absolute ethanol, washed with the same solvent and dried in desiccator. Thermogravimetric the (TG) curves of the lanthanides glucoheptonates of the ceric group present thermal profiles with enough differences permitting an easy caracterization of each compound and the yttrium (III) glucoheptonate TG curve showed a great similarity with the erbium (III) compound TG curve. The differential scanning calometry (DSC) curves showed endothermic and exothermic peaks by their shape, height and position (temperature) permit an easy and rapid identification of each compound specially if DSC and TG curves were examined simultaneously. (author) [pt

  14. Seminario Políticas Públicas y Gestión Estatal | Tema 2: Ciclo y agenda de las políticas públicas

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, María Laura

    2017-01-01

    Presentación general del ciclo de política pública y las diferentes etapas. Sus limitaciones como recurso de análisis de las PP. Agenda Social y Agenda Política: los procesos de construcción de la Agenda política, diseño. Definición de política pública. Presentación general del ciclo de política pública y las diferentes etapas. Sus limitaciones como recurso de análisis de las PP. La formación de la agenda y la definición de problema público. Las diferentes agendas: la agenda ciudadana, públic...

  15. Hydrogen peroxide sensing, signaling and regulation of transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Susana Marinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory mechanisms by which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 modulates the activity of transcription factors in bacteria (OxyR and PerR, lower eukaryotes (Yap1, Maf1, Hsf1 and Msn2/4 and mammalian cells (AP-1, NRF2, CREB, HSF1, HIF-1, TP53, NF-κB, NOTCH, SP1 and SCREB-1 are reviewed. The complexity of regulatory networks increases throughout the phylogenetic tree, reaching a high level of complexity in mammalians. Multiple H2O2 sensors and pathways are triggered converging in the regulation of transcription factors at several levels: (1 synthesis of the transcription factor by upregulating transcription or increasing both mRNA stability and translation; (ii stability of the transcription factor by decreasing its association with the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex or by inhibiting this complex; (iii cytoplasm–nuclear traffic by exposing/masking nuclear localization signals, or by releasing the transcription factor from partners or from membrane anchors; and (iv DNA binding and nuclear transactivation by modulating transcription factor affinity towards DNA, co-activators or repressors, and by targeting specific regions of chromatin to activate individual genes. We also discuss how H2O2 biological specificity results from diverse thiol protein sensors, with different reactivity of their sulfhydryl groups towards H2O2, being activated by different concentrations and times of exposure to H2O2. The specific regulation of local H2O2 concentrations is also crucial and results from H2O2 localized production and removal controlled by signals. Finally, we formulate equations to extract from typical experiments quantitative data concerning H2O2 reactivity with sensor molecules. Rate constants of 140 M−1 s−1 and ≥1.3 × 103 M−1 s−1 were estimated, respectively, for the reaction of H2O2 with KEAP1 and with an unknown target that mediates NRF2 protein synthesis. In conclusion, the multitude of H2O2 targets and mechanisms provides an opportunity for

  16. Evolution of Metal(Loid) Binding Sites in Transcriptional Regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, E.; Thiyagarajan, S.; Cook, J.D.; Stemmler, T.L.; Gil, J.A.; Mateos, L.M.; Rosen, B.P.

    2009-05-22

    Expression of the genes for resistance to heavy metals and metalloids is transcriptionally regulated by the toxic ions themselves. Members of the ArsR/SmtB family of small metalloregulatory proteins respond to transition metals, heavy metals, and metalloids, including As(III), Sb(III), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Co(II), and Ni(II). These homodimeric repressors bind to DNA in the absence of inducing metal(loid) ion and dissociate from the DNA when inducer is bound. The regulatory sites are often three- or four-coordinate metal binding sites composed of cysteine thiolates. Surprisingly, in two different As(III)-responsive regulators, the metalloid binding sites were in different locations in the repressor, and the Cd(II) binding sites were in two different locations in two Cd(II)-responsive regulators. We hypothesize that ArsR/SmtB repressors have a common backbone structure, that of a winged helix DNA-binding protein, but have considerable plasticity in the location of inducer binding sites. Here we show that an As(III)-responsive member of the family, CgArsR1 from Corynebacterium glutamicum, binds As(III) to a cysteine triad composed of Cys{sup 15}, Cys{sup 16}, and Cys{sup 55}. This binding site is clearly unrelated to the binding sites of other characterized ArsR/SmtB family members. This is consistent with our hypothesis that metal(loid) binding sites in DNA binding proteins evolve convergently in response to persistent environmental pressures.

  17. Nuclear distribution of the Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Pol I subunit RPA31 during growth and metacyclogenesis, and characterization of its nuclear localization signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela-Pérez, Israel; López-Villaseñor, Imelda; Cevallos, Ana María; Hernández, Roberto

    2018-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiologic agent of Chagas disease. Our research group studies ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene transcription and nucleolus dynamics in this species of trypanosomes. RPA31 is an essential subunit of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) whose presence is apparently restricted to trypanosomes. Using fluorescent-tagged versions of this protein (TcRPA31-EGFP), we describe its nuclear distribution during growth and metacyclogenesis. Our findings indicate that TcRPA31-EGFP alters its nuclear presence from concentrated nucleolar localization in exponentially growing epimastigotes to a dispersed granular distribution in the nucleoplasm of stationary epimastigotes and metacyclic trypomastigotes. These changes likely reflect a structural redistribution of the Pol I transcription machinery in quiescent cellular stages where downregulation of rRNA synthesis is known to occur. In addition, and related to the nuclear internalization of this protein, the presence of a classical bipartite-type nuclear localization signal was identified towards its C-terminal end. The functionality of this motif was demonstrated by its partial or total deletion in recombinant versions of the tagged fluorescent protein. Moreover, ivermectin inhibited the nuclear localization of the labelled chimaera, suggesting the involvement of the importin α/β transport system.

  18. Production of the 2400 kb Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene transcript; transcription time and cotranscriptional splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, C.N.; Worton, R.G. [Univ. of Toronto and the Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    The largest known gene in any organism is the human DMD gene which has 79 exons that span 2400 kb. The extreme nature of the DMD gene raises questions concerning the time required for transcription and whether splicing begins before transcription is complete. DMD gene transcription is induced as cultured human myoblasts differentiate to form multinucleated myotubes, providing a system for studying the kinetics of transcription and splicing. Using quantitative RT-PCR, transcript accumulation was monitored from four different regions within the gene following induction of expression. By comparing the accumulation of transcripts from the 5{prime} and 3{prime} ends of the gene we have shown that approximately 12 hours are required to transcribe 1770 kb of the gene, extrapolating to a time of 16 hours for the transcription unit expressed in muscle. Comparison of accumulation profiles for spliced and total transcript demonstrated that transcripts are spliced at the 5{prime} end before transcription is complete, providing strong evidence for cotranscriptional splicing of DMD gene transcripts. Finally, the rate of transcript accumulation was reduced at the 3{prime} end of the gene relative to the 5{prime} end, perhaps due to premature termination of transcription complexes as they traverse this enormous transcription unit. The lag between transcription initiation and the appearance of complete transcripts could be important in limiting transcript production in dividing cells and to the timing of mRNA appearance in differentiating muscle.

  19. Mutual interdependence of splicing and transcription elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Świeżewski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Transcription and splicing are intrinsically linked, as splicing needs a pre-mRNA substrate to commence. The more nuanced view is that the rate of transcription contributes to splicing regulation. On the other hand there is accumulating evidence that splicing has an active role in controlling transcription elongation by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We briefly review those mechanisms and propose a unifying model where splicing controls transcription elongation to provide an optimal timing for successive rounds of splicing.

  20. Short RNA guides cleavage by eukaryotic RNase III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lamontagne

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, short RNAs guide a variety of enzymatic activities that range from RNA editing to translation repression. It is hypothesized that pre-existing proteins evolved to bind and use guide RNA during evolution. However, the capacity of modern proteins to adopt new RNA guides has never been demonstrated. Here we show that Rnt1p, the yeast orthologue of the bacterial dsRNA-specific RNase III, can bind short RNA transcripts and use them as guides for sequence-specific cleavage. Target cleavage occurred at a constant distance from the Rnt1p binding site, leaving the guide RNA intact for subsequent cleavage. Our results indicate that RNase III may trigger sequence-specific RNA degradation independent of the RNAi machinery, and they open the road for a new generation of precise RNA silencing tools that do not trigger a dsRNA-mediated immune response.

  1. Transformational III-V Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible electronics using III-V materials for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. This thesis describes a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS

  2. Complexes of lanthanum(III), cerium(III), samarium(III) and dysprosium(III) with substituted piperidines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhas, B S; Trikha, A K; Singh, H; Chander, M

    1983-11-01

    Complexes of the general formulae M/sub 2/Cl/sub 6/(L)/sub 3/.C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH and M/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 6/(L)/sub 2/.CH/sub 3/OH have been synthesised by the reactions of chlorides and nitrates of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Dy(III) with 2-methylpiperidine, 3-methylpiperidine and 4-methylpiperidine. These complexes have been characterised on the basis of their elemental analysis, and IR and electronic reflectance spectra. IR spectral data indicate the presence of coordinated ethanol and methanol molecules and bidentate nitrate groups. Coordination numbers of the metal ions vary from 5 to 8. 19 refs.

  3. Interplay between DNA supercoiling and transcription elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling has been shown to be an important regulator of transcription that is broadly present in the cell. Here we review experimental work which shows that RNA polymerase is a powerful torsional motor that can alter DNA topology and structure, and DNA supercoiling in turn directly affects transcription elongation.

  4. Targeting GLI by GANT61 involves mechanisms dependent on inhibition of both transcription and DNA licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruowen; Wu, Jiahui; Ferrandon, Sylvain; Glowacki, Katie J; Houghton, Janet A

    2016-12-06

    The GLI genes are transcription factors and in cancers are oncogenes, aberrantly and constitutively activated. GANT61, a specific GLI inhibitor, has induced extensive cytotoxicity in human models of colon cancer. The FOXM1 promoter was determined to be a transcriptional target of GLI1. In HT29 cells, inhibition of GLI1 binding at the GLI consensus sequence by GANT61 led to inhibited binding of Pol II, the pause-release factors DSIF, NELF and p-TEFb. The formation of R-loops (RNA:DNA hybrids, ssDNA), were reduced by GANT61 at the FOXM1 promoter. Pretreatment of HT29 cells with α-amanitin reduced GANT61-induced γH2AX foci. Co-localization of GLI1 and BrdU foci, inhibited by GANT61, indicated GLI1 and DNA replication to be linked. By co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy, GLI1 co-localized with the DNA licensing factors ORC4, CDT1, and MCM2. Significant co-localization of GLI1 and ORC4 was inhibited by GANT61, and enrichment of ORC4 occurred at the GLI binding site in the FOXM1 promoter. CDT1 was found to be a transcription target of GLI1. Overexpression of CDT1 in HT29 and SW480 cells reduced GANT61-induced cell death, gH2AX foci, and cleavage of caspase-3. Data demonstrate involvement of transcription and of DNA replication licensing factors by non-transcriptional and transcriptional mechanisms in the GLI-dependent mechanism of action of GANT61.

  5. Celestine III and the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår pave Cølestin IIIs forhold til de nordiske kongeriger i perioden 1191-1198. Artiklen viser, at paven, som i forskningen traditionelt år har stået i skyggen af sin berømte, energiske og især: yngre efterfølger, Innocens III, har været på forkant med udviklingen i de nordiske rig...

  6. Transcription-factor occupancy at HOT regions quantitatively predicts RNA polymerase recruitment in five human cell lines.

    KAUST Repository

    Foley, Joseph W

    2013-10-20

    BACKGROUND: High-occupancy target (HOT) regions are compact genome loci occupied by many different transcription factors (TFs). HOT regions were initially defined in invertebrate model organisms, and we here show that they are a ubiquitous feature of the human gene-regulation landscape. RESULTS: We identified HOT regions by a comprehensive analysis of ChIP-seq data from 96 DNA-associated proteins in 5 human cell lines. Most HOT regions co-localize with RNA polymerase II binding sites, but many are not near the promoters of annotated genes. At HOT promoters, TF occupancy is strongly predictive of transcription preinitiation complex recruitment and moderately predictive of initiating Pol II recruitment, but only weakly predictive of elongating Pol II and RNA transcript abundance. TF occupancy varies quantitatively within human HOT regions; we used this variation to discover novel associations between TFs. The sequence motif associated with any given TF\\'s direct DNA binding is somewhat predictive of its empirical occupancy, but a great deal of occupancy occurs at sites without the TF\\'s motif, implying indirect recruitment by another TF whose motif is present. CONCLUSIONS: Mammalian HOT regions are regulatory hubs that integrate the signals from diverse regulatory pathways to quantitatively tune the promoter for RNA polymerase II recruitment.

  7. Transcription-factor occupancy at HOT regions quantitatively predicts RNA polymerase recruitment in five human cell lines.

    KAUST Repository

    Foley, Joseph W; Sidow, Arend

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-occupancy target (HOT) regions are compact genome loci occupied by many different transcription factors (TFs). HOT regions were initially defined in invertebrate model organisms, and we here show that they are a ubiquitous feature of the human gene-regulation landscape. RESULTS: We identified HOT regions by a comprehensive analysis of ChIP-seq data from 96 DNA-associated proteins in 5 human cell lines. Most HOT regions co-localize with RNA polymerase II binding sites, but many are not near the promoters of annotated genes. At HOT promoters, TF occupancy is strongly predictive of transcription preinitiation complex recruitment and moderately predictive of initiating Pol II recruitment, but only weakly predictive of elongating Pol II and RNA transcript abundance. TF occupancy varies quantitatively within human HOT regions; we used this variation to discover novel associations between TFs. The sequence motif associated with any given TF's direct DNA binding is somewhat predictive of its empirical occupancy, but a great deal of occupancy occurs at sites without the TF's motif, implying indirect recruitment by another TF whose motif is present. CONCLUSIONS: Mammalian HOT regions are regulatory hubs that integrate the signals from diverse regulatory pathways to quantitatively tune the promoter for RNA polymerase II recruitment.

  8. Los efectos de la comunicación política en el comportamiento electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Crespo Martínez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La comunicación política es un aspecto fundamental de todos los procesos políticos contemporáneos. De hecho, el análisis político de la realidad, bien sea para realizar cálculos estratégicos, o bien para tratar de profundizar en la comprensión de las dinámicas socio-políticas, ya no puede obviar el papel central de la comunicación política en las sociedades. A partir de esta afirmación, los autores exponen a través de un recorrido histórico la influencia y efectos de la comunicación en la política, incluyendo las nuevas tendencias con los avances de las tecnologías de la comunicación

  9. Directing traffic on DNA-How transcription factors relieve or induce transcriptional interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Nan; Palmer, Adam C; Dodd, Ian B; Shearwin, Keith E

    2017-03-15

    Transcriptional interference (TI) is increasingly recognized as a widespread mechanism of gene control, particularly given the pervasive nature of transcription, both sense and antisense, across all kingdoms of life. Here, we discuss how transcription factor binding kinetics strongly influence the ability of a transcription factor to relieve or induce TI.

  10. CRISPR families of the crenarchaeal genus Sulfolobus: bidirectional transcription and dynamic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillestøl, Reidun K; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Brügger, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Summary CRISPRs of Sulfolobus fall into three main families based on their repeats, leader regions, associated cas genes, and putative recognition sequences on viruses and plasmids. Spacer sequence matches to different viruses and plasmids of the Sulfolobales revealed some bias particularly...... for family III CRISPRs. Transcription occurs on both strands of the five repeat-clusters of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and a repeat-cluster of the conjugative plasmid pKEF9. Leader strand transcripts cover whole repeat-clusters and are processed mainly from the 3'-end, within repeats, yielding heterogeneous...

  11. The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Nan, Zhibiao; Wang, Xingjun

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (LjWRKY) genes can be classified into three groups (I-III). Investigations of gene copy number and gene clusters indicate that only one gene duplication event occurred on chromosome 4 and no clustered genes were detected on chromosomes 3 or 6. Researchers previously believed that group II and III WRKY domains were derived from the C-terminal WRKY domain of group I. Our results suggest that some WRKY genes in group II originated from the N-terminal domain of group I WRKY genes. Additional evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained by Medicago truncatula WRKY (MtWRKY) protein motif analysis. We found that LjWRKY and MtWRKY group III genes are under purifying selection, suggesting that WRKY genes will become increasingly structured and functionally conserved.

  12. Core Mediator structure at 3.4 Å extends model of transcription initiation complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Kayo; Schneider, Thomas R; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-05-11

    Mediator is a multiprotein co-activator that binds the transcription pre-initiation complex (PIC) and regulates RNA polymerase (Pol) II. The Mediator head and middle modules form the essential core Mediator (cMed), whereas the tail and kinase modules play regulatory roles. The architecture of Mediator and its position on the PIC are known, but atomic details are limited to Mediator subcomplexes. Here we report the crystal structure of the 15-subunit cMed from Schizosaccharomyces pombe at 3.4 Å resolution. The structure shows an unaltered head module, and reveals the intricate middle module, which we show is globally required for transcription. Sites of known Mediator mutations cluster at the interface between the head and middle modules, and in terminal regions of the head subunits Med6 (ref. 16) and Med17 (ref. 17) that tether the middle module. The structure led to a model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cMed that could be combined with the 3.6 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the core PIC (cPIC). The resulting atomic model of the cPIC-cMed complex informs on interactions of the submodules forming the middle module, called beam, knob, plank, connector, and hook. The hook is flexibly linked to Mediator by a conserved hinge and contacts the transcription initiation factor IIH (TFIIH) kinase that phosphorylates the carboxy (C)-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II and was recently positioned on the PIC. The hook also contains residues that crosslink to the CTD and reside in a previously described cradle. These results provide a framework for understanding Mediator function, including its role in stimulating CTD phosphorylation by TFIIH.

  13. The Journey of a Transcription Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pireyre, Marie

    Plants have developed astonishing networks regulating their metabolism to adapt to their environment. The complexity of these networks is illustrated by the expansion of families of regulators such as transcription factors in the plant kingdom. Transcription factors specifically impact...... transcriptional networks by integrating exogenous and endogenous stimuli and regulating gene expression accordingly. Regulation of transcription factors and their activation is thus highly important to modulate the transcriptional programs and increase fitness of the plant in a given environment. Plant metabolism....... The biosynthetic machinery of GLS is governed by interplay of six MYB and three bHLH transcription factors. MYB28, MYB29 and MYB76 regulate methionine-derived GLS, and MYB51, MYB34 and MYB122 regulate tryptophan-derived GLS. The three bHLH transcription factors MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 physically interact with all six...

  14. Espacios de socialización política y representaciones de la política en la Universidad de Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deicy Patricia Hurtado Galeano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe los procesos de socialización política de los universitarios a través de las interacciones cara a cara —en la familia, en el vecindario, en la universidad— y de los medios de comunicación análogos —televisión, radio, prensa— y virtuales —redes sociales, blogs—. Una vez analizado cómo se informan sobre política y en qué espacios hablan de estos temas, se analiza el interés en la política, así como las imágenes que los universitarios tienen de esta. Con base en estas variables se concluye que la Universidad es un entorno político en el que no puede verificase una apatía política en los actores clave de la vida universitaria —estudiantes, profesores y empleados administrativos—, no solo porque sí les interesan estos asuntos, sino porque se informan y conversan sobre política en distintos espacios de socialización, se sienten con capacidades y competencias para enfrentar esa esfera, y predomina una visión crítica de la política y de la forma como es conducida en la sociedad colombiana.

  15. Repression of Meiotic Genes by Antisense Transcription and by Fkh2 Transcription Factor in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Khan, Sohail R.; Futcher, Bruce; Leatherwood, Janet K.

    2012-01-01

    In S. pombe, about 5% of genes are meiosis-specific and accumulate little or no mRNA during vegetative growth. Here we use Affymetrix tiling arrays to characterize transcripts in vegetative and meiotic cells. In vegetative cells, many meiotic genes, especially those induced in mid-meiosis, have abundant antisense transcripts. Disruption of the antisense transcription of three of these mid-meiotic genes allowed vegetative sense transcription. These results suggest that antisense transcription ...

  16. Seguridad humana y recursos naturales - política de seguridad en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverría Rodríguez, Aura María

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo de grado atiende el nuevo concepto de política (biopolítica) que ha sido definido, por algunos autores como la política alrededor de la vida (bios), y el nuevo concepto de seguridad (seguridad humana) que cobija dentro de sus dimensiones, la seguridad medio ambiental. Esos nuevos conceptos justifican el interés de hacer un análisis de la política de seguridad en Colombia, especialmente, de la política de seguridad frente a los recursos naturales que son el fundamento de la...

  17. Políticas sobre Sexualidad: Reportes desde las Líneas del Frente

    OpenAIRE

    Petchesky, Rosalind; Vianna, Adriana R. B.; Carrara, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Políticas sobre sexualidad: reportes desde las líneas del frente, es un estudio comparativo de las políticas de sexualidad, la salud sexual y los derechos sexuales en ochos países y en dos instituciones mundiales. El trabajo contenido en Políticas sobre sexualidad ha sido desarrollado bajo el auspicio del Sexual Policy Watch [Observatorio de Políticas Sexuales] (SPW), un foro mundial compuesto por investigadores y activistas de una amplia gama de países y regiones del mundo. Inspirado en inic...

  18. Chaos excited chaos synchronizations of integral and fractional order generalized van der Pol systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Zhengming; Hsu Maoyuan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, chaos excited chaos synchronizations of generalized van der Pol systems with integral and fractional order are studied. Synchronizations of two identified autonomous generalized van der Pol chaotic systems are obtained by replacing their corresponding exciting terms by the same function of chaotic states of a third nonautonomous or autonomous generalized van der Pol system. Numerical simulations, such as phase portraits, Poincare maps and state error plots are given. It is found that chaos excited chaos synchronizations exist for the fractional order systems with the total fractional order both less than and more than the number of the states of the integer order generalized van der Pol system

  19. As políticas activas e passivas do mercado de trabalho

    OpenAIRE

    Novo, Álvaro; Centeno, Mário

    2008-01-01

    A generalidade dos países utiliza políticas destinadas a minorar os custos sociais e individuais do desemprego. Os economistas classificam estas políticas do mercado de trabalho em dois grupos: (i) políticas activas e (ii) políticas passivas. As primeiras têm como objectivo dotar os desempregados com as qualificações necessárias para minimizar a duração do desemprego, enquanto as segundas visam garantir uma fonte de rendimento durante o período de desemprego, sendo particularmente úteis para ...

  20. Esquema de evaluación para instrumentos de política ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Bobadilla; Martha Ileana Espejel Carbajal; Francisco Lara Valencia; Saul Álvarez Borrego; Sophie Ávila Foucat; José Luis Fermán Almada

    2013-01-01

    La evaluación de la política ambiental ha avanzado lentamente en México por varias razones que incluyen la novedad y rápida evolución de los instrumentos de política ambiental; la complejidad de los problemas ambientales y la inexistencia de modelos de evaluación estandarizados para los evaluadores de dicha política. Este artículo propone un esquema metodológico para la evaluación en tres etapas de los instrumentos de política ambiental. El método identifica la funcionalidad del instrumento d...

  1. Nuevas políticas sociales y Estado social relacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIERPAOLO DONATI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Según el autor, las sociedades europeas siguen inspirando las políticas sociales en un código (estatal de inclusión ?al que aquí se denomina lib/lab (mezcla de liberalismo y laborismo? que en el pasado ha constituido un factor de progreso, pero que actualmente resulta cada vez más débil y obsoleto. Las políticas sociales encuentran límites estructurales en sus posibilidades de innovación porque están formuladas como compromisos entre Estado y mercado, utilizando al sector terciario para remediar los fracasos de los otros dos sectores. De hecho, los sistemas sociales gobernados por lógicas lib/lab se encaminan a una crisis irreversible. El documento ilustra las nuevas tendencias de configuración de las políticas sociales, que aquí se denominan "societarias ". Se caracterizan por dos novedades principales: primero, por el hecho de que confían la inclusión social a una ciudadanía compleja (concebida como entrelazamiento de ciudadanía estatal y ciudadanía societaria, en la cual poseen un papel primordial los sujetos colectivos de la sociedad civil; segundo, porque definen el Bienestar, los servicios y los derechos sociales mediante un código simbólico de tipo relacional. En términos de orden institucional, se trata de pasar a un "cuarto modelo de Estado del Bienestar", es decir, a un Estado social de cuarta generación, después de haber dejado atrás el paternalista, el asistencial y el intervencionista. El autor lo denomina Estado social relacional.

  2. La creación de partidos políticos en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Pérez Gálvez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available I. Introducción. II. Concepto y diferencia con figuras afines. 1. Concepto. 2. Diferencia con figuras afines. 2.1. Configuración jurídica de la asociación. 2.1.1. Concepto. 2.1.2. Naturaleza jurídica. 2.1.3. Clasificación. A. General. B. Asociaciones de interés general. 2.1.4. Elementos. A. Elementos materiales. B. Elementos formales. 2.1.5. Grupo normativo regulador. 2.1.6. Conclusión. 2.2. Diferencias respecto a la corporación. 2.2.1. Régimen general. 2.2.2. Conclusión. 2.3. Corporación/asociación adversus fundación. 2.3.1. Régimen general. 2.3.2. Conclusión. III. Naturaleza jurídica. IV. Caracteres. V. Grupo normativo regulador. VI. Creación de partidos políticos. 1. Libertad de creación y afiliación. 2. Capacidad para constituir partidos políticos. 3. Constitución y personalidad jurídica. 3.1. Constitución. 3.2. Adquisición de personalidad jurídica. 3.2.1. Aproximación al concepto de persona jurídica. 3.2.2. La tarea propia del jurista: averiguar qué ha de entenderse por persona jurídica cada vez que ese término se emplea en un precepto jurídico. 3.2.3. Régimen jurídico. 4. Inscripción en el registro. 4.1. Concepto y diferencia con figuras afines. 4.2. Naturaleza jurídica. 4.3. Clases. 4.4. Grupo normativo regulador. 4.4.1. Constitución Española. 4.4.2. Ley Orgánica 6/2002, de 27 de junio. 4.4.3. Los registros en la Ley de Régimen Jurídico de las Administraciones Públicas y del Procedimiento Administrativo Común: derecho de acceso.

  3. Democracia liberal e inestabilidad política en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade A., Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Se explora el reciente cambio de gobierno en Ecuador a la luz de las siguientes hipótesis: 1) la inestabilidad política que caracteriza al Ecuador desde hace nueve años; 2) esta fase como resultado de las contradicciones creadas por el intento de reconciliar una economía organizada en torno al libre mercado con los procedimientos de una democracia representativa; 3) el proceso que ha llevado en los últimos trece años a la desarticulación de las instituciones democráticas en Ecuador. Se desarr...

  4. Libertad, equidad y política educativa

    OpenAIRE

    Bonal, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    El autor señala que aquellos que toman las decisiones de política educativa no contemplan las variables necesarias que aseguren la igualdad de oportunidades y la equidad, respecto a la elección de centro, y no atienden a un principio de justicia distributiva que describe en este artículo. Cree que aquel alumnado con un menor nivel social o cultural no está recibiendo, en el modelo actual, la mejor educación posible.

  5. Hacia una historia política de la escritura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gómez Pardo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se presentan algunos de los temas más recurrentes que se pueden abordar en el proyecto de una historia política de la escritura, retomando los planteamientos de Roger Chartier y Michel Foucault. Se define de manera propedéutica el significado y el alcance de este proyecto, y su importancia para los estudios sobre los usos de la escritura en la historia occidental, teniendo en cuenta que en ésta se sedimentan y reproducen poderes, y en su ordenamiento social, emergen nuevos sujetos (el autor, por ejemplo.

  6. Hacia una historia política de la escritura

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Gómez Pardo

    2010-01-01

    En el artículo se presentan algunos de los temas más recurrentes que se pueden abordar en el proyecto de una historia política de la escritura, retomando los planteamientos de Roger Chartier y Michel Foucault. Se define de manera propedéutica el significado y el alcance de este proyecto, y su importancia para los estudios sobre los usos de la escritura en la historia occidental, teniendo en cuenta que en ésta se sedimentan y reproducen poderes, y en su ordenamiento social, emergen nuevos suje...

  7. Choques de colas anchas y política monetaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Este documento extiende el modelo de Kato y Nishiyama (2005) al introducir choques de colas anchas en un marco neokeynesiano simple, en el que el banco central considera en forma explícita la restricción de no negatividad de la tasa de interés. Los choques con curtosis excesiva hacen que la política monetaria sea más agresiva lejos de la región restringida. Sin embargo, esta diferencia se revierte a medida que la economía se aproxima a la región restringida. Desde un punto de vista cuantitati...

  8. Constant envelope OFDM scheme for 6PolSK-QPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Ding, Ding

    2018-03-01

    A constant envelope OFDM scheme with phase modulator (PM-CE-OFDM) for 6PolSK-QPSK modulation was demonstrated. Performance under large fiber launch power is measured to check its advantages in counteracting fiber nonlinear impairments. In our simulation, PM-CE-OFDM, RF-assisted constant envelope OFDM (RF-CE-OFDM) and conventional OFDM (Con-OFDM) are transmitted through 80 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) single channel and WDM system. Simulation results confirm that PM-CE-OFDM has best performance in resisting fiber nonlinearity. In addition, benefiting from the simple system structure, the complexity and cost of PM-CE-OFDM system could be reduced effectively.

  9. Perú: marketing político y Vladivideos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Palomino V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En detalle señala las características de las elecciones 2001, convocadas por el Gobierno de transición, tras la caída del régimen de Fujimori. Esboza el perfil de los candidatos que se terciaron; comenta sobre los vladivideos; afirma que fueron los medios de comunicación los protagonistas de las elecciones, definieron la agenda política y fueron determinantes en los resultados finales. La cobertura diaria por televisión de los vladivideos convirtió el tema de la corrupción en show y espectáculo de masas.

  10. Analytical solution for Van der Pol-Duffing oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimiaeifar, A.; Saidi, A.R.; Bagheri, G.H.; Rahimpour, M.; Domairry, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of single-well, double-well and double-hump Van der Pol-Duffing oscillator is studied. Governing equation is solved analytically using a new kind of analytic technique for nonlinear problems namely the 'Homotopy Analysis Method' (HAM), for the first time. Present solution gives an expression which can be used in wide range of time for all domain of response. Comparisons of the obtained solutions with numerical results show that this method is effective and convenient for solving this problem. This method is a capable tool for solving this kind of nonlinear problems.

  11. La política entre rejas: el devotazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available En vísperas de la asunción de Héctor Cámpora a la presidencia de la Argentina el 25 de mayo de 1973, el penal de Villa Devoto fue tomado por los prisioneros. Las presiones nacionales e internacionales para la liberación de los detenidos por razones políticas, y el compromiso adoptado por el futuro presidente desde su campaña electoral, lo conducirían a firmar un decreto que sería posteriormente aprobado por el congreso. En ese marco, Alicia Sanguinetti, militante del ERP (Ejército Revoluciona...

  12. Derechos humanos, política y fútbol

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Marina

    2008-01-01

    La dictadura militar instaurada en 1976 intentó diversas operaciones ideológicas tendientes a la construcción de consenso. Si la más dramática de ellas fue la Guerra de Malvinas, la otra muy significativa -pero por su éxito- fue el Campeonato Mundial de Fútbol de 1978. La realización del evento y la denuncia de una supuesta "campaña antiargentina" desde el exterior fueron dos operaciones mediáticas de la Junta Militar destinadas a construir cierta legitimidad política en el momento mismo en q...

  13. MITIE: Simultaneous RNA-Seq-based transcript identification and quantification in multiple samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jonas; Kahles, André; Zhong, Yi; Sreedharan, Vipin T; Drewe, Philipp; Rätsch, Gunnar

    2013-10-15

    High-throughput sequencing of mRNA (RNA-Seq) has led to tremendous improvements in the detection of expressed genes and reconstruction of RNA transcripts. However, the extensive dynamic range of gene expression, technical limitations and biases, as well as the observed complexity of the transcriptional landscape, pose profound computational challenges for transcriptome reconstruction. We present the novel framework MITIE (Mixed Integer Transcript IdEntification) for simultaneous transcript reconstruction and quantification. We define a likelihood function based on the negative binomial distribution, use a regularization approach to select a few transcripts collectively explaining the observed read data and show how to find the optimal solution using Mixed Integer Programming. MITIE can (i) take advantage of known transcripts, (ii) reconstruct and quantify transcripts simultaneously in multiple samples, and (iii) resolve the location of multi-mapping reads. It is designed for genome- and assembly-based transcriptome reconstruction. We present an extensive study based on realistic simulated RNA-Seq data. When compared with state-of-the-art approaches, MITIE proves to be significantly more sensitive and overall more accurate. Moreover, MITIE yields substantial performance gains when used with multiple samples. We applied our system to 38 Drosophila melanogaster modENCODE RNA-Seq libraries and estimated the sensitivity of reconstructing omitted transcript annotations and the specificity with respect to annotated transcripts. Our results corroborate that a well-motivated objective paired with appropriate optimization techniques lead to significant improvements over the state-of-the-art in transcriptome reconstruction. MITIE is implemented in C++ and is available from http://bioweb.me/mitie under the GPL license.

  14. Spectrophotometric and pH-Metric Studies of Ce(III, Dy(III, Gd(III,Yb(III and Pr(III Metal Complexes with Rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Sonar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal-ligand and proton-ligand stability constant of Ce(III, Dy(III, Gd(III,Yb(III and Pr(III metals with substituted heterocyclic drug (Rifampicin were determined at various ionic strength by pH metric titration. NaClO4 was used to maintain ionic strength of solution. The results obtained were extrapolated to the zero ionic strength using an equation with one individual parameter. The thermodynamic stability constant of the complexes were also calculated. The formation of complexes has been studied by Job’s method. The results obtained were of stability constants by pH metric method is confirmed by Job’s method.

  15. Políticas culturales y cultura política en una organización campesina del Magdalena Medio colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nydia Constanza Mendoza Romero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se orienta a la comprensión de algunas relaciones entre cultura y poder que median los procesos organizativos inscritos en zonas de conflicto social y armado colombiano. En particular, se analiza la forma en la cual, en la configuración histórica de una organización campesina en Cimitarra, se van imbricando las políticas culturales, que desde este tipo de agrupaciones se despliegan, con las culturas políticas locales y nacionales, proceso en el que se van redefiniendo también los modos de asumir lo político.

  16. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas Do Not Express EGFRvIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchers, Lieuwe J., E-mail: l.j.melchers@umcg.nl [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Clausen, Martijn J.A.M. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Mastik, Mirjam F. [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Slagter-Menkema, Lorian [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Laan, Bernard F.A.M. van der [Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wal, Jacqueline E. van der; Vegt, Bert van der [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Roodenburg, Jan L.N. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schuuring, Ed [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of EGFRvIII, a specific variant of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), in 3 well-defined cohorts of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry for the specific detection of EGFRvIII using the L8A4 antibody was optimized on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using glioblastoma tissue. It was compared with EGFR and EGFRvIII RNA expression using a specific reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction also optimized for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Tissue microarrays including 531 HNSCCs of various stages with complete clinicopathologic and follow-up data were tested for the presence of EGFRvIII. Results: None of the 531 cases showed EGFRvIII protein expression. Using an immunohistochemistry protocol reported by others revealed cytoplasmic staining in 8% of cases. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction for the EGFRvIII transcript of the 28 highest cytoplasmic staining cases, as well as 69 negative cases, did not show expression in any of the tested cases, suggesting aspecific staining by a nonoptimal protocol. Conclusions: The EGFRvIII mutation is not present in HNSCC. Therefore, EGFRvIII does not influence treatment response in HNSCC and is not a usable clinical prognostic marker.

  17. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas Do Not Express EGFRvIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchers, Lieuwe J.; Clausen, Martijn J.A.M.; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. van der; Wal, Jacqueline E. van der; Vegt, Bert van der; Roodenburg, Jan L.N.; Schuuring, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of EGFRvIII, a specific variant of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), in 3 well-defined cohorts of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry for the specific detection of EGFRvIII using the L8A4 antibody was optimized on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using glioblastoma tissue. It was compared with EGFR and EGFRvIII RNA expression using a specific reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction also optimized for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Tissue microarrays including 531 HNSCCs of various stages with complete clinicopathologic and follow-up data were tested for the presence of EGFRvIII. Results: None of the 531 cases showed EGFRvIII protein expression. Using an immunohistochemistry protocol reported by others revealed cytoplasmic staining in 8% of cases. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction for the EGFRvIII transcript of the 28 highest cytoplasmic staining cases, as well as 69 negative cases, did not show expression in any of the tested cases, suggesting aspecific staining by a nonoptimal protocol. Conclusions: The EGFRvIII mutation is not present in HNSCC. Therefore, EGFRvIII does not influence treatment response in HNSCC and is not a usable clinical prognostic marker

  18. Observatorio de Política Internacional II. AMERICAS - Ecuador. Política y fútbol

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional II. AMÉRICAS (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Nicaragua. Un remedo revolucionario Bolivia. ¿Una o dislocada? Paraguay. El ex obispo presidente Perú. El rojo sangre de sendero luminoso Estados Unidos. Panorama tras las elecciones primarias RECIENTES Año 2007 Argentina. Contundente triunfo de Cristina Fernández Bolivia. Nuevos rumbos ¡no más embrollo! Ecuador. Nueva constitución, nuevo rumbo Guatemala....

  19. Tumoral Environment Triggers Transcript Anomalies in Established Tumors: Induction of Altered Gene Expression and of Aberrant, Truncated and B2 Repeat-Containing Gene Transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Rottiers

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to eugenetic changes, cancerous cells exhibit extensive modifications in the expression levels of a variety of genes. The phenotypic switch observed after inoculation of T lymphoma cells into syngenic mice illustrates the active participation of tumoral environment in the induction of an aberrant gene expression pattern. To further substantiate this contribution, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based subtraction suppression hybridization (SSH to identify genes that are differentially expressed in tumor-derived EL4/13.3 cells compared to the same cells isolated from cultures. Besides a number of unknown genes, the subtracted library contained several known genes that have been reported to be expressed at increased levels in tumors and/or to contribute to carcinogenesis. Apart from clones representing translated transcripts, the subtracted library also contained a high number of clones representing B2 repeat elements, viz. short interspersed repetitive elements that are transcribed by RNA polymerase III. Northern blotting confirmed the induction of B2 transcripts in tumor tissue and also revealed induction of chimeric, B2 repeat-containing mRNA. The appearance of chimeric transcripts was accompanied by aberrant, shorter-than-full-length transcripts, specifically from upregulated genes. Accordingly, in addition to altered gene expression, tumoral environmental triggers constitute a potent mechanism to create an epigenetic diversity in cancers by inducing extensive transcript anomalies.

  20. Joint ventures e a política antitruste brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Avellar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As políticas de defesa da concorrência integram atualmente o conjunto fundamental de instituições necessárias à promoção do crescimento e a busca das sociedades por arranjos mais eficientes. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar uma análise da política antitruste brasileira concentrando-se no tratamento dado pelas autoridades à constituição de joint ventures. Na realização dessa tarefa, foram feitas revisões teóricas, constatações acerca dos procedimentos de autoridades internacionais sobre o assunto e um estudo empírico abordando casos julgados no Brasil entre os anos de 2002 e 2010. O resultado encontrado revela a inexistência de normatização específica para o tratamento das joint ventures no Brasil, culminando, assim, em uma relativa discricionariedade por parte dos órgãos do SBDC na análise desses atos.

  1. Nuevas pantallas y política audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sierra Caballero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available La guerra de las pantallas es hoy la quiebra de un orden televisivo en transición a una ecología compleja post Galaxia Marconi, basada en los nuevos hábitos de consumo y de vida. Un problema político, sin ninguna duda, si entendemos que la Comunicación es una Ciencia de lo Común. Una interpretación simple del futuro del audiovisual tiende a poner énfasis solo en las transformaciones tecnológicas. Ciertamente, los cambios en equipamientos, la revolución digital es un factor disruptor del sistema cultural que hay que tomar en cuenta por su relevancia. Ahora bien, insistimos, el acto de ver, la discrecionalidad de la ventana indiscreta nos confronta con el universo ético y político de la mediación como reproducción social. Pues la tecnología no es neutral, ni la comunicación un simple instrumento de transmisión.

  2. Investimentos diretos estrangeiros e políticas de desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Corrêa de Lacerda

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute alternativas para a inserção internacional da economia brasileira, especialmente no que se refere ao papel dos investimentos diretos estrangeiros, da geração de valor agregado local e do desempenho das exportações, a partir do cenário da globalização e suas transformações. Na primeira parte analisa-se a competitividade dos países em desenvolvimento e, na segunda parte, discutem-se estratégias de política econômica para uma inserção internacional mais ativa na economia brasileira. Palavras-chave: investimentos diretos estrangeiros; globalização; inserção externa; políticas de desenvolvimento. Abstract The article discusses alternatives for the international insertion of Brazilian economy especially considering the role of foreign direct investments, the creation of local aggregated value and the exportations performance from the scene of the globalization and its transformations. In the first part, the competitiveness of developing countries is analyzed and in the second part, strategies of economic policy for a more active international of Brazilian economy are discussed. Keywords: foreign direct investments, globalization, international insertion, development policies.

  3. Política, Democracia y Utopía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta A. Giacaglia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La pregunta crucial que hoy nos formulamos es: ¿cómo hacer para reinventar el espacio de lo político en las condiciones instituidas por el proceso de globalización neoliberal? Las últimas décadas se han caracterizado por el eclipse de la política subordinada a la economía y a las fuerzas del mercado. En relación a esta cuestión, clave para pensar la posibilidad de proyectos emancipatorios alternativos, es necesario reflexionar sobre la justicia, la igualdad, la libertad, los lazos sociales, el problema de la representación y los nuevos movimientos sociales de resistencia. Desde esta apelación a los sujetos y a la invención por parte de las fuerzas sociales, es necesario reactivar las fuerzas instituyentes de la utopía para articular libertad e igualdad en el horizonte de otra mundialización. El proyecto de una sociedad justa y solidaria, sólo será posible desde un pensamiento creativo que se atreva a pensar lo no pensado, las líneas de fuga, el acontecimiento.

  4. Cuando lo educativo es político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Martin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre las bases de la Modernidad, encontramos el espacio público como lugar de construcción de ciudadanía y la escuela como dispositivo central para nuclear a los ciudadanos en torno a un proyecto en común. Sin embargo, más de un siglo después de que se instalara la obligatoriedad de la educación en nuestro país mediante la ley 1420, el principio homogeneizador de las instituciones educativas de los Estados nacionales mostró que dejaba por fuera grandes porciones de población. Frente a esto, en la década pasada se gestaron nuevos espacios formativos que buscan priorizar las posibilidades de cambio y que entienden a la educación como instancia política de participación y expresión de los sujetos. Este artículo reflexiona sobre las nociones de espacio público, la relación política-educación y el cambio social articulando estas ideas para concluir con una aproximación a prácticas de comunicación-educación en el partido de Quilmes.

  5. Colombia en torno la prensa política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Bancelin de Emiliani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Para comprender el contenido de los mensajes que lanzan los partidos políticos colombianos -a través de los discursos de sus dirigentes, es necesario esclarecer de dónde provienen dichos mensajes y en qué sociedad concreta se dan, ya que ellos no son un objeto aislado, sino que forman parte de una totalidad, de una estructura, donde los elementos que la conforman están interrelacionados e interactuan entre si. Partiendo del punto de que un ámbito, el quehacer económico es el que determina en última instancia el funcionamiento de una sociedad, el estudio de esta es posible a través del modo de producción dominante. Es así como la estructura económica condiciona la estructura ideológica y la jurídica política. A través del estudio de la formación social es posible comprender la estructura total con su movilidad, donde se llega al momento actual en que la sociedad colombiana está caracterizada por un modo de producción capitalista.

  6. Making progress with PISC III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Nichols, R.; McDonald, N.

    1989-01-01

    The thirdphase of the Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components (PISC III) was begun in 1986 with the aim of assessing inspection capability and reliability for actual defects in full scale components under realistic nuclear power plant conditions. It is organized by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the Ispra Joint Research Centre of the European Communities Commission. The objectives and status of each of the seven areas of PISC III are given. The areas are: real contaminated structures; full scale vessel tests; nozzles and dissimilar metal welds; austenitic steel testing; steam generator integrity testing; mathematical modelling of non-destructive examination; and human reliability studies. (U.K.)

  7. Graphics Gems III IBM version

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, David

    1994-01-01

    This sequel to Graphics Gems (Academic Press, 1990), and Graphics Gems II (Academic Press, 1991) is a practical collection of computer graphics programming tools and techniques. Graphics Gems III contains a larger percentage of gems related to modeling and rendering, particularly lighting and shading. This new edition also covers image processing, numerical and programming techniques, modeling and transformations, 2D and 3D geometry and algorithms,ray tracing and radiosity, rendering, and more clever new tools and tricks for graphics programming. Volume III also includes a

  8. Role of WRKY Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis Development and Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    It has been well established that environmentally induced alterations in gene expression are mediated by transcription factors (TFs). One of the important plant-specific TF groups is the WRKY (TFs containing a highly conserved WRKY domain) family, which is involved in regulation of various physiological programs including biotic and abiotic defenses, senescence and trichome development. Two members of WRKY group III in Arabidopsis thaliana, WRKY54 and WRKY70, are demonstrated in this study to...

  9. Uma ditadura contra a república: política econômica e poder político em Roberto Campos

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo V. Silva

    2006-01-01

    O artigo examina o pensamento político de Roberto Campos entre meados das décadas de 1950 e 1970. Neste período, além de importantes funções governamentais, Campos dedicou-se intensamente à luta de idéias, publicando grande quantidade de artigos e ensaios. Será desenvolvida a hipótese de que o seu pensamento político aponta para a institucionalização de um sistema político de tipo autoritário como o mais adequado às condições culturais e políticas da sociedade brasileira. A principal caracter...

  10. Promoter proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site......, which in turn causes reduced transcription. Functional depletion of U1 snRNP in the context of the wild-type SD triggers the same CpA event accompanied by decreased RNA levels. Thus, in accordance with recent findings, U1 snRNP can shield premature pA sites. The negative impact of unshielded pA sites...... on transcription requires promoter proximity, as demonstrated using artificial constructs and supported by a genome-wide data set. Importantly, transcription down-regulation can be recapitulated in a gene context devoid of splice sites by placing a functional bona fide pA site/transcription terminator within ∼500...

  11. Transcription and recombination: when RNA meets DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Andrés; Gaillard, Hélène

    2014-08-01

    A particularly relevant phenomenon in cell physiology and proliferation is the fact that spontaneous mitotic recombination is strongly enhanced by transcription. The most accepted view is that transcription increases the occurrence of double-strand breaks and/or single-stranded DNA gaps that are repaired by recombination. Most breaks would arise as a consequence of the impact that transcription has on replication fork progression, provoking its stalling and/or breakage. Here, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the cross talk between transcription and recombination, with emphasis on (1) the transcription-replication conflicts as the main source of recombinogenic DNA breaks, and (2) the formation of cotranscriptional R-loops as a major cause of such breaks. The new emerging questions and perspectives are discussed on the basis of the interference between transcription and replication, as well as the way RNA influences genome dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. Specificity and robustness in transcription control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anirvan M; Djordjevic, Marko; Shraiman, Boris I

    2002-02-19

    Recognition by transcription factors of the regulatory DNA elements upstream of genes is the fundamental step in controlling gene expression. How does the necessity to provide stability with respect to mutation constrain the organization of transcription control networks? We examine the mutation load of a transcription factor interacting with a set of n regulatory response elements as a function of the factor/DNA binding specificity and conclude on theoretical grounds that the optimal specificity decreases with n. The predicted correlation between variability of binding sites (for a given transcription factor) and their number is supported by the genomic data for Escherichia coli. The analysis of E. coli genomic data was carried out using an algorithm suggested by the biophysical model of transcription factor/DNA binding. Complete results of the search for candidate transcription factor binding sites are available at http://www.physics.rockefeller.edu/~boris/public/search_ecoli.

  13. Short-term exposure of arsenite disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Li, Hong-Bo; Xiang, Ping; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-10-01

    Arsenic (As) pollution in aquatic environment may adversely impact fish health by disrupting their thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, we explored the effect of short-term exposure of arsenite (AsIII) on thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish. We measured As concentrations, As speciation, and thyroid hormone thyroxine levels in whole zebrafish, oxidative stress (H2O2) and damage (MDA) in the liver, and gene transcription in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in the brain and liver tissues of zebrafish after exposing to different AsIII concentrations for 48 h. Result indicated that exposure to AsIII increased inorganic As in zebrafish to 0.46-0.72 mg kg(-1), induced oxidative stress with H2O2 being increased by 1.4-2.5 times and caused oxidative damage with MDA being augmented by 1.6 times. AsIII exposure increased thyroxine levels by 1.3-1.4 times and modulated gene transcription in HPT axis. Our study showed AsIII caused oxidative damage, affected thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in HPT axis in zebrafish. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Las políticas públicas y la necesidad de una verdadera política social en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elys Gilbrando Mora Belandria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo consiste en plantear algunos problemas que bloquean el camino hacia el desarrollo político y constituyen tarea urgente para el gobierno. Asimismo se trata de hacer un aporte abordando áreas estratégicas importantes en las estructuras del poder como es el caso de las políticas públicas, tal vez la más reciente e innovadora corriente de análisis presente en la Ciencia Política, incluyendo la política social como una de las exigencias de los ciudadanos frente al Estado y la democracia. Bajo este punto de vista las políticas públicas son consideradas una estrategia básica para legitimar el rendimiento del gobierno. Por último se abordan ciertos resultados de la mala política y sus efectos sobre la democracia pues, así lo entendemos, en Venezuela las tareas del gobierno en materia de políticas públicas han estado marcadas por una visión formalmente bien intencionada, pero que operativamente ha sido bloqueada por factores perturbadores como por ejemplo: la inconsistencia en la toma de decisiones, el centralismo, la corta visión para acercarse a los parámetros de una gerencia pública moderna, la excesiva politización de los trámites administrativos para emprender acciones concretas y la relación asimétrica entre el tamaño del Estado y la calidad del Estado, todo lo cual impide la realización correcta de los procedimientos para profundizar en la tarea obtener logros efectivos y eficientes en materia de política social y el avance hacia la modernización del sector público. .

  15. X-ray polarimetry with the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczynski, Henric S.; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR), a mission proposed to NASA's 2014 Small Explorer (SMEX) announcement of opportunity. PolSTAR measures the linear polarization of 3-50 keV (requirement; goal: 2.5-70 keV) X-rays probing the behavior of matter,radiation ...

  16. Aproximaciones Sociológicas en Torno a la Cultura Política Colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Guevara Cobos

    1999-01-01

    Partiendo de referentes conceptuales que permiten definir cultura política, se pretende abordar, desde una perspectiva histórica, algunos de sus componentes, con el fin de analizar las actitudes, normas y valores que han caracterizado la cultura política de la sociedad colombiana.

  17. File list: Pol.PSC.10.AllAg.mESCs,_differentiated [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Brachiocephal...ic endothelial cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testis SRX349391,SRX112975,SRX1437...96,SRX237511,SRX237510,SRX244355 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testis SRX349391,SRX112975,SRX1437...96,SRX237511,SRX244355,SRX237510 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testis SRX349391,SRX112975,SRX1437...96,SRX237511,SRX237510,SRX244355 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Neural progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Oth.50.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.50.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor mm9 RNA polymerase Others Multipotent otic progeni...tor SRX736457,SRX736456 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Oth.50.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor mm9 RNA polymerase Others Multipotent otic progeni...tor SRX736456,SRX736457 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Pre-somitic_mesoderm [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Pre-somitic_mesoderm mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Pre-somitic mesoder...m http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Pre-somitic_mesoderm.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Pre-somitic_mesoderm [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Pre-somitic_mesoderm mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Pre-somitic mesoder...m http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Pre-somitic_mesoderm.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Pre-somitic_mesoderm [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Pre-somitic_mesoderm mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Pre-somitic mesoder...m http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Pre-somitic_mesoderm.bed ...