WorldWideScience

Sample records for pokeweed carnation spinach

  1. Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana): possible source of a molluscicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold Krochmal; P.W. LeQuesne; P.W. LeQuesne

    1970-01-01

    Pokeweed, a plant abundant in Appalachia, exhibits some chemical similarities to a related species that has shown molluscicidal properties. Because this suggests that pokeweed, Phytolacca americana L. (P. decandra L.), has potential for controlling fresh-water snails, we have compiled this report of its chenlical composition, uses, propagation methods, and other...

  2. Testing of disease-resistance of pokeweed antiviral protein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of pokeweed antiviral protein gene (PAP) into plants was shown to improve plant resistance to several viruses or fungi pathogens with no much negative effect on plant growth. The non-virulent defective PAP inhibits only the virus but does not interfere with the host. A non-virulent defective PAP gene ...

  3. Leadership Metaphors: Cycles of Carnations and Reincarnations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rita L.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and explains the metaphors of carnation and reincarnation that provide a visual portrayal of sharing, teaching, and practicing leadership for art educators. Highlights other metaphors in which women holding leadership roles are discussed. Conveys the importance of community and mentors in the creation of leaders. (CMK)

  4. The international spinach database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Menting, F.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    The database concentrates on passport data of spinach of germplasm collections worldwide. All available passport data of accessions included in the International Spinach Database are downloadable as zipped Excel file. This zip file also contains the decoding tables, except for the FAO institutes

  5. Quality management of cut carnation 'Tempo' with 1- MCP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... temperature. In this study, the effect of different 1-MCP concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 nl l-1) and time durations (3, 6 and 9 h) on the vaselife, water uptake, loss of fresh weight and chlorophyll index of cut carnation 'Tempo' which is an ethylene-sensitive flower, were evaluated. The effects of 1- ...

  6. Quality management of cut carnation 'Tempo' with 1- MCP | Abadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    time durations (3, 6 and 9 h) on the vaselife, water uptake, loss of fresh weight and chlorophyll index of cut carnation 'Tempo' which is an ethylene-sensitive flower, were evaluated. The effects of 1-MCP concentrations and interaction between 1-MCP concentration and time duration on the vaselife, water uptake, loss of ...

  7. Cold storage of rooted and non-rooted carnation cuttings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... The specific objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of storage duration on the survival rate of rooted cuttings and to determine the rooting and survival rates of non-rooted cuttings for two standard carnation cultivars (that is., Dianora and Vittorio). The survival rates of rooted cuttings showed ...

  8. The pokeweed leaf mRNA transcriptome and its regulation by jasmonic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira C.M. Neller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The American pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana, is recognized for synthesizing pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP, a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP that inhibits the replication of several plant and animal viruses. The plant is also a heavy metal accumulator with applications in soil remediation. However, little is known about pokeweed stress responses, as large-scale sequencing projects have not been performed for this species. Here, we sequenced the mRNA transcriptome of pokeweed in the presence and absence of jasmonic acid (JA, a hormone mediating plant defense. Trinity-based de novo assembly of mRNA from leaf tissue and BLASTx homology searches against public sequence databases resulted in the annotation of 59 096 transcripts. Differential expression analysis identified JA-responsive genes that may be involved in defense against pathogen infection and herbivory. We confirmed the existence of several PAP isoforms and cloned a potentially novel isoform of PAP. Expression analysis indicated that PAP isoforms are differentially responsive to JA, perhaps indicating specialized roles within the plant. Finally, we identified 52 305 natural antisense transcript pairs, four of which comprised PAP isoforms, suggesting a novel form of RIP gene regulation. This transcriptome-wide study of a Phytolaccaceae family member provides a source of new genes that may be involved in stress tolerance in this plant. The sequences generated in our study have been deposited in the SRA database under project # SRP069141.

  9. Carnation mottle virus, an important viral agent infecting carnation cut-flower crops in Mahallat of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, M; Koohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G; Dizadji, A

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important cut-flower crops grown worldwide on commercial scale is Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). It's the main production of Mahallat where is one of the most important ornamental plants production centers of Iran. Infection of carnation with pathogens Like viral agents causes economic losses in carnation cut-flower crop. One of the viral agents of this flower is Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) which is the type member of genus Carmovirus and belongs to the Tombusviridae family. It is naturally transmitted by grafting and contacting between plants. Although its infection lead to mild symptims, it weakens the plant to infection by other pathogens. The carnation greenhouses of Mahallat were visited during 2008 January to April and 100 samples with mild mosaic symptom were collected and tested by DAS-ELISA using CarMV specific polyclonal antibody. The results showed that 75% of samples wrere infected with this virus. Mechanical inocubation of Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor and Spinacea oleracea with extracted crude sap of CarMV infected carnation Leaves in phosphate buffer (pH, 7) resulted in appearance of chlorotic and necrotic local lesions on inoculated leaves 4-7 days after incubation. The virus was partially purified using C. amaranticolor locally symptomatic leaves. Total soluble proteins were extracted from healthy and CarMV infected C. amaranticolor plants and beside partially purified preparation electrophoresed through 15% poly acrylamide get according to SDS-PAGE standard procedure. Protein bands were electroblotted onto nitrocelluse membrane and incubated with CarMV polyclonal during western immunoblot analysis according to standard method. The result revealed a distinc protein band with Mr of 35.5 kDa in total protein preparation of infected plant and viral partial pure preparation, without any reaction in those of healthy plant. RT-PCR carried out using total RNA extracted from infected plant by Rneasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen

  10. Phenotypic evaluation of new carnation hybrids (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cuellar

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The flower production in Colombia is important for the country exports. Therefore research in flower breeding, especially carnation is essential. Analyzing germination and development of 1a crosses between commercial cultivars we found what hybrid seeds do not have viability problems, and offspring plants with flowering and development most precocious than their parents were found. In same way, is possible to improve cuttings production. Flower features are important parameters for carnation commercialization. Stem length, stem strength, flower diameter and petal number can be improved, but is important to follow the next generations to make sure of the best characters are stable. Other parameters commercially important like corollas shape, color and leave shape, show environment more than genetic dependence.

  11. Water Control in Cut Stems of Rose and Carnation

    OpenAIRE

    Di Stasio, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    This PhD Thesis address, on cut flowers vase life, physiological mechanisms aimed at maintaining and regulating tissues hydration, cellular turgor, water use and senescence phenomena. Specifically we considered the effect of compatible solutes (osmoregulation) on water status, hydration state and vase life of cut stems of rose and carnation (chapter 1). In the second chapter we evaluated the application of anti-transpirant compounds that may act indirectly or directly on rose cut stems trans...

  12. Characterization of two carnation petal prolyl 4 hydroxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Florina; Tiainen, Päivi; Owen, Carolyn; Spano, Thodhoraq; Daher, Firas Bou; Oualid, Fatiha; Senol, Namik Ozer; Vlad, Daniela; Myllyharju, Johanna; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2010-10-01

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) catalyze the proline hydroxylation, a major post-translational modification, of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Two carnation petal P4H cDNAs, (Dianthus caryophyllus prolyl 4-hydroxylase) DcP4H1 and DcP4H2, were identified and characterized at the gene expression and biochemical level in order to investigate their role in flower senescence. Both mRNAs showed similar patterns of expression with stable transcript abundance during senescence progression and differential tissue-specific expression with DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 strongly expressed in ovaries and stems, respectively. Recombinant DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 proteins were produced and their catalytic properties were determined. Pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylate (PDCA) was identified as a potent inhibitor of the in vitro enzyme activity of both P4Hs and used to determine whether inhibition of proline hydroxylation in petals is involved in senescence progression of cut carnation flowers. PDCA suppressed the climacteric ethylene production indicating a strong correlation between the inhibition of DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 activity in vitro by PDCA and the suppression of climacteric ethylene production in cut carnation flowers. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  13. Nitrate accumulation in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingröver, Eveliene Geertruda

    1986-01-01

    Leafy vegetables, like spinach, may contain high concentrations of nitrate. In the Netherlands, about 75% of mean daily intake of nitrate orginates from the consumption of vegatables. Hazards to human health are associated with the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Acute nitrite poisoning causes

  14. Dichroism in spinach chloroplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Lierop, J.H. van; Ham, M. ten

    1967-01-01

    In spinach chloroplasts oriented at steel-water interfaces parallel to the light beam a distinct dichroism is measured at about 680 nm. This dichroism is minimal upon addition of sucrose up to a final concentration of 0.18 M to the medium, the dichroic ratio amounting to 1.02. It is concluded that

  15. Radiobiological research on carnation chimerae Dianthus Caryophyllus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereau-Leroy, Pierre.

    1975-01-01

    A radiobiological study of periclinal carnation chimerae is carried out by subjecting whole plants and cuttings at different physiological stages to cobalt 60 gamma radiation under different dose and dose rate conditions. The effects of these treatments are observed during cultivation of the treated plants and by microscopic examination of irradiated meristem sections. The destruction of meristem cells in proportions varying with the irradiation conditions leads to structural changes in the chimerae; the more frequent change is the formation of genetically homogeneous stalks from different genotypes existing in the irradiated plant. Treatment by ionizing radiations is thus a practical means of detecting periclinical chimerae which, as in the case of carnations, are very common in plants grown by vegetative propagation. However since more than two independent meristem cell groups are usually present it is not possible by this method alone to define the distribution of the differentent genotypes in these groups; additional genetic studies or cell labelling such as chlorophyll or genoma mutations are then necessary [fr

  16. Researches on the resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in carnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvy, A.; Pereau-Leroy, P.

    1977-01-01

    Trials have been undertaken in order to discover in carnation with sexual reproduction some resistances to Fusarium equivalent to which are known previously in certain sorts of carnations with asexual propagation, like Heidi. Only the resistance of horticultural species has been studied. It is a polygenic type and open to improvement by selection or cross between resistant parents, specially Heidi x mignardise, some products of which may be used as 'miniature' varieties. To plan the improvement of american carnations by interspecific cross with these resistant parents is possible. But on account of foreseeable difficulties to preserve the floral characteristics of these varieties an attempt was made to induce resistance characters by exposing american carnations to the γ rays of 60 Co [fr

  17. Identification of heat-responsive genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. by RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli eWan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colours and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs, transcriptomic information of this species remains very limited, particularly regarding abiotic stress-related genes. Here, transcriptome analysis was performed to generate expression profiles of heat stress (HS-responsive genes in carnation. We sequenced a cDNA library constructed with mixed RNA from carnation leaves subjected to 42oC HS (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 h and 46oC HS (0.5, 1 and 2 h, and obtained 45,604,882 high quality paired-end reads. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 99,255 contigs were generated with an average length of 1053bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning contigs with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG and COG. Using the above carnation transcriptome as the reference, we compared the effects of high temperature treatments (42oC: duration 0.5, 2 or 12h delivered to aseptic carnation seedlings, relative to untreated controls, using the FPKM metric. Overall, 11,471 genes were identified which showed a significant response to one or more of the three HS treatment times. In addition, based on GO and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses, a series of candidate genes involved in thermo-tolerance responses were selected and characterized. This study represents the first expression profiling analysis of D. caryophyllus under heat stress treatments. Numerous genes were found to be induced in response to HS, the study of which may advance our understanding of heat response of carnation.

  18. Potential growing model for the standard carnation cv. Delphi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cut flower business requires exact synchronicity between product offer and demand in consumer countries. Having tools that help to improve this synchronicity through predictions or crop growth monitoring could provide an important advantage to program standards and corrective agronomic practices. At the Centro de Biotecnología Agropecuaria, SENA (SENA's Biotechnology, Agricultural and Livestock Center, located in Mosquera, Cundinamarca, a trial with standard carnation cv. Delphi grown under greenhouse conditions was carried out. The objective of this study was to build a simple model of dry matter (DM production and partition of on-carnation flower stems. The model was based on the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR MJ m-2 d-1 and temperature as exogenous variables and assumed no water or nutrient limitations or damage caused by pests, disease or weeds. In this model, the daily DM increase depended on the PAR, the light fraction intercepted by the foliage (F LINT and the light use efficiency (LUE g MJ-1. The LUE in the vegetative and reproductive stages reached values of 1.31 and 0.74 g MJ-1, respectively. The estimated extinction coefficient (k value corresponded to 0.53 and the maximum F LINT was between 0.79 and 0.82. Partitioning between the plant vegetative and reproductive stages was modeled based on the hypothesis that the partition is regulated by the source sink relationship. The estimated partition coefficient for the vegetative stage of the leaves was 0.63 and 0.37 for the stems. During the reproductive stage, the partitioning coefficients of leaves, stems and flower buds were 0.05, 0.74, and 0.21, respectively.

  19. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CARMOVIRUS ON CARNATION (Dianthus caryophyllus L. IN WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erniawati Diningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carnation has a highly economic demand of cut flower in Indonesia. Field observations in West Java Indonesia was conducted in order to find the typical mottle symptoms that was a suspect caused by a virus disease. Identification of the virus was respectively conducted by performing ELISA test with four anti sera and characterizations held by bioassay, observing of virion particles, detecting of nucleic acid by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Total of 403 samples were collected from plants with or no virus-like symptoms. Among those all tested, 83% were found to be infected by Carnation mottle virus (CarMV, but negatively against Carnation ringspot virus (CRSV, Carnation laten virus (CLV, and Carnation vein mottle virus (CVMV antisera. By mechanical inoculation, the virus was able to infect systemically Cenopodium quinoa and locally infect on others. However on Phalaenopsis sp and Gomprena globosa, there was symptompless found. The isometric CarMV particles size was approximately 30 nm. RT-PCR using specific primers of CP gene of CarMV successfully amplified a DNA sized 1000 bp. CarMV West Java Indonesian (Idn-WJ isolates possessed the highest nucleotide and amino acid homology with CarMV from Spain and was in the same cluster with CarMV from China, Taiwan and Israel.

  20. Kaempferol glycosides in the flowers of carnation and their contribution to the creamy white flower color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashina, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Masa-atsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Onozaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawanobu, Shuji; Onoe, Hiroshi; Okamura, Masachika

    2010-12-01

    Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the flowers of carnation cultivars 'White Wink' and 'Honey Moon'. They were identified from their UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra as kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside]. Referring to previous reports, flavonols occurring in carnation flowers are characterized as kaempferol 3-O-glucosides with additional sugars binding at the 2 and/or 6-positions of the glucose. The kaempferol glycoside contents of a nearly pure white flower and some creamy white flower lines were compared. Although the major glycoside was different in each line, the total kaempferol contents of the creamy white lines were from 5.9 to 20.9 times higher than the pure white line. Thus, in carnations, kaempferol glycosides surely contribute to the creamy tone of white flowers.

  1. The relationship between lymphocytes activated by pokeweed mitogen and by lipopolysaccharides and their radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Liaoyuan; Liu Fenju; Liu Keliang; Xu Changshao; Xu Yingdong; Geng Yongzhi

    1992-07-01

    Human whole blood was incubated in vitro. Lymphocytes were activated by poke-weed mitogen (PWM) and by Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The relationship between the two kinds of lymphocytes was investigated using radioactive compound incorporation. The study showed that PWM-activated lymphocytes were able to promote the stimulating effect of LPS on B lymphocytes. The stimulating effect of PWM-activated lymphocytes was obviously decreased after they were irradiated with 10 Gy gamma rays. When PWM-activated lymphocytes and LPS-activated lymphocytes were incubated together after one of the cell populations had been exposed 10 Gy 60 Co gamma rays, the incorporation of [ 3 H] TdR was much decreased and the synergistic function disappeared, especially when the PWM-activated lymphocytes were irradiated. In cells from patients treated with 60 Co gamma rays for carcinoma of nasopharynx, the incorporation in LPS-activated lymphocytes approached normal levels while that in PWM-activated lymphocytes was reduced significantly and the stimulating effect of PWM-activated lymphocytes on LPS-activated lymphocytes was also markedly reduced. These demonstrate that PWM-activated lymphocytes have a similar function to T-helper cells and seem to be more radiosensitive than LPS-activated lymphocytes

  2. [Amplification and cloning of dahlia mosaic virus and carnation etched ring virus promoters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Chemeris, A V

    2007-12-01

    Amplification and cloning of dahlia mosaic virus promoter were carried out for the first time. Sequence analysis showed homology between this promoter and the promoters of other caulimoviruses. In addition, amplification and cloning of the carnation etched ring virus promoter was performed.

  3. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L. Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L. during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment with 24 replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors. The first factor was six commercial carnation cultivars, namely light pink candy, malaga, opera, white candy, liberty and pink maladi, while the seconds dealt with type of conservation media, i.e. ½MS+DMSO 3%, ½MS+DMSO 3%+3% sucrose and control (½MS+3% sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of hyperhydric plantlet and plantlet viability after in vitro conservation were varied among carnation cultivars. Single treatment of sucrose had the least capacity in inducing plantlet resistance to low temperature conditions during in vitro conservation. Supplemental DMSO postponed the occurrence of hyperhydricity and with the existence of sucrose, higher plantlet viability were achieved.

  4. Fungal polygalacturonase activity reflects susceptibility of carnation cultivars to Fusarium wilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baayen, R.P.; Schoffelmeer, E.A.M.; Toet, S.; Elgersma, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Carnation cultivars with different levels of partial resistance were inoculated with race 2 of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and monitored for accumulation of host phytoalexins, fungal escape from compartmentalization, production of fungal pectin-degrading enzymes and development of external

  5. Transgenic carnation plants obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of petal explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altvorst, van A.C.; Koehorst, H.; Jong, de J.; Dons, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic carnation plants were obtained after infection of petal explants with the supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGLO. Southern blot techniques confirmed the transgenic nature of four transformed plants. The expression of the gus gene was verified in these plants by histochemical

  6. Changes in chemical composition related to fungal infection and induced resistance in carnation and radish investigated by pyrolysis mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijl, Harko; Niemann, G.J.; Boon, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens WCR 417r induces systemic resistance in radish roots challenged by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani and, incidentally, in carnation stems challenged by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. The induced systemic resistance is not associated with accumulation of

  7. Identification and Characterization of the MADS-Box Genes and Their Contribution to Flower Organ in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoni; Wang, Qijian; Yang, Shaozong; Lin, Shengnan; Bao, Manzhu; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Wu, Quanshu; Wang, Caiyun; Fu, Xiaopeng

    2018-04-04

    Dianthus is a large genus containing many species with high ornamental economic value. Extensive breeding strategies permitted an exploration of an improvement in the quality of cultivated carnation, particularly in flowers. However, little is known on the molecular mechanisms of flower development in carnation. Here, we report the identification and description of MADS-box genes in carnation ( DcaMADS ) with a focus on those involved in flower development and organ identity determination. In this study, 39 MADS-box genes were identified from the carnation genome and transcriptome by the phylogenetic analysis. These genes were categorized into four subgroups (30 MIKC c , two MIKC*, two Mα, and five Mγ). The MADS-box domain, gene structure, and conserved motif compositions of the carnation MADS genes were analysed. Meanwhile, the expression of DcaMADS genes were significantly different in stems, leaves, and flower buds. Further studies were carried out for exploring the expression of DcaMADS genes in individual flower organs, and some crucial DcaMADS genes correlated with their putative function were validated. Finally, a new expression pattern of DcaMADS genes in flower organs of carnation was provided: sepal (three class E genes and two class A genes), petal (two class B genes, two class E genes, and one SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE ( SVP )), stamen (two class B genes, two class E genes, and two class C), styles (two class E genes and two class C), and ovary (two class E genes, two class C, one AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 ( AGL6 ), one SEEDSTICK ( STK ), one B sister , one SVP , and one Mα ). This result proposes a model in floral organ identity of carnation and it may be helpful to further explore the molecular mechanism of flower organ identity in carnation.

  8. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Dynamic Role of Silicon in Alleviation of Hyperhydricity in Carnation Grown In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sowbiya Muneer; Hao Wei; Yoo Gyeong Park; Hai Kyoung Jeong; Byoung Ryong Jeong

    2017-01-01

    The present study depicted the role of silicon in limiting the hyperhydricity in shoot cultures of carnation through proteomic analysis. Four-week-old healthy shoot cultures of carnation “Purple Beauty” were sub-cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium followed with four treatments, viz. control (–Si/–Hyperhydricity), hyperhydric with no silicon treatment (–Si/+Hyperhydricity), hyperhydric with silicon treatment (+Si/+Hyperhydricity), and only silicon treated with no hyperhydricity (+Si/–Hyperh...

  9. Antioxidant properties of differently processed spinach products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Heinonen, I.M.; Hopia, A.I.; Schwarz, K.; Hollman, P.C.H.; West, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of variously processed spinach products (whole-leaf, minced and enzymatically liquefied spinach) on lipid oxidation was determined. In an autoxidative methyl linoleate (MeLo) system the inhibition of hydroperoxide formation, measured by HPLC after three days of oxidation, was in

  10. Lymphocyte transformation response to pokeweed mitogen as a predictive marker for development of AIDS and AIDS related symptoms in homosexual men with HIV antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Lindhardt, B O; Gerstoft, J

    1987-01-01

    To identify factors that may predict the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related symptoms various immunological measurements were studied in a group of homosexual men attending screening clinics for AIDS in Copenhagen. Fifty seven men whose ratio of T helper...... the transformation responses to pokeweed mitogen and cytomegalovirus and the absolute count of CD4 positive lymphocytes were the most common abnormal values. In particular, a low relative response to pokeweed mitogen on initial investigation correlated with a worsened clinical condition on reinvestigation. The risk...

  11. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  12. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  13. Suppression of pokeweed mitogen-stimulated immunoglobulin production in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzin, B.L.; Strober, S.; Kansas, G.S.; Terrell, C.P.; Engleman, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI, 200 rad). The authors previously reported long-lasting clinical improvement in this group associated with a persistent decrease in circulating Leu-3 (helper subset) T cells and marked impairment of in vitro lymphocyte function. In the present experiments, they studied the mechanisms underlying the decrease in pokeweed mitogen stimulated immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion observed after TLI. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBL) from TLI-treated patients produced 10-fold less Ig (both IgM and IgG) in response to pokeweed mitogen than before radiotherapy. This decrease in Ig production was associated with the presence of suppressor cells in co-culture studies. By using responder cells obtained from normal individuals (allogeneic system), PBL from eight of 12 patients after TLI suppressed Ig synthesis by more than 50%. In contrast, PBL from the same patients before TLI failed to suppress Ig synthesis. PBL with suppressive activity contained suppressor T cells, and the latter cells bore the Leu-2 surface antigen. In 50% of the patients studied suppressor cells were also found in the non-T fraction and were adherent to plastic. Interestingly, the Leu-2 + cells from TLI-treated patients were no more potent on a cell per cell basis than purified Leu-2 + cells obtained before TLI. Additional experiments suggested that the suppression mediated by T cells after TLI is related to the increased ratio of Leu-2 to Leu-3 cells observed after radiotherapy

  14. Effect of silver thiosulphate preservative on the physiology of cut carnations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducasse, P.B.; Van Staden, J.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation attempted to determine the effect of silver thiosulphate on the carbohydrate status of cut carnation flowers. Labelled [ 14 C] sucrose was applied by microsyringe to two of the outer petals of each flower. At fixed intervals flowers were withdrawn from the different solutions and separated into labelled petals, untreated petals, gynoecia, and shoots. Paper chromatographic techniques were used to determine whether any detected radioactivity was associated with sucrose or its breakdown products. The vase life of flowers was extended by silver thiosulphate treatment and decreased by Ethrel application. Ethrel application enhanced carbohydrate utilization and also accelerated transport of labelled compounds from the treated petals to the rest of the flower

  15. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of the GMO carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) variety Moonlite based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Jia, J W; Jiang, L X; Zhu, H; Bai, L; Wang, J B; Tang, X M; Pan, A H

    2012-04-27

    To ensure the implementation of genetically modified organism (GMO)-labeling regulations, an event-specific detection method was developed based on the junction sequence of an exogenous integrant in the transgenic carnation variety Moonlite. The 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, the event-specific primers and TaqMan probe were designed to amplify the fragments, which spanned the exogenous DNA and carnation genomic DNA. Qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were developed employing the designed primers and probe. The detection limit of the qualitative PCR assay was 0.05% for Moonlite in 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to about 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome; the limit of detection and quantification of the quantitative PCR assay were estimated to be 38 and 190 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. Carnation samples with different contents of genetically modified components were quantified and the bias between the observed and true values of three samples were lower than the acceptance criterion (GMO detection method. These results indicated that these event-specific methods would be useful for the identification and quantification of the GMO carnation Moonlite.

  16. Spinach Pyruvate Kinase Isoforms 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysdorfer, Chris; Bassham, James A.

    1984-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaves consists of two isoforms, separable by blue agarose chromatography. Both isoforms share similar pH profiles and substrate and alternate nucleotide Km values. In addition, both isoforms are inhibited by oxalate and ATP and activated by AMP. The isoforms differ in their response to three key metabolites; citrate, aspartate, and glutamate. The first isoform is similar to previously reported plant pyruvate kinases in its sensitivity to citrate inhibition. The Ki for this inhibition is 1.2 millimolar citrate. The second isoform is not affected by citrate but is regulated by aspartate and glutamate. Aspartate is an activator with a Ka of 0.05 millimolar, and glutamate is an inhibitor with a Ki of 0.68 millimolar. A pyruvate kinase with these properties has not been previously reported. Based on these considerations, we suggest that the activity of the first isoform is regulated by respiratory metabolism. The second isoform, in contrast, may be regulated by the demand for carbon skeletons for use in ammonia assimilation. PMID:16663425

  17. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The genome of spinach single chromosome complement is about 1000 Mbp, which is the model material to study the molecular mechanisms of plant sex differentiation. The cytological study showed that the biggest spinach chromosome (chromosome 1) was taken as spinach sex chromosome. It had three alleles of ...

  18. Epidemiology and control of spinach downy mildew in coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most serious threat to global fresh market spinach production is spinach downy mildew, caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen, Peronospora effusa. Downy mildew causes yellow chlorotic lesions on spinach leaf tissue, often accompanied by abundant sporulation on the undersides of leaves. Very ...

  19. Acceleration of membrane senescence in cut carnation flowers by treatment with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J E; Mayak, S; Shinitzky, M; Halevy, A H

    1982-04-01

    The lipid microviscosity of microsomal membranes from senescing cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. White Sim) flowers rises with advancing senescence. The increase in membrane microviscosity is initiated within 3 to 4 days of cutting the flowers and coincides temporally with petal-inrolling denoting the climacteric-like rise in ethylene production. Treatment of young cut flowers with aminoethoxyvinylglycine prevented the appearance of petal-inrolling and delayed the rise in membrane microviscosity until day 9 after cutting. When freshly cut flowers or aminoethoxyvinylglycine-treated flowers were exposed to exogenous ethylene (1 microliter per liter), the microviscosity of microsomal membranes rose sharply within 24 hours, and inrolling of petals was clearly evident. Thus, treatment with ethylene accelerates membrane rigidification. Silver thiosulphate, a potent anti-ethylene agent, delayed the rise in microsomal membrane microviscosity even when the flowers were exposed to exogenous ethylene. Membrane rigidification in both naturally senescing and ethylene-treated flowers was accompanied by an increased sterol:phospholipid ratio reflecting the selective loss of membrane phospholipid that accompanies senescence. The results collectively indicate that the climacteric-like surge in ethylene production during senescence of carnation flowers facilitates physical changes in membrane lipids that presumably lead to loss of membrane function.

  20. Subcellular localization of secondary lipid metabolites including fragrance volatiles in carnation petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, K.A.; Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/ water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles

  1. Short-term effects of carbon dioxide on carnation callus cell respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palet, A.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Argiles, J.M.; Azcon-Bieto, J.

    1991-01-01

    The addition of potassium bicarbonate to the electrode cuvette immediately stimulated the rate of dark O 2 uptake of photomixotrophic and heterotrophic carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) callus, of Elodea canadensis (Minchx) leaves, and of other plant tissues. This phenomenon occurred at pH values lower than 7.2 to 7.8, and the stimulation depended on the concentration of gaseous CO 2 in the solution. These stimulatory responses lasted several minutes and then decreased, but additional bicarbonate or gaseous CO 2 again stimulated respiration, suggesting a reversible effect. Carbonic anhydrase in the solution increased the stimulatory effect of potassium bicarbonate. The CO 2 /bicarbonate dependent stimulation of respiration did not occur in animal tissues such as rat diaphragm and isolated hepatocytes, and was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid in carnation callus cells and E. canadensis leaves. This suggested that the alternative oxidase was engaged during the stimulation in plant tissues. The cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited by CO 2 /bicarbonate either in the absence or in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase of callus tissue homogenates was also inhibited by CO 2 /bicarbonate. The results suggested that high carbon dioxide levels (mainly free CO 2 ) partially inhibited the cytochrome pathway (apparently at the oxidase level), and this block in electron transport elicited a large transient engagement of the alternative oxidase when present uninhibited

  2. Identification and quantification of genetically modified Moonshade carnation lines using conventional and TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Junwei; Bai, Lan; Pan, Aihu; Tang, Xueming

    2013-07-01

    Genetically modified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Moonshade was approved for planting and commercialization in several countries from 2004. Developing methods for analyzing Moonshade is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism labeling regulations. In this study, the 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated using thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, conventional and TaqMan real-time PCR assays were established. The relative limit of detection for the conventional PCR assay was 0.05 % for Moonshade using 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to approximately 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome, and the limits of detection and quantification of the TaqMan real-time PCR assay were estimated to be 51 and 254 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. These results are useful for identifying and quantifying Moonshade and its derivatives.

  3. CNS activity of Pokeweed Anti-viral Protein (PAP in mice infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibbles Heather E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the anti-viral spectrum of PAP by examining its effects on the survival of mice challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of PAP in CBA mice inoculated with intracerebral injections of the WE54 strain of LCMV at a 1000 PFU dose level that is lethal to 100% of mice within 7–9 days. Mice were treated either with vehicle or PAP administered intraperitoneally 24 hours prior to, 1 hour prior to and 24 hours, 48 hours 72 hours and 96 hours after virus inoculation. Results PAP exhibits significant in vivo anti- LCMV activity in mice challenged intracerebrally with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of LCMV. At non-toxic dose levels, PAP significantly prolonged survival in the absence of the majority of disease-associated symptoms. The median survival time of PAP-treated mice was >21 days as opposed to 7 days median survival for the control (p = 0.0069. Conclusion Our results presented herein provide unprecedented experimental evidence that PAP exhibits antiviral activity in the CNS of LCMV-infected mice.

  4. On the structure of the spinach chloroplast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Bustraan, M.; Paris, C.H.

    1952-01-01

    The structure of spinach chloroplasts was investigated with the aid of the electron microscope. It has been established that: 1. 1. the outer membrane of the chloroplasts is composed of both proteins and lipoids. 2. 2. the stroma is also built up by these components. 3. 3. within the

  5. Why Does the Grasshopper Not Eat Spinach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This triggers meta- bolic changes inside their body because of which they transform into gregarious, multi-coloured locusts which form swarms with millions (or even billions) of them moving together. (Figure 2). Locust swarms are shown in Figure 3. The famous cartoon character Popeye's (Figure 4) favorite food is spinach.

  6. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Dynamic Role of Silicon in Alleviation of Hyperhydricity in Carnation Grown In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study depicted the role of silicon in limiting the hyperhydricity in shoot cultures of carnation through proteomic analysis. Four-week-old healthy shoot cultures of carnation “Purple Beauty” were sub-cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium followed with four treatments, viz. control (–Si/–Hyperhydricity, hyperhydric with no silicon treatment (–Si/+Hyperhydricity, hyperhydric with silicon treatment (+Si/+Hyperhydricity, and only silicon treated with no hyperhydricity (+Si/–Hyperhydricity. Comparing to control morphological features of hyperhydric carnations showed significantly fragile, bushy and lustrous leaf nature, while Si supply restored these effects. Proteomic investigation revealed that approximately seventy protein spots were differentially expressed under Si and/or hyperhydric treatments and were either up- or downregulated in abundance depending on their functions. Most of the identified protein spots were related to stress responses, photosynthesis, and signal transduction. Proteomic results were further confirmed through immunoblots by selecting specific proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, PsaA, and PsbA. Moreover, protein–protein interaction was also performed on differentially expressed protein spots using specific bioinformatic tools. In addition, stress markers were analyzed by histochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and singlet oxygen (O21–. In addition, the ultrastructure of chloroplasts in hyperhydric leaves significantly resulted in inefficiency of thylakoid lamella with the loss of grana but were recovered in silicon supplemented leaves. The proteomic study together with physiological analysis indicated that Si has a substantial role in upholding the hyperhydricity in in vitro grown carnation shoot cultures.

  7. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Dynamic Role of Silicon in Alleviation of Hyperhydricity in Carnation Grown In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Wei, Hao; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Hai Kyoung; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2017-12-24

    The present study depicted the role of silicon in limiting the hyperhydricity in shoot cultures of carnation through proteomic analysis. Four-week-old healthy shoot cultures of carnation "Purple Beauty" were sub-cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium followed with four treatments, viz. control (-Si/-Hyperhydricity), hyperhydric with no silicon treatment (-Si/+Hyperhydricity), hyperhydric with silicon treatment (+Si/+Hyperhydricity), and only silicon treated with no hyperhydricity (+Si/-Hyperhydricity). Comparing to control morphological features of hyperhydric carnations showed significantly fragile, bushy and lustrous leaf nature, while Si supply restored these effects. Proteomic investigation revealed that approximately seventy protein spots were differentially expressed under Si and/or hyperhydric treatments and were either up- or downregulated in abundance depending on their functions. Most of the identified protein spots were related to stress responses, photosynthesis, and signal transduction. Proteomic results were further confirmed through immunoblots by selecting specific proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), PsaA, and PsbA. Moreover, protein-protein interaction was also performed on differentially expressed protein spots using specific bioinformatic tools. In addition, stress markers were analyzed by histochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and singlet oxygen (O₂ 1- ). In addition, the ultrastructure of chloroplasts in hyperhydric leaves significantly resulted in inefficiency of thylakoid lamella with the loss of grana but were recovered in silicon supplemented leaves. The proteomic study together with physiological analysis indicated that Si has a substantial role in upholding the hyperhydricity in in vitro grown carnation shoot cultures.

  8. The role of silver nano-particles and silver thiosulfate on the longevity of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of silver nano-particles (SNP) and silver thiosulfate (STS) in extending the vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. 'Tempo') flowers. Pulse treatments of SNP @ 0, 5, 10 and 15 mg l(-1) and STS @ 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM were administered to carnation flowers for 24 hr. The longest vase life (16.1 days) was observed in flowers treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP + 0.2 mM STS. The least chlorophyll was destroyed in flowers treated with 15 mg I(-1) of SNP + 0.3 mM STS. Our findings showed that the 15 mg l(-1) SNP treatment inhibited bacterial growth in the preservative solution. The control flowers bloomed faster than the treated flowers. The maximum peroxidase activity and the minimum lipid peroxidation were obtained in cut flowers that were treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP and 0.3 mM STS. Overall, results of the study revealed that SNP and STS treatment extended the longevity of cut carnation 'Tempo' flowers by reducing oxidative stress, improving anti-oxidant system, reducing bacterial populations and delaying flowering.

  9. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles usingArtemisia annuacallus for inhibiting stem-end bacteria in cut carnation flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qian Hua; Zheng, Li Ping; Zhao, Pei Fei; Wang, Jian Wen

    2017-03-01

    A biological method for synthesising silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed using the callus extracts from Artemisia annua L. under sunlight at 25,000 lx. The AgNPs were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs were mostly spherical with the size of 2.1 to 45.2 nm (average 10.9 nm). Pulse treatments of AgNPs at 125, 250 and 500 mg/l for 1 h extended vase life of cut carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Green Land) flowers. Four dominant bacteria strains Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Kocuria sp., Staphylococcus equorum and Microbacterium oxydans were isolated from the stem-ends of cut D. caryophyllus flowers. AgNP pulse inhibited significantly bacterial growth in vase solution and cut stem ends during all of the vase period. The bacteria related blockage in the stem-ends was significantly alleviated by AgNP pulse because of its higher antibacterial efficacy against the dominant bacteria. In addition, ethylene release of cut carnation flowers was inhibited in response to AgNP pulse. This is the first time that the biologically synthesised AgNPs could be applied as a promising preservative agent for cut carnation flowers.

  10. Spinach Effects (Amaranthus hybridus on Spatial Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Leonita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spatial memory reduction in elderly is predicted to increase up to twice every 20 years. Spinach (Amaranthus hybridus is widely consumed by Indonesian people and is believed to prevent declined spatial memory function. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of spinach on spatial memory in wistar rat induced by diazepam Methods: An experimental study was conducted during the period of October to November 2012 in Pharmacology and Therapy Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Twenty five wistar rats were divided into 5 groups; two groups as controls, and 3 groups were given 100, 200, and 400mg/kg BW ethanolic extract of spinach (EESL, respectively. On day 7, group 3, 4, and 5 were given 1 mg/kg BW diazepam injection. Morris water maze tests and calculations of escape latency time (ELT were performed on day 7 and 8. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and least significance difference (LSD test. Results: On day 7, group 2 experienced acceleration in ELT compared to group 4 and group 5. On day 8, group 2 experienced acceleration in ELT compared to group 3 and group 4. There was no significant increase in spatial memory in group 5 (EESL 400mg/kg BW that due to the use of higher dosage does not always show better results. Conclusions: EESL can prevent impairment of spatial memory with an effective dose of 200 mg/kg BW.

  11. Frequency of Verticillium Species in Commercial Spinach Fields and Transmission of V. dahliae from Spinach to Subsequent Lettuce Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, D P G; Gurung, S; Koike, S T; Klosterman, S J; Subbarao, K V

    2015-01-01

    Verticillium wilt caused by V. dahliae is a devastating disease of lettuce in California (CA). The disease is currently restricted to a small geographic area in central coastal CA, even though cropping patterns in other coastal lettuce production regions in the state are similar. Infested spinach seed has been implicated in the introduction of V. dahliae into lettuce fields but direct evidence linking this inoculum to wilt epidemics in lettuce is lacking. In this study, 100 commercial spinach fields in four coastal CA counties were surveyed to evaluate the frequency of Verticillium species recovered from spinach seedlings and the area under spinach production in each county was assessed. Regardless of the county, V. isaacii was the most frequently isolated species from spinach followed by V. dahliae and, less frequently, V. klebahnii. The frequency of recovery of Verticillium species was unrelated to the occurrence of Verticillium wilt on lettuce in the four counties but was related to the area under spinach production in individual counties. The transmission of V. dahliae from infested spinach seeds to lettuce was investigated in microplots. Verticillium wilt developed on lettuce following two or three plantings of Verticillium-infested spinach, in independent experiments. The pathogen recovered from the infected lettuce from microplots was confirmed as V. dahliae by polymerase chain reaction assays. In a greenhouse study, transmission of a green fluorescence protein-tagged mutant strain of V. dahliae from spinach to lettuce roots was demonstrated, after two cycles of incorporation of infected spinach residue into the soil. This study presents conclusive evidence that V. dahliae introduced via spinach seed can cause Verticillium wilt in lettuce.

  12. Determination of some heavy metals in spinach and lettuce from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of some heavy metals in spinach and lettuce from selected markets in Kaduna metropolis. ... Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research ... Heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium and lead were analyzed in vegetable samples (lettuce and spinach) obtained from ten major markets within Kaduna metropolis.

  13. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (DOP-PCR) products were hybridized with cDNA of the male spinach flowers in florescence. The female spinach genome was taken as ... the second stage of the sex chromosome evolution (Ming et al. 2007). It has many different ... no trace of opposite organ degradation in the mature uni- sexual flowers (Sherry et al. 1993).

  14. Class II recombinant phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase from spinach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, B N; Hove-Jensen, B

    2001-01-01

    to other PRPP synthases the activity of spinach PRPP synthase isozyme 3 is independent of P(i), and the enzyme is inhibited by ribonucleoside diphosphates in a purely competitive manner, which indicates a lack of allosteric inhibition by these compounds. In addition spinach PRPP synthase isozyme 3 shows...

  15. Association mapping of leaf traits in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an important leafy vegetable crop grown world-wide. Leaf traits, surface texture (smooth vs. savoy or semi-savoy), petiole color (green vs. purple), and edge shape (serrate vs. entire) are important for spinach. Association mapping of the three traits were conducted...

  16. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing to clone the sex-determining genes and investigated the molecular mechanism of spinach sex differentiation. However, there are no successful cloned reports about these genes. A new technology combining chromosome microdissection with hybridization-specific amplification (HSA) was adopted. The spinach Y ...

  17. Optimization in energy consumption of carnation production using data envelopment analysis (DEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, Zeinab; Rafiee, Shahin; Mobli, Hossein [University of Tehran, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanalipur, Eisa [Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In this study a data envelopment analysis was used to evaluate the technical and scale efficiencies of greenhouses regarding to energy use in carnation production Mahallat, Iran. The purpose of this study was to identify efficient and inefficient units and wasteful use of energy by the latter. In addition, we established the optimum level of energy from different inputs. Finally, the effect of energy use optimization on energy productivity and ratio was investigated. The results revealed that 35 % (7 farmers) and 55 % (11 farmers) out of farmers which considered for the analysis, were recognized as the technically and pure technically efficient farmers, respectively. Most greenhouses have wasteful use in diesel fuel and fertilizer consumption. The results represented that the average values of technical, pure technical and scale efficiency scores were 0.69, 0.82 and 0.813, accordingly. The results of ESTR calculations showed that if farmers 4, 6 and 13 operated efficiently, they would save energy consumption about 90 % without affecting the yield level. (orig.)

  18. Procedures for expressing natural or induced variability in carnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenesis (gamma rays) and in vitro organogenesis are used separately or both to diversify carnation varieties by revealing and creating variability. As regards to in vivo mutagenesis, an important diversification of the flower colour is obtained by applying a 60 Gray dose to two hundred rooted cuttings. The organogenesis ability has been tested among different types of explants. The petal of young floral bud shows the best caulogenesis capacities. The organogenesis region is located at the petal base. Histological studies reveal that neoformations are originated from epidermic and sub-epidermic cellular layers. The morphogenetic evolution of neoformations depends on growth factors imbalance. Isolated neoformations can grow in a vegetative way (vitrous plantlets) or in a reproductive one (petaloid structures). Modifications of the petal and neoformations culture conditions induce a normal development by preventing and suppressing vitrification. Histological studies show strong anatomic differences between vitrous and petaloid forms when compared to the normal ones. A method combining in vitro organogenesis and mutagenesis has been investigated. To avoid chimera, petals are irradiated the second day of culture (differentiated cells). A 20 or 40 Gray dose can be applied [fr

  19. On The Regulation of Spinach Nitrate Reductase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan; Heldt, Hans W.

    1990-01-01

    A coupled assay has been worked out to study spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) nitrate reductase under low, more physiological concentrations of NADH. In this assay the reduction of nitrate is coupled to the oxidation of malate catalyzed by spinach NAD-malate dehydrogenase. The use of this coupled system allows the assay of nitrate reductase activity at steady-state concentrations of NADH below micromolar. We have used this coupled assay to study the kinetic parameters of spinach nitrate reductase and to reinvestigate the putative regulatory role of adenine nucleotides, inorganic phosphate, amino acids, and calcium and calmodulin. PMID:16667335

  20. Effect of Ethanol and Essential Oils on Extending Vase-life of Carnation Cut Flower (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. �Yellow Candy�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BAYAT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol and essential oils of three medicinal plants namely Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Ajwain (Carum copticum L. on extending carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus vase-life. For this purpose three individual trials were conducted using a completely randomized block design with three replications. In the first trial, the effect of 4% ethanol (v/v as a continuous or pulse treatment was determined. The results showed that although both application methods increased vase-life and marketability of carnation, it was statistically non significant. In the second trial, the effects of selected essential oils at the concentration of 100, 150 and 200 ppm were investigated. All essential oils prolonged carnation vase-life. Summer savory essential oil (100 ppm showed the highest effect (increasing 4.4 days in comparison to the control. In the third trial, the interaction between ethanol and the essential oils was studied. Results showed there is no significant difference between application of essential oils alone and in combination with ethanol. The highest fresh weight was observed in cut flowers treated with Summer savory essential oil at 100 ppm after 6 days which was double compared to the control. According to the results of this research it is concluded that essential oils, (natural, safe and biodegradable compounds as novel alternative materials are suitable for prolongation of carnation vase-life.

  1. Artificial Neural Network approach to develop unique Classification and Raga identification tools for Pattern Recognition in Carnatic Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Parimala, Y. G.

    2011-12-01

    A unique approach has been developed to study patterns in ragas of Carnatic Classical music based on artificial neural networks. Ragas in Carnatic music which have found their roots in the Vedic period, have grown on a Scientific foundation over thousands of years. However owing to its vastness and complexities it has always been a challenge for scientists and musicologists to give an all encompassing perspective both qualitatively and quantitatively. Cognition, comprehension and perception of ragas in Indian classical music have always been the subject of intensive research, highly intriguing and many facets of these are hitherto not unravelled. This paper is an attempt to view the melakartha ragas with a cognitive perspective using artificial neural network based approach which has given raise to very interesting results. The 72 ragas of the melakartha system were defined through the combination of frequencies occurring in each of them. The data sets were trained using several neural networks. 100% accurate pattern recognition and classification was obtained using linear regression, TLRN, MLP and RBF networks. Performance of the different network topologies, by varying various network parameters, were compared. Linear regression was found to be the best performing network.

  2. Some physical properties of spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical properties of spinach seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content. Average length, width and thickness were 4.03, 3.51 and 2.44 mm, respectively, at 11.93% dry basis (d.b). moisture content. In the moisture range from 11.93 to 21.52% d.b. studies on rewetted spinach seed showed that the thousand ...

  3. Powdery Mildew on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms resembling powdery mildew appeared on spinach crops during April andMay in 2007. Infected plants have suppressed growth, smaller and degenerated youngleaves. The affected leaves become yellowish and wilt in a short time. High temperaturesand draught conditions cause drying out of the affected plants. The symptoms are similarto physiological degeneration but are found on single plants or on small groups of plants.When plants are carefully examined, fine, exogenic mycelium is found on the leave blades.The mycelium can be clearly seen close to the main veins where it becomes denser andforms mycelium patches. On the leaf and flower stalks and plant stems the mycelium iswhite and fine at the beginning, and later becomes grayish.Under microscope analysis ectophytic mycelia of exogenic origin and short chainsof spores are observed. On short conidiophores, chains with two types of conidia areformed: macro conidia that are one-celled, colorless, thin-walled, elliptical to cylindrical,sized 24.5-28.4 x 17.5 μm; and micro conidia – ovoid to elliptical, sized 10.4-14.1 x 7.7 μm.Teleomorphs are found in groups or as a single structure mainly close to the leaf veins. Theyare roundish and have appendages with uncinate-circinate to helicoids apex, sized - 87.5-150 μm. Cleistothecia have 4-5 to 8 asci (68.0 x 38.0 μm, with 4 to 8 elliptical ascospores,sized 15.5-22.0 х 11.0-17.5 μm. The causal agent of powdery mildew on spinach found inBulgaria has been identified as Uncinula spp. (Sawadaea spp., Euoidium type anamorph,subspecies spinaciae.

  4. Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph L; Moreau, Régis

    2016-08-10

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition. Spinach-derived phytochemicals and bioactives are able to (i) scavenge reactive oxygen species and prevent macromolecular oxidative damage, (ii) modulate expression and activity of genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, inflammation, and antioxidant defence, and (iii) curb food intake by inducing secretion of satiety hormones. These biological activities contribute to the anti-cancer, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic properties of spinach. Despite these valuable attributes, spinach consumption remains low in comparison to other leafy green vegetables. This review examines the functional properties of spinach in cell culture, animals and humans with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which spinach-derived non-essential phytochemicals and bioactives, such as glycolipids and thylakoids, impart their health benefits.

  5. Phenotypic evaluation of the resistance in F1 carnation populations to vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Carolina Soto-Sedano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phytosanitary problems of the carnation crops in Colombia and in the entire world is vascular wilting produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Currently, an effective treatment against the pathogen does not exist; the search for resistant varieties has been the most successful method for control of this disease. Breeding programs are vital to solving the problem of the carnation fusariosis. The objective of this research was the phenotypic evaluation of carnation F1 populations, products of contrasting crossing, resistant per susceptible to F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, in order to determine if the resistance is inherited in the lines. This information will contribute to the selection of material and to the successful introduction of the resistant characteristic, whose expression is commercially acceptable, to the gene pool. The methodology adopted was a phenotypic evaluation of the response to the parasite in the population (450 individuals and in the parental. This evaluation estimated the area under the curve (AU DPC, using a scale of symptoms reported for carnation vascular wilt. Three different phenotypes were established with this evaluation. The moderately susceptible one is the predominant phenotype and an analysis of phenotypic frequencies was carried out on it. The results show that the individuals of the evaluated F1 population were distributed between two extreme ranges, resistant and susceptible; this shows that there is segregation for the trait resistant to F. oxysporum f.sp dianthi. We did not observe clearly differentiated classes, i.e. with complete absence or presence of the disease, indicating a possible control of the resistance in the evaluated carnation material, governed by more than one gene and with a possible additive genetic action

  6. Photoreduction of Sulfur Dioxide by Spinach Leaves and Isolated Spinach Chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvius, John E.; Baer, Charles H.; Dodrill, Sherman; Patrick, Homer

    1976-01-01

    Labeled sulfur dioxide was found to be extensively absorbed by spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaves. Labeled sulfides detected in leaf blades following fumigations with sulfur dioxide in light indicated that photoreduction of sulfur dioxide had occurred. Measurable proportions of this labeled sulfur was localized within the chloroplast fraction. Suspensions of isolated chloroplasts supplied with labeled sulfur dioxide contained labeled sulfides following a 30-minute illumination period in water-cooled reaction vessels. With reference to recent studies of the chloroplast sulfur reduction pathway, probable points of entry for sulfur dioxide and the subsequent release of hydrogen sulfide are discussed. PMID:16659572

  7. EFFECT OF PERMEABLE VESSEL CLOSURE AND GELLING AGENT ON REDUCTION OF HYPERHYDRICITY IN IN VITRO CULTURE OF CARNATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Winarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhydricity, an abnormal morphological appearance and physiologicalfunction, is an important problem in carnation tissue culture. The problem causes premature flowering, high occurrence of abnormal shoots, difficulty in transferring hyperhydric plantlets to soil, and low survival rate of plantlets. High relative humidity and the water potential are considered as the key factors involved in the abnormality. Furthermore, permeable culture vessel and gelling agent were assured to be high potential treatment to eliminate it. Objective of this research was to reduce  hyperhydricity in regenerants of carnation using different permeable vessel closures and gelling agents and to assess the multiplication and  acclimatization abilities of recovered shoots. Experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. First factor was different types of closure, i.e. cotton wool, plastic wrap, parafilm and aluminium foil, while second one was gelling agents, i.e. bacto agar, phytagel, swallow agar, and Type 900 agar. The recovered shoots were then multiplied, rooted, and acclimatized. The results showed that hyperhydricity was successfully reduced by applying permeable closure (cotton wool and plastic wrap in combination with Type 900 agar. The combination of plastic wrap and Type 900 agar was the most appropriate treatment in reducing hyperhydricity and producing good quality shoots. The treatment reduced the problem down to 23% of total condition of hyperhydricity (100% and increased leaf chlorophyll content from 0.0883 to 0.1288 mg mg-1. The plastic wrap was easily applied and cheaper material compared to cotton wool. The recovered shoots were able to produce 1-3 healthy axillary shoots and easily rooted on half-strength MS. The recovered plantlets were simply acclimatized with survival rate up to 100% on kossas peat + soil (1:1, v/v and flowered 4-5 months after acclimatization with decreasing in number and size of flower.

  8. Genetic diversity and association mapping of mineral element concentrations in spinach leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinach is one of the healthiest vegetables in the human diet due to its high concentrations of nutrients and mineral elements. Breeding new spinach cultivars with high nutritional value is one of the main goals in spinach breeding programs worldwide, and identification of single nucleotide polymorp...

  9. The effect of plant growth regulators, explants and cultivars on spinach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an important vegetable crop of which dioecy in nature has made cultivar improvement difficult using traditional breeding methods; therefore, production of high amount of disease free spinach is critical. To achieve the best explants and media for spinach tissue culture, the effects of two ...

  10. Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Yasunori

    1975-01-01

    By incorporation of 3 H 2 O into the fatty acid chain in the presence of unlabelled precursor, we showed that fatty acids are synthesized from PGA, PEP and pyruvate by intact spinach chloroplasts in the light. 13 C-tracer experiments confirmed that 1-C of pyruvate is decarboxylated and 2-C is incorporated into fatty acids by the chloroplasts. The patterns of fatty acids synthesized from PGA and pyruvate were the same as that from acetate. The highest rate of fatty acid synthesis was reached at the physiological concentration of PGA (3 mM) and pyruvate (1 mM). These results indicate the operation of the following path in the chloroplasts in light: PGA→PEP→pyruvate→acetylCoA→fatty acids. Since citrate and OAA were much less active and malate and glyoxylate were inert as precursors for fatty acid synthesis, PEP or pyruvate carboxylation, citrate lyase reaction and malate synthetase reaction are not involved in the formation of acetylCoA and fatty acids. Since pyruvate was much more effective as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis than lactate, acetaldehyde or acetate, direct decarboxylation path is considered to be the primary path from pyruvate to acetylCoA. The insignificant effect of chloroplast-washing on fatty acid synthesis from PGA and pyruvate indicates that the glycolytic path from PGA to pyruvate is associated with the chloroplasts. Since pyruvate was more effectively incorporated into fatty acids than acetylCoA, it is unlikely that pyruvate decarboxylation to acetylCoA is due to mitochondria contaminating the chloroplast preparation. On the basis of measurements of 3 H 2 O incorporation in the light and dark, the activity of fatty acid synthesis in spincah leaves appears to be shared by the activities in chloroplasts (87%) and other organelles (13%). (author)

  11. The structure of spinach Photosystem I studied by electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, Egbert J.; Wynn, R. Max; Malkin, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The structure of three types of Photosystem I (PS I) complex isolated from spinach chloroplasts was studied by electron microscopy and computer image analysis. Molecular projections (top views and side views) of a native PS I complex (PSI-200), an antenna-depleted PS I complex (PSI-100) and the PS I

  12. Looking for a substituent of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying Ping; Yeoh, Loo Yew; Chee, Swee Yong; Lim, Tuck Meng

    2017-04-01

    Spinach's chloroplasts electron transport features are often adapted to build biofuel cells or biosensors for environment conservation. This approach may raise food security issues. The present study aimed to test on in vitro functional activity of chloroplasts from selected underutilized leaves of: Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) in comparison with spinach (Spinacia oleracea). The leaves' electrical conductivity was measured to evaluate the initial cell permeability. We applied Hill's reaction to determine the photoreduction capacity of the chloroplasts. Initial electrical conductivity of leaves ranged from 11.5 to 18.5 µs/cm/g followed the order of water lettucepandanleaves' chloroplasts. Chloroplasts of oil palm frond and water lettuce showed low photoreduction rate of 14 to 22%. On the other hand, the chloroplasts of both spinach and pandan leaves exerted an initial photoreduction rate which was above 90%. The photoreduction rate of these chloroplasts remained to above 60% even after 30 day-storage at -20°C. In comparison with spinach, pandan leaves' chloroplasts possessed similar in vitro functional activity and storage stability at 4°C and -20°C. This warrants further investigation on chloroplasts of pandan leaves for higher-value applications.

  13. Chemical changes of spinach waste during composting and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering this, the present study was planned to prepare compost and vermicompost of spinach collected from the supermarket of Amritsar and to estimate various chemical changes; nitrates, phosphates, sodium, potassium, calcium and pH during its composting and vermicomposting. It was observed that fresh vegetable ...

  14. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    List of part of spinach Y chromosome-specific ESTs clones by dot blot and their size and homology to the sequences available at the GenBank database by BLASTn software. Seq. name. Seq. description. Length e-value Similarity (%). SP1−3. Dolomedes mizhoanus isolate DMTX-401 cystine knot toxin gene, complete cds.

  15. Agricultural Extension Needs of Spinach (Basella spp.) Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Spinach is a widely distributed annual vegetable of two major cultivars, Basella alba which has green stem and basella rubra with ... matter soil, and it's a green leafy vegetables grown in Nigeria (Holmer, 1998; and Douglas, 2001), and takes an important ..... Restaurants / Hotels and eating centers. 12.0. *Multiple response.

  16. Some physical properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... (R2 = 0.9925). (5). A linear increase in the one thousand spinach seed mass as the seed moisture content increases has been noted by Sacilik et al. (2003) for hemp, Solomon and Zewdu. (2009) for niger, Singh and Goswami (1996) for cumin,. Vilche et al. (2003) for quinoa and Ixtaina et al. (2008) for chia.

  17. One-step solvothermal synthesis of carnation flower-like SnS2 as superior electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rajneesh Kumar; Baek, Geun Woo; Kim, Kyuwon; Kwon, Hyuck-In; Jin, Sung Hun

    2017-12-01

    We report the synthesis of carnation flower-like SnS2 (CF-SnS2) via a one-step solvothermal method for potential application as supercapacitor electrodes in energy storage devices. The structural and morphological properties of CF-SnS2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman analysis, and field-emission scanning and transmission electron microscopies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling electron microscopy with color mapping verified the distribution of Sn and S, and depicted the successful formation of SnS2. Electrochemical studies were performed to explore the supercapacitive nature of CF-SnS2. Supercapacitors with CF-SnS2 electrodes delivered excellent cyclic voltammetry performances, superior gravimetric specific capacitances, and high power densities. The evaluated specific capacitance and power density reached ∼524.5 F/g and 12.3 W/kg, respectively, at a current density of 0.08 A/g, and ∼215.9 F/g and 61.4 W/kg, respectively, at a current density of 0.38 A/g. These values are at least two times higher than those previously reported. The long-term cyclic stability was also tested to demonstrate the endurance of the CF-SnS2-based supercapacitor, with a 66% rate retention and galvanostatic charge/discharge reversibility. These electrochemical findings indicate that CF-SnS2 is a promising candidate for electrode materials in supercapacitor applications.

  18. The influence of log jam development on channel morphology in an intermediate sized coastal stream, Carnation Creek, B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, D. S.; Sidle, R. C.; Hogan, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Large wood (LW) is an important functional and structural component of forest stream ecosystems, regulating sediment storage and transport, consequently determining channel morphology, and as an important foundation for aquatic habitat. LW occurs as either individual pieces or in accumulations (log jams). Where individual pieces of LW affect the stream at a small scale, several bankfull widths, jams influence the stream on a much larger scale. The spatial extent of jam related effects on channel morphology vary, dependent upon the life stage of the jam. Temporal changes in jams have received relatively little attention in the literature. The development stage of a jam is associated with upstream channel aggradation and downstream degradation; this process reverses during a jam's deterioration phase. Carnation Creek, an 11 km2 watershed located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, provided a rare opportunity to examine both the spatial and temporal impacts of log jams on channel morphology. An understanding of these relationships will be developed through the analysis of changes in channel variables, such as channel dimensions, pattern, hydraulic characteristics, and morphology. These characteristics will be extracted from annual cross sectional surveys taken during 1971 - 1998.

  19. DNA analysis in three populations of African spinach (Basella spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, G.; Van Duren, M.; Lee, K.S.; Morpurgo, R.

    1997-01-01

    African spinach (Basella spp.) is an important vegetable in West Africa, and was introduced by early colonialists. Its alien origin is supported by its narrow genetic variability. Flowcytometry and RAPD polymorphism were used to investigate genetic variation in three populations of Basella - 'Congo native', 'Cong domesticated', and an introduced cultivar, 'Sri Lanka' from Sri Lanka. Normal spinach (Spinacia oleracea) cv. 'Prince F 1 Hybrid' was used to test sensitivity and to verify detection of genetic variation. Nuclei were isolated from young leaves of Basella, stained with DAPI and ethidium bromide, and ploidy level and total DNA content were determined by using a flowcytometer. The two sexually propagated populations, 'Cong domesticated' and 'Sri Lanka' showed very low amount of genetic variation as revealed by RAPD analysis; the third population 'Congo native' showed a limited amount of polymorphism. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    specific EST sequences. Chuan-Liang Deng, Wei-Li Zhang, Ying Cao, Shao-Jing Wang, Shu-Fen Li, Wu-Jun Gao and Long-Dou Lu. J. Genet. 94, 705–713. Table 1. List of part of spinach Y chromosome-specific ESTs clones by dot blot and their size and homology to the sequences available at the GenBank database by ...

  1. Antioxidant activity of fermented broccoli and spinach by Kombucha culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, Nina; Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Lotulung, Puspa Dewi Narrij; Maryati, Yati

    2017-11-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Amaranthus spp.) are vegetables that known to have many benefit for health. Previous studies on the fermentation of those vegetables using kombucha cultured showed increase in bioactive components such as total polyphenol content. The current studies was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of fermented spinach and broccoli before (feed) and after treatment with filtration (retentate and permeate). Filtration was conducted using Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) with UF membrane 100,000 MWCO mode at fixed condition (stirred rotation 300 rpm, room temperature, pressure 40 psia). Antioxidant evaluation was conducted using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picril hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay. The results showed that all samples from fermented broccoli showed antioxidant activity (feed 15.82% inhibition and retentate 15.29% inhibition), with the best antioxidant activity was obtained from permeate (75.98% inhibition). Whereas from fermented spinach only permeate showed antioxidant activity (21.84% inhibition) and it significantly lower than broccoli permeate. The mass spectrum of LCMS analysis on broccoli samples showed the present of several mass spectrum with (M+H) range from 148.1 to 442.5 in feed, retentate and permeate. In those samples (M+H) 360.4 always has the highest relative intensity. These results suggest that fermented broccoli has potential for development as functional drink for the source of antioxidant and the permeate obtained from filtration treatment significantly increased the antioxidant activity.

  2. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  3. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element

    OpenAIRE

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar ‘Daisy’ carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant ‘Daisy-V...

  4. Improving the Vase life of Cut Carnation ‘Tempo’ (Dianthus carryophyllusL.) Flower by Silver Thiosulphate and Silver Nano-Particles

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hashemabadi

    2014-01-01

    Nanometer-sized silver particle can be act as an anti-microbial compound. Thus, in this research, the efficacy of silver thiosulphate and silver nano-particles as antimicrobial agents in extending the vase-life of cut carnation flowers was evaluated. A factorial experiment carried out based on randomized completely blocks design with two factors: silver thiosulphate (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM) and silver nano-particles (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L). Mean comparison of the data showed that the combined ...

  5. Characterization of spinach germplasm for resistance against two races of Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, wilt disease caused by V. dahliae has not presented a problem in California spinach production because the crop is harvested well before the symptoms develop during the post-stem elongation (bolting) stage. However, infested spinach seeds introduce or increase inoculum in the soil for...

  6. Effect of alkyl-N-phenylcarbamates on photochemical activity of spinach chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sersen, F.; Kralova, K.; Macho, V.

    1999-01-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the effect of alkyl-N-phenylcarbamates on photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts, to determine site of action in the photosynthetic apparatus of spinach chloroplasts and to find correlations between their structure and biological activity. (authors)

  7. Draft genome of spinach and transcriptome diversity of 120 Spinacia accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinach is an important leafy vegetable enriched with multiple and necessary nutrients. It belongs to the order of Caryophyllales, which constitutes the basal clade in core eudicots. Here we report the draft genome sequence of cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea, 2n=12), which contains 25,495 prot...

  8. Improving the Vase life of Cut Carnation ‘Tempo’ (Dianthus carryophyllusL. Flower by Silver Thiosulphate and Silver Nano-Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hashemabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer-sized silver particle can be act as an anti-microbial compound. Thus, in this research, the efficacy of silver thiosulphate and silver nano-particles as antimicrobial agents in extending the vase-life of cut carnation flowers was evaluated. A factorial experiment carried out based on randomized completely blocks design with two factors: silver thiosulphate (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM and silver nano-particles (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L. Mean comparison of the data showed that the combined treatments of 0.3 mM silver thiosulphate + 15 mg/L silver nano-particles had the highest vase life, water uptake and super oxide dismutase enzyme. Thus, the mentioned above treatment was proposed to increase prolong vase life and improvement of water relations and control of stem end blockage. Based to results of this study, silver thiosulphate and silver nano-particles can be used for increasing postharvest longevity of cut carnation "Tempo".

  9. Biocontrol Potentials of Antimicrobial Peptide Producing Bacillus Species: Multifaceted Antagonists for the Management of Stem Rot of Carnation Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodkumar, S.; Nakkeeran, S.; Renukadevi, P.; Malathi, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus species are widely exploited as biocontrol agents because of their efficiency in impeding various plant pathogens with multifaceted approach. In this study, Bacillus species were isolated from rhizosphere of various plants viz., carnations, cotton, turmeric, and bananas in Tamil Nadu state of India. Their potential to control the mycelial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was assessed in vitro by dual plate and partition plate techniques. B. amyloliquefaciens strain VB7 was much effective in inhibiting mycelial growth (45% inhibition of over control) and sclerotial production (100%). PCR detection of AMP genes revealed that B. amyloliquefaciens (VB7) had a maximum of 10 diverse antibiotic biosynthesis genes, namely, ituD, ipa14, bacA, bacD, bamC, sfP, spaC, spaS, alba, and albF, that resulted in production of the antibiotics iturin, bacilysin, bacillomycin, surfactin, subtilin, and subtilosin. Further, metabolites from B. amyloliquefaciens strains VB2 and VB7, associated with inhibition of S. sclerotiorum, were identified as phenols and fatty acids by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Delivery of bacterial suspension of the effective strains of Bacillus spp. as root dip was found promising for the management of stem rot of cultivated carnations. Minimal percent disease incidence (4.6%) and maximum plant growth promotion was observed in the plants treated with B. amyloliquefaciens (VB7). PMID:28392780

  10. A real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Verticillium dahliae in spinach seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duressa, Dechassa; Rauscher, Gilda; Koike, Steven T; Mou, Beiquan; Hayes, Ryan J; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Subbarao, Krishna V; Klosterman, Steven J

    2012-04-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that causes Verticillium wilt on multiple crops in central coastal California. Although spinach crops grown in this region for fresh and processing commercial production do not display Verticillium wilt symptoms, spinach seeds produced in the United States or Europe are commonly infected with V. dahliae. Planting of the infected seed increases the soil inoculum density and may introduce exotic strains that contribute to Verticillium wilt epidemics on lettuce and other crops grown in rotation with spinach. A sensitive, rapid, and reliable method for quantification of V. dahliae in spinach seed may help identify highly infected lots, curtail their planting, and minimize the spread of exotic strains via spinach seed. In this study, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was optimized and employed for detection and quantification of V. dahliae in spinach germplasm and 15 commercial spinach seed lots. The assay used a previously reported V. dahliae-specific primer pair (VertBt-F and VertBt-R) and an analytical mill for grinding tough spinach seed for DNA extraction. The assay enabled reliable quantification of V. dahliae in spinach seed, with a sensitivity limit of ≈1 infected seed per 100 (1.3% infection in a seed lot). The quantification was highly reproducible between replicate samples of a seed lot and in different real-time PCR instruments. When tested on commercial seed lots, a pathogen DNA content corresponding to a quantification cycle value of ≥31 corresponded with a percent seed infection of ≤1.3%. The assay is useful in qualitatively assessing seed lots for V. dahliae infection levels, and the results of the assay can be helpful to guide decisions on whether to apply seed treatments.

  11. Suppression Effects of Betaine-Enriched Spinach on Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by Guanidinoacetic Acid and Choline Deficiency in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is an important natural component of rich food sources, especially spinach. Rats were fed diets with betaine or spinach powder at the same level of betaine for 10 days to investigate the dose-dependent effects of spinach powder supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia induced by guanidinoacetic acid (GAA addition and choline deprivation. The GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed 25% casein diet (25C was significantly suppressed by supplementation with betaine or spinach, and it was completely suppressed by taking 11.0% spinach supplementation. The choline deprivation-induced enhancement of plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed 25% soybean protein diet (25S was markedly suppressed by 3.82% spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach partially prevented the effects of GAA on hepatic concentrations of methionine metabolites. The decrease in activity of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS in GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was recovered by supplementation with betaine or spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach did not affect BHMT activity, whereas it partially restored CBS activity in choline-deprived 25S. The results indicated that betaine or spinach could completely suppress the hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline deficiency resulting from stimulating the homocysteine removal by both remethylation and cystathionine formation.

  12. Preventing an increase in Verticillium wilt incidence in spinach seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2014-01-01

    A semifield assay was conducted from 2009 to 2011 to distinguish between different preventive methods of reducing Verticillium spp. in spinach seed production. The seed treatments for controlling seed infection levels included Thiram, Signum, Trichoderma harzianum, Gliocladium roseum and Natural ...

  13. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oyanagi, Wataru; Nishihara, Eiji; Murakami, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  14. Formation of glycolate by a reconstituted spinach chloroplast preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Y; Gibbs, M

    1971-09-01

    A reconstituted preparation requiring fructose 6-phosphate, transketolase, triphosphopyridine nucleotide, ferredoxin, fragmented spinach chloroplasts, and light capable of forming glycolate at rates of about 10 micromoles per milligram of chlorophyll per hour has been characterized. The glycolaldehyde-transketolase addition product could be substituted for fructose 6-phosphate and transketolase. The stoichiometry of the reaction was: 1 mole of fructose 6-phosphate consumed for each mole of glycolate and of reduced triphosphopyridine nucleotide produced. Evidence was presented indicating that glycolate formation was coupled to the photosystems of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Synthesis of glycolate is envisaged as the result of either (a) a reaction between the upper two carbon atoms derived from fructose 6-phosphate and an uncharacterized oxidant generated by photosystem 2 or (b) hydrogen peroxide produced by the reoxidation of reduced triphos-phopyridine nucleotide or reduced ferredoxin by molecular oxygen.

  15. Formation of Glycolate by a Reconstituted Spinach Chloroplast Preparation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Y.; Gibbs, Martin

    1971-01-01

    A reconstituted preparation requiring fructose 6-phosphate, transketolase, triphosphopyridine nucleotide, ferredoxin, fragmented spinach chloroplasts, and light capable of forming glycolate at rates of about 10 micromoles per milligram of chlorophyll per hour has been characterized. The glycolaldehyde-transketolase addition product could be substituted for fructose 6-phosphate and transketolase. The stoichiometry of the reaction was: 1 mole of fructose 6-phosphate consumed for each mole of glycolate and of reduced triphosphopyridine nucleotide produced. Evidence was presented indicating that glycolate formation was coupled to the photosystems of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Synthesis of glycolate is envisaged as the result of either (a) a reaction between the upper two carbon atoms derived from fructose 6-phosphate and an uncharacterized oxidant generated by photosystem 2 or (b) hydrogen peroxide produced by the reoxidation of reduced triphos-phopyridine nucleotide or reduced ferredoxin by molecular oxygen. PMID:16657791

  16. Conformational changes in spinach (Spinacia oleracea leaves chloroplasts in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Godziemba-Czyż

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the surface area of chloroplasts from intact cells of spinach leaves (\tSpinacia oleracea induced by blue (370—500 nm and red (600- 850 nm light of various intensity (102 - 5x105 erg cm-1s-1 were investigated. The changes are deseribed in terms of mean surface area in , μm2 and frequency of oocurrence of surface size classes. Low intensity blue light caused enlargement of the chloroplast surface (as compared with that in darkness, whereas high intensity light markedly reduced it. Exposure of chloroplasts to red light produces an increase of the surface in proportion to the intensity of the light and irradiation time.

  17. A simple NAA process for multielement determination of spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Nie Huiling; Tian Weizhi

    1998-01-01

    Forty elements in NIST 1570a (or IAEA-331), an intercomparison material, spinach, have been determined using the NAA techniques. Among them, 31 elements, i.e. Ag, Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Re, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, V, Zn and Zr, were determined by employing INAA. A series of simple and quantitative radiochemical separation procedures were established for the determination of 9 additional elements. Among them, Cd, Lu, Mo, Sm, Yb and U were determined by removing the major interfering nuclide 82 Br; Cu by 0.048 mol/L NaDDTC/CHCl 3 extraction from 1 mol/L HCl medium; and As and P by using an inorganic exchange column of acid aluminum oxide (AAO). The interferences from fission products and γ spectrum of 235 U have been corrected by the NAA software, ADVNAA

  18. Chemical removal of radionuclides in contaminated spinach derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuhiro; Kitamura, Yoji; Kozaka, Takashi; Uno, Izumi; Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Yanaga, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    We examined a simple and effective removal method for contaminated farm products to ensure the relief of farmers and the security of consumers. Removal of radionuclides from spinach by chemical methods was investigated. The result of chemical removal showed that antioxidant agents removed radionuclides from spinach by 70–80% for 131 I and more than 80% for radiocesium. In particular, ascorbic acid is promising as a safe and versatile option. (author)

  19. Spray Drying of Spinach Juice: Characterization, Chemical Composition, and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan Koç, Gülşah; Nur Dirim, Safiye

    2017-12-01

    The 1st aim of this study is to determine the influence of inlet and outlet air temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of obtained powders from spinach juice (SJ) with 3.2 ± 0.2 °Brix (°Bx). Second, the effect of 3 different drying agents (maltodextrin, whey powder, and gum Arabic) on the same properties was investigated for the selected inlet/outlet temperatures (160/100 °C) which gives the minimum moisture content and water activity values. For this purpose, the total soluble solid content of SJ was adjusted to 5.0 ± 0.2 °Bx with different drying agents. Finally, the effects of different storage conditions (4, 20, and 30 °C) on the physical and chemical properties of spinach powders (SPs) produced at selected conditions were examined. A pilot scale spray dryer was used at 3 different inlet/outlet air temperatures (160 to 200 °C/80 to 100 °C) where the outlet air temperature was controlled by regulating the feed flow rate. Results showed that the moisture content, water activity, browning index, total chlorophyll, and total phenolic contents of the SP significantly decreased and pH and total color change of the SP significantly increased by the addition of different drying agents (P < 0.05). In addition, the changes in the above-mentioned properties were determined during the storage period, at 3 different temperatures. It was also observed that the vitamin C, β-carotene, chlorophyll, and phenolic compounds retention showed first-order degradation kinetic with activation energy of 32.6840, 10.2736, 27.7031, and 28.2634 kJ/K.mol, respectively. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-03-15

    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Bioavailability of iron from spinach using an in vitro/human Caco-2 cell bioassay model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutzke, Corinne J.; Glahn, Raymond P.; Rutzke, Michael A.; Welch, Ross M.; Langhans, Robert W.; Albright, Louis D.; Combs, Gerald F Jr; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) cv Whitney was tested for iron bioavailabilty using an in vitro human intestinal cell culture ferritin bioassay technique previously developed. Spinach was cultured in a growth chamber for 33 days, harvested, and freeze-dried. Total iron in the samples was an average of 71 micrograms/g dry weight. Spinach was digested in vitro (pepsin and 0.1 M HCl followed by pancreatin and 0.1 M NaHCO3) with and without the addition of supplemental ascorbic acid. Caco-2 cell cultures were used to determine iron bioavailability from the spinach mixtures. Production of the iron-binding protein ferritin in the Caco-2 cells showed the supplemental ascorbic acid doubled bioavailability of iron from spinach. The data show fresh spinach is a poor source of iron, and emphasize the importance of evaluation of whole meals rather than single food items. The data support the usefulness of the in vitro/Caco-2 cell ferritin bioassay model for prescreening of space flight diets for bioavailable iron.

  2. Wpływ detergentów, humianu i ściółek na plonowanie goździków w uprawie hydroponicznej [Influence of detergents humate and seedbed materials on yield of carnations in hydroponic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gumińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Addition of the detergent (DBSS + ASS either .single or every eight weeks to the nutrient solution stimulates carnation development. Detergent addition every fourth week caused decreasing of flower diameter. The addition of humates to the nutrient solution did not interact significantly with detergents. Among three material combinations used in the seedbed: peat with coke-slag, peat with brown coal and sponge with coke-slag – the first proved the best.

  3. Principal Component Analysis of Some Quantitative and Qualitative Traits in Iranian Spinach Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohebodini Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Landraces of spinach in Iran have not been sufficiently characterised for their morpho-agronomic traits. Such characterisation would be helpful in the development of new genetically improved cultivars. In this study 54 spinach accessions collected from the major spinach growing areas of Iran were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity profile of spinach genotypes on the basis of 10 quantitative and 9 qualitative morpho-agronomic traits. High coefficients of variation were recorded in some quantitative traits (dry yield and leaf area and all of the qualitative traits. Using principal component analysis, the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 1 contributed 87% of the variability among accessions for quantitative traits, whereas the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 0.8 contributed 79% of the variability among accessions for qualitative traits. The most important relations observed on the first two principal components were a strong positive association between leaf width and petiole length; between leaf length and leaf numbers in flowering; and among fresh yield, dry yield and petiole diameter; a near zero correlation between days to flowering with leaf width and petiole length. Prickly seeds, high percentage of female plants, smooth leaf texture, high numbers of leaves at flowering, greygreen leaves, erect petiole attitude and long petiole length are important characters for spinach breeding programmes.

  4. Vegetable Production in an Integrated Aquaponic System with Stellate Sturgeon and Spinach – Matador variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mihai Petrea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the performances parameters, both in terms of quantity and quality, for spinach (Spinacia oleracea - Matador variety, growth in an aquaponic integrated system, along with stellate sturgeons (A. stellatus under three crops densities (V1 - 59 crops/m2, V2 – 48 crops/m2 and V3 – 39 crops/m2, by using hydroton as growing substrate, under a continuous flow hydraulic regime. The experiment was run in triplicate for each one of the three variants. The water quality was monitored and a series of growth parameters were determined, as follows: leaf area index (LAI, relative growth rate (RGR, average net assimilation rate (NAR, mean leaf area ratio (LAR and crop growth rate (CGR. Also the concentration of chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, ash and dry matter for spinach leaf, from each of the three experimental variants was determined and compared with the one of marketable spinach, growth conventional, in soil. It can be concluded that statistical significant differences (p<0.05 were recorded in terms of growth performance and crops quality, between the experimental variants. Also the quality of spinach grown in aquaponic conditions, by using effluent derived from stellate sturgeon intensive aquaculture is similar to that of the marketable spinach, growth conventional.

  5. Yellowing of fresh-cut spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. leaves delayed by UV-B applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ufuk Kasım

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In present work, the effects of UV-B treatments on quality of fresh-cut spinach leaves were studied. For this purpose, spinach leaves grown in glasshouse were harvest, cleaned and placed into polystyrene foam dishes and wrapped by stretch film. After packaging, fresh-cut spinach leaves were treated with UV-B irradiation and were stored at 5 °C temperature for 12 days. Total soluble solids, visual quality, L∗a∗b∗ values, and also hue angle values of samples were determined during storage. Total soluble solids content of samples in control group has been higher than those from samples in UV-B treatments, however, visual quality was lower than the other treatments. According to L∗ values of the samples, it is found that lower ultraviolet irratiation (UV-B treatments caused yellowing of samples, and also same result was obtained by b∗ and a∗ values of fresh-cut spinach leaves. Similarly, hue angles values of samples treated with UV-B for 6 min was higher compared with the other treatments. Consequently, yellowing of fresh-cut spinach leaves was decreased, and visual quality scores of samples was increased through ultraviolet irradiation treatments.

  6. Phosphoglycolate phosphatase of spinach acts as a phosphoenzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Z.B.; Seal, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    When 32 P-glycolate and phosphoglycolate phosphatase from spinach are mixed, 32 P is incorporated into acid precipitated protein. Properties that relate this phosphorylation to the enzyme are: The K/sub m/ value for P-glycolate is similar for protein phosphorylation and substrate hydrolysis; the 32 P appearing in the phosphoenzyme is diluted by unlabeled P-glycolate or the alternative substrate, ethyl-P; the activator Cl - enhances the effectiveness of ethyl-P as a substrate and as an inhibitor of the formation of 32 P-enzyme; and 32 P is lost from the enzyme when 32 P-glycolate is consumed. The acid denatured phosphorylated protein is a molecule of 34,000 Da, which is half of the molecular weight of the native protein and is similar in size to the labeled band that is seen on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme-bound phosphoryl group appears to be an acyl-phosphate from its pH stability, being quite stable at pH 1, less stable at pH 5, and very unstable above pH 5. The bond is readily hydrolyzed in acid molybdate and it is sensitive to cleavage by hydroxylamine at pH 6.8. The demonstration of enzyme phosphorylation by 32 P-glycolate resolves the dilemma presented by initial rate studies in which alternative substrates appeared to have different mechanisms

  7. Feruloyl Oligosaccharides from Cell Walls of Suspension-Cultured Spinach Cells and Sugar Beet Pulp : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Tadashi, ISHII; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute

    1994-01-01

    Cell walls of suspension-cultured spinach cells and sugar beet pulp were separately hydrolyzed with Driselase. A feruloyl arabinobiose was isolated from both spinach cells and sugar beet. Four feruloyl oligosaccharides were obtained from sugar beet. The four oligosaccharides were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, methylation analysis and FAB-MS.

  8. An Improved Method for the Extraction and Thin-Layer Chromatography of Chlorophyll A and B from Spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Hao T.; Steeper, Robert L.; Griffin, William G.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and fast method, which resolves chlorophyll a and b from spinach leaves on analytical plates while minimizing the appearance of chlorophyll degradation products is shown. An improved mobile phase for the Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of spinach extract that allows for the complete resolution of the common plant pigments found in…

  9. THE INTERNAL RESISTANCE IN SPINACH LEAVES TO ATMOSPHERIC H2S DEPOSITION IS DETERMINED BY METABOLIC PROCESSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DE KOK, LJ; RENNENBERG, H; KUIPER, PJC

    1991-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves formed an active sink for atmospheric H2S. Upon short-term exposure, H2S flux to the leaves showed saturation kinetics with respect to the H2S concentrations and could be described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. The kinetics of H2S flux to spinach leaves were

  10. Effect of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Uddin Umar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive search is going on for a cheap, easily available and effective remedy of chronic arsenic poisoning. The present study was designed to find the effects of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from arsenic treated rat. Rats were fed arsenic trioxide through Ryle’s tube for one month then they were fed on hexane extract (1-4% of spinach for another one month. Hexane extract of spinach decreased accumulated arsenic from rat liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, lungs and skin significantly. Besides, it reduced the oxidative stress caused by arsenic which was evident by decreased levels of malondialdehye (MDA in the above tissues. Hexane extract decreases both arsenic level and MDA level in rat tissues in dose dependent manner, which is more effective at lower doses.

  11. Effect of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Uddin Umar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive search is going on for a cheap, easily available and effective remedy of chronic arsenic poisoning. The present study was designed to find the effects of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from arsenic treated rat. Rats were fed arsenic trioxide through Ryle’s tube for one month then they were fed on hexane extract (1-4% of spinach for another one month. Hexane extract of spinach decreased accumulated arsenic from rat liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, lungs and skin significantly. Besides, it reduced the oxidative stress caused by arsenic which was evident by decreased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in the above tissues. Hexane extract decreases both arsenic level and MDA level in rat tissues in dose dependent manner, which is more effective at lower doses.

  12. Carotenoids and flavonoids in organically grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L) genotypes after deep frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, U.; Knuthsen, Pia; Edelenbos, M.

    2001-01-01

    After frozen storage the content of individual carotenoids and flavonoids was determined in organically grown spinach genotypes (Spinacia oleracea L) which differed in leaf colour and shape. The spinach was sorted, washed, blanched in steam for 3 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen. After frozen...... storage the green colour was determined by sensory evaluation and HunterLab colorimetry. The content of individual chlorophylls, carotenoids and flavonoids was determined using HPLC. Lutein, beta -carotene, violaxanthin and 9 '-(Z)-neoxanthin were the main carotenoids in processed spinach. The total...... content of carotenoids varied from 176.6 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the lightest green genotype to 226.3 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the darkest green genotype. The highest content of beta -carotene (83.1 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten) was found in the dark green genotype. The content...

  13. Influence of Gamma Irradiation on Biogenic Amine Contents and Pathogenic Bacteria in Spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.A.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 1, 2, 4 and 6 kGy as compared with blanching at 95°C/3 min on biogenic amine contents and pathogenic bacteria in spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.). The results indicated that tryptamine and β- phenylethylamine were not detected while histamine was the major amine detected at concentration of 12.55 mg/100g of wet weight. Blanching at 95°C/3 min significantly reduced the content of histamine, putrescine and tyramine in spinach while significantly increased the content of cadaverine. Gamma irradiation at different doses significantly reduced the contents of histamine and tyramine while significantly increased the content of cadaverine. However, putrescine content was increased significantly after subjected to doses 1 and 2 kGy while the doses 4 and 6 kGy significantly reduced it. Regarding to microbiological analysis in spinach, it could be noticed that total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform group, yeast, mould, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. in fresh spinach were 5.97, 4.40, 2.53, 2.11, 1.40, 1.48 and 1.18 log cfu/g, respectively. Changes in microbiological characters (cfu/g) in spinach by different gamma irradiation doses and blanching were also followed. It could be noticed that the total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform group, yeast, mould, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. were significantly decreased after treatment with blanching and gamma irradiation and these microorganisms were not detected after being subjected to 4 and 6 kGy. It could be concluded that blanching at 95°C/3 min or gamma irradiation at dose 2 kGy can be used to control the pathogenic bacteria and reduce biogenic amine (histamine, putrescine and tyramine) in spinach

  14. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest.......5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide...

  15. Effect of Verticillium dahliae soil inoculum levels on spinach seed infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Deleuran, Lise Christina

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne pathogen and a threat to spinach seed production. The aim of this study was to understand the relation between V. dahliae soil inoculum and infection in harvested seed. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used for quantification of the pathogen. Semifield...... experiments in which spinach was grown in soils with different inoculum levels enabled us to determine a threshold level for V. dahliae DNA of 0.003 ng/g of soil for seed infection to occur. Soils from production fields were sampled in 2013 and 2014 during and before planting, as well as the harvested seed...

  16. In vitro liberation of carotenoids from spinach and Asia Salads after different domestic kitchen procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard; Luu, Amy; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-01-01

    Green-leafy vegetables are rich in nutritionally important constituents including carotenoids. Their potential health benefits depend among others on their liberation from the plant matrix. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of particle size and heat treatments on lutein and β...... was shown to be nullified by the severe heat impact during stir-frying of minced spinach, showing that domestic treatments need to be chosen carefully to maximise carotenoid liberation. Steaming significantly improved lutein liberation from Asia salads, but had no or a negative effect in spinach samples...

  17. Muestreo poblacional de Onychiurus armatus tullberg (Collembola: Onychiuridae en cultivos de clavel y crisantemo bajo invernadero Population sampllng of Oníehíurus armatus Tullberg (Collembola: onychiurioae within carnation and Crysanthemum crops in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roatta Jorge

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el año 1984 se estudió la distribución poblacional de artrópodos en suelos de cultivos de clavel y crisantemo,
    cultivados bajo un invernadero comercial ubicado en la zona de Madrid, Cundinamarca. Se encontró una baja diversidad de artrópodos con dominancia de Onychíurus armatus Tullberq, el cual prefiere desarrollarse en la zona de rizósfera, de O a 20 cm de profundidad, aunque puede encontrarse a mayor profundidad. Se confirma que este colémbolo hace daño en las raíces de las plantas: afectando la altura y el peso de las plantas de crisantemo y disminuyendo la cantidad de esquejes producidos por plantas de clavel. La gravedad del daño depende
    de la densidad de colémbolos presentes.This study was done during 1984 in a commercial crops at the Bogotá Plateau. Low numbers of arthropods were found in
    the samplings. o. arma tus was the most abundant arthropod, located around the root area of carnation and chrysantemum
    plants, and usually between O and 20 cm in the soil. This species was shown to be a pest on carnation and chrysantemum roots, decreasing height and weight of chrysantemum plants and decreasing the number of cuttings produced by carnation plants. The amount of damage is determined by the number of individuals present in the population.

  18. Arsenic accumulation and physiological attributes of spinach in the presence of amendments: an implication to reduce health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Rafiq, Marina; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Dumat, Camille; Shamshad, Saliha; Khalid, Sana; Bibi, Irshad

    2017-07-01

    The current study examined the effect of calcium (Ca) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on arsenic (As) uptake and toxicity to spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as well as assessed the potential human health risks. Spinach seedlings were exposed to three levels of As (25, 125, and 250 μM) alone or together with three levels of EDTA (25, 125, and 250 μM) and Ca (1, 5, and 10 mM). The effect of EDTA and Ca was assessed in terms of As contents in roots and shoots, hydrogen peroxide production, chlorophyll contents, and lipid peroxidation. The accumulation and toxicity of As to spinach plants increased with increasing As levels in nutrient solution. Exposure to As resulted in lipid peroxidation and reduced chlorophyll contents. The highest level of As alone (250 μM) showed highest human health risk (hazard quotient of 7.09 at As-250). Addition of EDTA enhanced As accumulation by spinach, while reduced As toxicity to spinach, as well as human health risk (hazard quotient of 4.01 at As-250). Similarly, Ca significantly reduced As toxicity to spinach and the human health risks (hazard quotient of 3.79 at As-250) by reducing its accumulation in spinach. Higher levels of Ca were more effective in reducing As uptake and toxicity as well as enhancing chlorophyll contents.

  19. Effects of high temperature frying of Spinach leaves in sunflower oil on carotenoids, chlorophylls and tocopherol composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Nisar, Parveen

    2017-03-01

    Spinach is one of the highly consumed vegetable, with significant nutritional and beneficial properties. This study revealed for the first time, the effects of high temperature frying on the carotenoids, chlorophylls and tocopherol contents of spinach leaves. Spinach leaves were thermally processed in the sunflower oil for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min at 250 °C. HPLC-DAD results revealed a total of eight carotenoids, four chlorophylls and α-tocopherol in the spinach leaves. Lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and β-carotene-5,6-epoxide were the major carotenoids, while chlorophyll a and b' were present in higher amounts. Frying of spinach leaves increased significantly the amount of α-tocopherol, β-carotene-5,6-epoxide, luteoxanthin, lutein and its Z-isomers and chlorophyll b' isomer. There was a dose dependent decrease in the amounts of neoxanthin, violaxanthin, chlorophyll b, b' and chlorophyll a with increase of frying time. The increase of frying time increased the total phenolic contents in spinach leaves and fried sunflower oil samples. Chemical characteristics such as peroxide values, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes, conjugated trienes and radical scavenging activity were significantly affected by frying, while spinach leaves increased the stability of the frying oil. This study can be used to improve the quality of fried vegetable leaves or their products at high temperature frying in food industries for increasing consumer acceptability.

  20. Generic Escherichia coli Contamination of Spinach at the Preharvest Stage: Effects of Farm Management and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. PMID:23666336

  1. Generic Escherichia coli contamination of spinach at the preharvest stage: effects of farm management and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level.

  2. The influence of external factors on the growth and development of spinach cultivars (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, J.E.

    1967-01-01

    Influences of genotype (cultivar), temperature, light intensity, gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and daylength on stem elongation and flowering of spinach were investigated. Most cultivars reacted quantitatively to long days (LD) both for stem and flower formation. Daylength requirements varied

  3. Persistence and internalization of Salmonella on/in organic spinach sprout: exploring the contamination route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: The effects of contamination route, including seed and water, on the persistence and internalization of Salmonella in organic spinach cultivars- Lazio, Space, Emilia and Waitiki were studied. Methods: Seeds (1g) were contaminated with S. Newport using 10 ml of S. Newport-water suspension ov...

  4. SNP association analysis of resistance to Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb.) in spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is one of important fungus diseases in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and the most economical method of control this disease is through the use of genetic resistance, especially for organic growers. The objective of this research is to evaluate...

  5. Studies on the kinetic mechanism of nitrate reductase from spinach (Spinacea oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, F F; Palacián, E; Castillo, F

    1980-09-01

    Based on Lineweaver-Burk plots of the initial velocities, at different concentrations of NADH and nitrate, and product inhibition patterns, an Iso Ping Pong Bi Bi steady state kinetic mechanism is proposed for the spinach nitrate reductase. This mechanism incorporates the concept that the oxidized enzyme is present in two isomeric forms.

  6. Genetic map construction and QTL analysis of nitrogen use efficiency in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan Navarrete, Jose Rafael; Dolstra, Oene; Kaauwen, van Martijn; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.; Linden, van der Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Cultivation of spinach requires high amounts of nitrogen (N), which puts a strain on the environment. A sustainable solution to this problem is to breed for crops with higher N use efficiency (NUE). The aim of this study was to provide tools for molecular breeding and to elucidate the genetic

  7. Folate Biofortification in Hydroponically Cultivated Spinach by the Addition of Phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sho; Ohtani, Yuta; Tatsukami, Yohei; Aoki, Wataru; Amemiya, Takashi; Sukekiyo, Yasunori; Kubokawa, Seiichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-06-14

    Folate is an important vitamin mainly ingested from vegetables, and folate deficiency causes various health problems. Recently, several studies demonstrated folate biofortification in plants or food crops by metabolic engineering through genetic modifications. However, the production and sales of genetically modified foods are under strict regulation. Here, we developed a new approach to achieve folate biofortification in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) without genetic modification. We hydroponically cultivated spinach with the addition of three candidate compounds expected to fortify folate. As a result of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we found that the addition of phenylalanine increased the folate content up to 2.0-fold (306 μg in 100 g of fresh spinach), representing 76.5% of the recommended daily allowance for adults. By measuring the intermediates of folate biosynthesis, we revealed that phenylalanine activated folate biosynthesis in spinach by increasing the levels of pteridine and p-aminobenzoic acid. Our approach is a promising and practical approach to cultivate nutrient-enriched vegetables.

  8. Impacts of EDTA on uptake and accumulation of Cu 2+ by spinach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of EDTA on Cu2+ uptake by spinach (spinacia oleracea L) seedlings replanted in hydroponic solutions in a greenhouse were investigated. Four week old seedlings were exposed to various doses of Cu2+ (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20mg/L) and constant concentration of EDTA (10mM). During the exposure, the plant ...

  9. Cadmium and chromium effects on seed germination and root elongation in lettuce, spinach and Swiss chard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar V Bautista

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The La Ramada district and the Bogota River are the principal water resources used for horticultural crop production on the Bogota Plateau, which contain channel pollutant materials, including heavy metals due to domestic and industrial activities on the Plateau. These materials have effects on crop production in this zone. The present research, under laboratory conditions, aimed to evaluate the effect of three concentrations (25, 35 and 50 µM L-1 of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr on imbibition, seed germination and root elongation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Batavia, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla "White Ribbed", and spinach (Spinacia oleracea Hib. 424, three species widely cultivated on the Plateau. The three species used for evaluation showed a differential susceptibility response to Cd and Cr. In lettuce, fresh weight increase (imbibition was lower with all Cd concentrations at the last day of observation and at 25 µM L-1 of Cd in Swiss chard. Cadmium reduced seed germination by up to 46%, 97% and 8% in Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Also, root elongation decreased in Cd treatments by up to 57%, 89% and 56%, for Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Chromium, which showed fewer negative effects, decreased germination by up to 29% in Swiss chard, 6% in lettuce and 34% in spinach, as compared to the control

  10. Functional and structural analysis of photosystem II core complexes from spinach with high oxygen evolution capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Elisabeth; Irrgang, Klaus-D.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Renger, Gernot

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen-evolving photo system II core complexes were prepared from spinach by solubilizing photosystem II membrane fragments with dodecyl-β-D-maltoside. The core complexes consist of the intrinsic 47-kDa, 43-kDa, D1 and D2 polypeptides, the two subunits of cytochrome b559 and the extrinsic 33-kDa

  11. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 in spinach cultivated in soil and hydroponic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach plants through root uptake is a potential route of contamination. Previous studies that have investigated uptake of E. coli O157:H7 into leafy greens have expressed green fluorescent protein (gfp) from a plasmid, possibly limiting detecti...

  12. Interactions between iron and titanium metabolism in spinach: A chlorophyll fluorescence study in hydropony

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cígler, Petr; Olejníčková, Julie; Hrubý, Martin; Cséfalvay, Ladislav; Peterka, J.; Kužel, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 18 (2010), s. 1592-1597 ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : chlorophyll fluorescence * iron * photosynthetic apparatus * spinach * titanium Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2010

  13. On the relation between size and photochemical activity of fragments of spinach grana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Blaauw, O.H.; Duysens, L.N.M.

    1953-01-01

    1. 1. The relation between the size of fragments of disintegrated spinach grana and their photochemical activity in the reaction was investigated. 2. 2. Reduction of the fragment size below 106 A3 caused a pronounced decrease of the photochemical activity. Particles of this “critical” volume

  14. Control químico del Nematodo quiste Heterodera trifolii en clavel miniatura Chemical control of the cyst nematode, Heterodera trifolii in miniature carnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marroquin Alicia

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Una de las enfermedades en el cultivo del clavel recientemente registradas en Colombia es el nemátodo quiste, Heterodera trifolii. Un aumento del marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporumof. sp. dianthi se ha observado en algunas fincas afectadas por los dos patógenos. La investigación se realizó para evaluar el efecto de varios productos químicos en el control del nemátodo, en un invernadero comercial con clavel miniatura de la variedad Red Baron. Los fumigantes DD-metilisotiocianato, Dazomet y Metan sodio se aplicaron al suelo antes de la siembra, solos y en combinación con tres nemáticidas no fumiqantes Aldicarb, Carbofuran y Oxamil, en tres épocas de aplicación. Los fumigantes fueron máseficientes para la reducción de la población del nemátodo en el suelo que los nematicidasno fumigantes. El mejor tratamiento fue DD-metilisotiocianato con una reducción del 52% de la población de quistes viables y de 38% en la población de larvas en el suelo, un adelanto de 15 días en la cosecha, un aumento del 9% en rendimiento y del 19% en ingresos netos, en comparación con el Testigo no tratado. Entre los nematicidas no fumigantes, los mejores tratamientos fueron Aldicarb y Carbofuran aplicados en el momento de la siembra y Oxamil aplicado 30 días después de la siembra. La combinación de los fumigantes y de los nematicidas no fumigantes no mejoró el control del nemátodo, el rendimiento y la calidad de las flores, pero si aumentó notablemente los costos de producción.
    One of the diseases recently registered on carnation in Colombia is the cystnematode caused by Heterodera trifolii. An increase of the vascular wilt was observed in some farms affected by the two pathogens. A trial was carried out in a commercial greenhouse with miniature carnation of the variety Red Baron. The fumigants DD memethylisothiocianate, Dazomet and Methamsodium applied to the soil before planting were used alone and in combination with

  15. The effect of sewage sludge application on the growth and absorption rates of Pb and As in water spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of the application of sewage sludge on the growth rates and absorption rates of Pb and As in potted water spinach. Our results indicated that application of sewage sludge promoted vegetable growth, and the dry weight of water spinach reached a maximal value (4.38 ± 0.82 g upon 8% sludge application. We also found that the dry weights of water spinach after treatment were all greater than those of the control systems (CK. Treatment with sludge promoted the absorption of Pb and As in water spinach, with a significant (p < 0.05 increase of absorbed Pb following treatment concentrations above 10%, and a peak absorption of As at 8%. Finally, we found that concentrations of Pb and As were higher in rhizosphere-attached soil than in free pot.

  16. Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

    2012-01-01

    General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO 2 levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO 2 and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO 2 and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg −1 ) under two levels of CO 2 (360 and 860 μL L −1 , respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO 2 than under ambient CO 2 for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO 2 than ambient CO 2 . For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg −1 , the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO 2 was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO 2 than ambient CO 2 . The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO 2 than at ambient CO 2 with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO 2 significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in

  17. Effects of different sewage sludge applications on heavy metal accumulation, growth and yield of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ebrahem M; El-Bebany, Ahmed F; Alrumman, Sulaiman A; Hesham, Abd El-Latif; Taher, Mostafa A; Fawy, Khaled F

    2017-04-03

    In this study, we present the response of spinach to different amendment rates of sewage sludge (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g kg -1 ) in a greenhouse pot experiment, where plant growth, biomass and heavy metal uptake were measured. The results showed that sewage sludge application increased soil electric conductivity (EC), organic matter, chromium and zinc concentrations and decreased soil pH. All heavy metal concentrations of the sewage sludge were below the permissible limits for land application of sewage sludge recommended by the Council of the European Communities. Biomass and all growth parameters (except the shoot/root ratio) of spinach showed a positive response to sewage sludge applications up to 40 g kg -1 compared to the control soil. Increasing the sewage sludge amendment rate caused an increase in all heavy metal concentrations (except lead) in spinach root and shoot. However, all heavy metal concentrations (except chromium and iron) were in the normal range and did not reach the phytotoxic levels. The spinach was characterized by a bioaccumulation factor sewage sludge amendment rates. Spinach translocation mechanisms clearly restricted heavy metal transport to the edible parts (shoot) because the TFs for all heavy metals (except zinc) were sewage sludge used in the present study can be considered for use as a fertilizer in spinach production systems in Saudi Arabia, and the results can serve as a management method for sewage sludge.

  18. The Use of Some Morphological Traits for the Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L. Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadi-Segheloo Asghar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of native accessions of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. would be aid in the development of new genetically improved varieties, so in this research 121 spinach landraces, collected from the various spinach growing areas of Iran, were evaluated to determine their diversity using several agro-morphological traits. High coefficients of variation (CV were recorded in fresh yield, leaf area and dry yield. Using principal component (PC analysis, the first three PCs with eigenvalues more than 0.9 contributed 80.56% of the variability among accessions. The first PC was related to leaf yield performance (fresh and dry yields, leaf numbers at flowering and lateral branches while the PC2 was related to leaf characteristic (leaf width, petiole length, petiole diameter and leaf area. The third PC was related to seed characteristic (seed yield and 1000-seed weight and was named as seed property component. The 121 spinach landraces were grouped into six clusters using cluster analysis. Each cluster had some specific characteristics of its own and the clusters I and II were clearly separated from clusters III and V and also from clusters IV and VI. The studied accessions are an important resource for the generation of a core collection of spinach in the world. The results of present research will support tasks of conservation and utilization of landraces in spinach breeding programs.

  19. Bioavailability of total iron from meat, spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) and meat-spinach mixtures by anaemic and non-anaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Hendricks, D G; Mahoney, A W

    1989-03-01

    1. Bioavailability of Fe from beef, spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) and their mixtures was studied using anaemic and non-anaemic rats by haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE) and apparent Fe absorption in two trials. 2. The initial haemoglobin levels of severely anaemic, mildly anaemic and non-anaemic rats were 63, 88 and 113 g/l, respectively. The Fe level in diets was about 30 mg/kg. All other nutrients equalled or exceeded the requirement of the growing rat. 3. The spinach Fe was well utilized by the rats with average HRE of 0.41, 0.53 and 0.36, and apparent Fe absorptions averaging 0.48, 0.59 and 0.37 for the severely anaemic, mildly anaemic and non-anaemic animals respectively. 4. Beef Fe was efficiently used by rats as reported by others. Average HRE were 0.42, 0.51 and 0.44, and average apparent Fe absorptions were 0.44, 0.47 and 0.46 for the severely anaemic, mildly anaemic and non-anaemic rats respectively. 5. When the percentage of meat Fe was increased from 0 to 25, 50, 75 or 100 of the dietary Fe, HRE and apparent Fe absorption were not increased significantly. A meat enhancement effect on total Fe absorption, reported by others for non-haem-Fe, did not occur in the present experiment. 6. Negative correlation coefficients between initial haemoglobin and HRE (r -0.79), and initial haemoglobin and apparent Fe absorption (r -0.73) were seen with the rats fed on dietary Fe from FeSO4.7H2O. This was not seen with the rats fed on dietary Fe from beef or spinach. 7. The Fe absorption pattern for the different Fe sources is evidence for a third Fe pool, a pool made up of highly soluble inorganic Fe salt, in addition to haem-Fe and non-haem-Fe complex pools. FeSO4.7H2O is not in the same gastrointestinal pool as non-haem-Fe complex such as spinach Fe. A suggested mechanism of absorption is discussed.

  20. Persistence of Two Campylobacter jejuni Strains in Soil and on Spinach Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaderlund, L.; Arthurson, V.; Sessitsch, A.

    2011-01-01

    There are indications that the more frequent use of untreated organic residues for fertilization results in increased risk of contamination with human pathogens. Here, we evaluate the ability of two different strains of Campylobacter jejuni to persist in manure and soil as well as spread to spinach plants. It was revealed that different strategies for inoculation of C. jejuni contribute to the persistence of the bacterium in soil, roots, and shoots. Upon inoculation of the bacteria into manure prior to soil application, the amount of C. jejuni subsequently recovered in soil was higher than that from treatments involving the addition of C. jejuni cells to the soil after plant emergence. Irrespective of the bacterial inoculation dose and strategy employed, the C. jejuni content in soil remained relatively constant, whereas the majority of C. jejuni cells applied to spinach leaves could be recovered during the whole evaluation period of 21 days.

  1. Flavonoids in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): Changes during plant growth and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergquist, S. Å. M.; Gertsson, U. E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2005-01-01

    The variation in flavonoid concentration and composition was investigated in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cv. Emilia sown on three occasions, each harvested at three growth stages at 6-day intervals. After harvest, leaves were stored in polypropylene bags at 2 or 10 degrees C. Flavonoids...... were analyzed by reversed phase HPLC. Twelve flavonoid peaks were detected. The main flavonoid, making up on average 43% of the total flavonoid concentration, was identified as 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6:7-methylenedioxyflavone-4'-glucuronide. Four other flavonoids each contributed 7......-12% of the total flavonoid content. Total flavonoid content was relatively stable during normal retail storage conditions, although some of the individual flavonoid compounds showed considerable variation. The youngest plants had the highest flavonoid concentration, indicating that by harvesting the baby spinach...

  2. STATISTIC MODELING OF DRYING KINETHIC OF SPINACH LEAVES USING MICROWAVE AND HOT AIR METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Nouri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The target of this study was to model of spinach leaves drying using microwave and hot air dryer. This test performed in combination treatment of temperatures (50°C, 60°C, and 70°C and microwave (90, 180, 360, 600 and 900w in 3 replications. Sample moisture measured within drying. All the results were fitted and analyzed with 8 mathematical models base on 3 parameters including determination (R2, Chi square(X2, root mean square errors(RSME. Results also revealed that temperature and microwave power effectively reduce the drying time when increase. Drying occurs in degrading stage; moreover the comparison of results exhibited that Page and Two sentences models were fitted appropriately to estimate moisture changing and drying description. Regarding all the results, it is cleared that microwave method is an appropriate method in spinach drying as a result of reducing drying temperature and its high efficiency.

  3. Investigation Of Infrared Drying Behaviour Of Spinach Leaves Using ANN Methodology And Dried Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarimeseli Ayse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of infrared power output and sample mass on drying behaviour, colour parameters, ascorbic acid degradation, rehydration characteristics and some sensory scores of spinach leaves were investigated. Within both of the range of the infrared power outputs, 300–500 W, and sample amounts, 15–60 g, moisture content of the leaves was reduced from 6.0 to 0.1±(0.01 kg water/kg dry base value. It was recorded that drying times of the spinach leaves varied between 3.5–10 min for constant sample amount, and 4–16.5 min for constant power output. Experimental drying data obtained were successfully investigated by using artificial neural network methodology. Some changes were recorded in the quality parameters of the dried leaves, and acceptable sensory scores for the dried leaves were observed in all of the experimental conditions.

  4. Effect of Some Abiotic Stress Factories on Savrun Spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezahat Turfan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study were investigated that resistance to salinity, heavy metals, drought and calcerous stress in Savrun (Spinacea oleracea L. spinach. For this aim, 5-6 leafed seedlings were exposed to NaCl (75, 150 and 225 mM; heavy metals (Fe, Ni and Zn 0.2 mg/L, drought (50% and 0.2% CaCO3 applications for four weeks half-weekly which plants grown under controlled conditions. Depends on result chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total cclorophyll, carotenoids, β-caroten and lycopen increased in drought and CaCO3 treatments. Total soluble protein and GuPX activity were found higher in all stress treatments, proline content increased in NiCl2, 75 ve 150 mM NaCl treatments. While APX activity was higher in 75 mM NaCl and ZnCl2; CAT was higher in 150 mM NaCl and others stres treatments except drought. SOD activity were noted higher in drought, CaCO3 and 225 mM NaCl stresses groups. MDA content was lower in all treatments except FeCl3 and, H2O2 were lower in 225 mM NaCl and drought while it was higher in others. As a result, it was found that tolerance of Savrun spinach is higher to CaCO3 and drought but sensitivity of it is higher to 225 mM NaCl, ZnCl2 and FeCl3. Also it was determined that Savrun genotype is moderate tolerance to NiCl2 and 75 Mm NaCl. However parameters of tolerance to stress that treated on spinach seedling showed variability in Savrun spinach.

  5. Study of the effect of Aliette on the activity of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) chloroplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Pedro; Coutinho, João P.; Rocha, João; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2007-01-01

    Intensification of production in modern agriculture is frequently obtained thanks to the increase of pesticide applications and chemical fertilizers. However, the use of these products sometimes causes a reduction of crop productivity. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the fungicide Aliette on in vitro activity of chloroplasts of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.). Transmembrane potential formation, PSII oxygen evolution and PSII photochemistry were analyzed. Our results showed that the recommen...

  6. Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on Spinach Using Phage-Based Magnetoelastic Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengen Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phage-based magnetoelastic (ME biosensors have been studied as an in-situ, real-time, wireless, direct detection method of foodborne pathogens in recent years. This paper investigates an ME biosensor method for the detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh spinach leaves. A procedure to obtain a concentrated suspension of Salmonella from contaminated spinach leaves is described that is based on methods outlined in the U.S. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual for the detection of Salmonella on leafy green vegetables. The effects of an alternative pre-enrichment broth (LB broth vs. lactose broth, incubation time on the detection performance and negative control were investigated. In addition, different blocking agents (BSA, Casein, and Superblock were evaluated to minimize the effect of nonspecific binding. None of the blocking agents was found to be superior to the others, or even better than none. Unblocked ME biosensors were placed directly in a concentrated suspension and allowed to bind with Salmonella cells for 30 min before measuring the resonant frequency using a surface-scanning coil detector. It was found that 7 h incubation at 37 °C in LB broth was necessary to detect an initial spike of 100 cfu/25 g S. Typhimurium on spinach leaves with a confidence level of difference greater than 95% (p < 0.05. Thus, the ME biosensor method, on both partly and fully detection, was demonstrated to be a robust and competitive method for foodborne pathogens on fresh products.

  7. The adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.). Stabilization, partial purification, and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A

    1976-01-01

    Adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) sulfotransferase was purified 25-fold from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaves by Sephadex-G-200 gel filtration and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Enzyme activity was stabilized with 0.05 M Tris-HCl pH 8.0 containing 10 mM mercaptoethanol (ME), 10 mM MgCl2, and 30% glycerol. The molecular weight of the APS-sulfotransferase was estimated by gel filtration to be about 110,000 daltons. The enzyme is specific for the sulfonucleotide APS; PAPS is not a sulfur donor for this reaction. The apparent Km for APS was found to be 13 μM. The enzyme activity was determined with dithioerythritol (DTE) as acceptor, which has an apparent Km of 0.6 mM. Glutathione can substitute for DTE; other thiols such as mercaptoethanol and cysteine are less effective. The APS-sulfotransferase activity is inhibited by 5'-AMP, which increases the Km for APS but does not change Vmax, suggesting a competetive inhibition. Reduced methylviologen cannot substitute for a thiol in the spinach enzyme system. Thus it seems that assimilatory APS-sulfotransferase from spinach is different from the dissimilatory APS-reductase from Desulfovibrio or Thiobacillus, where methylviologen can be used as the electron donor.

  8. Response of spinach (Spinacea oleracea) to the added fluoride in an alkaline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Nayak, A K; Sharma, Y K

    2008-09-01

    The influence of soil contamination by inorganic fluoride (NaF) on the uptake and accumulation of fluoride in the shoot and root of spinach (Spinacea oleracea) was investigated in pot experiment under controlled conditions. The soluble fluoride in soil varied between 2.57 mgkg(-1) soil and 16.44 mgkg(-1) soil in the treatment range of 0-800 mgNaF kg(-1) soil. It was found that the concentration of the total fluoride in shoot and root varied between 23.5 mgkg(-1) dry wt. (control) and 219.8 mgkg(-1) dry wt. (at 800 mgNaF kg(-1) soil). The fluoride concentration in shoot and root showed a linear trend. At the added fluoride concentration beyond 200 mgNaF kg(-1) of soil, the spinach root retained more fluoride than shoot. In the treatment range 0-800 mgNaF kg(-1) soil, the water labile fluoride in the juice varied from 0.32 to 0.78 ppm in shoot and 1.03 to 2.79 ppm in the root. No visible symptom of phyto-toxicity was noticed with the treatment from 0 to 800 mgNaF kg(-1) soil. It was inferred from this study that spinach (S. oleracea) accumulates fluoride at tissues level and has a distinct mechanism of partitioning of water labile fluoride and total fluoride in the tissues.

  9. Effects of light irradiation control on the quality preservation of spinach [Spinacia oleracea] during postharvest storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Saito, T.; Shiga, T.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of the light irradiation on the quality changes of green leafy vegetables after harvest, and clarified the quality preservation method of spinach by the light irradiation with the modified atmosphere effects by the film packaging. Spinach packaged in the sealed film was irradiated at the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 4 micromol/square m/s and 10 micromol/square m/s as almost same intensity level as light compensation point by the white fluorescent lamp, white light-emitting diode (LED) and the monochromatic LED's of wavelength at 470nm, 591nm, 626nm and 660nm respectively. The concentration of CO2 in the sealed film was proved to decrease according to the light irradiation regardless of the different wavelength of light, and this showed that the effects of present modified atmosphere packaging is lost by light irradiation. The increase of weight loss by light irradiation was controlled by the film packaging, and then the commercial value was excellently maintained. Light irradiation after harvest contributed to keeping high L-ascorbic acid contents of the spinach. However the light irradiation of different wavelength was not found to influence the change of L-ascorbic acid contents. (author)

  10. Optimization of Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of heterologous genes in spinach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Dang Viet; Pamplona, Reniel S.; Kim, Jiwon

    2017-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay is a relatively rapid technique and a promising approach for assessing the expression of a gene of interest. Despite the successful application of this transient expression system in several plant species, it is not well understood in spinach. In this st......The Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay is a relatively rapid technique and a promising approach for assessing the expression of a gene of interest. Despite the successful application of this transient expression system in several plant species, it is not well understood in spinach....... In this study, we analyzed various factors, including infiltration method, Agrobacterium strain and density, and co-infiltration of an RNA silencing suppressor (p19), that affect transient expression following agroinfiltration in spinach. To evaluate the effects of these factors on the transient expression...... system, we used the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene construct pB7WG2D as a positive control. The vacuum-based infiltration method was much more effective at GUS gene expression than was the syringe-based infiltration method. Among the three Agrobacterium strains examined (EHA105, LBA4404, and GV2260...

  11. Uptake, translocation, and transformation of pentachlorophenol in soybean and spinach plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casterline, J.L. Jr.; Barnett, N.M.; Ku, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Soybean plants were grown for 90 days and spinach plants for 64 days in a mixture of sterilized greenhouse soil and sand containing 10 ppm pentachlorophenol. All plant parts and soil samples were extracted and separated into nonpolar and polar fractions. Major nonpolar and polar metabolites were identified by gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Nonpolar fractions from both soybean and spinach plants were found to contain pentachlorophenol and its metabolites, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, methoxytetrachlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachloroanisole, and pentachloroanisole. Cleavage of polar metabolites from the soybean plants by acid hydrolysis yielded organic solvent-extractable products. These products were identified as pentachlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, and methoxytetrachlorophenol. Cleavage of polar materials from spinach plants yielded only pentachlorophenol. The polar metabolites from the soybean plants were also subjected to enzymatic cleavage by beta-glucosidase. The conjugates consisted mostly of O-glucosides of the same metabolites released by acid hydrolysis. Failure of hydrolysis by aryl sulfatase indicated that very little or no sulfates were present. The metabolites found in the plants were not detected in soil samples obtained from pots immediately after the plants were harvested

  12. Rapid detection of Salmonella typhimurium on fresh spinach leaves using phage-immobilized magnetoelastic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Shin; Li, Suiqiong; Chai, Yating; Park, Mi-Kyung; Shen, Wen; Barbaree, James M.; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the use of magnetoelastic biosensors for the rapid detection of Salmonella typhimurium on fresh spinach leaves. The biosensors used in this investigation were comprised of a strip-shaped, goldcoated sensor platform (2 mm-long) diced from a ferromagnetic, amorphous alloy and a filamentous fd-tet phage which specifically binds with S. typhimurium. After surface blocking with bovine serum albumin, these biosensors were, without any preceding sample preparation, directly placed on wet spinach leaves inoculated with various concentrations of S. typhimurium. Upon contact with cells, the phage binds S. typhimurium to the sensor thereby increasing the total mass of the sensor. This change in mass causes a corresponding decrease in the sensor's resonant frequency. After 25 min, the sensors were collected from the leaf surface and measurements of the resonant frequency were performed immediately. The total assay time was less than 30 min. The frequency changes for measurement sensors (i.e., phageimmobilized) were found to be statistically different from those for control sensors (sensors without phage), down to 5 × 106 cells/ml. The detection limit may be improved by using smaller, micron-sized sensors that will have a higher probability of contacting Salmonella on the rough surfaces of spinach leaves.

  13. CONTENT OF MERCURY AND LEAD IN LEAVES OF SPINACH (SPINACIA OLERACEA, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is one the most nutritious leafy vegetable. Only 22 calories per 100 grams, a high amount of protein, carbohydrate and fat make it very suitable ingredient in reduction diets. For a wealth of minerals and vitamins in addition it has an extraordinary nutritional value. 100 g contains two-thirds of its daily requirement of vitamin A, virtually the entire daily need for folic acid, half the dose of vitamin C, almost a quarter of the daily needs of more than a quarter of the needs of iron and magnesium. According to some studies, it is a good remedy for cancer prevention. In spinach are found in high concentrations of carotenoids, which protect cells from destruction, and so help to antiaging. Lutein-carotenoided pigment, an adequate supply may delay the emergence of degenerative diseases of the retina of the eye. In the framework of monitoring, we have focused on the analysis of the levels of lead and mercury in 7 samples of spinach from the commercial network of the Slovak republic. The lead content in all samples was 0.00 mg.kg-1, mercury content was in the range of 0.0019 – 0.0054 mg.kg-1. From the point of view of the sanitary evaluation of the HPQ for the content of lead and Hg was not exceeded in either sample.

  14. Employing Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Lutein and β-Carotene from Spinach

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    Ammar Altemimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. leaves is important to the dietary supplement industry. A Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of lutein and β-carotene from spinach. Three independent variables, extraction temperature (°C, extraction power (% and extraction time (min were studied. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC followed by UV visualization and densitometry was used as a simple and rapid method for both identification and quantification of lutein and β-carotene during UAE. Methanol extracts of leaves from spinach and authentic standards of lutein and β-carotene were separated by normal-phase TLC with ethyl acetate-acetone (5:4 (v/v as the mobile phase. In this study, the combination of TLC, densitometry, and Box–Behnken with RSM methods were effective for the quantitative analysis of lutein and β-carotene from spinach extracts. The resulting quadratic polynomial models for optimizing lutein and β-carotene from spinach had high coefficients of determination of 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. The optimal UAE settings for output of lutein and β-carotene simultaneously from spinach extracts were an extraction temperature of 40 °C, extraction power of 40% (28 W/cm3 and extraction time of 16 min. The identity and purity of each TLC spot was measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Therefore, UAE assisted extraction of carotenes from spinach can provide a source of lutein and β-carotene for the dietary supplement industry.

  15. A comparison of nitrate level in spinach grown both under different densities in aquaponic system and under natural growth conditions

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    Ştefan Mihai PETREA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As bio-integrated systems that link both plants and fish culture, inside aquaponic systems, the processes of ammonia-oxidizing and nitrification in nitrite and nitrate are essential for growth and development of both fish and plants culture biomass. Plants with nearly the same nutritional requirements during their life cycle, like spinach in our case, are recommended to be grown under aquaponic conditions. Although nitrates concentrations up to 200 – 250mg/l are reported to be acceptable for fish growth, in the last years the toxic effect of long term exposure to high nitrate levels on fish and plants cultured biomass were highlighted. The main goal of the present study is to compare the nitrate level of spinach, grown in an aquaponic system, under three plant densities (V1 - 59 plants/m2, V2 - 48plants/m2 and V3 – 39 plants/m2. The second objective is to compare the results obtained, in term of nitrate content, for spinach grown in the integrated rainbow trout – spinach aquaponic system with those of marketable spinach, grown under conventional condition, in the field. The experimental design consists in a recirculating aquaculture system with 12 growing units, mechanical and biological water treatment units and four aquaponic units. Fish were fed with two types of feed with 41% and 50% protein, using 3 different feeding regimes. The results show a higher nitrate level on spinach grown in aquaponic system, compared to the one derived from field culture. Differences were observed also among the three variants grown in aquaponic conditions, under different plant densities. As a conclusion, it can be said that considering the nitrate level, spinach grown in aquaponic system is marketable.

  16. Simple quantitative analysis of Escherichia coli K-12 internalized in baby spinach using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sungkyun; Kim, Yong Soo; Li, Qing X; Jun, Soojin

    2010-11-15

    Bacterial contamination continues to be a serious concern for food safety. Although washing fresh produce helps in reducing pathogen levels, pathogen internalization often limits the effectiveness of washing. When pathogens internalize in leafy vegetables, the method of identification and quantitative measurement would be called into question. This study was aimed to use Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy integrated with an attenuated total reflectance kit for quantification of Escherichia coli K-12 internalized in baby spinach. The bacteria were inoculated into vascular and intracellar tissues of spinach leaves by syringe injection and the distribution of internalized E. coli K-12 cells was confirmed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR measurement following the preparation of bacterial suspension from spinach leaves with high speed pulverizing enabled to detect the absorbance peaks in the amide II region between 1590 and 1490 cm⁻¹ as a fingerprint for the microbes. It was found that the estimated concentrations of E. coli K-12 agreed well with the concentrations determined by plate counting with R² values of 0.98 and 0.97 in peptone water and spinach extracts, respectively. The results demonstrated that FTIR can identify and quantify E. coli K-12 in baby spinach extracts at a limit of detection of approximately 100 CFU/mL in 5 min. The developed method is expected to be suitable for the analysis of pathogenic E. coli strains and other bacterial species in fresh vegetables. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Use of partial least squares discriminant analysis on visible-near infrared multispectral image data to examine germination ability and germ length in spinach seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Gislum, René

    2012-01-01

    Because of the difficulties in obtaining homogenous germination of spinach seeds for baby leaf production, the possibility of using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) on features extracted from multispectral images of spinach seeds was investigated. The objective has been...

  18. Cold Plasma-activated hydrogen peroxide aerosol inactivates Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria innocua and maintains quality of grape tomato, spinach and cantaloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aerosolized hydrogen peroxide in inactivating bacteria and maintaining quality of grape tomato, baby spinach leaves and cantaloupe. Stem scar and smooth surfaces of tomatoes, spinach leaves, and cantaloupe rinds, inoculated with Escherich...

  19. In vitro bioavailability of iron from spinach (Spinacea oleracea) cultivated in soil fortified with graded levels of iron and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N S; Sondge, C V; Khan, T N

    1993-11-01

    A pot-culture experiment was conducted to assess the bioavailability of iron from spinach cultivated in soil fortified with graded levels of iron and zinc (FeSO4 x 7H2(0) and ZnSO4 x 7H2(0), respectively). Applications of varying levels of iron to soil increased the total iron and phosphorus contents and decreased the zinc content (P < 0.05). The effect of applying varying levels of zinc was the opposite of on the minerals in spinach. The ascorbic acid content was remarkably reduced with varying levels of iron and zinc. Higher levels of zinc and lower levels of iron in the soil increased the bioavailability of iron from spinach (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the interactions of 15 ppm zinc with 30 ppm iron significantly enhanced the bioavailability of iron, total iron and zinc contents.

  20. Enzymatic and mechanistic studies on the formation of N-phenylglycolohydroxamic acid from nitrosobenzene and pyruvate in spinach leaf homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsunami, Ryosuke; Yoshioka, Tadao

    2006-01-25

    The biotransformation mechanism of an unknown metabolite formed enzymatically from nitrosobenzene (NOB) and pyruvate in spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) was investigated using spinach leaf homogenate. The unknown metabolite was identified as N-phenylglycolohydroxamic acid (PGA). The activity of PGA formation was decreased by l-alanine, increased by l-serine, and completely inhibited by aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of transaminases. These results indicate that the transaminase participates in PGA formation. Indeed, hydroxypyruvate and alanine were produced in the transamination between pyruvate and serine. Hydroxypyruvate served as a direct-acting glycoloyl donor for PGA formation. A good correlation between the activities of the 200 g supernatant of spinach homogenate and commercial yeast transketolase for PGA formation from several glycoloyl donors was obtained. These results suggest the following mechanism for PGA formation from NOB and pyruvate: transamination of l-serine into hydroxypyruvate, which serves as a glycoloyl donor to NOB.

  1. Quality of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach irradiated at doses up to 4 kGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xuetong; Guan Wenqiang; Sokorai, Kimberly J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce packaged in modified atmosphere packages and spinach in perforated film bags were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were stored for 14 days at 4 °C. O 2 levels in the packages of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce decreased and CO 2 levels increased with increasing radiation dose, suggesting that irradiation increased respiration rates of lettuce. Tissue browning of irradiated cut lettuce was less severe than that of non-irradiated, probably due to the lower O 2 levels in the packages. However, samples irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy had lower maximum force and more severe sogginess than the non-irradiated control. In addition, ascorbic acid content of irradiated lettuce was 22–40% lower than the non-irradiated samples after 14 days of storage. The visual appearance of spinach was not affected by irradiation even at a dose of 4 kGy. Consumer acceptance suggested that more people would dislike and would not buy spinach that was treated at 3 and 4 kGy as compared to the non-irradiated sample. Overall, irradiation at doses of 1 and 2 kGy may be employed to enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach while maintaining quality. - Highlights: ▶ Headspace composition in the modified atmosphere packages of cut lettuce was affected by irradiation. ▶ Fresh-cut lettuce in adapted atmosphere could tolerate 1 or 2 kGy rays without quality deterioration in look and texture. ▶ Lettuce irradiated at doses higher than 2 kGy developed sogginess. ▶ Irradiated spinach maintained a good appearance at doses of 3 and 4 kGy. ▶ Higher doses (3 and 4 kGy) of radiation decreased consumers' likingness and purchase intent of irradiated spinach.

  2. Response of spinach and komatsuna to biogas effluent made from source-separated kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yuichiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of kitchen garbage is an urgent task for reducing public spending and environmental burdens by incineration and/or landfill. There is an interesting regional effort in Ogawa, Saitama prefecture, Japan, in which source-separated kitchen garbage is anaerobically fermented with a biogas plant and the resultant effluent is used as a quick-release organic fertilizer by surrounding farmers. However, scientific assessments of fertilizer values and risks in the use of the effluent were lacking. Thus, a field experiment was conducted from 2003 to 2004 in Tohoku National Agricultural Research Center to grow spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis L. H. Bailey) for evaluating the fertilizer value of the kitchen garbage effluent (KGE), nitrate, coliform group (CG), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (FS), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations of KGE and in the soil and the plant leaves. A cattle manure effluent (CME) and chemical fertilizers (NPK) were used as controls. Total nitrogen (N) and ammonium N concentrations of the KGE were 1.47 and 1.46 g kg(-1), respectively. The bacteria tested were detected in both biogas effluents in the order of 2 to 3 log CFU g(-1), but there was little evidence that the biogas effluents increased these bacteria in the soil and the plant leaves. At the rate of 22 g N m(-2), yield, total N uptake, apparent N recovery rate, and leaf nitrate ion concentration at harvest of spinach and komatsuna in the KGE plot were mostly comparable to those in the NPK and CME plots. We conclude that the KGE is a quick-release N fertilizer comparable to chemical fertilizers and does not cause contamination of CG, E. coli, FS, or V. parahaemolyticus in the soil and spinach and komatsuna leaves.

  3. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Missouri plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  4. Comparison of nitrate accumulation, nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency among different spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jianjian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the difference of nitrate accumulation,nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency between four spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. genotypes (So10,So13,So18 and So57. Results showed that So13 had the highest nitrate contents under two nitrate (NO3--N level (0.5 mmol·L-1,15 mmol·L-1 conditions,whereas So10 had the lowest nitrate contents. So18 had the similar nitrate contents with So13 under low NO3- level,while it showed no significant difference of nitrate contents with So57 under high NO3- treatment. The 15NO3--N uptake rates of So13 were the highest one among four genotypes,while the N utilization efficiency (NutE and N utilization ratio (NUR of So13 were significantly lower than those of So18 and So57. The shoot dry mass,nitrate reductase activity,NutE,NUR of So18 and So57 were higher than those of So13 and So10,while their 15NO3--N uptake rates were lower than those of So13. The shoot dry mass,nitrate reductase activity,NutE,N utilization ratio of So10 were significantly lower than those of So18 and So57,and its 15NO3--N uptake rate was significantly lower than those of So13. Among the four spinach genotypes,the So57 can be selected as elite germplasm using for spinach production for its relatively lower nitrate content and higher N efficiency.

  5. Comparison of two possible routes of pathogen contamination of spinach leaves in a hydroponic cultivation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Shigenobu; Mizuno, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2011-09-01

    The route of pathogen contamination (from roots versus from leaves) of spinach leaves was investigated with a hydroponic cultivation system. Three major bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes, were inoculated into the hydroponic solution, in which the spinach was grown to give concentrations of 10⁶ and 10³ CFU/ml. In parallel, the pathogens were inoculated onto the growing leaf surface by pipetting, to give concentrations of 10⁶ and 10³ CFU per leaf. Although contamination was observed at a high rate through the root system by the higher inoculum (10⁶ CFU) for all the pathogens tested, the contamination was rare when the lower inoculum (10³ CFU) was applied. In contrast, contamination through the leaf occurred at a very low rate, even when the inoculum level was high. For all the pathogens tested in the present study, the probability of contamination was promoted through the roots and with higher inoculum levels. The probability of contamination was analyzed with logistic regression. The logistic regression model showed that the odds ratio of contamination from the roots versus from the leaves was 6.93, which suggested that the risk of contamination from the roots was 6.93 times higher than the risk of contamination from the leaves. In addition, the risk of contamination by L. monocytogenes was about 0.3 times that of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis and E. coli O157:H7. The results of the present study indicate that the principal route of pathogen contamination of growing spinach leaves in a hydroponic system is from the plant's roots, rather than from leaf contamination itself.

  6. Faecal and protozoan parasite contamination of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) cultivated in urban wastewater in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anh, Vuong Tuan; Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Klank, Lise Tønner

    2007-01-01

    into a stream. Water spinach samples were harvested at each of the three locations with and without wastewater contact according to the normal practices of farmers, and analysed for ThC, protozoan parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora), and helminth eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura...... with and without wastewater contact. Giardia spp. were present in 56% (20) of samples with an average cyst concentration of 6.6/g. Mean counts of Giardia were not significantly associated with wastewater contact status of water spinach. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 17% (six) of samples with an average...

  7. The amino acid sequence of cytochrome c from Spinacea oleracea L. (spinach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R H; Richardson, M; Scogin, R; Boulter, D

    1973-02-01

    The amino acid sequence of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L., var. Monster Viroflay) cytochrome c was determined on 1mumol of protein. The molecule consists of 111 residues and is homologous with other mitochondrial cytochromes c. Experimental details are given in a supplementary paper that has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50013, at the National Lending Library for Science and Technology, Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1973), 131, 5.

  8. Phosphorus compounds, proteins, nuclease and acid phosphatase activities in isolated spinach chloroplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mikulska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with attempts to elaborate a simple method of spinach chloroplast isolation ensuring a high proportion of intact chloroplasts. We obtained 3 preparations of isolated chloroplasts. Several preliminary analyses of the obtained chloroplast fraction were also performed. Phosphorus compounds, total protein and the enzyme activities of RNase, DNase and GPase were determined. We found: 0,36-0,59% of RNA, 0,19-0,24% of DNA, 2,1-2,9% of phospholipids and 26-28% of protein. RNase activity was very high.

  9. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    University. Our study demonstrates that multispectral imaging with wavelengths ranging from 395-970 nm can be used to distinguish between uninfected spinach seeds and seeds infected with Verticillium spp., Fusarium spp., Stemphylium botryosum, Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria alternata. Analytical separation...... using only NIR gave a separation of 26-88% between uninfected and Fusarium spp. infected seeds. Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. could be distinguished from each other and from Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp. and Stemphylium spp. Separation of Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp....... and Stemphylium spp. needs further development before practical application....

  10. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    University. Our study demonstrates that multispectral imaging with wavelengths ranging from 395-970 nm can be used to distinguish between uninfected spinach seeds and seeds infected with Verticillium spp., Fusarium spp., Stemphylium botryosum, Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria alternata. Analytical separation...... using only NIR gave a separation of 26-88% between uninfected and Fusarium spp. infected seeds. Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. could be distinguished from each other and from Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp. and Stemphylium spp. Separation of Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp...

  11. Effects of spinach nitrate on insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction markers and inflammation in mice with high-fat and high-fructose consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin resistance, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, has become a leading nutrition problem. Inorganic nitrate enriched in spinach has been demonstrated to reverse the pathological features of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. However, the effects of a direct intake of nitrate-enriched spinach on insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction have not been studied. Objective: To investigate the effects of spinach nitrate on insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, endothelial function, and inflammation in mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet. Design: A diet intervention of spinach with or without nitrate was performed in mice. A high-fat and high-fructose diet was used to cause insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation in mice. The impacts of spinach nitrate on lipid profile, insulin resistance, markers of endothelial function, and inflammation were determined in mice. Results: Spinach nitrate improved the vascular endothelial function of the mice with high-fat and high-fructose consumption, as evidenced by the elevated plasma nitrite level, increased serum nitric oxide (NO level and decreased serum ET-1 level after spinach nitrate intervention. Spinach nitrate also reduced serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and elevated serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in the mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet. Mice receiving spinach with 60 mg/kg of nitrate (1.02±0.34 showed a significantly low homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index as compared with the model mice (2.05±0.58, which is indicating that spinach nitrate could effectively improve the insulin resistance. In addition, spinach nitrate remarkably decreased the elevated serum C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-6 levels induced by a high-fat and high-fructose diet

  12. Ion channel permeable for divalent and monovalent cations in native spinach thylakoid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, I I; Schönknecht, G

    1996-08-01

    A cation-selective channel was characterized in isolated patches from osmotically swollen thylakoids of spinach (Spinacea oleracea). This channel was permeable for K+ as well as for Mg2+ and Ca2+ but not for Cl-. When K+ was the main permeant ion (symmetrical 105 mM KCl) the conductance of the channel was about 60 pS. The single channel conductance for different cations followed a sequence K+ > Mg2+ >/= Ca2+. The permeabilities determined by reversal potential measurements were comparable for K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. The cation channel displayed bursting behavior. The total open probability of the channel increased at more positive membrane potentials. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that voltage dependence of the total open probability was determined by the probability of bursts formation while the probability to find the channel in open state within a burst of activity was hardly voltage-dependent. The cation permeability of intact spinach thylakoids can be explained on the single channel level by the data presented here.

  13. Characteristic of fermented spinach (Amaranthus spp.) polyphenol by kombucha culture for antioxidant compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspiyanto, Susilowati, Agustine; Iskandar, Jeti M.; Melanie, Hakiki; Maryati, Yati; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation on spinach (Amaranthus sp.) vegetable by kombucha culture as an effort to get poliphenol as antioxidant compound had been done. Purification of fermented spinach extract suspension was carried out through microfiltration (MF) membrane (pore size 0.15 µm) fitted in dead-end Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) mode at fixed condition (stirrer rotation 400 rpm, room temperature, pressure 40 psia). Result of the experimental activity showed that long fermentation time increased total acids, total polyphenol and Total Plate Count (TPC), and decreased total solids and reducing sugar in biomass. The optimal fermentation time was reached for 2 weeks with total polyphenol recovery increasing of 92.76 % from before and after fermentation. On this optimal fermentation time, biomass had identified galic acid with relative intensity of 8 %, while as polyphenol monomer was resulted 5 kinds of polyphenol compounds with total intensity 27.97 % and molecular weight (MW) 191.1736, 193.1871 and 194.2170 at T2.5, T2.86 and T3.86. Long fermentation time increased functional properties of polyphenol as antioxidant.

  14. Effect of Ozone Treatment on Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria sp. on Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Wani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of “gaseous” ozone in reducing numbers and re-growth of food-borne pathogens, (Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., on leafy salads was investigated using spinach. A preliminary in vivo study showed 1-log reduction in six strains of E. coli and two species of Listeria spp. on spinach exposed to 1 ppm ozone for 10 min. A range of ozone treatments were explored to deliver optimal bacterial inactivation while maintaining the visual appearance (color of produce. Exposure to a higher ozone concentration for a shorter duration (10 ppm for 2 min significantly reduced E. coli and Listeria spp. viable counts by 1-log and the pathogens did not re-grow following treatment (over a nine-day storage period. Impacts of 1 and 10 ppm ozone treatments were not significantly different. Approximately 10% of the pathogen population was resistant to ozone treatment. We hypothesized that cell age may be one of several factors responsible for variation in ozone resistance. E. coli cells from older colonies demonstrated higher ozone resistance in subsequent experiments. Overall, we speculate that gaseous ozone treatment constitutes the basis for an alternative customer-friendly method to reduce food pathogen contamination of leafy produce and is worth exploring on a pilot-scale in an industrial setting.

  15. Characterization of E coli biofim formations on baby spinach leaf surfaces using hyperspectral fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunjeong; Baek, Insuck; Oh, Mirae; Kim, Sungyoun; Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S.

    2017-05-01

    Bacterial biofilm formed by pathogens on fresh produce surfaces is a food safety concern because the complex extracellular matrix in the biofilm structure reduces the reduction and removal efficacies of washing and sanitizing processes such as chemical or irradiation treatments. Therefore, a rapid and nondestructive method to identify pathogenic biofilm on produce surfaces is needed to ensure safe consumption of fresh, raw produce. This research aimed to evaluate the feasibility of hyperspectral fluorescence imaging for detecting Escherichia.coli (ATCC 25922) biofilms on baby spinach leaf surfaces. Samples of baby spinach leaves were immersed and inoculated with five different levels (from 2.6x104 to 2.6x108 CFU/mL) of E.coli and stored at 4°C for 24 h and 48 h to induce biofilm formation. Following the two treatment days, individual leaves were gently washed to remove excess liquid inoculums from the leaf surfaces and imaged with a hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system equipped with UV-A (365 nm) and violet (405 nm) excitation sources to evaluate a spectral-image-based method for biofilm detection. The imaging results with the UV-A excitation showed that leaves even at early stages of biofilm formations could be differentiated from the control leaf surfaces. This preliminary investigation demonstrated the potential of fluorescence imaging techniques for detection of biofilms on leafy green surfaces.

  16. Major controlling factors and predictions for cadmium transfer from the soil into spinach plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenfei; Ding, Qiong; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Jumei; Chen, Shibao; Ma, Yibing

    2013-07-01

    Predicting the mobility, bioavailability and transfer of cadmium (Cd) in the soil-plant system is of great importance with regards to food safety and environmental management. In this study, the transfer characteristics of Cd (exogenous salts) from a wide range of Chinese soils to spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) were investigated. The major controlling factors and prediction equations for Cd transfer in the soil-plant system were also investigated. The results showed that plant Cd concentration was positively correlated with soil Cd concentration. The maximum transfer factor (ratio of the Cd concentration in the plant to that in the soil) was found in acid soils. The extended Freundlich-type function was able to describe the Cd transfer from soil to spinach plants. Combining soil total Cd, pH and organic carbon (OC) content in the prediction equation greatly improved the correlation performance compared with predictions based on total Cd only. A slight protection effect of OC on Cd uptake was observed at low soil Cd concentrations. The results are a useful tool that can be used to predict Cd transfer from soil to plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil-plant transfer factors of Co-60 for alfalfa lettuce and spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, Radu Octavian

    1997-01-01

    The transfer of Co-60 from soil into plants is a less studied problem. Soil-plant transfer factors for Co-60 known from literature vary by about four orders of magnitude for each kind of plants. We have calculated the average values and have determined the field of variability of the known transfer factors. These indicated us that alfalfa, lettuce and spinach have in this order the greatest absorption capacity of Co-60 from soil. We have determined the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the utilized soil. This is a brown reddish forest type soil. The plants have been cultivated in pots by plantlet method of Neubauer and Schneider. The results of our measurements of soil-to-plant transfer factors of 60-Co are the followings: 0.0612 ± 0.0047 for alfalfa, 0.0960 ± 0.0072 for lettuce and 0.1446 ± 0.0107 for spinach. These values prove the strong dependence of the type of soil and plant of the soil-plant transfer factors for Co-60. (author)

  18. Evaluation of various conventional methods for sampling weeds in potato and spinach crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jamaica

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate (at an exploratory level, some of the different conventional sampling designs in a section of a potato crop and in a commercial crop of spinach. Weeds were sampled in a 16 x 48 m section of a potato crop with a set grid of 192 sections. The cover and density of the weeds were registered in squares of from 0.25 to 64 m². The results were used to create a database that allowed for the simulation of different sampling designs: variables and square size. A second sampling was carried out with these results in a spinach crop of 1.16 ha with a set grid of 6 x 6 m cells, evaluating the cover in 4 m² squares. Another database was created with this information, which was used to simulate other sampling designs such as distribution and quantity of sampling squares. According to the obtained results, a good method for approximating the quantity of squares for diverse samples is 10-12 squares (4 m² for richness per ha and 18 or more squares for abundance per hectare. This square size is optimal since it allows for a sampling of more area without losing sight of low-profile species, with the cover variable best representing the abundance of the weeds.

  19. Efecto de los procesos de compostacion y lombricultura de residuos de clavel sobre la población de Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi Effect of the processes of composting and lombricomposting of carnation residues on the population of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo Fabio Alejandro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de los residuos vegetales es uno de los problemas que actualmente enfrenta la floricultura colombiana. El objetivo de la investigación fue estudiar el efecto de la descomposición de residuos de clavel mediante los procesos de compostación y lombricultura sobre la población de Fusarium oxysporum en una finca productora de flores
    localizada en la Sabana de Bogotá. Los procesos de compostación y lombricultura redujeron de manera apreciable la población del hongo, obteniéndose la mayor reducción en el tratamiento de plantas de rosa más plantas de clavel enfermo. De 235 aislamientos de F oxysporum inoculados en esquejes de clavel de la variedad "Navidad", 37 (16% fueron patogénicos y pertenecen a F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, mientras que 198 aislamientos (84% correspondieron a formas no patogénicas de F oxysporum o a formas patogénicas de la especie, diferentes a la forma especial dianthi. La utilización de compost o de humus de lombriz que provenga de plantas enfermas de clavel presenta riesgos fitopatológicos importantes para su aplicación al suelo.The management of plant residues is a very important problem of the Colombian floriculture. The objetive of the research was to study the effect of descomposition of carnation plant residues with the processes of compostation and lombricompostation on the population of Fusarium oxysporum on a commercial farm located at the Bogota Plateau. Compostation and lombricompostation processes reduced significantly the population of Foxysporum. The highest reduction was obtained with the treatment of a mixture of rose plants plus carnation diseased plants. From 235 isolates of F. oxysporum inoculated on carnation cuttings of the variety "Navidad", 37 (16% were pathogenic and belong to F oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, 198 isolates (84% did not cause disease on carnation plants, so they belong to other formae specialis or they are nonpathogenic isolates of Foxysporum. The application of

  20. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  1. Effect of a bacteriophage cocktail in combination with modified atmosphere packaging in controlling Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Listeria monocytogenes-specific bacteriophage cocktail (ListShield™) was evaluated for its activity against a nalidixic acid-resistant L. monocytogenes (Lm-NalR) isolate on fresh-cut spinach stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at various temperatures. Pieces (~2x2 cm2) of fresh spinac...

  2. A theoretical model for explaining the effect of physical manipulation on nitrate uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    terSteege, MW; Stulen, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    Experiments with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito) plants in which net nitrate uptake rate (NNUR) and nitrate influx and efflux were measured showed that handling the plants affected the results considerably. Both nitrate influx and efflux changed after physical manipulation of the plants,

  3. Growth requirement for N as a criterion to assess the effects of physical manipulation on nitrate uptake fluxes in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Paans, AJM; Vaalburg, W; Kuiper, PJC; Clarkson, DT

    The effects of physical manipulation of hydroponically grown plants of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cvs Subito and Glares) on nitrate uptake fluxes were studied in a long-term experiment (3 days), and in short-term label experiments (2 h) with N-13-nitrate and N-15-nitrate. In the long-term

  4. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vitro and on the surface of spinach leaves by biobased surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biosurfactants on the populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in suspension and on spinach leaves. Eight surfactants including four soybean oil-based biosurfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), sopho...

  5. Quality of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach irradiated at doses up to 4 kGy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuetong; Guan, Wenqiang; Sokorai, Kimberly J. B.

    2012-08-01

    Fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce packaged in modified atmosphere packages and spinach in perforated film bags were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were stored for 14 days at 4 °C. O2 levels in the packages of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce decreased and CO2 levels increased with increasing radiation dose, suggesting that irradiation increased respiration rates of lettuce. Tissue browning of irradiated cut lettuce was less severe than that of non-irradiated, probably due to the lower O2 levels in the packages. However, samples irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy had lower maximum force and more severe sogginess than the non-irradiated control. In addition, ascorbic acid content of irradiated lettuce was 22-40% lower than the non-irradiated samples after 14 days of storage. The visual appearance of spinach was not affected by irradiation even at a dose of 4 kGy. Consumer acceptance suggested that more people would dislike and would not buy spinach that was treated at 3 and 4 kGy as compared to the non-irradiated sample. Overall, irradiation at doses of 1 and 2 kGy may be employed to enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach while maintaining quality.

  6. 77 FR 29588 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Celery, Arugula, and Spinach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... celery, arugula, and spinach from Colombia. Based on the findings of three pest risk analyses, which we..., based on the findings of a pest risk analysis (PRA), can be safely imported subject to one or more of... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh celery, arugula, and...

  7. Novel protein phosphorylation site identification in spinach stroma membranes by titanium dioxide microcolumns and tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinalducci, Sara; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2006-01-01

    In this work, spinach stroma membrane, instead of thylakoid, has been investigated for the presence of phosphorylated proteins. We identified seven previously unknown phosphorylation sites by taking advantage of TiO(2) phosphopeptides enrichment coupled to mass spectrometric analysis. Upon illumi...

  8. Irradiated ready-to-eat spinach leaves: How information influences awareness towards irradiation treatment and consumer's purchase intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finten, G.; Garrido, J. I.; Agüero, M. V.; Jagus, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to clarify and supply further information on food irradiation acceptance, with particular focus on Argentina and irradiated ready-to-eat (RTE) spinach leaves through an open web-online survey. Results showed that half of respondents did not know food irradiation, but the other half demonstrated uncertainty despite they declared they had knowledge about it; thus, confirming little awareness towards this technology. Respondents who believed in the misleading myth about food irradiation represented 39%, while roughly the same number was doubtful. On the other hand, after supplying informative material, respondents were positively influenced and an increase in acceptance by 90% was found. Finally, 42% of respondents were willing to consume/purchase irradiated RTE spinach leaves, and 35% remained doubtful. Respondents who did not exclude to accept irradiated spinach could be considered potential consumers if intensive campaigns about the benefits of food irradiation were carried out by reliable actors. If the Argentinean RTE market grew, following the world consumption trend towards these products, irradiated spinach leaves could be successfully introduced by making better efforts to inform consumers about food irradiation.

  9. Optimized, fast through-put UHPLC-DAD based method for carotenoid quantification in spinach, serum, chylomicrons and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard; Madsen, Pia Lisbeth; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-01-01

    An improved UHPLC-DAD based method was developed and validated for quantification of major carotenoids present in spinach, serum, chylomicrons and faeces. Separation was achieved with gradient elution within 12.5 min for 6 dietary carotenoids and the internal standard, echinenone. The proposed me...

  10. Adaption of an in vitro digestion method to screen carotenoid liberation and in vitro accessibility from differently processed spinach preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard; Luu, Amy Y; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-01-01

    investigated. Lutein liberation and in vitro accessibility were three-fold higher from spinach puree compared to whole leaves. Results for β-carotene liberation were similar, whereas that of β-carotene accessibility was only about two-fold. Steaming had no or a negative effect on carotenoid liberation. Fat...

  11. E-Beam irradiation of bagged, ready-to-eat spinach leaves (Spinacea oleracea): an engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, C; Moreira, R G; Castell-Perez, M E; Kim, J; Da Silva, P; Castillo, A

    2008-03-01

    We experimentally assessed the efficacy of electron beam irradiation to ensure the safety and quality of ready-to-eat spinach leaves using a 2-MeV Van de Graff accelerator. Spinach leaves (approximately 8 g) inside petri dishes were irradiated up to 1 kGy and stored at 4 degrees C for 15 d. Nonirradiated samples served as controls. Color, texture, vitamin C, total carotenoids, and chlorophyll content were measured using standard methods. Sensory analysis was performed by 15 untrained panelists using a 9-point hedonic scale. Color of control and irradiated samples showed slight variation throughout storage. Firmness of all samples changed significantly (P < 0.05) by half the storage time; however, exposure to radiation did not cause significant differences by the end of shelf life. Irradiation did not affect the chlorophyll and total carotenoid content, though it produced samples with significantly lower (P < 0.05) vitamin C content. For all treatments, chlorophyll content decreased by day 15 while total carotenoids remained constant. Although, by the end of refrigerated storage, all the irradiated samples received slightly lower odor scores, sensory analysis revealed that irradiation had little or no effect on the overall quality of spinach leaves. We also simulated the dose distribution within a bag of spinach leaves irradiated using a 10-MeV linear accelerator (0.3 to 1 kGy) to quantify the problem of nonuniform dose absorbed at different parts of the bag and predict death of a pathogen such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. The simulation results confirmed that it is feasible to irradiate baby spinach leaves (up to 1 kGy) to eliminate E. coli 0157:H7 while maintaining the overall quality of the produce.

  12. Nitrate and nitrite in leek and spinach from Urmia district and their changes as affected by boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nejatzadeh-Barandozi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to determine nitrite and nitrate levels in fresh leek and spinach from different greengrocers′ shops of Urmia (Iran and then the effect of boiling and the effect of aqueous boiling pH were studied. Materials and Methods: Nitrite and nitrate content of 15 market samples of leek and spinach from Urmia region were determined by spectrophotometric method. Effect of boiling and their pH levels at home processing condition were studied. Results: Results showed that the fresh vegetables had only traces of nitrite and the level of nitrate was 36-328 ppm KNO 3 . In the most of samples, nitrite and nitrate contents in spinach were greater than in leek, but lower than standard International Organization for Standardization levels in Iran. Boiling process was carried out, according to home conditions and it caused a decrease in nitrate levels between 23% and 61% in leak and spinach samples, respectively. T-test analysis of the boiled vegetables showed a significant reduction about 75% in nitrate content (in dry weight vegetable content, in the samples, but an increase in nitrate content in the boiled water of the sample was observed. The effect pH of boiling (4-8 shows that with an increase in pH, there was a decrease in nitrate contents of boiled water. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the leek and spinach marketed in Urmia region were safe for consumption and boiling of vegetables caused the release of nitrates from vegetables to water after the cooking process. It is of particular importance not to use the vegetable cooking water for use in pureeing homemade baby foods.

  13. Population dynamics of Escherichia coli inoculated by irrigation into the phyllosphere of spinach grown under commercial production conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J D; Bezanson, G S; Gordon, R J; Jamieson, R

    2010-10-15

    Recent outbreaks of food-borne illnesses associated with the consumption of fresh produce have increased attention on irrigation water as a potential source of pathogen contamination. A better understanding of the behaviour of enteric pathogens introduced into agricultural systems during irrigation will aid in risk assessments and support the development of appropriate farm-level water management practices. For this reason, the survival dynamics of two nalidixic acid resistant strains of Escherichia coli after their spray inoculation into the phyllosphere and soil of field spinach were examined over two growing seasons. E. coli strains NAR, an environmental isolate, and DM3n, a non-pathogenic serotype O157:H7, were applied at rates of 10⁴ to 10⁷ cfu/100ml to the fully developed spinach plants that arose subsequent to the harvesting of their upper leafy portions for commercial purposes (secondary-growth plants). After 72 h, E. coli on spinach were reduced by 3-5 logs. Culturable E. coli were recovered from plants up to 6 days post-inoculation. Survival in soil was greater than in the phyllosphere. Under ambient conditions, the mean 72 h first order decay constant computed by Chick's Law was 0.1 h⁻¹. Although light reduction studies indicated UV irradiation negatively influenced the persistence of E. coli, a simple relationship between UV exposure and phyllosphere E. coli densities could not be established. E. coli introduced to the leafy portions of spinach via spray irrigation displayed rapid declines in their culturability under the open environmental conditions experienced during this study. A 6 day period between the last irrigation and harvest would minimize the risks of E. coli survival in the spinach phyllosphere. E. coli NAR was identified as a possible surrogate for the O157:H7 strain, DM3n. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Potassium Foliar Application in Alleviating the Harmful Effects of Salinity in Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhooshang jalali

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinach is an important leafy vegetable in the cold season, and despite the fact that is considered as low-calorie food source contains significant amount of minerals such as iron, and vitamin A and C. According to the University of Utah 3.8 dS m-1 is salinity tolerance threshold for the spinach and yield decrease that have been reported by 10%, 25% and 50% at 5.5, 7 and 8 dS m-1 salinity. The necessity to supply adequate potassium has been demonstrated in salinity conditions. In salt stress conditions, foliar application of K in spinach, reduces the harmful effects of salt and increase the ratio of potassium to sodium (1.61 to 2.72. Foliar application of K with prevent of potassium transfer from root to shoot is causing continuation of photosynthesis and reduce the effects of salinity. Absorption of potassium from the leaves depends on the type of used compound. In this context, characteristics of plant (leaves with a waxy composition, duration of growth and leaf area are important. 100 kg ha-1 of potassium in salt stress conditions by reducing the absorption of sodium, increased salt tolerance on the sunflower. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the foliar application of K on the yield and yield components of spinach in salt stress condition, a study was conducted in 2012 by using split plot randomized based on complete block design with four replications at Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station. Three levels of irrigation water salinity consisted of a control (2 dS m-1, well water with salinity (4 dS m-1 and well water with salinity (8dS m-1 arranged in main plots and two levels of control and foliar applications of potassium fertilizer containing potassium oxide solubility in water (2.5 ml per liter arranged in subplots. Statistical analysis was conducted by using SAS software and statistical tests were compared with Duncan at 5 percent. Result and Discussions: The results showed that the yield of

  15. Microbial quality of bagged baby spinach and romaine lettuce: effects of top versus bottom sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Julie A; Borenstein, Stacey; Blodgett, Robert J; Feng, Peter C H

    2012-01-01

    Contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have called into question the safety and microbial quality of bagged ready-to-eat leafy greens. This study expands on previous findings that these goods have high total bacteria counts (TBC) and coliform counts, variation in counts among different lots, that Escherichia coli is present, and disparities in counts when bags are top or bottom sampled. Nearly 100 bags of baby spinach and hearts of romaine lettuce from a single brand were subjected to both top and bottom sampling. Product was blended, and a portion serially diluted and plated to obtain TBC. Total coliform and E. coli levels were estimated by the most-probable-number (MPN) technique with ColiComplete discs. Top-sampled TBC from bags of baby spinach (48 bags, 13 different lots) ranged from 3.9 to 8.1 log CFU/g and bottom-sampled TBC ranged from 4.0 to 8.2 log CFU/g, with 52% of the bags (or 39% of the lots) producing TBC higher in bottom samples. For hearts of romaine (47 bags from 19 different lots), top-sampled bags had TBC ranging from 2.4 to 7.0 log, and bottom-sampled bags had TBC from 3.3 to 7.3 log, with 64% of the bags (or 63% of the lots) showing higher TBC in bottom samples. However, we are unable to reject the hypothesis that the top and bottom samples from either commodity contain the same TBC (P ≥ 0.08). No E. coli was detected and total coliform bacteria counts were, with few exceptions, ≥210 MPN/g, irrespective of TBC. In general, lots with the most number of days before the printed "use-by" date had lower TBC. However, the R(2) values for either baby spinach (0.4085) or hearts of romaine (0.2946) suggest that age might not be a very good predictor of higher TBC. TBC varied widely between lots and even more so within same-lot samples, as indicated by the sum of squares results. This finding, along with higher TBC in bottom samples, suggests further consideration when a microbiological sampling scheme of bagged produce is

  16. Cloning of a nitrate reductase inactivator (NRI) cDNA from Spinacia oleracea L. and expression of mRNA and protein of NRI in cultured spinach cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Masatoshi; Ide, Hiroaki; Nakayama, Shinya; Sasaki, Asako; Kitazaki, Shinei; Sato, Takahide; Nakagawa, Hiroki

    2003-04-01

    The spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L. (cv. Hoyo) nitrate reductase inactivator (NRI) is a novel protein that irreversibly inactivates NR. Using degenerate primers based on an N-terminal amino acid sequence of NRI purified from spinach leaves and a cDNA library, we isolated a full-length NRI cDNA from spinach that contains an open reading frame encoding 479 amino acid residues. This protein shares 67.4% and 51.1-68.3% amino acid sequence similarities with a nucleotide pyrophosphatase (EC 3.6.1.9) from rice and three types of the nucleotide pyrophosphatase-like protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. Immunoblot analysis revealed that NRI was constitutively expressed in suspension-cultured spinach cells; however, its expression level is quite low in 1-day-subcultured cells. Moreover, northern blot analysis indicated that this expression was regulated at the mRNA level. These results suggest that NRI functions in mature cells.

  17. Characterization of a Begomovirus-Betasatellite Complex, Producing Defective Molecules in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., a New Host for Begomovirus and Betasatellite Complex in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nouman Tahir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is a vegetable crop which is widely grown over a large area especially in Punjab province of Pakistan. Leaf curling and enations on spinach plant collected shown to be associated with the begomovirus Pedilanthus leaf curl virus (PeLCV and Shahdadpur strain of Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMBSha. Defective molecules of half and quarter size derived from monopartite begomoviruses are usually generated by the deletion of virion-sense sequences. Characterization of defective molecules of PeLCV from spinach revealed that the molecules of half the size are derived from the deletion of complementary-sense genes while quarter size molecule appears to have evolved by further deletion. This is the first report of the begomovirus-betasatellite complex on spinach and unusual defective molecules derived from deletion of complementary-sense genes in Pakistan.

  18. Effect of gamma-radiation on the plasma and vacuolar membranes of cultured spinach cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, N.; Koshiba, T.; Sato, M.

    1998-01-01

    By the use of 31 P NMR spectroscopy, a higher radiosensitivity of the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast) than the plasma membrane was inferred for cultured spinach cells irradiated with 0-7.5 kGy and immediately transferred to fresh medium. In non-irradiated cells, inorganic phosphate (Pi) was rapidly taken up from the medium and transported into the vacuole; the content of cytoplasmic Pi was maintained at a constant level throughout the incubation period (7 days), whilst the Pi in the vacuole was exhausted. In irradiated cells, Pi uptake was not greatly altered up to 5 kGy, and fluorescein diacetate, a substance used to determine the integrity of the plasma membrane, was readily absorbed. However, movement of the Pi taken up into the vacuole across the tonoplast was markedly reduced with increasing dose. This membrane impairment was not amplified during subsequent incubation. A crucial question as to the fate of the Pi is critically discussed. (author)

  19. TRACKING CHANGES IN CHLOROPHYLL AND CAROTENOIDS IN THE PRODUCTION PROCESS OF FROZEN SPINACH PURÉE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is in the professional and general public considered highly nutritious vegetable with many beneficial effects on human health. It is a rich source of antioxidant active substances, especially chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and minerals especially zinc and copper. This work studies the changes of chlorophyll and carotenoids that occur after mass production technology of freezing at -37 °C. Before freezing was used blanching operation. In this work we used a variety Boeing, Boa, Beaver, Hudson and Chica. The highest content of all monitored parameters are found in fresh leaves of sampled Hudson. We found that within the processing decreases chlorophyll in 16.6%, 13.8% of chlorophyll b and carotenoids of 6.15%. This decrease was in all cases statistically significant.

  20. Respuesta de algunas variedades de clavel estándar a cuatro razas fisiológicas de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Dianthi Response of some standard carnation varieties to four physiological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeláez Germán

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Sesenta y ocho variedades de clavel estándar se evaluaron par su respuesta patológica a las razas fisiológicas 1, 2, 4 Y 8 de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. Solamente las variedades Bogotá, Fabiana y Pesco fueron resistentes a las cuatro razas del patógeno. Las variedades Giallo y Jole fueron susceptibles a todas las razas. La raza fisiológica más patogénica fue la raza 2, la cual es la raza predominante en Colombia, seguida de la raza 8. Las razas 1 y 4 presentaron menor patogenicidad. En esta investigación, se propone un nuevo juego de variedades diferenciales para la identificación de las razas de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.Sixty eight standard carnation varieties were evaluated for their pathological response to the physiological races 1, 2 , 4 and 8 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. Only Bogota, Fabiana and Pesco varieties were resistant to all races. The varieties Giallo and Jole were susceptible to the four races. The race 2, which is the predominant race in Colombia, was the most pathogenic of the four races, followed by race 8. Races 1 and 4 were less pathogenic. In this study, we propose a new set of differential varieties to identify physiological races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in Colombia.

  1. Changes of Ascorbic Acid Contents in Various Market Forms of Spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) during Postharvest Storage in Light and Dark Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    TOLEDO, Merry Evelyn A.; UEDA, Yoshinori; SHIROSAKI, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Changes in ascorbic acid contents in various market forms of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) during postharvest storage in light (20-25 μmole m^2 s^) and dark conditions were investigated. In the leaves of whole spinach plants, the decline in ascorbic acid contents, specifically in mature leaves which comprise the bulk of the plants, was effectively minimized with the provision of supplemental lighting. Supplemental lighting has likewise been demonstrated to positively affect the ascorbic acid...

  2. Differences in internalization and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within the apoplast of edible plants, spinach and lettuce, compared with the model species Nicotiana benthamiana

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Kathryn M.; Crozier, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Merget, Bernhard; Holmes, Ashleigh; Holden, Nicola J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Internalization of food?borne bacteria into edible parts of fresh produce plants represents a serious health risk. Therefore, internalization of verocytotoxigenic E.?coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai was assessed in two species associated with outbreaks, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and compared to the model species Nicotiana benthamiana. Internalization occurred in the leaves and roots of spinach and lettuce throughout a 10?day time?course. The plant species, tis...

  3. Biochar impact on physiological and biochemical attributes of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. in nickel contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Younis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Disastrous effect of nickel on spinach was discussed by number of authors but the effect of amendments like biochar with nickel on Spinacea oleraceaL. is not still discussed by any author of the world because biochar was used as soil amendments which play a vital role in reducing mobilization and uptake of nickel by spinach plants.  As nickel contaminated plants are very harmful for the consumption by living organisms. Nickel can be gathered in agronomic soils by anthropogenic actions such as Ni-Cd batteries. In this study, the growth, physiological, photosynthetic and biochemical responses of Spinacia oleracea grown in Ni-spiked soil (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg Ni/Kg soil at three levels of cotton-sticks-derived biochar “CSB” (0, 3 and 5 % were evaluated.  The results exposed significant decrease in growth, photosynthetic, physiological, and biochemical traits of S. oleracea when grown in Ni-polluted soil. However, this decrease was less pronounced in CSB amended soil.  A steady rise in the MDA (0.66 µg/g to 2.08 µg g-1, ascorbic acid (1.24 mg/g to 1.57 mg/gand sugar concentrations (1.73 mg/g to 2.16 mg/gwas observed with increased concentration of Ni.  The increasing percentages of CSB from 3 % to 5 % decreased Ni concentrations in root and shoot of experimental plant.  Higher production of chlorophyll, amino acids and protein with CSB amendment looked like alleviation in Ni toxicity.  Therefore, it is concluded that, Ni toxicity and availability to the plants can be reduced by CSB amendments.

  4. Strain-Level Discrimination of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Spinach Using Metagenomic Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R Leonard

    Full Text Available Consumption of fresh bagged spinach contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC has led to severe illness and death; however current culture-based methods to detect foodborne STEC are time consuming. Since not all STEC strains are considered pathogenic to humans, it is crucial to incorporate virulence characterization of STEC in the detection method. In this study, we assess the comprehensiveness of utilizing a shotgun metagenomics approach for detection and strain-level identification by spiking spinach with a variety of genomically disparate STEC strains at a low contamination level of 0.1 CFU/g. Molecular serotyping, virulence gene characterization, microbial community analysis, and E. coli core gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis were performed on metagenomic sequence data from enriched samples. It was determined from bacterial community analysis that E. coli, which was classified at the phylogroup level, was a major component of the population in most samples. However, in over half the samples, molecular serotyping revealed the presence of indigenous E. coli which also contributed to the percent abundance of E. coli. Despite the presence of additional E. coli strains, the serotype and virulence genes of the spiked STEC, including correct Shiga toxin subtype, were detected in 94% of the samples with a total number of reads per sample averaging 2.4 million. Variation in STEC abundance and/or detection was observed in replicate spiked samples, indicating an effect from the indigenous microbiota during enrichment. SNP analysis of the metagenomic data correctly placed the spiked STEC in a phylogeny of related strains in cases where the indigenous E. coli did not predominate in the enriched sample. Also, for these samples, our analysis demonstrates that strain-level phylogenetic resolution is possible using shotgun metagenomic data for determining the genomic relatedness of a contaminating STEC strain to other

  5. Functional metagenomics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 interactions with spinach indigenous microorganisms during biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Q Carter

    Full Text Available The increase in foodborne outbreaks worldwide attributed to fresh fruit and vegetables suggests that produce may serve as an ecological niche for enteric pathogens. Here we examined the interaction of E. coli O157:H7 (EcO157 with spinach leaf indigenous microorganisms during co-colonization and establishment of a mixed biofilm on a stainless steel surface. Stainless steel surface was selected to mimic the surface of produce-processing equipment, where retention of foodborne pathogens such as EcO157 could serve as a potential source for transmission. We observed a positive effect of spinach-associated microbes on the initial attachment of EcO157, but an antagonistic effect on the EcO157 population at the later stage of biofilm formation. Metagenomic analyses of the biofilm community with the GeoChip revealed an extremely diverse community (gene richness, 23409; Shannon-Weiner index H, 9.55. Presence of EcO157 in the mixed biofilm resulted in a significant decrease in the community α-diversity (t test, P<0.05, indicating a putative competition between the pathogen and indigenous spinach microbes. The decrease in the β-diversity of the EcO157-inoculated biofilm at 48 h (ANOVA, P<0.05 suggested a convergent shift in functional composition in response to EcO157 invasion. The success of EcO157 in the mixed biofilm is likely associated with its metabolic potential in utilizing spinach nutrients: the generation time of EcO157 in spinach lysates at 28°C is ~ 38 min, which is comparable to that in rich broth. The significant decrease in the abundance of many genes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling in the EcO157-inoculated biofilms (t test, P<0.05 further support our conclusion that competition for essential macronutrients is likely the primary interaction between the EcO157 and indigenous spinach-biofilm species.

  6. Comparison of Spinach Sex Chromosomes with Sugar Beet Autosomes Reveals Extensive Synteny and Low Recombination at the Male-Determining Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Satoshi; Yago, Takumi; Iwabuchi, Keisuke; Hirakawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Onodera, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea, 2n = 12) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, 2n = 18) are important crop members of the family Chenopodiaceae ss Sugar beet has a basic chromosome number of 9 and a cosexual breeding system, as do most members of the Chenopodiaceae ss. family. By contrast, spinach has a basic chromosome number of 6 and, although certain cultivars and genotypes produce monoecious plants, is considered to be a dioecious species. The loci determining male and monoecious sexual expression were mapped to different loci on the spinach sex chromosomes. In this study, a linkage map with 46 mapped protein-coding sequences was constructed for the spinach sex chromosomes. Comparison of the linkage map with a reference genome sequence of sugar beet revealed that the spinach sex chromosomes exhibited extensive synteny with sugar beet chromosomes 4 and 9. Tightly linked protein-coding genes linked to the male-determining locus in spinach corresponded to genes located in or around the putative pericentromeric and centromeric regions of sugar beet chromosomes 4 and 9, supporting the observation that recombination rates were low in the vicinity of the male-determining locus. The locus for monoecism was confined to a chromosomal segment corresponding to a region of approximately 1.7Mb on sugar beet chromosome 9, which may facilitate future positional cloning of the locus. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effect of green spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) addition in physical, chemical, and sensory properties of marshmallow as an alternative prevention of iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhistira, B.; Affandi, D. R.; Nusantari, P. N.

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. Consuming vegetable which contain iron, including spinach, is an alternative to fulfill iron requirement. Fe will be more easily absorbed in the presence of vitamin C. Tomato is one of vitamin C source that can be used. Spinach can be applied into confectionary products in the form of marshmallow. This research aimed to find out the physical, chemical and sensory properties of green spinach Marshmallow in addition of Tomato, the best formula, and define the category of nutrition contents based on Acuan Label Gizi (ALG). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with one factor that was different proportion of spinach:tomato (75%: 25%; 50%: 50%; 25%: 75%). The data were analyzed using One Way Anova with 5% significance level. The result of this study showed that the difference of spinach and tomato proportion affect tensile strength, moisture, ash content, Fe content, crude fiber, vitamin C, color and marshmallow’s flavor. Best marshmallow formulation of 25% spinach in addition of 75% tomato had Fe content of 1.159 mg/100g and vitamin C of 44 mg/100g.

  8. Effect of low-temperature plasma on the degradation of omethoate residue and quality of apple and spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingmin, SHI; Jinren, LIU; Guimin, XU; Yueming, WU; Lingge, GAO; Xiaoyan, LI; Yang, YANG; Guanjun, ZHANG

    2018-04-01

    Dielectric barrier corona discharge was developed to generate low-temperature plasma (LTP) to treat apple and spinach samples contaminated with omethoate. Experimental results showed that, after 20 min exposure, the degradation rate of omethoate residue in apple and spinach was (94.55 ± 0.01)% and (95.55 ± 0.01)%, respectively. When the treatment time was shorter than 20 min, the contents of moisture, vitamin C and beta-carotene were not affected by LTP. Exploration of related mechanisms suggested that LTP might destroy unsaturated double bonds of omethoate and produce phosphate ion, eventually leading to omethoate destruction. It is concluded that appropriate dosage of LTP can effectively degrade omethoate residue in fruits and vegetables without affecting their quality.

  9. Quantitative contamination assessment of Escherichia coli in baby spinach primary production in Spain: Effects of weather conditions and agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; Castro-Ibáñez, Irene; Lindqvist, Roland; Gil, María Isabel; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Jacxsens, Liesbeth

    2017-09-18

    A quantitative microbial contamination model of Escherichia coli during primary production of baby spinach was developed. The model included only systematic contamination routes (e.g. soil and irrigation water) and it was used to evaluate the potential impact of weather conditions, agricultural practices as well as bacterial fitness in soil on the E. coli levels present in the crop at harvest. The model can be used to estimate E. coli contamination of baby spinach via irrigation water, via soil splashing due to irrigation water or rain events, and also including the inactivation of E. coli on plants due to solar radiation during a variable time of culturing before harvest. Seasonality, solar radiation and rainfall were predicted to have an important impact on the E. coli contamination. Winter conditions increased E. coli prevalence and levels when compared to spring conditions. As regards agricultural practices, both water quality and irrigation system slightly influenced E. coli levels on baby spinach. The good microbiological quality of the irrigation water (average E. coli counts in positive water samples below 1 log/100mL) could have influenced the differences observed among the tested agricultural practices (water treatment and irrigation system). This quantitative microbial contamination model represents a preliminary framework that assesses the potential impact of different factors and intervention strategies affecting E. coli concentrations at field level. Taking into account that E. coli strains may serve as a surrogate organism for enteric bacterial pathogens, obtained results on E. coli levels on baby spinach may be indicative of the potential behaviour of these pathogens under defined conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Concentration of cadmium, zinc and manganese in root, stalk and leaf of spinach and tomato in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghobadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are considers as significant environment pollutants. Their entrance into food chain is a serious health hazard to humans. This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of Cadmium, Zinc and Manganese in root, stalk and leaf portions of spinach and tomato. For this reason, during 2014 in Hamedan city, 3 farms with 5 repetitions from each farm were sampled. Samples were subjected to acid-digestion and the concentrations of the elements were assayed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP. According to the results, the average concentrations of heavy metals in root, stalk and leaf of spinach was estimated at: cadmium, 0.14, 0.24, 0.34 mg/kg, zinc, 15.53, 24.82, 35 mg/kg and manganese, 26.59, 24.42, 45.38 mg/kg, respectively. The data for the tomato samples were: cadmium, 16.20, 24.42, 33.81 mg/kg, Zinc, 21.48, 39.74, 52.92 mg/kg and manganese, 26.60, 42.41, 61.90 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentration of cadmium and manganese in spinach and tomato showed a significant difference with the WHO/FAO standard limit. However, in the case of zinc the difference was insignificant. It was concluded that in this experiment the spinach and tomato samples were polluted with higher concentration of cadmium and manganese than the approved limit of WHO/FAO and therefore was found risky for the consumers.

  11. Plant-mediated restriction of Salmonella enterica on tomato and spinach leaves colonized with Pseudomonas plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiun-Kang; Micallef, Shirley A

    2017-10-16

    Reducing Salmonella enterica association with plants during crop production could reduce risks of fresh produce-borne salmonellosis. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonizing plant roots are capable of promoting plant growth and boosting resistance to disease, but the effects of PGPR on human pathogen-plant associations are not known. Two root-colonizing Pseudomonas strains S2 and S4 were investigated in spinach, lettuce and tomato for their plant growth-promoting properties and their influence on leaf populations of S. enterica serovar Newport. Plant roots were inoculated with Pseudomonas in the seedling stage. At four (tomato) and six (spinach and lettuce) weeks post-germination, plant growth promotion was assessed by shoot dry weight (SDW) and leaf chlorophyll content measurements. Leaf populations of S. Newport were measured after 24h of leaf inoculation with this pathogen by direct plate counts on Tryptic Soy Agar. Root inoculation of spinach cv. 'Tyee', with Pseudomonas strain S2 or S4 resulted in a 69% and 63% increase in SDW compared to non-inoculated controls (pPseudomonas S4 restricted S. Newport populations inoculated on leaves of spinach (pPseudomonas-treated plants than those on non-inoculated control plants after 24h was modest with differences of one log or less. By contrast, the survival of S. Newport on the leaves of Romaine lettuce was not influenced by Pseudomonas root colonization. These findings provide evidence that root inoculation of certain specialty crops with beneficial Pseudomonas strains exhibiting PGPR properties may not only promote plant growth, but also reduce the fitness of epiphytic S. enterica in the phyllosphere. Plant-mediated effects induced by PGPR may be an effective strategy to minimize contamination of crops with S. enterica during cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES AND PLANT HORMONES ON CARBONIC ANHYDRASE ACTIVITY IN SPINACH (Spinacia oleraceae L. cv. Gladiatör)

    OpenAIRE

    ODABAŞOĞLU, Fehmi; KÜFREVİOĞLU Ö., İrfan

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the 6-7 weeks old spinach (Spinacia oleraceae L. cv. Gladiatör) seedlings were grown up for 15-days after pesticide, hormone and pesticide+hormone had sprayed, and carbonic anhydrase activities were established in the extracted leaves. The established carbonic anhydrase (CA) activities, were compared with treated plants and control plants. We determined that CA activity was inhibited by all pesticides. All hormones which were applied in three different concentrations except 10&...

  13. Effects of stresses on the growth and Cytotoxicity of Shiga-Toxin producing Escherichia coli in ground beef and spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of stresses on the growth and cytotoxicity of pathogenic Escherichia coli in beef and spinach. A mixture of three strains of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 or four strains of non-O157 STEC O26:H11, O103:H1, O104:H4, and O145:NM wa...

  14. Short-term alteration of nitrogen supply prior to harvest affects quality in hydroponic-cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian Yong; Liu, Xiao Xia; Zhang, Ying Peng; Zhou, Yuan Qing; Hu, Yan; Chen, Qiu Hui; Zhang, Yong Song; Jin, Chong Wei

    2014-03-30

    Quality-associated problems, such as excessive in planta accumulation of oxalate, often arise in soillessly cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Maintaining a higher level of ammonium (NH₄⁺) compared to nitrate (NO₃⁻) during the growth period can effectively decrease the oxalate content in hydroponically cultivated vegetables. However, long-term exposure to high concentrations of NH₄⁺ induces toxicity in plants, and thus decreases the biomass production. Short-term application of NH₄⁺ before harvesting in soilless cultivation may provide an alternative strategy to decrease oxalate accumulation in spinach, and minimise the yield reduction caused by NH₄⁺ toxicity. The plants were pre-cultured in 8 mmol L⁻¹ NO₃⁻ nutrient solution. Next, 6 days before harvest, the plants were transferred to a nutrient solution containing 4 mmol L⁻¹ NO₃⁻ and 4 mmol L⁻¹ NH₄⁺. This new mix clearly reduced oxalate accumulation, increased levels of several antioxidant compounds, and enhanced antioxidant capacity in the edible parts of spinach plants, but it did not affect biomass production. However, when the 8 mmol L⁻¹ NO₃⁻ was shifted to either nitrogen-free, 4 mmol L⁻¹ NH₄⁺ or 8 mmol L⁻¹ NH₄⁺ treatments, although some of the quality indexes were improved, yields were significantly reduced. Short-term alteration of nitrogen supply prior to harvest significantly affects quality and biomass of spinach plants, and we strongly recommend to simultaneously use NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ in hydroponic cultivation, which improves vegetable quality without decreasing biomass production. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Cadmium and lead accumulations and agronomic quality of a newly bred pollution-safe cultivar (PSC) of water spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Mu, Yang-Xiu; He, Chun-Tao; Fu, Hui-Ling; Wang, Xue-Song; Gong, Fei-Yue; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2018-02-07

    Breeding for pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) can reduce pollutant accumulation in crops. However, the PSC breeding would face the risk of nutritional quality reduction, which is usually ignored in conventional breeding programs targeting to increase crop yield or nutritional quality. Thus, the doubt whether the risk would exist has to be clarified for supporting the PSC breeding. In the present study, a newly bred Cd/Pb-PSC of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.) and its parents (QLQ with low-Cd/Pb accumulation ability and T308 with high yield) of water spinach were employed to clarify the above-mentioned issue. Yields, and concentrations of Cd, Pb, nitrite, and organic and inorganic nutrients in shoots of the three experimental lines were determined. There were no significant differences in Cd/Pb concentration between the new PSC and QLQ, in nitrite content between the new PSC and its two parents and in yield between the new PSC and T308. It is decisively significant that shoot concentrations of organic and inorganic nutrients in the Cd/Pb-PSC were as high as those in one of its parents. It is affirmed that the breeding operations (crossing and consequently continuous selfing) for lowering Cd/Pb accumulation capacity of water spinach would not lower the nutritional values of the obtained Cd/Pb-PSCs from the breeding, which should be a pillar that supports the feasibility to minimize Cd/Pb pollution in vegetables using PSC-breeding method.

  16. [Effects of Constant Intake of Lutein-rich Spinach on Macular Pigment Optical Density: a Pilot Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Yoko; Nagai, Norihiro; Suzuki, Misa; Kurihara, Toshihide; Shinoda, Hajime; Watanabe, Mitsuru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Anti-oxidative nutrient supplements, including lutein, are an important preventive approach for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this pilot study, we obtained data required for planning a future dietary intervention study investigating the prevention of AMD progression with lutein-rich spinach. We examined 22 eyes from 11 healthy nonsmokers (ages 21-45 years) who ingested 75 g of frozen spinach containing 10 mg lutein every day for 2 months. Food frequency questionnaire, measurement of macular pigment optical density (MPOD), and eye and blood examinations were performed. Mean lutein ± SD intake from food was 0.87 ± 0.76 mg/1,000 kcal at baseline. Mean MPOD, best corrected visual acuity, and serum lutein concentrations were increased at 1 and 2 months compared with baseline. Constant intake of lutein-rich spinach increased both MPOD and serum lutein concentrations. These data are important for planning of a future interventional study examining the effects of dietary lutein.

  17. The effect of foliar feeding of potassium salts and urea in spinach on gas exchange, leaf yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a pot experiment conducted in a phytotron, the effectiveness of foliar feeding of different potassium salts, with and without the addition of 0.5% CO(NH22, in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. was investigated. Potassium was applied 3 times in the form of 1% solutions KCl, KNO3, K2SO4 and C6H5K3O7•H2O, compared to water as the control treatment. The obtained results show that foliar feeding of potassium salts in spinach is an efficient method of supplementing the level of K+ in plants during vegetation. Plants fed with KNO3 had the highest content of potassium in leaves, and those fertilized with K2SO4, C6H5K3O7 × H2O and KCl had an only slightly lower potassium content. The application of potassium salts resulted in more intensive gas exchange in leaves (stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration and, as a consequence of that, increased leaf yield. Potassium nitrate and citrate influenced most effectively the abovementioned processes. The treatment of spinach with potassium salts resulted in an increased content of protein, chlorophyll, carotenoids, nitrates and iron as well as a decreased content of vitamin C and calcium in leaves.

  18. Oxalate synthesis in leaves is associated with root uptake of nitrate and its assimilation in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Xia; Zhou, Kai; Hu, Yan; Jin, Rong; Lu, Ling Li; Jin, Chong Wei; Lin, Xian Yong

    2015-08-15

    Excessive accumulation of oxalate in numerous vegetables adversely affects their quality as food. While it is known that nitrate could effectively stimulate oxalate accumulation in many vegetables, little information is available about the mechanism of nitrate-induced oxalate accumulation. In this study, we examined the association of oxalate synthesis with nitrate uptake and assimilation in two genotypes of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), Heizhenzhu and Weilv. Increasing nitrate levels resulted in enhanced synthesis of oxalate, as well as increased root uptake of nitrate and leaf activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) for both genotypes. Correlation analysis revealed that oxalate accumulation in spinach leaves was positively related with rate of nitrate uptake by roots, as well as leaf activities of NR and GS. Addition of plasmalemma H(+)-ATPase inhibitor sodium vanadate (Na3VO4) significantly decreased leaf oxalate accumulation in both genotypes. Presence of NR or GS inhibitors led to reduction of leaf oxalate contents, GS/NR activities and decreased nitrate uptake rate. Significantly higher levels of nitrate root uptake, leaf NR and GS activities were observed in the high-oxalate genotype Heizhenzhu than in Weilv. Oxalate synthesis in leaves of spinach is not only positively associated with root uptake of nitrate, but also with its assimilation within the plants. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. PROTEOMIC PROFILE REVEALS THE DIVERSITY AND COMPLEXITY OF LEAF PROTEINS IN SPINACH (BETA VULGARIS VAR. ALL GREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Ghosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf is a source organ that serves dual function in photosynthesis and transpiration. As a primary interface between plant and ecosystem, it performs a range of biological processes from carbon assimilation and metabolite partitioning to plant productivity. Basic features of the leaf functionality are conserved in angiosperms exhibiting common and unique characteristics. Spinach has been the model crop for studying leaf function, primarily photosynthesis. It is a reservoir of several hundreds of primary and secondary biomolecules. To better understand the molecular basis for photochemical reaction and metabolic partitioning, we developed leaf proteome of Indian spinach (Beta vulgaris var. all green. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis identified 639 proteins exhibiting discrete molecular features and functions, including photosynthesis, transpiration, gaseous exchange, transport, redox status, cell defense, and floral induction besides the presence of proteins with unknown function. This represents the first comprehensive foliage proteome of green leafy vegetable. Together, this work provides important insights into the molecular networks underlying spinach leaf biological processes.

  20. Combination treatment of chlorine dioxide gas and aerosolized sanitizer for inactivating foodborne pathogens on spinach leaves and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2015-08-17

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas and aerosolized sanitizer, when applied alone or in combination, on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto spinach leaves and tomato surfaces. Spinach leaves and tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of three strains each of the three foodborne pathogens. ClO2 gas (5 or 10 ppmv) and aerosolized peracetic acid (PAA) (80 ppm) were applied alone or in combination for 20 min. Exposure to 10 ppmv of ClO2 gas for 20 min resulted in 3.4, 3.3, and 3.4 log reductions of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes on spinach leaves, respectively. Treatment with 80 ppm of aerosolized PAA for 20 min caused 2.3, 1.9, and 0.8 log reductions of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Combined treatment of ClO2 gas (10 ppmv) and aerosolized PAA (80 ppm) for 20 min caused 5.4, 5.1, and 4.1 log reductions of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes on tomatoes experienced similar reduction patterns to those on spinach leaves. As treatment time increased, most combinations of ClO2 gas and aerosolized PAA showed additive effects in the inactivation of the three pathogens. Combined treatment of ClO2 gas and aerosolized PAA produced injured cells of three pathogens on spinach leaves while generally did not produce injured cells of these pathogens on tomatoes. Combined treatment of ClO2 gas (10 ppmv) and aerosolized PAA (80 ppm) did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the color and texture of samples during 7 days of storage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Impact of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in soil and transfer rate to leafy vegetable spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumar, M Vassanda; Parihar, R S; Dwivedi, A K; Saha, J K; Rajendiran, S; Dotaniya, M L; Kundu, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of heavy metals in the environment by various anthropogenic activities has become a potential treat to life. Among the heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) shows relatively high soil mobility and has high phyto-mammalian toxicity. Integration of soil remediation and ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration in soils through organic amendments, may provide an attractive land management option for contaminated sites. The application of biochar in agriculture has recently received much attention globally due to its associated multiple benefits, particularly, long-term carbon storage in soil. However, the application of biochar from softwood crop residue for heavy metal immobilization, as an alternative to direct field application, has not received much attention. Hence, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in a soil-plant system in cadmium-spiked sandy loam soil. The biochar was prepared from pigeon pea stalk through a slow pyrolysis method at 300 °C. The experiment was designed with three levels of Cd (0, 5, and 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil) and three levels of biochar (0, 2.5, and 5 g kg(-1) soil) using spinach as a test crop. The results indicate that with increasing levels of applied cadmium at 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) soil, the dry matter yield (DMY) of spinach leaf decreased by 9.84 and 18.29 %, respectively. However, application of biochar (at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil) significantly increased the dry matter yield of spinach leaf by 5.07 and 15.02 %, respectively, and root by 14.0 and 24.0 %, respectively, over the control. Organic carbon content in the post-harvest soil increased to 34.9 and 60.5 % due to the application of biochar 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil, respectively. Further, there was a reduction in the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable cadmium in the soil and in transfer coefficient values (soil to plant), as well as its concentrations in spinach leaf and root, indicating that

  2. Room-temperature synthesis of carnation-like ZnO@AgI hierarchical nanostructures assembled by AgI nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanosheets with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Huang, Ni; Wang, Zhonghua; Xia, Guangqiang; Chen, Ming; He, Lingling; Tong, Zhifang; Ren, Chunguang

    2017-09-15

    The preparation of highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst for the photodegradation of organic pollutants has received much attention due to the increasing global energy crises and environmental pollution. In this study, carnation-like ZnO@AgI hierarchical nanostructures assembled by AgI nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanosheets were successfully prepared via a room-temperature route. The as-prepared ZnO@AgI nanostructures exhibited highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation (λ>400nm). Under optimized AgI content, the ZnO@AgI-5% sample showed high photocatalytic activity, which was 25.7 and 1.5 times the activity of pure ZnO and pure AgI, respectively. Mechanism studies indicated that superoxide anion radicals (O 2 - ) was the main reactive species in the photocatalytic process. The high photocatalytic activity of the ZnO@AgI nanostructures is attributed to the highly active AgI nanoparticles and the heterojunction between AgI nanoparticles and ZnO nanosheets. The heterojunction structure reduced the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) of AgI nanoparticles by transferring the electrons from the CB of AgI nanoparticles to the CB of ZnO nanosheets. The composite of ZnO and AgI not only improves photocatalytic efficiency but also reduces photocatalyst cost, which is beneficial for practical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High- but not low-intensity light leads to oxidative stress and quality loss of cold-stored baby leaf spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacz, Marcin; Mogren, Lars M; Reade, John P H; Cobb, Andrew H; Monaghan, James M

    2015-07-01

    Quality management in the fresh produce industry is an important issue. Spinach is exposed to various adverse conditions (temperature, light, etc.) within the supply chain. The present experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of light conditions (dark, low-intensity light (LL) and high-intensity light (HL)) and photoperiod (6 h HL and 18 h dark) on the quality changes of cold-stored spinach. HL exposure resulted in oxidative stress, causing tissue damage and quality loss as evidenced by increased membrane damage and water loss. The content of total ascorbic acid was reduced under HL conditions. On the other hand, storage of spinach under LL conditions gave promising results, as nutritional quality was not reduced, while texture maintenance was improved. No significant differences, with the exception of nutritional quality, were found between spinach leaves stored under continuous (24 h) low-intensity light (30-35 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) and their counterparts stored under the same light integral over 6 h (130-140 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). LL extended the shelf-life of spinach. The amount of light received by the leaves was the key factor affecting produce quality. Light intensity, however, has to be low enough not to cause excess oxidative stress and lead to accelerated senescence. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Investigation of Cd Uptake and Transfer in Different Parts of Wheat, Spinach, Cucumber and Carrot Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Yargholi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution due to the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their subsequent transfer to crops is a global concern that arises from improper application of industrial wastewaters. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of soil Cd on its accumulation rate in the various organs of four common crops in Iran (namely, wheat, spinach, cucumber, and carrot. The experiment was performed in a factorial design with random blocks including 3 treatments with 0 (control, 50, and 100 mg/kg.soil in 4 replicates. Soil was collected from the farm belonging to the Research Institute for Plant and Seed Breeding (Karaj and filtered twice using 2-mm sieves before Cadmium Nitrate (Cd(NO32 was added and completely mixed. Crops were planted in plastic pots 40 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. The water demand was determined using the Jenman Mantite method. At the end of the growing season, samples were taken from various organs of the crops and their Cd concentrations were measured. The results revealed a direct relationship between Cd accumulation and Cd concentration in the root region. All the treatments other than the control exhibited Cd concentrations higher than the standard limits for human consumption. Cadmium accumulation in the different organs of the crops exhibited the following orders: Root: Cucumber

  5. Electrostatic Origin of the Red Solvatochromic Shift of DFHBDI in RNA Spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Samik; Chakrabarty, Suman; Ghosh, Debashree

    2017-05-11

    Interactions with the environment tune the spectral properties of biological chromophores, e.g., fluorescent proteins. Understanding the relative contribution of the various types of noncovalent interactions in the spectral shifts can provide rational design principles toward developing new fluorescent probes. In this work, we investigate the origin of the red shift in the absorption spectra of the difluoro hydroxybenzylidene dimethyl imidazolinone (DFHBDI) chromophore in RNA spinach as compared to the aqueous solution. We systematically decompose the effects of various components of interactions, namely, stacking, hydrogen bonding, and long-range electrostatics, in order to elucidate the relative role of these interactions in the observed spectral behavior. We find that the absorption peak of DFHBDI is red-shifted by ∼0.35 eV in RNA relative to the aqueous solution. Earlier proposals from Huang and co-workers have implicated the stacking interactions between DFHBDI and nucleic acid bases to be the driving force behind the observed red shift. In contrast, our findings reveal that the long-range electrostatic interactions between DFHBDI and negatively charged RNA make the most significant contribution. Moreover, we notice that the opposing electrostatic fields due to the RNA backbone and the polarized water molecules around the RNA give rise to the resultant red shift. Our results emphasize the effect of strong heterogeneity in the various environmental factors that might be competing with each other.

  6. Siderin from Toona ciliata (Meliaceae) as photosystem II inhibitor on spinach thylakoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Thiago A M; González-Vázquez, Raquel; Neto, João Oiano; Silva, Maria F G F; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2007-09-01

    Four natural products were isolated from plants of the Rutaceae and Meliaceae families and their effect on photosynthesis was tested. Siderin (1) inhibited both ATP synthesis and electron flow (basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled) from water to methylviologen (MV); therefore, it acts as Hill reaction inhibitor in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids. Natural products 2-4 were inactive. Secondary metabolite 1 did not inhibit PSI electron transport. It inhibits partial reactions of PSII electron flow from water to 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP), from water to sodium silicomolybdate, and partially inhibits electron flow from diphenylcarbazid (DPC) to DCPIP. These results established that the site of inhibition of 1 was at the donor and acceptor sides of PSII, between P(680) and Q(A). Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements confirmed the behavior of the Toona ciliate coumarin 1 as P(680) to Q(A) inhibitor by the creation of silent centers. May be this is the mechanisms of action of 1 and is the way in which it develops a phytotoxic activity against photosynthesis.

  7. Purification and characterization of an NADH-hexacyanoferrate(III) reductase from spinach leaf plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérczi, A; Fredlund, K M; Møller, I M

    1995-06-20

    Plasma membranes were purified from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaves by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The NADH-hexacyanoferrate(III) reductase was released from the membrane by Chaps solubilization and purified 360-fold by ion-exchange chromatography followed by affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography on FPLC. A major band of 45 kDa and a minor contaminant of 66 kDa were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The band at 45 kDa cross-reacted with antibodies raised against an NADH-hexacyanoferrate(III) reductase from potato tuber microsomes. The native size of the enzyme was 160 kDa as determined by size-exclusion chromatography indicating that it is a tetramer. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, followed by SDS-PAGE revealed three main bands of identical molecular weight with pI of 5.3-5.6. The enzyme contained about one flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) per 45-kDa subunit as determined by fluorescence spectroscopy, was specific for the beta-hydrogen of NADH, preferred NADH over NADPH as electron donor, and preferred hexacyanoferrate(III) as electron acceptor, e.g., it reduced Fe3+-EDTA, cytochrome c, oxygen, and duroquinone at 70% whereas FAD, flavin mononucleotide, duroquinone, and ubiquinone0 did not affect the activity.

  8. Mineral contents of organically and conventionally grown spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) during two successive seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Sedat; Sonmez, Sahriye

    2009-09-09

    Spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) plants were grown organically and conventionally during two successive seasons (late autumn and early winter) in order to examine the nutrient content of the plants. In a series of 17 organic applications including chicken manure (CM), farmyard manure (FM), blood meal (BM), and one mineral fertilizer treatment and one control, collectively 19 treatments, were used at each season. The optimum doses to be recommended should be divided into groups depending on the mineral nutrients and also the seasons as follows: 1.7 CM+7.5 FM in the late autumn season and 2.5 CM + 4.0 FM in the early winter season for N, P, K content; 5.0 FM + 1.2 CM + 0.4 BM in the late autumn; and 2.5 CM + 4.0 FM in the early winter season for Ca and Mg. Regarding the micro nutrients, the group divisions should be as follows: 10.0 FM + 0.4 BM in the late autumn season and 5.0 FM + 2.5 CM in the early winter season for Fe and Cu, and 3.5 CM in the late autumn season and 10.0 FM + 1.2 CM in the early winter season for Mn and Zn content. High rates of farmyard manure (FM) and chicken manure (CM) can be successfully used in organic production, and high rates of these manures may substitute for mineral fertilizer, especially in the late autumn season.

  9. Carbon metabolism in spinach leaves as affected by leaf age and phosphorus and sulfur nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, K J; Heilos, L

    1990-07-01

    Spinach (Spinacea oleracea) plants were grown either continuously on complete nutrient solutions or for 2 weeks on media deficient in phosphate or sulfate. To characterize leaf carbohydrate metabolism, levels of phosphorylated intermediates, activities of enzymes involved in photosynthetic carbon metabolism, contents of soluble and acid hydrolyzable sugars were measured in leaves differing in age and mineral status and related to leaf rates of photosynthesis and assimilate partitioning. Concentrations of metabolites-particularly those which are preferentially compartmented in the cytosol-decreased from young to old leaves and were lowest in old phosphate starved leaves. Nutrient deficiency showed comparable effects on stromal and cytosolic intermediates. Whole leaf ATP to ADP ratios were dependent on the growth regime, but did not much change with leaf age. The assimilatory force increased in all leaves suffering from mineral deficiency; the assimilatory force was low when photosynthesis was high and vice versa. Sugars accumulated although enzyme activities were decreased under deficiency. The results show that growth of P- and S-starved plants is not limited by photosynthetic reactions.

  10. Evidence that pH can drive state transitions in isolated thylakoid membranes from spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Rawal, Pooja; Jajoo, Anjana; Mathur, Sonal; Mehta, Pooja; Bharti, Sudhakar

    2010-06-01

    Our observation that the F735/F685 ratio at 77 K increased when the lumenal pH decreased led us to investigate the role of pH in explaining the mechanism of state transitions in spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) thylakoid membranes. As the lumenal pH was changed from pH 7.5 to 5.5, the quantum yield of PS II decreased, while that of PS I increased. In the presence of an uncoupler, NH(4)Cl, which sequesters protons, a reversal of the effects observed at pH 5.5 were noticed. The thylakoid membranes treated with NaF at pH 5.5, when suspended in a buffer of pH 7.5, showed enhanced PS II fluorescence and a decreased PS I fluorescence, suggesting migration of LHC II back to PS II from PS I. The results presented here suggest for the first time that the lumenal pH of thylakoid membranes regulates the migration of antenna, and hence the energy distribution, between the two photosystems, i.e. a low lumenal pH (pH 5.5) favors antenna migration from PS II to PS I. At pH 7.5, the deprotonation of LHC II antenna attached to PS I leads to back migration of LHC II to PS II.

  11. Carbon Metabolism in Spinach Leaves as Affected by Leaf Age and Phosphorus and Sulfur Nutrition 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Karl-Josef; Heilos, Ludger

    1990-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacea oleracea) plants were grown either continuously on complete nutrient solutions or for 2 weeks on media deficient in phosphate or sulfate. To characterize leaf carbohydrate metabolism, levels of phosphorylated intermediates, activities of enzymes involved in photosynthetic carbon metabolism, contents of soluble and acid hydrolyzable sugars were measured in leaves differing in age and mineral status and related to leaf rates of photosynthesis and assimilate partitioning. Concentrations of metabolites—particularly those which are preferentially compartmented in the cytosol—decreased from young to old leaves and were lowest in old phosphate starved leaves. Nutrient deficiency showed comparable effects on stromal and cytosolic intermediates. Whole leaf ATP to ADP ratios were dependent on the growth regime, but did not much change with leaf age. The assimilatory force increased in all leaves suffering from mineral deficiency; the assimilatory force was low when photosynthesis was high and vice versa. Sugars accumulated although enzyme activities were decreased under deficiency. The results show that growth of P- and S-starved plants is not limited by photosynthetic reactions. PMID:16667581

  12. Spinach thylakoid polyphenol oxidase isolation, activation, and properties of the native chloroplast enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golbeck, J.H.; Cammarata, K.V.

    1981-05-01

    Polyphenol oxidase activity (E.C. 1.14,18.1) has been found in two enzyme species isolated from thylakoid membranes of spinach chloroplasts. The proteins were released from the membrane by sonication and purified >900-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzymes appear to be the tetramer and monomer of a subunit with a molecular weight of 42,500 as determined by lithium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Sonication releases polyphenol oxidase from the membrane largely in the latent state. In the absence of added fatty acids, the isolated enzyme spontaneously, but slowly, activates with time. Purified polyphenol oxidase utilizes o-diphenols as substrates and shows no detectable levels of monophenol or p-diphenol oxidase activities. Suitable substrates include chlorogenic acid, catechol, caffeic acid, pyrogallol, and dopamine; however, the enzyme is substrate-inhibited by the last four at concentrations near their K/sub m/. A large seasonal variation in polyphenol oxidase activity may result from a decrease in enzyme content rather than inhibition of the enzyme present.

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and EPR studies of oriented spinach thylakoid preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Structural Biology Div.

    1995-08-01

    In this study, oriented Photosystem II (PS II) particles from spinach chloroplasts are studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to determine more details of the structure of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). The nature of halide binding to Mn is also studied with Cl K-edge and Mn EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure) of Mn-Cl model compounds, and with Mn EXAFS of oriented PS II in which Br has replaced Cl. Attention is focused on the following: photosynthesis and the oxygen evolving complex; determination of mosaic spread in oriented photosystem II particles from signal II EPR measurement; oriented EXAFS--studies of PS II in the S{sub 2} state; structural changes in PS II as a result of treatment with ammonia: EPR and XAS studies; studies of halide binding to Mn: Cl K-edge and Mn EXAFS of Mn-Cl model compounds and Mn EXAFS of oriented Br-treated photosystem II.

  14. Carbonic anhydrase activity of integral-functional complexes of thylakoid membranes of spinach chloroplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Semenihin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolated thylakoid membranes were disrupted by treatment with nonionic detergents digitonin or dodecyl maltoside. Solubilized polypeptide complexes were separated by native gel charge shift electrophoresis. The position of ATP-synthase complex and its isolated catalytic part (CF1 within gel was determined using the color reaction for ATPase activity. Due to the presence of cytochromes, the red band in unstained gels corresponded to the cytochrome b6f complex. Localization of the cytochrome b6f complex, ATP synthase and coupling CF1 in the native gel was confirmed by their subunit composition determined after SDS-electrophoretic analysis. Carbonic anhydrase (CA activity in polypeptide zones of PS II, cytochrome b6f complex, and ATP-synthase CF1 was identified in native gels using indicator bromothymol blue. CA activity of isolated CF1 in solution was determined by infrared gas analysis as the rate of bicarbonate dehydration. The water-soluble acetazolamide, an inhibitor of CA, unlike lipophilic ethoxyzolamide inhibited CA activity of CF1. Thus, it was shown for the first time that ATP-synthase has a component which is capable of catalyzing the interconversion of forms of carbonic acid associated with proton exchange. The data obtained suggest the presence of multiple forms of carbonic anhydrase in the thylakoid membranes of spinach chloroplasts and confirm their involvement in the proton transfer to the ATP synthase.

  15. Efficient Photoelectrochemical Energy Conversion using Spinach Photosystem II (PSII) in Lipid Multilayer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Magdaong, Nikki M; Shen, Min; Frank, Harry A; Rusling, James F

    2015-04-01

    The need for clean, renewable energy has fostered research into photovoltaic alternatives to silicon solar cells. Pigment-protein complexes in green plants convert light energy into chemical potential using redox processes that produce molecular oxygen. Here, we report the first use of spinach protein photosystem II (PSII) core complex in lipid films in photoelectrochemical devices. Photocurrents were generated from PSII in a ∼2 μm biomimetic dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) film on a pyrolytic graphite (PG) anode with PSII embedded in multiple lipid bilayers. The photocurrent was ∼20 μA cm(-2) under light intensity 40 mW cm(-2). The PSII-DMPC anode was used in a photobiofuel cell with a platinum black mesh cathode in perchloric acid solution to give an output voltage of 0.6 V and a maximum output power of 14 μW cm(-2). Part of this large output is related to a five-unit anode-cathode pH gradient. With catholytes at higher pH or no perchlorate, or using an MnO2 oxygen-reduction cathode, the power output was smaller. The results described raise the possibility of using PSII-DMPC films in small portable power conversion devices.

  16. The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase of spinach leaves responds to blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Penel, Claude; Greppin, Hubert; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase (NOX) of spinach leaf disks is characterized by oscillations in activity with a regular period length of ca. 24 min. Within a single population of plants exposed to light at the same time, NOX activities of all plants function synchronously. Exposure of plants transferred from darkness to blue light (495 nm, 2 min, 50 micromoles m-2 s-1) resulted in a complex response pattern but with a new maximum in the rate of NOX activity 36 (24+12) min after illumination and then with maxima in the rate of NOX activity every 24 min thereafter. Transient maxima in NOX activity were observed as well after 9.3 + /- 1.4 and 20.7 +/- 2.1 min. The blue light response differed from the response to red (650 nm, 10 min, 50 micromoles m-2 s-1) or white light where activity maxima were initiated 12 min after the light exposure followed by maxima every 24 min thereafter. Green or yellow light was ineffective. The light response was independent of the time in the 24-min NOX cycle when the light was given. The net effects of blue and red light were ultimately the same with a new maximum in the rate of NOX activity at 12+24=36 min (and every 24 min thereafter), but the mechanisms appear to be distinct.

  17. Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea Grown in a Controlled Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naz Alia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heavy metal toxicity on the shoot and root lengths, total protein, fiber characteristics, moisture content and nutrient composition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea was evaluated. Plants were grown in pots containing soil and treated with different concentrations (mg/kg of lead (Pb; 300, 400 and 500, cadmium (Cd; 0.5, 1 and 1.5 and zinc (Zn; 250, 500, and 700 as well as mixtures of Cd and Pb (0.5/300, 1/400, 1.5/500, Cd and Zn (0.5/250, 1/500, 1.5/700, and Pb and Zn (300/250, 400/500, 500/700. Soil contaminated by long-term irrigation with wastewater containing heavy metals was simulated. An increase in concentrations of heavy metals both individually and as mixtures significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the growth parameters and nutrient contents of S. oleracea. The uptake patterns of heavy metals in mixtures showed antagonistic impacts on each other. The toxicities of the mixtures Cd and Pb, Cd and Zn as well as Pb and Zn were higher than those observed in separate heavy metal applications but less than their additive sums. The toxicity caused by individual heavy metals was the highest for Cd followed by Pb and Zn. The highest toxicity was observed in plants grown in soil contaminated by Cd and Pb.

  18. Identification of Ser-543 as the major regulatory phosphorylation site in spinach leaf nitrate reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, M.; Shiraishi, N.; Campbell, W. H.; Yoo, B. C.; Harmon, A. C.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Spinach leaf NADH:nitrate reductase (NR) responds to light/dark signals and photosynthetic activity in part as a result of rapid regulation by reversible protein phosphorylation. We have identified the major regulatory phosphorylation site as Ser-543, which is located in the hinge 1 region connecting the cytochrome b domain with the molybdenum-pterin cofactor binding domain of NR, using recombinant NR fragments containing or lacking the phosphorylation site sequence. Studies with NR partial reactions indicated that the block in electron flow caused by phosphorylation also could be localized to the hinge 1 region. A synthetic peptide (NR6) based on the phosphorylation site sequence was phosphorylated readily by NR kinase (NRk) in vitro. NR6 kinase activity tracked the ATP-dependent inactivation of NR during several chromatographic steps and completely inhibited inactivation/phosphorylation of native NR in vitro. Two forms of NRk were resolved by using anion exchange chromatography. Studies with synthetic peptide analogs indicated that both forms of NRk had similar specificity determinants, requiring a basic residue at P-3 (i.e., three amino acids N-terminal to the phosphorylated serine) and a hydrophobic residue at P-5. Both forms are strictly calcium dependent but belong to distinct families of protein kinases because they are distinct immunochemically.

  19. Spectral characterization in a supersonic beam of neutral chlorophyll a evaporated from spinach leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafizadeh, N.; Ha-Thi, M. H.; Soep, B.; Gaveau, M. A.; Piuzzi, F.; Pothier, C.

    2011-09-01

    The observation of the light absorption of neutral biomolecules has been made possible by a method implemented for their preparation in the gas phase, in supersonically cooled molecular beams, based upon the work of Focsa et al. [C. Mihesan, M. Ziskind, B. Chazallon, E. Therssen, P. Desgroux, S. Gurlui, and C. Focsa, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1090 (2006)], 10.1016/j.apsusc.2006.01.082. The biomolecules diluted in frozen water solutions are entrained in the gas plume of evaporated ice generated by an infrared optical parametric oscillators (OPO) laser tuned close to its maximum of absorption, at ˜3 μm. The biomolecules are then picked up in the flux of a supersonic expansion of argon. The method was tested with indole dissolved in water. The excitation spectrum of indole was found cold and large clusters of indole with water were observed up to n = 75. Frozen spinach leaves were examined with the same method to observe the chlorophyll pigments. The Qy band of chlorophyll a has been observed in a pump probe experiment. The Qy bands of chlorophyll a is centred at 647 nm, shifted by 18 nm from its position in toluene solutions. The ionization threshold could also be determined as 6.1 ± 0.05 eV.

  20. Characterization of physical and biochemical changes in plasma treated spinach seed during germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hye Ji, Sang; Ki, Se Hoon; Kang, Min Ho; Choi, Jin Sung; Park, Yeunsoo; Oh, Jaesung; Kim, Seong Bong; Yoo, Suk Jae; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2018-04-01

    Despite the accumulating data on the effect of plasma on seed germination, mechanisms of plasma action need more extensive research. In a previous study, we observed that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma enhanced the germination of spinach seeds and subsequent seedling growth. As a follow-up study, we investigated the physico-chemical, biochemical, and molecular changes in seed after plasma treatment, focusing on the early germination stage, to elucidate mechanism(s) for the stimulating effects of plasma on seed germination. The primary radicle protruded from seeds exposed to high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot) slightly faster than the control seeds. The hydrophilicity of the seed surface significantly increased after treatment with high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot). However, a very subtle increase in water uptake by plasma treated seeds was observed. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy analyses on chloroform extract of seed coats demonstrated no significant chemical etching on the surface of plasma treated seeds. This may be related to no dramatic increase in water absorption by seeds. The level of GA hormone and starch hydrolysis inside the plasma treated seeds was significantly elevated within 24 h. Taken together, our results suggest that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma may not only enhance hydrophilicity of the seed surface but also stimulate biochemical and molecular processes inside seed, leading to enhanced embryonic development.

  1. Evaluation of two systerns of soil desinfection and its interaction with sorne rnicronutrient formulations on the incidence of Fusarium oxysporum in two carnation varieties Evaluación de dos sistemas de desinfección del suelo y su interacción con algunas formulaciones de microelementos sobre la incidencia de Fusarium oxysporum en dos variedades de clavel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco de Amézquita Martha

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was done in a commercial greenhouse in order to evaluate two soil treatments before planting and foliar application of Zinc, Cooper, Manganese, Boron and Molybdenum in the control of vascular wilt of Carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. A greater reduction ofthe fungus population in the seil and disease incidence was observed with
    the soil treatment with Dazomet + steam. The application of micronutrients to the foliage of the plants did not produce a significant control of the disease.
    La investigación se realizó en un cultivo comercial de clavel con el objeto de evaluar el tratamiento del suelo con una mezcla de un fumigante + vapor y la aplicación foliar de Zinc, Cobre, Manganeso, Boro y Molibdeno en las variedades New Pink y Scania, para el control del marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. La mayor población del hongo en el suelo y la menor incidencia de la enfermedad se obtuvo con la aplicación de Dazomet + Vapor. La aplicación de micronutrientes al follaje de las plantas no produjo una disminución significativa de la enfermedad, ni un aumento en la producción de flores. Evaluation of two systems of soil desinfection and their interaction with some formulation of micronutrients on the incidence of Fusetium oxysporum in two carnation varieties.

  2. Concentrating biomass of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea) and spinach (Amaranthus sp.) by ultrafiltration for source of organic acids and natural antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspiyanto, Susilowati, Agustine; Lotulung, Puspa D.; Maryati, Yati

    2017-11-01

    Organic acids and polyphenol from fermentation of green vegetables by Kombucha culture are novelty functional food to achieve prebiotic and natural antioxidant. Ultrafiltration (UF) mode was performed to concentrate biomass of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Amaranthus spp.) at stirrer rotation speed of 200, 300 and 400 rpm, room temperature and trans membrane pressure 40 psia for 30 minutes. Based on total organic acids, experiment activity showed that the best treatment on biomass of fermented broccoli and spinach were reached at stirrer rotation speed of 400 rpm and 300 rpm, respectively. In this condition, fermented broccoli and spinach concentrates gave total acids 0.83 % and 0.81 %, total polyphenol 0.06 % and 0.11 %, reducing sugar 63.95 mg/mL and 20.54 mg/mL, total sugars 2.43 ug/mL and 2.28 ug/mL, total solids 6.42 % and 7.17 %, respectively. Compared with feed, the optimum condition on fermented spinach and broccoli concentrates increased total acids 13.33 % and 10 %, however decreased total polyphenol 34.1 % and 41 %. Identification on monomer from fermented spinach and broccoli at optimum condition on lactic acid were dominated by monomers with molecular weights (MWs) 252.19 and 252.36 Dalton (Da.), and monomer of polyphenol dominated by monomer with MWs 193.17 and 193.22 Da. and relative intensity 100 %. Fermented broccoli has potency as prebiotic, meanwhile fermented spinach has potency as anti oxidant.

  3. Multifactorial effects of ambient temperature, precipitation, farm management, and environmental factors determine the level of generic Escherichia coli contamination on preharvested spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2015-04-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to identify farm management, environment, weather, and landscape factors that predict the count of generic Escherichia coli on spinach at the preharvest level. E. coli was enumerated for 955 spinach samples collected on 12 farms in Texas and Colorado between 2010 and 2012. Farm management and environmental characteristics were surveyed using a questionnaire. Weather and landscape data were obtained from National Resources Information databases. A two-part mixed-effect negative binomial hurdle model, consisting of a logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial part with farm and date as random effects, was used to identify factors affecting E. coli counts on spinach. Results indicated that the odds of a contamination event (non-zero versus zero counts) vary by state (odds ratio [OR] = 108.1). Odds of contamination decreased with implementation of hygiene practices (OR = 0.06) and increased with an increasing average precipitation amount (mm) in the past 29 days (OR = 3.5) and the application of manure (OR = 52.2). On contaminated spinach, E. coli counts increased with the average precipitation amount over the past 29 days. The relationship between E. coli count and the average maximum daily temperature over the 9 days prior to sampling followed a quadratic function with the highest bacterial count at around 24°C. These findings indicate that the odds of a contamination event in spinach are determined by farm management, environment, and weather factors. However, once the contamination event has occurred, the count of E. coli on spinach is determined by weather only. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Effect of a bacteriophage cocktail in combination with modified atmosphere packaging in controlling Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyacioglu O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A Listeria monocytogenes-specific bacteriophage cocktail was evaluated for its activity against a nalidixic acid-resistant L. monocytogenes (Lm-NalR isolate on fresh-cut spinach stored under modified atmosphere packaging at various temperatures. Pieces (~2 × 2 cm2 of fresh spinach inoculated with 4.5 log CFU/cm2 Lm-NalR were sprayed with the phage cocktail (6.5 log plaque-forming units [PFU]/cm2 or a control. The samples were stored at 4°C or 10°C for up to 14 d in sealed packages filled with either atmospheric air (AA or modified atmosphere (MA. At 4°C under AA, the phages significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lowered the Lm-NalR populations on spinach, compared to control-treated inoculated samples, by 1.12 and 1.51 log CFU/cm2 after 1 and 14 d, respectively. At 4°C under MA, Lm-NalR was significantly reduced by 1.95 log CFU/cm2 compared to control leaves after both 1 and 14 d. At 10°C under AA, the phages significantly reduced Lm-NalR by 1.50 and 2.51 log CFU/cm2 after 1 and 14 d compared to the control. Again at 10°C under MA, the phages significantly reduced Lm-NalR by 1.71 and 3.24 log CFU/cm2 compared to control after 1 and 14 d, respectively. The results support the potential of lytic bacteriophages in effectively reducing populations of L. monocytogenes on freshcut leafy produce, under both AA and MA conditions.

  5. Role of curli and plant cultivation conditions on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into spinach grown on hydroponics and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarisin, Dumitru; Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Vijay K

    2014-03-03

    Contamination of fresh produce could represent a public health concern because no terminal kill step is applied during harvest or at the processing facility to kill pathogens. In addition, once contaminated, pathogens may internalize into produce and be protected from disinfectants during the postharvest processing step. The objective of the current study was to determine the potential internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into spinach roots and subsequent transfer to the edible parts. Because curli are involved in biofilm formation, we investigated whether their presence influence the internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach. Further, the effect of the spinach cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was evaluated. Spinach plants were grown in contaminated soil as well as hydroponically to prevent mechanical wounding of the roots and inadvertent transfer of pathogens from the contamination source to the non-exposed plant surfaces. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 could internalize into hydroponically grown intact spinach plants through the root system and move to the stem and leaf level. The incidence of internalization was significantly higher in hydroponically grown plants when roots were exposed to 7 log CFU/mL compared to those exposed to 5 log CFU/mL. The effect of cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was not significant (P>0.05) for the analyzed spinach varieties, internalization incidences showing almost equal distribution between Space and Waitiki, 49.06% and 50.94% respectively. Wounding of the root system in hydroponically grown spinach increased the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 internalization and translocation to the edible portions of the plant. Experimental contamination of the plants grown in soil resulted in a greater number of internalization events then in those grown hydroponically, suggesting that E. coli O157:H7 internalization is dependent on root damage, which is more likely to occur when plants are grown in soil

  6. Alternative soaking media for the FDA procedure in the detection of salmonella from tomatoes and spinach leaf using phage magnetoelastic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Hsuan; Hu, Jiajia; Wang, Fengen; Horikawa, Shin; Barbaree, James M.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2016-05-01

    Efforts were made to incorporate the phage Magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor in FDA's Spinach Soaking procedures according to FDA 2015 BAM method. Three soaking materials (Lactose broth, LB broth, and Peptone water) and various soaking times were investigated. Using merely 100 Salmonella cells spiked on the produce surfaces, the phage biosensors detected Salmonella within 5 hours when soaking tomatoes in LB broth as opposed to taking up to 24 hours. Salmonella was detected on spinach leaves within 7 hours. These phage ME biosensors provide a promising rapid detection platform using LB broth in FDA's soaking procedures while shortening the incubation period.

  7. Identification of a regulatory phosphorylation site in the hinge 1 region of nitrate reductase from spinach (Spinacea oleracea) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P; Morrice, N; MacKintosh, C

    1995-12-18

    Purified nitrate reductase (NR) from spinach leaves was phosphorylated in vitro by NR-inactivating kinase on Ser-543 which is located in the hinge 1 region between the molybdenum-cofactor and haem-binding domains. Phosphorylation of Ser-543 allowed NR to be inhibited by the inhibitor, NIP. Degraded NR preparations in which a proportion of the subunits had lost 45 amino acids from the N-terminus during purification could be phosphorylated by NR kinase on Ser-543, but could not subsequently be fully inhibited by NIP, suggesting a role for the N-terminal tail of NR in NIP binding.

  8. 3-(2-Alkylsulfanyl-6-benzothiazolylaminomethyl-2-benzoxazolethiones - Synthesis and Photosynthesis-Inhibiting Activity in Spinach Chloropasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Loos

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of 14 new 3-(2-alkylsulfanyl-6-benzothiazolylaminomethyl-2-benzoxazolethiones are reported. The new compounds were prepared by the reaction of 2-alkylsulfanyl-6-aminobenzothiazoles with 3-hydroxymethyl-2-benzoxazolethione. The structures of the compounds were verified by 1H NMR spectra. The compounds inhibit photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts. The photosynthetic activity was found to depend on the calculated lipophilicity of the new compounds. Some structure characteristics and quantum chemical parameters were calculated by AM1 method.

  9. Glycolate formation catalyzed by spinach leaf transketolase utilizing the superoxide radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabe, T; Asami, S; Akazawa, T

    1980-08-19

    A homogeneous preparation of transketolase was obtained from spinach leaf; the specific enzyme activity was 9.5 mumolo of glyceraldehyde-3-P formed (mg of protein)-1 min-1, when xylulose-5-P and ribose-5-P were used as the donor and acceptor, respectively, of the ketol residue. Transketolase catalyzed the formation of glycolate from fructose-6-P coupled with the O2- -generating system of xanthine-xanthine oxidase. The addition of superoxide dismutase (145 units) or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonic acid (Tiron) (5 mM), both O2- scavengers, to the reaction system inhibited glycolate formation 72 and 58%, respectively. The reacton was not inhibited by catalase. Mannitol, an .OH scavenger, and beta-carotene and 1,4-diazobicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 1O2 scavengers, showed little or no inhibitory effects. The rate of glycolate formation catalyzed by the transketolase system was measured in a coupled reaction with a continuous supply of KO2 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, used as an O2- -generating system. The optimum pH of the reaction was above pH 8.5. The second-order rate constant for the reaction between transketolase and O2-, determined by the competition for O2- between nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and transketolase, was 1.0 X 10(6) M-1 s-1. Transketolase showed an inhibitory effect on the O2- -dependent reduction of NBT only if the reaction mixture was previously incubated with ketol donors such as fructose-6-P, xylulose-5-P, or glycolaldehyde. The results suggest the possibility that transketolase catalyzes O2- -dependent glycolate formation under increased steady-state levels of O2- in the chloroplast stroma.

  10. Formation of the Fe-S cluster of ferredoxin in lysed spinach chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Mitsui, Akira; Matsubara, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    In vitro formation of the 35 S-labeled Fe-S cluster of ferredoxin (Fd) has been achieved by incubating apo-Fd and [ 35 S]cysteine with osmotically lysed chloroplasts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Correct integration of the 35 S-labeled Fe-S cluster into Fd was verified on the basis of the following: (a) Under nondenaturing conditions, 35 S-labeled holo-Fd showed the same electrophoretic mobility as authentic holo-Fd; (b) 35 S-labeled holo-Fd showed an ability to bind Fd-NADP + reductase; (c) the 35 S-labeled moiety was removed from the Fd polypeptide by TCA treatment but not by 2-mercaptoethanol treatment; (d) externally added pea II apo-Fd was converted to 35 S-labeled holo-Fd. This reconstitution was dependent on both ATP and light, and formation of the 35 S-labeled Fe-S cluster was observed upon addition of ATP or when an ATP generation-system was constructed in the light. In contrast, ATP-consuming systems abolished the Fe-S cluster formation. A non-hydrolyzable ATP analog was unable to serve as an ATP substitute, indicating the requirement of ATP hydrolysis for cluster formation. GTP was able to substitute for ATP, but CTP and UTP were less effective. Fe-S cluster formation in lysed chloroplasts was stimulated by light even in the presence of added ATP. Light stimulation was inhibited by DCMU or methyl viologen but not by NH 4 + . NADPH was able to substitute for light, indicating that light energy is required for the production of reducing compounds such as NADPH in addition to the generation of ATP

  11. Growth of spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L. exposed to excess zinc and manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals in agricultural soils lead to worrisome effects on the water, soil, and plants. A greenhouse study was conducted in Tunja, Colombia to determine the effects of excess Zn and Mn on leaf area, root length, dry matter production and partitioning, root to shoot ratio, specific leaf weight, water uptake, and agronomic water use efficiency in spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea L. hyb. Marimba. Seedlings were grown floating on a complete nutrient solution in 4 L glass containers. Concentrations of 40 mg L-1 Mn, 40 mg L-1 Zn, 80 mg L-1 Mn, 80 mg L-1 Zn and combinations thereof were added to the solution, with a control treatment receiving no excess Zn or Mn. Zn at 40 mg L-1 reduced leaf area by 78.82% in relation to the controls; 40 mg L-1 Mn increased leaf area by 35.23%. Plants exposed to 80 mg L-1 Zn with 80 mg L-1 Mn increased allocation of biomass to leaves by 45.05% as compared to the control plants. Addition of 80 mg L-1 Zn and 40 mg L-1 Mn + 80 mg L-1 Zn led to an increase of 9.24 and 29.75%, respectively, in dry matter allocation to stem + petioles. Roots were affected the most by excess Mn and Zn, alone and in combination. While addition of 40 or 80 mg L-1 of Mn reduced total root length by 45.06 and 81.64%, respectively; while Zn concentrations of 40 or 80 mg L-1 reduced total root length by 88.78 and 98.07%, respectively

  12. No influence of supplemental dietary calcium intake on the bioavailability of spinach carotenoids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-Real, Joana; Guignard, Cédric; Gantenbein, Manon; Weber, Bernard; Burgard, Kim; Hoffmann, Lucien; Richling, Elke; Bohn, Torsten

    2017-06-01

    Dietary carotenoid intake, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been associated with a reduced incidence of several chronic diseases. However, its bioavailability can vary, depending on the food matrix and host factors. Recently, it has been suggested that divalent minerals negatively impinge on carotenoid bioavailability by reducing bile-salt and non-esterified fatty-acid levels in the gut, which normally aid in emulsifying carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplemental Ca would negatively influence carotenoid absorption in humans. A total of twenty-five healthy, non-obese men (age: 20-46 years, BMIcarotenoids/100 g fresh weight), supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg of Ca (as calcium carbonate), with each participant acting as his or her own control. Blood samples were collected at regular postprandial intervals for up to 10 h following test meal intake, and standardised lunches were served. TAG-rich lipoprotein fractions were separated and carotenoid concentrations determined. AUC for meals without supplemented Ca were 22·72 (sem 2·78) nmol×h/l (lutein), 0·19 (sem 3·90) nmol×h/l (β-carotene) and 2·80 (sem 1·75) nmol×h/l (β-cryptoxanthin). No significant influence of supplementation with either 500 or 1000 mg of supplemental Ca was found. In conclusion, Ca - the most abundant divalent mineral in the diet - given at high but physiological concentrations, does not appear to have repercussions on the bioavailability of carotenoids from a spinach-based meal.

  13. Effects of mercury on visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of mustard spinach plants (Brassica rapa P.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunagan, Sarah C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University, 265 Church Street, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)]. E-mail: sdunagan@wesleyan.edu; Gilmore, Martha S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University, 265 Church Street, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)]. E-mail: mgilmore@wesleyan.edu; Varekamp, Johan C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University, 265 Church Street, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)]. E-mail: jvarekamp@wesleyan.edu

    2007-07-15

    Mustard spinach plants were grown in mercury-spiked and contaminated soils collected in the field under controlled laboratory conditions over a full growth cycle to test if vegetation grown in these soils has discernible characteristics in visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectra. Foliar Hg concentrations (0.174-3.993 ppm) of the Mustard spinach plants were positively correlated with Hg concentration of soils and varied throughout the growing season. Equations relating foliar Hg concentration to spectral reflectance, its first derivative, and selected vegetation indices were generated using stepwise multiple linear regression. Significant correlations are found for limited wavelengths for specific treatments and dates. Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Red Edge Position (REP) values of plants in Hg-spiked and field-contaminated soils are significantly lower relative to control plants during the early and middle portions of the growth cycle which may be related to lower chlorophyll abundance or functioning in Hg-contaminated plants. - Some spectral characteristics of leaves of Brassica rapa P. may be associated with foliar mercury content.

  14. Investigation of the metabolic consequences of impregnating spinach leaves with trehalose and applying a pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Panarese, Valentina; Herremans, Els; Cantre, Dennis; Schoo, Rick; Toraño, Javier Sastre; Schluepmann, Henriette; Wadso, Lars; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart M; Dejmek, Petr; Gómez Galindo, Federico

    2016-12-01

    The impregnation of leafy vegetables with cryoprotectants using a combination of vacuum impregnation (VI) and pulsed electric fields (PEF) has been proposed by our research group as a method of improving their freezing tolerance and consequently their general quality after thawing. In this study, we have investigated the metabolic consequences of the combination of these unit operations on spinach. The vacuum impregnated spinach leaves showed a drastic decrease in the porosity of the extracellular space. However, at maximum weight gain, randomly located air pockets remained, which may account for oxygen-consuming pathways in the cells being active after VI. The metabolic activity of the impregnated leaves showed a drastic increase that was further enhanced by the application of PEF to the impregnated tissue. Impregnating the leaves with trehalose by VI led to a significant accumulation of trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), however, this was not further enhanced by PEF. It is suggested that the accumulation of T6P in the leaves may increase metabolic activity, and increase tissue resistance to abiotic stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Element contents and food safety of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) cultivated with wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle; Jørgensen, Karin; Holm, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    .0-62.1 Cu, 29.9-52.8 Ni, 32.5-67.4 Pb, 0.578-0.765 T1 and 99-189 Zn mg kg(-1) dry weight (d.w.). In all samples Cd, Pb and Zn soil concentrations were below the Vietnamese Guideline Values (TCVN 7209-2002) for agricultural soils whereas As and Cu exceeded the guideline values. Maximum site element...... concentrations in water spinach were 0.139 As, 0.032 Cd, 0.135 Cr, 2.01 Cu, 39.1 Fe, 57.3 Mn, 0.16 Ni, 0.189 Pb and 6.01 Zn mg kg(-1) fresh weight (f.w.). The site and soil content of organic carbon were found to have high influence on the water spinach element concentrations whereas soil pH and the total soil...... element concentrations were of less importance. The estimated average daily intake of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn for adult Vietnamese consumers amounts to

  16. Improving spinach, radish, and lettuce growth under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue light supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorio, N. C.; Goins, G. D.; Kagie, H. R.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherriette), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green), and spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Nordic IV) plants were grown under 660-nm red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and were compared at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) with either plants grown under cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF) or red LEDs supplemented with 10% (30 micromoles m-2 s-1) blue light (400-500 nm) from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. At 21 days after planting (DAP), leaf photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were greater for plants grown under CWF light than for those grown under red LEDs, with or without supplemental blue light. At harvest (21 DAP), total dry-weight accumulation was significantly lower for all species tested when grown under red LEDs alone than when grown under CWF light or red LEDs + 10% BF light. Moreover, total dry weight for radish and spinach was significantly lower under red LEDs + 10% BF than under CWF light, suggesting that addition of blue light to the red LEDs was still insufficient for achieving maximal growth for these crops.

  17. Elemental Profile of Heavy Metals in Garden cress, Coriander, Lettuce and Spinach, Commonly Cultivated in Kahrizak, South of Tehran- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souri Mohammad Kazem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal accumulation in vegetable tissues often poses a great risk for human health. In the present study, accumulation of heavy metal in green leafy vegetable crops of coriander, garden cress, lettuce and spinach were evaluated under waste water irrigation in fields located in Kahrizak, on the southern edge of the metropolitan city of Tehran, Iran. Atomic absorption spectrophotometery was used for determination of heavy metal concentrations in leaf tissue. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations in soil and irrigation water were significantly high than allowable levels. Analysis of plant leaf tissue showed that spinach and garden cress accumulated higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to coriander and lettuce plants. Central leaves of lettuce showed the lowest heavy metal concentration compared to outer leaves or leaves of other vegetable crops, and can be the safer product for fresh consumption. The results indicate that the vegetables produced in the region are not suitable for fresh consumption and the agricultural activities should change towards ornamental or industrial crops production.

  18. Proper Management Of Irrigation Water And Nitrogen Fertilizer To Improve Spinach Yield And Reserve Environment Using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GADALLA, A.M.; GALAL, Y.G.M.; ISMAIL, M.M.; EL DEGWY, S.A.; HAMDY, A.; HAMED, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of water regime and N-fertilizer application rate and modality of its application were studied by the aim of identifying the most proper and effective combination of the above studied variables that provide a satisfactory spinach yield as well as to minimize the rational use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers to save the surrounding environment and to achieve a good water saving. The results indicated that reasonable production of spinach crop could be achieved by using 75% of the recommended rate of nitrogen fertilizer combined with 80% of the required water. It means that 20% of the required water could be saved as well as 25% of the required quantity of N-fertilizer. Similarly, the splitting of N-fertilizer into two equal doses prevented the excess of nitrate to be moved to the underground water lowering its concentration in the blades and plant leaves. Drip irrigation system accompanied with proper water scheduling regime and good fertilizer application practices is considered as a useful management practice that could be applied to improve the sandy soil productivity.

  19. Effects of plant maturity and bacterial inoculum level on the colonization and internalization of escherichia coli 0157:H7 in growing spinach leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce has increased in the United States. Particularly noteworthy, was the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with pre-packaged baby spinach. The study aimed to determine whether E. coli O157:H7 would be present in the aerial leaf...

  20. Practical use of the fertigation control based on cumulative solar radiation to decrease the nitrate concentration in spinach [Spinacia oleracea] grown in the greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Y.; Tsukagoshi, S.; Hayashi, N.; Maruo, T.; Hohjo, M.

    2007-01-01

    Spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L.) were grown in a greenhouse using fertigation based on cumulative solar radiation, and effects on plant growth, nitrate concentration in the leaves, and nitrate utilization/application ratio were studied. The relation of water and NO3-N absorption to cumulative solar radiation was initially determined in hydroponically grown spinach, then the stepwise fertigation program was set to 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 times the standard quantity. With 1.2 fertigation treatment, plant growth and leaf color did not differ from those of plants cultivated by conventional soil culture. Total nitrate supplied to the soil under fertigation treatment were about half of that at soil culture. The nitrate utilization/application ratio was increased from 44% in soil culture to 82% under fertigation treatment. The nitrate concentration in spinach leaves under fertigation treatments tended to be lower compared to those under soil culture. In addition, the production of spinach with lower nitrate and without effects on growth seemed to be feasible by the withdrawal of NO3-N in the drip solution for several days before harvest

  1. Organic chelants-mediated enhanced lead (Pb) uptake and accumulation is associated with higher activity of enzymatic antioxidants in spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-11-05

    The spinach was tested in the present studies for its phytoextraction potential. Furthermore, the study assessed whether organic chelants could reduce oxidative stress, and thus enhance growth of spinach plants under 2.42 and 4.83mM Pb regimes. Different organic chelates viz. ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid, (EDTA), citric acid (CA), oxalic acid (OA), tartaric acid (TA) and malic acid (MA) were applied separately in addition to control (without chelating agents) under different Pb regimes. The low (2.42mM) Pb regime increased biological yield (kgha(-1)). All the chelates except OA increased biological yield under low Pb regime. In contrast, TA caused less decrease in biomass under high (4.83mM) Pb regime. The chelate-assisted rise in the antioxidant activities substantially contributed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) neutralization. Of the chelates, TA was the most effective in improving Pb uptake and its root to shoot translocation. Overall, the chelate-assisted buildup of Pb in the spinach did not exhibit inhibitory effects on the plant growth possibly due to their potential to decrease Pb-induced oxidative damage. The results elaborated the potential of TA in increasing root to shoot translocation of Pb, biomass, and thus suggested its use for phytoextraction of Pb using spinach in Pb contaminated environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and biochemical characterisation of monomeric and dimeric photosystem II complexes from spinach and their relevance to the organisation of photosystem II in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankamer, B; Nield, J; Zheleva, D; Boekema, E; Jansson, S; Barber, J

    1997-01-01

    Membranes enriched in photosystem II were isolated from spinach and further solubilised using n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (OctGlc) and n-dodecyl beta-D-maltoside (DodGlc(2)). The OctGlc preparation had high rates of oxygen evolution and when subjected to size-exclusion HPLC and sucrose density

  3. Complementation of Escherichia coli uncD mutant strains by a chimeric F1-beta subunit constructed from E. coli and spinach chloroplast F1-beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkovski, Andreas; Lill, H; Engelbrecht, Siegfried

    1994-01-01

    ATP-synthesizing F0F1-ATPases are complex enzymes consisting of at least eight different subunits. These subunits are conserved during evolution to a very variable degree ranging in pairwise comparison between, for example, Escherichia coli and spinach chloroplast from 20% to 66% identical residues.

  4. KINETIC RESOLUTION OF DIFFERENT RECOVERY PHASES OF PHOTOINHIBITED PHOTOSYSTEM-II IN COLD-ACCLIMATED AND NON-ACCLIMATED SPINACH LEAVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWIJK, KJ; VANHASSELT, PR

    Leaf discs from spinach were exposed to a photon flux density of 1 250 mumol m-2 s-1 at 5-degrees-C for 2 or 3 h in ambient air. Photoinhibition of photosystem II (PS II) was measured by means of chlorophyll fluorescence. Recovery of photosystem II was followed at 6-degrees-C and 20-degrees-C in low

  5. Sulfate and thiol levels in roots and shoot of sulfur-deprived spinach plants as affected by high pedospheric sulfate levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, AM; de Kok, LJ

    2000-01-01

    Sulfur-deprivation of spinach resulted in a reduced growth, a decreased shoot/root ratio and an increase in dry matter content. The content of sulfur, thiols and soluble proteins was strongly decreased, whereas that of nitrate and free amino acids was increased. When sulfur-deprived plants were

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on the reduction of Salmonella strains, Listeria monocytogenes, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and sensory evaluation of minimally processed spinach (Tetragonia expansa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Igarashi, Maria Crystina; Destro, Maria Teresa; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Landgraf, Mariza

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of irradiation on the reduction of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella strains, and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as on the sensory characteristics of minimally processed spinach. Spinach samples were inoculated with a cocktail of three strains each of STEC, Salmonella strains, and L. monocytogenes, separately, and were exposed to gamma radiation doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 kGy. Samples that were exposed to 0.0, 1.0, and 1.5 kGy and kept under refrigeration (4°C) for 12 days were submitted to sensory analysis. D10 -values ranged from 0.19 to 0.20 kGy for Salmonella and from 0.20 to 0.21 for L. monocytogenes; for STEC, the value was 0.17 kGy. Spinach showed good acceptability, even after exposure to 1.5 kGy. Because gamma radiation reduced the selected pathogens without causing significant changes in the quality of spinach leaves, it may be a useful method to improve safety in the fresh produce industry.

  7. Inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 on the surface of Fresh Spinach by bacteriophage ECP-100 and Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last multistate Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) outbreak linked to bagged spinach in 2006 has raised concerns about the safety of ready-to-eat vegetables. Since washing alone or in combination with chemicals has been ineffective in completely killing EHEC, there is an urgent need for more effect...

  8. Mathematical modeling and numerical analysis of the growth of Non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in spinach leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in spinach leaves and to develop kinetic models to describe the bacterial growth. Six serogroups of non-O157 STEC, including O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, were used in the growth stu...

  9. Genetic resources collections of leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach, chicory, artichoke, asparagus, lamb’s lettuce, rhubarb and rocket salad): composition and gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Coquin, P.; Lohwasser, U.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce, spinach and chicory are generally considered the main leafy vegetables, while a fourth group denoted by ‘minor leafy vegetables’ includes, amongst others, rocket salad, lamb’s lettuce, asparagus, artichoke and rhubarb. Except in the case of lettuce, central crop databases of leafy

  10. Characterization of an Olive Flounder Bone Gelatin-Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite Film and Evaluation of Its Potential Application in Spinach Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beak, Songee; Kim, Hyeri; Song, Kyung Bin

    2017-11-01

    Olive flounder bone gelatin (OBG) was used for a film base material in this study. In addition, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were incorporated into the OBG film to prepare a nanocomposite film and to impart antimicrobial activity to it. The tensile strength of the OBG film increased by 6.62 MPa, and water vapor permeability and water solubility decreased by 0.93 × 10 -9 g/m s Pa and 13.79%, respectively, by the addition of ZnO to the OBG film. In particular, the OBG-ZnO film exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate the applicability of the OBG-ZnO packaging film, fresh spinach was wrapped in this film and stored for a week. The results indicated that the OBG-ZnO film showed antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes inoculated on spinach without affecting the quality of spinach, such as vitamin C content and color. Thus, the OBG-ZnO nanocomposite film can be applied as an efficient antimicrobial food packaging material. As a base material of edible films, gelatin was extracted from olive flounder bone, which is fish processing by-product. Olive flounder bone gelatin (OBG) nanocomposite films were prepared with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO). For an application to antimicrobial packaging, spinach was wrapped with the OBG-ZnO nanocomposite film. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Impact of Sweet Potato Starch-Based Nanocomposite Films Activated With Thyme Essential Oil on the Shelf-Life of Baby Spinach Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel Issa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi and Escherichia coli (E. coli have been responsible for an increasing number of outbreaks linked to fresh produce, such as baby spinach leaves, in the last two decades. More recently, antimicrobial biodegradable packaging systems have been attracting much attention in the food packaging industry as eco-friendly alternatives to conventional plastic packaging. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibacterial nanocomposite films on inoculated spinach leaves and on the sensory properties of these leaves during eight days of refrigerated storage. In this study, an antibacterial film comprised of sweet potato starch (SPS, montmorillonite (MMT nanoclays and thyme essential oil (TEO as a natural antimicrobial agent was developed. Our results showed that the incorporation of TEO in the film significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the population of E. coli and S. Typhi on fresh baby spinach leaves to below detectable levels within five days, whereas the control samples without essential oil maintained approximately 4.5 Log colony forming unit (CFU/g. The sensory scores for spinach samples wrapped in films containing TEO were higher than those of the control. This study thus suggests that TEO has the potential to be directly incorporated into a SPS film to prepare antimicrobial nanocomposite films for food packaging applications.

  12. A novel approach to investigate the uptake and internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in spinach cultivated in soil and hydroponic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach plants through root uptake is a potential route of contamination. A Tn7-based plasmid vector was used to insert the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene into the attTn7 site in the E. coli chromosome. Three gfp-labeled E. coli inocula, O157:H7 strains ...

  13. The Effect of Nitrate Levels and Harvest Times on Fe, Zn, Cu, and K, Concentrations and Nitrate Reductase Activity in Lettuce and Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gheshlaghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are considered as the main sources of nitrate in the human diet. In order to investigate the effect of nitrate levels and harvest times on nitrate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu and K in Lettuce and Spinach and their relation to nitrate accumulation in these leafy vegetables, two harvest times (29 and 46 days after transplanting, two vegetable species of lettuce and spinach and two concentrations of nitrate (10 and 20 mM were used in a hydroponics greenhouse experiment with a completely randomized design and 3 replications. Modified Hoagland and Arnon nutrient solutions were used for the experiment. The results indicated that by increasing nitrate concentration of solution, nitrate accumulation in roots and shoots of lettuce and spinach increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05, and the same trend was observed for the nitrate reductase activity in the shoots of the two species. Increasing the nitrate concentrations of solution, reduced the shoot dry weight and the concentration of Fe and Cu in both species, where as it increased the K and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the two species in each both harvest times, the nitrate accumulation increased, but the nitrate reductase activity decreased in the shoots of the two species over the course of the growth. The Concentration of Fe, Cu and K decreased in the shoots of lettuce and the spinach with the time, despite the increase in Zn concentration in the shoots. The results also indicated that increasing nitrate concentrations of solution to the levels greater than the plant capacity for reduction and net uptake of nitrate, leads to the nitrate accumulation in the plants. Nitrate accumulation in plant tissue led to decreases in fresh shoot yield and Fe and Cu concentrations and nitrate reductase activities in both lettuce and spinach.

  14. A simple and efficient method to prepare pure dimers and monomers of the cytochrome b6f complex from spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, María A; Lorente, Patricia; Zazubovich, Valter; Picorel, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    Using a single size-exclusion chromatography we were able to isolate highly pure dimers and monomers of the Cyt b 6 f complex from spinach from a bulk preparation of that protein complex obtained with a standard procedure. At higher protein/detergent ratio during the chromatography most of the Cyt b 6 f complex remained as dimers. In contrast, at lower protein/detergent ratio (around 15 times lower), most dimers became monomerized. As a bonus, this chromatography also allowed the elimination of potential Chl a contaminant to the Cyt b 6 f preparations. SDS-PAGE protein analysis with 18% (w/v) acrylamide revealed the loss of the ISP subunit in our monomeric preparation. However, it fully retained the content of Chl a, a prerequisite to perform any spectroscopic study involving this unique pigment.

  15. Complementary nutrient effects of separately collected human faeces and urine on the yield and nutrient uptake of spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutu, Funso R; Muchaonyerwa, Pardon; Mnkeni, Pearson N S

    2011-05-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the combined use of separately collected human faeces and urine as fertilizer for spinach (Spinacia oleracea) production. Seven human faeces N : urine N combinations (1 : 7 to 7 : 1) each supplying 200 kg N ha(-1) were evaluated along with sole human faeces, sole urine, inorganic fertilizer and an unamended control. Complementary application of the two resources, human faeces and urine, increased fresh and dry matter yields only in treatments having high proportions of urine. Nitrogen uptake followed the same trend but the opposite trend occurred for P uptake indicating that urine was a better source of N whereas human faeces were the better source of P. Potassium uptake was not influenced by the two resources. The minimal improvement observed in the fertilizer value of human faeces when co-applied with urine suggested that co-application of the two resources may not give an added yield advantage when compared with sole human faeces.

  16. Extraction and characterization of mixed phase KNO2-KNO3 nanocrystals derived from flat-leaf green spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, S; Mohanta, D

    2013-01-01

    Naturally available green spinach, which is a rich source of potassium, was used as the key ingredient to extract mixed-phase ferroelectric crystals of nitrite and nitrate derivatives (KNO 2 + KNO 3 ). The KNO 3 phase was found to be dominant for higher pH values, as revealed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. The characteristic optical absorption spectra exhibited intra-band π-π* electronic transitions, whereas Fourier transform infrared spectra exhibited characteristic N-O stretching vibrations. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed a broad endothermic peak at ∼121.8 °C, highlighting a transition from phase II to I via phase III of KNO 3 . Obtaining nanoscale ferroelectrics via the adoption of green synthesis is economically viable for large-scale production and possible application in ferroelectric elements/devices.

  17. The effect of acid rain stress on membrane protective system of spinach and the conservation of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongling, Y; Yetang, H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Based on pot experiments, the effect of acid rain stress on membrane protective system of spinach and the effect of rare earth elements has been studied. The results showed, stress of acid rain resulted in decrease of over all level of superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and increase of peroxidase (POD) activity. After being treated by rare earth elements, the overall level of superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity were increased and the peak value of activity variation curve moved toward to the direction of higher acidity. POD activity increased slightly, comparing with the plants that hadn't been treated by rare earth elements under same acid rain condition; the three important enzymes of membrane protective system could be kept on a relatively stable level. It was clear that in relative lower acidity condition, rare earth elements can reduce the impact of acid rain on the membrane protective system

  18. A spinach O-acetylserine(thiollyase homologue, SoCSaseLP, suppresses cysteine biosynthesis catalysed by other enzyme isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Noda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme, O-acetylserine(thiollyase (OASTL, also known as O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase or cysteine synthase (CSase, catalyses the incorporation of sulfide into O-acetylserine and produces cysteine. We previously identified a cDNA encoding an OASTL-like protein from Spinacia oleracea, (SoCSaseLP, but a recombinant SoCSaseLP produced in Escherichia coli did not show OASTL activity. The exon-intron structure of the SoCSaseLP gene shared conserved structures with other spinach OASTL genes. The SoCSaseLP and a Beta vulgaris homologue protein, KMT13462, comprise a unique clade in the phylogenetic tree of the OASTL family. Interestingly, when the SoCSaseLP gene was expressed in tobacco plants, total OASTL activity in tobacco leaves was reduced. This reduction in total OASTL activity was most likely caused by interference by SoCSaseLP with cytosolic OASTL. To investigate the possible interaction of SoCSaseLP with a spinach cytosolic OASTL isoform SoCSaseA, a pull-down assay was carried out. The recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST-SoCSaseLP fusion protein was expressed in E. coli together with the histidine-tagged SoCSaseA protein, and the protein extract was subjected to glutathione affinity chromatography. The histidine-tagged SoCSaseA was co-purified with the GST-SoCSaseLP fusion protein, indicating the binding of SoCSaseLP to SoCSaseA. Consistent with this interaction, the OASTL activity of the co-purified SoCSaseA was reduced compared with the activity of SoCSaseA that was purified on its own. These results strongly suggest that SoCSaseLP negatively regulates the activity of other cytosolic OASTL family members by direct interaction.

  19. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    of growth regulators were observed to be 3 × 10−6M indoleacetic acid (JAA) combined with 3 × 10−6M benzylaminopurin (BAP) or 10−6M 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) alone. IAA + BAP caused a 100 fold increase in fresh weight over 4 weeks at 25°C. Addition of casein hydrolysate increased growth further....... Cell suspension cultures worked best in media containing 2,4-D in which they had a doubling time of about 2 days. Filtered suspensions were successfully plated on agar in petri dishes, but division was never observed in single cells. The cultures initiated roots at higher concentrations of IAA or NAA...

  20. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for indoxacarb in various salad plants and in spinach-like plants

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Belgium, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), compiled an application to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance indoxacarb in rucola, cress, land cress, red mustard, other lettuce and salad plants, purslane (including sorrel and glassworth), beet leaves and other spinach and similar (leaves). In order to accommodate for the intended uses of indoxacarb, Belgium proposed to raise the existing MRLs fro...

  1. NADH-Ferricyanide Reductase of Leaf Plasma Membranes : Partial Purification and Immunological Relation to Potato Tuber Microsomal NADH-Ferricyanide Reductase and Spinach Leaf NADH-Nitrate Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askerlund, P; Laurent, P; Nakagawa, H; Kader, J C

    1991-01-01

    Plasma membranes obtained by two-phase partitioning of microsomal fractions from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv Medania) and sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) contained relatively high NADH-ferricyanide reductase and NADH-nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1) activities. Both of these activities were latent. To investigate whether these activities were due to the same enzyme, plasma membrane polypeptides were separated with SDS-PAGE and analyzed with immunoblotting methods. Antibodies raised against microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase (tentatively identified as NADH-cytochrome b(5) reductase, EC 1.6.2.2), purified from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Bintje) tuber microsomes, displayed one single band at 43 kilodaltons when reacted with spinach plasma membranes, whereas lgG produced against NR from spinach leaves gave a major band at 110 kilodaltons together with a few fainter bands of lower molecular mass. Immunoblotting analysis using inside-out and right-side-out plasma membrane vesicles strongly indicated that NR was not an integral protein but probably trapped inside the plasma membrane vesicles during homogenization. Proteins from spinach plasma membranes were solubilized with the zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio] 1-propane-sulfonate and separated on a Mono Q anion exchange column at pH 5.6 with fast protein liquid chromatography. One major peak of NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity was found after separation. The peak fraction was enriched about 70-fold in this activity compared to the plasma membrane. When the peak fractions were analyzed with SDS-PAGE the NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity strongly correlated with a 43 kilodalton polypeptide which reacted with the antibodies against potato microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase. Thus, our data indicate that most, if not all, of the truly membrane-bound NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity of leaf plasma membranes is due to an enzyme very similar to potato tuber

  2. Coupling Spore Traps and Quantitative PCR Assays for Detection of the Downy Mildew Pathogens of Spinach (Peronospora effusa) and Beet (P. schachtii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Steven J.; Anchieta, Amy; McRoberts, Neil; Koike, Steven T.; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Voglmayr, Hermann; Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco; Martin, Frank N.

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew of spinach (Spinacia oleracea), caused by Peronospora effusa, is a production constraint on production worldwide, including in California, where the majority of U.S. spinach is grown. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for detection of airborne inoculum of P. effusa in California. Among oomycete ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences examined for assay development, the highest nucleotide sequence identity was observed between rDNA sequences of P. effusa and P. schachtii, the cause of downy mildew on sugar beet and Swiss chard in the leaf beet group (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between P. effusa and P. schachtii in the 18S rDNA regions for design of P. effusa- and P. schachtii-specific TaqMan probes and reverse primers. An allele-specific probe and primer amplification method was applied to determine the frequency of both P. effusa and P. schachtii rDNA target sequences in pooled DNA samples, enabling quantification of rDNA of P. effusa from impaction spore trap samples collected from spinach production fields. The rDNA copy numbers of P. effusa were, on average, ≈3,300-fold higher from trap samples collected near an infected field compared with those levels recorded at a site without a nearby spinach field. In combination with disease-conducive weather forecasting, application of the assays may be helpful to time fungicide applications for disease management. PMID:24964150

  3. Effects of waste water irrigation on soil properties and soil fauna of spinach fields in a West African urban vegetable production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchly, Kathrin; Dao, Juliane; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Buerkert, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L.) in a West African urban vegetable production system. We used gypsum as a soil amendment with the potential to alleviate soil chemical stress resulting in a potentially positive impact on soil arthropods. A total of 32 plots were established that showed a gradient in soil pH ranging from slight to strong soil alkalinity and that were irrigated with WW (n = 12) or clean water (CW; n = 20), including eight plots into which gypsum was incorporated. Our study revealed a high tolerance of soil-dwelling arthropods for alkaline soils, but spinach fields with increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) showed a reduced abundance of Hymenoptera, Diptera and Auchenorrhyncha. Arthropod abundance was positively related to a dense spinach cover that in turn was not affected by WW irrigation or soil properties. Gypsum application reduced soil pH but increased soil EC. WW irrigation and related soil pH affected arthropod composition in the investigated spinach fields which may lead to negative effects on agronomical important arthropod groups such as pollinators and predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Yield and quality responses of drip-irrigated spinach to different irrigation quantities in a semi-arid region with a high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin KUSLU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different irrigation quantities on the growth, marketable yield, crop quality (antioxidant activity, mineral and total phenolic content and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE of spinach grown in a semi-arid region of high altitude (1795 m a.s.l. was determined. Plants were irrigated with three different irrigation quantities which determined considering 100 (I1, 85 (I2 and 70% (I3 of the evaporation obtained from a Class A pan. Irrigation quantities in the I1, I2 and I3 treatments as two years average were 290, 264.3 and 238.6 mm, respectively. The I1 treatment provided the highest growth, marketable yield (28.06 t*ha-1 and IWUE (9.7 kg*m-3. However, mineral and total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the leaves of spinach were significantly higher under lower water application conditions. The I2 treatment resulted with the highest antioxidant activity and content of N, K, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu and total phenolics. As a result of the study, I1 treatment in spinach production could be suitable for water sufficient regions due to higher yield and IWUE. However, I2 treatment may be more appropriate for water scarce semi-arid regions of high altitude for obtaining higher minerals and antioxidant activity.

  5. Antioxidant assays – consistent findings from FRAP and ORAC reveal a negative impact of organic cultivation on antioxidant potential in spinach but not watercress or rocket leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Adrienne C; Mazzer, Alice; Clarkson, Graham J J; Taylor, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum), wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) are commercial crops reported to have high concentrations of antioxidants, possibly contributing to disease prevention following human consumption. Following analysis of supermarket-purchased salad leaves, we report the antioxidant content potential of these species using two comparable techniques assessing the consistency between the assays – by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The leaves were harvested from both conventionally and organically managed crops, to investigate whether organic agriculture results in improved crop quality. Watercress had the highest FRAP and ability to scavenge free radicals, followed by spinach and rocket. For watercress and rocket, there was no significant effect of organic agriculture on FRAP and ORAC, but for spinach, the antioxidant potential was reduced and this was significant at the 5% level of probability for FRAP but not ORAC, although the trend was clear in both tests. We conclude that there is variation in salad crop antioxidant potential and that FRAP and ORAC are useful techniques for measuring antioxidants in these salad crops with similar ranking for each salad crop studied. PMID:24804054

  6. Antioxidant assays - consistent findings from FRAP and ORAC reveal a negative impact of organic cultivation on antioxidant potential in spinach but not watercress or rocket leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Adrienne C; Mazzer, Alice; Clarkson, Graham J J; Taylor, Gail

    2013-11-01

    Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum), wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) are commercial crops reported to have high concentrations of antioxidants, possibly contributing to disease prevention following human consumption. Following analysis of supermarket-purchased salad leaves, we report the antioxidant content potential of these species using two comparable techniques assessing the consistency between the assays - by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The leaves were harvested from both conventionally and organically managed crops, to investigate whether organic agriculture results in improved crop quality. Watercress had the highest FRAP and ability to scavenge free radicals, followed by spinach and rocket. For watercress and rocket, there was no significant effect of organic agriculture on FRAP and ORAC, but for spinach, the antioxidant potential was reduced and this was significant at the 5% level of probability for FRAP but not ORAC, although the trend was clear in both tests. We conclude that there is variation in salad crop antioxidant potential and that FRAP and ORAC are useful techniques for measuring antioxidants in these salad crops with similar ranking for each salad crop studied.

  7. Worldwide open proficiency test on the determination of radionuclides in spinach, soil and water. IAEA-CU-2007-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The results of analytical measurements play a vital role in our daily lives. Analytical data may be the basis upon which economic, legal or environmental management decisions are made, and they are essential in international trade, environmental protection, safe transportation, law enforcement, consumer safety and the preservation of human health. This summary report presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test (PT) on the determination of radionuclides in spinach, soil and water. Methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. This proficiency test was mainly focused on the assessment of the analytical performance in the determination of nuclides in different matrices. Therefore, the property values of the PT samples were traceable to international standards. Additionally, the evaluation of the data focused also on the uncertainty estimations reported by participants. The number of samples, their matrix interferences and concentration levels of the analytes were designed in a way to enable enhancing identification of potential analytical problems. Finally, every participant received an individual report shortly after the deadline to provide quick feedback to the participants

  8. Cryopreservation of spinach chloroplast membranes by low-molecular-weight carbohydrates. II. Discrimination between colligative and noncolligative protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, K A; Giersch, C

    1983-02-01

    Thylakoid membranes isolated from spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Monatol) were subjected to a freeze-thaw cycle in the presence of various concentrations of sugars, polyhydric alcohols, and NaCl. Functional integrity of the membranes was assayed by means of cyclic photophosphorylation. From the nonideal activity-concentration profiles of the carbohydrates the effective NaCl concentrations in the surroundings of the membranes at the respective freezing temperatures were calculated. Comparison of the cryoprotective efficiency of the various polyols revealed that cryopreservation by low-molecular-weight compounds is predominantly due to colligative action of the solutes. In addition, specific effects of carbohydrates which cannot be explained by the colligative concept are involved in cryoprotection. At NaCl concentrations exceeding 15 mm, the relative contribution of noncolligative membrane protection of a given polyol to overall cryopreservation was independent of the salt concentration. However, during freezing in the presence of very low salt concentrations, for instance 1-4 mm NaCl, cryoprotection due to colligative phenomena is reduced in favor of other mechanisms.

  9. Amelioration of Abnormalities Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome bySpinacia oleracea(Spinach) Consumption and Aerobic Exercise in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Vandana; Mistry, Kinjal; Sudhamani, S; Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluates the protective effects of an antioxidant-rich extract of Spinacea oleracea (NAOE) in abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rats. HPTLC of NAOE revealed the presence of 13 total antioxidants, 14 flavonoids, and 10 phenolic acids. Rats administered with fructose (20%  w / v ) in drinking water for 45 days to induce abnormalities of MetS received NAOE (200 and 400 mg/kg, po), the standard drug gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg, po), aerobic exercise (AE), and a combination of NAOE 400 mg/kg and AE (NAOEAE) daily for 45 days. All treatments significantly altered the lipid profile and attenuated the fructose-elevated levels of uric acid, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and marker enzymes (AST, LDH, and CK-MB) in serum and malondialdehyde in the heart and restored the fructose-depleted levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). A significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels decreased insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance was observed in the treatment animals when compared with the fructose-fed animals. The best mitigation of MetS was shown by the NAOEAE treatment indicating that regular exercise along with adequate consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach in diet can help control MetS.

  10. Amelioration of Abnormalities Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome by Spinacia oleracea (Spinach Consumption and Aerobic Exercise in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Panda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the protective effects of an antioxidant-rich extract of Spinacea oleracea (NAOE in abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS in rats. HPTLC of NAOE revealed the presence of 13 total antioxidants, 14 flavonoids, and 10 phenolic acids. Rats administered with fructose (20% w/v in drinking water for 45 days to induce abnormalities of MetS received NAOE (200 and 400 mg/kg, po, the standard drug gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg, po, aerobic exercise (AE, and a combination of NAOE 400 mg/kg and AE (NAOEAE daily for 45 days. All treatments significantly altered the lipid profile and attenuated the fructose-elevated levels of uric acid, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and marker enzymes (AST, LDH, and CK-MB in serum and malondialdehyde in the heart and restored the fructose-depleted levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. A significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels decreased insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance was observed in the treatment animals when compared with the fructose-fed animals. The best mitigation of MetS was shown by the NAOEAE treatment indicating that regular exercise along with adequate consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach in diet can help control MetS.

  11. Recovery of Fermented Spinach (Amaranthus sp. Concentrate Through Ultrafiltration Membrane Process as Source of Folic Acid for Smart Food Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspiyanto Aspiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation process on spinach (Amaranthus sp. by Kombucha culture was done as an effort to recover naturally folic acid as bioactive components to increase smartness. The experimental activity was done by means of UF membrane (100,000 MWCO fitted in Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC at stirrer rotation speed 200 and 400 rpm, room temperature, pressure 20 and 40 Psi for 30 min. Result of experimental activity showed that based on both selectivity and recovery of folic acid, process optimization of UF was reached at stirrer rotation speed 200 rpm and pressure 40 Psi. In the optimum condition, SUFC technique was able to recover folic acid in retentate 67.75% and in permeate 97.27% (63.19 µg/mL. Identification of monomer in permeate from the optimum process treatment was find out folic acid monomer with molecular weight (MW 441.39 and relative intensity 93% at mass spectra T2.32 between m/z 257–304 and glutamic acids monomer with MW 148.57 and relative intensity 0.22% at mass spectra T2.82 between m/z 415–470. Other dominant monomer were folic acid fraction.

  12. THE EFFECT OF DETERGENTS ON THE CHLOROPHYLL-PROTEIN COMPOUND OF SPINACH AS STUDIED IN THE ULTRACENTRIFUGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E L; Pickels, E G

    1941-07-20

    1. The chlorophyll-protein compound of the spinach leaf has been studied in the air-driven ultracentrifuge using the Svedberg light-absorption method, and a direct-reading refractive index method. 2. When the untreated extracts are centrifuged at low speeds, the green protein sediments with a purely random spread of particle sizes confirming the fact that the protein is not in true solution. 3. In the presence of digitonin, bile salts, and sodium desoxycholate, the extracts are clarified. These detergents split the chlorophyll from the protein and the protein itself shows a sedimentation constant of 13.5 x 10(-13) equivalent to a molecular weight of at least 265,000 as calculated from Stokes' law. This probably represents the minimum size of the protein in native form. 4. Sodium dodecyl sulfate, a detergent which also clarifies the leaf extracts, shows a different behavior. The prosthetic group remains attached to the protein but the protein is split into smaller units. In 0.25 per cent SDS, S(20) is 2.6 x 10(-13) over a pH range of 5 to 9, although at the acid pH chlorophyll is converted to phaeophytin. In 2.5 per cent SDS, S(20) is 1.7 x 10(-13) suggesting a further splitting of the protein. 5. No differences in behavior were found for the various chloroplast pigments.

  13. Regulation of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity by the Activase System in Lysed Spinach Chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Martin A. J.; Keys, Alfred J.; Foyer, Christine H.; Furbank, Robert T.; Walker, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase in lysed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv virtuosa) chloroplasts that had been partly inactivated at low CO2 and Mg2+ by incubating in darkness with 4 millimolar partially purified RuBP was reactivated by light. If purified RuBP was used to inhibit dark activation of the enzyme, reactivation by light was not observed unless fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, ATP, or ADP plus inorganic phosphate were also added. Presumably, ADP plus inorganic phosphate acted as an ATP-generating system with a requirement for the generation of ΔpH across the thylakoid membrane. When the RuBP obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. was used, light did not reactivate the enzyme. There was no direct correlation between ΔpH and activation. Therefore, thylakoids are required in the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activase system largely to synthesize ATP. Inactivation of RuBP carboxylase in isolated chloroplasts or in the lysed chloroplast system was not promoted simply by a transition from light to dark conditions but was caused by low CO2 and Mg2+. PMID:16666184

  14. The Use of Contact Mode Atomic Force Microscopy in Aqueous Medium for Structural Analysis of Spinach Photosynthetic Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuthong, Witchukorn; Huang, Zubin; Wittkopp, Tyler M.; Sznee, Kinga; Heinnickel, Mark L.; Dekker, Jan P.; Frese, Raoul N.; Prinz, Fritz B.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2015-07-28

    To investigate the dynamics of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in vascular plants at high resolution in an aqueous environment, membrane-protruding oxygen-evolving complexes (OECs) associated with photosystem II (PSII) on spinach (Spinacia oleracea) grana membranes were examined using contact mode atomic force microscopy. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first use of atomic force microscopy to distinguish the putative large extrinsic loop of Photosystem II CP47 reaction center protein (CP47) from the putative oxygen-evolving enhancer proteins 1, 2, and 3 (PsbO, PsbP, and PsbQ) and large extrinsic loop of Photosystem II CP43 reaction center protein (CP43) in the PSII-OEC extrinsic domains of grana membranes under conditions resulting in the disordered arrangement of PSII-OEC particles. Moreover, we observed uncharacterized membrane particles that, based on their physical characteristics and electrophoretic analysis of the polypeptides associated with the grana samples, are hypothesized to be a domain of photosystem I that protrudes from the stromal face of single thylakoid bilayers. Our results are interpreted in the context of the results of others that were obtained using cryo-electron microscopy (and single particle analysis), negative staining and freeze-fracture electron microscopy, as well as previous atomic force microscopy studies.

  15. Management of tannery wastewater for improving growth attributes and reducing chromium uptake in spinach through citric acid application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Arosha; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ishaque, Wajid; Rasool, Nasir; Rehman, Muhammad Zia Ur; Bashir, Arooj; Abid, Muhammad; Wu, Longhua

    2018-02-03

    The use of chromium (Cr)-contaminated tannery wastewater for irrigation is a common practice, especially in developing countries like Pakistan. This practice is due to the shortage of good quality irrigation water for crop growth as well as the issue of tannery wastewater disposal. The current study was done to evaluate the effect of citric acid (CA) (0, 1.0, and 2.0 mM) on the growth and Cr uptake by spinach irrigated with different mixtures of tap water and tannery wastewater (100:0, 50:50, and 0:100 tap water to wastewater ratio). Plants were grown for 8 weeks under ambient conditions. Results showed that 50:50% tap water and wastewater increased plant height, dry weights of shoots and roots, total chlorophyll contents, and gas exchange attributes than the plants treated with only tap water or only wastewater. Increasing wastewater ratio increased electrolyte leakage (EL) in plants and enhanced the leaf key antioxidant enzyme activities as well as increased Cr contents. Foliar application of CA increased the plant dry weights, photosynthesis, and enzyme activities, whereas reduced the EL and Cr concentrations in plants than respective treatments without CA application. It can be concluded that 50:50 tap water and wastewater irrigation along with foliar CA application might be an effective strategy for increasing vegetable growth with reduced metal concentrations.

  16. A fluorescence detected magnetic resonance investigation of the carotenoid triplet states associated with Photosystem II of isolated spinach thylakoid membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Santabarbara, S; Carbonera, D; Heathcote, P

    2005-01-01

    The carotenoid triplet populations associated with the fluorescence emission chlorophyll forms of Photosystem II have been investigated in isolated spinach thylakoid membranes by means of fluorescence detected magnetic resonance in zero field (FDMR). The spectra collected in the 680-690 nm emission range, have been fitted by a global analysis procedure. At least five different carotenoid triplet states coupled to the terminal emitting chlorophyll forms of PS II, peaking at 682 nm, 687 nm and 692 nm, have been characterised. The triplets associated with the outer antenna emission forms, at 682 nm, have zero field splitting parameters D = 0.0385 cm/sup -1/, E = 0.00367 cm/sup -1/; D = 0.0404 cm/sup -1/, E = 0.00379 cm/sup -1/ and D = 0.0386 cm/sup -1/, E = 0.00406 cm/sup -1/ which are very similar to those previously reported for the xanthophylls of the isolated LHC II complex. Therefore the FDMR spectra recorded in this work provide insights into the organisation of the LHC II complex in the unperturbed enviro...

  17. Rapid, enhanced detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh spinach leaves using micron-scale, phage-coated magnetoelastic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Shin; Vaglenov, Kiril A.; Gerken, Dana M.; Chai, Yating; Park, Mi-Kyung; Li, Suiqiong; Petrenko, Valery A.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2012-05-01

    In order to cost-effectively and rapidly detect bacterial food contamination in the field, the potential usefulness of phage-coated magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors has been recently reported. These biosensors are freestanding, mass-sensitive biosensors that can be easily batch-fabricated, thereby reducing the fabrication cost per sensor to a fraction of a cent. In addition, the biosensors can be directly placed on fresh produce surfaces and used to rapidly monitor possible bacterial food contamination without any preceding sample preparation. Previous investigations showed that the limit of detection (LOD) with millimeter-scale ME biosensors was fairly low for fresh produce with smooth surfaces (e.g., tomatoes and shell eggs). However, the LOD is anticipated to be dependent on the size of the biosensors as well as the topography of produce surfaces of interest. This paper presents an investigation into the use of micron-scale, phage-coated ME biosensors for the enhanced detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh spinach leaves.

  18. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea to Hydroponic and Aquaponic Water Quality Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Vandam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinach (Spinacia oleracea cv. Carmel was grown in a conventional glass greenhouse under three different nutrient solution treatments. Lighting and temperature conditions were identical. Six growing systems were used to provide a duplicate trough system for each of these three treatments. Six trials were harvested from each system over a two month time period. Two treatments received hydroponic nutrient inputs, with one treatment at pH 7.0 (referred to as H7 and the other at pH 5.8 (H5, and the third treatment was aquaponic (A7, receiving all of its nutrients from a single fish tank with koi (Cyprinus carpio except for chelated iron. System pH was regulated by adding K2CO3 to aquaponic systems and KOH to hydroponic systems. Comparisons made between treatments were total yield, leaf surface area, tissue elemental content, and dry weight to fresh weight ratio. Dry weight biomass yield values were not different in pairwise comparisons between treatments (A7 vs. H5: p = 0.59 fresh weight, p = 0.42 dry weight. Similarly, surface area results were not different between treatments. The important comparison was that A7 achieved the same growth as H5, the conventional pH with a complete inorganic nutrient solution, despite unbalanced and less than “ideal” nutrient concentrations in the A7 condition.

  19. Surface and internalized Escherichia coli O157:H7 on field-grown spinach and lettuce treated with spray-contaminated irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Webb, Cathy C; Diaz-Perez, Juan Carlos; Phatak, Sharad C; Silvoy, John J; Davey, Lindsey; Payton, Alison S; Liao, Jean; Ma, Li; Doyle, Michael P

    2010-06-01

    Numerous field studies have revealed that irrigation water can contaminate the surface of plants; however, the occurrence of pathogen internalization is unclear. This study was conducted to determine the sites of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination and its survival when the bacteria were applied through spray irrigation water to either field-grown spinach or lettuce. To differentiate internalized and surface populations, leaves were treated with a surface disinfectant wash before the tissue was ground for analysis of E. coli O157:H7 by direct plate count or enrichment culture. Irrigation water containing E. coli O157:H7 at 10(2), 10(4), or 10(6) CFU/ml was applied to spinach 48 and 69 days after transplantation of seedlings into fields. E. coli O157:H7 was initially detected after application on the surface of plants dosed at 10(4) CFU/ml (4 of 20 samples) and both on the surface (17 of 20 samples) and internally (5 of 20 samples) of plants dosed at 10(6) CFU/ml. Seven days postspraying, all spinach leaves tested negative for surface or internal contamination. In a subsequent study, irrigation water containing E. coli O157:H7 at 10(8) CFU/ml was sprayed onto either the abaxial (lower) or adaxial (upper) side of leaves of field-grown lettuce under sunny or shaded conditions. E. coli O157:H7 was detectable on the leaf surface 27 days postspraying, but survival was higher on leaves sprayed on the abaxial side than on leaves sprayed on the adaxial side. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into lettuce leaves also occurred with greater persistence in leaves sprayed on the abaxial side (up to 14 days) than in leaves sprayed on the adaxial side (2 days).

  20. Quality of fresh-cut baby spinach grown under a floating trays system as affected by nitrogen fertilisation and innovative packaging treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Stephanie; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Gómez, Perla A; Fernández, Juan Antonio; Artés, Francisco

    2010-04-30

    Alternative techniques for cultivation of leafy vegetables such as a floating tray system and unconventional gas mixtures for post-harvest active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) could be of interest in the minimally processed vegetable industry. The combined effect of three pre-harvest fertilisation doses (8, 12 or 16 mmol N L(-1)) and three post-harvest MAP conditions (passive, super-atmospheric or N2O-enriched) on the main quality attributes of fresh-cut baby spinach leaves throughout 10 days at 5 degrees C was studied. After 8 days of shelf life, spinach leaves fertilised with 8 and 16 mmol N L(-1) and stored under N2O-enriched MAP showed the lowest microbial growth, with good sensory quality. Such combined treatments also preserved the total antioxidant capacity sampled at harvest (8 g ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity kg(-1) f.w.). A decrease of 10-20% in total vitamin C content regardless of N fertilisation and packaging treatment was found during shelf life. Total phenolics content at harvest was 2 g gallic acid equivalents kg(-1) f.w., which was slightly decreased or preserved during shelf life while total chlorophylls were preserved for all treatments assayed around 550 mg kg(-1) f.w. No clear effect of fertilisation doses was observed during post-harvest storage on overall quality of fresh-cut baby spinach leaves, while N2O-enriched atmospheres seems to be a promising alternative to passive MAP for extending shelf life.

  1. Phytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L) and the role of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Parvin [Laboratory of Environmental Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Fugetsu, Bunshi, E-mail: hu@ees.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Environmental Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MWNTs are selected for study of the systemic toxicity and the potential influence on red spinach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microscopic observation revealed some adverse effects on root and leaf. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell damage were detected on 15 days after the exposure to MWNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROS increase ceased once ascorbic acid was added into media. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress seems to be the key element responsible for causing the toxicity. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a novel nanomaterial with wide potential applications; however the adverse effects of CNTs following environmental exposure have recently received significant attention. Herein, we explore the systemic toxicity and potential influence of 0-1000 mg L{sup -1} the multi-walled CNTs on red spinach. The multi-walled CNTs exposed plants exhibited growth inhibition and cell death after 15 days of hydroponic culture. The multi-walled CNTs had adverse effects on root and leaf morphology, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy detected the multi-walled CNTs in leaves. Biomarkers of nanoparticle toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell damage in the red spinach were greatly increased 15 days post-exposure to the multi-walled CNTs. These effects were reversed when the multi-walled CNTs were supplemented with ascorbic acid (AsA), suggesting a role of ROS in the multl-walled CNT-induced toxicity and that the primary mechanism of the multi-walled CNTs' toxicity is oxidative stress.

  2. Species- and age-dependent sensitivity to ozone in young plants of pea, wheat and spinach. Effects on acyl lipid and pigment content and metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, A.S.; Wallin, G.; Sandelius, A.S.

    1996-11-01

    Acyl lipids and pigments were analyzed in young plants of garden pea, spring wheat and spinach exposed to < 5 or 65 nl l{sup -1} ozone 12 h per day for 5 days, in one set of experiments, the plants were exposed to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} for 2 h 3 days prior to ozone exposure. The plants responded differently to the moderately enhanced level of ozone used. Spinach was not at all sensitive while in both pea and wheat, leaves of different ages differed in ozone sensitivity. In pea, ozone sensitivity increased with leaf age. In the second and third oldest leaves, the amounts of galactolipids per leaf area and the proportions of 18:3 of the total lipid extract and of phosphatidylglycerol decreased. In the second oldest leaf, ozone also caused a decreased proportion of 18:3 of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. In the fourth oldest leaf, lipid composition and galactolipid unsaturation was unaffected, but ozone caused decreased leaf expansion resulting in increased acyl lipid content per leaf area. In both the first and second leaves of wheat, ozone fumigation caused a marked decrease in the content of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and in the first leaf, the contents of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased. The proportion of 18:3 in phosphatidylcholine was larger in ozone-fumigated than in control plants, while the reverse applied for phosphatidylglycerol. In the oldest sampled leaves of pea and wheat, ozone caused an increase in the radioactivity associated with {beta}-carotene, indicting increased turnover. Thus, while spinach was unaffected, in both pea and whet ozone caused a decrease in the proportion of chloroplast membrane lipids to non-chloroplast membrane lipids in older leaves while younger leaves were less sensitive. (au) 21 refs.

  3. Coordinate and non-coordinate expression of the stress 70 family and other molecular chaperones at high and low temperature in spinach and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q B; Haskell, D W; Guy, C L

    1999-01-01

    Stress 70 molecular chaperones are found in all the major subcellular compartments of plant cells, and they are encoded by a multigene family. Twelve members of this family have been identified in spinach. The expression of the stress 70 molecular chaperones in response to heat shock is well-known and it appears that low temperature exposure can also stimulate their expression. However, it has been difficult to determine which member(s) of the family are specifically responsive to low temperature. This study was initiated to determine the levels of expression of the stress 70 family members and other selected chaperones in response to high and low temperature exposure. During heat shock of spinach, of the 10 stress 70 family members that were examined, all 10 showed increased RNA levels after one hour, and all showed down-regulation at longer durations of high temperature exposure. However, the response to low temperature was quite variable and complex. Some members were induced, some were transiently up-regulated, while others showed sustained up-regulation at a low non-freezing temperature. In comparison, the entirety of the molecular chaperone expression response of cold-sensitive tomato at the same low non-freezing temperature was even more dramatic with 11 of 15 molecular chaperones tested exhibiting elevated expression. The increased chaperone expression is consistent with the hypothesis that the biogenesis or stability of some proteins is compromised at low non-freezing temperatures. In contrast, mild freezing sufficient to cause injury of spinach did not materially activate chaperone expression.

  4. Inoculating chlamydospores of Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1 changes arsenic availability and enzyme activity in soils and improves water spinach growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shiming; Zeng, Xibai; Bai, Lingyu; Williams, Paul N; Wang, Yanan; Zhang, Lili; Wu, Cuixia

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic (As)-contaminated agricultural soils threaten crop yields and pose a human health risk. Augmentation of exogenous microorganisms exhibiting plant-growth promoting and As speciation changing shows potential to improve crop growth and change soil As availability. Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1 exhibiting both traits was developed into chlamydospores to improve its persistence in contaminated soils. After inoculation, As availability and enzyme activity in two types of soils and the growth as well as As uptake of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.) were investigated. The results indicated that inoculation significantly improved water spinach growth in both soils. Inoculating chlamydospores at 5% significantly increased As concentration (139%), bioconcentration factor (150%), and translocation factor (150%) in water spinach grown in Chenzhou (CZ) soils, while no significant change for these in Shimen (SM) soils. Inoculating chlamydospores at 5% caused a significant increase (16%) of available As content in CZ soils, while a significant decrease (13%) in SM soils. Inoculation significantly caused As methylation in both soils, while significant As reduction merely observed in CZ soils. The differential changes in available As contents in both soils were attributed to the soil pH, As fractionations and speciation characteristics. Furthermore, Inoculating chlamydospores at 5% significantly improved the activities of β-glucosidase (155%), chitinase (211%), and phosphatase (108%) in SM soils, while significant decreases in β-glucosidase (81%), phosphatase (54%), aminopeptidase (60%), and catalase (67%) in CZ soils. Bioaugmentation and As availability change were responsible for this result. These observations will be helpful for the application of fungal chlamydospores in the future bioremediation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Phytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L) and the role of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Parvin; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► MWNTs are selected for study of the systemic toxicity and the potential influence on red spinach. ► Microscopic observation revealed some adverse effects on root and leaf. ► Cell damage were detected on 15 days after the exposure to MWNTs. ► ROS increase ceased once ascorbic acid was added into media. ► Oxidative stress seems to be the key element responsible for causing the toxicity. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a novel nanomaterial with wide potential applications; however the adverse effects of CNTs following environmental exposure have recently received significant attention. Herein, we explore the systemic toxicity and potential influence of 0–1000 mg L −1 the multi-walled CNTs on red spinach. The multi-walled CNTs exposed plants exhibited growth inhibition and cell death after 15 days of hydroponic culture. The multi-walled CNTs had adverse effects on root and leaf morphology, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy detected the multi-walled CNTs in leaves. Biomarkers of nanoparticle toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell damage in the red spinach were greatly increased 15 days post-exposure to the multi-walled CNTs. These effects were reversed when the multi-walled CNTs were supplemented with ascorbic acid (AsA), suggesting a role of ROS in the multl-walled CNT-induced toxicity and that the primary mechanism of the multi-walled CNTs’ toxicity is oxidative stress.

  6. The function and properties of the iron-sulfur center in spinach ferredoxin: Thioredoxin reductase: A new biological role for iron-sulfur clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staples, C.R.; Ameyibor, E.; Fu, Weiguang; Johnson, M.K. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-03

    Thioredoxin reduction in chloroplasts in catalyzed by a unique class of disulfide reductases which use a [2Fe-2S]{sup 2+/+} ferredoxin as the electron donor and contain an Fe-S cluster as the sole prosthetic group in addition to the active-site disulfide. The nature, properties, and function of the Fe-S cluster in spinach ferredoxin: thioredoxin reductase (FTR) have been investigated by the combination of UV/visible absorption, variable-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), EPR, and resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopies. 66 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Cold plasma-activated hydrogen peroxide aerosol inactivates Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria innocua and maintains quality of grape tomato, spinach and cantaloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunbin; Sokorai, Kimberly; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Demokritou, Philip; Li, Xihong; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Jin, Tony; Fan, Xuetong

    2017-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aerosolized hydrogen peroxide in inactivating bacteria and maintaining quality of grape tomatoes, baby spinach leaves and cantaloupes. Stem scars and smooth surfaces of tomatoes, spinach leaves, and cantaloupe rinds, inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria innocua, were treated for 45s followed by additional 30min dwell time with hydrogen peroxide (7.8%) aerosols activated by atmospheric cold plasma. Non-inoculated samples were used to study the effects on quality and native microflora populations. Results showed that two ranges of hydrogen peroxide droplets with mean diameters of 40nm and 3.0μm were introduced into the treatment chamber. The aerosolized hydrogen peroxide treatment reduced S. Typhimurium populations by 5.0logCFU/piece, and E. coli O157:H7 and L. innocua populations from initial levels of 2.9 and 6.3logCFU/piece, respectively, to non-detectable levels (detection limit 0.6logCFU/piece) on the smooth surface of tomatoes. However, on the stem scar area of tomatoes, the reductions of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. innocua were only 1.0, 1.3, and 1.3 log, respectively. On the cantaloupe rind, the treatment reduced populations of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium and L. innocua by 4.9, 1.3, and 3.0logCFU/piece, respectively. Under the same conditions, reductions achieved on spinach leaves were 1.5, 4.2 and 4.0 log for E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium and L. innocua, respectively. The treatments also significantly reduced native aerobic plate count, and yeasts and mold count of tomato fruits and spinach leaves. Furthermore, firmness and color of the samples were not significantly affected by the aerosolized hydrogen peroxide. Overall, our results showed that the efficacy of aerosolized hydrogen peroxide depended on type of inoculated bacteria, location of bacteria and type of produce items, and aerosolized hydrogen peroxide could potentially be used to

  8. Alteration of Spinach Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Activase Activities by Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jennie B.; Ogren, William L.

    1992-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis was performed on the 1.6 and 1.9 kilobase spinach (Spinacea oleracea) ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase cDNAs, encoding the 41 and 45 kilodalton (kD) isoforms of the enzyme, to create single amino acid changes in the putative ATP-binding site of Rubisco activase (Lys-107, Gln-109, and Ser-112) and in an unrelated cysteine residue (Cys-256). Replacement of Lys-107 with Met produced soluble protein with reduced Rubisco activase and ATPase activities in both isoforms. Substituting Ala or Arg for Lys-107 produced insoluble proteins. Rubisco activase activity increased in the 41-kD isoform when Gln-109 was changed to Glu, but activity in the 45-kD isoform was similar to the wild-type enzyme. ATPase activity in the Glu-109 mutations did not parallel the changes in Rubisco activase activity. Rather, a higher ratio of Rubisco activase to ATPase activity occurred in both isoforms. The mutation of Gln-109 to Lys inactivated Rubisco activase activity. Replacement of Ser-112 with Pro created an inactive protein, whereas attempts to replace Ser-112 with Thr were not successful. The mutation of Cys-256 to Ser in the 45-kD isoform reduced both Rubisco activase and ATPase activities. The results indicate that the two activities of Rubisco activase are not tightly coupled and that variations in photosynthetic efficiency may occur in vivo by replacing the wild-type enzyme with mutant enzymes. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:16668989

  9. Multiple complexes of nitrogen assimilatory enzymes in spinach chloroplasts: possible mechanisms for the regulation of enzyme function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kimata-Ariga

    Full Text Available Assimilation of nitrogen is an essential biological process for plant growth and productivity. Here we show that three chloroplast enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation, glutamate synthase (GOGAT, nitrite reductase (NiR and glutamine synthetase (GS, separately assemble into distinct protein complexes in spinach chloroplasts, as analyzed by western blots under blue native electrophoresis (BN-PAGE. GOGAT and NiR were present not only as monomers, but also as novel complexes with a discrete size (730 kDa and multiple sizes (>120 kDa, respectively, in the stromal fraction of chloroplasts. These complexes showed the same mobility as each monomer on two-dimensional (2D SDS-PAGE after BN-PAGE. The 730 kDa complex containing GOGAT dissociated into monomers, and multiple complexes of NiR reversibly converted into monomers, in response to the changes in the pH of the stromal solvent. On the other hand, the bands detected by anti-GS antibody were present not only in stroma as a conventional decameric holoenzyme complex of 420 kDa, but also in thylakoids as a novel complex of 560 kDa. The polypeptide in the 560 kDa complex showed slower mobility than that of the 420 kDa complex on the 2D SDS-PAGE, implying the assembly of distinct GS isoforms or a post-translational modification of the same GS protein. The function of these multiple complexes was evaluated by in-gel GS activity under native conditions and by the binding ability of NiR and GOGAT with their physiological electron donor, ferredoxin. The results indicate that these multiplicities in size and localization of the three nitrogen assimilatory enzymes may be involved in the physiological regulation of their enzyme function, in a similar way as recently described cases of carbon assimilatory enzymes.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Factors Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Spinach Fields in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-09-01

    While rain and irrigation events have been associated with an increased prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments, quantitative data are needed to determine the effects of various spatial and temporal factors on the risk of produce contamination following these events. This study was performed to quantify these effects and to determine the impact of rain and irrigation events on the detection frequency and diversity of Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes) and L. monocytogenes in produce fields. Two spinach fields, with high and low predicted risks of L. monocytogenes isolation, were sampled 24, 48, 72, and 144 to 192 h following irrigation and rain events. Predicted risk was a function of the field's proximity to water and roads. Factors were evaluated for their association with Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolation by using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). In total, 1,492 (1,092 soil, 334 leaf, 14 fecal, and 52 water) samples were collected. According to the GLMM, the likelihood of Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolation from soil samples was highest during the 24 h immediately following an event (odds ratios [ORs] of 7.7 and 25, respectively). Additionally, Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolates associated with irrigation events showed significantly lower sigB allele type diversity than did isolates associated with precipitation events (P = <0.001), suggesting that irrigation water may be a point source of L. monocytogenes contamination. Small changes in management practices (e.g., not irrigating fields before harvest) may therefore reduce the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination of fresh produce. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Differences in internalization and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within the apoplast of edible plants, spinach and lettuce, compared with the model species Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kathryn M; Crozier, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Merget, Bernhard; Holmes, Ashleigh; Holden, Nicola J

    2017-05-01

    Internalization of food-borne bacteria into edible parts of fresh produce plants represents a serious health risk. Therefore, internalization of verocytotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai was assessed in two species associated with outbreaks, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and compared to the model species Nicotiana benthamiana. Internalization occurred in the leaves and roots of spinach and lettuce throughout a 10 day time-course. The plant species, tissue type and inoculum dose all impacted the outcome. A combination of low inoculum dose (~10 2 CFU) together with light microscopy imaging highlighted marked differences in the fate of endophytic E. coli O157:H7 Sakai. In the fresh produce species, bacterial growth was restricted but viable cells persisted over 20 days, whereas there was > 400-fold (~2.5 Log 10 ) increase in growth in N. benthamiana. Colony formation occurred adjacent to epidermal cells and mesophyll cells or close to vascular bundles of N. benthamiana and contained components of a biofilm matrix, including curli expression and elicitation, extracellular DNA and a limited presence of cellulose. Together the data show that internalization is a relevant issue in crop production and that crop species and tissue need to be considered as food safety risk parameters. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Characterization of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. and spinach (Amaranthus sp. produced using microfiltration membrane as folic acid source for smart food formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Agustine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purifying and drying both fermented biomasses of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. and spinach (Amaranthus sp. by Kombucha culture has been conducted to recover concentrate and powder of folic acid. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of particles characteristics and compositions of concentrate and powder from both mentioned folic acid source through Micro Filtration (MF membrane and without MF membrane. The best folic acid produced by MF membrane process (room temperature, stirrer rotation speed 400 rpm, pressure 40 psia and 30 minutes and drying (30 °C, 22 cm Hg and 24 hours were resulted in biomass of the concentrate and powder with compositions of total solids 6.29 % and 96.91 %, total polyphenol 0.25 % and 0.06 %, folic acid 58.8 μg/mL and 54.33 μg/mL, reducing sugar 105.34 mg/mL and 441.39 mg/mL, and total acids 0.57 % and 2.33 %, respectively. In optimum condition, fermented spinach concentrate contributed to particles distribution with diameter size (Ø between 0,4 and 100 μm (75.45 %, and with Ø between 100 and 1000 μm (26.3 %, otherwise, the process without MF membrane was resulted the particles distribution respectively 74.1 % and 25.9% by each interval of Ø.

  13. Novel insights into ascorbate retention and degradation during the washing and post-harvest storage of spinach and other salad leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, Rebecca A; Clarkson, Graham J J; Rothwell, Steve D; Fry, Stephen C

    2017-10-15

    Post-harvest treatments of pre-packaged salad leaves potentially cause l-ascorbate loss, but the mechanisms of ascorbate degradation remain incompletely understood, especially in planta. We explored the extent and pathways of ascorbate loss in variously washed and stored salad leaves. Ascorbate was assayed by 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol titration, and pathways were monitored by 14 C-radiolabelling followed by high-voltage electrophoresis. All leaves tested showed ascorbate loss during storage: lettuce showed the greatest percentage loss, wild rocket the least. Spinach leaves were particularly prone to losing ascorbate during washing, especially with simultaneous mechanical agitation; however, washing in the presence of hypochlorite did not significantly increase ascorbate loss. In spinach, [ 14 C]oxalate was the major product of [ 14 C]ascorbate degradation, suggesting that commercial washing causes oxidative stress. This study highlights that ascorbate/dehydroascorbic acid are lost via the oxidative pathway during washing and post-harvest storage of salad leaves. Thus changes to washing procedures could potentially increase the post-harvest retention of ascorbate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of cooking and irradiation on the labile vitamins and antinutrient content of a traditional African sorghum porridge and spinach relish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duodu, K.G.; Minnaar, A.; Taylor, J.R.N.

    1999-01-01

    Irradiation is a potentially useful technology for ensuring the safety and extending the shelf-life of food products in Africa. However, nutritional changes may result. The effects of cooking followed by irradiation (10 kGy) on vitamins B1 and C, and the antinutritional factors, phytic acid and nitrates, in a ready-to-eat meal of sorghum porridge and spinach-based relish were investigated. Cooking reduced vitamin B1 and C contents of the spinach relish, and irradiation caused further losses. Cooking did not alter vitamin B1 content of the sorghum porridge but irradiation decreased it drastically. Cooking did not decrease phytic acid in the sorghum porridge, but irradiation caused a significant decrease. The reduction of antinutritional factors by cooking, followed by irradiation, is promising for the application of this technology to traditional African cereal and leafy vegetable foods. However, ways need to be found to minimise vitamin loss, such as blanching and cooking in minimum water and irradiation at cryogenic temperatures in an oxygen-free atmosphere

  15. A Study of Phosphorus and Calcium Dynamics in an Integrated Rainbow Trout and Spinach (Nores variety Aquaponic System with Different Crop Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mihai Petrea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to quantify both calcium and phosphorus budgets for an integrated rainbow trout – spinach (Nores variety aquaponic system, where three crops densities were used (BH1 –59 crops/m2, BH2 – 48 crops/m2 and BH3 – 39 crops/m2 and a control variant. Fish were fed with two types of feed (41% and 50% protein, using 3 different feeding regimes. Total calcium and total phosphorus retention rates for each of the three tested spinach biomass densities were individually determined by water chemical and plant biochemical analysis. Also, the concentration of those two macroelements was determined from fish meat and fish faeces.  Significant differences (p<0.05 were recorded between fish faeces total phosphorus content and between total calcium and total phosphorus retention rates for each of the three variants of tested crops densities (significant higher at BH1 compared to BH3, p < 0.05. It is recommended that lower densities to be used for a better crop absorption of both calcium and phosphorus or a lower hydraulic flow regime and a better light intensity to be applied in case of the used integrated aquaponic system.

  16. Summer (sub-arctic) versus winter (sub-tropical) production affects on spinach leaf bio-nutrients: Vitamins (C, E, Folate, K1, provitamin A), lutein, phenolics, and antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparison of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultivars Lazio and Samish grown during the summer solstice in the sub-arctic versus the winter solstice in the sub-tropics provided insight into interactions between plant environment (day length, light intensity, ambient temperatures), cultivar and leaf...

  17. Net Uptake of Sulfate ands its Transport to the Shoot in Spinach Plants Fumigated with H2S or SO2 - Does Atmospheric Sulfur Affect the Inter-Organ Regulation of Sulfurs Nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herschbach, C.; De Kok, L.J.; Rennenberg, H.

    Spinach plants (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Estivato) were grown an nutrient solutions under deficient, normal and excess sulfate supply. In both young and mature plants net uptake of sulfate and its transport to the shoot increased with increasing sulfate supply, but bath processes proceeded at a

  18. Assessinent of streptomycesgriseo viridis (mycostop as a biocontrol agent for fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthiin two cultivars of standard carnation under commercial conditions Evaluación de Streptomyces griseoviridis (MYCOSTOP en el control de Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, en dos variedades de clavel estándar bajo condiciones comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega Luis Miguel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in a commercial farm, located in Madrid, Cundinamarca. The purpose of the study was to established the rate and irequency of application of Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop in the control of vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Two experiments were conducted to compare three rates of application (0,025;0,05 and 0,01 g/m2 and
    three intervals of application (1,2 and 4 weeks of
    Mycostop, in two standard carnation varieties. Disease
    progress data were analized by comparing their godness of fit to Gompertz and Monomolecular epidemiological models. By using the simpler linear regression model, the rate of inlection (k and the coefficient of determination (Al were calculated.
    Inlection rates were subjected to analysis of variance.
    The results showed no satislactory control of the disease. Rates and frecuencies of applícation of Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop did not show appreciable differences. Epidemiologically, "k" values were highly homogeneous among the different Mycostop treatments. Streptomyces
    griseoviridisis highly dependent upon culture media
    pH, and it grows only at a pH 016,4 or higher, with an optimal growth at a pH 7,0. No relation was detected between growth of the biocontrol organism and levels of electrical conductivity.La investigación se realizó en un cultivo comercial de clavel localizado en el municipio de Madrid (Cundinamarca, con el objetivo de determinar la dosis y la frecuencia de aplicación de Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop en el control del
    marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporom lsp. dianthi. En el campo, se realizaron dos experimentos simultáneos, para probar diferentes dosis (0,025; 0,05 y 0,1 g/m2 y frecuencias (1, 2 y 4 semanas de aplicación de
    Streptomyces griseoviridis Mycostop en dos variedades de clavel estándar. El análisis estadístico consistió en utilizar algunos

  19. Microencapsulated antimicrobial compounds as a means to enhance electron beam irradiation treatment for inactivation of pathogens on fresh spinach leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carmen; Moreira, Rosana G; Castell-Perez, Elena

    2011-08-01

    Recent outbreaks associated to the consumption of raw or minimally processed vegetable products that have resulted in several illnesses and a few deaths call for urgent actions aimed at improving the safety of those products. Electron beam irradiation can extend shelf-life and assure safety of fresh produce. However, undesirable effects on the organoleptic quality at doses required to achieve pathogen inactivation limit irradiation. Ways to increase pathogen radiation sensitivity could reduce the dose required for a certain level of microbial kill. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using natural antimicrobials when irradiating fresh produce. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 5 natural compounds and extracts (trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, garlic extract, propolis extract, and lysozyme with ethylenediaminetetraacetate acid (disodium salt dihydrate) was determined against Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. In order to mask odor and off-flavor inherent of several compounds, and to increase their solubility, complexes of these compounds and extracts with β-cyclodextrin were prepared by the freeze-drying method. All compounds showed bacteriostatic effect at different levels for both bacteria. The effectiveness of the microencapsulated compounds was tested by spraying them on the surface of baby spinach inoculated with Salmonella spp. The dose (D₁₀ value) required to reduce the bacterial population by 1 log was 0.190 kGy without antimicrobial addition. The increase in radiation sensitivity (up to 40%) varied with the antimicrobial compound. These results confirm that the combination of spraying microencapsulated antimicrobials with electron beam irradiation was effective in increasing the killing effect of irradiation. Foodborne illness outbreaks attributed to fresh produce consumption have increased and present new challenges to food safety. Current technologies (water washing or treating with 200 ppm chlorine) cannot

  20. Whole-transcriptome analysis of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Sakai suggests plant-species-specific metabolic responses on exposure to spinach and lettuce extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Crozier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC can contaminate crop plants, potentially using them as secondary hosts, which can lead to food-borne infection. Currently, little is known about the influence of the specific plant species on the success of bacterial colonisation. As such, we compared the ability of the VTEC strain, E. coli O157:H7 ‘Sakai’, to colonise the roots and leaves of four leafy vegetables: spinach (Spinacia oleracea, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, vining green pea (Pisum sativum and prickly lettuce (L. serriola, a wild relative of domesticated lettuce. Also, to determine the drivers of the initial response on interaction with plant tissue, the whole transcriptome of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai was analysed following exposure to plant extracts of varying complexity (spinach leaf lysates or root exudates, and leaf cell wall polysaccharides from spinach or lettuce. Plant extracts were used to reduce heterogeneity inherent in plant-microbe interactions and remove the effect of plant immunity. This dual approach provided information on the initial adaptive response of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai to the plant environment together with the influence of the living plant during bacterial establishment and colonisation. Results showed that both the plant tissue type and the plant species strongly influence the short-term (1 hour transcriptional response to extracts as well as longer-term (10 days plant colonisation or persistence. We show that propagation temperature (37 versus 18 oC has a major impact on the expression profile and therefore pre-adaptation of bacteria to a plant-relevant temperature is necessary to avoid misleading temperature-dependent wholescale gene-expression changes in response to plant material. For each of the plant extracts tested, the largest group of (annotated differentially regulated genes were associated with metabolism. However, large-scale differences in the metabolic and biosynthetic pathways between treatment types

  1. Cryopreservation of spinach chloroplast membranes by low-molecular-weight carbohydrates. I. Evidence for cryoprotection by a noncolligative-type mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, K A; Bauer, J

    1983-02-01

    In freezing experiments with isolated spinach thylakoids (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Monatol) the cryoprotective efficiency of various low-molecular-weight polyols was determined. The activity of cyclic photophosphorylation was used as an assay for the functional integrity of the membranes. The results were compared with the osmotic behavior of the cryoprotectants at high concentrations. Equimolal concentrations of polyols which exhibit nearly comparable freezing point depressions even at high concentrations differed considerably in their protective capacity during a freeze-thaw cycle. This was particularly distinct when glucose, galactose, and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether were compared, but was also evident when various pentoses and deoxy-hexoses were used as cryoprotectants. Even in the absence of freezing, carbohydrates exerted a stabilizing influence on biomembranes. From the data it is suggested that in addition to colligative action of the compounds, a specific noncolligative mechanism contributes to membrane protection during freezing.

  2. Ultrastructural changes in the membrane system of isolated chloroplasts of spinach under the influence of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors AA and EA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Vodka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (АА and EA on the membrane system of isolated chloroplasts of spinach were investigated. Under the influence of AA the considerable alterations in granal structure occurred, the thickness of the granal thylakoids increased by 36% and the interspace between thylakoids by 10% comparable with the control. As a result of EA treatment, the thickness of granal thylakoids enhanced by 31% and the interspace between thylakoids increased by 8% in comparison to the control. It was shown that structure of the granal system of the chloroplast was more sensitive to AA than EA. The data obtained can indicate a decrease in the activity of the thylakoid carbonic anhydrase, inhibition of electron transport and photosynthetic process as a whole in the presence of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (AA and EA.

  3. Classification of viable and non-viable spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seeds by single seed near infrared spectroscopy and extended canonical variates analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    studies. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is the major crop in vegetable seed production in Denmark and two seed lots with viability percentages of 90% and 97% were chosen for examination by single seed NIR spectroscopy. Lipids play a major role in both ageing and germination. During accelerated ageing......, lipid peroxidation leads to deterioration of cell membranes and contributes in that way to reducing seed viability of the seed sample. These biochemical changes may be the reason for a clear grouping between aged and non-aged seeds when performing the extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA......). Assigning the difference of scatter corrected absorbance spectra from aged and non-aged seeds also lead to CH2, CH3 and HC=CH structures, which are some of the functional groups in lipids. In the ECVA plot, there was a clear difference between seeds with and without a pericarp. Evaluating the spectra...

  4. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L. [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Thahir2

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanching and drying of increased brightness, a value, and b value. The a value is shows spinach brightness in mix red-green color while b value shows mix blue-yellow. Total carotene of fresh spinach decreased by 10.47% after blanching. Drying with vacuum decreased the total carotene by 39.31% (with blanching and 31.66 (with blanching. Drying with freeze dryer decreased the beta carotene by 4.99% (with blanching and 18.60% (with blanching. Drying with FIR dryer decreased spinach total carotene by 34.90% (with blanching and 24.86% (with blanching. The beta-carotene of fresh spinach with balancing treatment decreased of by 16.53%.drying oven vacuum decreased the beta carotene by 42.80% (wiyh blanching and 18.91% (with blanching. Drying with freeze dyer decreased the beta carotene by 29.03% (with blanching the beta carotene. The decreased of beta-carotene is bigger than total carotene. Vitamin C of fresh spinach decreased by 20.35% after blanching. Drying with oven vacuum decreased of 55.77% (without blanching and 65.42% (with blanching f the vitamin C. drying with freeze dryer decreased the vitamin C by 13.21% (without blanching and 30.67% (with blanching. Meanwhile, the vitamin C of spinach after drying with FIR dyer decreased of 60.53% (without blanching and 70.29% (with blanching.

  5. Efficacy of Gaseous Ozone Application during Vacuum Cooling against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Spinach Leaves as Influenced by Bacterium Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, Mustafa; Kasler, David R; Huang, En; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2017-07-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce pose a threat to public health, decrease consumer confidence in minimally processed foods, and negatively impact the sales of these commodities. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of population size of inoculated pathogen on its inactivation by gaseous ozone treatment during vacuum cooling. Spinach leaves were spot inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 at approximate initial populations of 10 8 , 10 7 , and 10 5 CFU/g. Inoculated leaves were vacuum cooled (28.5 inHg; 4°C) in a custom-made vessel and then were subjected to a gaseous ozone treatment under the following conditions: 1.5 g of ozone per kg of gas mixture, vessel pressure at 10 lb/in 2 gauge, 94 to 98% relative humidity, and 30 min of holding time at 9°C. Treatment of the leaves, having the aforementioned inocula, decreased E. coli populations by 0.2, 2.1, and 2.8 log CFU/g, respectively, compared with the inoculated untreated controls. Additionally, spinach leaves were inoculated at 1.4 × 10 3 CFU/g, which approximates natural contamination level, and the small populations remaining after ozone treatment were quantified using the most-probable-number (MPN) method. Vacuum and ozone sequential treatment decreased this E. coli O157:H7 population to ozone is effective against pathogen loads comparable to those found in naturally contaminated fresh produce, but efficacy decreases as inoculum level increases.

  6. Incorporation of 14CO2 and 15NH4 into amino acids of the two subunits of fraction 1 protein in spinach leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Chiaki; Ito, Osamu; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1978-01-01

    14 Co 2 and 15 NH 4 were applied to spinach leaf discs, and the incorporation of 14 C and 15 N into the constituent amino acids of subunits in Fraction 1 protein was traced. The solution containing NaH 14 CO 3 and ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 was vacuum-infiltrated into leaf discs, which were then incubated under light condition for 8 hr. The leaf discs were immediately frozen with liquid nitrogen after the incubation. The Fraction 1 protein was isolated and purified according to Kawashima's method, and separated into two subunits by his method. These subunits were hydrolyzed, and the hydrolyzates were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. The determination of 14 C activity and 15 N content in each amino acid was performed as previously described. Glycine and aspartic acid showed the highest 14 C specific activity among free amino acids. The distribution pattern of 14 C in bound amino acids almost reflected the distribution in free amino acids, though the 14 C specific activity in the former was lower than that in the latter. There was some difference in the 14 C specific activity of large and small subunits. The 15 N content of glutamine was the highest among free amino acids. This result coincides with the previous conclusion that when ammonium was applied to the free cells separated from spinach leaves, it was initially incorporated into glutamine in the sequence of its assimilation. Glutamic acid and serine showed the highest 15 N content among bound amino acids. (Kobatake, H.)

  7. Enhancing phytochemical levels, enzymatic and antioxidant activity of spinach leaves by chitosan treatment and an insight into the metabolic pathway using DART-MS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shachi

    2016-05-15

    Phytochemicals are health promoting compounds, synthesized by the plants to protect them against biotic or abiotic stress. The metabolic pathways leading to the synthesis of these phytochemicals are highly inducible; therefore methods could be developed to enhance their production by the exogenous application of chemical inducers/elicitors. In the present experiment, chitosan was used as an elicitor molecule to improve the phytochemical content of spinach plant. When applied at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml as a foliar spray, chitosan was able to cause an increase in the enzymatic (peroxidase, catalase and phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL)) and non enzymatic (total phenolics, flavonoids and proteins) defensive metabolites, as well as, in the total antioxidant activity of the spinach leaves. A 1.7-fold increase in the total phenolics, a 2-fold increase in total flavonoid and a 1.6-fold increase in total protein were achieved with the treatment. A higher level of enzymatic activity was observed with a 4-fold increase in peroxidase and approximately 3-fold increases in catalase and phenylalanine ammonium lyase activity. Antioxidant activity showed a positive correlation between phenolic compounds and the enzymatic activity. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was applied to generate the metabolite profile of control and treated leaves. DART analysis revealed the activation of phenylpropanoid pathway by chitosan molecule, targeting the synthesis of diverse classes of flavonoids and their glycosides. Important metabolites of stress response were also visible in the DART spectra, including proline and free sugars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral administration of oxalate-enriched spinach extract as an improved methodology for the induction of dietary hyperoxaluric nephrocalcinosis in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Abhishek; Tiwari, Vidhi; Paul, Eldho; Ponnusamy, Sasikumar; Ganesan, Divya; Prabhakaran, Rajkumar; Mariaraj Sivakumar, Selvi; Govindan Sadasivam, Selvam

    2018-03-01

    Experimental induction of hyperoxaluria by ethylene glycol (EG) administration is disapproved as it causes metabolic acidosis while the oral administration of chemically synthesized potassium oxalate (KOx) diet does not mimic our natural system. Since existing models comprise limitations, this study is aimed to develop an improved model for the induction of dietary hyperoxaluria, and nephrocalcinosis in experimental rats by administration of naturally available oxalate rich diet. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group I, control; group II rats received 0.75% EG, group III rats fed with 5% KOx diet and group IV and V rats were administered with spinach extract of 250 and 500 mg soluble oxalate/day respectively, for 28 d. Urine and serum biochemistry were analyzed. After the experimental period, rats were sacrificed, liver and kidney tissue homogenates were used for antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assay. Relative change in expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and crystal modulators genes in kidney tissues were evaluated. Tissue damage was assessed by histology studies of liver and kidney. Experimental group rats developed hyperoxaluria and crystalluria. Urine parameters, serum biochemistry, antioxidant profile, lipid peroxidation levels and gene expression analysis of experimental group II and III rats reflected acute kidney damage compared to group V rats. Histopathology results showed moderate hyperplasia in liver and severe interstitial inflammation in kidneys of group II and III than group V rats. Ingestion of naturally available oxalate enriched spinach extract successfully induced dietary hyperoxaluria and nephrocalcinosis in rats with minimal kidney damage.

  9. Characterization of biomasses, concentrates, and permeates of dried powder of Kombucha fermentation of spinach (Amaranthus sp.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) with membrane microfiltration and freeze drying techniques for natural sources of folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Tutun; Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Lotulung, Puspa Dewi; Maryati, Yati

    2017-11-01

    Fermentation of spinach (Amaranthus sp) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) using Kombucha Culture has been shown to produce biomass that has the potential to become natural sources of folic acid. To produce the materials, following the fermentation, the biomass was filtered using membrane microfiltration (0.15 µm) at a pressure of 40 psia, at room temperature, yielding the concentrate and the permeate fractions. Following this step, freeze drying process was done on the biomass feeds, as well as on the concentrate and permeate fractions. For the freeze drying stage, the samples were frozen, and the condenser was kept at -50°C for 40 hours, while the pressure in the chamber was set at 200 Pa. Freeze drying results showed that the final products, have differences in compositions, as well as differences in the dominat monomers of folates. After water content was driven out, freeze drying increased the concentrations of folic acid in the dried products, and was found to be the highest in the concentrate fractions. Freeze drying has been shown to be capable of protecting the folates from heat and oxidative damages that typicaly occur with other types of drying. The final freeze dried concentrates of fermentation of spinach and broccoli were found to contain folic acid at 2531.88 µg/mL and 1626.94 µg/mL, total solids at 87.23% and 88.65 %, total sugar at 22.66 µg/mL and 25.13 µg/mL, total reducing sugar at 34.46 mg/mL and 15.22 mg/mL, as well as disolved protein concentrations at 0.93 mg/mL and 1.45 mg/mL. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectometry (LC-MS) identification of the folates in the freeze dried concentrates of fermented spinach and broccoli was done using folic acid and glutamic acid standard solutions as the reference materials. The results showed the presence of folic acid and showed that the dominant monomers of molecules of folates with molecular weights of 441.44 Da. and 441.54 Da. for spinach and broccoli respectively. Moreover, the monomers of glutamic

  10. Cosecha temprana, apertura forzada y vida en el vaso de flores de cuatro variedades de clavel (Dianthus cariophyllus L., en invierno y en verano Early harvest, forced flower opening and vase life of four varieties of carnation (Dianthus cariophyllus L. in winter and summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de. L. Avila

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la cosecha temprana y la apertura forzada de pimpollos con sacarosa, en invierno y en verano, en flores de 4 variedades de clavel (Moresco, Mabel, Nov y Golden Odino. Las flores fueron cosechadas en cinco estados de desarrollo, desde botón cerrado hasta flor abierta (estados 0 al 4, hidratadas en frío (2 ºC con una solución de tiosulfato de plata (0,1 M durante 24 horas y luego transfe ridas a una solución de ácido cítrico (500 mg l-1 y citrato de hydroxyquinoleina (60 mg l-1; la solución de apertura contenía, además, 100 g l-1 de sacarosa. Cuando se completó la apertura de la flor se evaluó tamaño, intensidad de color y vida en el vaso. El tamaño de la flor fue similar en invierno y verano en las varie dades Moresco, Golden Odino y Nov, sin embargo, en todas las variedades la vida en el vaso fue menor en verano. El agregado de sacarosa mejoró la aper tura, el tamaño de las flores e intensificó los colores en todas las variedades y estados de corte. La mayor calidad se logró combinando el agregado de saca rosa y la cosecha en estado 0 -1 en verano y 2 -3 en invierno.Early harvest and forced flower opening with sucrose addition in the preservative solution effects were evaluated during winter and summer, in Moresco, Mabel, Nov and Golden Odino carnation varieties. The flowers were harvested at five dif ferent stages of development: from tight flower buds to open flowers (state 0 to 4. Immediately, these were hydrated during 24 h using a silver thiosulfate solution (0,1 M at 2 ºC. Then, the flowers were treated with a preservative solution containing citric acid (500 mg l-1 and hydroxyquinoline citrate (60 mg l-1, with and without sucrose (100 g l-1. Petal color, vase life and flower size were evaluated when the full open flower stage was obtained. The flower size was similar during winter and summer in Moresco, Nov and Golden Odino, but the vase life was significantly reduced in the summer. The sucrose addition

  11. Three spinach leaf nitrate reductase-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase kinases that are regulated by reversible phosphorylation and/or Ca2+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P; Pigaglio, E; Ferrer, A; Halfords, N G; MacKintosh, C

    1997-07-01

    In spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaf extracts, three protein kinases (PKI, PKII and PKIII) were identified each of which phosphorylated spinach nitrate reductase on serine-543, and inactivated the enzyme in the presence of nitrate reductase inhibitor, 14-3-3. PKIII was also very active in phosphorylating and inactivating Arabidopsis (Landsberg erecta) 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 1 (HMGR1). PKI and PKII phosphorylated HMGR1 more slowly than PKIII, compared with their relative rates of phosphorylation of nitrate reductase. HMGR1 identical with those that are seen after phosphorylation of serine-577 by the sucrose non-fermenting (SNF1)-like PK, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Co A reductase kinase A (HRK-A), from cauliflower [Dale, Arró, Becerra, Morrice, Boronat, Hardie and Ferrer (1995) Eur. J. Biochem. 233, 506-513]. PKI was Ca2+-dependent when prepared in the absence of protein phosphatase (PP) inhibitors, and largely Ca2+-dependent when prepared in the presence of PP inhibitors (NaF and EGTA). The Ca2+-independent portion of PKI was inactivated by either PP2A or PP2C, while the Ca2+-dependent portion of PKI became increasingly activated during storage, which we presume was mimicking the effect of an unidentified PP. These findings indicate that PK1 is regulated by two functionally distinct phosphorylations. PKI had a molecular mass of 45 kDa on gel filtration and was active towards substrate peptides that terminated at the +2 residue from the phosphorylation site, whereas PKIII was inactive towards these peptides. PKII was Ca2+-stimulated under all conditions tested. PKIII was Ca2+-indepdented, inactivated by PP2A or PP2C, had a requirement for a hydrophobic residue in the +4 position of peptide substrates, had a molecular mass by gel filtration of approximately 140 kDa, and an antibody against the rye SNF1-related PK (RKIN1) recognized a 58 kDa subunit in fractions containing PKIII. These properties of PKIII are identical with those reported

  12. Three spinach leaf nitrate reductase-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase kinases that are required by reversible phosphorylation and/or Ca2+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P; Pigaglio, E; Ferrer, A; Halfords, N G; MacKintosh, C

    1997-01-01

    In spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaf extracts, three protein kinases (PKI, PKII and PKIII) were identified each of which phosphorylated spinach nitrate reductase on serine-543, and inactivated the enzyme in the presence of nitrate reductase inhibitor, 14-3-3. PKIII was also very active in phosphorylating and inactivating Arabidopsis (Landsberg erecta) 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 1 (HMGR1). PKI and PKII phosphorylated HMGR1 more slowly than PKIII, compared with their relative rates of phosphorylation of nitrate reductase. HMGR1 identical with those that are seen after phosphorylation of serine-577 by the sucrose non-fermenting (SNF1)-like PK, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Co A reductase kinase A (HRK-A), from cauliflower [Dale, Arró, Becerra, Morrice, Boronat, Hardie and Ferrer (1995) Eur. J. Biochem. 233, 506-513]. PKI was Ca2+-dependent when prepared in the absence of protein phosphatase (PP) inhibitors, and largely Ca2+-dependent when prepared in the presence of PP inhibitors (NaF and EGTA). The Ca2+-independent portion of PKI was inactivated by either PP2A or PP2C, while the Ca2+-dependent portion of PKI became increasingly activated during storage, which we presume was mimicking the effect of an unidentified PP. These findings indicate that PK1 is regulated by two functionally distinct phosphorylations. PKI had a molecular mass of 45 kDa on gel filtration and was active towards substrate peptides that terminated at the +2 residue from the phosphorylation site, whereas PKIII was inactive towards these peptides. PKII was Ca2+-stimulated under all conditions tested. PKIII was Ca2+-indepdented, inactivated by PP2A or PP2C, had a requirement for a hydrophobic residue in the +4 position of peptide substrates, had a molecular mass by gel filtration of approximately 140 kDa, and an antibody against the rye SNF1-related PK (RKIN1) recognized a 58 kDa subunit in fractions containing PKIII. These properties of PKIII are identical with those reported

  13. The reactivation of nitrate reductase from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) inactivated by NADH and cyanide: effects of peroxidase and associated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, J M; Notton, B A; Hewitt, E J

    1982-12-01

    Nitrate reductase of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaves which had been inactivated in vitro by treatment with NADH and cyanide, was reactivated by incubation with oxidant systems and measured as FMNH2-dependent activity. Ferricyanide, a purely chemical oxidant, produced rapid maximal reactivation (100%) which was 90% complete in less than 3 min. Reactivation occurred slowly and less completely (30-75% in 30 or 60 min) when the enzyme was incubated with pure horseradish peroxidase alone, depending on using one or 20 units and time. Addition of glucose and glucose oxidase to generate hydrogen peroxide increased reactivation slightly (10-15%) with 20 units of peroxidase but more (30-50%) with one unit and to 75-90% of ferricyanide values. Adding catalase decreased reactivation by more than half either with or without glucose oxidase. Glucose and glucose oxidase alone did not cause reactivation. Addition of superoxide dismutase increased reactivation from 50-75% of ferricyanide values with one unit of peroxidase alone but had no effect on greater reactivation obtained in the presence of glucose oxidase. The addition of p-cresol and manganese together increased reactivation with one unit of peroxidase and in the presence of glucose oxidase by about double, but omission of manganese had no effect. However, as shown previously, although trivalent manganese was formed, the residual presence of manganous ions inhibited reactivation. Nevertheless, peroxidase systems either alone or with additionally generated hydrogen peroxide can induce substantial reactivation of nitrate reductase in physiologically relevant conditions.

  14. Kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response in relation to the H+-permeability of the membrane bound ATPase in spinach chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.L.; van Kooten, O.; Vredenberg, W.J.

    1985-08-01

    The effect of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) on the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response and on the activity of the ATPase was investigated in isolated spinach chloroplasts. It was found that after the addition of 5 X 10(-8)mol DCCD the rate of ATP hydrolysis induced by a period of 60 sec illumination was decreased to less than 5% of its original value. At this concentration, hardly any effect, if at all, could be detected on the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response, neither in dark-adapted nor in light-activated chloroplasts. It was concluded that the presence of concentrations of DCCD, sufficiently high to affect the ATPase activity, does not affect the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response. Since DCCD decreases the H+ permeability of the membrane-bound ATPase, it was concluded that this permeability coefficient for protons is not an important factor in the regulation of the flash-induced membrane potential and, therefore, does not affect the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response.

  15. Residues in blackcurrants, fodder peas, spinach and potatoes treated with sublethal doses of 2,4,5-T to simulate wind drift damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Odgaard, Peder

    1981-01-01

    Blackcurrants, treated with 0.1 kg of 2,4,5-T ha-1 (as esters of mixed C4-C6 alcohols; Tormona 80), contained 0.1 mg of 2,4,5-T residues kg-1 in the berries at ripeness 29 days after treatment. Total residues in the berries were not reduced during growth and ripening, although the residue...... concentrations declined in the same period due to growth dilution. In spinach leaves from old plants, treated with 0.1 kg ha-1, 0.05 mg of 2,4,5-T kg-1 was found 14 days after treatment. Fodder peas showed no residues (....1 kg ha-1 on potato plants, the disappearance of 2,4,5-T was rapid during the first month, but residues were translocated into the tubers and reached a constant level of 0.02 mg kg-1 after 1 month until harvest at 108 days after treatment. In all crops, visible effects were observed after treatment...

  16. Influence of pH upon the Warburg effect in isolated intact spinach chloroplasts. I. Carbon dioxide photoassimilation and glycolate synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.M.; Gibbs, M.; Cotler, D.N.

    1977-04-01

    The influence of pH upon the O/sub 2/ inhibition of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ photoassimilation (Warburg effect) was examined in intact spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts. With conditions which favored the Warburg effect, i.e. rate-limiting CO/sub 2/ and 100 percent O/sub 2/, O/sub 2/ inhibition was greater at pH 8.4 to 8.5 than at pH 7.5 to 7.8. At pH 8.5, as compared with 7.8, there was an enhanced /sup 14/C-labeling of glycolate, and a decrease of isotope in some phosphorylated Calvin cycle intermediates, particularly triose-phosphate. The /sup 14/C-labeling of starch was also more inhibited by O/sub 2/ at higher pH. The enhanced synthesis of glycolate during /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation at higher pH resulted in a diminution in the level of phosphorylated intermediates of the Calvin cycle, and this was apparently a causal factor of the increased severity of the Warburg effect. The /sup 14/C-labeling profiles have been interpreted in terms of a ''CO/sub 2/''-sensitive as well as a ''CO/sub 2/''-insensitive mechanism for glycolate synthesis. Both mechanisms functioned optimally at the higher pH and both responded to O/sub 2/.

  17. Protective effect of chlorophyllin and lycopene from water spinach extract on cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by heavy metals in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ui-Jeong; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of water spinach (EEWS) containing chlorophyll and lycopene on cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in liver induced by heavy metals. The (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay and dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay were conducted to measure cytotoxicity and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. Cytotoxicity was prevented at a concentration of 11.7 mg/L of EEWS. Both sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) and lycopene in EEWS were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MSn) as major components at m/z 722.64 and 535.45, respectively. The concentrations of SCC and lycopene were 0.12 and 0.04 mg from 100 g of dried powder, respectively. Approximately 99% cytotoxicity induced by Cd was inhibited by EEWS. However, the inhibitory effect attributed to generation of ROS was similar with SCC, lycopene, and EEWS. Our results indicated that EEWS was effective in reducing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress produced by heavy metals in a HepG2 cell. Data suggest that the possible mechanism underlying the preventive action of SCC might be associated with diminished absorption of metal ions by chelating and blocking metal-mediated generation of ROS, while lycopene effects may be attributed to its high number of conjugated dienes that act as most potent singlet oxygen quenchers.

  18. Determination of the Thermal Inactivation Kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 in Buffer and a Spinach Homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monu, Emefa Angelica; Valladares, Malcond; D'Souza, Doris H; Davidson, P Michael

    2015-08-01

    Produce has been associated with a rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. While much produce is consumed raw, some is treated with mild heat, such as blanching or cooking. The objectives of this research were to compare the thermal inactivation kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2) and a spinach homogenate and to provide an estimate of the safety of mild heat processes for spinach. Five individual strains of S. enterica, L. monocytogenes, STEC O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC were tested in PBS in 2-ml glass vials, and cocktails of the organisms were tested in blended spinach in vacuum-sealed bags. For Listeria and Salmonella at 56 to 60°C, D-values in PBS ranged from 4.42 ± 0.94 to 0.35 ± 0.03 min and 2.11 ± 0.14 to 0.16 ± 0.03 min, respectively. D-values at 54 to 58°C were 5.18 ± 0.21 to 0.53 ± 0.04 min for STEC O157:H7 and 5.01 ± 0.60 to 0.60 ± 0.13 min for non-O157 STEC. In spinach at 56 to 60°C, Listeria D-values were 11.77 ± 2.18 to 1.22 ± 0.12 min and Salmonella D-values were 3.51 ± 0.06 to 0.47 ± 0.06 min. D-values for STEC O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC were 7.21 ± 0.17 to 1.07 ± 0.11 min and 5.57 ± 0.38 to 0.99 ± 0.07 min, respectively, at 56 to 60°C. In spinach, z-values were 4.07 ± 0.16, 4.59 ± 0.26, 4.80 ± 0.92, and 5.22 ± 0.20°C for Listeria, Salmonella, STEC O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC, respectively. Results indicated that a mild thermal treatment of blended spinach at 70°C for less than 1 min would result in a 6-log reduction of all pathogens tested. These findings may assist the food industry in the design of suitable mild thermal processes to ensure food safety.

  19. Radiobiological researches on Dianthus caryophyllus L. carnation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereau-Leroy, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    This research thesis reports a radiobiological study of Dianthus periclinal chimeras performed by submitting plants and plant cuttings at different physiological stages to cobalt-60 gamma irradiation under different dose conditions and rates. The effects of these treatments are studied while growing the so-processed plants and by microscopic examination of sections of irradiated meristems [fr

  20. Effect of γ-irradiation on the thermomechanical and morphological properties of chitosan obtained from prawn shell: Evaluation of potential for irradiated chitosan as plant growth stimulator for Malabar spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur; Kabir, Shahriar; Rashid, Taslim Ur; Nesa, Bodrun; Nasrin, Romana; Haque, Papia; Khan, Mubarak A.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have synthesized chitosan from waste prawn shell via γ-irradiation of chitin and subsequent alkaline treatment. The detailed experimental studies demonstrated that nonirradiated chitin deacetylated by 40% NaOH solution showed 72% degree of deacetylation (DD), however 50 kGy irradiated chitin, deacetylated by 20% NaOH demonstrated 81.5% DD. Chitosan in solid state as obtained from γ-irradiation of chitin was further irradiated by different doses (2–100 kGy) of gamma irradiation and the effects of irradiation on the molecular weight, thermo-mechanical by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and antimicrobial properties were evaluated with respect to nonirradiated chitosan sample. Gamma irradiation of chitosan with a dose of 100 kGy caused a decrease in average molecular weight from 1.9×10 5 to 6.5×10 4 Da and thus increased its solubility in water. Nonirradiated and γ-irradiated chitosan at concentration 1% (w/w) in water were prepared and used to evaluate of its potentiality for growth stimulation of Malabar spinach. The chitosan solution was sprayed on the specimen plants and neighboring soil where germinations were taken place and various plant growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf areas, dry and wet weight of the plants and roots were investigated. The details study revealed that application of 30 kGy irradiated chitosan yielded 60% higher growth of the Malabar spinach than that obtained from nonirradiated chitosan. The data are consistent with preliminary results from field experiments and unambiguously confirms that a minor amount of chitosan has a profound effect on the growth and development of Malabar spinach. - Highlight: ► A new approach for chitosan synthesis by γ-irradiation of chitin was described. ► Effect of irradiation on the various properties of chitosan was investigated. ► Irradiation causes scission of glycosidic linkage thus decrease of mw of

  1. Strategy for allergenicity assessment of 'natural novel foods': clinical and molecular investigation of exotic vegetables (water spinach, hyacinth bean and Ethiopian eggplant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubesch, M; Theler, B; Dutta, M; Baumer, B; Mathis, A; Holzhauser, T; Vieths, S; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2007-11-01

    Foods not commonly consumed in the European Union must be proven safe before being brought to market, including an assessment of allergenicity. We present a three-stepwise strategy for allergenicity assessment of natural novel foods using three novel vegetables, namely, water spinach, hyacinth bean, Ethiopian eggplant. First, vegetable extracts were analyzed for the presence of pan-allergens [Bet v 1 homologous proteins, profilins, nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (LTP)] by immunoblot analysis with specific animal antibodies. Secondly, the IgE-binding of the food extracts was investigated by EAST (Enzyme-allergosorbent test) and immunoblot analysis using sera with IgE-reactivity to known pan-allergens or to phylogenetically related foods from subjects (i) allergic to birch, grass and mugwort pollen, (ii) with food allergy to soy, peanut, tomato, multiple pollen-related foods and (iii) sensitized to LTP. Thirdly, the clinical relevance of IgE-binding was assessed in vivo by skin prick testing (SPT) and open oral food challenges (OFC). Profilin and LTP were detected by animal antibodies in all vegetables, a Bet v 1 homologue selectively in hyacinth bean. IgE-binding to LTP, profilin and a Bet v 1 homologue was proven by immunoblot analysis and EAST. Positive SPT and OFC results were observed for all vegetables in pollen-allergic patients. Our stepwise procedure confirmed the presence and IgE-binding capacity of novel vegetable proteins homologous to known allergens in endemic vegetable foods. In vivo testing proved the potential of the novel vegetables to elicit clinical allergy. Hence, our described algorithm seems to be applicable for allergenicity testing of natural novel foods.

  2. Energetics of primary and secondary electron transfer in Photosystem II membrane particles of spinach revisited on basis of recombination-fluorescence measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabolle, Markus; Dau, Holger

    2005-06-30

    Photon absorption by one of the roughly 200 chlorophylls of the plant Photosystem II (PSII) results in formation of an equilibrated excited state (Chl200*) and is followed by chlorophyll oxidation (formation of P680+) coupled to reduction of a specific pheophytin (Phe), then electron transfer from Phe- to a firmly bound quinone (QA), and subsequently reduction of P680+ by a redox-active tyrosine residue denoted as Z. The involved free-energy differences (DeltaG) and redox potentials are of prime interest. Oxygen-evolving PSII membrane particles of spinach were studied at 5 degrees C. By analyzing the delayed and prompt Chl fluorescence, we determined the equilibrium constant and thus free-energy difference between Chl200* and the [Z+,QA-] radical pair to be -0.43+/-0.025 eV, at 10 mus after the photon absorption event for PSII in its S(3)-state. On basis of this value and previously published results, the free-energy difference between P680* and [P680+,QA-] is calculated to be -0.50+/-0.04 eV; the free-energy loss associated with electron transfer from Phe to QA is found to be 0.34+/-0.04 eV. The given uncertainty ranges do not represent a standard deviation or likely error, but an estimate of the maximal error. Assuming a QA-/QA redox potential of -0.08 V, the following redox-potential estimates are obtained: +1.25 V for P680/P680+; +1.21 V for Z/Z+ (at 10 mus); -0.42 V for Phe-/Phe; -0.58 V for P680*/P680+.

  3. 15N-Ammonia assimilation, 2-oxoglutarate transport, and glutamate export in spinach chloroplasts in the presence of dicarboxylates in the light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, K.C.; Boyle, F.A.; Flugge, I.U.; Heldt, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    The direct incorporation of 15 NH 4 Cl into amino acids in illuminated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts in the presence of 2-oxoglutarate plus malate was determined. The amido-N of glutamine was the most highly labeled N-atom during 15 NH 4 assimilation in the presence of malate. In 4 minutes the 15 N-label of the amido-N of glutamine was 37% enriched. In contrast, values obtained for both the N-atom of glutamate and the amino-N of glutamine were only about 20% while that of the N-atom of aspartate was only 3%. The addition of malate during the assimilation of 15 NH 4 Cl and Na 15 NO 2 greatly increased the 15 N-label into glutamine but did not qualitatively change the order of the incorporation of 15 N-label into all the amino acids examined. This evidence indicates the direct involvement of the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway for ammonia and nitrite assimilation in isolated chloroplasts. The addition of malate or succinate during ammonia assimilation also led to more than 3-fold increase in [ 14 C]2-oxoglutarate transport into the chloroplast as well as an increase in the export of [ 14 C]glutamate out of the chloroplast. Little [ 14 C]glutamine was detected in the medium of the chloroplast preparations. The stimulation of 15 N-incorporation and [ 14 C]glutamate export by malate could be directly attributed to the increase in 2-oxoglutarate transport activity (via the 2-oxoglutarate translocator) observed in the presence of exogenous malate

  4. High-Resolution and Non-destructive Evaluation of the Spatial Distribution of Nitrate and Its Dynamics in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Leaves by Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Yu Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate is an important component of the nitrogen cycle and is therefore present in all plants. However, excessive nitrogen fertilization results in a high nitrate content in vegetables, which is unhealthy for humans. Understanding the spatial distribution of nitrate in leaves is beneficial for improving nitrogen assimilation efficiency and reducing its content in vegetables. In this study, near-infrared (NIR hyperspectral imaging was used for the non-destructive and effective evaluation of nitrate content in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. leaves. Leaf samples with different nitrate contents were collected under various fertilization conditions, and reference data were obtained using reflectometer apparatus RQflex 10. Partial least squares regression analysis revealed that there was a high correlation between the reference data and NIR spectra (r2 = 0.74, root mean squared error of cross-validation = 710.16 mg/kg. Furthermore, the nitrate content in spinach leaves was successfully mapped at a high spatial resolution, clearly displaying its distribution in the petiole, vein, and blade. Finally, the mapping results demonstrated dynamic changes in the nitrate content in intact leaf samples under different storage conditions, showing the value of this non-destructive tool for future analyses of the nitrate content in vegetables.

  5. Changes in rubisco, cysteine-rich proteins and antioxidant system of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) due to sulphur deficiency, cadmium stress and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Rita; Ahmad, Javed; Bashir, Humayra; Iqbal, Muhammad; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2017-03-01

    Sulphur (S) deficiency, cadmium (Cd) toxicity and their combinations are of wide occurrence throughout agricultural lands. We assessed the impact of short-term (2 days) and long-term (4 days) applications of cadmium (40 μg/g soil) on spinach plants grown on sulphur-sufficient (300 μM SO 4 2- ) and sulphur-deficient (30 μM SO 4 2- ) soils. Compared with the control (+S and -Cd), oxidative stress was increased by S deficiency (-S and -Cd), cadmium (+S and +Cd) and their combination stress (-S and +Cd) in the order of (S deficiency) proteins showed a high vulnerability of rubisco large subunit (RbcL) to S deficiency. Rubisco small subunit (RbcS) was particularly sensitive to Cd as well as dual stress (+Cd and -S) but increased with Cd in the presence of S. Cysteine content in low molecular weight proteins/peptide was also affected, showing a significant increase under cadmium treatment. Components of ascorbate-glutathione antioxidant system altered their levels, showing the maximum decline in ascorbate (ASA), dehydroascorbate (DHA), total ascorbate (ASA + DHA, hereafter TA), glutathione (GSH) and total glutathione (GSH + GSSG, hereafter TG) under S deficiency. However, total ascorbate and total glutathione increased, besides a marginal increase in their reduced and oxidized forms, when Cd was applied in the presence of sufficient S. Sulphur supply also helped in increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) under Cd stress. However, their activity suffered by S deficiency and by Cd stress during S deficiency. Each stress declined the contents of soluble protein and photosynthetic pigments; the highest decline in contents of protein and pigments occurred under S deficiency and dual stress respectively. The fresh and dry weights, although affected adversely by every stress, declined most under dual stress. It may be concluded that an optimal level of S is required during Cd stress

  6. High Yield Non-detergent Isolation of Photosystem I-Light-harvesting Chlorophyll II Membranes from Spinach Thylakoids: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF THE PS I ANTENNAE IN HIGHER PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Adam J; Frankel, Laurie K; Bricker, Terry M

    2015-07-24

    Styrene-maleic acid copolymer was used to effect a non-detergent partial solubilization of thylakoids from spinach. A high density membrane fraction, which was not solubilized by the copolymer, was isolated and was highly enriched in the Photosystem (PS) I-light-harvesting chlorophyll (LHC) II supercomplex and depleted of PS II, the cytochrome b6/f complex, and ATP synthase. The LHC II associated with the supercomplex appeared to be energetically coupled to PS I based on 77 K fluorescence, P700 photooxidation, and PS I electron transport light saturation experiments. The chlorophyll (Chl) a/b ratio of the PS I-LHC II membranes was 3.2 ± 0.9, indicating that on average, three LHC II trimers may associate with each PS I. The implication of these findings within the context of higher plant PS I antenna organization is discussed. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Effect of different form of mineral nitrogen fertilizer and organic fertilization with compost on yield and quality of various field-grown vegetable crops (radish, carrot, spinach and tubers celery). Quality investigation through electrochemical method and the determination of p-value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, M.

    1998-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of nitrogen form (calcium-nitrate, nitramoncal, ammonsulfate and urea) and the compost fertilization on yield and quality of different vegetable crops, which were grown under field condition at the same nitrogen fertilizer levels. In addition to evaluate the yield, the nitrate contents and p-value have been tested to determine the quality. Following results have been found: yield: the mineral nitrogen form had no significant effect on yield by radish, carrot, and celery. Spinach is positive responded by a different form of nitrogen fertilizer. The same yield results were nearly obtained by the use of compost, compared to another nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrate content: the nitrate content is investigated in edible plant parts. The nitrogen forms have been effected nitrate contents on researched vegetable crops. Generally, the minimum nitrate content is found in control variant and by use of compost, and too by ammonsulfate or urea fertilizer. The maximum nitrate content is reached by use of calcium-nitrate and nitramoncal fertilizer. Spinach leaves had less nitrate contents than stalks. P-value: results of examination shows a major relation between nitrogen fertilizer form and p-value. With the exception of carrot, had compost and control variants of radish, spinach and celery the highest significant p-value in comparison with another nitrogen fertilizer. The lowest p-value is obtained by application of calcium-nitrate and nitramoncal fertilizer, also for a better quality. (author)

  8. Purification and Characterization of the Principal Antimutagenic Bioactive as Ethoxy-Substituted Phylloquinone from Spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) Based on Evaluation in Models Including Human Lymphoblast TK+/-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gautam, Satyendra

    2016-11-23

    During in vitro analysis, spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaf extracts displayed varying antimutagenicity when analyzed in models including human lymphoblast (TK +/- ) cell line (thymidine kinase gene mutation assay) and Escherichia coli MG1655 (rifampicin resistance assay) against chemically (ethyl methanesulfonate and 5-azacytidine) induced mutagenicity. Highest antimutagenicity was displayed by the quinone extract. The principal bioactive compound exhibited fluorescence in TLC at 366 nm (termed C4) resolved at R f 0.32 and t R 15.2 min in TLC and HPLC, respectively. On the TLC plate, three spots (C1-C3), observed at 254 nm, displayed comparatively lesser antimutagenicity. Furthermore, biochemical and spectroscopic analyses using MALDI-TOF MS and NMR indicated the nature of the potent compound (C4) as an ethoxy-substituted phylloquinone derivative [2-ethoxy-3-((E)-3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2-enyl)naphthalene-1,4-dione]. The C4 compound did not display any cytotoxicity and hence possesses significant nutraceutical-based intervention possibility to combat the onset of mutation-associated disease(s).

  9. Effect of waste mica on transfer factors of {sup 134}Cs to spinach and lettuce; Effet de dechets de mica sur les facteurs de transfert du {sup 134}Cs a l'epinard et la laitue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasa Chari, M.; Manjaiah, K.M. [Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, New Delhi - 110012 (India); Sachdev, P.; Sachdev, M.S. [Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Nuclear Research Laboratory, New Delhi - 110012 (India)

    2011-07-15

    A greenhouse pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of graded levels of waste mica (0, 10, 20 and 40 g kg{sup -1}) on reducing the radiocesium uptake by spinach (Spinacia olerecea L) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in {sup 134}Cs-contaminated (at 37 k Bq kg{sup -1} soil) Inceptisols, Vertisols and Ultisols. The biomass yield, and potassium content and its uptake by crops have been significantly improved by waste mica application. The crops grown in Vertisols recorded higher biomass yield, and K content and its uptake as compared with Inceptisols and Ultisols. The average {sup 134}Cs transfer factor values recorded were: 0.21, 0.17 and 0.26 at the first cutting, 0.15, 0.12 and 0.28 at the second cutting and 0.07, 0.05 and 0.23 at the third cutting from Inceptisols, Vertisols and Ultisols, respectively. Waste mica significantly suppressed radiocesium uptake, the effect being more pronounced at 40 g mica kg{sup -1} soil. There exists an inverse relationship between the {sup 134}Cs transfer factors with plant potassium content and also the K uptake by the crops. (authors)

  10. RcsB determines the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) expression and adherence phenotype of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 spinach outbreak strain TW14359 and coordinates bicarbonate-dependent LEE activation with repression of motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jason K; Vendura, Khoury W; Stevens, Stanley M; Riordan, James T

    2013-11-01

    The 2006 US spinach outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 : H7, characterized by unusually severe disease, has been attributed to a strain (TW14359) with enhanced pathogenic potential, including elevated virulence gene expression, robust adherence and the presence of novel virulence factors. This study proposes a mechanism for the unique virulence expression and adherence phenotype of this strain, and further expands the role for regulator RcsB in control of the E. coli locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. Proteomic analysis of TW14359 revealed a virulence proteome consistent with previous transcriptome studies that included elevated levels of the LEE regulatory protein Ler and type III secretion system (T3SS) proteins, secreted T3SS effectors and Shiga toxin 2. Basal levels of the LEE activator and Rcs phosphorelay response regulator, RcsB, were increased in strain TW14359 relative to O157 : H7 strain Sakai. Deletion of rcsB eliminated inherent differences between these strains in ler expression, and in T3SS-dependent adherence. A reciprocating regulatory pathway involving RcsB and LEE-encoded activator GrlA was identified and predicted to co-ordinate LEE activation with repression of the flhDC flagellar regulator and motility. Overexpression of grlA was shown to increase RcsB levels, but did not alter expression from promoters driving rcsB transcription. Expression of rcsDB and RcsB was determined to increase in response to physiological levels of bicarbonate, and bicarbonate-dependent stimulation of the LEE was shown to be dependent on an intact Rcs system and ler activator grvA. The results of this study significantly broaden the role for RcsB in enterohaemorrhagic E. coli virulence regulation.

  11. Efficacy of a novel sanitizer composed of lactic acid and peroxyacetic acid against single strains of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli K-12, Listeria innocua, and Lactobacillus plantarum in aqueous solution and on surfaces of romaine lettuce and spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Ho, Kai-Lai; Luzuriaga, Diego A; Rodde, Kenneth M; Tang, Shannon; Phan, Cuong

    2011-09-01

    A novel sanitizer composed of lactic acid and peroxyacetic acid (LA-PAA) was developed as an alternative to chlorinated water (CW) for fresh produce processing. Single strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli K-12, and Listeria innocua were used to demonstrate the microbial efficacy of LA-PAA. LA-PAA achieved a >7.8-log reduction of L. innocua and L. plantarum suspended in water at 4°C for 20 s, and LA, PAA, and CW achieved reductions of 0.4, 4.8, and 2.7 log, respectively. LA-PAA, when compared with LA, PAA, and CW, enhanced the reduction of L. innocua attached to romaine leaves by >2.2 log, and improved the removal of E. coli attached to spinach leaves by >2.4 log. The exponential improvement in the microbial efficacy of LA-PAA showed synergism between LA and PAA. LA-PAA microbial efficacy was inversely proportional to pH value and directly correlated with residence time and concentration. Despite an improvement in microbial reduction through the addition of surfactant to LA-PAA, the usage of surfactant in washing fresh produce was impeded by excessive foaming during actual processing. Effects of organic matter on the performance of LA-PAA were minimal. External sensory evaluations showed that LA-PAA had no negative effects on the quality of lettuce and tender leaves. Temperature-abuse studies demonstrated that LA-PAA reduced decay by ∼50% when compared with CW. Overall, these results support the premise that LA-PAA has significant potential to be an alternative to CW for fresh produce processing.

  12. An AU-rich element in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the spinach chloroplast petD gene participates in sequence-specific RNA-protein complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiuyun; Adams, C.C.; Usack, L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    In chloroplasts, the 3{prime} untranslated regions of most mRNAs contain a stem-loop-forming inverted repeat (IR) sequence that is required for mRNA stability and correct 3{prime}-end formation. The IR regions of several mRNAs are also known to bind chloroplast proteins, as judged from in vitro gel mobility shift and UV cross-linking assays, and these RNA-protein interactions may be involved in the regulation of chloroplast mRNA processing and/or stability. Here we describe in detail the RNA and protein components that are involved in 3{prime} IR-containing RNA (3{prime} IR-RNA)-protein complex formation for the spinach chloroplast petD gene, which encodes subunit IV of the cytochrome b{sub 6}/f complex. We show that the complex contains 55-, 41-, and 29-kDa RNA-binding proteins (ribonucleoproteins [RNPs]). These proteins together protect a 90-nucleotide segment of RNA from RNase T{sub 1} digestion; this RNA contains the IR and downstream flanking sequences. Competition experiments using 3{prime} IR-RNAs from the psbA or rbcL gene demonstrate that the RNPs have a strong specificity for the petD sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to define the RNA sequence elements required for complex formation. These studies identified an 8-nucleotide AU-rich sequence downstream of the IR; mutations within this sequence had moderate to severe effects on RNA-protein complex formation. Although other similar sequences are present in the petD 3{prime} untranslated region, only a single copy, which we have termed box II, appears to be essential for in vivo protein binding. In addition, the IR itself is necessary for optimal complex formation. These two sequence elements together with an RNP complex may direct correct 3{prime}-end processing and/or influence the stability of petD mRNA in chloroplasts. 48 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH)-based method for estimating Cd-induced differences in gene expression at cultivar level and identification of genes induced by Cd in two water spinach cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Yang, Zhongyi; Zhou, Yihui; Yuan, Jiangang; Gong, Yulian

    2009-10-14

    The abilities to accumulate cadmium (Cd) are different among cultivars (cv.) in many species. The characteristic of Cd concentration among cultivars is heritable and is probably controlled by genes, but rather limited information about the relevant genes in vegetable crops has been published. In the present study, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach was used to identify genes induced by Cd in two water spinach (an important vegetable in southern China) cultivars that differ in Cd accumulation in their edible parts. The two cultivars were cv. Qiangkunqinggu (QK), a low Cd accumulative cultivar and cv. Taiwan 308 (TW), a high Cd accumulative cultivar. In the construction of QK and TW libraries, the plants without Cd treatment were taken as drivers and the plants exposed to 6 mg L(-1) Cd for 24 h as testers. Four hundred clones were sequenced, and 164 nonrepeated sequences (112 from the QK library and 52 from the TW library) were assigned to being functional genes or proteins. A tremendous difference in Cd-induced gene expressions between the two libraries was observed. In the QK library, genes implicated in disease/defense comprised one of the largest sets (20.6%), whereas the proportion was only 8.8% in the TW library. An MT3 gene (Q5), a wound inductive gene (Q22), an antioxidation relevant gene (Q34), a lectin gene (Q45), an f-box family protein gene (Q319), a 20S proteasome subunit gene (T17), a multidrug resistance associated protein gene (T156), and a cationic amino acid transporter gene (T218) were selected to compare semiquantitatively their expression between cv. QK and cv. TW using the RT-PCR method, and obvious differences were detected. The relationships between the identified differences in the expressions of the genes and the Cd accumulation of the two cultivars were discussed, and it was concluded that the SSH approach is useful for finding the difference in expression of Cd-induced gene even at the cultivar level and is applicable

  14. Effect of blanching time on selective mineral elements extraction from the spinach substitute (Tetragonia expansa commonly used in Brazil Efeito do tempo de branqueamento na extração seletiva de elementos minerais do substituto de espinafre (Tetragonia expansa comumente empregado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane M. Kawashima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The true spinach (Spinacia oleracea does not grow well in warm climates and for that reason is not commercialized in Brazil. Instead, a spinach substitute (Tetragonia expansa, originally from New Zealand, is widely used in the country. There is scant information on the mineral profile and none on the soluble mineral fraction of this vegetable. The solubility of a mineral is one of the important factors for its absorption. For this reason, the calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, potassium, and sodium soluble fractions in the raw spinach substitute were determined and the effect of blanching times on the solubility of these minerals was investigated. Blanching times of 1, 5, and 15 minutes were employed. The magnesium, manganese, potassium, and sodium soluble fractions increased sizably with shorter blanching time. Longer blanching time (15 minutes caused large losses of minerals. The soluble mineral fractions can contribute poorly to diet in terms of potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. The spinach substitute cannot be considered a dietary source of calcium, iron and copper due to the insolubility of these minerals in the vegetable, possibly caused by the large oxalate content.O verdadeiro espinafre (Spinacia oleracea não se desenvolve bem em climas quentes e por esta razão não é comercializado no Brasil. Em seu lugar, um substituto de espinafre (Tetragonia expansa, originário da Nova Zelândia, é amplamente utilizado. A informação sobre o perfil mineral é resumida e inexistente sobre a fração solúvel de minerais deste vegetal. A solubilidade de um mineral é um dos fatores importantes para sua absorção. Por esta razão, as frações solúveis de cálcio, magnésio, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, potássio e sódio foram determinadas no substituto de espinafre cru, e o efeito dos tempos de branqueamento na solubilidade destes minerais foi investigado. Tempos de branqueamento de 1, 5, e 15 minutos foram

  15. Why Does the Grasshopper Not Eat Spinach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the capital, locals snagged the protein-filled insects for midsummer snacks. International athletes unaccustomed to Chinese diet might not be pleased to find one in .... insecticide in apples, sugarcane, citrus, rice, vegetables, sugar beets and forests. It is safe for predatory mites, wasps, spiders, and beetles and effective for ...

  16. Optimization and antioxidant properties of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachna, Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Yadav, M. S.; Sharma, Nisha

    2016-05-01

    In the recent years, silver nanoparticles have been the focus of Nanobiotechnology due to their unique interdisciplinary applications in the field of biomedicals, material diagnostics, optics and chemistry. A wide set of physical and chemical methods have been devised for providing the effective and efficient synthesis procedure of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) but are somehow expensive and involve toxic substances. There is a critical need to develop reliable and eco-friendly process for synthesizing silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, a simple and cost-effective green approach has been utilized for the production of stable silver nanoparticles by employing Dianthus caryophyllus flower extract. Different optimization conditions were checked for extract capped AgNPs and characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The optimum 0.02 dilution of extract found efficient to reduce 4 mM silver ions in the ratio 60:40 at pH 9. The antioxidant potential of the resultant AgNPs was observed using Hydrogen peroxide assay. There was an increasing trend of antioxidant property with increasing concentration. This potential of these photosynthesized AgNPs makes them reliable for good cause of society, mainly in therapeutic and biomedical applications.

  17. The Portuguese Literacy Campaigns after the Carnation Revolution (1974-1977)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Isabel Pereira; Amorim, José Pedro; Correia, José Alberto; Menezes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a description of the major campaigns of adult literacy in the revolutionary period in Portugal, between the years 1974 and 1977. The campaigns aimed to address the problem of extremely low levels of formal education and high levels of adult illiteracy, and were organized by different movements, from the military to political…

  18. GERMINATION AND MULTIPLICATION OF CARNATION USING BAP AND KIN IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Restelatto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to establish a system of in vitro multiplication for the harpsichord, the seeds were sterilized in sodium hypochlorite and inoculated in MS. The induction of axillary buds used the BAP and Kinetin (KIN at concentrations of 0; 2,0 and 4,0 mg/L. Was added, 3% (w/v sucrose, 0,6 (w/v agar and the pH ± 5.8. 40 days after the inoculation of seeds, germination was evaluated. The best average germination occurred in T1 (0 min in hypochlorite and T3 (10 min in hypochlorite (9,0 and 8,75 treatments, respectively, differing T2 (5 min in hypochlorite (3,75. In the formation of axillary buds, treatment T1 (2,0 mg / L BAP presented (7,1 buds /explant. Have the treatment T3 (4,0 mg /L BAP presented (5,5 buds / explant, and T1 (zero BAP statistically had the lowest bud formation (3,73 buds / explant. For CIN, it was observed that the best response (5,6 and 5,1 buds/explants were in the T1 (0 CIN and T3 (4.0 mg /L KIN treatments whereas in T2 (2,0 mg /L CIN had the lowest bud formation (2,7 buds /explant . Thus, sodium hypochlorite was effective in decontaminating and BAP and KIN hormones were effective for inducing gems

  19. Producción de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus L. utilizando hojas de chaya (Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh como sustituto parcial del alimento balanceado Nile tilapia production (Oreochromis niloticus L. using tree spinach leaves (Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh as a partial substitute for balanced feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar R Poot-López

    2012-11-01

    with a limited food supply. In rural areas, the availability of alternative inputs is key to improving fish farming production, especially if these inputs are unprocessed. The leaves of tree spinach (Cnidoscolus chayamansa, a bush that grows in Mexico and Central and South America, are one such option. In this work, juvenile tilapia (7-4.5 g survival, growth rates, and food conversion rates were studied during two seasons (warm and cold, substituting 25 and 50% of the balanced feed rations with raw tree spinach leaves (ad libitum. The experimental design was completely random, with two treatments and one control (00% of the balanced feed ration; three replicates were done in each season. The densities were 36 fish m-per replica in the cold season and 44 fish m-3 per replica in the warm season. The weight gain in the treatments with 50 and 75% balanced feed and tree spinach leaves was similar to that of the control group in both seasons. The cold season adversely affected survival, weight gain, and feed conversion rates in all treatments, but the warm season did not. When tree spinach leaves were included in the tilapia diet, the feed conversion rate for the balanced feed was reduced from 9.7 to 33.62% in the cold season and from 5.38 to 40.23% in the warm season. The results show that the use of locally available complementary inputs such as tree spinach leaves may favor the development of small-scale tilapia cultures in the tropics.

  20. HIV-induced immunodeficiency. Relatively preserved phytohemagglutinin as opposed to decreased pokeweed mitogen responses may be due to possibly preserved responses via CD2/phytohemagglutinin pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Jakobsen, K D; Odum, N

    1989-01-01

    We studied the proliferative response of PBL to the mitogens PHA and PWM and Candida albicans Ag in 301 HIV seropositive homosexual men, of whom 55 had AIDS. The responses to PHA were reduced only in the clinically ill HIV seropositive subjects. In contrast, the responses to PWM were profoundly...... and eight controls were chosen for the following studies. Expression of T3, Ti, delta receptors, and CD2 was investigated and showed an increased percentage of CD2 receptors positive cells in HIV seropositive subjects without AIDS. The proliferative responses of PBL to stimulation with PHA, PWM, antibodies...

  1. Lymphocyte transformation response to pokeweed mitogen as a predictive marker for development of AIDS and AIDS related symptoms in homosexual men with HIV antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Lindhardt, B O; Gerstoft, J

    1987-01-01

    To identify factors that may predict the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related symptoms various immunological measurements were studied in a group of homosexual men attending screening clinics for AIDS in Copenhagen. Fifty seven men whose ratio of T helper...

  2. Deciphering the ecophysiological traits involved during water stress acclimation and recovery of the threatened wild carnation, Dianthus inoxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jurado, Javier; Balao, Francisco; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Dianthus inoxianus is an endangered species endemic from a small littoral area in the SW Spain, with an unusual flowering season under the adverse conditions of dry Mediterranean summer. A greenhouse experiment was designed to assess the physiological traits involved in drought acclimation and recovery of 3-month-old plants. The evolution of plant water status, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments concentrations and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations were followed during water stress and re-watering. Our results indicated that the plant water status, Ψ w and RWC, only decreased at the end of the drought period (18th day), together with the net photosynthetic rate, A N . Photosynthetic impair was mainly caused by diffusional limitations (SL and MCL) of CO 2 , as indicated the joint and marked decrease of g s , g m and C i during drought period, while V c,max did not vary. After rewatering, leaf water status recovered faster than photosynthetic one, reaching control values on day 1 after recovery, while A N , g m and C i took 7 days. Additionally, g s showed the slowest recovery taking 15 days, but g s decrease was enough to keep Ψ w and RWC at constant values throughout the experiment. Results suggest a high tolerance and recovery of D. inoxianus from severe drought periods. This drought tolerance was also reflected in the stability of its photochemical apparatus and pigments concentrations, as indicated the constant values of F v /F m , Ф PSII and pigments concentrations through experimental period. However, prolonged drought events due to global climate change could negatively affect the physiological mechanisms of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Caracterização física, química e sensorial de cookies confeccionados com farinha de talo de couve (FTC e farinha de talo de espinafre (FTE ricas em fibra alimentar Phisical, chemical, and sensorial characterization of cookies made with kale stalk flour (KSF and spinach stalk flour (SSF rich in nourishing fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Mauro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se utilizar Farinhas de Talos (FT na confecção de cookies. As farinhas foram obtidas a partir de talos de couve manteiga e espinafre desidratados. Confeccionaram-se 3 tipos de cookies por modificação da formulação padrão de sugar-sanap cookie, método 10-50D (AMERICAN..., 1995: cookie controle, cookie com 15% de FTC e com 15% de FTE. Realizou-se a composição centesimal nas FT segundo as metodologias descritas da AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1995, sendo as fibras alimentares analisadas pelo método de van Soest (1963. Nos cookies, procedeu-se às seguintes análises: peso, espessura, diâmetro, volume e densidade aparente segundo método 10-50D da AACC (AMERICAN..., 1995, acidez titulável e pH através da técnica do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (SÃO PAULO, 1985, rendimento e fator térmico. A composição centesimal dos cookies seguiu normas da AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1995 e, para aceitação dos experimentais, utilizou-se escala hedônica de 9 pontos. Constatou-se que as FT possuem baixa densidade energética e alto teor de fibra alimentar e cinzas. Os cookies experimentais apresentaram maior (p The objective of the study was to use Stalk Flours (SF to prepare cookies. The ST was made with dehydrated Kale Stalks (KSF and Spinach Stalks (SSF. Three kinds of cookies were prepared by modification of the sugar-snap cookie formula, 10-50D method (AMERICAN..., 1995: control cookie, cookie with 15% of KSF, and cookie with 15% of SSF. The centesimal composition was performed on the SF by the AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1995 and the nourishing fibers were prepared according to van Soest (1963. The following parameters were analyzed: weight, thickness, diameter, volume, and apparent density according to the 10-50D method of the AACC (AMERICAN..., 1995, titratable acidity and pH using the Adolfo Lutz Institute (2005 technique, and also revenue and caloric factor. The determination of the centesimal composition of the cookies followed the AOAC regulations

  4. Stromal serine protein kinase activity in spinach chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, N.; Lucero, H.A.; Vallejos, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    At least twelve 32 P-labeled stromal proteins were detected by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions when intact chloroplasts were incubated with 32 Pi, in the light but only three were detected in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or in the dark. Incubation of isolated stroma with [gamma- 32 P]ATP resulted in the preferential phosphorylation of one of them, a 70-kDa polypeptide, in serine residues. Thylakoid membranes in the dark promoted the phosphorylation of two additional stromal polypeptides of 55 and 40 kDa. Illumination during the phosphorylation of stroma in the presence of thylakoids stimulated severalfold the labeling of the 40-kDa polypeptide but not when DCMU was added. The protein kinase activity present in isolated stroma phosphorylated exogenous substrates like histone III, phosvitin, histone II, and casein with specific activities of 3, 1.8, 0.7, and 0.2 pmol X mg-1 X min-1. Histone III polypeptides were phosphorylated differently by stroma and by thylakoids in the dark. Moreover, histone III phosphorylated by thylakoids in the dark yielded a pattern of phosphopeptides after V8 protease treatment that was different from the pattern obtained when histone III was phosphorylated by stroma

  5. Protective systems against active oxygen species in Spinach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yakoub@AHMED

    The production oř superoxide radical (O. ‡) can induce lipid peroxidation and oxidation oř proteins and nucleic acids. As protection against toxic O species, chloroplasts ... cultivars accumulate anthocyanin pigments in epidermal tissue oř the mesocotyl (Orczyk ... The photosynthetic apparatus and pigments should be most.

  6. DETERMINATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN SPINACH AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    density and is toxic or poisonous at high concentration. They include mercury, cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium, Thallium and lead . Heavy metals are natural components of the earth's crust, they cannot be destroyed or degraded. To a small extent they enter our bodies via food, drinking water and air. 2 . Vegetables are.

  7. Distinguishing bovine fecal matter on spinach leaves using field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodbourne illnesses. In this study passive field spectroscopy, mea...

  8. Frequency of Verticillium species in commercial spinach fields and transmission of V. dahliae from spinach to subsequent lettuce crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahlia,e is a devastating disease of lettuce in California. The disease on lettuce is currently restricted to a small geographic area in the central coastal California, even though cropping patterns in other coastal lettuce production regions in the state ar...

  9. Environmental factors and cultural measures affecting the nitrate content in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breimer, T.

    1982-01-01

    Ingestion of high amounts of nitrate by man can be considered hazardous to human health. In the human body, nitrate can be reduced to nitrite which may cause methemoglobinemia. Furthermore, the possible formation of N-nitroso-compounds from nitrite and secondary nitrogen compounds in the

  10. Gamma-Irradiation damage to the tonoplast in cultured spinach cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, K.; Koshiba, T.; Hiraoka, A.; Sato, M.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation on the tonoplast of cultured spinachcells were investigated using purified tonoplast vesicles. The activities of the membrane-bound enzymes, i.e. ATPase and pyrophosphatase (PPase), were considerably reduced when the isolated vesicles were exposed to radiation (1 and 5 kGy), but this reduction was alleviated in the tonoplast irradiated in vivo, In the presence of an extract prepared from non-irradiated cells, the decrease of the enzyme activities in the irradiated vesicles was reduced. Similar alleviation effects were also observed with regards to fatty acid residues of membrane lipids as well as with SDS-PAGE detectable polypeptides of the membrane. From these results, we conclude that the tonoplast in vivo was protected from radiation at least partly through the action of certain metabolic product(s). Other noticeable features clarified in this investigation are: (1) ATPase is more susceptible to radiation than PPase, (2) unsaturated fatty acids in membrane lipids were markedly decreased, in contrast to unaltered saturated acids, (3) membrane proteins seem to be more susceptible to radiation as compared to membrane lipids

  11. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    based on mean pixel intensity, Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and classification by Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance illustrates that a combination of Near Infrared spectra (NIR) and Visual spectra (VIS) is able to identify uninfected seeds from infected seeds ranging from 80-100%. Classification...... using only NIR gave a separation of 26-88% between uninfected and Fusarium spp. infected seeds. Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. could be distinguished from each other and from Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp. and Stemphylium spp. Separation of Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp...

  12. Phytoconstituents and stability of betalains in fruit extracts of Malabar spinach (Basella rubra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sandopu Sravan; Manoj, Prabhakaran; Nimisha, Girish; Giridhar, Parvatam

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutrient composition, minerals, and stability of betalains pigment from fruit extracts of Basella rubra. The proximate composition included total carbohydrates (1.64 g), protein (51 mg), total lipid (1.38%), moisture (81.76%), niacin (0.5 mg), ascorbic acid (89.33 mg), and total tocopherols (1.27 mg) in 100 g fresh deseeded fruit. Total dietary fibre of 32.52 g and soluble dietary fibre of 12.34 g in 100 g dry deseeded fruits. Fatty acid composition of dry desee...

  13. Phytoconstituents and stability of betalains in fruit extracts of Malabar spinach (Basella rubraL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandopu Sravan; Manoj, Prabhakaran; Nimisha, Girish; Giridhar, Parvatam

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutrient composition, minerals, and stability of betalains pigment from fruit extracts of Basella rubra . The proximate composition included total carbohydrates (1.64 g), protein (51 mg), total lipid (1.38%), moisture (81.76%), niacin (0.5 mg), ascorbic acid (89.33 mg), and total tocopherols (1.27 mg) in 100 g fresh deseeded fruit. Total dietary fibre of 32.52 g and soluble dietary fibre of 12.34 g in 100 g dry deseeded fruits. Fatty acid composition of dry deseeded fruits comprised 57.52% SFA, 20.62% MUFA and 22.28% PUFA. Pigment (betalain) rich fruit extracts showed excellent stability over 20 days of storage under varied pH, temperature, light, acids, salts and sugars. B. rubra fruit was observed as a potential source of nutrients and betalains as a functional food.

  14. Comparative structural analysis of cytoplasmic and chloroplastic 5S rRNA from spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieler, T; Digweed, M; Bartsch, M; Erdmann, V A

    1983-01-01

    5S rRNAs from Spinacea oleracea cytoplasmic and chloroplastic ribosomes have been subjected to digestion with the single strand specific nuclease S1 and to chemical modification of cytidines by sodium bisulphite in order to probe the RNA structure. According to these data, cytoplasmic 5S rRNA can be folded as proposed in the general eukaryotic 5S rRNA structure (1) and 5S rRNA from chloroplastides is shown to be more related to the general eubacterial structure (2). Images PMID:6340063

  15. Comparative structural analysis of cytoplasmic and chloroplastic 5S rRNA from spinach.

    OpenAIRE

    Pieler, T; Digweed, M; Bartsch, M; Erdmann, V A

    1983-01-01

    5S rRNAs from Spinacea oleracea cytoplasmic and chloroplastic ribosomes have been subjected to digestion with the single strand specific nuclease S1 and to chemical modification of cytidines by sodium bisulphite in order to probe the RNA structure. According to these data, cytoplasmic 5S rRNA can be folded as proposed in the general eukaryotic 5S rRNA structure (1) and 5S rRNA from chloroplastides is shown to be more related to the general eubacterial structure (2).

  16. Crystal structure of spinach major light-harvesting complex at 2.72Å resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Yan, Hanchi; Wang, Kebin; Kuang, Tingyun; Zhang, Jiping; Gui, Lulu; An, Xiaomin; Chang, Wenrui

    2004-03-01

    The major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) serves as the principal solar energy collector in the photosynthesis of green plants and presumably also functions in photoprotection under high-light conditions. Here we report the first X-ray structure of LHC-II in icosahedral proteoliposome assembly at atomic detail. One asymmetric unit of a large R32 unit cell contains ten LHC-II monomers. The 14 chlorophylls (Chl) in each monomer can be unambiguously distinguished as eight Chla and six Chlb molecules. Assignment of the orientation of the transition dipole moment of each chlorophyll has been achieved. All Chlb are located around the interface between adjacent monomers, and together with Chla they are the basis for efficient light harvesting. Four carotenoid-binding sites per monomer have been observed. The xanthophyll-cycle carotenoid at the monomer-monomer interface may be involved in the non-radiative dissipation of excessive energy, one of the photoprotective strategies that have evolved in plants.

  17. Reversible pH-dependent activation/inactivation of CF(1-ATPase of spinach chloroplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Khomochkin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the reverse pH-dependent regulation of the enzymatic activity of the catalytic part of ATP synthase (EC 3.6.3.14 of chloroplast – coupling factor CF1. It was shown that the short-term incubation of isolated CF1 in the media with pH 4.5 or 3.5 leads to inactivation of Ca2+-ATPase, which is rapidly (t1/2 ~ 1 min restored in the medium containing 0.5-10 mM bicarbonate at pH 7.8. After acid treatment, the rate of Mg2+-ATPase reaction was also stimulated in the presence of 1 mM bicarbonate (рН 7.8; 37 °С. The increase in Ca2+– and Mg2+-АТР activity of CF1 associated with the addition of NaHCO3 solution was completely eliminated after the introduction of 50 mM acetazolamide – a specific inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase. The obtained results suggest the existence of the bound bicarbonate in the CF1 structure, which apparently participates in proton transfer.

  18. Cd2+ Effect on Photosynthetic Apparatus in Synechococcus elongatus and Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Marie; Matějová, E.; Sofrová, D.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2004), s. 425-430 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/02/0301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : cyanobacteria * heavy metals * photochemical activity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2004

  19. THE ACTION OF SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE ON THE CHLOROPHYLL-PROTEIN COMPOUND OF THE SPINACH LEAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E L

    1941-05-20

    1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) attacks the chlorophyll-protein compound modifying its protein properties and absorption spectrum. 2. In the presence of SDS, chlorophyll is quantitatively converted to phaeophytin; i.e., magnesium is removed from the molecule. This reaction, measured spectrophotometrically, proceeds at a rate directly proportional to the hydrogen ion concentration. At constant pH, the rate is proportional to the SDS concentration until a maximum rate is achieved. 3. The chlorophyll or phaeophytin (depending on the pH) remains attached to the protein, since the prosthetic group cannot be separated by ultrafiltration, dialysis, or fractional precipitation. 4. This suggests that the magnesium plays no part in binding chlorophyll to the split protein fragments, but may be concerned in binding the larger units, since the metal becomes extremely labile when the protein is split.

  20. Isolation of chlorophyll a from spinach leaves | Dikio | Bulletin of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 2 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Sensitivity of Pseudomonas fluorescens to gamma irradiation following surface inoculations on romaine lettuce and baby spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation of fresh fruits and vegetables is a post-harvest intervention measure often used to inactivate pathogenic food-borne microbes. We evaluated the sensitivity of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (2-79, Q8R1, Q287) to gamma irradiation following surface inoculations on romaine lettuce and spi...

  2. Isolation and basic characterization of Zn-binding compounds in spinach biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vašíčková, Soňa; Száková, J.; Tlustoš, P.; Balík, J.; Vokáč, Karel; Grüner, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2001), s. 549-553 ISSN 0370-663X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/97/0845 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Zn-binding compounds Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.237, year: 2001

  3. The effect of soil properties on cadmium bonds to organic substances of spinach biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vašíčková, Soňa; Száková, J.; Tlustoš, P.; Vokáč, Karel; Balík, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2002), s. 187-191 ISSN 0268-2605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/97/0845 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : cadmium * sequential analysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.286, year: 2002

  4. Organellar and cytosolic localization of four phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase isozymes in spinach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1999-01-01

    ) required inorganic phosphate for activity, whereas the others were phosphate independent. PRPP synthase isozymes 2 and 3 contained 76 and 87 amino acid extensions, respectively, at their N-terminal ends in comparison with other PRPP synthases. Isozyme 2 was synthesized in vitro and shown to be imported...

  5. Vermicompost affects soil properties and spinach growth, physiology, and nutritional value

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of vermicompost to improve soil fertility and enhance crop yield has gained considerable momentum due to its contribution to agroecological sustainability. Short-term (35-days after transplanting) effects of vermicompost, applied either as a soil amendment (5% and 10%, v/v), or a drench (40 ...

  6. Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic sequences in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory illustrate important synthetic strategies, reagents, or experimental techniques, oftentimes resulting in the synthesis of commercially important compounds. A fragrance with a 'spicy, carnation, sweet, vanilla', named after carnations (Dianthus caryophllus), Methyl Diantillis is…

  7. Walking through the Revolution: A Spatial Reading of Literary Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Alves, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an embryo of a literary guide on the Carnation Revolution to be explored for educational historical excursions other than leisure and tourism. We propose a historical trail through the centre of Lisbon, city of the Carnation Revolution, called "Walk through the Revolution." The trail aims to reinforce collective…

  8. Gluten-Free Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veggies Zucchini Pancakes Vegetarian Lentil and Sweet Potato Stew Mock Tuna Salad Spinach and Ricotta Dumplings Spinach Frittata Strata Turkey Veggies Warm Spinach Salad with Soft Poached Eggs Zucchini Parmigianino with Tomato ... Latest Restaurants Molly's Cupcakes Monica's Crepes Paulette ...

  9. A Novel Approach to Investigate Internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Lettuce and Spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chromosomal integration of the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene was successfully accomplished into four nalidixic acid resistant E. coli strains: two O157:H7 strains from produce outbreaks, 4407 and 5279, one O157:H7 strain from a beef-associated outbreak, 86-24h11, and a non-pathogenic comm...

  10. Improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses in transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) expressing spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijuan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB) improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH) was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait improvement in sweet potato not only stabilizes yield production in normal soils in unpredictable climates but also provides a novel germplasm for sweet potato production on marginal lands.

  11. The Role of Media in Shaping the Consumers’ Food Risk Perception and Behavior: A Case Study of Spinach Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Miljkovic, Dragan; Hallman, William K.

    2008-01-01

    A clear understanding of consumers’ perception and attitude toward food risk and their behavior to food recall is important in order to develop an effective crisis management program at the firm level as well as at the government level. This study will develop food risk profiles of US consumers based on their perceived food safety risk and attitude toward food safety. The role of media usage in shaping the risk profile will be examined. The preliminary results suggest that the risk profiles o...

  12. Influence of vacuum impregnation and pulsed electric field on the freezing temperature and ice propagation rates of spinach leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts are currently directed towards improving the quality of sensitive tissues of fruits and vegetables after freezing and thawing. One of the methods under investigation is the combination of vacuum impregnation (VI) with cryoprotectants and pulsed electric field (PEF) applied to the plant tiss...

  13. Inhibition of the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate-sulfotransferase activity from spinach, maize, and Chlorella by adenosine-5'-monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A

    1975-01-01

    Adenosin-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) sulfotransferase from higher plants and algae seems to be regulated by adenosine-5'-monophosphate, an endproduct of the APS-sulfotransferase reaction. This was found in crude extracts of Spinacea oleracea L. and Zea mays L. and with partially purified APS-sulfotransferase fractions from Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Half-maximal inhibition with adenosine-5'-monophosphate, was found to be (a) 1.3 mM for Spinacea; (b) 1.3 mM for Zea; and (c) 1.6 mM for Chlorella. This inhibition is specific for adenosine-5'-monophosphate, adenosine and adenosine-3'-monophosphate having no inhibitory effect.

  14. Femtosecond pump probe spectroscopy for the study of energy transfer of light-harvesting complexes from extractions of spinach leaves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available was resuspended in cold buffer C (20 mM Hepes, pH 7.8 with NaOH) and again homogenised as above. Triton x-100 was added to the suspension to obtain the final detergent concentration of 0.7–0.9%, and the suspension was then stirred continuously on ice... of large macro-aggregates with long-range chiral order within the sample, which allows energy transfer. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) A SDS-PAGE gel of 12% acrylamide was cast (using a Bio-Rad mini-protean tetra...

  15. Biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut spinach and lettuce using a bacteriophage cocktail

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of an E. coli O157:H7-specific bacteriophage cocktail (EcoShield™) was evaluated against nalidixic acid resistant (NalR) E. coli O157:H7 strains in either a) laboratory medium or b) on leafy greens. Laboratory medium cultures were inoculated with 5 log CFU/ml and treated with 7 log PFU/ml...

  16. Gamma irradiation dose: Effects on spinach baby-leaf ascorbic acid, carotenoids, folate, alpha-tocopherol, and phylloquinone concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionizing radiation of fruits and vegetables, in the form of gamma rays or electron beams, is effective in overcoming quarantine barriers in trade, decontamination, disinfestation and prolonging shelf life, but a void of information persists on ionizing radiation effects of vitamin profiles in indivi...

  17. Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylakoids significantly reduced hunger (21% reduction, p snacks and sweets during the day (36% reduction, p snacks, respectively, and decreased subjective liking for sweet (28% reduction, p snacks, sweet-and-fat snacks in particular, were positively correlated to higher emotional eating scores (p obesity. Individuals scoring higher for emotional eating behavior may have enhanced treatment effect on cravings for palatable food. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Expressing Spinach Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijuan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB) improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH) was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait improvement in sweet potato not only stabilizes yield production in normal soils in unpredictable climates but also provides a novel germplasm for sweet potato production on marginal lands. PMID:22615986

  19. Structure and Stability of the Spinach Aquaporin SoPIP2;1 in Detergent Micelles and Lipid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, Ines; Survery, Sabeen; Ibragimova, Sania

    2011-01-01

    reconstitution of the purified protein into biomimetic systems, we have here for the first time characterized the structural stability of SoPIP2;1. Methodology/Principal Finding: We have characterized the protein structural stability after purification and after reconstitution into detergent micelles......-helical in accordance with crystallographic data. The protein has a high thermal structural stability in detergent solutions, with an irreversible thermal unfolding occurring at a melting temperature of 58 degrees C. Incorporation of the protein into lipid membranes increases the structural stability as evidenced...... by an increased melting temperature of up to 70 degrees C. Conclusion/Significance: The results of this study provide insights into SoPIP2;1 stability in various host membranes and suggest suitable choices of detergent and lipid composition for reconstitution of SoPIP2;1 into biomimetic membranes...

  20. Improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses in transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas expressing spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Fan

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait improvement in sweet potato not only stabilizes yield production in normal soils in unpredictable climates but also provides a novel germplasm for sweet potato production on marginal lands.

  1. Changes in the contents of amino acids and the profile of fatty acids in response to cadmium contamination in spinach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Kyjaková, Pavlína

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2015), s. 285-290 ISSN 1214-1178 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : abiotic stress * heavy metals * peroxidation of lipids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 1.039, year: 2015

  2. Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylak...

  3. Open-refrigerated retail display case temperature profile and its impact on product quality and microbiota of stored baby spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open-refrigerated display cabinets are widely used in supermarkets and grocery chains around the globe. However, the temperature conditions in these display cases are variable which may impact product quality and safety. Therefore, we investigated the quality and microbiological populations of bagge...

  4. Adventitious shoot formation and plant regeneration from leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the explants were cultured on medium with NAA only. Shoot regeneration was associated with callus formation. Regenerated shoots were rooted ex vitro, acclimatized and grown normally in the greenhouse. Keywords: Cytokinins, carnation, multiplication, regeneration, thidiazuron. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  5. Frozen Egg Products for Air Force Missile Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Acceptable Ingredients Schillings, Crown Colony ( Safeway ) wu-formula flour, Rice Products Col, 26 O’Forrell St., San Francisco. TCikkcman. Sea...Serve with catsup. Acceptable Ingredients Carnation or Lucerne. TJel-Air Frozen S> redded Hash Browns ( Safeway ). jPreco, Real Pre-cooked Bacon...cycles of 30 sec. on/30 sec. off. •Serve with syrup. Acceptable Ingredients Carnation or Lucerne. Bel-Air Frozen Shredded Hash Browns ( Safeway

  6. Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation and internalization on lettuce and spinach leaf surfaces reduces efficacy of irradiation and sodium hypochlorite washes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy green vegetables is an ongoing concern for consumers. Biofilm-associated and internalized pathogens are relatively resistant to chemical treatments, but little is known about the response of these protected pathogens to irradiation. Leaves of Romaine l...

  7. Overexpression of SoCYP85A1, a Spinach Cytochrome p450 Gene in Transgenic Tobacco Enhances Root Development and Drought Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmeng Duan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs play an essential role in plant growth, development, and responses to diverse abiotic stresses. However, previous studies mainly analyzed how exogenous BRs influenced plant physiological reactions to drought stress, therefore, genetic evidences for the endogenous BRs-mediated regulation of plant responses still remain elusive. In this study, a key BRs biosynthetic gene, SoCYP85A1 was cloned from Spinacia oleracea, which has a complete open reading frame of 1,392 bp encoding a 464 amino acid peptide and shares high sequence similarities with CYP85A1 from other plants. The expression of SoCYP85A1 which was higher in leaf compared with root and stem, was induced by treatments of PEG6000, abscisic acid (ABA, low temperature and high salt. Increases in both SoCYP85A1 transcripts and endogenous BRs in transgenic tobacco which resulted in longer primary root and more lateral roots enhanced drought tolerance compared with wild types. The transgenic tobacco accumulated much lower levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde (MDA than wild types did, accompanied by significantly higher content of proline and notably enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes. Besides, transcriptional expressions of six stress-responsive genes were regulated to higher levels in transgenic lines under drought stress. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SoCYP85A1 involves in response to drought stress by promoting root development, scavenging ROS, and regulating expressions of stress-responsive genes.

  8. Interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate and membrane reconstituted aquaporins: A comparative study of spinach SoPIP2;1 and E. coli AqpZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Plasencia, Inés

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and membrane proteins reconstituted into large unilamellar lipid vesicles and detergent micelles studied by circular dichroism (CD) and polarity sensitive probe labeling. Specifically, we carried out a comparative study...... aquaporins. However, we do not find compelling evidence for unfolding. In contrast when SDS is added to detergent stabilized aquaporins, SoPIP2;1 partly unfolds, while AqpZ secondary structure is unaffected. Using a fluorescent polarity sensitive probe (Badan) we show that SDS action on membrane...... to 12.5× CMC. Combined, our results show that SDS does not unfold neither SoPIP2;1 nor AqpZ during transition from a membrane reconstituted form to a detergent stabilized state albeit the native folds are changed....

  9. Residues in blackcurrants, fodder peas, spinach and potatoes treated with sublethal doses of 2,4,5-T to simulate wind drift damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Odgaard, Peder

    1981-01-01

    Blackcurrants, treated with 0.1 kg of 2,4,5-T ha-1 (as esters of mixed C4-C6 alcohols; Tormona 80), contained 0.1 mg of 2,4,5-T residues kg-1 in the berries at ripeness 29 days after treatment. Total residues in the berries were not reduced during growth and ripening, although the residue...

  10. Effect of biochar application on the content of nutrients(Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P) and amino acids in subsequently growing spinach and mustard

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Veronika; Břendová, K.; Pavlíková, D.; Kubátová, P.; Tlustoš, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 7 (2017), s. 322-327 ISSN 1214-1178 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbonaceous amendment * Macroelement * Plant * Stress metabolism Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Agricultural biotechnology and food biotechnology Impact factor: 1.225, year: 2016

  11. Amino acid synthesis in photosynthesizing spinach cells: effects of ammonia on pool sizes and rates of labeling from 14CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, P.O.; Cornwell, K.L.; Gee, S.L.; Bassham, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Isolated cells from leaves of Spinacia oleracea have been maintained in a state capable of high rates of photosynthetic CO 2 fixation for more than 60 hours. The incorporation of 14 CO 2 under saturating CO 2 conditions into carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids, and the effect of ammonia on this incorporation have been studied. Total incorporation, specific radioactivity, and pool size have been determined as a function of time for most of the protein amino acids and for γ-aminobutyric acid. The measurements of specific radio-activities and of the approaches to 14 C saturation of some amino acids indicate the presence and relative sizes of metabolically active and passive pools of these amino acids. Added ammonia decreased carbon fixation into carbohydrates and increased fixation into carboxylic acids and amino acids. The results indicate that added ammonia stimulates the reactions mediated by pyruvate kinase and phosphenoenolpyruvate carboxylase, as seen with other plant systems. The data on the effects of added ammonia on total labeling, pool sizes, and specific radioactivities of several amino acids provides a number of indications about the intracellular sites of principal synthesis from carbon skeletons of these amino acids and the selective nature of effects of increased intracellular ammonia concentration on-such synthesis

  12. Accumulation of lead and arsenic in Malabar spinach (Basella alba L.) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves grown on urban and orchard soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migration of people of different ethnic backgrounds to U.S. urban areas has resulted in different ethnic vegetable crops being grown in urban gardens. There are concerns that some ethnic vegetable crops may accumulate heavy metals when grown on urban soils. The objective of this study was to evalua...

  13. Role of curli and contamination level on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into organic spinach plants grown on hydroponics and in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: E. coli O157:H7 may be internalized into organic leafy greens via root uptake. Understanding the mechanisms of E. coli O157:H7 internalization into organic leafy greens is important as produce wash treatment may not remove internalized pathogens. Purpose: The internalization potential...

  14. Role of curli and plant cultivation conditions on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into organic spinach grown on hydroponics and in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of organic fresh produce is an important public health concern because no terminal disinfection treatment is applied during harvest or at the packing facility to kill pathogens. In addition, once contaminated, pathogens may internalize into produce and be protected from disinfectants d...

  15. A direita radical em Portugal: da Revolução dos Cravos à era da internet = The radical right in Portugal: from the Carnation Revolution to the internet age = La derecha radical en Portugal: de la Revolución de los Claveles hasta la era de internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, Fábio Chang de

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca revisitar o desenvolvimento da direita radical em Portugal, desde a queda do regime autoritário (1974 até a era da internet, com ênfase no período entre os anos de 1984 e 2012. A análise abordou dois eixos fundamentais: a criação de organizações culturais e políticas de direita radical e a organização de grupos violentos de conotação racista e xenofóbica

  16. Efecto de la fertilización nitrogenada en la incidencia de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Dianthi y Heterodera trifolii g. en clavel Effect of nitrogen fertilization on the incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Dianthi and Heterodera trifolii G. in carnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbano Luis E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El manejo de la fertilización es uno de los métodos que junto con otras formas de control puede reducir la severidad de algunas enfermedades; en el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la fertilización nitrogenada, utilizando diferentes fuentes de nitrógeno sobre las enfermedades causadas por Fusarium oxysporum f. sp, Dianthi y Heterodera trifolii G. Se emplearon como fuentes de nitrógeno de fosfato de amonio, nitrato de potasio y nitrón 26, y sulfato de potasio como testigo. Al finalizar el ensayo, además de la variación
    de pH, se evaluó potencial de inóculo de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp, Dianthi, el número y viabilidad de los quistes de Heterodera trifolii G., lo mismo que el número de plantas
    enfermas, Los resultados mostraron que los tratamientos
    con nitrato de potasio y sulfato de potasio incrementaron el pH, mintras que el nitrón 26 y el fosfato de amonio acidificaron el suelo. Al final del experimento se presentó
    un menor número de colonias de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.Dianthi en los suelos tratados con sulfato y nitrato de potasio. El número de quistes y viabilidad de Heterodera trifolii G. no fueron afectados por los tratamientos. El mayor número de tallos florales se obtuvo con el tratamiento de sulfato de potasio y el menor con el de fosfato de amonio.

    Handling the fertilization is one of the methods that among with other controling ways can reduce the strength of some diseases; in this essay it was tested the effeet of the nitrogenated fertilization, using differents nitrogen sources allover the diseases; produced by the Fusarium oxysporum
    f. sp. dianthi and Heterodera trifolii G. Ammonium phosphate, potassium nitrate and Nitron 26 were used as nitrogen sources, and potassium sulfate was used as a paterno At the end of the test, beside of the pH variation, it was evaluated the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi inoculus potential,
    the number of eysts and the viability of the Heterodera trifolii GI and the number of siek plants. The results with the potassium nitrate and potassium sulfate treatments, shown that the pH was inereased, while the treatments with Nitron 26 and ammonium sulfate gets the soil more aeid. When the treatments were finished it were seen less number of eolonies of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in the soils that where treated with potassium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The number of eysts and the viability of the Heterodera trifolii G. were not afected by the treatments. the bigest number of floral stems was obtained with the Potassium sulfate
    treatment, and the smaller number with the ammonium sulfate treatment.

  17. Calcium and Iron Levels in Some Fruits and Vegetables Commonly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Cabbage, Pepper, Spinach, and Tomato) in each case were analysed for their Calcium and iron levels using spectrophotometric method of analysis; From the results, it was found that the concentration of Calcium was highest in spinach ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. During some stages of life, such ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. Eat poorly because of money, social, ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  1. 7 CFR 5.2 - Marketing season average price data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...); dried apricots; avocados; blackberries; boysenberries; gooseberries; loganberries; black raspberries..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans, beets, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumbers, green peas, spinach, and tomatoes. Other Commodities Beeswax; cottonseed...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. During some stages of life, such as pregnancy ... dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. Eat poorly because of money, social, health, or ...

  5. Comparative analysis of nutritional composition of Amaranthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, Amaranthus caudatus (Spinach) had higher moisture content (74.8%) and lipid content (5.5%), while Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) contain higher percentage of protein (3%), carbohydrate (4%), ash (9%) and crude fibre (9.5%) than the spinach. The β-carotene and vitamin A (Retinol) contents of spinach were ...

  6. A Survey of Plants with Anti-HIV Active Compounds and their Modes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    jacalin-related lectin that binds to glycosylated viral envelopes blocked HIV-1 entry into cells , and. Phytolacca americana pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), a 29 KDa ribosome-inactivating protein that. 46 removes adenine from rRNA was found to be a potent microbicide . Table 1: Plants with active compounds and modes ...

  7. Effect of chloroquine on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Flachs, H

    1986-01-01

    the response to pokeweed mitogen. The response to concanavalin A and to various antigens was suppressed, especially the response to large particulate antigens. Oral intake of 300 mg of chloroquine base/week did not affect the lymphocyte proliferative responses. 600 mg of base/week decreased the response...

  8. in transgenic cucumber

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... Transformation of pokeweed antiviral protein gene (PAP) into plants was shown to improve plant resistance to several viruses or fungi pathogens with no much negative effect on plant growth. The non-virulent defective PAP inhibits only the virus but does not interfere with the host. A non-virulent defective ...

  9. Evaluation of genetic diversity in different genotypes of Gerbera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diwakar

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... fifth, only after rose, carnation, chrysanthemum, and tulip, in the global cut flower trade (Bhatia et al., 2009; Teeri et al., 2006). It is valued for its unique and attractive flower forms and bright colours. Pioneered in the late ninetieth century in England, gerbera breeding has been very active in Netherlands ...

  10. Disencounters with Africa in the Portuguese language: Postcolonial literature and theory in the Portuguese postempire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schor, P.

    2017-01-01

    The imaginary of the Portuguese empire in Africa has been strongly present in the narratives of Portuguese national identity. With the Carnation Revolution of 1974 and the recognition of the independence of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa in 1975, the Portuguese language became the trope

  11. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... “Judith”) plant grown in a plastic greenhouse and irrigated by a drip irrigation system under Mediterranean ... shorter internodes sections and reductions in flower number, size and quality (Cameron et al., 1999; .... Water use of carnation under plastic greenhouse conditions is computed using water balance ...

  12. Regeneration and Agrobacterium -mediated transformation studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf explants of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Turbo) were used for the transformation of gene performed by the EHA 105 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary vector, pGA482GG. This vector carries the marker genes, neomycin phosphotansferase II (npt II) that determine resistance to ...

  13. S K Rangarajan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    . Angelescu, Tricomi genre'. During his tenure at the Central .... SKR was a connoisseur of classical music (Carnatic and. Hindustani); was a film critic for a Tamil magazine in his early days and The Four Quartets by T S Eliot used to be one of ...

  14. Regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Leaf explants of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Turbo) were used for the transformation of gene performed by the EHA 105 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary vector,. pGA482GG. This vector carries the marker genes, neomycin phosphotansferase II (npt II) that determine.

  15. Dear Author,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pepsi

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... system is still needed (Seo et al., 2007). Plant regenera- tion via adventitious shooting has been described from different carnation's explants including, petals (Frey and. Janick, 1991; Nugent et al., 1991; Messeguer et al., 1993;. Fisher and Vainstein 1993; Nakano et al., 1994), leaves. (Van Altvorst et al., ...

  16. Mechanisms of PGPR-induced resistance against pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria can suppress diseases through antagonism between the bacteria and soilborne pathogens, as well as by inducing a systemic resistance in the plant against both root and foliar pathogens. Specific Pseudomonas strains induce systemic resistance in carnation,

  17. Induction and expression of PGPR-mediated induced resistance against pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Treatment of plants with selected strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can induce systemic resistance in carnation, cucumber, radish, tobacco, and Arabidopsis as evidenced by an enhanced defensive capacity upon challenge inoculation with a pathogen. In the induction of resistance

  18. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Hugues; Bassard, Jean-Étienne André; Hamberger, Björn Robert

    2014-01-01

    for the engineered bioproduction of such compounds. Two ground-breaking developments of commercial products driven by the engineering of P450s are the antimalarial drug precursor artemisinic acid and blue roses or carnations. Tedious optimizations were required to generate marketable products. Hurdles encountered...

  19. A petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower senescence is mediated in part by changes of plant hormones, such as ethylene, cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA). Ethylene is known to control flower senescence in many species, especially ethylene sensitive flowers, like petunia, carnation and rose. During flower senescence in petunia and ot...

  20. Systems and Control Engineering-Basic Concepts of Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    control theory always fascinates him. His other interests are Carnatic music and philosophy. J R V engates waran is presently a third year student of the same. Department. He would like to work in control engineering and its applications in robotics and bio-medical engineering. --------~--------. RESONANCE I March 1999. 45 ...

  1. Can a general shoot proliferation and rooting medium be used for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transferring to a mixture of sand, leaf-mold and vermiculite (1:1:1, v/v/v) successfully acclimatized the plantlets. It can be concluded that using a general medium for shoot proliferation of used carnation cultivars is possible, but for rooting it is impossible. Keywords: culture medium, Dianthus caryophyllus L., in vitro culture, ...

  2. Phosphorylation of the spinach chloroplast 24 kDa RNA-binding protein (24RNP) increases its binding to petD and psbA 3' untranslated regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza-Tavera, H; Vargas-Suárez, M; Díaz-Mireles, E; Torres-Márquez, M E; González de la Vara, L E; Moreno-Sánchez, R; Gruissem, W

    2006-09-01

    The chloroplast 24 kDa RNA binding protein (24RNP) from Spinacea oleracea is a nuclear encoded protein that binds the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of some chloroplast mRNAs and seems to be involved in some processes of mRNA metabolism, such as 3'UTR processing, maturation and stabilization. The 24RNP is similar to the 28RNP which is involved in the correct maturation of petD and psbA 3'UTRs, and when phosphorylated, decreases its binding affinity for RNA. In the present work, we determined that the recombinant 24RNP was phosphorylated in vitro either by an animal protein kinase C, a plant Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase, or a chloroplastic kinase activity present in a protein extract with 3'-end processing activity in which the 24RNP is also present. Phosphorylation of 24RNP increased the binding capacity (B(max)) 0.25 time for petD 3'UTR, and three times for psbA 3'UTR; the affinity for P-24RNP only increased when the interaction with petD was tested. Competition experiments suggested that B(max), not K(d), might be a more important factor in the P-24RNP-3'UTR interaction. The data suggested that the 24RNP role in chloroplast mRNA metabolism may be regulated in vivo by changes in its phosphorylation status carried out by a chloroplastic kinase.

  3. Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected vegetables: okra fruit ( Abelmoshcus esculentus ), fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis ), African spinach ( Amarantus viridis ), and scent leaf ( Ocumum gratissimum.

  4. B and T lymphocytes in man. I. Effect of infant thymic irradiation on the circulating B and T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.M.; Goh, K.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    B and T lymphocytes were studied in a group of adults whose thymic glands were irradiated in infancy for alleged thymic enlargement. Two independent methods were used to determine the B and T lymphocytes from each peripheral blood specimen: (1) the relative proportion of cells with surface immunoglobulins (B lymphocytes) and cells forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes (T lymphocytes); and (2) the relative mitogenic response to phytohemagglutinin (T lymphocytes) and to pokeweed mitogen (B lymphocytes). All specimens were coded. The results obtained indicate: (1) a reduction of B and T lymphocytes; and (2) a decreased mitogenic response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen in this group of patients as compared with the controls. These observations suggest that (1) the effect of irradiation to the thymus gland on lymphocytes is long lasting and (2) both B and T lymphocytes are affected by irradiation to the thymus gland

  5. Effects of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. methanolic extract on mouse immune response in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurasorn Saraphanchotiwitthaya1

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Terminalia bellerica methanolic extract (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 g/ml on the mouse immune system were investigated in vitro. Phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation were assayed. The results indicated the effect of the extract (500 g/ml on the stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis, through the production of superoxide anions and acid phosphatase, with a phagocytic index (PI value of approximately 1.5 and 1.3, respectively. For the lymphocyte proliferation assay, the extract (500 g/ml with phytohemagglutinin exhibited maximal activation, with a stimulation index (SI value of approximately 5.8. With concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide, and pokeweed mitogen, similar activation (SI 4.5 of lymphocyte proliferation was observed. However, at low concentrations (0.1 g/ml, T. bellerica extract with concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen caused suppressant activity (SI 0.7. The results suggested that the effect of extract on T-lymphocyte proliferation occurred through the same mechanism as phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A and B-lymphocyte proliferation through T-cell independent and T-cell dependent mechanisms, in manners similar to lipopolysaccharide and pokeweed mitogen respectively. It might be concluded that the methanolic extract of T. bellerica affected the mouse immune system, specifically both the cellular and humoral immune response in vitro, corresponding with its folklore applications. These results can be further applied to the treatment of human immune mediated diseases.

  6. Acute Environmental Toxicity and Persistence of a Chemical Agent Simulant: 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide (CEES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Isolated Chloroplast Measurements Chloroplasts were isolated from commercially obtained spinach ( Spinacea oleracea ) leaves according to the methods of...species, namely spinach ( Spinacea oleraceae ), would be useful, since procedures do oxist for the routine isolation of high-quality chloropiasts from...Chloroolast Measurements Chloroplasts were isolated from commercially obtained spirach ( Spinacea oleracea ) leaves according to the methods of Walker

  7. Combining essential oils and olive extract for control of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the combined antimicrobial effects of plant essential oils and olive extract against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Newport on organic leafy greens. Organic baby spinach, mature spinach, romaine lettuce, and iceberg lettuce were inoculated with S. Newport and dip-t...

  8. 7 CFR 201.56-1 - Goosefoot family, Chenopodiaceae, and Carpetweed family, Aizoaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seed: Beet, Swiss chard, fourwing saltbush, spinach, New Zealand spinach, and forage kochia. (a... epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period. (4) Root system: A primary root... multigerm beet since the growing seedlings will separate from the cluster making it difficult to identify...

  9. Eating during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Best sources Protein cell growth and blood production lean meat, fish, poultry, egg whites, beans, peanut butter, ... salmon with bones, spinach Iron red blood cell production (to prevent anemia) lean red meat, spinach, iron-fortified whole-grain breads ...

  10. Cross-linking of chloroplast F0F1-ATPase subunit epsilon to gamma without effect on activity. Epsilon and gamma are parts of the rotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulenberg, B; Wellmer, F; Lill, H; Junge, Wolfgang; Engelbrecht, Siegfried

    1997-01-01

    Cys residues were directed into positions 17, 28, 41 and 85 of a Cys6-->Ser mutant of subunit epsilon of spinach chloroplast F0F1 ATP synthase. Wild-type and engineered epsilon were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified in the presence of urea, refolded and reassembled with spinach chloroplast F1

  11. 77 FR 17052 - Metaldehyde; Notice of Receipt of Request To Voluntarily Amend a Registration To Terminate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ..., kohlrabi, mizuna, mustard greens, mustard spinach, rape greens), grass grown for seed, ornamentals, prickly... pests of various food, seed, and ornamental plants. Lonza holds the sole registration for a metaldehyde..., cabbage, cauliflower, cavalo, broccolo, collards, kale, kohlrabi, mizuna, mustard greens, mustard spinach...

  12. Indigenous leafy vegetables (imifino, morogo, muhuro) in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-07

    May 7, 2014 ... Their spinach-like flavour, high yields and ability to grow in hot weather have made them popular vegetable .... the other hand, eating cooked and pureed spinach leads to higher plasma total β-carotene ... methods including oxidative, enzymatic or photo degra- dation activities. Traditional methods of sun ...

  13. C Chang foliar co es in g applic owpea growth cation cultiva h and n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    Montpellier, Montpellier, France. Yousif BS, Nguyen NT, Fukuda Y, Hakata H, Okamoto Y, Saneoka H. (2010). Effect of salinity on growth, mineral composition, photosynthesis and water relations of two vegetable crops; New. Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tretragonioides) and water spinach. (Ipomoea aquatica). Int. J. Agric.

  14. Biofilm formation of Salmonella species isolated from fresh cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to isolate Salmonella from fresh cabbage and spinach vegetables, determine antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation of the isolates. Spinach and cabbage farm vegetables were found to harbour Salmonella. A total of eighty-two Salmonella isolates were recovered from both vegetables and ...

  15. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, Victoire W T; de Graaf, Cees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-06-01

    Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference for and intake of the target vegetable in comparison to a control vegetable (green beans). We conducted a randomized controlled trial with four parallel groups: plain spinach, creamed spinach, spinach ravioli, and green beans. During the intervention, children were served the vegetable at their main meal six times over 6 weeks at home. Children aged 2 to 4 years were recruited from six child-care centers located in Wageningen, the Netherlands, and randomly assigned to one of the four groups, with vegetable products provided by the researchers. The study was performed between September 2014 and January 2015. In total, 103 children participated, with 26, 25, 26, and 26 in the plain spinach, creamed spinach, spinach ravioli, and green beans groups, respectively. Preference for and ad libitum intake of cooked spinach were assessed during a test meal at the day-care center pre- and postintervention. Food neophobia was assessed via the Child Food Neophobia Scale. General linear model repeated measures analysis, including food neophobia, spinach liking, exposure, and consumption scores as covariates, was performed to test for effects of group on intake. Logistic regression was used to assess changes in preference between pre- and postintervention. All four groups significantly increased their spinach intake from pre- (53 g) to postintervention (91 g) by an average of 70%. For preference, no significant shift toward the target vegetable was found from pre- to postintervention. The effect on intake depended on the child's neophobia status and preintervention spinach consumption, with children with neophobia being less responsive to the intervention and with children who ate more spinach before the

  16. Ethylene-induced senescence-related gene expression requires protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, K.A.; Raghothama, K.G.; Woodson, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of inhibiting protein synthesis on the ethylene-induced expression of 3 carnation senescence-related genes, pSR5, pSR8, and pSR12. Treatment of preclimacteric carnation petal discs with 1μg/ml of cycloheximide, a cytoplasmic protein synthesis inhibitor, for 3h inhibited protein synthesis by >80% as quantitated by the incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein. Pre-treatment of petal discs with cycloheximide prevented ethylene-induced SR transcript accumulation. Cycloheximide treatment of petal discs held in air did not result in increased levels of SR mRNA. These results indicate that ethylene does not interact with pre-formed factors but rather that the activation of SR gene expression by ethylene is mediated by labile protein factor(s) synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes. Experiments are currently underway to determine if cycloheximide exerts its effect at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level

  17. Exploitation de la variabilité somaclonale pour la recherche d'oeillet (Dianthus caryophyllus L. tolérant à la salinité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haouala, F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of Somaclonal Variability for Research of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. Tolerant to Salinity. Callogenesis in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. 'Légion d'Honneur' is possible from internodes in a medium containing 0.1 mg.l-1 NAA and 0.1 mg.l-1 TDZ. Regeneration from callus needs 2 mg.l-1 BA. Shoots rooting is obtained on a medium containing 0.5 mg.l-1 IBA. Callus growth is reduced and regeneration rate is very affected in presence of NaCl 100 mM. Shoot rooting is better without NaCl. Regenerated plants present somaclonal variation and those obtained under salt stress have a better relative tolerance to salinity than plants regenerated without salt.

  18. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas em frangos de corte naturalmente infectados com Ascaridia galli Anthelminthic activity of plants in broiler chickens naturally infected with Ascaridia galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Fernandes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The anthelminthic activity of four plants - Allium sativum (garlic, Punica granatum (pomegranate, Tynnanthus labiatus (liana-carnation and Cocus nucifera (coconut with the activity of mebendazole - was compared. Seventy Hubbard chickens, naturally infected with Ascarídia galli, divided in 5 groups of 10 chichens plus a control group (not treated, n=20 were used in the experiment. The vegetable matter was used in the forms of aqueous extract, juice and triturated, administered by probe or incorporated to the diet, in the doses of 2, 3 and 10g/kg/day, for three days. A non parametric test was used to evaluate the anthelminthic effect of the plants. The eliminations of A. galli for the garlic, pomegranate, liana-carnation, coconut and mebendazole were: 9.7; 6.6, 16.7; 19.0 and 99.0%, respectively. The results showed that those plants do not have anthelminthic activity.

  19. Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) has been demonstrated against fungi, bacteria, and viruses in Arabidopsis, bean, carnation, cucumber, radish, tobacco, and tomato under conditions in which the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remained spatially separated. Bacterial strains differ in their ability to ...

  20. Selección de aislados de trichoderma spp. antagonistas a rosellinia necatrix

    OpenAIRE

    Ruano Rosa, David; Moral, Lidia del; López Herrera, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-six bulk isolates of Trichoderma spp. from avocado (Persea americana Mill.), carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) crops located in southern Spain were evaluated for antagonism against one isolate of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. Isolates of both types of fungi were tested in dual and cellophane culture. The origin, cultural characteristics, overgrowth sporulation and staining of growth medium were rec...

  1. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Microbiological Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    higher popula- tions and enhanced activity for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The aquatic rhizosphere is thus becoming an important area of research with...rhizosphere has been used for plant protection rather than plant destruction. Koths and Gunner (1967) induced chitinase activity against Fusarium...roseum in an Arthrobacter species isolated from the rhizosphere of carnations. Sub- sequent dissemination of this chitinolytic bacterium in the rhizosphere

  2. Development of Sampling Methods for Powders and Soil for Detection of Biothreat Agents by Electrochemiluminecence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    DEC03; dairy creamer, lot number DPG 13MAY04; and flour, lot number DPGLJ24MAY05. In addition, flour (white, enriched, all purpose, Safeway brand...and dairy Rcreamer (Coffee Mate , Carnation, Nestl6) were purchased from Canada Safeway Ltd. (Medicine Hat, AB). The soil was from the Suffield...matrix to diluent ratios was obtained by using VEEV MINITubes and positive control antigens with flour from a different source ( Safeway brand) and soil

  3. Pengaruh Iradiasi Ultraviolet Terhadap Multiplikasi Tunas Aksiler Dan Kadar Klorofil Anyelir (Dianthus Caryophyllus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Afza, Higa; Iriawati, nFN

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) is one of the lights spectrum that causes plant cell to damage. The use of ultraviolet irradiation in combination with tissue culture techniques has not been widely used in somaclonal variation method for carnation breeding, whereas the source of ultraviolet irradiation is more easily obtained compared to other sources of irradiation such as gamma rays, x-rays and neutron rays. The purpose of this study was to determine effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the multiplication ...

  4. Variations in Host Preference among and within Populations of Heterodera trifolii and Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Riggs, R D

    1999-12-01

    Seven populations of Heterodera trifolii from Arkansas, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Australia plus 3 or 4 single-cyst isolates (SCI) from each population were tested for reproduction on seven species of plants to compare the host preferences among and within populations. Common lespedeza, Kummerowia striata cv. Kobe, was a good host for all populations and isolates. Therefore, a plant was considered to be a host if the number of females produced on it was 10% or more of the number on Kobe. All seven populations reproduced on Trifolium repens and T. pratense. None reproduced on Beta vulgaris or Glycine max. One single-cyst isolate from the Australian population produced a few females on T. pratense. The Australian population maintained on carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus, produced females on carnation but not on curly dock, Rumex crispus. However, its subpopulation maintained on T. repens produced females on R. crispus but not on carnation. Four of the other six populations produced females on R. crispus, and four produced females on carnation. Differences in host range were observed among seven of the mother populations and their SCI, and among isolates within each population. Five host range patterns were found in populations and SCI of H. trifolii. Significant quantitative differences occurred among populations in the numbers of females on most hosts, between isolates and their original populations, and among isolates from the same population. SCI selected from white clover produced fewer females on a series of test hosts and had host ranges the same as or narrower than those of the original populations. However, SCI selected from Kobe lespedeza had more females on some hosts and had host ranges the same as or wider than those of the original populations. The host ranges of all populations and SCI of H. trifolii were different from those of populations and SCI of race 3 of H. glycines and H. lespedezae.

  5. Biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Soledad Darqui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of commercial transgenic varieties of orange petunias sold in Europe and the United States although they had never reached the approved status, and the consequent recommendation to destroy them, was the trigger to discuss about biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants. Inside the restricted world of 26 vegetal transgenic species, according to the ISAAA’s reports (http://www.isaaa.org, there are three ornamental species: carnation, rose and the Beijing University developed petunia; all of them with the same trait, a change in their colour. On the other hand, in 2014, the whole-genome sequence of carnation appeared which was the first and until now the only one among ornamental species. In this context, we review the publications from the last five years in petunia, rose, chrysanthemum and carnation. In these papers there are detailed descriptions of modification of the cascade of genes and transcription factors involved in stress situations, in different developmental stages and their regulation through different plant hormones. This knowledge will allow breeding for better and new varieties with changes in their abiotic or biotic stress tolerance, altered growth or yield and modified product quality as colour or fragrance.

  6. Wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants regenerated from leaf cultures irradiated with ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Yasuno, N.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, A.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of ion-beam irradiation combined with tissue culture in obtaining floral mutants was investigated and compared with those of gamma rays and X-rays in carnation. Leaf segments of carnation plants in vitro were irradiated with the 220 MeV carbon ions, and cultured till the shoot regenerated. The carbon ion had the highest effect in reducing the regeneration frequency, and the RBE value with respect to gamma-rays was four. The higher mutation frequency and the wider mutation spectrum were obtained in plants irradiated with the carbon ions than low LET radiations. Three new carnation varieties developed by ion-beam irradiation were applied for the registration of the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The results indicate that ion beam irradiation could induce wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants, and that the combined method of ion-beam irradiation with tissue culture is useful to obtain the commercial varieties in a short time

  7. Characteristics of radioactive contamination of vegetables derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuhiro; Kitamura, Yoji; Kozaka, Takashi; Uno, Izumi; Shimizu, Kikuo; Hirota, Masahiro; Higaki, Shogo; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    We examined the characteristics of the radioactive contamination and the physical removal of radioactivity from contaminated cabbage and spinach. In a distribution imaging study, there were two types of contamination, spot type and spread type, of cabbage and spinach. The relative radioactivity (PSL) of the face of the leaf was much higher than that of the back of a leaf of cabbage. The ratio of relative radioactivity (PSL) between spot contamination and spread contamination in a leaf of spinach was 9.4% and 90.6%, respectively. More than 80% of radioactivity attaches to the surface of leaves of spinach. There was no significant difference of radioactivity removal between hand-washing and rinsing with running water. The degree of removal of radioactivity from contaminated spinach depended on the length of time between contamination and rinsing. When contaminated spinach was rinsed within 1 week after contamination, the removal ratio of 131 I and 137 Cs was high, with 50% and 70%, respectively. When rinsing contaminated spinaches more than 2 weeks after contamination, the removal ratio of 131 I and 137 Cs was low, approximately 34% and 69%, respectively. (author)

  8. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.

    1999-01-01

    = 12) or with a spinach product (n = 12 per group), i.e., whole-leaf, minced, liquefied or liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber. After 3 wk of dietary intervention, changes in serum or plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and uric acid...... of carotenoid supplementation and spinach intake on erythrocyte enzyme antioxidant activities, serum or plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant concentrations, and concentrations of oxidatively damaged amino acids in plasma; Subjects received for 3 wk a basic diet (n = 10), a basic diet with a carotenoid supplement (n...

  9. Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supply enough iron for your baby. Does menopausal hormone therapy affect how much iron I need to ... Lentils and beans Dark chocolate Dark green leafy vegetables, such as spinach and broccoli Tofu Chickpeas Canned ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... soybeans; and chickpeas Tofu Dried fruits, such as prunes, raisins, and apricots Spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables Prune juice The Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, ... beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an ...

  12. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  15. Para-aminobenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    PABA is used in certain sunscreen and skin-care products. It may also naturally occur in these foods: Brewer's yeast Liver Molasses Mushrooms Spinach Whole grains Other products may also contain PABA.

  16. Sample Set (SE): SE12 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE12 Effect of agricultural films for spinach leaf metabolites Investigation of Spinacia oleracea leaf metab...olites. 2 cultivars (Nihon and Wasesaradaakari), 2 growth conditions (normal film a

  17. Sample Set (SE): SE13 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE13 Comparison of leaf metabolites among spinach varieties Investigation of Spinacia oleracea leaf metaboli...tes. 4 cultivers (Nihon, Kanaji, Kurohaminstarland and Wasesaradaakari) and 3 repli

  18. Integrated water quality, emergy and economic evaluation of three bioremediation treatment systems for eutrophic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was targeted at finding one or more environmentally efficient, economically feasible and ecologically sustainable bioremediation treatment modes for eutrophic water. Three biological species, i.e. water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), loach (Misgurus anguillicaudatus) and ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. Treatment To Stop Bleeding If blood loss is causing ... flow. In some cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If ...

  20. Contents and risks of potentially toxic elements in wastewater-fed food production systems in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle

    Non-treated wastewater is used for irrigation of aquatic food production systems in the peri-urban areas of the major cities in Southeast Asia. Therefore concern is that potentially toxic elements (PTEs) may accumulate in foods produced. Hanoi and Phnom Penh, the capitals of Vietnam and Cambodia......, fish, soil and sediment from wastewater-fed production systems in Hanoi and Phnom Penh. Another aim was to assess the food safety risks of water spinach and fish with respect to PTEs. The third aim was to assess PTE retention capacity of river sediment in Hanoi and the governing retention mechanisms...... the concentration range observed for water spinach grown at agricultural soil not exposed to wastewater in Malaysia. Water spinach grown at sites of high and low wastewater exposure did not show a significantly higher accumulation of PTEs compared to sites without wastewater exposure. In Phnom Penh, water spinach...

  1. Sample Set (SE): SE16 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE16 Effect of agricultural films for spinach leaf metabolites 2 Investigation of S...pinacia oleracea leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultural film or no agricultura

  2. Healthy Eating for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 6 ounces of protein such as lean meat, chicken, turkey, fish, eggs, beans or peas and nuts. Two ... in women. Iron-rich food sources include red meat, chicken, turkey, pork, fish, kale, spinach, beans, lentils and fortified ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eating lead in paint or soil, or drinking water that contains lead. Teens Teens are at risk ... leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. Treatment To Stop Bleeding If blood loss is causing ...

  4. Enhancement of Antioxidant Quality of Green Leafy Vegetables upon Different Cooking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Afzal; Khatun, Mst Afifa; Islam, Mahfuza; Huque, Roksana

    2017-09-01

    Antioxidant rich green leafy vegetables including garden spinach leaf, water spinach leaf, Indian spinach leaf, and green leaved amaranth were selected to evaluate the effects of water boiling and oil frying on their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), reducing power (RP), and antioxidant capacity. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in TPC, TFC, and RP in all the selected vegetables indicating the effectiveness of the cooking process on the antioxidant potential of leafy vegetables. Both cooking processes enhanced significantly ( P vegetables due to boiling and frying except in the Indian spinach leaf. However, the present findings suggest that boiling and frying can be used to enhance the antioxidant ability, by increasing the bioaccessibility of health-promoting constituents from the four vegetables investigated in this study.

  5. Trace metals compositions of some leafy vegetables grown in minna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactuca sativa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), Pumpkin leaves (Telfaira occidentals) and waterleaf (Talinum fruticosum) was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The percentage moisture contents of the leafy vegetables were within ...

  6. Assessment of cobalt levels in wastewater, soil and vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okra) samples collected on seasonal basis from January, 2013 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results show cobalt levels in wastewater were in the range of ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur ... leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. Treatment To Stop Bleeding If blood loss is causing ...

  8. Screening for Total Carotenoids and β-Carotene in Some Widely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    machinery and protect them against photo-damage. (Alexander, 1999). Carotenoids are notable for their wide distribution, structural diversity, and of various ... Squash (Curcurbita moschata), Spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus), Tomatoe (Lycopersicon esculentum) and. Waterleaf (Talinum triangulare) were purchased from.

  9. Addition of calcium compounds to reduce soluble oxalate in a high oxalate food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Wen-Chun; Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2017-04-15

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is often used as a base vegetable to make green juices that are promoted as healthy dietary alternatives. Spinach is known to contain significant amounts of oxalates, which are toxic and, if consumed regularly, can lead to the development of kidney stones. This research investigates adding 50-500mg increments of calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate and calcium sulphate to 100g of raw homogenates of spinach to determine whether calcium would combine with the soluble oxalate present in the spinach. Calcium chloride was the most effective additive while calcium carbonate was the least effective. The formation of insoluble oxalate after incubation at 25°C for 30min is a simple practical step that can be incorporated into the juicing process. This would make the juice considerably safer to consume on a regular basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of iodine content of some commonly utilized leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of iodine content of some commonly utilized leafy vegetables: Spinacea oleracea Linn (spinach), Brassica oleracea Var (cabbage), Hibiscus sabdriffa Linn and Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) found in Kano metropolis vegetable markets.

  11. Metabolism and Potential Health Effects of Carotenoids Following Digestion of Green Leafy Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard

    and minced spinach after in vitro digestion. In healthy subjects, this difference resulted in significantly higher β-Car concentrations in the triglyceride rich lipoprotein fractions (TLR)/Chylomicron (CH) fraction at 4 and 5 hours postprandially (p

  12. Application of a new ultra-microculture system. II. Stimulation of human B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, A J; Gruber, M; Flad, H D

    1988-07-22

    An ultra-microtechnique for culturing human B-lymphocytes in glass capillary tubes using a volume of 2 microliter is described. The advantage of this ultra-microculture system is that only a small number of lymphocytes and minute amounts of culture medium (or test factors) are required. Optimal culture conditions for the formation of Ig-secreting plaque-forming cells (PFC) after stimulation of mononuclear cells with pokeweed mitogen are given. Furthermore it is shown that immunoglobulin secreted into culture supernatants by purified B cells in the presence of T cell subsets can be measured in a microELISA.

  13. Fatty acids affect proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Basiricò

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro studies were performed to assess the effects of bovine plasma fatty acids on proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. PBMC from 6 Holstein heifers were cultured in media containing oleic (OA, palmitic (PA, stearic (SA, linoleic (LA, palmitoleic (POA, or linolenic (LNA acid at concentrations mimicking different degree of lipomobilisation. Proliferation of PBMC was stimulated by concanavalin A or pokeweed mitogen. Concentrations of OA, PA, SA and LA mimicking moderate-intense lipomobilisation impaired PBMC proliferation. Concentrations of OA or LA mimicking low degree of lipomobilisation enhanced PBMC proliferation. None of the POA, and LNA concentrations affected proliferation of PBMC.

  14. Simulating the Transfer of Strontium-90 from Soil to Leafy Vegetables by Using Strontium-88

    OpenAIRE

    Kuke, Ding; Shujuan, Liu; Yingxue, He; Dong, Yan; Fengshou, Zhang; Shuifeng, Wang; Jinghua, Guo; Wei, Zhang; Xin, Wang; Xiaoyan, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 (88Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 (90Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water co...

  15. Chemical and Physical Characterization of the Activation of Ribulosebiphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, M. I.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Hartman, F. C.

    1983-08-01

    Molecular structure of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase isolated from Rhodospirillium was compared with the enzyme isolated from Alcaligens eutrophus. Peptides derived from the active center of the bacterial enzyme were highly homologous with those isolated from spinach. Molecular shapes of the carboxylases were estimated using neutron scattering data. These studies suggested that the enzyme as isolated from R. rubrum is a solid prolate ellipsoid or cylinder, while the spinach enzyme resembles a hollow sphere.

  16. UJI KONDUKTIVITAS TERMAL PADA DAUN BAYAM DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY APPARATUS

    OpenAIRE

    Firmansyah, Firmansyah; Syafutra, Heriyanto; Sidikrubadi, Sidikrubadi; Irzaman, Irzaman

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Has successfully tested thermal conductivity on spinach leaves by using Thermal Conductivity Apparatus. Thermal conductivity Apparatus assisted with Steam generator, Caliper, Micrometer, and iron. The thermal conductivity value of spinach leaves is 0.5208 watts / (m.K). This thermal conductivity test on foliage, fruits using Thermal Conductivity Apparatus are very easy to do in Basic Physics Laboratory by physics study program students in Indonesia. Keywords: Thermal Conductivi...

  17. PREFERENSI KONSUMEN DAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN PRODUK PUREE BAYAM ORGANIK STUDI KASUS DI CV. ADDIN ABADI BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernita Dian Puspasari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing population make public consumtion in term of foods becoming more complex, resulting in the opportunities to produce new product. One of them is producing new product from vegetables, which is now widely grown variety of organic vegetables. This is an opportunity to produce a new product are made from organic spinach. The purpose of this research is to identify the characteristics of a new product of organic spinach puree; analyze consumer preference; and formulate marketing strategies on the new product of organic spinach puree. In this research, the analysis performed includes descriptive analysis; conjoint analysis to know consumer preference consisting of packaging and flavors; and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to formulate marketing strategy for the new product of organic spinach puree. The result showed that as many as 96 respondents of 100 total respondents used as the sample claimed to be interested in the new product. The analysis result of consumer preference using conjoint analysis show that the packaging is the most important attribute for consumer to make purchasing decision. For the best combination of choice attributes is organic spinach puree with melon flavors and packaging in sachet. According to the AHP method which has been done, a strategy to strengthen business colaborations or partnerships is an alternative strategy to be a priority in the marketing of organic spinach puree.

  18. Gm crops: between biological risk and environmental and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic crops were the result of the application of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture. These crops were developed by transfer of foreign genes (transgenes) from any biological origin (animal, plant, microbial, viral) to the genome of cultivated species of plants. The crops genetically modified (GM) have been used in the world since 1996; up to December 2010 they counted to a billion hectares planted throughout the period. In just the past year 2010 148 million hectares were planted, grown by 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries. GM crops that are used in global agriculture are mainly soybean, cotton, corn and canola, which express transgenes derived from bacteria, and confer resistance to lepidopteron insects (ILR) or herbicide tolerance (HT; glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium). the first transgenic varieties containing only a single transgene, or simple event, while the current varieties express several transgenes, or stacked, conferring resistance to different species of Lepidoptera and coleopteran insects and tolerance to two different herbicides. In 2010 were planted in Colombia, 18.874 hectares of GM cotton, 16.793 hectares of GM corn, and 4 hectares of GM carnations and GM roses. GM corn and GM cotton were planted in Sucre, Cesar, Cordoba, Huila and Tolima. GM corn was planted in Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Meta, Cundinamarca and Santander. Carnations and roses were planted in Cundinamarca. GM maize and GM cotton expressing ILR and HT features, as simple events or stacked. In the case of GM carnation and GM roses, these genotypes that express the color blue. Academia has tried to organize the debate on the adoption of GM crops around the analysis of biological risks and environmental vs environmental and economic benefits. Biological hazards are defined by the possible negative effects on human consumers or negative effects on the environment. The environmental benefits are related to reduce use of agrochemicals (insecticides and herbicides

  19. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko

    1998-01-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy γ-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy γ-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  20. Antidumping Action in the United States and Around the World: An Analysis of International Data. CBO Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Report Downloaded From the Internet: 22 Jun 98 C. Report’s Point of Contact: (Name, Organization, Address, Office Symbol, & Ph #: Congressional Budget...Canada Raspberries 24.06.85 Canada Steel Rail 15.09.89 Canada Steel Jacks 13.09.66 Canada Sugar and Syrups 09.04.80 Chile Standard Carnations...5 JJ 01 rH Id at ■SB ß rH M to •H -H JJ O fn g u in 4-i o JJ - CO o Pi M M (d 0) o at to M ft 43 M • JJ H> JJ JJ 10