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Sample records for poison property higher

  1. [Acute higher funghi mushroom poisoning and its treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviuc, Philippe; Flesch, Françoise

    2003-09-20

    The various mushroom poisoning syndromes are summarised together with elements underlining uncertainty and lack of knowledge. For each of the classical syndromes concerned, classified in delays inferior or superior to 6 hours, the toxins and their mechanisms of action, the main mushrooms responsible, the symptoms and their treatment are all presented. Characterised by early onset within 6 hours, these represent the majority of intoxications. There are 6 syndromes: gastro-intestinal (resinoid), muscarine (sudorien, cholinergic), pantherine (myco-atropine, anticholinergic), coprine (similar to the antabuse syndrome), narcotine (psilocybin, hallucinatory) and paxillus syndrome (exceptional). Characterised by an onset after six hours, they regroup the phalloid syndrome that is responsible for 90 to 95% of deaths due to higher funghi mushrooms, the orellanine and gyromitrin syndrome and new syndromes identified over the past decade concerning acute renal failure with shorter onset than during the orellanine syndrome (Amanita proxima), erythermalgia (Clitocybe amoenolens), rhabdomyolysis (Tricholoma equestre) and central nervous system failure (Hapalopilus rutilans).

  2. Plant poisons: their occurrence, biochemistry and physiological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Plants produce poisons as a defence against predators. Many of these substances are biosynthesised from non-protein amino acids by biosynthetic pathways which have been deduced from the results of isotopic tracer analysis. These secondary metabolites have been used by humans over thousands of years, both as drugs and as agents to kill animals and commit homicide.

  3. The chemical and energetic properties of muscles poisoned with fluorodinitrobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dydyńska, M; Wilkie, D R

    1966-06-01

    1. The heat production and mechanical responses of frogs' sartorii have been recorded at 0 degrees C after immersion in normal Ringer solution, and also after poisoning with 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (FDNB) and nitrogen. The muscles were later analysed chemically for changes in ATP, phosphocreatine (PC), inorganic phosphate (P(i)), lactate, total adenine nucleotide and total inosine nucleotide.2. Analysis of paired resting muscles established that the resting levels of these substances found in our experiments were similar to those reported elsewhere.3. Resting muscles that had been poisoned with FDNB and N(2) contained significantly more PC and less ATP than unpoisoned controls. Moreover, some of their adenine had been deaminated to inosine.4. In a normal muscle in oxygen, the PC that breaks down as a result of a 30 sec tetanus is restored with a roughly exponential time course whose half-time is about 10 min. Thus at least 40 min rest must be allowed between the different stages of an experiment.5. Isometric twitches of the poisoned muscle rapidly decline in size, but small twitches continue to be produced for a very long time. If stimulation is discontinued, substantial recovery takes place. The total tension development is equivalent to at least thirty normal twitches, and correspondingly, the total heat production is greater than could be accounted for even by complete break-down of the ATP in the muscle. In fact, the ATP break-down, though highly significant, is not nearly complete.6. In short series of isometric twitches there is significant break-down of ATP and, less consistently, of PC; also a significant increase in P(i) but no additional deamination of adenine. The rate of development of isometric tension is slightly decreased.7. The results described under (6) are definitely due to the presence of FDNB. In similar experiments with the muscles in N(2) but not otherwise poisoned the only significant change is a break-down of PC.8. In a long series of

  4. Salvianolic Acids Attenuate Rat Hippocampal Injury after Acute CO Poisoning by Improving Blood Flow Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes the major injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. The most severe damage via CO poisoning is brain injury and mortality. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP occurs in forty percent of the survivors of acute CO exposure. But the pathological cause for DEACMP is not well understood. And the corresponding therapy is not well developed. In order to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid (SA on brain injury caused by CO exposure from the view point of hemorheology, we employed a rat model and studied the dynamic of blood changes in the hemorheological and coagulative properties over acute CO exposure. Compared with the groups of CO and 20% mannitol + CO treatments, the severe hippocampal injury caused by acute CO exposure was prevented by SA treatment. These protective effects were associated with the retaining level of hematocrit (Hct, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosities and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in red blood cells (RBCs. These results indicated that SA treatment could significantly improve the deformation of erythrocytes and prevent the damage caused by CO poisoning. Meanwhile, hemorheological indexes are good indicators for monitoring the pathological dynamic after acute CO poisoning.

  5. Poisonous Properties of Larkspur (Delphinium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen, John D.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Some members of the tribe DelphineaeWarming are useful as forage for grazing cattle or as a source of medicaments for man. However, under certain circumstances their consumption results in poisoning, apparently because of norditerpenoid alkaloids. At least 150 diterpenoid alkaloids have been identified in Delphinium. In this report, factors influencing the alkaloid content and the toxicity of the plant are discussed. Relative change in content of eight alkaloids at four stages of growth of Delphinium occidentale (Watson Watson is reported . The most dominant alkaloids in nine species of Delphinium are listed. Toxicity of eight species was compared al the flower stage of growth using a mouse assay with D. barbeyi; (Huth Huth being about four times more toxic than D. glaucescens Rydb. or D. geyeri Greene and about ten times more toxic than Consolida CV., D. accidentale, or Aconitum columbianum var. columbianum Nutt. (vegetative stage. Stress by aphid infestation or relatively low water availability had little if any effect on toxicity of D. barbeyi and D. occidentale, respectively. From chemical analysis of D. barbeyi tested previously in cattle. the LD50 for a s ingle intraruminal dose of methyllycaconitine was estimated to be less than 6.3 mg/kg body wt.

    [ca] Alguns membres de la tribu Delphineae Warming són emprats com a farratge per a bestiar de pastura o com a font de medicaments per a l'home. Tanmateix, sota determinades circumstàncies, el seu consum esdevé intoxicació. aparentment per causa d'alcaloides norditerpènics. Al menys 150 alcaloides diterpènics han estat identificats en Delphinium. En aquest treball es discuteixen els factors que influeixen en el contingut alcalòidic, i, per tant, en la toxicitat de la planla. Es reporten els canvis relatius en el contingut de vuit alcaloides en Quatre estadis de

  6. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  7. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swallowed or inhaled The amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Poison Ivy KidsHealth / For Kids / Poison Ivy What's in ... the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the ...

  13. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Higher efficacy of direct hemoperfusion using coated activated-charcoal column for disopyramide poisoning: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Shigekazu; Yamaguchi, Naotaka; Takami, Hiroki; Komatsu, Takayuki; Ookubo, Hirokazu; Sekii, Hajime; Inoue, Kenji; Okazaki, Shinya; Okai, Iwao; Maruyama, Sonomi; Nomura, Tomohisa; Sugita, Manabu

    2017-12-01

    Cases of severe disopyramide poisoning are rare and few have been reported. We report a case in which activated-charcoal column hemoperfusion was dramatically effective for life-threatening disopyramide poisoning. A teenage girl who had overdosed on disopyramide (total dose, 4950 mg) was brought to our hospital. She was resuscitated from short period cardiopulmonary arrest and subsequently showed severe cardiogenic shock and ventricular arrhythmia. Disopyramide poisoning (self-evident). As hemodynamics remained unstable after providing percutaneous cardiopulmonary support and intra-aortic balloon pumping, we attempted direct hemoperfusion using a coated activated-charcoal hemoperfusion column. Hemodynamics including electrocardiography and serum disopyramide concentration were dramatically improved, and the patient was ambulatory by hospital day 14. Because disopyramide has low molecular weight and a small distribution volume, blood purification is considered to be the most effective therapy. We selected direct hemoperfusion for relatively high protein-binding rate. In fact, clinical status was dramatically improved, and the calculated half-life of the direct hemoperfusion phase was the shortest of all phases. In cases of severe or life-threatening disopyramide poisoning, blood purification therapy including direct hemoperfusion using a coated activated-charcoal column should be performed.

  16. Intellectual Property and Higher Education: Challenges and Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dusen, Virgil

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual property has become a highly coveted asset that can potentially reap a financial windfall for the owner who exploits its utility. Higher education has focused on the discovery of new knowledge, which can translate into intellectual property, but legislation, higher education policy, and/or contractual engagement may dictate ownership…

  17. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  18. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002696.htm Deodorant poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Deodorant poisoning occurs when someone swallows deodorant. This article ...

  19. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  20. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious. Let's find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... you're feeling, when you first felt sick, what you ate in the past few days, and ... might have caused food poisoning. The type of treatment you'll get ...

  1. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  2. Poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, T S

    2009-03-01

    South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which--not surprisingly--includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  3. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... whitish-green fruits hang in loose clusters. Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  4. Homogeneous approximation property for continuous shearlet transforms in higher dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is concerned with the generalization of the homogeneous approximation property (HAP for a continuous shearlet transform to higher dimensions. First, we give a pointwise convergence result on the inverse shearlet transform in higher dimensions. Second, we show that every pair of admissible shearlets possess the HAP in the sense of L 2 ( R d $L^{2}(R^{d}$ . Third, we give a sufficient condition for the pointwise HAP to hold, which depends on both shearlets and functions to be reconstructed.

  5. A distinguishing gravitational property for gravitational equation in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Einstein gravity is kinematic (meaning that there is no non-trivial vacuum solution; i.e. the Riemann tensor vanishes whenever the Ricci tensor does so) in 3 dimension because the Riemann tensor is entirely given in terms of the Ricci tensor. Could this property be universalized for all odd dimensions in a generalized theory? The answer is yes, and this property uniquely singles out pure Lovelock (it has only one Nth order term in the action) gravity for which the Nth order Lovelock-Riemann tensor is indeed given in terms of the corresponding Ricci tensor for all odd, d = 2N + 1, dimensions. This feature of gravity is realized only in higher dimensions and it uniquely picks out pure Lovelock gravity from all other generalizations of Einstein gravity. It serves as a good distinguishing and guiding criterion for the gravitational equation in higher dimensions. (orig.)

  6. Beryllium poisonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-01

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis

  7. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Paradichlorobenzene is a white, solid chemical with a very strong odor. Poisoning can occur if you swallow this chemical. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you are with ...

  8. Higher frequency transmission properties of motor car-chassis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong

    The transmission properties of motor car systems are analytically examined in a broad frequency range (up to 200 Hz), using a multibody system, containing rigid and elastic bodies. Most typical motor car variants used in the automobile industry were qualitatively modeled and their global power transmission behavior was analyzed with regard to various geometric shapes. A detailed transmission investigation was represented in connection with the assembly transmission tire total car system. The modal parameters were set up by theoretical finite element calculation and by experimental modal analysis of real chassis components. The higher frequency dynamic property of the hydraulic shock absorber was obtained by a real dynamic measurement. Its various modeling possibilities were discussed.

  9. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002510.htm Nicotine poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nicotine is a bitter-tasting compound that naturally occurs ...

  10. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002480.htm Acetone poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. ...

  11. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care Wipe out the mouth with a cold, wet cloth. Rinse the person's eyes and skin well if they touched the plant. Give milk to drink. Call poison control for more guidance. ...

  12. Sachet poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  13. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pyrethrins. These chemicals were originally isolated from chrysanthemum flowers and are generally not harmful. However, they can ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  14. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  15. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is more common after eating at picnics, school cafeterias, large social functions, or restaurants. When germs get ... the food poisoning. These may include: Arthritis Bleeding problems Damage to the nervous system Kidney problems Swelling ...

  16. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson JK. Plant poisons and traditional medicines. In: Farrar J, Hotez PJ, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, eds. Manson's Tropical Diseases . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 76. Davison K, Frank BL. Ethnobotany: ...

  17. Antifreeze poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are: Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If ... little as 2 tablespoons (1 ounce or 30 milliliters) can kill a ...

  18. Tetrahydrozoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you or someone you are with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can ... under the following brand names: Eyesine Geneye Murine Tears Plus Opti-Clear ...

  19. Unearthing poison use and consequent anecdotal vulture mortalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldicarb or carbofuran were the most commonly used poisons, but strychnine is still used by about one farmer out of 10. Poison is typically used by means of distributing poisoned baits in the landscape. Furthermore, willingness to use poison in the future was highest for farmers who own large properties with high livestock ...

  20. Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: Influence of soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P., E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.u [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Functions, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Mico, C. [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Functions, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Curdy, R. [Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology (LBE), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) Station 6 CH, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Zhao, F.J. [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Functions, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of soil properties on the toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) to four plant species was investigated. Soil organic carbon or ammonium-oxalate extractable Fe oxides were found to be the best predictors of the 50% effective dose (ED{sub 50}) of Mo in different soils, explaining > 65% of the variance in ED{sub 50} for four species except for ryegrass (26-38%). Molybdenum concentrations in soil solution and consequently plant uptake were increased when soil pH was artificially raised because sorption of Mo to amorphous oxides is greatly reduced at high pH. The addition of sulphate significantly decreased Mo uptake by oilseed rape. For risk assessment, we suggest that Mo toxicity values for plants should be normalised using soil amorphous iron oxide concentrations. - Amorphous iron oxides or organic carbon were found to be the best predictors of the toxicity threshold values of Mo to higher plants on different soils.

  1. Therapy against organophosphate poisoning: The importance of anticholinergic drugs with antiglutamatergic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, Ben Avi; Raveh, Lily

    2008-01-01

    Potent cholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., soman, sarin), induce a wide range of deleterious effects including convulsions, behavioral impairments and ultimately, death. Due to the likelihood of various scenarios of military or terrorist attacks by these and other chemical weapons, research has to be aimed at finding optimal therapies. Early accumulation of acetylcholine in synaptic clefts was suggested to trigger an array of toxic events including an excessive release of glutamate, culminating in the activation of its receptors. Stimulation of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) subtype of these receptors was associated with the neuronal injury that initiates organophosphate-induced brain damage. The notion of a stepwise mechanism yielded treatments based on a combination of an immediate administration of enzyme reactivators and anticholinergic drugs. This strategy dramatically increased survival rates but did not abolish convulsions and failed to prevent the ensuing cognitive dysfunction. Efforts to improve this paradigm by adding anticonvulsants or antiglutamatergic drugs with anti-epileptic characteristics produced dubious results. Under these conditions, benactyzine and caramiphen, agents with anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic properties, provided improved protection when introduced as adjunct agents to oximes, reversible cholinesterase inhibitors and/or specific antimuscarinic drugs such as atropine. In contrast, the specific antimuscarinic drug scopolamine failed to block soman-induced changes in glutamatergic and behavioral parameters even when given prophylactically. These findings along with a large number of additional reports led towards the conclusion that the therapeutic advantage of drugs such as benactyzine and caramiphen could derive from their ability to modulate central cholinergic and glutamate neurotransmission

  2. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical tests or the treatment of thyroid disease Tincture of iodine Iodine is also used during the ... Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional. Give the person milk, or ...

  3. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. DO NOT ...

  4. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get follow-up care. If you or your teen has been treated for alcohol poisoning, be sure to ask about follow-up care. Meeting with a health professional, particularly an experienced chemical dependency professional, can help you prevent future binge drinking. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic ...

  5. Mushroom Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Dibek Misirlioglu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autumn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. Best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 281-284

  6. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson JK. Plant poisons and traditional medicines. In: Farrar J, Hotez PJ, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, eds. Manson's Tropical Diseases . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 76. Mofenson HC, Caraccio TR, McGuigan ...

  7. CIGUATERA POISONING: PACIFIC DISEASE, FOODBORNE POISONING FROM FISH IN WARM SEAS AND OCEANS. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezha Zlateva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The review is provoked because of lack of awareness of the medical practitioners in Bulgaria concerning of the ethnology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and treatment of the ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. This can be a source of prolonged diagnostic delays, as some cases reporting in another country in Europe, for example Germany, Spain and UK. Varna is the sea town with many sailor crews returning from tropical and subtropical regions, or CFP can affect people who travel to the Pacific and Caribbean or ate exotic fish from supermarket. The information of this fish food-borne poisoning is part of student’s education in discipline “Marine medicine” in Medical University, Varna. Materials and methods: To present better information from different authors and last scientific data, we made review of published materials of 58 issues to construct definition, history, etiology, pathogenesis (toxins and mechanisms of action, clinical symptoms, treatment and prevention of the Ciguatera or ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide spread food-born poisoning. Results: Ciguatera poisoning is ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide-spread foodborne poisoning in people after consumption of flesh of different kinds of fishes in which toxins produced by poisonous microorganisms (Dinoflagellates have accumulated. The poisoning develops by accumulating toxins higher up the food chain starting with toxin producing dinoflagellates (species: Gambierdiscus toxicus, Prorocentrum concavum, Pr. lima, Ostreoposis lenticularis, Ostr. Siamensis and others, continuing with the poisoned algae (species: Portieria, Halymenia, Turbinaria, Sargassum, and after that involving small crustacea and small fishes to greater fishes (vector fishes, genus Herbivores and Carnivores, in which the toxins have been stored in amount, great enough to cause foodborne poisoning in humans. This poisoning is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, but because of its delayed toxic effects, lasting

  8. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  9. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredient can be found in: Bruised roots, stems, flowers, leaves, fruit Pollen of poison ivy , poison oak, ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  10. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  11. Cuticle remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Hair tonic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Hand lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Blue nightshade poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney transplantation may be needed. Prevent absorption of poison Stomach emptying (inducing vomiting or stomach pumping), once ... iron, or many household chemicals. Increase elimination of poison If a poison remains life threatening despite the ...

  17. Shaving cream poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Hair bleach poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Black nightshade poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  4. Desiring Diversity and Backlash: White Property Rights in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    In this theoretical essay, I argue that the current incidences of backlash to diversity are best understood as a dynamic of complicated, historic and intertwined desires for racial diversity and white entitlement to property. I frame this argument in the theories of critical race theory and settler colonialism, each of which provide necessary but…

  5. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  6. Childhood poisoning: a community hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, S H; Wall, J B

    1977-06-01

    We reviewed medical records of 53 children who ingested poison and were treated as inpatients and 107 who were treated as outpatients in a Southeastern community hospital. Findings included a much higher incidence of petroleum distillate poisoning than is found nationally, and a low frequency of aspirin ingestions. Data on packaging of the poisons indicate that one third was stored in food containers. Of the products encountered, 33% currently require safety packaging but were found in obsolete containers.

  7. Perceived poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nañagas, Kristine A; Kirk, Mark A

    2005-11-01

    Perceived poisoning may manifest in numerous ways; however, all cases share certain characteristics. All are fostered by the wide availability of unreliable information about chemical safety, poor understanding of scientific principles, and ineffective risk communication. Although this problem is still incompletely understood, some approaches have been demonstrated to be useful, such as education about risk, appropriate reassurance, and empathy on the part of the practitioner. Successful management may curtail the spread or exacerbation of symptoms, whereas unsuccessful treatment may cause the problems to escalate, with detrimental effects on both society and patient.

  8. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  9. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  10. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  11. Preventing food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007441.htm Preventing food poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. To prevent food poisoning , take the following steps when preparing food: Carefully ...

  12. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  13. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  14. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  15. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  16. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  17. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

  18. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  19. EDITORIAL POISONING PATTERN Human poisoning with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    Human poisoning with chemicals, including drugs, is emotive because of the real possibility that it often culminates in death. In acute poisoning, clinical symptoms such as vomiting, delirium, diarrhoea, convulsions, et cetera, are very dramatic, yet the onlookers with no medical background can only watch helplessly as the ...

  20. EDITORIAL POISONING PATTERN Human poisoning with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    Bioaccumulation of methylmercury then occurred in fish which were eventually eaten by humans. Thallium poisoning is characterized by alopecia often seen one to two weeks later when the patient is about to be discharged from hospital. Thus, in chronic poisoning, it is difficult to establish definitive cause-effect relationship.

  1. [The reporting system of acute pesticides poisoning and general situation of pesticides poisoning in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-yang; Wang, Hong-fei; Yin, Yu

    2005-10-01

    To introduce the reporting system of acute pesticides poisoning and analyze epidemiologic characteristics of pesticides poisoning from reported cases in China. Case reports in the data base of reporting system for occupational diseases were computed by Excel for windows and statistical significance by SAS 6.12. A total of 108 372 cases were reported from 1997 to 2003. Among them, the incidence of occupational poisoning, and non-occupational poisoning accounted for 25.39%, and 74.61% respectively. The fatality rate was 6.86%. The average age was 36.83 years for all pesticides poisoning patients, and 15-59 years old patients accounted for 84.11%. Among 0-14 years old non-occupational poisoning patients, 0-4 years children accounted for 33.51%. Male patients were in the majority in occupational pesticides poisoning, female in non-occupational. Insecticides especially organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos, parathion, and omethoate comprised a higher proportion, accounting for 86.02% of the pesticides poisoning. More attention should be paid to pesticides poisoning by the government and medical workers engaged in public health.

  2. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  3. Neutronic performance of decoupled poisoned and unpoisoned composite moderators for high resolution experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Teshigawara, Makoto; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    We studied decoupled poisoned and un-poisoned composite moderators consisting of 20 mm thick hydrogen and 30 mm thick light water. The neutron pulses from un-poisoned one were much broader with longer decay times than a simple decoupled hydrogen moderator in 50 mm thickness. It was also found that the poisoned composite moderator provides higher pulse peak intensities relative to the hydrogen moderator (poisoned at 20 mm) below several tens meV with no penalty of pulse width. (author)

  4. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  5. [Development and application of poison databank and poisonous animal and plants sample databank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu; Jiang, Shao-Feng; Cai, Jun; Luo, Tao; Xie, Li-Jing; Zhou, Jing; Sun, Cheng-Ye

    2008-03-01

    To establish a comprehensive,easily approached, operated, and searched internet poison databank as to providing professional poison data and knowledge of effective treatment for those consented such as medical staff, and emergency response team in the shortest time. We established a computer poison databank, by adopting B/S structure, using SQL Server databank, and explore technology, in which all information may easily be explored and obtained by users. The database integrated the information in relating to the substances identifiers, physical and chemical properties, toxicology data, clinical manifestation while intoxication, emergency response guides, effective treatment, anything related to the special antidotes, preventive measures, poison analysis, and manufacturers of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, herbs, pesticides, animal, plant, bacteria, fungi, productions and toxins. Otherwise some information about poison control organizations and experts, literatures about poison case reports, poison incidents, were also involved in the system, which can also provide a shortcut, convenient, and exact search. The databank might be easily used on several fields, providing important information with acute poison incidents disposal and clinic treatment.

  6. Poisoned after Dinner: Dolma with Datura Stramonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana DISEL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Datura stramonium, which is also known as Thorn Apple or Jimson Weed, is an alkaloid containing plant that is entirely toxic. The active toxic constituents of the plant are atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine. It has been abused worldwide for hundreds of years because of its hallucinogenic properties. Previous reports have shown that herbal medication overdose and accidental food contamination are ways it can cause poisoning. Herein we present a family that had three of its members poisoned after eating a traditional meal “dolma” made of datura flowers. None had fatal complications and all were discharged healthy. Datura stromonium may be used accidentally as a food ingredient. Since its poisonous effects are not known, people should be informed and warned about the effects of this plant. Key words: Anticholinergic effects, Datura stramonium, plant poisoning, rhabdomyolysis

  7. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  8. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  9. Impact of Oxidative Stress on Hemorheological Parameters in Patients with Acute Poisonings by Psychopharmacological Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Belova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of oxidative stress intensity on hemorheological parameters in acute poisonings by psychopharmacological agents. Subjects and methods. The blood values of lipid peroxidation (LPO and the antioxidant system (AOS, and hemorheological parameters were determined in 196 patients with acute poisoning by psychopharmacological agents. Results. Mild poisoning was accompanied by a moderate rise in peroxidation processes, by compensated antioxidant activity, and by a decrease in hemorheological parameters. In moderate poisoning, and severe one in particular, there was an increase in the LPO/AOS imbalance attended by increases in the viscosity characteristics of blood and plasma and in the aggregation activity of platelets and red blood cells. Conclusion. As the intensity of oxidative stress increases, there are more severe impairments in blood viscosity and aggregation properties, the leading mechanism of which is damage to blood cells due to higher stiffness of their membranes and to plasma release of large-disperse molecules under the action of an excess of LPO products. Key words: oxidative stress, acute poisonings, hemorheology.

  10. The use of boron as burnable poison in anular form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, L.A.; Sannazzaro, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    It is done a study for an arrangement of rods of fuel and burnable poison (B 10 ) concentrating the absorber in anular form. It is verified that there is an optimum thickness of the ring, which is reached higher effectiveness in compensation of reactivity by burnable poison. The anular form rendes possible another flexibility degree in the dimension of burnable poison. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. Anatomy of lead poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Abstract. Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most.

  12. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Since then, the death or stranding of other marine animals, including whales, has been suspected or confirmed to ... sickened or die due to domoic acid poisoning. Animals poisoned by domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic- ...

  13. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  14. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email not for emergency use. Ohio Central Texas Poison Center Address Scott and White Memorial Hospital 2401 South 31st Street Temple, TX 76508 Service area: Central Texas Mail donation to: Central Texas Poison Center (Above address) For questions contact: jennifer.watson@ ...

  15. Arsenical poisoning of racehorses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.N.; Fawell, E.V.; Brown, J.K.

    1964-03-07

    A case of arsenic poisoning in a training stable of Thoroughbred racehorses is described. This was due to the accidental spilling of an arsenical rat poison into the corn bin. Nine horses were affected. The mortality rate was 100 per cent. 1 table.

  16. Gloriosa superba L. (family Colchicaceae): Remedy or poison?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of medicinal uses and poisonous properties of Gloriosa superba L., and the available literature related to these aspects drawn from studies done in areas where the species is utilized as traditional medicine or reported as poisonous. A list of 45 ethnobotanical

  17. Optoelectronic properties of higher acenes, their BN analogue and substituted derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armaković, Stevan, E-mail: stevan.armakovic@df.uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, 21000, Novi Sad (Serbia); Armaković, Sanja J. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000, Novi Sad (Serbia); Holodkov, Vladimir [Educons University, Faculty of Sport and Tourism - TIMS, Radnička 30a, 21000, Novi Sad (Serbia); Pelemiš, Svetlana [University of East Sarajevo, Faculty of Technology, Karakaj bb, 75400, Zvornik, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    2016-02-15

    We have investigated optoelectronic properties of higher acenes: pentacene, hexacene, heptacene, octacene, nonacene, decacene and their boron-nitride (BN) analogues, within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). We have also investigated the optoelectronic properties of acenes modified by BN substitution. Calculated optoelectronic properties encompasses: oxidation and reduction potentials, electron and hole reorganization energies and energy difference between excited first singlet and triplet states ΔE(S{sub 1}−T{sub 1}). Oxidation and reduction potentials indicate significantly better stability of BN analogues, comparing with their all-carbon relatives. Although higher acenes possess lower electron and hole reorganization energies, with both best values much lower than 0.1 eV, their BN analogues also have competitive values of reorganization energies, especially for holes for which reorganization energy is also lower than 0.1 eV. On the other hand ΔE(S{sub 1}−T{sub 1}) is much better for BN analogues, having values that indicate that BN analogues are possible applicable for thermally activated delayed fluorescence. - Highlights: • Optoelectronic properties of structures based on higher acenes have been investigated. • Oxidation and reduction potentials together with reorganization energies are calculated. • TADF is analyzed through calculation of ΔE(S{sub 1}−T{sub 1}), which is much better for BN analogues. • Reorganization energies of acenes improve with the increase of number of benzene rings.

  18. [Consequences of thallium poisoning in adolescent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steczkowska-Klucznik, Małgorzata; Kubik, Alicja; Pietrzyk, Jacek A; Gergont, Aleksandra

    2005-01-01

    Thallium poisoning appears very rare in developmental age and its consequences are quite different. The aim of this study was to characterised the course of thallium poisoning in adolescent and especially electroneurophysiological consequences of it. In a 15 year old boy with sensory-motor polyneuropathy thallium poisoning was recognised in the third week duration of the symptoms. Hemodialysis and hemodiaperfusion were used in the therapy. Data of the repeated electroneurographic and videoEEG examinations were collected. First electroneurographic data showed axonal motor polyneuropathy. Control after 1 year presented the largest form of the motor-sensory polyneuropathy. On videoEEG tape rejestered in the 5th month of clinical symptoms of poisoning, present were tonic seizures (although EEG pattern was flat with short low voltage theta activity). After next the 3 months of encephalopathy and phenobarbital therapy, voltage of the EEG pattern was slightly higher without any background and seizure activity. Thallium poisoning may result with catastrophic clinical consequences of polyneuropathy and encephalopathy. Electroneurographic and electroencephalographic changes 1 year after indicate that clinical consequences of the poisoning are un-remediable.

  19. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  20. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally considered nonpoisonous, but it can ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  1. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  2. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms will be followed soon after by strange sensations that may include numbness or tingling in your mouth, headache, dizziness, and hot and cold temperature reversal. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: This is a ...

  3. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  4. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  5. The Poisons Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  6. Pine oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  7. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  8. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  9. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and poison sumac: Farming Forestry Landscaping Gardening Firefighting Construction Camping Fishing from the shoreline or hunting Cable ... wash any other contaminated items — such as outdoor gear, garden tools, jewelry, shoes and even shoelaces — as ...

  10. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  11. A nationwide evidence-based study of factors associated with hospitalisations due to unintentional poisoning and poisoning mortality in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chia-Hsin; Lai, Ching-Huang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the epidemiologic characteristics of unintentional poisoning cases and the factors associated with inpatient mortality. Data were retrieved from the National Health Insurance database from 2005 to 2007. Patients with diagnosis classifications of ICD-9-CM E850-E869 (unintentional poisoning) were selected. SPSS 18.0 software was used for the analysis. In Taiwan between 2005 and 2007, a total of 11,523 patients were hospitalised due to unintentional poisoning, with a hospitalisation rate of 16.83 per 100,000, of which 60.1% and 39.9% were attributable to drug poisoning and solid, liquid and gas substance poisoning, respectively. The hospitalisation rate in men was higher than that of women. The age group of 45-64 had the highest hospitalisation rate of 52.85 per 100,000. The inpatient mortality rate increased with the presence of the following factors: age of 65 or older, surgery or procedure, a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), short length of hospital stays, acute respiratory failure, alcohol poisoning, pesticide poisoning and a higher-level hospital visited. Methanol, herbicides and organophosphorus pesticide intoxications are associated with higher mortality rates. Therefore, when caring for patients poisoned by the above agents, healthcare professionals should look out for their clinical development to ensure quality of care and to reduce mortality.

  12. A 13-Year Retrospective Study on Toxic Alcohol Poisoning in Middle Urals, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin M. Brusin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic alcohol poisonings are responsible for high mortality and morbidity in Russia. This study was aimed to evaluate the trends of harmful ethanol (EtOH drinking as well as methanol (MeOH, isopropanol (IPA and ethylene glycol (EG poisonings in the Middle Urals region of Russia. Methods: In this retrospective study, the medical records of patients poisoned with MeOH, IPA and EG as well as those with harmful heavy EtOH drinking admitted to Regional Poison Treatment Center in Yekaterinburg during the period of 2002 to 2014 were reviewed. Results: During this 13-year period, 17482 patients with acute poisoning (due to various toxic agents were admitted, which 2244 of them (12.8% were due to alcohol poisoning. Of all patients with acute poisoning, 502 cases died which 61 of them (12.2% were due to alcohol poisoning. Most of the alcohol poisoned patients were men (1658, 73.9%. The male proportion of EG poisoned patients was higher than poisoned patients with other types of alcohol. Harmful EtOH drinking constituted the majority of alcohol poisoning cases (2076, 92.5%. Patients with EG poisoning were relatively older while patients with heavy EtOH intake were significantly younger (P < 0.001. The highest mortality rate (35.9% was seen in patients with EG poisoning. During this period, heavy EtOH drinking had a slight increasing trend and MeOH poisoning had a sharp increasing trend. On the other hand, IPA poisoning had a constant trend and the trend of EG poisoning was decreasing. The majority of MeOH and IPA poisonings were due to ingestion of surrogate alcohols. Conclusion: Particular attention of health authorities should be directed towards alcohol drinking prevention measures as well as production and availability of surrogate alcohols in the community.

  13. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed t...

  14. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  15. Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John P; Marrs, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs and humans suggest a two-compartment model, with first order elimination kinetics. Pharmacodynamic studies in animals suggest that hydroxocobalamin would be a satisfactory antidote for human cyanide poisoning. EFFICACY IN HUMAN POISONING: There is limited evidence that hydroxocobalamin alone is effective in severe poisoning by cyanide salts. The evidence for the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation is complicated by lack of evidence for the importance of cyanide exposure in fires and the effects of other chemicals as well as confounding effects of other therapeutic measures, including hyperbaric oxygen. Evidence that hydroxocobalamin is effective in poisoning due to hydrogen cyanide alone is lacking; extrapolation of efficacy from poisoning by ingested cyanide salts may not be valid. The rate of absorption may be greater with inhaled hydrogen cyanide and the recommended slow intravenous administration of hydroxocobalamin may severely limit its clinical effectiveness in these circumstances. Both animal and human data suggest that hydroxocobalamin is lacking in clinically significant adverse effects. However, in one human volunteer study, delayed but prolonged rashes were observed in one-sixth of subjects, appearing 7 to 25 days after administration of 5 g or more of hydroxocobalamin. Rare adverse effects have included dyspnoea, facial oedema, and urticaria. Limited data on human poisonings with cyanide salts suggest that hydroxocobalamin is an effective

  16. Pyopneumothorax following kerosene poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B E; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

    2014-01-01

    Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully.

  17. Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Parra, Pedro P.

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural and industrial development that is reaching our country has conditioned the emergence of numerous types of occupational diseases, among which stand out the poison in the work environment, and within poisoning organophosphorus insecticides. Substances acting on harmful insects transmit diseases to both the man and the vegetable kingdom. The recent and ever-increasing use of new insecticides, raises the need to know the physiological actions of these products so that their bene...

  18. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  19. Burnable poison irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The topical report describes the irradiation program developed to investigate different burnable poison rod material and designs. The purpose of the report is to present (1) technical support for the irradiation of several test burnable poison rod designs that have not been previously reviewed, and (2) describe the parameters that will be employed in the surveillance program for Combustion Engineering's (CE) standard burnable poison rod for 16 x 16 fuel assemblies. The test burnable poison rods will be placed in a CE reactor using 16 x 16 fuel assemblies, the first such reactor is Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 2. The irradiation program has four phases. Phase I involves the irradiation of 48 standard burnable poison rods which (1) will be extensively precharacterized prior to irradiation and (2) will undergo interim performance evaluation and detailed post-irradiation examination. Phase II, III, and IV involve irradiation and performance evaluation of a small number of burnable poison rods of different proprietary designs. The report discusses the materials to be used in each phase, the methods of fabricating the rods, and the rods expected behavior in a reactor

  20. Poisoned after Dinner: Dolma with Datura Stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disel, Nezihat Rana; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kekec, Zeynep; Karanlik, Meryem

    2015-03-01

    Datura stramonium, which is also known as Thorn Apple or Jimson Weed, is an alkaloid containing plant that is entirely toxic. The active toxic constituents of the plant are atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine. It has been abused worldwide for hundreds of years because of its hallucinogenic properties. Previous reports have shown that herbal medication overdose and accidental food contamination are ways it can cause poisoning. Herein we present a family that had three of its members poisoned after eating a traditional meal "dolma" made of datura flowers. None had fatal complications and all were discharged healthy. Datura stromonium may be used accidentally as a food ingredient. Since its poisonous effects are not known, people should be informed and warned about the effects of this plant.

  1. Entanglement Properties of a Higher-Integer-Spin AKLT Model with Quantum Group Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikashi Arita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the entanglement properties of a higher-integer-spin Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model with quantum group symmetry in the periodic boundary condition. We exactly calculate the finite size correction terms of the entanglement entropies from the double scaling limit. We also evaluate the geometric entanglement, which serves as another measure for entanglement. We find the geometric entanglement reaches its maximum at the isotropic point, and decreases with the increase of the anisotropy. This behavior is similar to that of the entanglement entropies.

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Psychological Vulnerability Scale in Higher Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Maria José; Barros, Luisa; Sequeira, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    Psychological vulnerability is related to cognitive beliefs that reflect dependence on one's sense of self-worth and to maladaptive functioning. It is a disadvantage that renders people less protected to face negative life experiences. The purpose of this study was to adapt and test the psychometric properties of the Psychological Vulnerability Scale in a sample of 267 Portuguese higher education students. A psychometric study of the Psychological Vulnerability Scale, after translation into Portuguese, was performed with a convenience sample of higher education students. Participants were asked to fill in the sociodemographic questionnaire, the Psychological Vulnerability Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and a one-item question about the Perception of Vulnerability. The mean age of the participants was 20.5 years ( SD = 3.3). A factor analysis confirmed the original one-factor structure, explaining 42.9% of the total variance. The Psychological Vulnerability Scale showed adequate internal consistency and excellent test-retest stability. Convergent validity was confirmed by positive correlations with the Brief Symptom Inventory and Perception of Vulnerability. Overall, the Psychological Vulnerability Scale showed good validity, reliability, and stability over time. The Psychological Vulnerability Scale is now ready to be used by practitioners and researchers to measure the psychological vulnerability among Portuguese higher education students. These data add to the body of knowledge of psychiatric and mental health nursing and provides support for the use of the Psychological Vulnerability Scale in higher education students.

  3. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  4. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build up in a home and poison the people and animals inside. Every year, at least 430 people die ... build up in enclosed or partially enclosed spaces. People and animals in these spaces can be poisoned and can ...

  5. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...

  6. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  7. Some physical properties of the higher borides of molybdenum and tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval'chenko, M.S.; Bodrova, L.G.; Nemchenko, V.F.; Kolotun, V.F.

    1979-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the thermal conductivity, the specific electrical resistance, the thermo-e.m.f. and the magnetic susceptibility, together with the variation of magnetic resistance and of Hall constant with the magnetic field strength at liquid nitrogen temperature and at room temperature, for the higher borides Mo 2 B 5 , MoB 4 , W 2 B 5 and WB 4 were studied. Some features of the physical properties of these metallic borides were established. In contrast with the corresponding metals the higher borides are diamagnetic and the Hall constants are negative. The values of the magnetic susceptibility and the Hall constant are larger for the higher borides than for the low borides. As the temperature increased an inversion of the thermo-e.m.f. sign took place and the signs of the thermo-e.m.f. and the Hall constant are different. The values of the magnetic susceptibility of Mo 2 B 5 , MoB 4 and WB 4 were temperature independent. The electronic structure of the compounds studied is discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  8. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  9. [Paralytic shellfish poisoning (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, J C; Essaïd el Feydi, A; Kadiri, A

    Different diseases as viral or bacterian gastro-enteritis, Tiphoid, viral hepatitis can come from shellfishes. Less known is the shellfish poisoning although recent outbreaks took place in Spain, France, England, Morocco. Toxic poisoning is caused by a poison produced by dinoflagelates of plankton which get developped in shells and make them dangerous, even cooked, to be eaten. A respiratory failure can result from this neurotropic poison.

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review of the litera......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review...

  11. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  12. Amitraz poisoning: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alexander Molina-Bolaños

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amitraz is an insecticide compound used worldwide for controlling pests, especially in agricultural and livestock areas. However, amitraz poisoning in Colombia is rare. This article reports the case of an 18-year-old female patient who was admitted in the emergency service 3 hours after the intake of an unknown amount of Triatox® (amitraz. The patient presented with a depressed level of consciousness, respiratory distress, hypotension, bradycardia, myosis and metabolic acidosis compensated with respiratory alkalosis. Initial treatment was provided using life support measures in the emergency ward, and subsequent transfer and support in the intensive care unit. She was discharged 24 hours after admission. This case considers the clinical similarity between amitraz poisoning and poisoning caused by other more frequent toxic compounds such as carbamates, organophosphates and opioids, which require different management.

  13. [Diagnosis and treatment of food poisoning in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Tomohiro; Saitoh, Akihiko

    2012-08-01

    There are a few characteristics of food poisoning in childhood compared to the one in adulthood. First, it is necessary to obtain detailed history from caregivers because pediatric patients cannot tell exact food taking history and their symptoms. Second, children, especially in infants and toddlers, have higher extracelluar fluid component in their body compared to adults and have a higher chance to be dehydrated by the symptoms of food poisoning including vomiting and diarrhea. Thus, evaluation and management of dehydration is important for children. Finally, it is critical to understand the treatment indication for children with each infection causing food poisoning given the treatment can be beneficial, or not beneficial, or sometimes harmful.

  14. Thallium poisoning in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsmon, J; Taliansky, E; Landau, M; Neufeld, M Y

    2000-11-01

    We report the first case of thallium poisoning in Israel in almost 30 years. A 40-year-old man was apparently poisoned by a business associate when, on several occasions, he unknowingly drank an alcoholic beverage containing the toxic substance. Delayed admission and recurrent thallium ingestion resulted in both acute and chronic symptoms being present concomitantly. Conventional treatment modalities (Prussian blue and forced diuresis) were employed. The patient survived, although neurological sequelae ensued. The problems encountered in diagnosis and treatment of this relatively uncommon entity are discussed.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning After an Ice Storm in Kentucky, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718

  16. Physical properties of metallocenes propene-higher α-olefins copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovisi, Humberto; Santa Maria, Luiz Claudio de; Coutinho, Fernanda M.B.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, new copolymers of propene/1-hexene (PHC) and propene/1-octene (POC) were synthesized by using a highly iso specific metallocenes catalyst system based on rac-Me 2 Si(2-ethyl,4-phenyl,1-indenyl) 2 ZrCl 2 , in the homogeneous and heterogeneous forms, methylaluminoxane (MAO) activated. An investigation about the copolymerization of propene with 1-hexene and 1-octene using this catalyst system illustrates the potential for the tailoring of propene/higher α-olefin copolymers with controlled thermal and mechanical properties by varying the comonomer concentration in the polymerization feed. Both catalyst systems showed high activity and produced random copolymers with very low or no detectable crystallinity. It was observed that properties such as enthalpy of crystallization (ΔHc), crystallization temperature (Tc), melting temperature (Tm), glass transition temperature (Tg) and elastic modulus (E') decreased in a linear pattern with increasing comonomer content in the copolymer. The effect of the short chain branch length was also investigated and it was observed that, compared to 1-hexene, much less 1-octene was necessary to disrupt the crystalline structure and impart rubbery behaviour to the copolymers. (author)

  17. Thermodynamics properties and combustion performance investigation of higher chain alcohol-RON 92 gasoline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavian, Rama; Darmawan, Rhezaldian Eka; Diarahmawati, Ayu; Kartiko, Intan Dyah; Rachmawati, Rizqi Tri

    2017-03-01

    The increasing consumption of fossil fuel in Indonesia is not followed by the rising on domestic oil production. This will lead to the depletion of fossil fuel reserves that will affect the availability of energy resources. Biofuel is considered as the critical solution to solve this problem in Indonesia. In recent years, alcohol produced from biomass has been used as an oxygenated compound in gasoline to increase the octane number and reduce pollutants resulting from motor vehicle exhaust emissions. However, the use of alcohol as an additive compounds is still limited to ethanol. In fact, the use of higher-chain alcohol such as 1-butanol offers more benefits over ethanol due to its higher calorific value. 1-butanol also has good characteristics for gasoline mixture such as less corrosive than ethanol, more resistant to water contamination, its low vapor pressure which leads to more safety application. This work investigated the effect of 1-butanol addition on the thermodynamic properties of gasoline-ethanol blend, in the form of density values, isobaric expansion coefficient, and the calorific value. The addition of 1-butanol up to 15% weight (80% RON 92-5% ethanol-15% 1-butanol) gives higher density to alcohol-gasoline blend up to 2% compared with pure RON 92 gasoline. Moreover, this addition produces the calorific value of gasoline blend of 11,313 cal/gr compared to pure RON 92 gasoline with the calorific value of 12,117 cal/gram. This blend can reduce the RON 92 gasoline consumption up to 15% from calorific value perspective.

  18. Haemarthrosis after superwarfarin poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsaftis, Panagiotis; Girtovitis, Fotios; Boutou, Afroditi; Ntaios, George; Makris, Pantelis E

    2007-09-01

    Superwarfarins are widely used as rodenticides. They are similar to warfarin, but they are more potent and act longer. In case of poisoning, they cause severe bleeding, usually from multiple sites. A 67-yr-old man was admitted with melaena, epistaxis and haemarthrosis in his left knee. PT, INR and aPTT were markedly increased. Initially, the patient was treated with blood and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions. However at the second day, PT, INR and aPTT were even worse. The combination of persistent coagulopathy, normal mixing studies, normal liver function tests and absence of hepatic failure or malabsorption syndromes lead to the suspicion of vitK dependent clotting factors deficiency due to superwarfarin poisoning. Indeed, the patient admitted a suicide attempt with rodenticide, although he had previously denied it. Psychiatric evaluation revealed a disturbed personality. Melaena stopped after 7 d. Then, the patient was administered 30 mg of vitK daily for a total period of 4 months. Superwarfarin poisoning leads to severe bleeding, usually from multiple sites. Prolonged treatment with high doses of vitK is necessary. Haemarthrosis, as a complication of superwarfarin poisoning, is presented here for the first time in literature.

  19. Ink remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ink remover is a chemical used to get out ink stains. Ink remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... These ingredients can be found in: Ink removers Liquid bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of ink removers.

  20. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Sergio; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1989-01-01

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C and Al 2 O 3 -Gd 2 O 3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B 4 C or Gd 2 O 3 in Al 2 O 3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author) [es

  1. Oven cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. If the ...

  2. Caladium plant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care If the plant was eaten, wipe out the mouth with a cold, wet cloth, and give the person milk to drink. Call poison control for more treatment information. If the eyes or skin touched the plant, rinse them well with water. ...

  3. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  4. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outcome will depend on the extent of this damage. Opening a large bucket of chlorine tablets can expose you to a powerful chlorine gas that can be very poisonous. Always open the container outdoors. Keep your face as far away from ...

  5. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes used. With this procedure, a solution containing sodium bicarbonate (the chemical in baking soda) is given by vein to make the urine ... acetaminophen (antidote is N - acetylcysteine ), aspirin (antidote is sodium bicarbonate), and heroin (antidote is naloxone ). Some poisonous bites ...

  6. Kerosene poisoning in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, L.; Al-Rahim, K.

    1970-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical aspects of 100 cases of kerosene poisoning have been studied. The use of gastric lavage is discussed, and it is considered that this measure is probably valuable in treatment. The importance of preventive measures is stressed. PMID:5416507

  7. Epidemiology of Intentional Self-Poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Michael; Gunnell, David; Karunaratne, Ayanthi; de Silva, Dhammika; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A

    2006-01-01

    Summary We investigated the epidemiology of intentional self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka by prospectively recording 2189 admissions to two secondary hospitals. Many patients were young (median age 25yrs), male (57%), and used pesticides (49%). 198 died, 156 men (case fatality 12.4%) and 42 women (4.5%). 52% of female deaths were in those organophosphorus pesticides caused many deaths. Although the age-pattern of self-poisoning was similar to industrialised countries, case-fatality was >15 times higher and the pattern of fatal self-poisoning quite different. PMID:16319413

  8. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, A.; Demange, M.; Carton, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance [fr

  9. Extending a Property of Cubic Polynomials to Higher-Degree Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Moseley, James

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine a property that holds for all cubic polynomials given two zeros. This property is discovered after reviewing a variety of ways to determine the equation of a cubic polynomial given specific conditions through algebra and calculus. At the end of the article, they will connect the property to a very famous method…

  10. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  11. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  12. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; Jacobson, R R; Gross, M

    1997-08-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

  13. Management of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, P W

    2000-09-01

    A case of acute thallium poisoning in a 67-year-old Chinese woman is described. She presented with acute pain in the chest, abdomen, and lower limbs. The diagnosis was not made, however, until alopecia developed. Detoxification treatment, which included Prussian blue (potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate) was then given, but further neurological damage occurred. The patient's motor function recovered after 1 year, but residual sensory neuropathy remained. This case illustrates that tissue-bound thallium may cause prolonged neurological damage if detoxification therapy is not commenced within 72 hours of the onset of acute poisoning. Acute abdominal pain and painful neuropathy in the lower extremities are important early diagnostic clues for timely therapy. However, by the time alopecia develops-typically around 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms-detoxification therapy may not be able to prevent the development of prolonged neurological damage.

  14. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  15. Lead poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapul, Heda; Laraque, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    There is no safe lead level in children. Primary prevention is the most effective way to bring about the complete removal of lead from the environment and eliminate lead poisoning as a public health concern. The National Lead Information Center can be reached via the Internet at www.epa.gov/lead and www.hud.gov/lead, or via phone at 1-800-424-LEAD (5323).

  16. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  17. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  18. [Toxic alcohol poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicki, Paweł; Głogowski, Tomasz

    Accidental or intentional poisonings with ethylene glycol or methanol constitute a serious toxicological problem in many countries. Both alcohols are quickly metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to toxic metabolites responsible for high anion gap severe metabolic acidosis and profound neurological, cardiopulmonary, renal disturbances and death. In the early period, the competing inhibition the alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol or fomepizol may successfully prevent the formation of the toxic metabolites. Once severe acidosis develops an emergency hemodialysis is required.

  19. Organophosphate poisoning : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod K. Sinha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are used extensively worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing nations is a public health problem. Organophosphorous nerve agents are still considered as potential threat in both military or terrorism situations. The mechanism of toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Beside acute cholinergic crisis, organophosphates are capable of producing several subacute or chronic neurological syndromes. The well described intermediate syndrome (IMS emerges 1-4 days after an apparently well treated cholinergic crisis. The standard treatment consists of reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an oxime antidote (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 and Hlo7 and reversal of the biochemical effects of acetylcholine with atropine. The newer oximes HI-6 and Hlo& are much more suitable and efficacious acetylcholinesterase reactivator for severe acute nerve agent induced poisoning than currently used pralidoxime or obidoxime. Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 120-6 Keywords: poisoning, insecticide, organophosphate (OP, carbamates, acetylcholinesterase, oxime, pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6, HLo7

  20. Metaldehyde poisoning in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaldehyde is an active substance used for extermination of slugs and snail population. This paper presents the very first case of metaldehyde intentional poisoning of dogs in Serbia. Three-year-old and a six-year-old Swiss white shepard dogs were poisoned. The owner noticed frequent defecation, skeletal muscles spasms and impossibility to put any weight on their back extremities. The vomit of the younger dog was made of green-turquoise colored gut content. Twenty minutes after the onset of the first clinical symptoms dogs died. Macroscopic examination showed congestion of lungs, in the liver and intestines, as well as chemorage in the pancreas, bladder and intestines. Nonspecific pathological lesions were present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, gut, intestines and brain. Pathohistological examination showed dystrophic changes and necrosis in kidneys, brain and intestines. According to anamnestic data, clinical signs, macroscopic and microscopic examination as well as characteristic smell of gut content, one could say that metaldehyde poisoning is the case. Toxicological analysis of gut content samples was performed by using gas chromatography with mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS. Used diagnostic methodology and gut content toxicology results obtained was the base for crime case according to article 269. Republic of Serbia Crime law.

  1. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  2. Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit

    2013-01-01

    Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization.

  3. Effects on noise properties of GPS time series caused by higher-order ionospheric corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongfei

    2014-04-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) effects are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system (GPS) analysis. These effects also influence the non-linear characteristics of GPS coordinate time series. In this paper, we investigate these effects on coordinate time series in terms of seasonal variations and noise amplitudes. Both power spectral techniques and maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) are used to evaluate these effects quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show an overall improvement for the analysis of global sites if HOI effects are considered. We note that the noise spectral index that is used for the determination of the optimal noise models in our analysis ranged between -1 and 0 both with and without HOI corrections, implying that the coloured noise cannot be removed by these corrections. However, the corrections were found to have improved noise properties for global sites. After the corrections were applied, the noise amplitudes at most sites decreased, among which the white noise amplitudes decreased remarkably. The white noise amplitudes of up to 81.8% of the selected sites decreased in the up component, and the flicker noise of 67.5% of the sites decreased in the north component. Stacked periodogram results show that, no matter whether the HOI effects are considered or not, a common fundamental period of 1.04 cycles per year (cpy), together with the expected annual and semi-annual signals, can explain all peaks of the north and up components well. For the east component, however, reasonable results can be obtained only based on HOI corrections. HOI corrections are useful for better detecting the periodic signals in GPS coordinate time series. Moreover, the corrections contributed partly to the seasonal variations of the selected sites, especially for the up component. Statistically, HOI corrections reduced more than 50% and more than 65% of the annual and semi-annual amplitudes respectively at the

  4. Effects of ball milling on microstructures and thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Shi, Li, E-mail: lishi@mail.utexas.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • The already low κ{sub L} of HMS can be suppressed further by decreasing the grain size. • The ball milling process can lead to the formation of secondary MnSi and W/C-rich phases. • The formation of the MnSi ad W/C rich phases is found to suppress the thermoelectric power factor. - Abstract: Bulk nanostructured higher manganese silicide (HMS) samples with different grain size are prepared by melting, subsequent ball milling (BM), and followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The effects of BM time on the microstructures and thermoelectric properties of these samples are investigated. It is found that BM effectively reduces the grain size to about 90 nm in the sample after SPS, which leads to a decrease in both the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. By prolonging the BM time, MnSi and tungsten/carbon-rich impurity phases are formed due to the impact-induced decomposition of HMS and contamination from the tungsten carbide jar and balls during the BM, respectively. These impurities result in a reduced Seebeck coefficient and increased thermal conductivity above room temperature. The measured size-dependent lattice thermal conductivities agree qualitatively with the reported calculation results based on a combined phonon and diffuson model. The size effects are found to be increasingly significant as temperature decreases. Because of the formation of the impurity phases and a relatively large grain size, the ZT values are not improved in the ball-milled HMS samples. These findings suggest the need of alternative approaches for the synthesis of pure HMS with further reduced grain size and controlled impurity doping in order to enhance the thermoelectric figure-of-merit of HMS via nanostructuring.

  5. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  6. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nore Anne K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. Methods A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all acutely poisoned patients ≥ 16 years of age treated in ambulances, an outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo. Results A total of 3757 health service contacts from 2997 poisoning episodes were recorded: 1860 were treated in ambulances, of which 15 died and 750 (40% were discharged without transfer; 956 were treated in outpatient clinic, of which 801 (84% were discharged without transfer; and 941 episodes were treated in hospitals. Patients discharged alive after ambulance treatment were mainly poisoned by opiates (70%, were frequently comatose (35%, had respiratory depression (37%, and many received naloxone (49%. The majority of the patients discharged from the outpatient clinic were poisoned by ethanol (55%, fewer were comatose (10%, and they rarely had respiratory depression (4%. Among the hospitalized, pharmaceutical poisonings were most common (58%, 23% were comatose, and 7% had respiratory depression. Male patients comprised 69% of the pre-hospital discharges, but only 46% of the hospitalized patients. Except for one patient, who died of a new heroin overdose two days following discharge from an ambulance, there were no deaths during the first week after the poisonings in the 90% of the pre-hospital discharged patients with known identity. Conclusion More than half of the poisoned patients treated in pre-hospital treatment settings were discharged without transfer to higher levels. These poisonings were more often

  7. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut E; Bjornaas, Mari A; Nore, Anne K; Figueiredo, Jose CP; Ekeberg, Oivind; Jacobsen, Dag

    2008-01-01

    Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. Methods A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all acutely poisoned patients ≥ 16 years of age treated in ambulances, an outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo. Results A total of 3757 health service contacts from 2997 poisoning episodes were recorded: 1860 were treated in ambulances, of which 15 died and 750 (40%) were discharged without transfer; 956 were treated in outpatient clinic, of which 801 (84%) were discharged without transfer; and 941 episodes were treated in hospitals. Patients discharged alive after ambulance treatment were mainly poisoned by opiates (70%), were frequently comatose (35%), had respiratory depression (37%), and many received naloxone (49%). The majority of the patients discharged from the outpatient clinic were poisoned by ethanol (55%), fewer were comatose (10%), and they rarely had respiratory depression (4%). Among the hospitalized, pharmaceutical poisonings were most common (58%), 23% were comatose, and 7% had respiratory depression. Male patients comprised 69% of the pre-hospital discharges, but only 46% of the hospitalized patients. Except for one patient, who died of a new heroin overdose two days following discharge from an ambulance, there were no deaths during the first week after the poisonings in the 90% of the pre-hospital discharged patients with known identity. Conclusion More than half of the poisoned patients treated in pre-hospital treatment settings were discharged without transfer to higher levels. These poisonings were more often caused by drug and

  8. Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Diagnosis of acute poisoning | Tygerberg Poison Information Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 8 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Diagnosis of acute poisoning. - Tygerberg Poison ...

  11. Higher PEDOT Molecular Weight Giving Rise to Higher Thermoelectric Property of PEDOT:PSS: A Comparative Study of Clevios P and Clevios PH1000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zeng; Du, Donghe; Yao, Hongyan; Ouyang, Jianyong

    2017-04-05

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is a promising candidate as the next-generation thermoelectric (TE) material. Its TE properties are strongly dependent on its chemical and electronic structures. In this paper, we investigated the effect of PEDOT molecular weight on the TE properties of PEDOT:PSS films by a comparative study on two commercial grades of PEDOT:PSS, Clevios P, and Clevios PH1000. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Raman spectra imply that the PEDOT of Clevios PH1000 possesses longer conjugated chains than that of Clevios P. The TE properties of both the Clevios P and Clevios PH1000 films can be significantly enhanced through various post treatments, including solvent treatment, germinal diol treatment, organic solution treatment, and acid treatment. After these treatments, the treated Clevios PH1000 films constantly show both superior Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities over the treated Clevios P films. It is attributed to the higher molecular weight of PEDOT for the former than the latter. For the treated Clevios PH1000, longer PEDOT chains result in large PEDOT domains, facilitating the charge conduction a semimetallic behavior. Tuning the oxidation level of PEDOT:PSS is a facile way to enhance their TE property. A base treatment with sodium hydroxide was subsequently performed on both the treated Clevios P and Clevios PH1000 films. The power factors of both grades of PEDOT:PSS films were remarkably increased by a factor of 1.2-3.6. Still, both the conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of a based-treated Clevios PH1000 film are superior over those of a control Clevios P film. The highest power factor the former is 334 μW/(m K 2 ) for the former while only 11.4 μW/(m K 2 ) for the latter. They are different by a factor of about 30 times.

  12. Cyanide Self-poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Jones, M.; Bennett, M. A.; Sherwell, Janet M.

    1970-01-01

    Four cases of cyanide self-poisoning were admitted to one hospital over a period of two years. Two of the patients died. The diagnosis in the unconscious patient may be suggested by the finding of bradycardia and the absence of cyanosis (despite inadequate ventilation). The diagnosis can be confirmed in 5 to 10 minutes by a simple test on gastric aspirate, performed by the casualty officer. Cardiac pacing was used in two patients and may have a place in the supportive management of severe cases. PMID:5497407

  13. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.

  14. The prognosis following amphetamine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Henrik; Dalhoff, Kim P.; Klemp, Marc

    2017-01-01

    the background population. Results: From August 2006 to December 2013 we identified 1444 patients (70% males) who experienced amphetamine poisoning; 52% of the cases were classified as mixed poisonings and the average age at first contact was 24.8 years (SD 8.6). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders, HIV...

  15. Recurrent glioblastomas exhibit higher expression of biomarkers with stem-like properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Nandeesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM, the prognosis of patients continues to remain dismal. This unfavorable prognosis is mainly attributed to the tumor's propensity for progression and recurrence, which in turn is due to the highly aggressive nature of the persisting GBM cells that actively egress from the main tumor mass into the surrounding normal brain tissue. Such a recurrent tumor described to have a more malignant potential is highly invasive and resistant to current therapies, probably due to increased stemness and preferential selection of therapy-resistant clones of tumor cells. However, there is a paucity of literature on the expression of biomarkers in the recurrent GBM tumors that could have a role in conferring this aggressiveness. Aim: To identify the differences in the expression pattern of selected biomarkers in paired tissue samples of GBM. Material and Methods: A retrospective study on 30 paired samples of GBM (newly diagnosed/primary and recurrent archived in the Department of Neuropathology, NIMHANS (2006–2009, was carried out. After obtaining clinical and demographic details, tumors were characterized histomorphologically and immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues with reference to expression of biomarkers such as p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3, sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2, and topoisomerase 2 A (Top2A. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: It was observed that while p53 and IGFBP-3 expression remained unaltered in paired samples, a significant increase in the expression of EGFR (P < 0.01 was noted in the recurrent tumors. Among the other biomarkers, SOX2 expression was higher in the recurrent tumors when compared to the primary tumors (P < 0.01. Conversely, the expression of Top2A was reduced in recurrent tumors (P = 0.05. Mild elevation in the expression of IGFBP-3 was

  16. [Study on repair capacity of DNA damage associated with chronic benzene poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cai-hong; Ji, Zhi-ying; Li, Gui-lan; Yin, Song-nian

    2006-07-01

    To explore the repair capacity of DNA damage associated with chronic benzene poisonings. 63 workers suffered from chronic benzene poisonings and 45 workers exposed to benzene, who were engaged in the same job title, were investigated. Comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) detection were used to evaluate gamma-radiation-induced DNA and chromosomal damage and repair capacity in peripheral blood lymphocyte. The comet tail length difference of the benzene poisoning group (4.64 +/- 1.57 microm) was significantly higher than that of the control group (3.77 +/- 1.30 microm) (P = 0.0029). There was no significant difference of the 3AB index between the poisoning group and the control group. The relative risk of benzene poisoning in the subject with comet tail length difference > 3.81 was significantly higher than that in the subject with comet tail length difference poisoning in the subject with 3AB index or = 0.20. DNA repair capacity on DNA-strand level might tightly associate with chronic benzene poisoning. The DNA repair capacity on DNA-strand level would be worse, and the benzene poisoning risk could be higher. There was no clear relation between the DNA repair capacity on chromosome level and the benzene poisoning risk.

  17. Special Issue: Intellectual Property in the Information Age: Knowledge as Commodity and its Legal Implications for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jeffrey C., Ed.; Baez, Benjamin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines in great detail two kinds of intellectual property: copyrights and patents. Though the authors recognize the significance of trademarks and trade secrets, they focus primarily on copyrights and patents in this monograph because they represent the most significant issues in higher education in the information age.…

  18. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  19. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Comparative analysis of suicidal poisoning autopsied at the Institute of forensic medicine in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of poisons which surround the modern man is constantly on the rise and hence therefore the frequency of intoxication. The aim of the study was to determine the type of poison which causes the suicidal poisoning, sex, age, occupation, place of poisoning, events and seasonal distribution of poisoned. This paper analyzes the suicidal poisoning, autopsied at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade in two periods (1965-1969 and (2000-2004 years . To test for statistical significance was used Pearson's X2 test. Comparative analysis of the obtained results shows that a significantly more frequent suicidal poisoning in the first analyzed period (1965-1969, P<0.01 compared to the second (2000-2004 In the first research period, the suicidal purposes are often used caustic poisons (44.0% and drugs (36.4% with a slight dominance of the older age groups among the poisoned. According to the frequency of poisoning drugs no statistically significant differences in the analyzed periods (x2=0.248 , df=1, p=0.6 . In second research period, significantly dominated by males (79.5% (x2=33.911 , df=1, p<0.0001, younger age groups (20-49 years , 86.99%, which were poisoned significantly more frequent in spring and summer (55% compared to the first period. In both studied periods had no significant statistical difference in relation to occupation, place of poisoning and the clinical picture. The highest percentage of deaths (servants and housewives in both periods were without clinical picture, because they were found dead in their own homes. Length of outliving period of several hours is significantly higher in the second examined period, because of application of more sophisticated, more toxic and simple to use poisons.

  1. [Characterization of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents in China between 1989 and 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Tao; Wang, Huan-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Shu-Yang; Du, Xie-Yi; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Jian

    2006-12-01

    To analyze severe acute occupational poisoning accidents reported in China between 1989 and 2003, and to study the characteristics of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents and provide scientific evidences for prevention and control strategies. The data from the national occupational poisoning case reporting system were analyzed with descriptive methods. (1) There were 506 acute severe occupational poisoning accidents for 15 years with 4 657 workers poisoned. The total poisoning rate was 54.8%, and the total mortality was 16.5%. The average poisoning age was (31.9 +/- 9.8) years old and the average death age was (33.7 +/- 10.3) years old. The poisoning accidents occurred more in men than in women. (2) There were more than 112 chemicals which caused these poisoning accidents. Most of the accidents caused by hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, benzene and homologs, metal and metalloid and carbon dioxide, and the types of chemicals varied in different types of industries. (3) The accidents mainly occurred in chemical industry, manufacture, water disposal industry, mining and construction industry, and the risk was higher in some jobs than others, such as cleanout, machine maintenance and repair, production, mine and digging. The accidents occurred more frequently from April to August each year. (1) The control over the severe acute occupational poisoning is urgent. (2) The trend of the characteristics of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents is centralized in the high risk industries, poisons and jobs. (3) The characteristics of the accidents varied in different types of industries. (4) It is the key point to strengthen the supervision on poisoning.

  2. Factors that trigger emergency physicians to contact a poison centre: findings from a Swiss study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurter, David; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Jahns, Maximilian; Haberkern, Monika; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis; Eriksson, Urs; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2014-03-01

    Poison centres offer rapid and comprehensive support for emergency physicians managing poisoned patients. This study investigates institutional, case-specific and poisoning-specific factors which influence the decision of emergency physicians to contact a poison centre. Retrospective, consecutive review of all poisoning-related admissions to the emergency departments (EDs) of a primary care hospital and a university hospital-based tertiary referral centre during 2007. Corresponding poison centre consultations were extracted from the poison centre database. Data were matched and analysed by logistic regression and generalised linear mixed models. 545 poisonings were treated in the participating EDs (350 (64.2%) in the tertiary care centre, 195 (35.8%) in the primary care hospital). The poison centre was consulted in 62 (11.4%) cases (38 (61.3%) by the tertiary care centre and 24 (38.7%) by the primary care hospital). Factors significantly associated with poison centre consultation included gender (female vs male) (OR 2.99; 95% CI 1.69 to 5.29; p1 vs 1) (OR 2.84; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.9; ppoison centre consultation. Poison centre consultation was significantly higher during the week, and significantly less during night shifts. The poison centre was consulted significantly more when patients were admitted to intensive care units (OR 5.81; 95% CI 3.25 to 10.37; ppoison centre consultation by emergency physicians. It appears that intensive care unit admission and other factors reflecting either complexity or uncertainty of the clinical situation are the strongest predictors for poison centre consultation. Hospital size did not influence referral behaviour.

  3. Characteristics of Pesticide Poisoning in Rural and Urban Settings in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bastian; Ssemugabo, Charles; Nabankema, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning is a significant burden on health care systems in many low-income countries. This study evaluates cases of registered pesticide poisonings treated in selected rural (N = 101) and urban (N = 212) health facilities in Uganda from January 2010 to August 2016. In the urban setting......, pesticides were the most prevalent single poison responsible for intoxications (N = 212 [28.8%]). Self-harm constituted a significantly higher proportion of the total number of poisonings in urban (63.3%) compared with rural areas (25.6%) where unintentional poisonings prevailed. Men were older than women.......0% of the poisonings. Urban hospitals provided a more intensive treatment and had registered fever complications than rural health care settings. To minimize self-harm with pesticides, a restriction of pesticide availability as shown to be effective in other low-income countries is recommended. Training of health care...

  4. [Characteristics of emergency poisoning cases in elderly versus younger patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supervía Caparrós, August; Pallàs Villaronga, Oriol; Clemente Rodríguez, Carlos; Aranda Cárdenas, María Dolores; Pi-Figueras Valls, María; Cirera Lorenzo, Isabel

    2017-10-01

    To compare cases of poisoning according to age to detect differences in frequency of visits to the emergency department, patient characteristics, case management, and immediate outcome in terms of related mortality. Descriptive study of a retrospective series of patients who visited a university hospital emergency department for treatment of poisoning between 2009 and 2014. We collected patient characteristics and data related to the event, case management, and poisoning-related death. Patients were grouped according to age (cut-off 65 y). Of a total of 3847 poisoning episodes, 341 (8.9%) were in patients aged 65 years or older. The percentage of women among these older patients (61.3%) was greater than among younger patients (36.3%; P<.001). Poisoning was accidental in older patients more often than younger ones (64.4% vs 9.5%, respectively; P<.001), occurred more often in the home (82.1% vs 37%, P<.001), and more often required active treatment (73.3% vs 57.4%; P<.001) and admission to hospital (21.4% vs 7.3%, P<.001). The related mortality rate was also higher in the older patients (2.1% vs 0.1% in younger patients, P<.001). The percentage of poisonings in patients aged 65 years or older is not negligible. Poisoning in patients of advanced age tends to be accidental and take place in the home. Older patients more often require active treatment and hospital admission; poisoning-related death is more common in older patients than younger ones.

  5. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON...

  6. [The comparative analysis of acute poisoning characteristics between cities and rural areas in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-fang; Liu, Qing-hua

    2012-06-01

    To compare the acute-poisoning characteristics between city and rural areas of Guangxi Province in order to provide clinical data for the formation of treatment strategies of acute poisoning in Guangxi. Data of acute poisoning patients as treated in 36 municipal and 12 county hospitals, and also 15 rural clinics in 11 cities of Guangxi during 2005 to 2009 were collected and analyzed according to poisoning population, poisoning site, poisoning process, and poisoning degree. By analysing 3678 and 2153 cases of acute poisoning patients in rural and urban areas, the gender [χ (2) = 5.53, P old (11.17% vs. 8.69%), farmers by occupation (74.84% vs. 2.79%), home (80.64% vs. 78.07%), sites of labor (11.83% vs. 3.07%) and other sites (4.08% vs. 2.97%), and the chief causes were professional (3.10% vs. 1.30%), taken by mistake (21.85% vs. 20.91%), homicide (0.30% vs. 0.28%), and suicide (39.07% vs. 18.77%), and by pesticide (60.94% vs. 12.13%), plant (7.08% vs. 2.88%) and animal poisons (7.73% vs. 6.56%), belonging to severe poisoning (25.86% vs. 19.04%) were higher than those in town. In the town, poisoning occurred predominantly in female (55.09% vs. 51.90%), age below 19 years old (23.78% vs. 19.44%), unemployed (33.35% vs. 13.76%), student (17.53% vs. 8.43%), industrial workers (31.95% vs. 2.69%), executives (10.84% vs. 0.22%) and other professional (3.53% vs. 0.05%); occurred in schools (8.78% vs. 0.82%), restaurants (5.48% vs. 1.55%), place of entertainment (1.63% vs. 1.09%), by accidental (52.23% vs. 31.27%), therapeutic (4.46% vs. 2.56%), and other reasons (2.04% vs. 1.85%); by chemicals (33.19% vs. 8.55%), medicines (24.31% vs. 9.12%), and other types of poison (20.92% vs. 6.59%); light and medium degree of poisoning (44.87% vs. 41.22%, 36.09% vs. 32.93%) were higher than those in rural areas. Regarding the acute poisoning in Guangxi, the composition of population, the poisoning sites and causes, the types of poisons, the poisoning degree are distinctly different

  7. Recent developments in the field of arrow and dart poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Geneviève; Angenot, Luc

    2005-08-22

    Arrow and dart poisons, considered as conventional natural sources for future drug discovery, have already provided numerous biologically active molecules used as drugs in therapeutic applications or in pharmacological research. Plants containing alkaloids or cardiotonic glycosides have generally been the main ingredients responsible for the efficacy of these poisons, although some animals, such as frogs, have also been employed. This paper, without being exhaustive, reports the greater strides made during the past 15 years in the understanding of the chemical nature and biological properties of arrow and dart poison constituents. Examples both of promising biological properties shown by these molecules and of crucial discoveries achieved by their use as pharmacological tools are given. Further studies of these toxic principles are likely to enable scientists to find new valuable lead compounds, useful in many fields of research, like oncology, inflammation and infectious diseases.

  8. Glycemic Status in Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S; Nanda, R; Mangaraj, M; Rathod, P K; Mishra, P K

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus(OP) poisoning, in addition to its cholinergic manifestations shows metabolic derangements leading to hyperglycemia. Apart from inhibiting acetylcholinesterase it also induces oxidative stress to exhibit this manifestation. The present study aims to assess the glycemic status of OP poisoned patients and its association with various factors in OP poisoning like oxidative stress and dose of atropine. This is a prospective study which recruited 102 patients above 18 years of age with history of OP poisoning. They were categorized into 3 grades-mild, moderate and severe based on the Peradeniya Organophosphorus Poisining Scale. The routine biochemical parameters along with serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and cholinesterase were estimated in the study group. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria were observed, with majority cases of hyperglycemia (57%) noticed in the severe group. There was a rise in the random plasma glucose (RPG), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total dose of atropine across the groups along with a fall in the serum cholinesterase with increase in severity of poisoning. The fall in plasma glucose at the time of discharge was significant in all three groups when compared to the admission random plasma glucose(RPG) level. This transient hyperglycemia exhibited a significant positive association with serum MDA and dose of atropine administered during treatment (p<0.05). Glycemic status in OP poisoning may play a role in identifying the severity of poisoning at the time of admission.

  9. Financial Statistics of Institutions of Higher Education: Property. Fiscal Year 1975. State Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertins, Paul F.; Brandt, Norman J.

    Data are provided on the physical plant assets, indebtedness, and endowments of United States colleges and universities as of the end of the 1975 fiscal year. National, regional, and state totals are presented, derived from the 10th annual Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS). (MSE)

  10. The Soret absorption properties of carotenoids and chlorophylls in antenna complexes of higher plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croce, Roberta; Cinque, Gianfelice; Holzwarth, Alfred R.; Bassi, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    The absorption spectra of two light harvesting complexes from higher plants, CP29 and LHC II, have been analysed in the Soret region in order to obtain a description in terms of the absorption spectra of the individual pigments. This information is of great practical use when applying spectroscopic

  11. Experimental and Modeling Studies on the Synthesis and Properties of Higher Fatty Esters of Corn Starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junistia, Laura; Sugih, Asaf K.; Manurung, Robert; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    This paper describes a systematic study on the synthesis of higher fatty esters of corn starch (starch laurate and starch stearate) by using the corresponding vinyl esters. The reactions were carried out in DMSO using basic catalysts (Na(2)HPO(4), K(2)CO(3), and Na-acetate). The effect of the

  12. [Poisonous animals at bathing beaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghanss, T; Bodio, M

    2000-05-18

    Tourists and native inhabitants of tropical and subtropical regions differ significantly with regard to the risk and nature of incidents involving venomous and poisonous animals. While the indigenous population encounters such risks daily during work and other activities, tourists are usually endangered while swimming or diving, or by ingesting toxin-containing fish and/or other seafood. Whether abroad or at home, allergic reactions to the stings of bees, wasps and hornets are probably the most common manifestations of an encounter with a "poisonous animal". Travellers should be well acquainted with the dangers entailed in encountering or ingesting a venomous or poisonous animal--prevention is the most important measure.

  13. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  14. Corrosive Poisonings in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. PMID:23678319

  15. Cyanide poisoning and cardiac disorders: 161 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-Luc; Desmettre, Thibault; Manzon, Cyril; Judic-Peureux, Virginie; Peugeot-Mortier, Caroline; Giocanti, Jean-Pascal; Hachelaf, Mohamed; Grangeon, Marie; Hostalek, Ulrike; Crouzet, Julien; Capellier, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    Inhalation of hydrogen cyanide from smoke in structural fires is common, but cardiovascular function in these patients is poorly documented. The objective was to study the cardiac complications of cyanide poisoning in patients who received early administration of a cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany [in the United States, marketed by Meridian Medical Technologies, Bristol, TN]). The medical records of 161 fire survivors with suspected or confirmed cyanide poisoning were reviewed in an open, multicenter, retrospective review of cases from the Emergency Medical Assistance Unit (Service d'Aide Médical d'Urgence) in France. Cardiac arrest (61/161, 58 asystole, 3 ventricular fibrillation), cardiac rhythm disorders (57/161, 56 supraventricular tachycardia), repolarization disorders (12/161), and intracardiac conduction disorders (5/161) were observed. Of the total 161 patients studied, 26 displayed no cardiac disorder. All patients were given an initial dose of 5 g of hydroxocobalamin. Non-responders received a second dose of 5 g of hydroxocobalamin. Of the patients initially in cardiac arrest, 30 died at the scene, 24 died in hospital, and 5 survived without cardiovascular sequelae. Cardiac disorders improved with increasing doses of hydroxocobalamin, and higher doses of the antidote seem to be associated with a superior outcome in patients with initial cardiac arrest. Cardiac complications are common in cyanide poisoning in fire survivors. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Type III and N Einstein spacetimes in higher dimensions : general properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortaggio, Marcello; Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 6 (2010), 064043 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/10/0749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : higher-dimensional gravity * algebraic classification * Newman-Penrose formalism Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 4.964, year: 2010 http://journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.82.064043

  17. Pesticide poisoning in Chitwan, Nepal: a descriptive epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gyenwali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. Methods A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER form. Results A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5% for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population, women (77.53/100000 population and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population. Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0% and rodenticides (20.8%. The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3% and pyrethroids (36.7%. Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. Conclusions This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.

  18. Pesticide poisoning in Chitwan, Nepal: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenwali, Deepak; Vaidya, Abhinav; Tiwari, Sundar; Khatiwada, Prakash; Lamsal, Daya Ram; Giri, Shrikrishana

    2017-07-03

    Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER) form. A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5%) for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population), women (77.53/100000 population) and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population). Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0%) and rodenticides (20.8%). The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3%) and pyrethroids (36.7%). Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.

  19. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... and toxicokinetic data were extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled...

  20. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    in poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Salicylate poisoning is a challenging clinical entity associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The indications for extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis are poorly defined. We present a systematic review of the literature along with evidence- and consensus......-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment in salicylate poisoning. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup is a multidisciplinary group with international representation whose aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments...

  1. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... articles, extracted data, summarized key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 617 articles met......-acting barbiturates are dialyzable and short-acting barbiturates are moderately dialyzable. Four key recommendations were made. (1) The use of ECTR should be restricted to cases of severe long-acting barbiturate poisoning. (2) The indications for ECTR in this setting are the presence of prolonged coma, respiratory...

  2. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    in carbamazepine poisoning. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, the subgroup extracted the data and summarized the findings following a pre-determined format. The entire workgroup voted via a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness......CONTEXT: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence and consensus-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review and provide clinical recommendations for ECTR...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...

  3. FTIR analysis of food poisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Sritana C.

    1992-03-01

    Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.

  4. The poisoning of NRX pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.H.

    1959-09-01

    The experimental methods used to study the poisoning of the NRX reactor are described and the operation of the reactor in relation to these methods is reviewed for the period February to September 1948. (author)

  5. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  6. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    Dit literatuuroverzicht bevat informatie betreffende het "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP) syndroom en de veroorzakende toxines, nl.de brevetoxines, welke geproduceerd worden door de dinoflagellaat Gymnodinium breve. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van de brevetoxines,

  7. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  8. Cyanide poisoning deaths in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Yilmaz, R; Bagdas, D; Ozyigit, M O

    2006-12-01

    In 2005, the deaths of three dogs were reported in Erdek, Turkey. Examining appropriate historical and clinical signs, postmortem findings and the discovery of cyanide in their stomachs and intestinal contents and livers supported a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning.

  9. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  10. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  11. Scombroid fish poisoning: an overlooked marine food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M L; Yang, C C; Yang, G Y; Ger, J; Deng, J F

    1997-08-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is a food-borne chemical intoxication caused by certain spoiled fish that contain a large amount of histamine and some biogenic diamines. It has gradually become a world-wide medical problem and probably is the most common cause of fish poisoning. As the data on the incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Taiwan remains scarce, we report 2 incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Northern Taiwan. We collected data of the 2 outbreaks of suspected fish poisoning which were reported to us in 1996. An epidemiological investigation was undertaken. Questionnaire interviews were given to persons who ate lunch in the same cafeteria in outbreak 2. The leftover fish were sent for species identification and toxin analysis. The first incident involving 4 women occurred in March 1996. All cases experienced flush, dizziness, blurred vision and skin rashes after eating lunch. A non-scombroid fish of Makaira with histamine levels as high as 84.13 mg/100 g flesh was implicated in this incident. In August 1996, another incident involving some cases who ate lunch at the same cafeteria were investigated. A total of 146 questionnaires were distributed with a return of 132 questionnaires (90.4%). Fifty-five employees reported positive signs or symptoms; 48 persons who ate fish and 7 women who did not eat fish were ill. Fish was the only food associated with the illness with an attack rate of 73.8% (p leftover piece and 118.5 mg/100 g flesh in another piece. Most cases in these 2 outbreaks received treatment with antihistamines and had rapid and complete recovery. The diagnosis of scombroid fish poisoning could be misdiagnosed as food allergy or bacterial food poisoning if physicians are not aware of such poisoning. The nonspecific but characteristic symptomatology of histamine food poisoning and previous consumption of fish should alert physicians to the possibility of scombroid fish poisoning. Unless complicated with shock or respiratory distress, supportive

  12. Amitraz poisoning treatment: still supportive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Yaraghi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Amitraz is a triazapentadiene, an α2 adrenergic agonist and a member of the amidine chemical family. A limited number of human intoxication cases have been published in the literature. Lack of a clear and specific protocol for the therapy of amitraz intoxication may make its successfully managed case reports useful and valuable for other clinical practitioners in poisoning departments. The case is about a 22 years old female, single, university student, ingested a glass of amitraz poison (about 100 mL of a 20% solution) as a suicidal attempt on 11:30 am which was about 3.5 h before her hospital admission. She found nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Immediately, her family took her to a clinic near their house. At that clinic (13:30 pm) she had miosis and they did gastric lavage , one adult dose of activated charcoal (50 g) and referred her to our Poisoning Emergency Department, where she was managed supportively and successfully. Amitraz is a poisonous chemical which may cause central nervous system depression and also respiratory/cardiovascular symptoms as well. Several studies reported that using atropine for those amitraz poisoned patients with both miosis and bradycardia resolved the problem and recommend it as the first line of drug therapy when bradycardia occurs from vagal stimulation and atrioventricular block. Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic. Although the effects of activated charcoal and cathartics have not been studied, they may still be considered for treatment.

  13. Methemoglobinemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Hassanian-Moghadam, Hossein; Sadeghi, Anahaita; Rahimzadeh, Hormat; Zamani, Nasim; Ghasemi-Toussi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-03-01

    Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common causes of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Hydrogen phosphide or phosphine gas is produced following reaction of AlP with water even at ambient humidity. Methemoglobinemia is a rare finding following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, two cases of fatal AlP poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia are reported. Two patients presented following suicidal ingestion of AlP tablets. In the Emergency Department (ED), they received gastric lavage with sodium bicarbonate and potassium permanganate. Both of them received supportive care. In each case, hematuria and hemolysis were significant events. The patients also showed a decrease in O(2) saturation in spite of high FIO(2). Methemoglobin levels of 40% and 30% were detected by co-oximetry. Neither patient responded to treatment (ascorbic acid in one case, methylene blue in the other). Both patients died due to systemic effects of phosphine poisoning. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia may complicate the course of phosphine poisoning that seems resistant to methylene blue and ascorbic acid. Therefore, other treatments including hyperbaric oxygen therapy and exchange blood transfusion should be considered.

  14. Molecular Properties and Functional Divergence of the Dehydroascorbate Reductase Gene Family in Lower and Higher Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, which reduces oxidized ascorbate, is important for maintaining an appropriate ascorbate redox state in plant cells. To date, genome-wide molecular characterization of DHARs has only been conducted in bryophytes (Physcomitrella patens and eudicots (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, to gain a general understanding of the molecular properties and functional divergence of the DHARs in land plants, we further conducted a comprehensive analysis of DHARs from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, gymnosperm Picea abies and monocot Zea mays. DHARs were present as a small gene family in all of the land plants we examined, with gene numbers ranging from two to four. All the plants contained cytosolic and chloroplastic DHARs, indicating dehydroascorbate (DHA can be directly reduced in the cytoplasm and chloroplast by DHARs in all the plants. A novel vacuolar DHAR was found in Z. mays, indicating DHA may also be reduced in the vacuole by DHARs in Z. mays. The DHARs within each species showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, subcellular localizations, and enzymatic characteristics. This study provides new insights into the molecular characteristics and functional divergence of DHARs in land plants.

  15. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Grossbeck J-P.A. Renier Tim Bigelow

    2003-09-30

    Burnable poisons are used in nuclear reactors to produce a more level distribution of power in the reactor core and to reduce to necessity for a large control system. An ideal burnable poison would burn at the same rate as the fuel. In this study, separation of neutron-absorbing isotopes was investigated in order to eliminate isotopes that remain as absorbers at the end of fuel life, thus reducing useful fuel life. The isotopes Gd-157, Dy-164, and Er-167 were found to have desirable properties. These isotopes were separated from naturally occurring elements by means of plasma separation to evaluate feasibility and cost. It was found that pure Gd-157 could save approximately $6 million at the end of four years. However, the cost of separation, using the existing facility, made separation cost- ineffective. Using a magnet with three times the field strength is expected to reduce the cost by a factor of ten, making isotopically separated burnable poisons a favorable method of increasing fuel life in commercial reactors, in particular Generation-IV reactors. The project also investigated various burnable poison configurations, and studied incorporation of metallic burnable poisons into fuel cladding.

  16. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossbeck, M. L.; Renier, J-P.A.; Bigelow, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Burnable poisons are used in nuclear reactors to produce a more level distribution of power in the reactor core and to reduce to necessity for a large control system. An ideal burnable poison would burn at the same rate as the fuel. In this study, separation of neutron-absorbing isotopes was investigated in order to eliminate isotopes that remain as absorbers at the end of fuel life, thus reducing useful fuel life. The isotopes Gd-157, Dy-164, and Er-167 were found to have desirable properties. These isotopes were separated from naturally occurring elements by means of plasma separation to evaluate feasibility and cost. It was found that pure Gd-157 could save approximately $6 million at the end of four years. However, the cost of separation, using the existing facility, made separation cost- ineffective. Using a magnet with three times the field strength is expected to reduce the cost by a factor of ten, making isotopically separated burnable poisons a favorable method of increasing fuel life in commercial reactors, in particular Generation-IV reactors. The project also investigated various burnable poison configurations, and studied incorporation of metallic burnable poisons into fuel cladding

  17. Characteristic 8 keV X rays possess radiobiological properties of higher-LET radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridhar, Ravi; Estabrook, William; Yudelev, Mark; Rakowski, Joseph; Burmeister, Jay; Wilson, George D; Joiner, Michael C

    2010-03-01

    Electronic brachytherapy systems are being developed that can deliver X rays of varying energy depending on the material of a secondary target. A copper target produces characteristic 8 keV X rays. Our aim was to determine whether 8 keV X rays might deliver greater biological effectiveness than megavoltage photons. Cells of the U251 human glioma cell line were used to compare the biological effects of 8 keV X rays and (60)Co gamma rays in terms of relative biological effectiveness (RBE), oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), and DNA damage. The RBE at 50% and 10% survival was 2.6 and 1.9, respectively. At 50% survival, the OER for cells treated with 8 keV X rays was 1.6 compared with 3.0 for (60)Co gamma rays. The numbers of H2AX foci per Gy after treatment with 8 keV X rays and (60)Co gamma rays were similar; however, the size of the foci generated at 8 keV was significantly larger, possibly indicating more complex DNA damage. The mean area of H2AX foci generated by 8 keV X rays was 0.785 microm(2) (95% CI: 0.756-0.814) compared with 0.491 microm(2) (95% CI: 0.462-0.520) for (60)Co gamma rays (P X rays produce two to three times the biological effectiveness of megavoltage photons, with a radiobiological profile similar to higher-LET radiations.

  18. Histamine Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirone, Maria; Visciano, Pierina; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production. Generally, the good quality of raw material and hygienic practices during food processing as well as the use of histidine decarboxylase-negative starter cultures can minimize the occurrence of histamine. Further studies are necessary to estimate the human exposure and the relationship between the total amount of the biogenic amines ingested with food and health effects.

  19. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  20. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigating Childhood and Adolescence Poisoning Exposures in New Zealand Reported to the National Poisons Centre during 2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Fan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning incidents, in both children and adolescents, are known to occur in New Zealand but little is known about the agents implicated. Methods: All the calls received over the ten years between 2000 and 2009, by the National Poison Centre in New Zealand, were retrospectively reviewed. Calls related to cases involving those less than 19 years were included. The data were analyzed according to age and gender of cases, the toxic agent implicated in the poisoning and the year of the incident. Results: Most poisonings occurred in children less than five years of age (86%, with these being further concentrated in children aged one to two years (57%. The most frequently implicated agents were therapeutic agents (39% and then household products (36%. In adolescents, an increase in drug misuse or abuse was seen from 12 years old – with those aged 13 and 18 years being most frequently exposed to agents with psychotropic properties. Conclusion: This study showed that accidental (and intentional ingestion is still an issue for children and adolescents in New Zealand. Specific strategies are needed to be targeted to the 1 products implicated in a high number of poisonings and 2 to children at the different ages.

  2. Higher Education End-of-Course Evaluations: Assessing the Psychometric Properties Utilizing Exploratory Factor Analysis and Rasch Modeling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly D. Bradley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a critical assessment of the psychometric properties of a standard higher education end-of-course evaluation. Using both exploratory factor analysis (EFA and Rasch modeling, the authors investigate the (a an overall assessment of dimensionality using EFA, (b a secondary assessment of dimensionality using a principal components analysis (PCA of the residuals when the items are fit to the Rasch model, and (c an assessment of item-level properties using item-level statistics provided when the items are fit to the Rasch model. The results support the usage of the scale as a supplement to high-stakes decision making such as tenure. However, the lack of precise targeting of item difficulty to person ability combined with the low person separation index renders rank-ordering professors according to minuscule differences in overall subscale scores a highly questionable practice.

  3. Trend of blood lactate level in acute aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfantalab, Peyman; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Shadnia, Shahin; Zamani, Nasim; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Mahdavinejad, Arezou; Damaneh, Behrooz Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is common in the developing countries. There is no specific antidote for the treatment of acute AlP poisoning. Early diagnosis of poisoning and outcome predictors may facilitate treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to determine the trend of blood lactate level in acute AlP poisoning to evaluate its role as a prognostic factor. This was a prospective study on acute AlP intoxicated patients during one year. Demographic data, clinical and laboratory data on admission, and outcome were recorded in a self-made questionnaire. Blood lactate levels were analyzed every two hours for 24 hours. Thirty-nine (27 male, 12 female) patients were included in the study. The mortality rate was 38.5%. The mean blood pressure, pulse rate, blood pH and serum bicarbonate level were significantly different between the survivors and non-survivors groups. Blood lactate level was significantly higher in the non-survivors group during 8 to 16 hours post ingestion. Blood lactate level could be used as an index of severity of acute AlP poisoning.

  4. [An epidemiological study on pesticide poisoning with mixed preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W; Chen, S; Tao, B

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of pesticide poisoning with mixed preparation and risk factors contributing to it. Twenty-five administrative villages were studied in three townships of Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces with cluster sampling. The sampled villages were divided into study group (12 villages) and control group (13 villages) with approximately equal number of people each. Pesticide sprayers in the study group applied mixed preparation containing organophosphorous and dimethrin and those in the control group applied single organophosphorous preparation. All the sprayers in sampled villages were interviewed with a same questionnaire about their situation of pesticide spraying during the observation period. Cases of pesticide poisoning were ascertained by seniors physicians in occupational diseases after group discussion. Incidence of pesticide poisoning was higher in 2 179 sprayers of the study group (10.10 %) than that in 2 615 of the control group (2.29%), with a highly statistically difference (chi(2) = 12.46, P poisoning with mixed preparation were smoking or taking food during spraying, leaking or breakdown of sprayers, without washing their whole body as soon as possible after spraying, poor personal protection, spraying for a long time, spraying by women and spraying pesticide on cotton. If toxicity of mixed preparation of single pesticide showed a synergistic or additional effect, risk of poisoning by spraying mixed preparation increased. Health education and technical training should be strengthened for pesticide sprayers.

  5. Medicine poisoning in suicidal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušic Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigations shows that on every realized suicide comes 8 to 25 non realized attempts. Individuals which tried suicide with medicine poisoning mostly quote that they have been overwhelmed with feelings and thoughts which was unbearable in that moment. They wished to escape from that unbearable situation or they lost self control. Between individuals whom tried suicide with medicine poisoning, desire to really die, to disappear was very rare. Mostly it was wish 'just to sleep a little, to take a rest, make pause'. Aim of work: to identified most frequently method for suicidal attempt in both sex and resources which was used in these purposes. Results: most frequently method for suicidal attempt for both sex in our investigation was medicine poisoning - 91,1%, veins cutting - 5,4% and jump from height - 3,6%. Mostly used medicines were anxiolytics - 55,4%, combination of different drugs - 25,0%, antidepressants - 8,9%, neuroleptics - 7,1%, drugs and alcohol - 3,6%. Most frequent method for suicidal attempt in both sex was medicine poisoning. From drugs most frequently used drugs were anxiolytics and in minimum percent combination of drugs and alcohol. After suicidal attempt 90% of individuals experienced relief because their suicidal attempt was unsuccessful. In 3% individuals there was new suicidal attempt on same way, medicine poisoning.

  6. Epidemiology of intentional self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Michael; Gunnell, David; Karunaratne, Ayanthi; de Silva, Dhammika; Sheriff, M H Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the epidemiology of intentional self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka by prospectively recording 2189 admissions to two secondary hospitals. Many patients were young (median age 25 years), male (57%) and used pesticides (49%). Of the 198 who died,156 were men (case fatality 12.4%) and 42 were women (4.5%). Over half of female deaths were in those under 25 years old; male deaths were spread more evenly across age groups. Oleander and paraquat caused 74% of deaths in people under 25 years old; thereafter organophosphorous pesticides caused many deaths. Although the age pattern of self-poisoning was similar to that of industrialised countries, case fatality was more than 15 times higher and the pattern of fatal self-poisoning different.

  7. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and

  8. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David

    2011-01-01

    Background The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world...... on ClinicalTrials.gov ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT01146496 webcite)....

  9. [Living conditions and pattern of acute poisonings in Oslo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvik, Hallgeir Mæsel; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Bjørnaas, Mari Asphjell; Hovda, Knut Erik; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2011-08-09

    Hospitalized patients with acute poisoning come from all classes of society. The relationship between living conditions and pattern of poisoning is, however, unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the connection between living conditions in Oslo and the pattern of acute poisonings, measured by incidence, main toxic agents and intention. A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all patients ≥ 18 years of age with a registered address in Oslo admitted to an Oslo hospital with acute poisoning from 1 April 2003 through 31 March 2004. The 15 city districts were grouped into three, according to the official living conditions index in Oslo: city district group 1 (best living conditions), city district group 2 (average living conditions) and city district group 3 (most difficult living conditions). Of a total of 947 patients admitted with acute poisoning as their main diagnosis in the study period, 691 were included in the study, 660 of whom had self-inflicted poisoning. In city district group 3, the annual incidence of acute poisonings was 2.14 per 1000 inhabitants, significantly higher than city district group 2, with 1.50 (p < 0.001), and city district group 1, with 1.36 (p < 0.001). Measured as intention assessed by the treating physician, suicidal and drug related poisonings and those induced by a "cry for help" were more common in city district group 3 (0.74, 0.59 and 0.74 per 1000 inhabitants, respectively) than in city district group 2 (0.62, 0.40 and 0.41, respectively) and city district group 1 (0.52, 0.32 and 0.45, respectively). The main toxic agents were predominantly benzodiazepines (20 %), ethanol (18 %) and paracetamol (12 %). There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of main toxic agents between the city district groups. The findings show a social gradient, with the highest incidence of poisonings in the city district group with the most difficult living conditions.

  10. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 51 articles met the inclusion......) despite its high protein binding and made the following recommendations. ECTR would be reasonable in select cases of severe phenytoin poisoning (neutral recommendation, 3D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma is present or expected (graded 2D) and it would be reasonable if prolonged incapacitating ataxia...

  11. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...... extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person...... recommended against the use of ECTR in cases of severe digoxin poisoning when Fab was available (1D) and also suggested against the use of ECTR when Fab was unavailable (2D). CONCLUSION: ECTR, in any form, is not indicated for either suspected or proven digoxin toxicity, regardless of the clinical context...

  12. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method......BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing......) and made the following recommendations: extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe metformin poisoning (1D). Indications for extracorporeal treatment include lactate concentration greater than 20 mmol/L (1D), pH less than or equal to 7.0 (1D), shock (1D), failure of standard supportive measures (1D...

  13. [Acute poisoning with industrial products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, R

    2000-02-15

    Poisonings with industrial products represent approximately 7% of the cases reported to the poison centres. Ingestion of petroleum distillates induces irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system depression and aspiration pneumonitis which may be severe; treatment is mainly supportive. Ethylene and diethylene glycol poisonings produce central nervous system depression, anion gap metabolic acidosis, osmolar gap and acute tubular necrosis; in severe cases, hypocalcaemia, cerebral oedema and heart failure may be observed; treatment often associates supportive measures, haemodialysis and administration of competitive inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase (ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole). Glycol ethers induce central nervous system depression and metabolic acidosis; in addition, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether produces haemolysis; monomethyl and monoethyl ethers are responsible for bone marrow and lymphoid organ toxicity, they adversely affect spermatogenesis and are teratogens.

  14. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of the status of reactor physics predictive methods for burnable poisons in CAGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, D.J.; McEllin, M.

    1983-01-01

    An essential component of the design of Commercial Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor fuel necessary to achieve higher discharge irradiations is the incorporation of burnable poisons. The poisons enable the more highly enriched fuel required to reach higher irradiation to be loaded without increasing the peak channel power. The optimum choice of fuel enrichment and poison loading will be made using reactor physics predictive methods developed by Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. The paper describes these methods and the evidence available to support them from theoretical comparisons, zero energy experiments, WAGR irradiations, and measurements on operating CAGR's. (author)

  16. STUDY OF PATTERN AND OUTCOME OF ACUTE POISONING CASES AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN NORTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irteqa Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Poisoning is a global public health problem causing significant morbidity and mortality. It is important to know the pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases for proper planning, prevention and management of these cases. The aim of the study is to determine the mode (suicidal, accidental, homicidal and type of poisoning in North Indian population; relation to age, sex, occupation, marital status; outcome of different type of poisons and requirement of ventilatory support in different type of poisonings. MATERIALS AND METHODS This observational study was conducted in Department of Medicine of a tertiary care hospital in North India. A total of 379 patients were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. RESULTS Poisoning was more common among males (59.89%. Maximum number of patients were in the age group 21-30 years (40.63% and consumption was found to be more prevalent in rural population (75.99%. Most of the patients were farmers and students. Most common types of poisoning were organophosphate (n=95, 25.07%, snake bite (n=77, 20.32% followed by aluminium phosphide (n=71, 18.73%. Out of 379 patients, 318 (83.91% improved while 61 (16.09% expired. Mortality was highest in aluminium phosphide poisoning. Requirement of ventilatory support was most commonly associated with aluminium phosphide poisoning (37.89% followed by organophosphate poisoning (28.42%. CONCLUSION Poisoning was more common in young males. Pesticides and snake bite were major causes of poisoning. Of the total, 318 improved while rest of the 61 expired. Mortality was higher with use of aluminium phosphide poisoning (57.38%, snake bite (21.31% and organophosphate consumption (9.84%. Requirement of ventilator was most commonly associated with aluminium phosphide poisoning. We suggest strict statutory measures covering import, manufacture, sale, transport, distribution and use of pesticides. Training of peripheral health center personnel to manage cases

  17. [The characteristics and trends of acute pesticide poisoning of Shaoxing in 2006 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guo-qin; Lian, Ling-jun; Wang, Chun-hui; Li, Ming; Wang, Ji-gang; Pan, Nan-yan; Wang, Sha-sha

    2013-07-01

    To describe the epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in Shaoxing, China during 2006-2011 and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of pesticide poisoning. The data on pesticide poisoning in Shaoxing during 2006-2011 were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and were then analyzed. A total of 2024 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were reported in Shaoxing during 2006-2011, and 44 cases were missed, accounting for 2.1% (44/2068) of all cases. Among the 2024 cases, 119 (5.9%) died; the fatality rates of productive poisoning and unproductive poisoning were 1.0% (3/289) and 6.7% (116/1735), respectively. The reported cases included 1038 (51.3%) females and 986 (48.7%) males, and there were no significant differences in the ratio between male and female cases of acute pesticide poisoning from 2006 to 2011 (χ2 = 9.16, P = 0.10). The 2024 cases had a mean age of 47.0±18.7 years; the male cases had a significantly higher mean age than the female cases (50.7±19.0 vs 43.4±17.8 years, t = 9.01, P poisoning, and 1735 (85.7%) suffered unproductive poisoning. In the 986 male cases, 219 (22.2%) suffered productive poisoning; in the 1038 female cases, 968 (93.3%) suffered unproductive poisoning. The pesticides that caused poisoning included insecticide (86.7%, 1754/2024), herbicide (5.1%, 104/2024), rodenticide (3.6%, 72/2024), and bactericide, mixed preparation, biochemical pesticides, and other four categories of pesticides (4.6%, 94/2024); of the 1754 cases caused by insecticide, 1455 (83.0%) were attributed to organophosphorus insecticide. The incidence of unproductive acute pesticide poisoning is high in Shaoxing, and it mainly affects females. Most cases of acute pesticide poisoning are aged 30∼60 years. Insecticide is the main cause of poisoning. It is necessary to enhance health knowledge popularization and safety management of pesticides.

  18. Acute Alopecia: Evidence to Thallium Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Jena, Narendra Nath; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2017-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic heavy metal often involved in criminal poisonings and occasionally in accidental poisoning. Here, we report a case of acute, nonintentional thallium poisoning due to thallium-contaminated alternative medicine for its rarity and to create awareness about the combination of rapid, diffuse alopecia with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms among practitioners, professionals, public, and policymakers.

  19. Accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Raimundo A

    2002-02-01

    Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.

  20. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... public education about poison prevention and clinical toxicology training for many different healthcare... Control Center. These transfers are necessary in order to maintain poison control services and education... currently provide poison center services to the citizens of New York, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. These...

  1. Acute Alopecia: Evidence to Thallium Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Jena, Narendra Nath; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2017-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic heavy metal often involved in criminal poisonings and occasionally in accidental poisoning. Here, we report a case of acute, nonintentional thallium poisoning due to thallium-contaminated alternative medicine for its rarity and to create awareness about the combination of rapid, diffuse alopecia with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms among practitioners, professionals, public, and policymakers.

  2. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (ALP is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  3. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Sodhi, Mandeep K; Janmeja, Ashok K

    2012-10-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  4. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  5. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  6. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  7. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sahajal Dhooria; Ritesh Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. Methods: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January...

  8. Is poisoning a problem in South Sudan?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-04

    Nov 4, 2011 ... (e.g. mesothelioma caused by contact with asbestos). Criminal act of poisoning: e.g. “spiking” of a drink at a party. Poisoning in uganda. When I was working in Uganda I saw several cases of poisoning with organophosphates and was horrified by the mortality. Almost ten years ago, we carried out a simple.

  9. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  10. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effect of corneal biomechanical properties on surgically-induced astigmatism and higher-order aberrations after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Koç

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the relationship between biomechanical properties of the cornea and postoperative refractive changes in patients with low-level astigmatism after cataract surgery. Methods: This prospective study recruited patients undergoing cataract surgery involving 2.8-mm superior incisions. Biomechanical properties of the cornea were evaluated preoperatively using the Ocular Response Analyzer, and corneal profiles were evaluated using a Scheimpflug system (Pentacam HR. Topographic astigmatism, total corneal aberrations (TCA and higher-order corneal aberrations (HOCA analyses were performed preoperatively and during 1- and 3-month postoperative exams. The incidences of surgically-induced astigmatism (SIA and HOCAs were calculated using vector analyses. Associations of the preoperative biomechanical properties of the cornea with SIA and HOCAs were evaluated. Results: This study included 28 eyes of 28 patients. The preoperative corneal hysteresis (CH was 8.68 ± 1.86 mmHg, and the corneal resistance factor (CRF was 8.66 ± 1.61 mmHg. At the 1-month postoperative evaluation, significant changes were observed in HOCAs (p=0.023, TCAs (p=0.05, astigmatism (p=0.02, and trefoil (p=0.033; in contrast, differences in coma (p=0.386 and spherical aberration (SA were not significant (p=0.947. At the 3-month visit, significant changes were only observed in TCAs (p=0.02 and HOCAs (p=0.012. No relationships between the preoperative corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor and postoperative SIA and HOCA were identified, other than a positive correlation between the 3-month postoperative incidence of corneal hysteresis and spherical aberration. Conclusions: Despite the observed lack of relationships of preoperative biomechanical properties of the cornea with SIA and postoperative aberrations (except for SA, further studies involving larger patient groups are needed to explore the unexpected refractive deviations after cataract surgery.

  12. [Analysis of characteristics of acute poisoning caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, De-hong; Zhang, Zhen-ming; Liu, Qing-hua; Jiang, Dong-fang

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of acute poisonings caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China. A retrospective investigation was performed in 5859 cases of acute poisonings who were admitted to 63 hospitals in 11 cities, as well as 531 types of poisons involved. The poisons were categorized into 6 groups; each group of cases was stratified by the rural or urban settings, frequency of poisoning, and cause of poisoning to analyze the numbers of cases and constituent ratios. Most types of poisons (68.74%) belonged to drugs (217 types) and pesticides (148 types). Most cases of poisonings (61.63%) were caused by pesticides (n = 2547) and chemicals (n = 1064). Pesticides, poisons of plant origins, and poisons of animal origins were responsible for most of the cases in rural settings; 88.46%, 79.10%, and 66.74% of the cases of these poison categories happened in rural settings. Chemicals, drugs, and other poisons were responsible for most of the cases in urban settings; 70.20%, 61.74%, and 63.73% of the cases of these poison categories happened in urban settings. The numbers of cases in 5-year-poisoning groups were the highest in all categories of poisons, accounting for 85.24%, 88.57%, 55.16%, 70.79%, 68.36%, and 66.44%of cases of respective categories. Most cases of poisonings by chemicals, poisons of animal origin, and other poisons were accident-related (86.24%, 72.66%, and 46.71%of the poison categories). Most cases of poisonings by pesticides and drugs were suicide-related (59.39% and 33.52% of the poison categories). Most cases by poisons of plant origin were caused by accidental ingestion (70.36% of the poison category). Most of the acute poisonings in Guangxi area are caused by pesticides and chemicals; the most common causes of poisoning are accidents, accidental ingestion, and suicide. There are significant differences in the causes of acute poisonings between the urban and rural settings.

  13. Neurologic Complications of Methanol Poisoning: A Clinicoepidemiological Report from Poisoning Treatment Centers in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Eghbali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study we sought to investigate clinical findings (with a focus on neurologic effects and also to analyze outcomes of a series of patients with methanol poisoning admitted to two poisoning treatment centers in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, methanol-poisoned patients admitted to departments of forensic medicine and toxicology of Loghman Hakim and Baharloo hospitals in Tehran during October 2010 to October 2011 were included; and their data were recorded in predesigned checklists. Results: Twenty-eight methanol poisoned patients (82.1% men with mean age of 29.3±4.6 years were studied. Most patients (67.9% had metabolic acidosis at presentation. On admission, all patients had different degrees of decrease in consciousness, who the majority of them (57.1% were admitted with mildly reduced consciousness (grade I of Grady coma scale. Headache and vertigo were observed in 7.1% and 17.9% of patients, respectively. Most patients (53.6% had no ocular effects, while 46.6% of patients developed impaired vision. All patients received sodium bicarbonate. Ethanol as antidote and folic acid were given to 18 patients (64.2% and 16 patients (57.1%, respectively. Six patients (21.4% underwent hemodialysis. Over half of the patients (53.6% fully recovered and were discharged without complications. Four patients (14.3% developed total blindness. Four patients (14.3% left the hospital against medical advice by self-discharge (they had no significant complication at the time of discharge. Five patients (17.9% died; who compared to survived cases had significantly lower blood pH (P=0.028, higher coma grade (P

  14. A Rare but Potentially Fatal Poisoning; Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Tolunay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphide, a very toxic gas, is used in our country as aluminium phosphide tablets impregnated in clay. It is widely used since it has a very high diffusion capacity, whereby it can eradicate all living creatures in any form of their life cycle and does not leave any remnants in agricultural products. Aluminum phosphide poisoning is among intoxications for which there are still no true antidotes. Mortality rate varies between 30% and 100%. This paper presents a case of aluminum phosphide poisoning caused by the uncompleted suicide attempt. A 14-year-old girl, who swallowed aluminum phosphate tablets, was brought to the emergency department with the complaints of nausea and vomiting. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal. Since the patient ingested a lethal amount of aluminum phosphide, she was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit. The patient was discharged in stable condition after supportive care and monitoring. Specific antidotes are life-saving in poisonings. However, this case was presented to show how general treatment principles and quick access to health services affect the result of treatment. Also, we aimed to highlight the uncontrolled selling of aluminum phosphate, which results in high mortality rates in case of poisoning.

  15. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk

    1974-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  16. Concerns and perceptions immediately following Superstorm Sandy: ratings for property damage were higher than for health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    Governmental officials, health and safety professionals, early responders, and the public are interested in the perceptions and concerns of people faced with a crisis, especially during and immediately after a disaster strikes. Reliable information can lead to increased individual and community preparedness for upcoming crises. The objective of this research was to evaluate concerns of coastal and central New Jersey residents within the first 100 days of Superstorm Sandy's landfall. Respondents living in central New Jersey and Jersey shore communities were differentially impacted by the storm, with shore residents having higher evacuation rates (47% vs. 13%), more flood waters in their homes, longer power outages (average 23 vs. 6 days), and longer periods without Internet (29 vs. 6 days). Ratings of concerns varied both among and within categories as a function of location (central vs. coastal New Jersey), stressor level (ranging from 1 to 3 for combinations of power outages, high winds, and flooding), and demographics. Respondents were most concerned about property damage, health, inconveniences, ecological services, and nuclear power plants in that order. Respondents from the shore gave higher ratings to the concerns within each major category, compared to those from central Jersey. Four findings have implications for understanding future risk, recovery, and resiliency: (1) respondents with the highest stressor level (level 3) were more concerned about water damage than others, (2) respondents with flood damage were more concerned about water drainage and mold than others, (3) respondents with the highest stressor levels rated all ecological services higher than others, and (4) shore respondents rated all ecological services higher than central Jersey residents. These data provide information to design future preparedness plans, improve resiliency for future severe weather events, and reduce public health risk.

  17. Fatal poisonings in young drug addicts in the Nordic countries: a comparison between 1984–1985 and 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Holmgren, Per

    1996-01-01

    group 15–24 years. In the two investigations heroin/morphine caused most of the fatal poisonings in Norway and Sweden. In Denmark, heroin/morphine caused about half of the fatal poisonings only, and strong analgesics other than heroin/morphine caused about one third of the deaths. In 1984......–1985 it was methadone, propoxyphene and ketobemidone and in 1991 mostly methadone. The number of heroin/morphine related deaths in Finland increased from 1984–1985 to 1991, but other drugs and poisons caused a much higher proportion of the deaths. Pentobarbital caused the only fatal poisoning in Iceland in 1991...

  18. Inner organ damages after acute radioactive poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyuk, Valeriy

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are some difficulties in making early diagnosis on acute radioactive poisoning. Clinical disorders from a poison in November 2006 in London has not given an opportunity to doctors to reveal radiation as the reason of the acute injury before the death. The report purpose is to give more diagnostic possibilities to reveal early signs of acute radioactive poisoning. It provides an evaluation of clinical observation data on a difference of clinical symptoms after internal or external exposure, activities of some radioactive isotopes that are able to cause ARS with bone marrow failure or damages to different organs and tissues. The report contains descriptions of some clinical cases of radioactive poisonings. Prodromal responses after acute internal expose are significant only in cases of the following early death but are not typical for the most clinical cases of internal exposure. Lethal gastrointestinal or cutaneous damages are not characteristic. Early radiation vasculitis (blood vessel endotheliitis) sings: bloody rash on the trunk, blood in the urine, hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes at blood platelet count in excess of 40 x 10 9 l -1 . Death from lung radiation injury could be expected in all individuals from as little as 7 MBq of inhaled alpha emitter with energy of about 5 MeV and an effective half-life greater than 100 days. Death from severe bone marrow syndrome for the first month or death from liver insufficiency for the following 6 months is typical after ingestion or injection of radioactive materials at lethal doses. Hemolytic sings after acute exposure should be confirmed by the following clinical investigations. It is known the erythrocyte hemolysis and the following hemoglobin decay is a significant source of the endogenous CO that release from the hem. So estimation of CO and methemoglobin in the blood is a way for revealing of the higher erythrocyte destroy. If hemolytic syndrome is characteristic for early acute

  19. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  20. Fuel elements containing burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, K.J.; Eaton, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    A burnable poison such as gadolinia is introduced into a nuclear fuel pin by way of thermal insulating pellets which serve to protect end caps from exposure to the intense heat generated by the fuel during irradiation. The pellets may comprise a sintered mixture of aluminia and gadolinia. (author)

  1. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  2. Poisoning Safety Fact Sheet (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Control Website. Unintentional poisoning fatalities and nonfatal injuries, children ages 19 and under. Available from: http: / / www. cdc. gov/ injury/ wisqars/ . Accessed February 23, ... In-Depth Look at Keeping Young Children Safe Around Medicine. Washington, DC: Safe Kids Worldwide, ...

  3. Intensive therapy for chloroquine poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lavage, intravenous diazepam, mechanical ventilation when necessary, and occasionally inotropic infusions. Four patients suffered cardiac arrest during gastric lavage. There were 6 deaths (mortality 20.7%). Conclusions. This study indicates the common clinical features of acute chloroquine poisoning. A survival rate of.

  4. Therapeutic problems in cyanide poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, A. N.; Douze, J. M.; van Kesteren, R. G.; van Bergen, J. E.; van Dijk, A.

    1987-01-01

    In three patients with severe acute cyanide poisoning, a cyanosis was observed instead of the bright pink skin coloration often mentioned as a sign in textbooks. Treatment of cardiopulmonary insufficiency is as essential as antidotal therapy and the use of sodium nitrite and 4-DMAP is not without

  5. Hemodialysis in the Poisoned Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This classic team based learning (cTBL didactic is aimed for emergency medicine residents and fourth year medical students entering emergency medicine. Introduction: Over one million visits per year to United States (US emergency departments (ED are related to poisonings.1 Extracorporeal treatment (ECTR, specifically hemodialysis (HD, is one potential method to enhance elimination of certain drugs and their toxic metabolites.2-12 While HD may be life-saving in certain poisonings, it may have no effect on others and it carries associated risks and costs. It is essential that emergency physicians know the indications for HD in the poisoned patient. This cTBL reviews many poisonings which may be managed by HD. Objectives: By the end of this cTBL, the learner will: 1 recognize laboratory abnormalities related to toxic alcohol ingestion; 2 calculate an anion gap and osmolal gap; 3 know the characteristics of drugs that are good candidates for HD; 4 discuss the management of patients with toxic alcohol ingestions; 5 discuss the management of patients with salicylate overdose; 6 know the indications for HD in patients with overdoses of antiepileptic drugs; 7 discuss the management of patients with lithium toxicity. Method: This didactic session is a cTBL (classic team based learning.

  6. Extreme compression behaviour of higher derivative properties of solids based on the generalized Rydberg equation of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shanker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have derived formulations for the pressure derivatives of bulk modulus up to the third order and for higher order Grüneisen parameters using the generalized free volume theory, and the generalized Rydberg equation of state. The properties derived in the present study are directly related to the understanding of thermoelastic properties of solids. The third order Grüneisen parameter (lambda λ in the limit of infinite pressure has been found to approach a positive finite value for lambda infinity (λ∞ equal to 1/3. This is a result shown to be independent of the value of K-prime infinity, i. e., the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus at infinite pressure. The results based on other equations of state have also been reported and discussed. We find a relationship between λ∞ and pressure derivatives of bulk modulus at infinite pressure which is satisfied by different types of equations of state.

  7. Classification tree methods for development of decision rules for botulism and cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Howell; Nussbaum, Marcy; Beuhler, Michael; Ford, Marsha

    2008-06-01

    Identification of predictors of potential mass poisonings may increase the speed and accuracy with which patients are recognized, potentially reducing the number ultimately exposed and the degree to which they are affected. This analysis used a decision-tree method to sort such potential predictors. Data from the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System were used to select cyanide and botulism cases from 1993 to 2005 for analysis. Cases of other poisonings from a single poison center were used as controls. After duplication was omitted and removal of cases from the control sample was completed, there remained 1,122 cyanide cases, 262 botulism cases, and 70,804 controls available for both analyses. Classification trees for each poisoning type were constructed, using 131 standardized clinical effects. These decision rules were compared with the current case surveillance definitions of one active poison center and the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC). The botulism analysis produced a 4-item decision rule with sensitivity (Se) of 68% and specificity (Sp) of 90%. Use of the single poison center and AAPCC definitions produced Se of 19.5% and 16.8%, and Sp of 99.5% and 83.2%, respectively. The cyanide analysis produced a 9-item decision rule with Se of 74% and Sp of 77%. The single poison center and AAPCC case definitions produced Se of 10.2% and 8.6%, and Sp of 99.8% and 99.8%, respectively. These results suggest the possibility of improved poisoning case surveillance sensitivity using classification trees. This method produced substantially higher sensitivities, but not specificities, for both cyanide and botulism. Despite limitations, these results show the potential of a classification-tree approach in the detection of poisoning events.

  8. Muscle contractile properties as an explanation of the higher mean power output in marmosets than humans during jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plas, Rogier L C; Degens, Hans; Meijer, J Peter; de Wit, Gerard M J; Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; Bobbert, Maarten F; Jaspers, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    The muscle mass-specific mean power output (PMMS,mean) during push-off in jumping in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) is more than twice that in humans. In the present study it was tested whether this is attributable to differences in muscle contractile properties. In biopsies of marmoset m. vastus lateralis (VL) and m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM) (N=4), fibre-type distribution was assessed using fluorescent immunohistochemistry. In single fibres from four marmoset and nine human VL biopsies, the force-velocity characteristics were determined. Marmoset VL contained almost exclusively fast muscle fibres (>99.0%), of which 63% were type IIB and 37% were hybrid fibres, fibres containing multiple myosin heavy chains. GM contained 9% type I fibres, 44% type IIB and 47% hybrid muscle fibres. The proportions of fast muscle fibres in marmoset VL and GM were substantially larger than those reported in the corresponding human muscles. The curvature of the force-velocity relationships of marmoset type IIB and hybrid fibres was substantially flatter than that of human type I, IIA, IIX and hybrid fibres, resulting in substantially higher muscle fibre mass-specific peak power (PFMS,peak). Muscle mass-specific peak power output (PMMS,peak) values of marmoset whole VL and GM, estimated from their fibre-type distributions and force-velocity characteristics, were more than twice the estimates for the corresponding human muscles. As the relative difference in estimated PMMS,peak between marmosets and humans is similar to that of PMMS,mean during push-off in jumping, it is likely that the difference in in vivo mechanical output between humans and marmosets is attributable to differences in muscle contractile properties. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Electrical Properties of Ultrathin Hf-Ti-O Higher k Gate Dielectric Films and Their Application in ETSOI MOSFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuhua; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Wei, Feng; Du, Jun; Zhao, Hongbin; Tang, Zhaoyun; Tang, Bo; Wang, Wenwu; Yan, Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Ultrathin Hf-Ti-O higher k gate dielectric films (~2.55 nm) have been prepared by atomic layer deposition. Their electrical properties and application in ETSOI (fully depleted extremely thin SOI) PMOSFETs were studied. It is found that at the Ti concentration of Ti/(Ti + Hf) ~9.4%, low equivalent gate oxide thickness (EOT) of ~0.69 nm and acceptable gate leakage current density of 0.61 A/cm 2 @ (V fb  - 1)V could be obtained. The conduction mechanism through the gate dielectric is dominated by the F-N tunneling in the gate voltage range of -0.5 to -2 V. Under the same physical thickness and process flow, lower EOT and higher I on /I off ratio could be obtained while using Hf-Ti-O as gate dielectric compared with HfO 2 . With Hf-Ti-O as gate dielectric, two ETSOI PMOSFETs with gate width/gate length (W/L) of 0.5 μm/25 nm and 3 μm/40 nm show good performances such as high I on , I on /I off ratio in the magnitude of 10 5 , and peak transconductance, as well as suitable threshold voltage (-0.3~-0.2 V). Particularly, ETSOI PMOSFETs show superior short-channel control capacity with DIBL <82 mV/V and subthreshold swing <70 mV/decade.

  10. [Star anise poisoning in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, P; Pommier, P; Moulène, E; Retornaz, K; Prost, N; Deharo, L

    2003-07-01

    Star anise is used as herbal tea, for the treatment of colicky pain in infants. It may cause neurological troubles. We report 2 cases of star anise poisoning in infants before 6 months of age. Star anise herbal tea was given by parents. Tremors or spasms, hypertonia, hyperexcitability with crying, nystagmus, and vomiting were observed. Contamination or adulteration of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hook), with Japanese star anise (Illicium religiosum) was proved in one child. Confusion or blending between Chinese and Japanese star anise may cause poisoning. Japanese star anise is a neurotoxic plant indeed, because it contains sesquiterpenic lactones. From November 2001, star anise products are theoretically prohibited in France, but they may be still available in some small groceries, or imported by families themselves.

  11. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children.

  12. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, L.

    1977-06-01

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  13. [Analysis of acute pesticide poisoning in Ningbo city from 2011 to 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X H; Leng, P B; Mao, G C; Wang, A H

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To analyze the characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in Ningbo, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control strategy. Methods: In February 2017, the pesticide poisoning report card of Ningbo from 2011 to 2016 was drawn from the China Disease Control and prevention information system. The data of the report card was organized by Excel and analyzed by SPSS19.0 software. Results: 2593 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were reported in Ningbo from 2011 to 2016, 125 deaths, and the case fatality rate was 4.82%. The productive pesticide poisoning and unproductive pesticide poisoning were 299 and 2294, respectively, the ratio was 1: 7.67. The case fatality rate were 0.33% and 5.41%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=14.83, Ppoisoning mainly occurred from July to September (55.85%) , the unproductive pesticides mainly occurred from April to June (30.64%) and July to September (30.34%). The seasonal distribution of the pesticide poisoning in the two groups was statistically significant (χ2=82.21, Ppoisoning in male (80.27%) was significantly higher than the proportion of unproductive pesticide poisoning (52.09%) , the differences in gender composition between the two types of pesticide poisoning was significant (χ2=84.97, Ppoisoning from 55 to 65 years old group was in the largest number (35.45%) , and the distribution of unproductive pesticide poisoning was uniform in each age group including 25 years old and above, the difference in age composition between two types of pesticide poisoning was statistically significant (χ2=177.84, Ppoisoning. The counties with more reports were Ninghai county (18.28%) , Fenghua district (14.69%) and Yuyao (12.42%). The acute pesticide poisoning was mainly caused by pesticides and herbicides, mainly in organophosphorus (45.74%) and paraquat (16.81%) . Conclusions: At present, the pesticide poisoning in Ningbo is given priority to unproductive pesticide poisoning

  14. Pesticide poisoning and neurobehavioral function among farm workers in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Wu, Ming; Yao, Hongyan; Yang, Yaming; Cui, Mengjing; Tu, Zhibin; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides remain an integral part of agricultural activities worldwide. Although there have been a number of studies over the last two decades concerning the adverse effects of pesticide poisoning and chronic long term exposures on neurobehavioral function, the impact of recent pesticide poisoning and long term pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral function in Chinese farm workers has not been reported. China is the largest user of pesticides worldwide and figures suggest 53,300-123,000 Chinese people are poisoned every year. A case control study was conducted to examine the impact of recent pesticide poisoning on neurobehavioral function and the relationship between years worked in agriculture and lower performance on neurobehavioral tests. A total of 121 farm workers who self-reported recent pesticide poisonings within the previous 12 months (case group) and 80 farm workers who reported no pesticide poisoning in the previous 12 months (control group) were recruited from three areas of Jiangsu Province, China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB) was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning among cases and controls. Student's t tests and two-way covariance analysis (ANCOVA) were used to test for significant differences in the neurobehavioral test results between the groups. Scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in the recently poisoned group were significantly higher for anger-hostility, depression-dejection, tension-anxiety and lower for vigor-activity compared to controls (p pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral functioning in Chinese farm workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Case definitions for human poisonings postulated to palytoxins exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaro, A; Durando, P; Del Favero, G; Ansaldi, F; Icardi, G; Deeds, J R; Sosa, S

    2011-03-01

    A series of case reports and anecdotal references describe the adverse effects on human health ascribed to the marine toxin palytoxin (PLTX) after different exposure routes. They include poisonings after oral intake of contaminated seafood, but also inhalation and cutaneous/systemic exposures after direct contact with aerosolized seawater during Ostreopsis blooms and/or through maintaining aquaria containing cnidarian zoanthids. The symptoms commonly recorded during PLTX intoxication are general malaise and weakness, associated with myalgia, respiratory effects, impairment of the neuromuscular apparatus and abnormalities in cardiac function. Systemic symptoms are often recorded together with local damages whose intensity varies according to the route and length of exposure. Gastrointestinal malaise or respiratory distress is common for oral and inhalational exposure, respectively. In addition, irritant properties of PLTX probably account for the inflammatory reactions typical of cutaneous and inhalational contact. Unfortunately, the toxin identification and/or quantification are often incomplete or missing and cases of poisoning are indirectly ascribed to PLTXs, according only to symptoms, anamnesis and environmental/epidemiological investigations (i.e. zoanthid handling or ingestion of particular seafood). Based on the available literature, we suggest a "case definition of PLTX poisonings" according to the main exposure routes, and, we propose the main symptoms to be checked, as well as, hemato-clinical analysis to be carried out. We also suggest the performance of specific analyses both on biological specimens of patients, as well as, on the contaminated materials responsible for the poisoning. A standardized protocol for data collection could provide a more rapid and reliable diagnosis of palytoxin-poisoning, but also the collection of necessary data for the risk assessment for this family of toxins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Outbreak investigation: Salmonella food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, R; Singh, Harpreet; Mangla, Vipra; Hiremath, R

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning was reported from a Military establishment on 29 May 2011 when 43 cases of food poisoning reported sick in a span of few hours. A retrospective-prospective study was conducted. Data regarding the onset of symptoms, presenting features and history of food items consumed was collected. A detailed inspection of the mess for hygiene and sanitary status, cooking and storage procedure, and rodent nuisance was also carried out. A total of 53 cases of food poisoning occurred between 29 and 31 May 2011. All cases had symptoms of diarrohea followed by fever (96.2%), headache (84.9%), abdominal pain (50.1%), nausea and vomiting (49.1%) and bodyache (39.6%) respectively. Based on the Attributable Risk (AR = 46.67%) and Relative Risk (RR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.22-16.54) Potato-bitter gourd vegetable served during dinner on 28 May 2011 was incriminated as the food item responsible for outbreak. Symptomatology, incubation period and presence of rodent nuisance suggested contamination of Potato-bitter gourd vegetable with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp.

  17. Poisoning deaths in married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virendra

    2004-02-01

    Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime.

  18. Role and functions of Poisons Information Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Peshin, S S

    1997-01-01

    The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) is a specialized unit providing information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of poisoning and hazard management. Most of the developed and many developing countries have well established poison control centres with poisons information service, patient management facility and analytical laboratory. In India, the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) was established in February, 1995 in the Department of Pharmacology at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The centre provides toxicological information and advice on the management of poisoned patients adopted to the level of the enquirer. The basis of this service are the databases on poisoning, drug reactions and also the continuous and systematic collection of data from the library. This information service is available round the clock. The PIC has the training responsibility extending to medical and other health professionals and community. The NPIC organized two successive training courses for medical professionals and para professionals at all health levels. Further, NPIC is a participant of INTOX project of IPCS/WHO, receiving regular yearly training on the use of INTOX database. Laboratory service is an essential component of a poisons control programme, providing analytical services on emergency basis to help in diagnosis and management. The NPIC is developing facilities for quick diagnosis of poisoning cases. Toxicovigilance and prevention of poisoning is another major function of PIC. The Centre has prepared manuals and leaflets on prevention and management cards on treatment of various poisonings. Thus the Centre provides a service with considerable health benefits, reducing morbidity and mortality from poisoning and gives significant financial savings to the community.

  19. Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood c...

  20. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be white. The word “TOXIC” may be used in lieu of the word “POISON”. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66258, Dec... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as...

  1. Analysis of intentional drug poisonings using Ohio Poison Control Center Data, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kelsey; Caupp, Sarah; Shi, Junxin; Wheeler, Krista K; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Xiang, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical drug poisonings, especially those that are intentional, are a serious problem for adolescents and young adults. Poison control center data is a viable tool to track intentional drug poisonings in near real-time. To determine intentional drug poisoning rates among adolescents and young adults in Ohio using poison control center data. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2014 obtained by Ohio's three poison control centers. Inclusion variables were calls made to the centers that had appropriate subject age (10-29 years old), subject sex, involved substance (all drug classes), and medical outcome (no effect, minor effect, moderate effect, major effect, and death). Intentional drug poisoning reports were also separated into subgroups to compare suspected suicide reports to misuse and abuse reports. Finally, resident population estimates were used to generate 2014 intentional drug poisoning rates for each county in Ohio. The most common age group for intentional drug poisonings was 18-24. Females reported more suspected suicide drug poisonings while males reported more misuse/abuse drug poisonings. The most reported drug class across all ages was analgesics. Of the 88 counties in Ohio, Hamilton, Williams, Washington, and Guernsey counties had the highest rates of intentional drug poisonings. The high report rate of suspected suicides and analgesic class drugs demonstrates the need for preventative measures for adolescents and young adults in Ohio. Any interventions, along with legislative changes, will need to take place in our local communities.

  2. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... large ingestions. These poisonings can be very dangerous. Symptoms may include: Vomiting Stomach or abdominal pain Diarrhea Fever Delirium Dilated pupils Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Lower ...

  3. Green and poisoned land?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, M.; Cutler, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) at Sellafield (formerly Windscale) have had to improve its image and have mounted a publicity campaign to improve its public relations and promote nuclear power. However, a study of the childhood leukemia excess acknowledged to exist near Sellafield has been made. Its finding show that in each case of leukaemia or lymphatic cancer in under-25s in West Cumbria between 1950 and 1985 the fathers had received higher radiation exposure at the Sellafield plant than had the fathers in a matched control group. Other studies support the theory that genetic damage to the fathers have given rise to a predisposition to develop leukemia in their children. Higher radiation levels in the local environment could then be another step in the cancer-causing process. The Sellafield reprocessing plant has been responsible for high levels of radioactivity in the Irish Sea, Cumbrian coast and beyond. If the main purpose of Sellafield is simply to make money the long term hazards to human genetic and food chains make this an unacceptable enterprise. (UK)

  4. Poisoning in children and adolescents notified at a toxicology center in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucineide Porto Amorim

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to analyze the clinical and epidemiological profile of poisoning in children and adolescents under 12years old. Methods: a crosssectional study with analytical component based on poisoning notifications at the Centro de Toxicologia de Pernambuco (Toxicological Center in Pernambuco, carried out in 2012 and 2014. Allergic reactions and contaminated food poisoning were excluded. Sociodemographic characteristics, type of toxic agent, circumstance, place of occurrence, time until care and patients' evolution were analyzed. The distribution of frequencies and associations among the variables through prevalence ratio and the chisquared test was determined. Results: Among 2,843 patients registered, 1,601 (56.3% were poisoned by chemical substances and 1,242 (43.7% by poisonous animals. Most lived in urban areas (90.6% and were attended for care after an hour of the incident (47.6%. The poisoning frequency of chemical substances was higher among children under five years old (PR=2.34; CI95%= 2.142.56 and there was no difference in the sexes (PR=1.00; CI95%= 0.941.07. The predominant medicine (45.0% for poisoning was between chemical substance and scorpions (77.0%. Poisoning occurred as accidental in 92.2% and 99.6% of chemical substance occurred at home. There were six deaths by chemical intake and two by scorpions.. Conclusions: poisoning in Pernambuco State is considered a public health issue given by its frequency and it occurred mostly with children under 5 years old accidentally and at home.

  5. QTc prolongation as a useful prognostic factor in acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Chuan; Liao, Shu-Chen; Shih, Chia-Pang; Hsu, Kuang-Hung

    2014-10-01

    Acute paraquat poisoning has a high mortality rate. Several prognostic factors have been proposed to predict the mortality risk of paraquat-poisoned patients. However, these prognostic factors are complex and some require a laboratory. Corrected QT (QTc) has been used as a prognostic factor in several clinical conditions, such as acute organophosphate poisoning. In addition, the measurement can be obtained in a reasonable amount of time. This study's objective was to investigate whether QTc can predict mortality in paraquat-poisoned patients. This was a retrospective study. Potential prognostic factors such as QTc, vital signs at admission, and certain biochemistry variables were analyzed with Cox regression analyses for their ability to predict a patient's survival from paraquat poisoning. Sixty acute paraquat-poisoned patients were admitted to the emergency department during the study period. The QTc of the survival group ranged from 0.35 to 0.48 s, whereas the nonsurvivor group ranged from 0.32 to 0.63 s. The nonsurvivor group contained a higher percentage of patients with QTc prolongation (≥0.45 s) compared with the survivor group (p = 0.04). The hazard ratio of QTc prolongation for a patient's death was found to be 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-5.67) in patients with a lower potassium level (paraquat-poisoned patients. Cardiovascular collapse may occur in some paraquat-poisoned patients. Physicians can use QTc as an indicator of a patient's severity of poisoning and mortality risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Most common poisonings and their management--data from Tbilisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobidze, T S; Gerzmava, O Kh; Areshidze, T Kh; Tsintsadze, M A; Dikhamindzhiia, O B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological aid and efficiency of preventive measures and methods in treatment of acute exogenous intoxications in hospitals in Tbilisi in 1990-2005. Structure of poisoning accidents in Tbilisi, its trends in last decade is analyzed and explained. The data were obtained in Georgian National Center for Disease Control and Medical statistics in Tbilisi. The study revealed that total number of hospitalizations due to acute poisoning in Tbilisi exceeded the number of hospitalizations due to acute myocardial infarction. In 1992-1994 Georgia was in severe social-economic crisis: the cases of acute poisoning increased and the number of hospitalizations had been reduced with concomitant longer hospital stay (in 1992--10.7 hospital days; in 1993-1994--13.7 hospital days), and higher mortality (in 1992--4%; in 1993--5.5%; 1994--5.2%). Low hospitalization rates in 1992-1994 should be explained by late patient referral to hospitals. Longer hospital stay was available due to free hospital care at that time. In 1995 with termination of free medical care number of hospitalized patients with acute intoxication raised annually; hospital stay shortened and mortality rate decreased. In 2003 mortality was reduced by 0.74% in Tbilisi. The prevalence of acute alcoholic intoxication incidence was noticed. Therefore hospital stay decreases. High prevalence of acute alcoholic intoxication was explained by the growth of alcohol consumption; lack of quality control of beverage production resulting in huge amount of unconditioned and counterfeit substances in the market, etc. As to poisonings due to medical substances 42% of cases were intoxications with anticonvulsants, sedative and psychotropic preparations; 17% with cardiovascular drugs; and 10% with narcotic substances. It was found, that poisoning incidence and their outcome significantly depend on social-economical conditions in Georgia. Measures to improve toxicology care in the

  7. [Poisoning by Geromitra esculenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, D

    1989-01-01

    Gyromitra esculenta (Persoon ex Fries) mushrooms have been responsible for severe intoxications and even deaths. Clinical data are characterized primarily by vomiting and diarrhoea, and, afterwhile, by jaundice, convulsions and coma. The species of concern are mainly G. esculenta, G. fastigiata and G. gigas; nevertheless, recent advances in chromatography, biochemistry and toxicology have established that other species within the Ascomycetes may prove also toxic. The toxins, i.e. gyromitrin (N-methyl-N-formyl-N-acetyl-hydrazone) and its higher homologues, are converted in vivo into MFH (N-methyl-N-formyl-hydrazine), then into MMH (N-Methylhydrazine). The toxicity of these latter chemicals, which are chiefly hepatotoxic and even carcinogenic, has been established through in vivo, and, in vitro experiments with monocelled cultures and biochemical systems. Considering the chemical structure and the reactivity of these natural compounds, chemical and biochemical mechanisms are suggested in order to explain their intrinsic biological activity.

  8. Oxidative Metabolites of Curcumin Poison Human Type II Topoisomerases†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketron, Adam C.; Gordon, Odaine N.; Schneider, Claus; Osheroff, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The polyphenol curcumin is the principal flavor and color component of the spice turmeric. Beyond its culinary uses, curcumin is believed to positively impact human health and displays antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and chemopreventive properties. It also is in clinical trials as an anticancer agent. In aqueous solution at physiological pH, curcumin undergoes spontaneous autoxidation that is enhanced by oxidizing agents. The reaction proceeds through a series of quinone methide and other reactive intermediates to form a final dioxygenated bicyclopentadione product. Several naturally occurring polyphenols that can form quinones have been shown to act as topoisomerase II poisons (i.e., increase levels of topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage). Because several of these compounds have chemopreventive properties, we determined the effects of curcumin, its oxidative metabolites, and structurally related degradation products (vanillin, ferulic acid, and feruloylmethane), on the DNA cleavage activities of human topoisomerase IIα and IIβ. Intermediates in the curcumin oxidation pathway increased DNA scission mediated by both enzymes ~4-5–fold. In contrast, curcumin and the bicyclopentadione, as well as vanillin, ferulic acid, and feruloylmethane, had no effect on DNA cleavage. As found for other quinone-based compounds, curcumin oxidation intermediates acted as redox-dependent (as opposed to interfacial) topoisomerase II poisons. Finally, under conditions that promote oxidation, the dietary spice turmeric enhanced topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. Thus, even within the more complex spice formulation, oxidized curcumin intermediates appear to function as topoisomerase II poisons. PMID:23253398

  9. A study of childhood poisoning at National Poisons Information Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Peshin, Sharda Shah; Srivastava, Amita; Kaleekal, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of the poisoning calls received by the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) showed a total of 2,720 calls during a period of three years (April 1999-March 2002). Poisoning in children was reported in 995 calls (36.6%). The age ranged from less than 1 yr to 18 yr and the age groups involved were divided into four categories (0-6 yr, >6-12 yr, >12-16 yr, >16-18 yr). The most vulnerable age group included children from less than one year to 6 yr old. Males outnumbered females (M=628, F=367). Although the accidental mode was the commonest (79.7%), intentional attempts were also noticed (20.2%) in the >12-16 yr and >16-18 yr age groups. In the majority of cases, the route was oral (96.8%) followed by dermal exposure (3.2%) comprising bites and stings. Various types of agents belonged to classes of household products (47.0%), drugs (21.8%), industrial chemicals (7.9%), agricultural pesticides (9.1%), bites and stings (3.2%), plants (1.5%), miscellaneous products (5.3%) and unknown products (4.0%). The incidence of poisoning was highest due to household products comprising mainly pyrethroids, parad/thermometer mercury, rodenticides, phenyl, detergents and corrosives, etc. Poisoning due to drugs mainly included anticonvulsants, thyroid hormones, benzodiazepines, analgesics and oral contraceptives. Among the agricultural pesticides aluminium phosphide was the most commonly consumed, followed by organochlorines and organophosphates, etc. Paint thinners were common among industrial chemicals. Bites and stings were mainly snake bites and scorpion stings. Poisoning due to plants was low and Datura was commonly ingested. Although these data may not give an exact picture of the incidence rate in our country, due to underreporting of calls to the Centre and because the actual incidence might be higher or even variable, but they do give the trend in India, indicating that a strong emphasis should be placed on a prevention campaign which can at least

  10. [Relapse of Creosote poisoning: report of a case taking Seirogan tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Shintaro; Tanaka, Takaya; Hirakawa, Akihiko; Shinya, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Nobuaki; Nakatani, Toshio

    2002-07-01

    A thirty-eight year old man took about 180 tablets of Seirogan. He was unconscious and had dyspnea with dark brown urine on admission. He recovered gradually after initial treatment. Seirogan contains a phenolic component. Symptoms and signs of poisoning are unconsciousness, convulsion, digestive tract disorder, pulmonary edema, hepatic failure, renal failure, and miosis. Clinical features include dark brown urine. On day 7, he again showed signs of creosote poisoning: relapse of unconsciousness and dark colored urine. Plasma concentration of phenol determined on the day before the relapse was much higher than that expected from the half-life of blood phenol. It is reported that Creosote poisoning results in a decrease in the intestinal peristalsis, or paralytic ileus. We would like to emphasize that a relapse of Creosote poisoning may occur due to possible delayed absorption of the Seirogan tablets.

  11. Predictive values of urine paraquat concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score in the prognosis of patients with acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Wei; Ma, Tao; Li, Lu-Lu; Qu, Bo; Liu, Zhi

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated the predictive values of urine paraquat (PQ) concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score in the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. A total of 194 patients with acute PQ poisoning, hospitalized between April 2012 and January 2014 at the First Affiliated Hospital of P.R. China Medical University (Shenyang, China), were selected and divided into survival and mortality groups. Logistic regression analysis, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and Kaplan-Meier curve were applied to evaluate the values of urine paraquat (PQ) concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and (APACHE) II score for predicting the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. Initial urine PQ concentration (C0), dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score of patients in the mortality group were significantly higher compared with the survival group (all Ppoison and arterial blood lactate correlated with mortality risk of acute PQ poisoning (all Ppoison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score in predicting the mortality of patients within 28 days were 0.921, 0.887, 0.808 and 0.648, respectively. The AUC of C0 for predicting early and delayed mortality were 0.890 and 0.764, respectively. The AUC values of urine paraquat concentration the day after poisoning (Csec) and the rebound rate of urine paraquat concentration in predicting the mortality of patients within 28 days were 0.919 and 0.805, respectively. The 28-day survival rate of patients with C0 ≤32.2 µg/ml (42/71; 59.2%) was significantly higher when compared with patients with C0 >32.2 µg/ml (38/123; 30.9%). These results suggest that the initial urine PQ concentration may be the optimal index for predicting the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. Additionally, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate, Csec and rebound rate also have referential significance.

  12. An epidemiological study of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the West Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R C; Saunders, P J; Smith, G

    1998-11-01

    To describe the epidemiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a defined population, identifying those at greatest risk from acute poisoning resulting in admission to hospital or death. A retrospective study with routinely collected information, set in the former West Midlands Regional Health Authority; population of 5.2 million. The data comprised 939 deaths and 701 hospital admissions due to CO poisoning between January 1988 to December 1994. The main outcome measures were age and sex standardised incidence rates (SIRs) for non-intentional, suicidal, and undetermined poisonings for health authorities and the linear relation with socioeconomic deprivation. Overall rate of non-intentional poisonings over the 7 year period was 7.6/100,000, an annual rate of 1.1/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest in people > or = 85; men 24.0/100,000 and women 19.7/100,000. For suicides the 7 year rate was 19.6/100,000, an annual rate of 2.8/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest for men of 35-39, 64.1/100,000, and for women aged 45-49, 15.3/100,000. None of the causes of poisoning were related to deprivation. Non-intentional poisonings showed a strong seasonal variation with the highest rates being recorded in the months October to March. Increased rates of poisoning were found in the rural districts of the West Midlands. There seems to have been a decline in suicides coinciding with the introduction of three way catalytic converters on cars. Elderly people and the very young are at the greatest risk from non-intentional CO poisoning and rates are highest in the winter months. Although deaths from non-intentional CO poisoning are declining nationally, in the West Midlands they have remained stable and hospital admissions are increasing. It is not solely an urban phenomenon with rates for non-intentional CO poisoning and suicides higher in the rural districts. Health authorities need to consider all populations in any prevention programme. Further work is needed to establish

  13. Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the National Poison Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2015-04-01

    Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Poisoning in Israel: annual report of the Israel Poison Information Center, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Lurie, Yael; Cahana, Alfred; Kovler, Nona; Bloom-Krasik, Anna; Gurevych, Bella; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    The Israel National Poison Information Center (IPIC), Rambam Health Care Campus, provides 24 hour telephone consultations in clinical toxicology as well as drug and teratogen information. It participates in research, teaching and regulatory activities, and also provides laboratory services. To report data on the epidemiology of poisonings and poison exposures in Israel. We made computerized queries and descriptive analyses of the medical records database of the IPIC during 2012. A total of 31,519 poison exposure cases were recorded, a 157.6% increase compared with 1995. Children Poison exposures and poisonings have increased significantly and have contributed substantially to morbidity and mortality in Israel. The IPIC database is a valuable national resource for the collection and monitoring of poisoning exposure cases. It can be used as a real-time surveillance system for the benefit of public health. It is recommended that reporting to the IPIC become mandatory and its activities be adequately supported by national resources.

  15. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Intensive Care Management of Organophosphate Poisoned Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    challenging, more so in the setting of poor critical care facilities. The management requires the administration .... at the scene of the incident, signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning and improvement .... outcomes in human organophosphate poisoning: an evaluation using meta-analytic techniques. Crit.

  17. Heavy metal poisoning: clinical presentations and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Danyal; Froberg, Blake; Wolf, Andrea; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2006-03-01

    Humans have had a long and tumultuous relationship with heavy metals. Their ubiquitous nature and our reliance on them for manufacturing have resulted at times in exposures sufficient to cause systemic toxicity. Their easy acquisition and potent toxicity have also made them popular choices for criminal poisonings. This article examines the clinical manifestation and pathophysiology of poisoning from lead, mercury, arsenic, and thallium.

  18. Mercury poisoning | Shamley | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of mercury poisoning requires a high index of suspicion. Mercury poisoning in a patient involved in illicit gold extraction is reported and 6 other cases considered. Some of the clinical features and treatment of this condition are discussed. S Afr Med J 1989; 76: 114-116 ...

  19. NCHS Data on Drug-poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hispanic white persons, 12.2 for non-Hispanic black persons, and 7.7 for Hispanic persons. Age In 2015, the drug-poisoning death rate was highest for adults aged 45–54. SOURCE: NCHS, National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Drug-poisoning death rates, by state ...

  20. Accidental Poisoning with Otapiapia: a Local Organophasphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are prone to accidental poisoning. We report this fatal organophosphate poisoning of a 3-year-old Nigerian boy following accidental ingestion of a homemade cocktail of kerosene and 'Otapiapia': a local rodenticide to highlight the dangers inherent in un-regulated production, home use and storage of this ...

  1. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  2. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  3. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  4. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  5. Tropane alkaloids in food: poisoning incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic to humans and animals. The present study aims to provide insight into the routes of (un)intentional poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids. Poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids occur as unintended

  6. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause serious harm to young children. Opioid (Narcotic) Pain Medications Poison center data indicate that opioid and sedatives exposures are steadily increasing year over year. View all alerts right left NEW! Check out PoisonHelp.org Now there are two ...

  7. Poison centre network saves lives | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    Oct 27, 2010 ... Snakebites, food poisoning, exposure to toxic chemicals: all are potentially fatal if the correct antidote isn't identified and applied — fast. Since 1988, INTOX, a computer-based program involving a global network of poison centres, has been providing those life-saving capabilities in minutes.

  8. [Mushroom poisoning. New possibilities for treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, O

    1976-04-08

    Poisonous species of fungi in Germany are very few. Dangerous is the ingestion of raw, spoiled or poisonous mushrooms. There exist no reliable tests to determine whether a mushroom is safe except by expert examination and identification of the mushroom. In clinical practice the classification of mushroom poisoning is possible in muscarine-syndrome, gastroenteritic syndrome and in two-phase-syndrome. 90-95% of lethal mushroom poisonings are due to ingestion of Amanita phalloides. In severe cases extensive hepatic necrosis occurs, characterized by profound abnormalities in liver function caused by hepatic coma. In deep coma mortality rates amount to 70% or more. A new therapeutic measure (coated charcoal hemoperfusion)-first applied in liver failure by Chang (1972) and Williams (1973)-has been performed in 3 patients with severe poisoning after ingestion of Amanita phalloides (each patient had eaten at least 7-10 fungi Amanita phalloides). Two of the patients survived.

  9. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A.; Dalhoff, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison...... Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms...... patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases...

  10. Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood cyanide levels persisted for over 24 hours after ingestion. Departments treating or advising in cases of poisoning need to be aware of the delayed toxicity of acetonitrile. Monitoring in an intensive care unit of cases of acetonitrile poisoning should continue for 24-48 hours. PMID:9196706

  11. Determinants of U.S. poison center utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovitz, Toby; Benson, Blaine E; Youniss, Jessica; Metz, Edward

    2010-06-01

    High poison center utilization has been associated with decreased emergency department usage and hospitalization rates. However, utilization requires awareness of the poison center. Penetrance, defined as the number of human poison exposures reported to a poison center per 1,000 population, has been used as a marker of poison center awareness. To identify factors that influence poison center penetrance to optimize the life- and cost-saving benefits of poison control centers. Human poison exposures that were reported to the National Poison Data System in 2001 were analyzed to identify and rank factors affecting poison center penetrance. Overall penetrance correlated with pediatric penetrance (R(2) = 0.75, p poison center that were already in or en route to a healthcare facility at the time of the call to the poison center (R(2) = 0.41, p poison center service populations were associated with lower penetrance (R(2) = 0.23, p poison center (multiple regression). Positive predictors included the percentage of the population younger than 5 years, the percentage of the adult population with a bachelor's degree, poison center certification, poison center educator FTEs (full time equivalents), Asian population percentage, and population density. The inverse correlation between pediatric penetrance and healthcare facility utilization supports prior observations of excessive healthcare utilization when a poison center is not called. Since race, language and distance are barriers to poison center utilization, and since healthcare utilization increases when poison center penetrance declines, low penetrance suggests a lack of awareness of the poison center rather than a low incidence of poisonings. Strategies to raise penetrance should be informed by an understanding of the barriers to utilization - language, Black/African American race, distance from the poison center, poverty, and lower education levels.

  12. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh; Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy

    1999-01-01

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  13. Cow's urine poisoning in Nigeria. Experimental observations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebola, D D; Elegbe, R A

    1975-06-01

    The method of preparation and administration of "cow's urine" and the signs and symptoms of cow's urine poisoning have been described. Experimental investigations were carried out in mice to assess the toxicity ot this concoction. Effect of the preparation was compared with that of pure nicotine. The effect of each component used in preparing the concoction was also tested. Results of the experiments show that both "cow's urine" and nicotine cause excitement in low doses and cause convulsion and/or death in higher doses. Both also depress respiration. The role of "cow's urine" toxicity following administration to patients with convulsion and the possible aetiology of the neurological sequelae of "cow's urine" poisoning are discussed.

  14. [Rapeseed poisoning of wild herbivores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Schmid, H

    1992-06-01

    Beginning with the simultaneous occurrence of the first extensive sowing of 00-rape and local increased losses among hares and roe deer in Western Germany and Austria at the end of 1986, the clinical and morphological symptoms of rape poisoning are discussed. They consist of damage to endo- and epithelium, cell membranes, blood, liver and in the so called "rape-blindness". Subsequently, the most important toxic agents of rape including their metabolites are presented. They consist in alkenyl- and indolyl-glucosinolates, leading to isothiocyanates (mustard oils), thiocyanates or thiocyanate ions resp., nitriles and antithyroid agents (e.g. goitrin) as well as S-methylcysteine sulphoxide and its metabolites, particularly dimethyl disulphide. Finally, the activity spectrum of the toxic agents or the metabolites and the clinical picture of the affected wildlife in 1986 are compared with the result that the losses of that period are most likely to be traced back to rape poisoning and that the rape-blindness mentioned is to be interpreted as a thiocyanate-psychosis.

  15. Study on the metal vapor generator for the production of improved gadolinia burnable poison material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, O. C.; Noh, S. P.; Ko, K. H.; Kim, T. S.; Lim, C. H.; Kim, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    A longer cycle operation of a nuclear fuel is one of the ways to promote the economy of a nuclear power plant. For this purpose, high burn up fuel which has initial higher enrichment is required with higher loading of fuel. As a result, adequate burnable poison material must be used to control peak fuel pin power. Devices to manufacture the improved gadolinia burnable poison are developed. The improved gadolinia contains higher abundance of the preferred thermal neutron absorbers. Devices are composed of metal vapor generator, lasers and ion extractor. In this paper, a metal vapor generator by using electron beam gun is reported

  16. Cost-effectiveness of hospital treatment and outcomes of acute methanol poisoning during the Czech Republic mass poisoning outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulisek, Jan; Balik, Martin; Polak, Ferdinand; Waldauf, Petr; Pelclova, Daniela; Belohlavek, Jan; Zakharov, Sergey

    2017-06-01

    During an outbreak of mass methanol poisoning in the Czech Republic in 2012-2014, we compared the total hospital costs and one-year medical costs in the patients treated with different antidotes (fomepizole versus ethanol) and modalities of hemodialysis (intermittent hemodialysis, IHD, versus continuous renal replacement therapy, CRRT). Cross-sectional study in 106 patients with confirmed diagnosis treated in 30 ICU settings. For each patient, the following data were analyzed: admission laboratory data, GCS, PSS, ICU length of stay, organ failures, treatment, outcome, and total hospital costs. Of 83 survivors, in 54 (65%) patients the follow-up examination, quality of life measurement with SF36 questionnaire two years after discharge, and one-year medical costs analysis were performed. The median total hospital costs were 7200 (IQR 1500-10,900) euros and the median one-year medical costs were 1447 (IQR 133-1163) euros in the study population. The total hospital costs were higher in the patients treated with fomepizole comparing to ethanol: 12,890 (IQR 6910-16,210) versus 5590 (IQR 1430-6940) euros (p0.05). The total hospital costs in the patients with acute methanol poisoning were more than three times higher in the patients treated with fomepizole than in the patients treated with ethanol after adjustment for the severity of poisoning. The dialysis modality did not affect the total hospital costs, but the trend to lower costs was present in IHD-group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration hospitals reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, M B

    2017-01-01

    There is little information on poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. This investigation described and compared poisonings reported to Texas poison centers that were managed at military and VA hospitals. Retrospective analysis of poison centre data. Cases were poisonings among patients aged 18 years or more reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015 where management occurred at a military or VA hospital. The distribution of exposures for various demographic and clinical factors was determined for military and veterans hospitals and comparisons were made between the two groups. There were 4353 and 1676 poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, resepctively. Males accounted for 50.5% of the military hospital patients and 84.9% of the VA hospital patients. The mean age for military hospital patients was 31 years and for VA hospital patients was 50 years. The proportion of poisonings managed at military hospitals and VA hospitals, respectively, were intentional (70.0% vs 64.1%), particularly suspected attempted suicide (57.3% vs 47.7%), and unintentional (25.0% vs 30.5%). More than one substance was reported in 37.7% of military and 33.2% of VA hospital poisonings. The most commonly reported substance categories for poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, respectively, were analgesics (28.4% vs 19.7%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (24.7% vs 23.4%), antidepressants (18.7% vs 19.7%) and alcohol (11.3% vs 10.6%). A number of differences were observed between poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals. These differing patterns of poisonings may need to be taken into account in the education, prevention and treatment of poisonings at these hospitals and among the populations they serve. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of Treatment and Prevention of Acute OP Pesticide Poisoning by Medical Informatics, Telemedicine and Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Chandra Sahoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphorous pesticide (OP poisoning kills a lot of people each year. Treatment of acute OP poisoning is of very difficult task and is a time taking event. Present day informatics methods (telemedicine, bioinformatics methods (data mining, molecular modeling, docking, cheminformatics, and nanotechnology (nanomedicine should be applied in combination or separately to combat the rise of death rate due to OP poisoning. Use of informatics method such as Java enabled camera mobiles will enable us early detection of insecticidal poisoning. Even the patients who are severely intoxicated (suicidal attempts can be diagnosed early. Telemedicine can take care for early diagnosis and early treatment. Simultaneously efforts must be taken with regard to nanotechnology to find lesser toxic compounds (use less dose of nanoparticle mediated compounds: nano-malathion as insecticides and find better efficacy of lesser dose of compounds for treatment (nano-atropine of OP poisoning. Nano-apitropine (atropine oxide may be a better choice for OP poisoning treatment as the anticholinergic agent; apitropine and hyoscyamine have exhibited higher binding affinity than atropine sulfate. Synthesis of insecticides (malathion with an antidote (atropine, apitropine in nanoscale range will prevent the lethal effect of insecticides.

  19. A model to improve the accuracy of US Poison Center data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, E P; Reynolds, K M; Dart, R C; Green, J L

    2014-01-01

    Over 2 million human exposure calls are reported annually to United States regional poison information centers. All exposures are documented electronically and submitted to the American Association of Poison Control Center's National Poison Data System. This database represents the largest data source available on the epidemiology of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical poisoning exposures. The accuracy of these data is critical; however, research has demonstrated that inconsistencies and inaccuracies exist. This study outlines the methods and results of a training program that was developed and implemented to enhance the quality of data collection using acetaminophen exposures as a model. Eleven poison centers were assigned randomly to receive either passive or interactive education to improve medical record documentation. A task force provided recommendations on educational and training strategies and the development of a quality-measurement scorecard to serve as a data collection tool to assess poison center data quality. Poison centers were recruited to participate in the study. Clinical researchers scored the documentation of each exposure record for accuracy. Results. Two thousand two hundred cases were reviewed and assessed for accuracy of data collection. After training, the overall mean quality scores were higher for both the passive (95.3%; + 1.6% change) and interactive intervention groups (95.3%; + 0.9% change). Data collection accuracy improved modestly for the overall accuracy score and significantly for the substance identification component. There was little difference in accuracy measures between the different training methods. Despite the diversity of poison centers, data accuracy, specifically substance identification data fields, can be improved by developing a standardized, systematic, targeted, and mandatory training process. This process should be considered for training on other important topics, thus enhancing the value of these data in

  20. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and BodyGenetic Testing: What You Should KnowRead Article >>Genetic Testing: What You Should KnowSocial PhobiaRead Article >>Social Phobia Visit our interactive symptom checker Visit our interactive ...

  1. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enghorm B, Flerlage J, eds. Johns Hopkins: The Harriet Lane Handbook . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap ... by: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason ...

  2. Food poisoning and house gecko: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotangale, J P

    2011-04-01

    The reason behind the food-poisoning due to felling of house geckos in eatables is described in this paper. House geckos are known to carry various types of pathogens in their bodies which cause food-poisoning after consuming the contaminated foods. Since these geckos are non-poisonous, the food poisoning due to their presence in food is not possible.

  3. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label...

  4. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS...

  5. A general toolbox for the calculation of higher-order molecular properties using SCF wave functions at the one-, two- and four-component levels of theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruud, K.; Bast, R.; Gao, B.; Thorvaldsen, A. J.; Ekstrom, U.E.; Visscher, L.

    2012-01-01

    We outline a new approach for the calculation of higher-order molecular properties for self-consistent field (SCF) wave functions (or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory) expressed in time- and perturbation-dependent basis sets. The approach is based on an atomic-orbital-based, open-ended

  6. Paraphenylenediamine Poisoning in Tunisia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Amira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine (PPD represents the main active substance in the color of hair dyes. In Tunisia, PPD poisoning is very common, especially in rural areas where the consequences linked to this toxic substance are still unknown. In this paper, we report a case of PPD poisoning and confirm the diagnosis by a qualitative method of analysis. We discuss the clinical manifestations and study the kinetics of biological parameters during the monitoring of the poisoning. The main complication was renal failure and the treatment was basically symptomatic.

  7. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well.

  8. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  9. Lead poisoning in children: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhadi, Zineb; Bensabbahia, Dalal; Chafiq, Fouad; Oukkache, Bouchra; Guebessi, Nisrine Bennani; Abdellah, El Abidi; Najib, Jilali

    2016-01-01

    Lead colic is a rare cause of abdominal pain. The diagnosis of lead poisoning is most often mentioned in at risk populations (children, psychotic). We report the case of a 2 year old child that was presented for acute abdomen. Abdominal plain radiograph showed multiple intra-colonic metallic particles and suggested lead poisoning diagnosis. Anamnesis found a notion of pica and consumption of peeling paint. Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) confirmed the diagnosis. The lead poisoning is a public health problem especially in children, but its manifestation by a lead colic is rare and could simulate an acute abdomen table.

  10. Risk and prognostic factors of inpatient mortality associated with unintentional insecticide and herbicide poisonings: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Chien Chien

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pesticide poisoning is an important public health problem worldwide. The study aimed to determine the risk of all-cause and cause-specific inpatient mortality and to identify prognostic factors for inpatient mortality associated with unintentional insecticide and herbicide pesticide poisonings. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 3,986 inpatients recruited at hospitalization between 1999 and 2008 in Taiwan. We used the International Classification of Disease, 9th ed., Clinical Modification external causes of injury codes to classify poisoning agents into accidental poisoning by insecticides and herbicides. Comparisons in mortality rates were made between insecticide poisoning patients and herbicide poisoning patients by using the Cox proportional hazards models to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: There were 168 deaths during 21,583 person-days of follow-up evaluation (7.8 per 1,000 person-days. The major causes of mortality for insecticide poisonings were the toxic effect of organophosphate and coma, and the major causes of mortality for herbicide poisonings were the toxic effect of other pesticides and the toxic effect of organophosphate. The mortality for herbicide exposure was fourfold higher than that for insecticide exposure. The factors associated with inpatient mortality were herbicide poisonings (HR = 4.58, 95% CI 3.29 to 6.37 and receiving mechanical ventilation treatment (HR = 3.85, 95% CI 2.73 to 5.42. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that herbicides stand out as the dominant agent for poisoning-related fatalities. The control of and limiting access to herbicide agents and developing appropriate therapeutic regimens, including emergency care, should be priorities.

  11. Five cases of arsine poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phoon, W.H.; Chan, M.O.; Goh, C.H.; Edmondson, R.P.; Kwek, Y.K.; Gan, S.L.; Ngui, S.J.; Kwok, S.F.

    1984-04-01

    Arsine is one of the most potent haemolytic agents found in industry. Four workers presented with abdominal pain, jaundice and passing tea-coloured urine. A fifth worker also passed dark urine but had no other symptoms. Investigation revealed that all five workers were from a tin smelting plant where they were involved in mixing tin ore with dross. They were exposed to arsine gas after mixing a particularly large quantity of dross with tin ore which was wet because of rain. Three of the cases developed renal impairment and also a mild sensory neuropathy. All survived with proper management in hospital which included exchange blood transfusions, and peritoneal dialysis where indicated. Prevention of such poisoning includes keeping dross away from all moisture, good ventilation in work areas, and adding dross directly to the furnace.

  12. Health information systems and pesticide poisoning at Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Costa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the epidemiologic profile of a particular disease is key to undertake health actions. To that end, information systems that present quality data help in the decision-making process and demonstrate the impact of the problems.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the contribution of health information systems for the characterization of pesticide poisoning through SINAN, CEATOX and SIM in the State of Pernambuco.METHOD: In this study, the completeness and consistency of the data were assessed, as well as the epidemiological profile of pesticide poisoning in Pernambuco in the period from 2008 to 2012, based on the following Health Information Systems: Center for Toxicological Assistance of Pernambuco (CEATOX, Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN and Mortality Information System (SIM.RESULTS: The data revealed incompleteness and inconsistencies in information. Regarding the profile, females are more affected in the morbidity profile, and men have a higher mortality rate. Poisoning was more frequent in young adults with low educational level. With regard to the circumstances, most of the cases were suicide attempts, unique acute cases and not related to work. Despite suggesting underreporting, the data showed that persons engaged in agriculture are most commonly affected.CONCLUSION: The strengthening of these systems is necessary for the generation of consistent information that support health policies for the population groups involved.

  13. Health information systems and pesticide poisoning at Pernambuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Pedro Costa Cavalcanti; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Gurgel, Aline do Monte; Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; de Siqueira, Marília Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the epidemiologic profile of a particular disease is key to undertake health actions. To that end, information systems that present quality data help in the decision-making process and demonstrate the impact of the problems. To analyze the contribution of health information systems for the characterization of pesticide poisoning through SINAN, CEATOX and SIM in the State of Pernambuco. In this study, the completeness and consistency of the data were assessed, as well as the epidemiological profile of pesticide poisoning in Pernambuco in the period from 2008 to 2012, based on the following Health Information Systems: Center for Toxicological Assistance of Pernambuco (CEATOX), Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) and Mortality Information System (SIM). The data revealed incompleteness and inconsistencies in information. Regarding the profile, females are more affected in the morbidity profile, and men have a higher mortality rate. Poisoning was more frequent in young adults with low educational level. With regard to the circumstances, most of the cases were suicide attempts, unique acute cases and not related to work. Despite suggesting underreporting, the data showed that persons engaged in agriculture are most commonly affected. The strengthening of these systems is necessary for the generation of consistent information that support health policies for the population groups involved.

  14. A Narrative Review of Acute Adult Poisoning in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Alinejad; Nasim Zamani; Mohammad Abdollahi; Omid Mehrpour

    2017-01-01

    Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in nor...

  15. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of the two higher fullerites C70 and C96 along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, M. Bahaa; Osman, S. M.

    2011-10-01

    A brief review is presented for the pre-history and discovery of fullerenes. Single-site potentials with parameters proposed by Girifalco was used to describe the interactions of the fullerene molecules C70 and C96. We present theoretical model for calculating the thermodynamic properties of liquid for both C70 and C96 by means of an improved equation of state (EOS), in which the particles are interacting via pair wise interaction composed of suitable linear combination of three Yukawa functions (3YK). The proposed equation of state provides a powerful mathematical formalism for the Helmholtz free energy and the pressure within the series mean-spherical approximation (SMSA) which are the basic ingredients to compute the liquid-vapour coexistence curve of C70 and C96 as well as the other thermodynamic properties for the bulk liquid and the vapour phases. The comparisons with Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) simulations and the self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation (SCOZA) were carried out. The estimated critical parameters for both C70 and C96 are TC = 2176 K, ρC = 0.44 nm-3, PC = 51.64 bars and TC = 2477 K, ρC = 0.32 nm-3, PC = 44.28 bars respectively. It is to be noted that the obtained results of the thermodynamic properties along the binodal curves of C70 and C96 are exhibit interesting features.

  17. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  18. Likelihood Estimation of the Systemic Poison-Induced Morbidity in an Adult North Eastern Romanian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Lionte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Acute exposure to a systemic poison represents an important segment of medical emergencies. We aimed to estimate the likelihood of systemic poison-induced morbidity in a population admitted in a tertiary referral center from North East Romania, based on the determinant factors. Methodology: This was a prospective observational cohort study on adult poisoned patients. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were recorded in all patients. We analyzed three groups of patients, based on the associated morbidity during hospitalization. We identified significant differences between groups and predictors with significant effects on morbidity using multiple multinomial logistic regressions. ROC analysis proved that a combination of tests could improve diagnostic accuracy of poison-related morbidity. Main findings: Of the 180 patients included, aged 44.7 ± 17.2 years, 51.1% males, 49.4% had no poison-related morbidity, 28.9% developed a mild morbidity, and 21.7% had a severe morbidity, followed by death in 16 patients (8.9%. Multiple complications and deaths were recorded in patients aged 53.4 ± 17.6 years (p .001, with a lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score upon admission and a significantly higher heart rate (101 ± 32 beats/min, p .011. Routine laboratory tests were significantly higher in patients with a recorded morbidity. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a GCS < 8, a high white blood cells count (WBC, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, myoglobin, glycemia and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP are strongly predictive for in-hospital severe morbidity. Originality: This is the first Romanian prospective study on adult poisoned patients, which identifies the factors responsible for in-hospital morbidity using logistic regression analyses, with resulting receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Conclusion: In acute intoxication with systemic poisons, we identified several clinical and laboratory variables

  19. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    methodology, the subgroup responsible for this poison reviewed the articles, extracted the data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and RAND......The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...... yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 108 patients, including 12 fatalities, were abstracted. The workgroup concluded that TCAs are not dialyzable and made the following recommendation: ECTR is not recommended in severe TCA poisoning (1D). The workgroup considers...

  20. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2016-01-01

    Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.

  1. Food poisoning associated with Kudoa septempunctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Yoshiaki; Kamijo, Yoshito; Nakahashi, Susumu; Shindo, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Akitaka; Omori, Yukinari; Ishikura, Ken; Fujioka, Masaki; Hatada, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Taichi; Maruyama, Kazuo; Imai, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Kudoa septempunctata is a recently identified cause of food poisoning. We report three cases of food poisoning due to ingestion of this parasite. Among the 358 people exposed during the same catered meal, 94 (including our 3 patients) developed vomiting and diarrhea within 1-9 h after ingestion of raw muscle from contaminated aquacultured olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus). These symptoms occurred frequently but were temporary; only 1 patient was hospitalized for dehydration and was discharged 2 days later. In Japan, cases of food poisoning due to eating olive flounder have increased during recent years. This increase should prompt heightened awareness among clinicians diagnosing food poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood Poisoning: When to See a Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I suspect I have blood poisoning. Should I see my doctor? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M. ... illness and requires prompt medical attention. When to see a doctor If you recently had a medical ...

  3. Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning: Medical students' knowledge towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion of organic materials. It is particularly dangerous as it cannot be detected by man's natural sense organs. There is hardly a month without one or two newspaper reports of death ...

  5. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: 6th Edition manual gives healthcare providers a quick reference resource for the best toxicology and treatment information for patients with pesticide exposures.

  6. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum Poisoning In A Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capan KONCA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  7. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  8. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  9. Nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco) poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7) were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus) that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing...

  10. The toxicology of honey bee poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, Maria; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Koutselinis, Antonios

    2003-10-01

    The use of insecticides continues to be a basic tool in pest management, since there are many pest situations for which there are no known alternative management methods. However, the harmful effects of insecticides against beneficial Insects continuous to be a serious problem. Poisoning of bee pollinators is a serious adverse effect of insecticide use which leads to a decrease in insect population, to reduction of honey yields, to destruction of plant communities, to insecticide residues in food, and to a significant loss of beekeepers' income. In bee poisoning, the identification of the responsible toxicant is necessary by both environmental and biological monitoring, to prevent bee poisoning and for the protection of public health. The different aspects of bee poisoning with anticholinesterase insecticides are discussed in detail.

  11. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002743.htm Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers are substances used to ...

  12. A fatal case of creosote poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C. E.; Muhleman, M. F.; Walters, E.

    1984-01-01

    A case of fatal creosote poisoning is described. On presentation, extensive oropharyngeal ulceration was noted and gastric lavage withheld. Post-mortem examination showed an intact oesophagus and stomach. PMID:6463007

  13. A fatal case of creosote poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, C. E.; Muhleman, M. F.; Walters, E.

    1984-01-01

    A case of fatal creosote poisoning is described. On presentation, extensive oropharyngeal ulceration was noted and gastric lavage withheld. Post-mortem examination showed an intact oesophagus and stomach.

  14. Effects of nano-HMX on the properties of RDX-CMDB propellant: Higher energy and lower sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Han; Hou, Xiao-ting; Ke, Xiang; Liu, Jie; Hao, Gazi; Xiao, Lei; Chen, Teng; Zuo, Ying-ying; Jiang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Batch preparation of nano-HMX was achieved via a mechanical trituration method. The morphology and particle size of nano-HMX and raw RDX were characterized using SEM. Then nano-HMX was used in a formulation of composite modified double base propellant containing RDX. The method is to use nano-HMX to replace the RDX in the formulation by 10% gradually with the total mass content of RDX and HMX unchanged. The burning rate, mechanical sensitivity and mechanical property of propellant strands wit...

  15. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renier, J.A.

    2002-04-17

    Burnable poisons are used in all modern nuclear reactors to permit higher loading of fuel without the necessity of an overly large control rod system. This not only permits a longer core life but can also be used to level the power distribution. Commercial nuclear reactors commonly use B{sub 4}C in separate non-fueled rods and more recently, zirconium boride coatings on the fuel pellets or gadolinium oxide mixed with the fuel. Although the advantages are great, there are problems with using these materials. Boron, which is an effective neutron absorber, transmutes to lithium and helium upon absorption of a neutron. Helium is insoluble and is eventually released to the interior of the fuel rod, where it produces an internal pressure. When sufficiently high, this pressure stress could cause separation of the cladding from the fuel, causing overly high centerline temperatures. Gadolinium has several very strongly absorbing isotopes, but not all have large cross sections and result in residual burnable poison reactivity worth at the end of the fuel life. Even if the amount of this residual absorber is small and the penalty in operation small, the cost of this penalty, even if only several days, can be very high. The objective of this investigation was to study the performance of single isotopes in order to reduce the residual negative reactivity left over at the end of the fuel cycle. Since the behavior of burnable poisons can be strongly influenced by their configuration, four forms for the absorbers were studied: homogeneously mixed with the fuel, mixed with only the outer one-third of the fuel pellet, coated on the perimeter of the fuel pellets, and alloyed with the cladding. In addition, the numbers of fuel rods containing burnable poison were chosen as 8, 16, 64, and 104. Other configurations were chosen for a few special cases. An enrichment of 4.5 wt% {sup 235}U was chosen for most cases for study in order to achieve a 4-year fuel cycle. A standard pressurized

  16. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-01-01

    Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to...

  17. [Peripheral neuropathy caused by thallium poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, N; Talamon, C; Smadja, D; Said, G

    1997-10-01

    A 20-year-old man developed over three weeks a sensory and painful neuropathy associated with diffuse alopecia. There was motor weakness, and superficial and deep hypoesthesia of the inferior limbs. Deep tendon reflexes were normal. Electrophysiological study mainly showed axonal motor neuropathy. This patient was admitted six weeks after the first symptoms. The clinical picture suggested thallium poisoning, which was confirmed by thallium concentrations in plasma, urine, hair and nails. After search, thallium was identified in a rat poison.

  18. Changing Spectrum Of Poisoning In Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav R.S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involved 1504 patients admitted with acute poisoning (985 males and 519 females with a mean age of 24.5 + -8.3 years, belonging mainly to the rural population (72% and middle income group (65.8%. Aluminum phosphide was the commonest poison ingested followed by Organ phosphorus, Copper Sulphate and Barbiturates. The overall mortality rate was 36.3% and suicidal intent was present most commonly. The underlying socio- economic factors have been discussed.

  19. Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better th...

  20. Acute Cyanide Poisoning from Jewelry Cleaning Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Bel Waer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is one of the most lethal and devastating poisons. It causes acute toxicity through smoke inhalation simultaneously with carbon monoxide, or by ingestion of cyanide salts that are commonly used in metallurgy and in jewelry or textile industries. Cyanide intoxication is an extremely rare event; in the present study, we report a case of cyanide poisoning involving a 25-year-old jeweler, who ingested a jewelry cleaning solution containing potassium cyanide in a suicide attempt.

  1. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  2. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A S Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T K

    2011-10-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  3. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A. S. Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  4. Dispersion of Cs0.33WO3 particles for preparing its coatings with higher near infrared shielding properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingxiao; Xu, Qiang; Shi, Fei; Liu, Suhua; Luo, Jiayu; Bao, Lei; Feng, Xiang

    2014-08-01

    In order to achieve good dispersion of Cs0.33WO3 particles and improve their near-infrared (NIR) shielding efficiency, the influences of ball-milling and dispersant on the dispersion stability of Cs0.33WO3 particles and its near infrared shielding properties were investigated. The microstructure, morphology, particle size distribution and Zeta potential of the particle samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and laser particle size analyzer. The results indicate that adding appropriate dispersant after ball-milling is conducive to dispersion of Cs0.33WO3 powders. Polyvinyl alcohol and titanate coupling agent have better effects on the dispersion of Cs0.33WO3 colloidal solution than poly-carboxylic salt dispersant. Particularly, the as-prepared Cs0.33WO3 coatings prepared from colloidal dispersion solution using titanate coupling agent at pH = 7 showed best visible light transmittance and near-infrared shielding properties, and have great potential applications as thermal insulation coatings for building and automotive glasses.

  5. 2, 4-D Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Poisoning; Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Hiran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, (2, 4-D is a selective herbicide available as the acids, esters and several salts which vary in their chemical properties, environmental behaviour, and to a lesser extent toxicity. The salt and ester forms are derivatives of the parent acid. It is widely used as a weed killer. The 2, 4-D dimethylamine is one of the salts of this group. Case Presentation: We report a case of ingestion of 2, 4-D herbicide intentionally. The patient had presented in a local hospital but transferred to our hospital in a state of deep coma. CT scan head showed diffuse cerebral oedema. The patient recovered completely after treatment with forced alkaline diuresis. Discussion: Anticholinesterase compounds are the most commonly used insecticide and the commonest compound used as poison in India. This case report emphasizes that not all poisonings are caused by anticholinesterase compounds. The initial clinical manifestations of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D poisoning are very similar to alcohol, sedative drugs, or aromatic chlorinated hydrocarbons making it even more difficult for the treating physician to suspect poisoning due to these compounds. It is thus important to identify the correct compound for proper management. Prompt diagnosis and correct treatment can save the life of a patient. The poisoning is also sometimes confused with poisoning due to anticholinesterase compound. Conclusion: 2, 4-D is a poison which carries a high mortality. Prolonged coma, metabolic complications, skeletal muscle injury and myotonia are some of the complications of 2, 4-D. Forced alkaline diuresis resulted in saving our patient which otherwise had poor prognosis.

  6. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  7. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. From poison ponds to pleasure spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, E Nageswara

    2008-10-01

    The Hyderabad Metropolitan Area had 562 lakes at one time, but only 162 now remain. These are polluted to various degrees and pose environmental and health hazards. The Hussain Sagar Lake provided water for irrigation and drinking until 1930 and supported aquatic life till 1976. It is now contaminated by organic chemicals discharged by many industrial estates in its basin. An estimated 28,190 cmum of industrial effluents and domestic sewage are let into it daily. Phenols, benzenes, cyanides, and toxic metals make it poisonous. The ground water around the lake is also polluted. The polluted lakes ruin vegetable farms, kill fetuses in the womb, and cause mental retardation, still births, and infertility. In the city's outskirts, clinically confirmed cancer is 11 times higher and heart ailments 16 times more than elsewhere. The Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) took up a Lake Conservation and Restoration Project as part of its Green Environment Program in 2002. Several lakes have been restored by setting up effluent (or sewage) treatment plants. HUDA also built lake parks with recreation facilities and environment education centers. HUDA also organized jointly with the World Water Institute, Pune, India, an international workshop on urban lake conservation and management in June 2003. It adopted the Hyderabad Declaration which, among other things, states the worthy aim of restoring all the water bodies by 2009. Even if it takes a few more years, the restoration of all the polluted lakes will usher in multiple benefits to Hyderabad citizens.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of polonium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Robert D; Goans, Ronald E; Blain, Peter G; Thomas, Simon H L

    2009-05-01

    Interest in the clinical toxicology of (210)polonium ((210)Po) has been stimulated by the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko in 2006. This article reviews the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) resulting from the ingestion of (210)Po. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS: (210)Po is a high-energy alpha-emitter (radioactive half-life 138 days) that presents a radiation hazard only if taken into the body, for example, by ingestion, because of the low range of alpha particles in biological tissues. As a result, external contamination does not cause radiation sickness. Ingested (210)Po is concentrated initially in red blood cells and then the liver, kidneys, spleen, bone marrow, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and gonads. (210)Po is excreted in urine, bile, sweat, and (possibly) breath and is also deposited in hair. After ingestion, unabsorbed (210)Po is present in the faeces. The elimination half-life in man is approximately 30-50 days. In the absence of medical treatment, the fatal oral amount is probably in the order of 10-30 microg. If the absorbed dose is sufficiently large (e.g., >0.7 Gy), (210)Po can cause ARS. This is characterized by a prodromal phase, in which nausea, vomiting, anorexia, lymphopenia, and sometimes diarrhea develop after exposure. Higher radiation doses cause a more rapid onset of symptoms and a more rapid reduction in lymphocyte count. The prodromal phase may be followed by a latent phase during which there is some clinical improvement. Subsequently, the characteristic bone marrow (0.7-10 Gy), GI (8-10 Gy), or cardiovascular/central nervous system syndromes (>20 Gy) develop, with the timing and pattern of features dependent on the systemic dose. The triad of early emesis followed by hair loss and bone marrow failure is typical of ARS. Those patients who do not recover die within weeks to months, whereas in those who survive, full recovery can take many months. Serial blood counts are important for assessing the rate

  10. Effects of nano-HMX on the properties of RDX-CMDB propellant: Higher energy and lower sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Batch preparation of nano-HMX was achieved via a mechanical trituration method. The morphology and particle size of nano-HMX and raw RDX were characterized using SEM. Then nano-HMX was used in a formulation of composite modified double base propellant containing RDX. The method is to use nano-HMX to replace the RDX in the formulation by 10% gradually with the total mass content of RDX and HMX unchanged. The burning rate, mechanical sensitivity and mechanical property of propellant strands with different mass content of nano-HMX were tested. The results indicate that the 30% content of nano-HMX has the best comprehensive performance which can be used as an improvement of the existing formula. A possible mechanism of action was discussed.

  11. Risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1-3 years in NSW Australia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah; Wilson, Leigh

    2013-05-24

    Unintentional poisoning in young children is an important public health issue. Age pattern studies have demonstrated that children aged 1-3 years have the highest levels of poisoning risk among children aged 0-4 years, yet little research has been conducted regarding risk factors specific to this three-year age group and the methodologies employed varied greatly. The purpose of the current study is to investigate a broad range of potential risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1-3 years using appropriate methodologies. Four groups of children, one case group (children who had experienced a poisoning event) and three control groups (children who had been 'injured', 'sick' or who were 'healthy'), and their mothers (mother-child dyads) were enrolled into a case-control study. All mother-child dyads participated in a 1.5-hour child developmental screening and observation, with mothers responding to a series of questionnaires at home. Data were analysed as three case-control pairs with multivariate analyses used to control for age and sex differences between child cases and controls. Five risk factors were included in the final multivariate models for one or more case-control pairs. All three models found that children whose mothers used more positive control in their interactions during a structured task had higher odds of poisoning. Two models showed that maternal psychiatric distress increased poisoning risk (poisoning-injury and poisoning-healthy). Individual models identified the following variables as risk factors: less proximal maternal supervision during risk taking activities (poisoning-injury), medicinal substances stored in more accessible locations in bathrooms (poisoning-sick) and lower total parenting stress (poisoning-healthy). The findings of this study indicate that the nature of the caregiver-child relationship and caregiver attributes play an important role in influencing poisoning risk. Further research is warranted to explore the

  12. A general toolbox for the calculation of higher-order molecular properties using SCF wave functions at the one-, two- and four-component levels of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Kenneth; Bast, Radovan; Gao, Bin; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ekström, Ulf; Visscher, Lucas

    2012-12-01

    We outline a new approach for the calculation of higher-order molecular properties for self-consistent field (SCF) wave functions (or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory) expressed in time- and perturbation-dependent basis sets. The approach is based on an atomic-orbital-based, open-ended quasienergy derivative formalism, and is applicable for use in linear scaling SCF calculations. In order to enable the calculation of any response property, we have also developed open- ended one- and two-electron integral derivative programs, as well as a program that can calculate derivatives of exchange- correlation functionals to any order using automatic differentiation. These modules have been interfaced to both the Dalton and DIRAC programs. This allows us to calculate molecular properties at the one-, two- and four-component levels of theory using a common theoretical framework and code.

  13. Effect of higher heating rate during continuous annealing on microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-rolled 590 MPa dual-phase steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation, the effect of higher heating rate in continuous annealing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a cold-rolled 590 MPa ferrite-martensite dual-phase steel were investigated by using microstructural observation and mechanical property measurement. The results show that compared with the conventional continuous annealed steels heated at a rate of 5 ∘C/s (CA, the average ferrite grain sizes heated at a higher rate (300 ∘C/s, HRA was obviously refined from 15.6 μm to 5.3 μm. The morphology of martensite is observed to shift from network along ferrite grain boundaries to uniformly dispersed in the final DP590 microstructure. Twinned substructure of martensite can be found when heated at a higher heating rate in continuous annealing. EBSD orientation maps show that the fraction of low angle grain boundary is increased in HRA sample compared to CA sample. The HRA sample has excellent mechanical properties when compared to the CA sample. The variations of strength, elongation, strain hardening behavior and fracture mechanism of the this DP590 steel with different heating routine were further discussed in relation to microstructural features.

  14. Tailoring Silica-alumina Supported Pt-Pd As Poison Tolerant Catalyst For Aromatics Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yanzhe; Gutierrez, Oliver Y.; Haller, Gary L.; Colby, Robert J.; Kabius, Bernd C.; Rob van Veen, J. A.; Jentys, Andreas; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2013-08-01

    The tailoring of the physicochemical and catalytic properties of mono- and bimetallic Pt-Pd catalysts supported on amorphous silica-alumina is studied. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses indicated that bimetallic Pt-Pd and relatively large monometallic Pd particles were formed, whereas the X-ray absorption near edge structure provided direct evidence for the electronic deficiency of the Pt atoms. The heterogeneous distribution of metal particles was also shown by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The average structure of the bimetallic particles (Pt-rich core and Pd-rich shell) and the presence of Pd particles led to surface Pd enrichment, which was independently shown by IR spectra of adsorbed CO. The specific metal distribution, average size, and surface composition of the Pt-Pd particles depend to a large extent on the metal precursors. In the presence of NH3 ligands, Pt-Pd particles with a fairly homogeneous bulk and surface metal distribution were formed. Also high Lewis acid site concentration of the carrier leads to more homogeneous bimetallic particles. All catalysts were active for the hydrogenation of tetralin in the absence and presence of quinoline and dibenzothiophene (DBT). Monometallic Pt catalysts had the highest hydrogenation activity in poison-free and quinoline-containing feed. When DBT was present, bimetallic Pt-Pd catalysts with the most homogenous metal distribution showed the highest activity. The higher resistance of bimetallic catalysts towards sulfur poisoning compared to their monometallic Pt counterparts results from the weakened metal-sulfur bond on the electron deficient Pt atoms. Thus, increasing the fraction of electron deficient Pt on the surface of the bimetallic particles increases the efficiency of the catalyst in the presence of sulfur.

  15. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥ 35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged aged 25-34 years, and ≥ 35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychometric properties of the Dating Abuse Questionnaire in a sample of Mexican female students of middle and higher level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Osorio-Guzmán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to modify and adapt the questionnaire Dating Abuse Italy-Mexico binational version (CMN to a sample of female students of middle and higher level, from the Federal District and the State of Mexico. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study. 2157 students participated, aged between 14 and 33 years old. The reagents were analyzed using item-scale method, and was applied a confirmatory factor analysis. Results. The CMN showed an internal consistency of α= 0.95, the Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the five theoretical areas planned with satisfactory fit indices Conclusions. The psychometric characteristics of this version of CMN are adequate to reliably assess abuse in dating.

  17. Analysis of nine cases of acute thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiwei; Huang, Xiaojiang; Liu, Liang

    2007-04-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  18. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New syndromes in mushroom poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviuc, Philippe; Danel, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Several new mushroom poisoning syndromes have been described since the early 1990s. In these syndromes, the onset of symptoms generally occurs >6 hours after ingestion. Treatment is mainly supportive. The syndrome induced by Amanita smithiana/proxima consists of acute tubulopathy, which appears earlier and does not have the same poor prognosis as the orellanine-induced syndrome. It has been described since 1992 in the US and Canada with A. smithiana; in France, Spain and Italy with A. proxima; and in Japan with A. pseudoporphyria. The responsible toxin is probably 2-amino-4,5-hexadienoic acid. The erythromelalgia syndrome has been described as early as the late 19th century in Japan and South Korea with Clitocybe acromelalga, and since 1996 in France and then Italy with C. amoenolens. Responsible toxins are probably acromelic acids identified in both species. Several cases of massive rhabdomyolysis have been reported since 1993 in France and 2001 in Poland after ingestion of large amounts of an edible and, until then, valuable species called Tricholoma equestre. These cases of rhabdomyolysis are associated with respiratory and cardiac (myocarditis) complications leading to death. Rhabdomyolysis with an apparently different mechanism was described in Taiwan in 2001 with Russula subnigricans. Finally, cases of encephalopathy were observed twice after ingestion of Hapalopilus rutilans in Germany in 1992 and Pleurocybella porrigens in Japan in 2004, where a convulsive encephalopathy outbreak was reported in patients with history of chronic renal failure.

  20. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  1. Poisoning cases and their management in emergency centres of government hospitals in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Mequanint Adinew

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Young females comprise a group at increased risk for suicidal poisonings. As a developing nation, pesticide and bleaching agents remain a significant cause of acute poisonings in Ethiopia. Intentional poisoning remains the most significant identified cause of poisoning overall.

  2. Mothers' Knowledge Levels Related to Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen BILGEN SIVRI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: This study was done to evaluate mothers’ level of knowledge regarding poisoning, to plan training for issues with an identified lack of knowledge, to collect required data regarding protection and approach issues on poisoning cases which may occur in children for various reasons. Methods: This descriptive study was performed after obtaining permission from the County Health Department and involved mothers who applied to Family Health Centers No. 1-7 between April 1st and May 31st 2012, and who agreed to participate in the study (n=290. The questionnaire was composed of three parts: “Personal Information Form,” “House Poisoning Evaluation Form” and “Home Poisoning Prevention Knowledge Level Form.” Results: Participant ages were between 16 and 50 years and the mean age was 33.09±7.10 years. The number of children ranged from 1 to 6, and 203 people had seven children under the age of six. 37.6% of the mothers were primary school graduates, while 74.5% were housewives. There was a significant relationship between the knowledge score of the mothers on poisoning and education, career, neighborhood, and social security (p<0.05. Conclusions: Childhood poisoning is the most common cause of admission to the hospital. Protective precautions such as family education, storage of medication out of reach of children and use of secure lids are thought to be important. Key words: First aid, level of knowledge, mother-child, nurses, poisoning

  3. [Clinical presentation, therapeutic approach and outcomes in acute poisoning treated with activated charcoal. Are there differences between men and women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó-Tadín, Montserrat; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Miró-Andreu, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether there are gender-based differences in the clinical presentation, therapeutic approaches and outcomes in acute poisoning treated with activated charcoal. A descriptive study conducted in the Emergency Department of the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona over the 7 years between the years 2001 and 2008. The study included poisoned patients who had received activated charcoal. The variables included, epidemiological data, clinical and toxicological presentation, therapeutic approach, time in emergency department and outcomes. A total of 575 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 37.8 (SD 14.8) years and 65.7% were females. No differences were observed between males and females with respect to age, number of drugs involved in the poisoning or the number of tablets ingested, but a higher prevalence of benzodiazepine poisoning was observed in females compared to males (69.8 vs. 61.2%; Pactivated charcoal in non-drug poisoning was also more common in males than in females (7.9 vs. 3.2%; P<0.05). There were no differences between genders as regards clinical presentation of the poisonings, delays in care, hours of emergency department stay, treatment or outcome. Benzodiazepine poisoning was more prevalent in females than in males. Non-drug poisonings and alcohol combined with drug ingestion were more common in males. The clinical outcomes of the poisonings, delays in care, therapeutic requirements and admissions were similar between genders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. [Charcoal, cocaine and rattlesnakes: evidence-based treatment of poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, A

    2013-10-01

    Since ancient times poisoning has been treated medicinally. Clinical toxicology, in the narrow sense of the term, developed from the foundation of specialized medical treatment units for poisoning and the formation of the first poison information centers in the second half of the twentieth century. Historically, the first poison information centers were often localized at pediatric clinics or departments of internal medicine. It became increasingly more obvious that this pooling of competences made sense. This article gives a general introduction in clinical toxicology and presents the functions and key activities of emergency poison centers. The organisation and work of a poisons centre is demonstrated on the basis of the Poisons Information Center (GIZ) North annual report for 2011. In a short summary the basic principles of clinical toxicology are elucidated: the primary removal of poisons by gastric lavage and administration of activated charcoal, secondary removal of poisons by enhanced elimination using hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, multi-dose activated charcoal and molecular adsorbent recirculating systems (MARS) and the indications for administration of specific antidotes or antivenins (antisera against poisoning by poisonous animals). Gastric lavage is indicated within 1 h after ingestion of a potentially life-threatening dose of a poison. In cases of poisoning with substances which penetrate the central nervous system (CNS) gastric lavage should be performed only after endotracheal intubation due to the risk of aspiration. The basic management of poisoned patients by emergency medicine personnel out of hospital and on the way to hospital is presented. The Bremen list, a compilation of the five antidotes, atropine, 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-DMAP), tolonium chloride, naloxone and activated charcoal for out of hospital treatment by emergency doctors is presented. In all, even questionable cases of poisoning consultation at emergency poison centers is

  5. Higher-order Fermi-liquid corrections for an Anderson impurity away from half filling : Equilibrium properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Akira; Hewson, A. C.

    2018-01-01

    We study the low-energy behavior of the vertex function of a single Anderson impurity away from half filling for finite magnetic fields, using the Ward identities with careful consideration of the antisymmetry and analytic properties. The asymptotic form of the vertex function Γσσ';σ'σ(i ω ,i ω';i ω',i ω ) is determined up to terms of linear order with respect to the two frequencies ω and ω', as well as the ω2 contribution for antiparallel spins σ'≠σ at ω'=0 . From these results, we also obtain a series of the Fermi-liquid relations beyond those of Yamada-Yosida [Prog. Theor. Phys. 54, 316 (1975), 10.1143/PTP.54.316]. The ω2 real part of the self-energy Σσ(i ω ) is shown to be expressed in terms of the double derivative ∂2Σσ(0 ) /∂ ɛdσ 2 with respect to the impurity energy level ɛdσ, and agrees with the formula obtained recently by Filippone, Moca, von Delft, and Mora (FMvDM) in the Nozières phenomenological Fermi-liquid theory [Phys. Rev. B 95, 165404 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.165404]. We also calculate the T2 correction of the self-energy and find that the real part can be expressed in terms of the three-body correlation function ∂ χ↑↓/∂ ɛd,-σ , where χ↑↓ is the static susceptibility between antiparallel spins. We also provide an alternative derivation of the asymptotic form of the vertex function. Specifically, we calculate the skeleton diagrams for the vertex function Γσσ ;σ σ(i ω ,0 ;0 ,i ω ) for parallel spins up to order U4 in the Coulomb repulsion U . It directly clarifies the fact that the analytic components of order ω vanish as a result of the cancellation of four related Feynman diagrams, which are related to each other through the antisymmetry operation.

  6. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.

  7. Moderator poison design and burn-up calculations at the SNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Ferguson, P. D.; Iverson, E. B.; Gallmeier, F. X.; Popova, I.

    2008-06-01

    The spallation neutron source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was commissioned in April 2006. At the nominal operating power (1.4 MW), it will have thermal neutron fluxes approximately an order of magnitude greater than any existing pulsed spallation source. It thus brings a serious challenge to the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. The SNS moderators are integrated with the inner reflector plug (IRP) at a cost of ˜$2 million a piece. A replacement of the inner reflector plug presents a significant drawback to the facility due to the activation and the operation cost. Although there are a lot of factors limiting the lifetime of the inner reflector plug, like radiation damage to the structural material and helium production of beryllium, the bottle-neck is the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. Increasing the thickness of the poison sheet extends the lifetime but would sacrifice the neutronic performance of the moderators. A compromise is accepted at the current SNS target system which uses thick Gd poison sheets at a projected lifetime of 6 MW-years of operation. The calculations in this paper reveal that Cd may be a better poison material from the perspective of lifetime and neutronic performance. In replacing Gd, the inner reflector plug could reach a lifetime of 8 MW-years with ˜5% higher peak neutron fluxes at almost no loss of energy resolution.

  8. Moderator poison design and burn-up calculations at the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.; Ferguson, P.D.; Iverson, E.B.; Gallmeier, F.X.; Popova, I.

    2008-01-01

    The spallation neutron source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was commissioned in April 2006. At the nominal operating power (1.4 MW), it will have thermal neutron fluxes approximately an order of magnitude greater than any existing pulsed spallation source. It thus brings a serious challenge to the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. The SNS moderators are integrated with the inner reflector plug (IRP) at a cost of ∼$2 million a piece. A replacement of the inner reflector plug presents a significant drawback to the facility due to the activation and the operation cost. Although there are a lot of factors limiting the lifetime of the inner reflector plug, like radiation damage to the structural material and helium production of beryllium, the bottle-neck is the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. Increasing the thickness of the poison sheet extends the lifetime but would sacrifice the neutronic performance of the moderators. A compromise is accepted at the current SNS target system which uses thick Gd poison sheets at a projected lifetime of 6 MW-years of operation. The calculations in this paper reveal that Cd may be a better poison material from the perspective of lifetime and neutronic performance. In replacing Gd, the inner reflector plug could reach a lifetime of 8 MW-years with ∼5% higher peak neutron fluxes at almost no loss of energy resolution

  9. A simplified acute physiology score in the prediction of acute aluminum phosphide poisoning outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Mehrpour, Omid; Soltaninejad, Kambiz

    2010-12-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is used as a fumigant. It produces phosphine gas, which is a mitochondrial poison. Unfortunately, there is no known antidote for AlP intoxication, and also, there are few data about its prognostic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II ) in the prediction of outcome in patients with acute AlP poisoning requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). This was a prospective study in patients with acute AlP poisoning, admitted to the ICU over a period of 12 months. The demographic data were collected and SAPSII was recorded. The patients were divided into survival and non-survival groups due to outcome. The data were expressed as mean ± SD for continuous or discrete variables and as frequency and percentage for categorical variables. The results were compared between the two groups using SPSS software. Results : During the study period, 39 subjects were admitted to the ICU with acute AlP poisoning. All 39 patients required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in addition to gastric decontamination with sodium bicarbonate, permanganate potassium, and activated charcoal, therapy with MgSO 4 and calcium gluconate and adequate hydration. Among these patients, 26 (66.7%) died. SAPSII was significantly higher in the non-survival group than in the survival group (11.88 ± 4.22 vs. 4.31 ± 2.06, respectively) (P poisoning requiring ICU admission.

  10. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  11. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  12. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety.

  13. [Lead poisoning from traditional Indian medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Robert; Poupon, Joël

    2006-01-01

    The use of traditional remedies is spreading rapidly in developed countries. Although it is commonly thought that such medications are not harmful because they are of natural origin, they often contain dangerous ingredients, especially heavy metals. Several cases of poisoning, mainly lead poisoning, have been published, but none to our knowledge in France. We recently observed a case of lead poisoning in a man who had been taking ayurvedic remedies. A 32-year-old man was repeatedly hospitalized for paroxysmal abdominal pain with constipation, weight loss, anemia, and mild elevation of liver enzyme levels. Four months after the initial admission, blood lead measurement showed heavy metal poisoning. The patient was treated with a chelating agent and recovered uneventfully. Investigation revealed that the lead source was self-medication with an ayurvedic remedy, a powder used for four weeks before the first hospitalization. To our knowledge this is the first reported French case of lead poisoning due to a traditional remedy. The problem is undoubtedly more widespread, however, for use of traditional remedies is growing more here, and many of them contain dangerous ingredients. Patients from communities known to use traditional medicines or recently returned from countries where such treatments are widespread should be directly questioned about their use of these remedies, because this information will not usually be volunteered. Information directed at populations at risk is also advisable, for most users are unaware that so-called 'natural' medicines can be dangerous.

  14. An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comfrey (Symphytum officinale leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged “comfrey” herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40–80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning.

  16. Method of controlling the power up by fluid poisons in heavy water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Mikio; Masuoka, Ryuzo.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To increase power by the gradual decrease in the amount of fluid poisons mixed in moderators or coolants of heavy water moderated reactors. Method: Power fluctuation rate for the period of time in multiple integer of one cycle period in the main loop of moderators (coolants) is determined by the detection signals for the reactor power and the deviation between it and the power fluctuation rate required for the operation is determined. Pulse signals of different series are generated depending on the polarities of the deviation by the number corresponding to the magnitude of the deviation, and the power control in the reactor power up is conducted by these pulses while operating the fluid supply device which issues a certain amount of fluid per one pulse and mixing the moderators (coolants) containing no substantial poisons or moderators (coolants) having poison density higher than that in the moderators (coolants) in the main loop. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Correlation between Cholinesterase and Paraoxonase 1 Activities: Case Series of Pesticide Poisoning Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Austin Richard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute exposure to pesticide due to suicidal poisoning is the most extensive cause of pesticide exposure, compared with all other causes including agricultural or industrial exposure. Organophosphate (OP and carbamate group of pesticides can inhibit acetylcholinesterase; on the other hand, paraoxonase1 can detoxify organophosphate poisoning by hydrolyzing organophosphate metabolites. Methods: We have compared the serum paraoxonase1 status and cholinesterase activity of subjects who attempted to commit suicide by consuming OP pesticide. Cholinesterase and paraoxonase1 activity were measured spectrophotometrically using butyrylthiocholine and phenyl acetate as substrates, respectively. Results: A positive correlation was found between serum paraoxonase1 activity and cholinesterase activity among pesticide consumed subjects. Conclusion: Our results suggest that subjects with higher paraoxonase1 activity may have a better chance of detoxifying the lethal effect of acute organophosphate poisoning.

  18. The impact of current tobacco use on the outcome of paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2003-01-01

    , the effect of current tobacco use on the morbidity and mortality from paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on the basis of the hospital charts of 602 patients admitted with single-dose paracetamol poisoning for whom information on current tobacco use...... was available. RESULTS: In patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning, the rate of current daily tobacco use of 70% (424 of 602 patients) was considerably higher than the rate of 31% in the background population (chi-squared test: P ...: Current tobacco use was very frequent in patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning. It was an independent risk factor of severe hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure and death following paracetamol overdose....

  19. [Poisonous plants: An ongoing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Monseny, A; Martínez Sánchez, L; Margarit Soler, A; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C

    2015-05-01

    A medical visit for plant ingestion is rare in the pediatric emergency services but may involve a high toxicity. The botanical toxicology training of health staff is often very limited, and it can be difficult to make a diagnosis or decide on the appropriate treatment. To study the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of poisoning due to plant ingestion in order to increase the knowledge of the health professional. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on patients seen in a pediatric emergency department after the ingestion of plant substances from January 2008 to December 2012. During the period of study, 18 patients had ingested possible toxic plants. In 14 cases, it was considered to be potentially toxic: broom, oleander, mistletoe, butcher's-broom, and vulgar bean (2), Jerusalem tomato, castor (2), Jimson weed, potus, marijuana, and mushrooms with digestive toxicity (2). Among the potentially toxic cases, the ingestion was accidental in 10 patients, 2 cases were classed as infantile mistreatment, 1 case had recreational intention, and another one suicidal intentions. The ingestion of oleander, castor and Jimson weed had major toxicity. The potential gravity of the ingestion of plant substances and the variety of the exposure mechanism requires the pediatrician to bear in mind this possibility, and to be prepared for its diagnosis and management. Specific preventive information measures need to be designed for the families and for the regulation of toxic plants in playgrounds. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [The most popular poisons from Graeco-Roman world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, Bartlomiej; Rys, Anna; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Article presents the most popular antique poisons. Information from encyclopaedic literature and literary texts of the Roman Empire period has been compared with the etymology of the names of some poisons of plant and animal origin.

  1. NCHS - Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the county level by selected demographic characteristics and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug poisoning...

  2. Poison blamed for decline of Spain's majestic Black Vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    catastrophic” decline in numbers because of illegal poisoning by hunters. The use of poisoned bait to kill foxes, badgers, wild dogs, feral cats and smaller birds of prey has reduced the population by almost a half in the past decade,.

  3. Medical Management and Outcome of Paraquat Poisoning in Ahvaz, Iran: A Hospital-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hasan Rahmani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paraquat (PQ poisoning is highly fatal; and therefore, clinicians should be familiar with prompt approach to and poor prognostic features of this type of poisoning. Hence, in this study, clinical profile, management and outcome of a series of patients with PQ poisoning are presented. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of patients poisoned with PQ who were treated at Clinical Toxicology Department of Razi Hospital in Ahwaz, Iran during 2005 to 2008 was performed.  Results: Forty-two patients (66.7% men were studied. Majority of them (83.3% were between 15-29 years of age. Most of PQ poisonings occurred following suicidal ideation (39 patients; 92.9%. The most common on-admission clinical findings of the patients were vomiting (69% and respiratory distress (47.6%. Activated charcoal was given to 35 patients (83.3%. N-acetyl cysteine (100 mg/kg IV stat, vitamin E (100 IU daily IV and vitamin C (500 mg daily IV were given to all patients. Exploratory endoscopy for plausible mucosal ulcers was carried out for 23 patients (54.8%. Pantoprazole (40 mg twice daily was given to all patients and for 7 patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI irritation and GI bleeding, higher doses of pantoprazole (8 mg/hour was administered. All patients received pulse therapy with methyl prednisolone (1g daily for three days and cyclophosphamide (15 mg/kg daily for two days. Twenty patients died. Comparing death and survival, death was significantly higher in patients with respiratory distress (100 vs. 0.0 %, P < 0.001, renal dysfunction (85.0 vs. 9.1 %, P < 0.001 and hepatic dysfunction (75.0 vs. 4.5 %, P < 0.001. Conclusion: PQ poisoning creates a life-threatening clinical situation, which requires quick and proper treatment. Based on this research, mortality rate is greater in the presence of renal, hepatic and respiratory dysfunction.

  4. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on superoxide and malondialdehyde generation in acute celphos poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Biwas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aluminum phosphide is one of the most commonly used grain fumigants and aluminum phosphide poisoning (ALP has been reported as the most common cause of acute poisoning in India. Aluminum toxicity has been reported to increase the rate of lipid peroxidation and free radical formation. Materials and Methods: The present study was designed to investigate the role of vitamin E supplementation on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation in acute aluminium phosphide poisoning in rats. Thirty disease free albino rats were taken to study the effect of acute aluminium phosphide poisoning (ALP poisoning were further divided into 3 subgroups of ten rats each: A, B and C. Group A: given vehicle (Ginni Oil only. Group B: given 5 ml 'celphos mixture' (or 0.3mg/g body wt.. Group C: rats with acute Celphos poisoning along with vitamin E (1.5 mg vitamin E/g body weight of rat. The MDA levels and superoxide levels (Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT reduction were estimated. Results: MDA levels were significantly higher in the group B as compared to Group A. In group C, administration of vitamin E resulted in decreased MDA level compared to group B. MDA levels in group C still remained significantly higher as compared to group A. NBT reduction was significantly increased in group B as compared to group A. Administration of vitamin E to rats of group C resulted in significant decrease of NBT reduction. Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that vitamin E via its antioxidant action and anti-inflammatory effects has protective effect on phosphine-induced toxicity in rats.

  5. Poison prevention practices and medically attended poisoning in young children: multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Timblin, Clare; Hayes, Mike; Goodenough, Trudy; Hawkins, Adrian; Reading, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Childhood poisonings are common, placing a substantial burden on health services. Case-control studies have found inconsistent evidence about modifiable risk factors for poisonings among children aged 0-4 years. This study quantifies associations between poison prevention practices and medically attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. Multicentre case-control study conducted at hospitals, minor injury units and family practices from four study centres in England between 2010 and 2013. Participants comprised 567 children presenting with unintentional poisoning occurring at home and 2320 community control participants matched on age, sex, date of event and study centre. Parents/caregivers provided data on safety practices, safety equipment use, home hazards and potential confounders by means of self-completion questionnaires. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with community controls, parents of poisoned children were significantly more likely not to store medicines out of reach (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.59; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.09; population attributable fraction (PAF) 15%), not to store medicines safely (locked or out of reach (AOR 1.83; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.42; PAF 16%) and not to have put all medicines (AOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.90; PAF 20%) or household products (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.48; PAF 11%) away immediately after use. Not storing medicines out of reach or locked away and not putting medicines and household products away immediately after use increased the odds of secondary care attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. If associations are causal, implementing these poison prevention practices could each prevent between 11% and 20% of poisonings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  7. Pattern of Poisoning Cases in a Tertiary Hospital in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    AKM Rafique Uddin; Md Imran Ali; Nazmul Haque; Naser Ahmed; Rukhsana Parvin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Poisoning with various substances is a global problem. It is one of the most important reasons for emergency admission in the hospital. The earlier the initial resuscitations, gastric decontamination and use of specific antidotes, the better is the outcome. Epidemiology of poisoning differs from region to region. This study was carried out to determine the pattern and severity of poisoning in a tertiary care hospital. Objective: To characterize the poisoning cases admitted in Enam...

  8. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature...... search, extracted the data, summarized the key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement....... The workgroup concluded that VPA is moderately dialyzable (level of evidence = B) and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe VPA poisoning (1D); recommendations for ECTR include a VPA concentration > 1300 mg/L (9000 μmol/L)(1D), the presence of cerebral edema (1D) or shock (1D...

  9. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  10. Thallium poisoning from maliciously contaminated food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggs, W J; Hoffman, R S; Shih, R D; Weisman, R S; Goldfrank, L R

    1994-01-01

    Four young adults presented two days after one of them had received marzipan balls packaged in a box from an expensive candy manufacturer. Two ate one candy ball, while two others shared a third. The next day, variable gastrointestinal symptoms developed. On the third day, two patients developed painful paresthesiae of the hands and feet, an early but nonspecific clinical marker of thallium poisoning. A tentative diagnosis of thallium poisoning was made based on symptoms, and treatment was initiated. The remaining candies were radiographed. Metallic densities in the candies supported the diagnosis, and atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantitate thallium content. Each candy contained a potentially fatal dose. Five to seven days later, hypertension and tachycardia developed in the two patients who had ingested an entire candy. All patients developed alopecia but recovered without overt neurologic or other sequelae. While the diagnosis of thallium poisoning is often delayed until alopecia develops, an early diagnosis favors an effective treatment strategy.

  11. Teenagers with Jimson weed (Datura stramonium) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Sean P; Taddei, Anthony

    2007-11-01

    We report 2 cases of teenagers who were poisoned with Jimson weed (Datura stramonium) and presented to the emergency department with a severe acute anticholinergic toxidrome after ingestion of several hundred seeds. The patients presented with visual hallucinations, disorientation, incomprehensible and nonsensical speech, and dilated sluggish pupils. Both patients required restraints for combativeness until adequate sedation with lorazepam and haloperidol was achieved. Jimson weed is found in southern Canada and the United States and can cause acute anticholinergic poisoning and death in humans and animals. The treatment of choice for anticholinergic poisoning is mainly supportive care and gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal. Jimson weed intoxication should be considered in cases of patients presenting with unexplained peripheral and central anticholinergic symptoms including delirium, agitation and seizures, especially among younger patients and partygoers. It is important that health care professionals recognize that Jimson weed is a toxic, indigenous, "wild" growing plant, subject to misuse and potentially serious intoxication requiring hospitalization.

  12. Iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although thousands of iguanas are kept as pets in the United States, information on their bites is limited. The intent of this investigation was to describe the pattern of iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers. Iguana bites reported during 1998-2008 were identified. The distribution of cases by various factors was determined. Of 59 total bites, 71% were managed on-site, 17% of the patients were at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, and 10% were referred to a health care facility. The medical outcome was no effect in 9% of the cases, minor effect in 24%, moderate effect in 2%, not followed but minimal effects possible in 64%, and unable to follow but potentially toxic in 2%. Most iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers did not result in serious effects and were managed on-site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hyperamylasaemia and acute pancreatitis in paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperamylasaemia and even acute pancreatitis have been reported in patients with paracetamol poisoning. AIMS: To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic implications of hyperamylasaemia in paracetamol poisoning. PATIENTS: Six hundred and two patients transferred...... to a specialized unit with severe paracetamol poisoning and 212 unselected patients admitted from the local region. METHODS: Retrospective study based on hospital charts. The optimum threshold of serum amylase to discriminate non-survivors was identified. RESULTS: An elevated serum amylase (>100 U/L) occurred...... in 28 of the unselected patients (13%), in 218 of the transferred patients (36%), and in 118 of 148 patients (80%) with fulminant hepatic failure. Only 33 cases of paracetamol-associated acute pancreatitis were diagnosed. A threshold serum amylase of 150 U/L to discriminate non-survivors had sensitivity...

  14. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M; Narahari, M G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. This was a prospective observational study. The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Chi-Square test (χ(2)). A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning

  16. Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

  17. Acute kidney injury from Paraquat poisoning: a case report. | Slater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute kidney injury from Paraquat poisoning: a case report. H. E. Slater, O.C.A. Okoye, O. Okperi, N. Rajora. Abstract. Paraquat is a salt widely used as a herbicide. Although paraquat poisoning is rare in the general population, it may be considered as one of the most toxic poisons frequently used for suicide attempts, and is ...

  18. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  19. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700... PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging..., using, or ingesting household substances, the Commission has determined that packaging designed and...

  20. Characteristics of Acute Poisoning at Two Referral Hospitals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poisoning by household chemicals, particularly paraffin, affected mainly children under 12, while poisoning by pharmaceuticals involved mainly teenagers. With regard to outcomes, three of the female victims died, representing a case fatality rate of 2.6%. One death was due to paraffin poisoning and two to traditional ...

  1. Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Sumeet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature.

  2. Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Sumeet; Rastogi, Rajul; Agarwal, Ajay; Jindal, Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula) has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature.

  3. Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Sumeet; Rastogi, Rajul; Agarwal, Ajay; Jindal, Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula) has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature.

  4. 76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... March 23, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 #0; #0..., 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... cases, these tragic incidents are preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all...

  5. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal Insecticide...

  6. 78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8940 of March 15, 2013 National Poison..., Americans have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to protect... encouraging common-sense precautions and raising awareness about how to respond in a poison emergency. Thanks...

  7. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition to...

  8. Paraffin (kerosene) poisoning in childhood is prevention affordable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 436 children with paraffin poisoning, 288 (66%) were black and 99 (23%) coloured. Only 4 patients (1 %) in the series were white. Paraffin poisoning occurred more frequently (62,5%) in boys. Age distribution. From Fig. 1, it is clear that paraffin poisoning in the Cape. Peninsula occurred mainly in children under 3 ...

  9. Notification ofpesticide poisoning in the western Cape, 1987 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    notification of pesticide poisoning so as to facili- tate control of an iInportant potential public health probleIn. ... Poisoning caused by paraquat and organophosphate insecticides have been reported to be an important rea- .... were white, the majority (78%) being coloured. The circumstances of poisonings are summarised in.

  10. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with § 172.407, the background on the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label and the symbol must be white. The... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and...

  11. Profile of hospital Admissions of childhood poisoning at a North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood poisoning is an important but preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the paediatric subpopulation. There is the continuous need to describe the pattern of childhood poisoning and to create public awareness on the common agents of poison in this environment. Objectives: To determine the ...

  12. Emetic food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J R; Plunkett, T; Pate, P; Roper, W L; Alexander, W J

    1981-05-01

    Symptoms of acute food poisoning developed in eight members of a group who ate lunch at a cafeteria. After brief incubation periods, all affected individuals complained of nausea and abdominal cramps. Four persons promptly experienced vomiting. None of those affected was found to have fever and all recovered with 48 hours. Epidemiologic investigation incriminated macaroni and cheese as a cause of the illness and samples of this food contained large numbers of Bacillus cereus. Previous outbreaks of B cereus emetic food poisoning have been associated with consumption of contaminated fried rice and may occur after ingestion of other foods.

  13. [Hemolysis in mushroom poisoning: facts and hypotheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, R; Gallen, S

    1983-10-22

    Primary hemolysis induced by antigens and toxins of mushrooms must be distinguished from hemolysis secondary to shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation with disruption of erythrocytes caused by severe poisoning with many mushroom species. Primary hemolysis is well documented as immunohemolysis after repeated ingestion of involute paxillus (Paxillus involutus). Direct hemolysis is reported after eating raw mushrooms with a high content of hemolysins. Hemolysis is only speculative in monomethylhydrazine poisoning by false morels (Gyromitra esculenta). Secondary hemolysis due to shock is not uncommon. Hemolysis in connection with enzymopenia of erythrocytes has not been documented as yet. In the present study the various hemolytic syndromes are described and discussed.

  14. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  15. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  16. [Venomous and poisonous animals--I. Overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Goyffon, M

    2006-06-01

    Venomous animals that are able to innoculate or inject venom and poisonous animals that cannot inject venom but are toxic when ingested belong to all zoological groups. They can be encountered worldwide in any ecosystem on land and at sea but they are more common and more dangerous in tropical areas. This first article of a series to appear in the next issues of Medecine Tropicale presents an overview of species involved in envenomations and poisonings. In addition to a brief reviewing geographic risks and circumstances in which bites, stings or ingestion occur, some information is provided about antivenim therapy, the only etiological treatment.

  17. Certain cases of poisoning by arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, P.; Fourcade, J.; Ravoire, J.; Bezenech, C.

    1939-05-01

    Cases of acute and chronic poisoning by arsenic are reported. Diffuse pains, angor, edema of the limbs and genitals, complicated by heptic insufficiency and chronic bronchitis were determined in a subject having lived near an industrial plant processing arseniferous ores for several years. The plant emitted several hundred kg of finely dispersed arsenic oxide daily which settled on forage and vegetables. Symptoms of poisoning by arsenic were also detected in cattle in the same area. The installation of Cottrell type dust separators has helped to suppress the arsenic oxide emissions.

  18. Kerosene poisoning in children in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, N. A.; Abdulallah, Z. A.

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and three children with kerosene poisoning were studied. The majority of the patients were under five years of age and included a newborn baby. More patients were seen in spring and fewer in winter months. Most of the patients were children of poor families living in overcrowded conditions. Negligence and ignorance were the main causes of poisoning. Respiratory and central nervous systems were mainly involved. Chest X-ray abnormalities were frequently seen. The patients were treated symptomatically. Only one patient died, he had been in a coma on admission to the hospital. All other patients had rapid and complete recoveries. PMID:7567734

  19. Formation energy and photoelectrochemical properties of BiVO4 after doping at Bi3+ or V5+ sites with higher valence metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenjun; Wang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Zongyan; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2013-01-21

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting is an attractive method to produce H(2) fuel from solar energy and water. Ion doping with higher valence states was used widely to enhance the photocurrent of an n-type oxide semiconductor. In this study, the different doping sites and the photoelectrochemical properties of Mo(6+), W(6+) and Sn(4+)-doped BiVO(4) were studied systematically. The results suggested that Mo(6+) or W(6+)-doped BiVO(4) had a much higher photocurrent while the photocurrent of Sn(4+)-doped BiVO(4) did not change obviously. Raman and XPS were used to identify the doping sites in the BiVO(4) crystal lattice. It was found that Mo or W substituted V sites but Sn did not substitute Bi sites. Results of theoretical calculation indicated that a higher formation energy and lower solubility of impurity ions led to serious SnO(2) segregation on the surface of the Sn(4+)-doped BiVO(4) thin film, which was the main reason for the poor performance of Sn-doped BiVO(4). The higher formation energy of Sn(4+) came from the large mismatch of ion radius and different outer shell electron distribution. These results can offer guidance in choosing suitable doping ions for other semiconductor photoelectrodes.

  20. Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: An epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Tadashi [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyomi [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristics of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata: hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were affected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. [Self-poisoning with Datura stramonium. 3 case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmes, P; Chounet, V; Mazerolles, M; Cathala, B; Schmitt, L; Lauque, D

    2002-01-19

    Datura stramonium is a hallucinogenic plant that causes serious poisoning. Due to its easy availability and strong anticholinergic properties, substance users and teens may use Datura stramonium as a drug. Consumption of any part of the plant can result in severe toxicity. 3 cases of acute self-poisoning by ingestion of Datura stramonium are reported. The patients presented with a typical anticholinergic syndrome: agitation, confusion, hallucinations and combative behaviour; all of them had mydriasis, but dry mouth and tachycardia were less common. All these 3 subjects had a good prognosis but have required hospitalisation because of severe psychiatric derangement with agitated behaviour. The patients were favourably managed with only symptomatic treatment. This article reviews the clinical syndrome associated with the toxicity. The severity of hallucinations and confusion, associated with pupillary dilation, flushing, dry mouth, and tachycardia, are related with Datura intoxication. Symptomatic treatment is efficient. Primary care physicians might be informed about the abuse of Datura stramonium, often associated with substance misuse, and the need to educate risk-patients.

  2. Changing trends and predictors of outcome in patients with acute poisoning admitted to the intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashree, M; Singhi, S

    2011-10-01

    decrease in the mortality over the years. The non-survivors were older, had a higher PRISM score and hypotension at admission and higher need for oxygen and ventilation. On multiple logistic regression analysis hypotension at admission was the most significant predictor of death (adjusted odds ratio: 5.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.38-22.63; p = 0.016). Acute poisoning in children over the past 15 years has shown a changing trend with significant decrease in kerosene, iron and aluminum phosphide and an increase in organophosphate and prescription drugs. The overall mortality has decreased significantly. Hypotension at admission was the most significant predictor of death.

  3. Erbium: alternative poison? stabilisation additive? what future?; Erbium: poison alternatif? additif de stabilisation? quel devenir?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta, J. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Asou, M. [CEA Marcoule, DRN/DCP, 30 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Erbium was proposed as alternative poison to gadolinium at a very early stage. The potential interest of this poison compared to gadolinium is that it presents a relatively low ({sup 167}Er) absorption cross section in the thermal range and a non-negligible resonance integral that lead to a relatively slow consumption kinetic rather adapted to long or even very long cycles. The poisoning mode adapted to this poison, homogeneous in low concentration (< 3 %), does not downgrade the power distribution, on the one hand, as the absorption is low and spatially homogeneous, and the thermal conductivity, on the other hand, as the addition in the fuel oxide is in low quantity. A review of knowledge acquired as regards Er, from the 1960's to now, is presented. (authors)

  4. Chronic lead poisoning magnifies bone detrimental effects in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching Ming; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; Bozzini, Clarisa; Piñeiro, Adriana Emilce; Conti, María Inés; Martínez, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is mainly stored in bones being an important source of endogenous lead exposure during periods of increased bone resorption as occurs in menopause. As no evidence exists of which bone biomechanical properties are impaired in those elderly women who had been exposed to Pb during their lifetime, the aim of the present study is to discern whether chronic lead poisoning magnifies the deterioration of bone biology that occurs in later stages of life. We investigated the effect of Pb in the femora of ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats who had been intoxicated with 1000 ppm of Pb acetate in drinking water for 8 months. Structural properties were determined using a three-point bending mechanical test, and geometrical and material properties were evaluated after obtaining the load/deformation curve. Areal Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was estimated using a bone densitometer. Femoral histomorphometry was carried out on slices dyed with H&E (Hematoxylin and Eosin). Pb and OVX decreased all structural properties with a higher effect when both treatments were applied together. Medullar and cortical area of femurs under OVX increased, allowing the bone to accommodate its architecture, which was not observed under Pb intoxication. Pb and OVX significantly decreased BMD, showing lead treated ovariectomized rats (PbOVX) animals the lowest BMD levels. Trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV%) was decreased in OVX and PbOVX animals in 54% compared to the control animals (p<0.001). Pb femurs also showed 28% less trabeculae than the control (p<0.05). We demonstrated that Pb intoxication magnifies the impairment in bone biomechanics of OVX rats with a consequent enhancement of the risk of fracture. These results enable the discussion of the detrimental effects of lead intoxication in bone biology in elderly women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Transdermal carbamate poisoning – a case of misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar Rajbanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pesticide poisoning is a common mode of intentional self harm. Oral ingestion is the usual mode of poisoning. However, inhalation, accidental or occupational transdermal exposure leading to acute or chronic poisoning can be the other route of poisoning. It has been seen that the purpose of poising is suicidal intensity in most of the cases. We report an unusual case where the victim had acute pesticide poisoning through transdermal route that was intended for non suicidal purpose. The patient was managed successfully with immediate decontamination and adequate antidote.

  6. Outpatient treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo: poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization, and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Cathrine; Vallersnes, Odd M; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hovda, Knut E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Most patients with acute poisoning are treated as outpatients worldwide. In Oslo, these patients are treated in a physician-led outpatient clinic with limited diagnostic and treatment resources, which reduces both the costs and emergency department overcrowding. We describe the poisoning patterns, treatment, mortality, factors associated with hospitalization and follow-up at this Emergency Medical Agency (EMA, "Oslo Legevakt"), and we evaluate the safety of this current pr...

  7. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center

    OpenAIRE

    Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M.; Narahari, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephon...

  8. Aluminum phosphide poisoning known as rice tablet: A common toxicity in North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, A; Pakravan, N; Rafiei, A; Feyzbakhsh, S M

    2011-04-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP) is a highly effective insecticide and rodenticide used frequently to protect stored grain. Acute poisoning with this compound is common in some countries including India and Iran, and is a serious health problem. The objective of this study was to survey ALP poisoning locally known as "Rice Tablet" and the outcome in a referral poisoning hospital in Mazandaran province, northern part of Iran. The study was a cross-sectional study from March 2007 to February 2008. Records of all patients admitted and hospitalized to a referral teaching hospital during the 2 year period were collected. Information including gender, age, cause of toxicity, amount of AIP consumed, route of exposure, time between exposure and hospital admission, signs and symptoms of toxicity at admission, therapeutic intervention, laboratory tests, and outcome were extracted from the patients' notes. Patients who died and survived were compared using appropriate statistical tests. During the two-year period, 102 patients, 46 men and 56 women with mean (±SD) age 28.5 ± 12.4 year were admitted with ALP poisoning. The most common signs and symptoms at admission were nausea (79.4%), vomiting (76.5%), and abdominal pain (31.4%). 41.1% of the patients showed metabolic acidosis. Suicidal intention was the most common cause of poisoning (97%) leading to 19 (18.6%) deaths. Compared with the patients who survived, those who died had taken higher amount of ALP tablet (2.2 ± 2.4 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0, P poisoning is a common toxicity in Iran causing high morality. This is a serious health problem in agricultural region where ALP is readily available. Withdrawal of ALP tablet from the market and introduction of safer products as rodenticides and insecticides is recommended.

  9. Effects of hemoperfusion and continuous renal replacement therapy on patient survival following paraquat poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Wang

    Full Text Available Mortality in patients with paraquat (PQ poisoning is related to plasma PQ levels. Concentrations lower than 5,000 ng/mL are considered critical but curable. This study assessed the effects of hemoperfusion (HP and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT on the survival of PQ-poisoned patients with plasma PQ levels below 5,000ng/mL. We analyzed the records of 164 patients with PQ poisoning who were treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University in China between January 2011 and May 2015. We divided these patients into six sub-groups based on baseline plasma PQ levels and treatment, compared their clinical characteristics, and analyzed their survival rates. Patient sub-groups did not differ in terms of age, sex, time between poisoning and hospital admission, or time to first gavage. Biochemical indicators improved over time in all sub-groups following treatment, and the combined HP and CRRT treatment yielded better results than HP or CRRT alone. Fatality rates in the three treatment sub-groups did not differ among patients with baseline plasma PQ levels of 50-1,000 ng/mL, but in patients with 1,000-5,000 ng/mL levels, the mortality rate was 59.2% (HP treatment group, 48% (CRRT treatment group, and 37.9% (combined treatment group. Mortality rates were higher 10-30 days after hospitalization than in the first 10 days after admission. In the early stages of PQ poisoning, CRRT is effective in reducing patient fatality rates, particularly when combined with HP. Our data could be useful in increasing survival in acute PQ poisoning patients.

  10. Polonium-210 poisoning: a first-hand account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathwani, Amit C; Down, James F; Goldstone, John; Yassin, James; Dargan, Paul I; Virchis, Andres; Gent, Nick; Lloyd, David; Harrison, John D

    2016-09-10

    Polonium-210 ((210)Po) gained widespread notoriety after the poisoning and subsequent death of Mr Alexander Litvinenko in London, UK, in 2006. Exposure to (210)Po resulted initially in a clinical course that was indistinguishable from infection or exposure to chemical toxins, such as thallium. A 43-year-old man presented to his local hospital with acute abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and vomiting, and was admitted to the hospital because of dehydration and persistent gastrointestinal symptoms. He was initially diagnosed with gastroenteritis and treated with antibiotics. Clostridium difficile toxin was subsequently detected in his stools, which is when he first raised the possibility of being poisoned and revealed his background and former identity, having been admitted under a new identity with which he had been provided on being granted asylum in the UK. Within 6 days, the patient had developed thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, which was initially thought to be drug induced. By 2 weeks, in addition to bone marrow failure, he had evidence of alopecia and mucositis. Thallium poisoning was suspected and investigated but ultimately dismissed because blood levels of thallium, although raised, were lower than toxic concentrations. The patient continued to deteriorate and within 3 weeks had developed multiple organ failure requiring ventilation, haemofiltration, and cardiac support, associated with a drop in consciousness. On the 23rd day after he first became ill, he suffered a pulseless electrical activity cardiorespiratory arrest from which he could not be resuscitated and was pronounced dead. Urine analysis using gamma-ray spectroscopy on day 22 showed a characteristic 803 keV photon emission, raising the possibility of (210)Po poisoning. Results of confirmatory analysis that became available after the patient's death established the presence of (210)Po at concentrations about 10(9)-times higher than normal background levels. Post-mortem tissue analyses showed autolysis

  11. Investigation of Lethal Poisonings among Dead Bodies Referred to Regional Office of Iranian Legal Medicine Organization in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Montazeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:Death due to acute poisoning is of medical, legal and social significance. This study was designed to investigate lethal poisonings among dead bodies referred to a regional office of Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (ILMO. Methods:This was a retrospective descriptive-analytical study on dead bodies referred to Fars province regional office of ILMO in Shiraz, Iran, during April 2013 to the end of March 2014. For data analysis, only subjects with poisoning as the definitive cause of death were included. Results:During the study period, 2,594 autopsies were conducted in Fars province office of ILMO, among which poisoning was found to be the cause of death in 147 autopsies (5.7%. Eighty-eight cases (59.9% were men. The majority of subjects aged 20 to 30 years (50.3%. The greatest number of subjects (73.5% was unmarried persons. Regarding the occupation, most subjects were unemployed (49.7% followed by housewives (19.7%. Over half of the cases (54.42% had died within less than 6 hours after the poisoning. The majority of cases were found dead at home (73.5%, while the rest had died in outpatient department or hospital wards. Suicide cases were far more common than unintentional cases (75.5% vs. 24.5%. Suicidal intention was significantly higher in subjects with lower educational status (P = 0.033. The most common causes of poisoning were pharmaceutical products (66.7% followed by aluminum phosphide (10.9% and other types of pesticides (7.2%. Conclusion:Lethal poisonings is mostly seen in young adults, and those with lower educational level and unemployment. Suicidal intention is the main cause of lethal poisonings.

  12. A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning cases admitted to the tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. ... Young adult males were more commonly involved than females (M:F 2.5:1). The mean age of the patients was 28 years (range 2-72 years, SD ± 14.3 years). Mean time to receive treatment ...

  13. Efficacious Oxime for Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Minireview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Wilson IB, Ginsburg SA. Powerful reactivator of alkyl phosphate inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1955; 18: 168-170. 13. Namba T, Hiraki K. PAM (pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide) therapy for alkyl-phosphate poisoning. J Am Med Assoc 1958; 166: 1834-. 1839. 14. Antonijevic B, Stojijkovic MP. Unequal ...

  14. Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

  15. Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Jennifer K.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks.

  16. Acute Poisoning with Methadone (Dolphin (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy A. Livanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most publications report on the use of methadone as a medication, however an increase of the illegal use of methadone has been demonstrated worldwide over the recent years, thus increasing the number of hospitalizations due to acute poisoning with this synthetic opioid. The aim of the present review was to summarize current data on the mechanisms of toxicity, selective toxicity, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of methadone (Dolphin. The involvement of CNS, respiratory, cardiovascular and urinary systems in acute poisoning with methadone was dis- cussed. The practice of use of methadone in many countries as a medicine for the replacement therapy for opiate addicts was analyzed. In addition, it was suggested that the results of the use of naloxone antidote therapy in acute opioid poisoning do not always clearly demonstrate its sufficient efficacy. Ways to improve of the intensive therapy of severe acute poisoning by methadone were substantiated; in addition to general critical care methods, treatment with a complex metabolic antihypoxant cytoflavin should be considered. 

  17. Poisonous plants of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

  18. The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, Valéry; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    and ratified. Methods rely on evidence appraisal and, in the absence of robust studies, on a thorough and transparent process of consensus statements. Twenty-four poisons were chosen according to their frequency, available evidence, and relevance. A systematic literature search was performed in order...

  19. Spider and burnable poison rod combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.T.; Schluderberg, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    An improved design of burnable poison rods and associated spiders used in fuel assemblies of pressurized water power reactor cores, is described. The rods are joined to the spider arms in a manner which is proof against the reactor core environment and yet allows the removal of the rods from the spider simply, swiftly and delicately. (U.K.)

  20. Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenkova-Saeva J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves, Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley, Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides - oleandrin, nerin, digitoxigenin, and olinerin of which oleandrin is the principal toxin. The bark contains the toxic substances of rosagenin which causes strychnine-like effects. Signs of poisoning appear a few hours after the adoption of the parts of the plant. Two cases of Nerium Oleander poisoning were presented. Clinical picture included gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects. The clinical symptoms were characterized by nausea, vomiting, salivation, colic, diarrhoea, ventricular tachycardia, dysrhythmia, heart block, ataxia, drowsiness, muscular tremor. Treatment included administration of activated charcoal, symptomatic and supportive care.

  1. Neonatal cholinergic syndrome – organophosphate poisoning or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single case of neonatal organophosphate-like poisoning is presented, presumed to have been caused by traditional medicine intake. The dangers of traditional medications and naturally occurring anticholinergics are discussed. South African Journal of Child Health Vol. 2 (1) 2008: pp. 26-27 ...

  2. Paediatric organophosphate poisoning - a rural hospital experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To document the presentation and course of organophosphate poisoning (OPP) in children and to record the frequency of atropine toxicity during treatment. ... The study was conducted at Eben Donges Hospital, a regional hospital in the Boland/Overberg area of the Western Cape, where pesticide-intensive fruit farming ...

  3. Protect the Ones You Love From Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from poisoning, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  4. Efficacious Oxime for Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Minireview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oximes are well known as acetylcholinesterase reactivators and are used in organophosphorus poisoning to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Therapeutically available oximes, namely, pralidoxime (2-PAM), obidoxime, trimedoxime and Hagedorn oxime (HI-6), have no broad-spectrum activity against structurally ...

  5. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  6. "The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…

  7. A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Organization (WHO) and several other studies have estimated that OP pesticides were responsible for majority of self-attempted deaths in the developing world.[2,4-6,12-14,22,23] In this study, we have reported our experience with the pattern of presentation of cases of acute OP poisoning cases in a tertiary care ...

  8. Castor Seed Poisoning in Humans: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-18

    groin. Interstitial hemorrhages were also present in the intestines, testicles , pancreas, inguinal lymph glands and the adrenals. Subsequent histology...molecule of ricin attached to a specific antibody destroys a specific tumor or cancerous cell. Such immunotoxins are used as cancer chemotherapeutic...Other interventions were provided as indicated by the symptoms (38). After observing these poisoned patients, the Russian investigators used guinea

  9. Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    1994-01-01

    Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

  10. Tension Pneumothorax following an Accidental Kerosene Poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tension pneumothorax is a rare complication following an accidental kerosene poisoning. In such situation, a bed-side needle thoracocentesis is performed because of its potential of becoming fatal; hence its clinical importance. A case of 15 month old boy with tension pneumothorax following accidental kerosene ...

  11. Kerosene poisoning--varied systemic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A L; Shaikh, W A; Patel, H L; Deshmukh, D; Malaviya, A P; Janawar, P; Londhe, V; Dodheja, H

    2004-01-01

    We report here unusual clinical manifestations in a case of kerosene poisoning. The patient presented with encephalopathy and in the course of stay in the hospital developed renal tubular acidosis, delayed first-degree burns and myocarditis. With supportivetherapy the patient recovered completely and was discharged without any sequelae.

  12. Datura stramonium poisoning in children | Adegoke | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed ...

  13. Cutaneous manifestations of acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, R.; Greer, K.E.; Harman, L.E. Jr.

    1979-10-01

    A patient with acute carbon monoxide poisoning due to leakage of gas from the exhaust system in his automobile noted edema and blister formation over large areas of the skin of one half of his body. Rhabdomyolysis, acute but transient renal insufficiency, and hemolytic anemia developed subsequently.

  14. Toxic Agents Responsible for Acute Poisonings Treated at Four Medical Settings in Iran during 2012-2013: A Report from Iran's National Drug and Poison Information Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Ghane

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Pharmaceutical products, substances of abuse and pesticides are the most common causes of poisoning-related admissions to referral Iranian poison treatment centers. Effective measures to reduce poisoning with these substances should be done.

  15. Renal failure prevalence in poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

    2014-03-01

    Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to

  16. National carbon monoxide poisoning surveillance framework and recent estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H; King, Michael; Bell, Jeneita; Yip, Fuyuen Y

    2012-01-01

    Unintentional, non-fire-related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of poisoning in the United States. A comprehensive national CO poisoning surveillance framework is needed to obtain accurate estimates of CO poisoning burden and guide prevention efforts. This article describes the current national CO poisoning surveillance framework and reports the most recent national estimates. We analyzed mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System multiple cause-of-death file, emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Emergency Department Sample and Nationwide Inpatient Sample, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) data from HBOT facilities, exposure data from the National Poison Data System, and CO alarm prevalence data from the American Housing Survey and the National Health Interview Survey. In the United States, 2,631 UNFR CO deaths occurred from 1999 to 2004, an average of 439 deaths annually. In 2007, there were 21,304 (71 per one million population) ED visits and 2,302 (eight per one million population) hospitalizations for confirmed cases of CO poisoning. In 2009, 552 patients received HBOT, and from 2000 to 2009, 68,316 UNFR CO exposures were reported to poison centers. Most nonfatal poisonings were among children (65 years of age). More poisonings occurred during winter months and in the Midwest and Northeast. UNFR CO poisoning poses a significant public health burden. Systematic evaluation of data sources coupled with modification and expansion of the surveillance framework might assist in developing effective prevention strategies.

  17. Intentional and accidental paracetamol poisoning in childhood - a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominek, Katarzyna; Pawłowska-Kamieniak, Agnieszka; Mroczkowska-Juchkiewicz, Agnieszka; Krawiec, Paulina; Pac-Kożuchowska, Elżbieta

    2015-04-09

    Paracetamol is one of the most commonly used analgesics and antipyretics available without limits as preparations of the OTC group (over the counter drugs). Overdose and poisoning with this drug always brings about the risk of acute hepatic failure. The objective of the study was a retrospective evaluation of patients hospitalized in the Paediatric Clinic during the period 2004-2012 due to poisoning with paracetamol. The analysis covered 44 patients hospitalized in the Paediatric Clinic during 2004-2012 due to poisoning with paracetamol. Patients were divided into three groups: intentional poisonings, accidental poisonings, and drug overdose. During the period of the study, 44 patients aged 2.1-17.1, poisoned with paracetamol, were hospitalized. Among these patients there were 30 (68.2%) cases of intentional poisonings, 10 (22.7%) of accidental poisonings, and only 4 patients (9.1%) were children hospitalized after a paracetamol overdose. The majority of patients in all groups were females (93.3%). Paracetamol intoxication may occur after exceeding a single allowable dose, in the case of intentional poisoning, more rarely after exceeding the daily dose, in the case of intense pain complaints, or in the treatment of persistent fever. Based on the analysis performed, an increase was observed in the frequency of poisoning with paracetamol, especially intentional poisoning. Unlimited access to paracetamol as an OTC drug should be reconsidered.

  18. Living conditions in the districts of Oslo and poisonings by substances of abuse treated at casualty clinic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, Maja; Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind; Brekke, Mette

    2015-11-17

    Use of and acute poisoning by substances of abuse represent a major health problem and are often linked to social destitution. We describe associations between place of residence, living conditions and the incidence of poisoning by substances of abuse in Oslo. All patients who were 12 years of age or older and resident in Oslo and who were treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) were included prospectively for a continuous period of one year, from October 2011 to September 2012. The 15 districts of Oslo were categorised into three groups of living conditions, from the best (I) to the poorest (III) living conditions, based on the City of Oslo's living conditions index. Homeless people were grouped separately. The incidence of poisoning by substances of abuse treated in the OAEOC was estimated. Of a total of 1,560 poisonings by substances of abuse, 1,094 cases (70%) affected men. The median age was 41 years. The most frequent toxic agents were ethanol, with 915 cases (59%), and heroin, with 249 cases (16%). The incidence of poisoning by substances of abuse treated in the OAEOC per year per 1,000 inhabitants amounted to 1.75 in living conditions group I, to 2.76 in living conditions group II and 3.41 in living conditions group III. Living conditions group III had a significantly higher incidence than living conditions group II (p < 0.001), and living conditions group II had a significantly higher incidence than living conditions group I (p < 0.001). The incidence of acute poisoning by substances of abuse was higher, the poorer the living conditions in the district.

  19. Immunogenic properties and mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lung lesions in Large White pigs selected for higher peripheral blood immune capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Liushiqi; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Katayama, Yuki; Li, Meihua; Satoh, Takumi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Roh, Sang-Gun; Aso, Hisashi; Katoh, Kazuo; Uchida, Takafumi; Suda, Yoshihito; Sakuma, Akiko; Nakajo, Mituru; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-05-01

    Immunogenic properties and mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lung lesions were compared between the immunity-selected Large White line and the non-selected Large White line. The selected Large White line showed a higher level of pulmonary MPS lesions compared with the non-selected Large White line. Subsequent to vaccination, the percentage of natural killer cells and T cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) CD8(-) and CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(+) T cells) were significantly increased in the non-selected line but remained unchanged in the immunity-selected Large White line. Secretion of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine-specific immunoblogulin G and phagocyte activity in peripheral blood were significantly higher in the immunity-selected Large White line than in the non-selected line. Expression of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 messenger RNA in hilar lymph nodes was significantly lower in the immunity-selected Large White line than in the non-selected line. However, expression of IL-10 in all immune tissues was significantly higher in the immunity-selected Large White line. These results suggest that the selection for high immunity was not effective in increasing resistance to MPS lung lesions. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. CT of the brain in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masato; Uchino, Akira; Hayashi, Kazuji; Nakata, Hajime.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral computed tomographic (CT) findings of acute carbon monoxide (Co) poisoning were analized in thirty-six cases treated with hyperbraric oxygen therapy and their relationship with prognosis was evaluated. The cases were classified into there groups, early stage, interval form, and non-interval form groups. In all groups, the initial abnormality was low density areas presumably due to edema, demyelination and/or softening. It was seen in the globus pallidus and/or white matter. Following these initial changes, cerebral hemorrhage, ventricular dilatation, and cerebral atrophy developed in a few cases. The frequency of abnormal CT findings was higher in the interval form group (85 %) or non-interval group (83 %) than the early stage group (41 %). The prognosis was good in most cases with normal CT findings. The possibility of recovery diminished in the patients with abnormal CT findings. The prognosis was particularly poor in cases showing abnormality both in globus pallidus and white matter. We conclude that CT is useful not only for detecting the pathologic change but also for predicting the prognosis of the patient with acute Co poisoning. (author)

  1. [Suicide case of carbon dioxide poisoning using dry ice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimine, Eri; Ishizawa, Fujio; Honda, Katsuya; Uemura, Sachiyo

    2009-06-01

    We had a suicide case suspected to result in death from carbon dioxide poisoning by dry ice in the car. A clay cooking stove with charcoal was in the car, but the charcoal had no burning sign. CO hemoglobin saturation degree of the suicide victim's blood was 0%. Moreover, there were signs that 50 kg of dry ice was brought in the car. To clarify the cause of death, reproducibility testing was carried out by using a car under the same conditions. CO2 concentration in it increased to 22% and O2 concentration decreased to 16% within 20 minutes. From these observations, his death was considered to be caused by hypoxia and CO2 narcosis. CO2 in the suicide victim's blood was higher than those in the blood of healthy persons, and the same range was visible in the blood of fire victims. These data might support above supposition concerned with the cause of death. Blood analysis will be helpful in clearing the cause of death by CO2 poisoning.

  2. A comparison of non-fatal self-poisoning among males and females, in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue

    2014-08-08

    In the recent past Sri Lanka has had a high rate of attempted suicide by pesticide ingestion, among both males and females. Recent evidence suggests that these trends in self-poisoning may be changing, with increasing medicinal overdoses and changing gender ratios. In the past, attempted suicide in Sri Lanka has been described as impulsive acts, but research regarding aspects such as suicidal intent is limited, and there has been no comparison between genders. The objective of this study was to describe gender differences in non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka with respect to substances ingested, triggers, stressors, suicidal intent and psychiatric morbidity. Persons admitted to Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning over a consecutive 14-month period were eligible for the study. Participants were interviewed within one week of admission, with regard to demographic details, poison type ingested, triggers, psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent. 949 participants were included in the study, of whom 44.2% were males, with a median age of 22 years. Males were significantly more likely to ingest agrochemicals, whereas females were more likely to overdose on pharmaceutical drugs. Interpersonal conflict was a common trigger associated with non-fatal self-poisoning for both males and females. Alcohol use disorders and high suicidal intent were significantly more likely in males. There was no difference in rates of depression between the genders. Multiple regression for both genders separately showed that the presence of depression and higher levels of hopelessness was the strongest predictor of suicidal intent, for both genders. Patterns of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka appear to be changing to resemble Western patterns, with females having a greater rate of self-poisoning and more medicinal overdoses than males. Alcohol use disorder is a gender specific risk factor associated with non-fatal self-poisoning

  3. Alexander Mikhailovich Zakharov and his works on the venom apparatus and venoms of some poisonous snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherlin Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article gives brief biographical information about a very talented herpetologist Alexander M. Zakharov, and describes the general results of his works on the structure and function of venom glands of some poisonous snakes and their venoms. In his studies, he got the results, which are fundamentally different from the conventional concept of 30s - 70s of the XX century. Unfortunately, among physicians this concept has not changed up today. At that time it was thought that the poisons of Viperidae snakes are almost completely hemotoxic, and poisons of Elapidae (cobra are almost neurotoxic. But A.M.Zaharov found out, that poisons of both types of snakes (Viperidae and Elapidae include three groups of substances: hemotoxins, neurotoxins and non-toxic component – hyaluronidase. Each of these groups of substances is produced by independent part of venom glands and has its own special effect. Neurotoxins act on the central nervous system (mainly the respiratory center, but are greatly destroyed by means of the blood antigen properties and cannot pass through the hematoencephalic barrier. Hyaluronidase , connecting with neurotoxins, has an important property – to "smuggle" neurotoxins through the hematoencephalic barrier exactly into the target organ – the respiratory center in the central nervous system. In this case, neurotoxin enters the respiratory center not through the blood and lymph vessels, but directly through the nerve channel, through synapsis. The main function of hemotoxins is not to kill the victim, but to protect neurotoxins and hyaluronidase from the destructive activity of the victim's blood. Therefore, the target of the poisons of Viperidae and Elapidae snakes is the central nervous system of victims, but Elapidae has almost no hemotoxins. That’s why their striking effect can be achieved only by a strong increase in the amount of neurotoxins and hyaluronidase. Hemotoxins of Viperidae venoms permits to reduce the amount of

  4. Refolded Recombinant Human Paraoxonase 1 Variant Exhibits Prophylactic Activity Against Organophosphate Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Datusalia, Ashok K; Sharma, Shyam S; Pande, Abhay H

    2016-09-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are neurotoxic chemicals, and current treatments available for OP-poisoning are considered as unsatisfactory and inadequate. There is an urgent need for the development of more effective treatment(s) for OP-poisoning. Human paraoxonase 1 (h-PON1) is known to hydrolyze a variety of OP-compounds and is a leading candidate for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic agent against OP-poisoning in humans. Non-availability of effective system(s) for the production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) makes it hard to produce improved variant(s) of this enzyme and analyze their in vivo efficacy in animal models. Production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) using an Escherichia coli expression system is a key to develop variant(s) of h-PON1. Recently, we have developed a procedure to produce active rh-PON1 enzymes by using E. coli expression system. In this study, we have characterized the OP-hydrolyzing properties of refolded rh-PON1(wt) and rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) variant. Our results show that refolded rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) variant exhibit enhanced OP-hydrolyzing activity in in vitro and ex vivo assays and exhibited prophylactic activity in mouse model of OP-poisoning, suggesting that refolded rh-PON1 can be developed as a therapeutic candidate.

  5. Poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel: a National Poison Center Data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavon, Ophir; Bentur, Yedidia

    2017-06-01

    To characterize poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel as reported to the national poison center. Retrospective poison center chart review over a 14-year period. Cases included were Israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, the compulsory military service age required by the Israeli law. 1770 records of poison exposures in young military personnel were identified. Most exposed individuals involved males (n = 1268, 71.6%). Main routes of exposure were ingestion (n = 854, 48.3%), inhalation (n = 328, 18.6%) and ocular (n = 211, 11.9%). Accidents or misuse (n = 712, 40.2%) were the most frequently reported circumstances, followed by suicide attempts (370, 20.9%), and bites and stings (161, 9.1%). More than half of the cases involved chemicals (n = 939, 53.1%); hydrocarbons, gases and corrosives were the main causative agents. Pharmaceuticals (mainly analgesics) were involved in 519 (29.3%) cases, venomous animals (mainly scorpions, centipedes, and snakes) in 79 (4.5%). Clinical manifestations were reported in 666 (37.6%) cases, mostly gastrointestinal, neurologic, and respiratory. The vast majority of cases (1634, 92.3%) were asymptomatic or mildly affected; no fatalities were recorded. In 831 (46.9%) cases the clinical toxicologist recommended referral to an emergency department; ambulatory observation was recommended in 563 (31.8%) cases, and hospitalization in 86 (4.9%). Our data show that poison exposures among young soldiers involve mainly males, accidents, misuse and suicides, oral route and chemicals; most exposures were asymptomatic or with mild severity. Repeated evaluations of poison center data pertaining to military personnel is advised for identifying trends in poison exposure and characteristics in this particular population.

  6. Acute Poisoning in Adults Admitted in Ardabil Imam Khomeini Hospital

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    Esmaeil Farzaneh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective s: Poisoning is one of the most common causes that referred to the Emergence and one of the most important Medicine immediacy. Correct and immediate diagnosis and accommodative treatment can be life saving. Knowing the overall pattern of poisoning in any geographical area would help to better manage and treat the victims.   Methods : In a cross sectional descriptive study, the required information was collected from the records of patients showing drugs and chemical poisoning who referred to Imam Khomeini hospital Collected data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software.   Results : Out of 2852 case of poisoning, 106 people passed away due to severe complication. Of these 56.8% were men and 43.2% were women. The majority of cases (76.8% were from urban areas. Suicide was the main cause of poisoning (66.53%. Accidental poisoning was recorded for 5.01% of cases. In 28.45% of cases, the cause of poisoning was not identified. The age group 21-30 years made the highest number of cases (52.3%. Tramadol, Benzodiazepines and Aceteminophen were the most poisons used respectively. Benzodiazeine was the most taken drug is in suicide (19.97%.   Conclusion : Results showed that poisoning with Tramadol and Benzodiazepines is high in Ardabil Province. Opioids, Aluminum Phosphide and Organophosphores are the main causative of death in poisoned victims in the province of Ardabil.

  7. Epidemiology of acute organophosphate poisoning in hospital emergency room patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmani, Chandrabhan; Jaga, Kushik

    2005-01-01

    Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a major health issue in developing countries. Organophosphate insecticides inhibit cholinesterase (ChE) enzymatic activity, thereby eliciting cholinergic signs and symptoms. Victims of OP poisoning require immediate hospital emergency room (ER) treatment to prevent a fatal outcome. We present an epidemiologic review of acute OP poisoning in hospital ER patients. Areas of interest include countries with acute OP poisoning, nature of exposure, gender and age of patients, clinical cholinergic features, ChE activity, and health outcome, including recovery rate, case fatality rate, and post-ER complications. The review comprises case reports, hospital surveys, and clinical studies on acute OP poisoning. More studies were conducted in developed than in developing countries. Suicidal and occupational OP poisoning in agricultural workers was prevalent in developing countries, whereas accidental OP poisoning was prevalent in developed countries. Healthcare workers in the ER were also affected by OP poisoning. Both males and females were affected. Children accounted for 35% of the OP-poisoned victims. Patients presented with a classic cholinergic syndrome and serum ChE depresssion, with a recovery rate above 90%. Neurologic impairment was the most frequent complication. Preventing environmental OP exposure and increasing the awareness of pesticide toxicity would reduce acute OP poisoning and protect human health.

  8. Mortality from and incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea: findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Shil Cha

    Full Text Available Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9% and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea.

  9. Mortality from and incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea: findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9%) and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea.

  10. Aluminum phosphide (celphos) poisoning in children: A 5-year experience in a tertiary care hospital from northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anupama; Dishant; Gupta, Vikas; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Mittal, Kundan

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP) (celphos) is an agricultural pesticide commonly implicated in poisoning. Literature pertaining to the clinical manifestations and treatment outcome of its poisoning among children is limited. A retrospective chart review was conducted of the medical records of 30 children aged less than 14 years admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary care hospital in northern India. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were recorded. The outcome was categorized into "survivors" and "nonsurvivors." The Mean (SD) age of the enrolled children [19 males (63.3%)] was 8.55 (3.07) years. Among the 30 children, 14 (46.67%) were nonsurvivors and the rest 16 (53.33%) were survivors. Nonsurvivors had ingested significantly higher doses of ALP (P poisoning is predicted by dose of ALP ingestion, time lag to medical attention, and higher PRISM score at admission. Use of magnesium sulfate could be associated with better survival among them.

  11. High-resolution CT in paraquat poisoning of the lung : role of prognosis prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Suk; Kim, Young Tong; Kwon, Eun Joo; Choi, Choung Sik; Im, Han Heag; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Il Young

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognosis of patients with paraquat poisoning by measuring the extent of lung involvement, as seen on HRCT. Forty-one patients with paraquat poisoning were treated according to our hospital's routine protocol and underwent HRCT scanning 1-21 (mean 7-8) days after. In 31, the results were abnormal, and these were retrospectively analysed. Differences in the extent of lung involvement, patient age, ingested amount of paraquat, and blood WBC count were compared between the group of survivors and those who had died. Among the 31 patients with abnormal HRCT findings, 11 died and 20 patient survived. The extent of lung involvement among the group of survivors was 14.8 ± 14.8 %; among the decreased group, it was 72.3 ± 16.3 %. The age of the survivors was 37.5 ± 13.5 (11-67) years, while that of the deceased was 25 ± 8.9 (16-41) years. Those who died showed a significantly higher significant difference in blood WBC count and ingested amount of paraquat between the two groups (p>0.05). In paraquat poisoning, the extent of lung involvement on HRCT, useful for prediction of the prognosis and severity of poisoning. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  12. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol, the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

  13. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients. PMID:19005579

  14. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  15. Poisoning by Gyromitra esculenta--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, D; Toth, B

    1991-08-01

    Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.: Fr.) Fr. and a few other mushrooms have caused severe poisonings and even deaths in humans. Clinical data are characterized primarily by vomiting and diarrhoea, followed by jaundice, convulsions and coma. Gastrointestinal disorders distinguish this poisoning. Frequent consumption can cause hepatitis and neurological diseases. The species of concern are mainly G. esculenta and G. gigas (Kromb.) Cooke (non Phill.). Nevertheless, recent advances in chromatography, biochemistry and toxicology have established that other Ascomycetes species also may prove toxic. Gyromitrin (acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone, G) and its homologues are toxic compounds that convert in vivo into N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine (MFH), and then into N-methylhydrazine (MH). The toxicity of these chemicals, which are chiefly hepatotoxic and even carcinogenic, has been established through in vivo and in vitro experiments using animals, cell cultures and biochemical systems. When we consider the chemical nature and the reactivity of these natural compounds, we suggest that chemical and biochemical mechanisms may explain their intrinsic biological activity.

  16. [Mushroom poisoning--classification, symptoms and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, R; Mot'ovská, Z

    1997-04-01

    The most serious poisonings are the hepatotoxic ones which are caused above all by Amanita phalloides, virosa, verna, Lepiota helveola, Galerina marginata, Gyromitra esculenta, Hypholoma fasciculare, and nephroptoxic intoxications which are caused above all by Cortinarius orrelanus and Paxillus involutus. Neurotoxic and psychotropic intoxications develop after ingestion of Inocybe, Clitocybe, Amanita-panterina, muscaria and Psilocybe. Most frequently the gastroenteric type of mushroom poisoning is encountered which is caused by many species e.g. Boletus satanas, Entoloma sinuatum and others. In the diagnosis anamnestic data are used, the clinical picture, mycological and toxicological examinations of residues of mushrooms, their spores and toxins. Therapeutic strategy comprises elimination methods gastric lavage, intestinal lavage and administration of large amounts of animal charcoal, forced diuresis, haemoperfusion, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, administration of antidotes and symptomatic treatment, i.e. mainly rehydration and restoration of the mineral balance. Early and comprehensive treatment are important.

  17. [Strychnine poisoning: uncommon, but does still happen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlo-van de Laar, Inge R F; Arbouw, Maurits E L; Bles, Carmen M A

    2015-01-01

    Acute strychnine poisoning is an uncommon form of intoxication, characterized by severe tonic clonic seizures and tetanus-like contractions while the patient is fully conscious. It can result in respiratory failure, leading to death. A 47-year-old man was admitted to the casualty department 2 hours after self-poisoning with strychnine. The clinical picture consisted of persistent seizures, which were treated with midazolam and propofol. The patient went into respiratory failure and asystole, so intubation and cardiac massage were initiated. Other complications were severe metabolic acidosis, hyperthermia and rhabdomyolysis with renal failure. The treatment consisted of cooling, hyperhydration and intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate. He was discharged to a mental care institution with no persistent symptoms 11 days later. Early aggressive treatment of a strychnine intoxication can be life-saving. Knowledge of the clinical picture and the right treatment is important. Treatment is primarily focussed on stopping the convulsions and securing the airway.

  18. [Staphylococcal food poisoning and MRSA enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Yusuke; Yoshida, Norimasa

    2012-08-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness. It is caused by eating foods contaminated with enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. The enterotoxins are fast acting, sometimes causing illness within one to six hours. Patients typically experience nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and diarrhea. Diagnosis of staphylococcal food poisoning is generally based only on the symptoms of patients. The treatments for these patients are rest and plenty of fluids. Antibiotics are not useful in treating this illness. On the other hand, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) enteritis and colitis caused by microbial substitution with administration of antibiotics is aggressive and sick with severe diarrhea. The treatment of those patients are as follows; antibiotics now in use are stopped and oral administration of vancomycin is started as soon as possible.

  19. [Recommendations for the prevention of poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T

    2015-12-01

    Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

    2015-01-01

    Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.