WorldWideScience

Sample records for points precision optical

  1. Astrophysical Adaptation of Points, the Precision Optical Interferometer in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.; Babcock, Robert W.; Murison, Marc A.; Noecker, M. Charles; Phillips, James D.; Schumaker, Bonny L.; Ulvestad, James S.; McKinley, William; Zielinski, Robert J.; Lillie, Charles F.

    1996-01-01

    POINTS (Precision Optical INTerferometer in Space) would perform microarcsecond optical astrometric measurements from space, yielding submicroarcsecond astrometric results from the mission. It comprises a pair of independent Michelson stellar interferometers and a laser metrology system that measures both the critical starlight paths and the angle between the baselines. The instrument has two baselines of 2 m, each with two subapertures of 35 cm; by articulating the angle between the baselines, it observes targets separated by 87 to 93 deg. POINTS does global astrometry, i.e., it measures widely separated targets, which yields closure calibration, numerous bright reference stars, and absolute parallax. Simplicity, stability, and the mitigation of systematic error are the central design themes. The instrument has only three moving-part mechanisms, and only one of these must move with sub-milliradian precision; the other two can tolerate a precision of several tenths of a degree. Optical surfaces preceding the beamsplitter or its fold flat are interferometrically critical; on each side of the interferometer, there are only three such. Thus, light loss and wavefront distortion are minimized. POINTS represents a minimalistic design developed ab initio for space. Since it is intended for astrometry, and therefore does not require the u-v-plane coverage of an imaging, instrument, each interferometer need have only two subapertures. The design relies on articulation of the angle between the interferometers and body pointing to select targets; the observations are restricted to the 'instrument plane.' That plane, which is fixed in the pointed instrument, is defined by the sensitive direction for the two interferometers. Thus, there is no need for siderostats and moving delay lines, which would have added many precision mechanisms with rolling and sliding parts that would be required to function throughout the mission. Further, there is no need for a third interferometer

  2. A precise pointing technique for free space optical links and networks using kinematic GPS and local sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yohan; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2007-09-01

    In free space optical (FSO) communication networks, pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) techniques are needed to establish and maintain optical links among the static or mobile nodes in the network. First, this paper describes a precise pointing technique to steer the local directional laser beam of an optical transceiver to a target optical transceiver at a remote transceiver node. The pointing technique utilizes Real-Time Kinematic GPS coordinates, local angular sensors, and a reference baseline, to retrieve accurate navigation information (roll, pitch, yaw) of the mobile or static platform that carries an optical transceiver. Through experiments using gimbal pointing stages, we have demonstrated "dead-reckoning" pointing accuracy in the milliradian range in our outdoor testbed. Second, we provide an application example of the pointing method in a bi-connected ring network, in which the pointing technique is combined with heuristic algorithms for dynamic reconfiguration of ring network topology. The heuristic algorithms achieve near optimal solutions in a short amount of time. Lastly, we present a GPS-based autonomous reconfiguration scenario for mobile nodes, which combines the PAT technique and heuristic algorithms.

  3. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    performance of point positioning for kinematic applications, the precise point positioning attracted a lot of attention and opened a new alternative door to kinematic positioning. In this report different tests have been done to evaluate the ability and accuracy of the software TriP in the kinematic...... and static case by using internal consistency (residuals, RMS, repeatability etc.), known coordinates, ground truth and double-differenced solutions. The kinematic GPS positioning accuracy using four different software systems has been investigated and tested by comparing the degree of agreement between...... the airborne lidar system misalignment angle by automating the matching of lidar data with ground truth. Kinematic GPS positioning has been widely used, but the available commercial software systems are normally only suitable for the short or medium range kinematic baseline. However, in polar areas, airborne...

  4. Laser Metrology System for Precision Pointing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hospodar, Edward

    2003-01-01

    .... The Precision Pointing Hexapod (PPH) at Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) is exactly such a platform initially installed with voice coil actuators and accelerometers on each strut by CSA Engineering Inc...

  5. Ultrasonic precision optical grinding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; Bechtold, Michael J.; Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank L.; Bechtold, Rob

    2015-10-01

    As optical geometries become more precise and complex and a wider range of materials are used, the processes used for manufacturing become more critical. As the preparatory stage for polishing, this is especially true for grinding. Slow processing speeds, accelerated tool wear, and poor surface quality are often detriments in manufacturing glass and hard ceramics. The quality of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. Through extensive research and development, OptiPro Systems has introduced an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has numerous advantages over traditional grinding processes. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations in line with the rotating spindle. A newly developed software package called IntelliSonic is integral to this platform. IntelliSonic automatically characterizes the tool and continuously optimizes the output frequency for optimal cutting while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more accurate surface. Utilizing a wide variety of instruments, test have proven to show a reduction in tool wear and increase in surface quality while allowing processing speeds to be increased. OptiSonic has proven to be an enabling technology to overcome the difficulties seen in grinding of glass and hard optical ceramics. OptiSonic has demonstrated numerous advantages over the standard CNC grinding process. Advantages are evident in reduced tool wear, better surface quality, and reduced cycle times due to increased feed rates. These benefits can be seen over numerous applications within the precision optics industry.

  6. Surface characterization protocol for precision aspheric optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarepaka, RamaGopal V.; Sakthibalan, Siva; Doodala, Somaiah; Panwar, Rakesh S.; Kotaria, Rajendra

    2017-10-01

    In Advanced Optical Instrumentation, Aspherics provide an effective performance alternative. The aspheric fabrication and surface metrology, followed by aspheric design are complementary iterative processes for Precision Aspheric development. As in fabrication, a holistic approach of aspheric surface characterization is adopted to evaluate actual surface error and to aim at the deliverance of aspheric optics with desired surface quality. Precision optical surfaces are characterized by profilometry or by interferometry. Aspheric profiles are characterized by contact profilometers, through linear surface scans to analyze their Form, Figure and Finish errors. One must ensure that, the surface characterization procedure does not add to the resident profile errors (generated during the aspheric surface fabrication). This presentation examines the errors introduced post-surface generation and during profilometry of aspheric profiles. This effort is to identify sources of errors and is to optimize the metrology process. The sources of error during profilometry may be due to: profilometer settings, work-piece placement on the profilometer stage, selection of zenith/nadir points of aspheric profiles, metrology protocols, clear aperture - diameter analysis, computational limitations of the profiler and the software issues etc. At OPTICA, a PGI 1200 FTS contact profilometer (Taylor-Hobson make) is used for this study. Precision Optics of various profiles are studied, with due attention to possible sources of errors during characterization, with multi-directional scan approach for uniformity and repeatability of error estimation. This study provides an insight of aspheric surface characterization and helps in optimal aspheric surface production methodology.

  7. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  8. Precise Point Positioning in the Airborne Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used for positioning in the airborne mode such as in navigation as a supplementary system and for geo-referencing of cameras in mapping and surveillance by aircrafts and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach is an attractive positioning approach based on processing of un-differenced observations from a single GPS receiver. It employs precise satellite orbits and satellite clock corrections. These data can be obtained via the internet from several sources, e.g. the International GNSS Service (IGS). The data can also broadcast from satellites, such as via the LEX signal of the new Japanese satellite system QZSS. The PPP can achieve positioning precision and accuracy at the sub-decimetre level. In this paper, the functional and stochastic mathematical modelling used in PPP is discussed. Results of applying the PPP method in an airborne test using a small fixed-wing aircraft are presented. To evaluate the performance of the PPP approach, a reference trajectory was established by differential positioning of the same GPS observations with data from a ground reference station. The coordinate results from the two approaches, PPP and differential positioning, were compared and statistically evaluated. For the test at hand, positioning accuracy at the cm-to-decimetre was achieved for latitude and longitude coordinates and doubles that value for height estimation.

  9. PRECISION POINTING OF IBEX-Lo OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hłond, M.; Bzowski, M.; Möbius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Heirtzler, D.; Schwadron, N. A.; Neill, M. E. O'; Clark, G.; Crew, G. B.; Fuselier, S.; McComas, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Post-launch boresight of the IBEX-Lo instrument on board the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is determined based on IBEX-Lo Star Sensor observations. Accurate information on the boresight of the neutral gas camera is essential for precise determination of interstellar gas flow parameters. Utilizing spin-phase information from the spacecraft attitude control system (ACS), positions of stars observed by the Star Sensor during two years of IBEX measurements were analyzed and compared with positions obtained from a star catalog. No statistically significant differences were observed beyond those expected from the pre-launch uncertainty in the Star Sensor mounting. Based on the star observations and their positions in the spacecraft reference system, pointing of the IBEX satellite spin axis was determined and compared with the pointing obtained from the ACS. Again, no statistically significant deviations were observed. We conclude that no systematic correction for boresight geometry is needed in the analysis of IBEX-Lo observations to determine neutral interstellar gas flow properties. A stack-up of uncertainties in attitude knowledge shows that the instantaneous IBEX-Lo pointing is determined to within ∼0. 0 1 in both spin angle and elevation using either the Star Sensor or the ACS. Further, the Star Sensor can be used to independently determine the spacecraft spin axis. Thus, Star Sensor data can be used reliably to correct the spin phase when the Star Tracker (used by the ACS) is disabled by bright objects in its field of view. The Star Sensor can also determine the spin axis during most orbits and thus provides redundancy for the Star Tracker.

  10. Perspective on precision machining, polishing, and optical requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanger, G.M.

    1981-08-18

    While precision machining has been applied to the manufacture of optical components for a considerable period, the process has, in general, had its thinking restricted to producing only the accurate shapes required. The purpose of this paper is to show how optical components must be considered from an optical (functional) point of view and that the manufacturing process must be selected on that basis. To fill out this perspective, simplistic examples of how optical components are specified with respect to form and finish are given, a comparison between optical polishing and precision machining is made, and some thoughts on which technique should be selected for a specific application are presented. A short discussion of future trends related to accuracy, materials, and tools is included.

  11. Interferometric Star Tracker for High Precision Pointing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical Physics Company (OPC) proposes to adapt the precision star tracker it is currently developing under several DoD contracts for deep space lasercom beam...

  12. High precision target center determination from a point cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kregar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS require the determination of a specific point from a point cloud. In this paper procedure of high precision planar target center acquisition from point cloud is presented. The process is based on an image matching algorithm but before we can deal with raster image to fit a target on it, we need to properly determine the best fitting plane and project points on it. The main emphasis of this paper is in the precision estimation and propagation through the whole procedure which allows us to obtain precision assessment of final results (target center coordinates. Theoretic precision estimations – obtained through the procedure were rather high so we compared them with the empiric precision estimations obtained as standard deviations of results of 60 independently scanned targets. An χ2-test confirmed that theoretic precisions are overestimated. The problem most probably lies in the overestimated precisions of the plane parameters due to vast redundancy of points. However, empirical precisions also confirmed that the proposed procedure can ensure a submillimeter precision level. The algorithm can automatically detect grossly erroneous results to some extent. It can operate when the incidence angles of a laser beam are as high as 80°, which is desirable property if one is going to use planar targets as tie points in scan registration. The proposed algorithm will also contribute to improve TLS calibration procedures.

  13. Precision pointing of imaging spacecraft using gyro-based attitude ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    lite positioning system. Thus precise earth-pointing is achieved. Keywords. Attitude control; imaging spacecraft; Kalman Filter. 1. Introduction. With increase in user requirements of satellite imagery with better than 1 m accuracy, the pointing specifications of earth-pointing satellites, which are mainly used for resource man-.

  14. Studies in precise neutron optics at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimitsu, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    Studies in the field of so-called 'Precise Neutron Optics' at JAERI were reported, since the beginning of 1970. It started with the photographic detection of the 'Pendellusung Fringes' in a wedge-shaped Si crystal, promoted by Prof.K.Kohra. Neutron diffraction topography was also tried and used for the 'direct' observation of the substructure in a Cu-5%Ge single crystal, carried out by the present author. So-called 'VSANS' (Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering) was also tried, with the angular resolution better than 0.1 sec. of arc, for the structural observation of several kinds of 'amorphous' materials, such as neutron-irradiated silica glasses, Pb-containing glasses and several ribbon-shaped amorphous alloys, carried out by Dr.K.Doi. Recently with the co-operation with Prof.S.Kikuta's group, some interferometric experiments were tried, such as the detection of the double-refraction phenomenon of the neutron in the magnetic materials, carried out by Dr.S.Nakatani. The apparatus for precise neutron optics and topography (PNO) was constructed at the JRR-3M in JAERI in 1992, which was just properly made for the studies in the present thema. With the PNO, the characterization of Ni-Ti multilayer mirror for the interferometer with the cold/ ultra-cold neutrons was carried out, the results being reported in the other article of this symposium by Dr.H.Funahashi. Through the test use of the PNO with the neutron interferometry, carried out by Dr.Y.Hasegawa, it was revealed that the PNO is the best facility in the world for the neutron interferometry; with the datas of the count ratio upto 20 cps and the contrast more than 40%. Dr.K.Aizawa is now refining the VSANS-technique on the PNO, for the precise observation of the precipitation behaviour of high density small particles such as metatic alloy-system. (author)

  15. Precision of Points Computed from Intersections of Lines or Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederholm, Jens Peter

    2004-01-01

    Not all points are directly accessible when doing detail surveys wirh GPS. This paper gests a method for estimating these points. The points are computed from intersections of lines that are surveyed with GPS. The lines are computed by least squares estimation. Further, the suggested method...... estimates the precision of the points. When using laser scanning a similar problem appears. A laser scanner captures a 3-D point cloud, not the points of real interest. The suggested method can be used to compute three-dimensional coordinates of the intersection of three planes estimated from the point...

  16. Performance Evaluation of Real-Time Precise Point Positioning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcay, Salih; Turgut, Muzeyyen

    2017-12-01

    Post-Processed Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a well-known zero-difference positioning method which provides accurate and precise results. After the experimental tests, IGS Real Time Service (RTS) officially provided real time orbit and clock products for the GNSS community that allows real-time (RT) PPP applications. Different software packages can be used for RT-PPP. In this study, in order to evaluate the performance of RT-PPP, 3 IGS stations are used. Results, obtained by using BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) Software v2.12, are examined in terms of both accuracy and precision.

  17. On User Algorithms for GNSS Precise Point Positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) processing method with the objective of providing high positioning accuracy without the need for a nearby base station or dense network of reference stations operated by the user. To reach this objective, PPP uses the

  18. Beaconless Pointing for Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Le, Dzu K.; Sands, Obed S.; Wroblewski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Free space optical communication is of interest to NASA as a complement to existing radio frequency communication methods. The potential for an increase in science data return capability over current radio-frequency communications is the primary objective. Deep space optical communication requires laser beam pointing accuracy on the order of a few microradians. The laser beam pointing approach discussed here operates without the aid of a terrestrial uplink beacon. Precision pointing is obtained from an on-board star tracker in combination with inertial rate sensors and an outgoing beam reference vector. The beaconless optical pointing system presented in this work is the current approach for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC) project.

  19. Precision-analog fiber-optic transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1981-06-01

    This article describes the design, experimental development, and construction of a DC-coupled precision analog fiber optic link. Topics to be covered include overall electrical and mechanical system parameters, basic circuit organization, modulation format, optical system design, optical receiver circuit analysis, and the experimental verification of the major design parameters

  20. Optical Precision Deployment Latch, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Virtually all optical information gathering instruments benefit from greater aperture. For space-based instruments whose geometries are constrained by the launch...

  1. Figuring and Polishing Precision Optical Surfaces Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The requirements for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of large optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of future NASA programs such as LISA,...

  2. AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION IN PRECISE POINT POSITIONING TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistor S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the dynamics of the GPS technique used in different domains like geodesy, near real-time GPS meteorology, geodynamics, the precise point positioning (PPP becomes more than a powerful method for determining the position, or the delay caused by the atmosphere. The main idea of this method is that we need only one receiver – preferably that have dual frequencies pseudorange and carrier-phase capabilities – to obtain the position. Because we are using only one receiver the majority of the residuals that are eliminated in double differencing method, we have to estimate them in PPP. The development of the PPP method allows us, to use precise satellite clock estimates, and precise orbits, resulting in a much more efficient way to deal with the disadvantages of this technique, like slow convergence time, or ambiguity resolution. Because this two problem are correlated, to achieve fast convergence we need to resolve the problem of ambiguity resolution. But the accuracy of the PPP results are directly influenced by presence of the uncalibrated phase delays (UPD originating in the receivers and satellites. In this article we present the GPS errors and biases, the zenith wet delay and the necessary time for obtaining the convergence. The necessary correction are downloaded by using the IGS service.

  3. Exceptional points and quantum correlations in precise measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thilagam, A

    2012-01-01

    We examine the physical manifestations of exceptional points and passage times in a two-level system which is subjected to quantum measurements and which admits a non-Hermitian description. Using an effective Hamiltonian acting in the two-dimensional space spanned by the evolving initial and final states, the effects of highly precise quantum measurements in which the monitoring device interferes significantly with the evolution dynamics of the monitored two-level system is analyzed. The dynamics of a multipartite system consisting of the two-level system, a source of external potential and the measurement device is examined using correlation measures such as entanglement and non-classical quantum correlations. Results show that the quantum correlations between the monitored (monitoring) systems is considerably decreased (increased) as the measurement precision nears the exceptional point, at which the passage time is half of the measurement duration. The results indicate that the underlying mechanism by which the non-classical correlations of quantum systems are transferred from one subsystem to another may be better revealed via use of geometric approaches. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  4. Precise Point Positioning Using Triple GNSS Constellations in Various Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Afifi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP model, which combines the observations from three different global navigation satellite system (GNSS constellations, namely GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou. Combining measurements from different GNSS systems introduces additional biases, including inter-system bias and hardware delays, which require rigorous modelling. Our model is based on the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD linear combinations. BSSD linear combination cancels out some receiver-related biases, including receiver clock error and non-zero initial phase bias of the receiver oscillator. Forming the BSSD linear combination requires a reference satellite, which can be selected from any of the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou systems. In this paper three BSSD scenarios are tested; each considers a reference satellite from a different GNSS constellation. Natural Resources Canada’s GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly introduced biases. A total of four data sets collected at four different IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment (IGS-MGEX network are used to correct the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou measurements in the post-processing PPP mode. A real-time PPP solution is also obtained, which is referred to as RT-PPP in the sequel, through the use of the IGS real-time service (RTS for satellite orbit and clock corrections. However, only GPS and Galileo observations are used for the RT-PPP solution, as the RTS-IGS satellite products are not presently available for BeiDou system. All post-processed and real-time PPP solutions are compared with the traditional un-differenced GPS-only counterparts. It is shown that combining the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou observations in the post-processing mode improves the

  5. Precise Point Positioning Using Triple GNSS Constellations in Various Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2016-05-28

    This paper introduces a new dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) model, which combines the observations from three different global navigation satellite system (GNSS) constellations, namely GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou. Combining measurements from different GNSS systems introduces additional biases, including inter-system bias and hardware delays, which require rigorous modelling. Our model is based on the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) linear combinations. BSSD linear combination cancels out some receiver-related biases, including receiver clock error and non-zero initial phase bias of the receiver oscillator. Forming the BSSD linear combination requires a reference satellite, which can be selected from any of the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou systems. In this paper three BSSD scenarios are tested; each considers a reference satellite from a different GNSS constellation. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly introduced biases. A total of four data sets collected at four different IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment (IGS-MGEX) network are used to correct the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou measurements in the post-processing PPP mode. A real-time PPP solution is also obtained, which is referred to as RT-PPP in the sequel, through the use of the IGS real-time service (RTS) for satellite orbit and clock corrections. However, only GPS and Galileo observations are used for the RT-PPP solution, as the RTS-IGS satellite products are not presently available for BeiDou system. All post-processed and real-time PPP solutions are compared with the traditional un-differenced GPS-only counterparts. It is shown that combining the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou observations in the post-processing mode improves the PPP convergence

  6. Optical alignment using the Point Source Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Robert E.; Kuhn, William P.

    2005-08-01

    We give an example of a Point Source Microscope (PSM) and describe its uses as an aid in the alignment of optical systems including the referencing of optical to mechanical datums. The PSM is a small package (about 100x150x30 mm), including a point source of light, beam splitter, microscope objective and digital CCD camera to detect the reflected light spot. A software package in conjunction with a computer video display locates the return image in three degrees of freedom relative to an electronic spatial reference point. The PSM also includes a Koehler illumination source so it may be used as a portable microscope for ordinary imaging and the microscope can be zoomed under computer control. For added convenience, the laser diode point source can be made quite bright to facilitate initial alignment under typical laboratory lighting conditions. The PSM is particularly useful in aligning optical systems that do not have circular symmetry or are distributed in space such as off-axis systems. The PSM is also useful for referencing the centers of curvatures of optical surfaces to mechanical datums of the structure in which the optics are mounted. By removing the microscope objective the PSM can be used as an electronic autocollimator because of the infinite conjugate optical design.

  7. Precision Cleaning and Protection of Coated Optical Components for NIF Small Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, Jim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The purpose of this procedure shall be to define the precision cleaning of finished, coated, small optical components for NIF at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. The term “small optical components” includes coated optics that are set into simple mounts, as well as coated, un-mounted optics.

  8. Precision Pointing Reconstruction and Geometric Metadata Generation for Cassini Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Robert S.; Showalter, Mark R.; Gordon, Mitchell K.

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of optical remote sensing (ORS) data from the Cassini spacecraft is a complicated and labor-intensive process. First, small errors in Cassini’s pointing information (up to ~40 pixels for the Imaging Science Subsystem Narrow Angle Camera) must be corrected so that the line of sight vector for each pixel is known. This process involves matching the image contents with known features such as stars, ring edges, or moon limbs. Second, metadata for each pixel must be computed. Depending on the object under observation, this metadata may include lighting geometry, moon or planet latitude and longitude, and/or ring radius and longitude. Both steps require mastering the SPICE toolkit, a highly capable piece of software with a steep learning curve. Only after these steps are completed can the actual scientific investigation begin.We are embarking on a three-year project to perform these steps for all 300,000+ Cassini ISS images as well as images taken by the VIMS, UVIS, and CIRS instruments. The result will be a series of SPICE kernels that include accurate pointing information and a series of backplanes that include precomputed metadata for each pixel. All data will be made public through the PDS Rings Node (http://www.pds-rings.seti.org). We expect this project to dramatically decrease the time required for scientists to analyze Cassini data. In this poster we discuss the project, our current status, and our plans for the next three years.

  9. Precise Point Positioning Inertial Navigation Integration for Kinematic Airborne Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ryan

    UAVs have the potential for autonomous airborne remote sensing applications that require rapid response to natural hazards (e.g. volcano eruptions, earthquakes). As these applications require very accurate positioning, tightly coupled Global Positioning System (GPS) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) are an attractive method to perform real-time aircraft positioning. In particular, PPP can achieve a level of positioning accuracy that is similar to Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS, without the need of a relatively close GPS reference station. However, the PPP method is known to converge to accurate positioning estimate more slowly when compared to RTK, a drawback of PPP that is amplified whenever the receiver platform is faced with GPS challenged environments, such as poor satellite visibility and frequent phase breaks. This thesis presents the use of a simulation environment that characterizes the position estimation performance sensitivity of PPP/INS through a Monte Carlo analysis that is considered under various conditions: such as, the intensity of multipath errors, the number of phase breaks, the satellite geometry, the atmospheric conditions, the noise characteristics of the inertial sensor, and the accuracy of GPS orbit products. After the PPP/INS formulation was verified in a simulation environment, the INS formulation was incorporated into NASA JPL's Real-Time GIPSY-x. This software was then verified using eight recorded flight data sets provided by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program called Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D).

  10. Adaptive robust Kalman filtering for precise point positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The optimality of precise point postioning (PPP) solution using a Kalman filter is closely connected to the quality of the a priori information about the process noise and the updated mesurement noise, which are sometimes difficult to obtain. Also, the estimation enviroment in the case of dynamic or kinematic applications is not always fixed but is subject to change. To overcome these problems, an adaptive robust Kalman filtering algorithm, the main feature of which introduces an equivalent covariance matrix to resist the unexpected outliers and an adaptive factor to balance the contribution of observational information and predicted information from the system dynamic model, is applied for PPP processing. The basic models of PPP including the observation model, dynamic model and stochastic model are provided first. Then an adaptive robust Kalmam filter is developed for PPP. Compared with the conventional robust estimator, only the observation with largest standardized residual will be operated by the IGG III function in each iteration to avoid reducing the contribution of the normal observations or even filter divergence. Finally, tests carried out in both static and kinematic modes have confirmed that the adaptive robust Kalman filter outperforms the classic Kalman filter by turning either the equivalent variance matrix or the adaptive factor or both of them. This becomes evident when analyzing the positioning errors in flight tests at the turns due to the target maneuvering and unknown process/measurement noises. (paper)

  11. Adaptive robust Kalman filtering for precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2014-10-01

    The optimality of precise point postioning (PPP) solution using a Kalman filter is closely connected to the quality of the a priori information about the process noise and the updated mesurement noise, which are sometimes difficult to obtain. Also, the estimation enviroment in the case of dynamic or kinematic applications is not always fixed but is subject to change. To overcome these problems, an adaptive robust Kalman filtering algorithm, the main feature of which introduces an equivalent covariance matrix to resist the unexpected outliers and an adaptive factor to balance the contribution of observational information and predicted information from the system dynamic model, is applied for PPP processing. The basic models of PPP including the observation model, dynamic model and stochastic model are provided first. Then an adaptive robust Kalmam filter is developed for PPP. Compared with the conventional robust estimator, only the observation with largest standardized residual will be operated by the IGG III function in each iteration to avoid reducing the contribution of the normal observations or even filter divergence. Finally, tests carried out in both static and kinematic modes have confirmed that the adaptive robust Kalman filter outperforms the classic Kalman filter by turning either the equivalent variance matrix or the adaptive factor or both of them. This becomes evident when analyzing the positioning errors in flight tests at the turns due to the target maneuvering and unknown process/measurement noises.

  12. Testing Bernese Precise Point Positioning Over a Five Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, A. H.; Teferle, F. N.; Orliac, E. J.; Bingley, R. M.; Kierulf, H. P.

    2005-12-01

    In this presentation we investigate the use of the precise point positioning (PPP) technique within the Bernese GPS software version 5.0. Although this method has normally been associated with the GIPSY OASIS software developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Bernese GPS software is also able to carry out undifferenced analysis of GPS measurements. In previous studies, the PPP capability in Bernese has, however, only been used for evaluations of IGS rapid and final products over days or weeks. To the knowledge of the authors, no results using, e.g. several years of CGPS data, have been published. In recent years, the PPP technique has gained in popularity, partly responsible for this are the continuous improvements in the satellite orbits and clocks, and the related Earth rotation parameters produced and made available by the IGS community. The Bernese PPP processing strategy presented is still in development, but is in principle similar to the strategy applied when using GIPSY OASIS II, in terms of computing a set of transformation parameters from a global network of stations that are then applied during post-processing. We discuss results obtained for the global IGb00 network and a dense network over Europe using both IGS final and rapid products. A comparison with PPP coordinate time series from GIPSY OASIS II is also included.

  13. MM&T: Precision Machining of Optical Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    surfaces. f) A further advantage of precision machined optical surfaces is that they can be incorporated as a part of the primary structure that would...1I41 cqtting cycles it has been i4ir1 thoot the uitetoral ra should mlect the niajority of these r, juir cite ns. Parts recjuiring (’nvirorniental

  14. Precision Spectral Manipulation: A Demonstration Using a Coherent Optical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Sparkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to coherently spectrally manipulate quantum information has the potential to improve qubit rates across quantum channels and find applications in optical quantum computing. In this paper, we present experiments that use a multielement solenoid combined with the three-level gradient echo memory scheme to perform precision spectral manipulation of optical pulses. These operations include separate bandwidth and frequency manipulation with precision down to tens of kHz, spectral filtering of up to three separate frequency components, as well as time-delayed interference between pulses with both the same, and different, frequencies. If applied in a quantum information network, these operations would enable frequency-based multiplexing of qubits.

  15. Large area precision optical coatings by pulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frach, Peter; Gloess, Daniel; Goschurny, Thomas; Drescher, Andy; Hartung, Ullrich; Bartzsch, Hagen; Heisig, Andreas; Grune, Harald; Leischnig, Lothar; Leischnig, Steffen; Bundesmann, Carsten

    2017-05-01

    Pulse magnetron sputtering is very well suited for the deposition of optical coatings. Due to energetic activation during film growth, sputtered films are dense, smooth and show an excellent environmental stability. Films of materials like SiO2, Al2O3, Nb2O5 or Ta2O5 can be produced with very little absorption and scattering losses and are well suited for precision optics. FEP's coating plant PreSensLine, a deposition machine dedicated for the development and deposition of precision optical layer systems will be presented. The coating machine (VON ARDENNE) is equipped with dual magnetron systems (type RM by FEP). Concepts regarding machine design, process technology and process control as well as in situ monitoring are presented to realize the high demands on uniformity, accuracy and reproducibility. Results of gradient and multilayer type precision optical coatings are presented. Application examples are edge filters and special antireflective coatings for the backlight of 3D displays with substrate size up to 300 x 400mm. The machine allows deposition of rugate type gradient layers by rotating a rotary table with substrates between two sources of the dual magnetron system. By combination of the precision drive (by LSA) for the substrate movement and a special pulse parameter variation during the deposition process (available with the pulse unit UBS-C2 of FEP), it is possible to adjust the deposition rate as a function of the substrate position exactly. The aim of a current development is a technology for the uniform coating of 3D-substrates and freeform components as well as laterally graded layers.

  16. Multi-sensor control for precise assembly of optical components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform an optical assembly accurately, a multi-sensor control strategy is developed which includes an attitude measurement system, a vision system, a loss measurement system and a force sensor. A 3-DOF attitude measuring method using linear variable differential transformers (LVDT is designed to adjust the relation of position and attitude between the spherical mirror and the resonator. A micro vision feedback system is set up to extract the light beam and the diaphragm, which can achieve the coarse positioning of the spherical mirror in the optical assembly process. A rapid self-correlation method is presented to analyze the spectrum signal for the fine positioning. In order to prevent the damage of the optical components and realize sealing of the resonator, a hybrid force-position control is constructed to control the contact force of the optical components. The experimental results show that the proposed multi-sensor control strategy succeeds in accomplishing the precise assembly of the optical components, which consists of parallel adjustment, macro coarse adjustment, macro approach, micro fine adjustment, micro approach and optical contact. Therefore, the results validate the multi-sensor control strategy.

  17. Precision pointing of imaging spacecraft using gyro-based attitude ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Remote sensing satellites are required to meet stringent pointing and drift rate requirements for imaging operations. For achieving these pointing and stability requirements, continuous and accurate three-axis attitude information is required. Inertial sensors like gyros provide continuous attitude information with better ...

  18. Precision pointing of imaging spacecraft using gyro-based attitude ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Remote sensing satellites are required to meet stringent pointing and drift rate requirements for imaging operations. For achieving these pointing and stability requirements, continuous and accurate three-axis attitude informa- tion is required. Inertial sensors like gyros provide continuous attitude information.

  19. An optical fiber point liquid level sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Gong, Ying; Ge, Junfeng; Hua, Bin; Zhang, Hongjie; Ye, Lin

    2015-10-01

    An optical fiber sensor to accurately judge the level of a point is presented in this paper. Three fibers are used in the sensor, one as the source to emit infrared light, and the others as the differential inputs to absorb the scattering of light. Adopting a differential structure of dual signal fibers helps removing the interference of external environment and the change of the intensity of the light source. When the sensor contacts the liquid, the emitted light will be scatted by the liquid so that the output voltage will have significant difference from it when the sensor is above the liquid. A 45 degree oblique end-face of fibers is not just used to reduce the adhesion of liquid but also can increase discrepancy between differential inputs due to different scattered light intensity at different position, and then enhance the sensitivity. Base on this point, the optical fiber point liquid level sensor is designed and its working performance is investigated by experiments. The experimental results indicated stability, accuracy and excellent performance in the use of this sensor to measure the status of liquid level. And the safety will be ensured for the characteristic of fiber and excellent electrical isolation.

  20. Micro-optical fabrication by ultraprecision diamond machining and precision molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Likai; Naples, Neil J.; Roblee, Jeffrey W.; Yi, Allen Y.

    2017-06-01

    Ultraprecision diamond machining and high volume molding for affordable high precision high performance optical elements are becoming a viable process in optical industry for low cost high quality microoptical component manufacturing. In this process, first high precision microoptical molds are fabricated using ultraprecision single point diamond machining followed by high volume production methods such as compression or injection molding. In the last two decades, there have been steady improvements in ultraprecision machine design and performance, particularly with the introduction of both slow tool and fast tool servo. Today optical molds, including freeform surfaces and microlens arrays, are routinely diamond machined to final finish without post machining polishing. For consumers, compression molding or injection molding provide efficient and high quality optics at extremely low cost. In this paper, first ultraprecision machine design and machining processes such as slow tool and fast too servo are described then both compression molding and injection molding of polymer optics are discussed. To implement precision optical manufacturing by molding, numerical modeling can be included in the future as a critical part of the manufacturing process to ensure high product quality.

  1. Ultra-precision turning of complex spiral optical delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Po; Fang, Fengzhou; Wang, Qichang

    2011-11-01

    Optical delay line (ODL) implements the vertical or depth scanning of optical coherence tomography, which is the most important factor affecting the scanning resolution and speed. The spinning spiral mirror is found as an excellent optical delay device because of the high-speed and high-repetition-rate. However, it is one difficult task to machine the mirror due to the special shape and precision requirement. In this paper, the spiral mirror with titled parabolic generatrix is proposed, and the ultra-precision turning method is studied for its machining using the spiral mathematic model. Another type of ODL with the segmental shape is also introduced and machined to make rotation balance for the mass equalization when scanning. The efficiency improvement is considered in details, including the rough cutting with the 5- axis milling machine, the machining coordinates unification, and the selection of layer direction in turning. The onmachine measuring method based on stylus gauge is designed to analyze the shape deviation. The air bearing is used as the measuring staff and the laser interferometer sensor as the position sensor, whose repeatability accuracy is proved up to 10nm and the stable feature keeps well. With this method developed, the complex mirror with nanometric finish of 10.7nm in Ra and the form error within 1um are achieved.

  2. Precise timing signal transmission by a new optical fiber cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Murakami, Yasunori; Sato, Yoshihiro; Urakawa, Junji.

    1990-05-01

    For the precise timing signal transmission, a new optical fiber cable system was developed and installed between the 2.5GeV LINAC gun room and the TRISTAN control room. This fiber cable showed the reduced thermal transmission delay change less than 10psec/km in the temperature range from -20 to 30degC (average 0.04ppm/degC), which is 100 times smaller than that of any other existing coaxial cables and conventional optical fiber cables. The developed optical to electrical (O/E) and electrical to optical (E/O) converters also achieved the timing accuracy within 11psec over the temperature range from 10 to 35degC. The installed cable system in KEK eliminated the necessity of adjusting the phase drift of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) RF signal (508MHz), which was required with the former coaxial cable due to the temperature change in a year. Measured full width of jitter over the installed 1600m fiber link was 18.8psec. (author)

  3. Precision glass molding: Toward an optimal fabrication of optical lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangchi; Liu, Weidong

    2017-03-01

    It is costly and time consuming to use machining processes, such as grinding, polishing and lapping, to produce optical glass lenses with complex features. Precision glass molding (PGM) has thus been developed to realize an efficient manufacture of such optical components in a single step. However, PGM faces various technical challenges. For example, a PGM process must be carried out within the super-cooled region of optical glass above its glass transition temperature, in which the material has an unstable non-equilibrium structure. Within a narrow window of allowable temperature variation, the glass viscosity can change from 105 to 1012 Pas due to the kinetic fragility of the super-cooled liquid. This makes a PGM process sensitive to its molding temperature. In addition, because of the structural relaxation in this temperature window, the atomic structure that governs the material properties is strongly dependent on time and thermal history. Such complexity often leads to residual stresses and shape distortion in a lens molded, causing unexpected changes in density and refractive index. This review will discuss some of the central issues in PGM processes and provide a method based on a manufacturing chain consideration from mold material selection, property and deformation characterization of optical glass to process optimization. The realization of such optimization is a necessary step for the Industry 4.0 of PGM.

  4. Closed loop high precision position control system with optical scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Cheng-liang; Liao, Yuan; He, Zhong-wu; Luo, Zhong-xiang; Huang, Zhi-wei; Wan, Min; Hu, Xiao-yang; Fan, Guo-bin; Liang, Zheng

    2008-03-01

    With the developments of science of art, there are more and more demands on the high resolution control of position of object to be controlled, such as lathe, product line, elements in the optical resonant cavity, telescope, and so on. As one device with high resolution, the optical scale has more and more utility within the industrial and civil applications. With one optical scale and small DC servo motor, one closed loop high resolution position control system is constructed. This apparatus is used to control the position of the elements of optical system. The optical scale is attached on the object or reference guide way. The object position is sampled by a readhead of non-contact optical encoder. Control system processes the position information and control the position of object through the motion control of servo DC motor. The DC motor is controlled by one controller which is connected to an industrial computer. And the micro frictionless slide table does support the smooth motion of object to be controlled. The control algorithm of system is PID (Proportional-Integral-Differential) methods. The PID control methods have well ROBUST. The needed data to control are position, velocity and acceleration of the object. These three parameters correspond to the PID characters respectively. After the accomplishments of hardware, GUI (Graphical user interface), that is, the software of control system is also programmed. The whole system is assembled by specialized worker. Through calibration experiments, the coefficients of PID are obtained respectively. And then the precision of position control of the system is about 0.1μm.

  5. Exceptional points enhance sensing in an optical microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijian; Kaya Özdemir, Şahin; Zhao, Guangming; Wiersig, Jan; Yang, Lan

    2017-08-01

    Sensors play an important part in many aspects of daily life such as infrared sensors in home security systems, particle sensors for environmental monitoring and motion sensors in mobile phones. High-quality optical microcavities are prime candidates for sensing applications because of their ability to enhance light-matter interactions in a very confined volume. Examples of such devices include mechanical transducers, magnetometers, single-particle absorption spectrometers, and microcavity sensors for sizing single particles and detecting nanometre-scale objects such as single nanoparticles and atomic ions. Traditionally, a very small perturbation near an optical microcavity introduces either a change in the linewidth or a frequency shift or splitting of a resonance that is proportional to the strength of the perturbation. Here we demonstrate an alternative sensing scheme, by which the sensitivity of microcavities can be enhanced when operated at non-Hermitian spectral degeneracies known as exceptional points. In our experiments, we use two nanoscale scatterers to tune a whispering-gallery-mode micro-toroid cavity, in which light propagates along a concave surface by continuous total internal reflection, in a precise and controlled manner to exceptional points. A target nanoscale object that subsequently enters the evanescent field of the cavity perturbs the system from its exceptional point, leading to frequency splitting. Owing to the complex-square-root topology near an exceptional point, this frequency splitting scales as the square root of the perturbation strength and is therefore larger (for sufficiently small perturbations) than the splitting observed in traditional non-exceptional-point sensing schemes. Our demonstration of exceptional-point-enhanced sensitivity paves the way for sensors with unprecedented sensitivity.

  6. Precision 3-D microscopy with intensity modulated fibre optic scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical 3-D imagers constitute a family of precision and useful instruments, easily available on the market in a wide variety of configurations and performances. However, besides their cost they usually provide an image of the object (i.e. a more or less faithful representation of the reality) instead of a truly object's reconstruction. Depending on the detailed working principles of the equipment, this reconstruction may become a challenging task. Here a very simple yet reliable device is described; it is able to form images of opaque objects by illuminating them with an optical fibre and collecting the reflected light with another fibre. Its 3-D capability comes from the spatial filtering imposed by the fibres together with their movement (scanning) along the three directions: transversal (surface) and vertical. This unsophisticated approach allows one to model accurately the entire optical process and to perform the desired reconstruction, finding that information about the surface which is of interest: its profile and its reflectance, ultimately related to the type of material.

  7. A Surface-Coupled Optical Trap with 1-bp Precision via Active Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoniewski, Stephen R; Carter, Ashley R; Perkins, Thomas T

    2017-01-01

    Optical traps can measure bead motions with Å-scale precision. However, using this level of precision to infer 1-bp motion of molecular motors along DNA is difficult, since a variety of noise sources degrade instrumental stability. In this chapter, we detail how to improve instrumental stability by (1) minimizing laser pointing, mode, polarization, and intensity noise using an acousto-optical-modulator mediated feedback loop and (2) minimizing sample motion relative to the optical trap using a three-axis piezo-electric-stage mediated feedback loop. These active techniques play a critical role in achieving a surface stability of 1 Å in 3D over tens of seconds and a 1-bp stability and precision in a surface-coupled optical trap over a broad bandwidth (Δf = 0.03-2 Hz) at low force (6 pN). These active stabilization techniques can also aid other biophysical assays that would benefit from improved laser stability and/or Å-scale sample stability, such as atomic force microscopy and super-resolution imaging.

  8. Precise Pointing for Radio Science Occultations and Radar Mapping During the Cassini Mission at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation challenges and lessons learned from radar and radio science pointing observations during the Cassini mission at Saturn. Implementation of the precise desired pointing reveals key issues in the ground system, the flight system, and the pointing paradigm itself. To achieve accurate pointing on some observations, specific workarounds had to be implemented and folded into the sequence development process. Underlying Cassini's pointing system is a remarkable construct known as Inertial Vector Propagation.

  9. Surface ice flow velocity and tide retrieval of the amery ice shelf using precise point positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2006-01-01

    Five days of continuous GPS observation data were collected in the frontal zone of the Amery ice shelf and subsequently post-processed using precise point position (PPP) technology based on precise orbit and clock products from the International GNSS service. The surface ice flow velocity...

  10. Real-time multi-GNSS single-frequency precise point positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, P.F.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a popular Global Positioning System (GPS) processing strategy, thanks to its high precision without requiring additional GPS infrastructure. Single-Frequency PPP (SF-PPP) takes this one step further by no longer relying on expensive dual-frequency GPS receivers,

  11. Fabrication of ultrahigh-precision hemispherical mirrors for quantum-optics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Daniel B; Campbell, Geoff T; Araneda, Gabriel; Fang, Fengzhou; Colombe, Yves; Buchler, Ben C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2018-01-09

    High precision, high numerical aperture mirrors are desirable for mediating strong atom-light coupling in quantum optics applications and can also serve as important reference surfaces for optical metrology. In this work we demonstrate the fabrication of highly-precise hemispheric mirrors with numerical aperture NA = 0.996. The mirrors were fabricated from aluminum by single-point diamond turning using a stable ultra-precision lathe calibrated with an in-situ white-light interferometer. Our mirrors have a diameter of 25 mm and were characterized using a combination of wide-angle single-shot and small-angle stitched multi-shot interferometry. The measurements show root-mean-square (RMS) form errors consistently below 25 nm. The smoothest of our mirrors has a RMS error of 14 nm and a peak-to-valley (PV) error of 88 nm, which corresponds to a form accuracy of λ/50 for visible optics.

  12. Precision Membrane Optical Shell (PMOS) Technology for Lightweight LIDAR Apertures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision membrane optical shell (PMOS) technology is an innovative combination of 1) ultra lightweight optically smooth membrane thin films, 2) advanced mold based...

  13. Small optic suspensions for Advanced LIGO input optics and other precision optical experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, G; Arain, M A; Aston, S M; Feldbaum, D; Fulda, P; Gleason, J; Heintze, M; Martin, R M; Mueller, C L; Nanda Kumar, D M; Pele, A; Reitze, D H; Sainathan, P; Tanner, D B; Williams, L F; Mueller, G

    2016-11-01

    We report on the design and performance of small optic suspensions developed to suppress seismic motion of out-of-cavity optics in the input optics subsystem of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory. These compact single stage suspensions provide isolation in all six degrees of freedom of the optic, local sensing and actuation in three of them, and passive damping for the other three.

  14. Monitoring changes of optical attenuation coefficients of acupuncture points during laser acupuncture by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen

    2010-11-01

    The physical properties of acupuncture point were important to discover the mechanism of acupuncture meridian. In this paper, we used an optical coherence tomography to monitor in vivo the changes of optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point during laser irradiation on Yangxi acupuncture point. The optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point were obtained by fitting the raw data according to the Beer-Lambert's law. The experimental results showed that the optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point decreased during the laser acupuncture, in contrast to a barely changed result in that of non-acupuncture point. The significant change of optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point indicated that there was a correlation between Hegu and Yangxi acupuncture points to some extent.

  15. Zero-point vibrational effects on optical rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, K.; Taylor, P.R.; Åstrand, P.-O.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the effects of molecular vibrations on the optical rotation in two chiral molecules, methyloxirane and trans-2,3-dimethylthiirane. It is shown that the magnitude of zero-point vibrational corrections increases as the electronic contribution to the optical rotation increases. Vibrat...... effects are the only source of optical activity, and we investigate the magnitude of these effects through calculations on mono-deuterated oxirane. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Rigorous high-precision enclosures of fixed points and their invariant manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Alexander N.

    The well established concept of Taylor Models is introduced, which offer highly accurate C0 enclosures of functional dependencies, combining high-order polynomial approximation of functions and rigorous estimates of the truncation error, performed using verified arithmetic. The focus of this work is on the application of Taylor Models in algorithms for strongly non-linear dynamical systems. A method is proposed to extend the existing implementation of Taylor Models in COSY INFINITY from double precision coefficients to arbitrary precision coefficients. Great care is taken to maintain the highest efficiency possible by adaptively adjusting the precision of higher order coefficients in the polynomial expansion. High precision operations are based on clever combinations of elementary floating point operations yielding exact values for round-off errors. An experimental high precision interval data type is developed and implemented. Algorithms for the verified computation of intrinsic functions based on the High Precision Interval datatype are developed and described in detail. The application of these operations in the implementation of High Precision Taylor Models is discussed. An application of Taylor Model methods to the verification of fixed points is presented by verifying the existence of a period 15 fixed point in a near standard Henon map. Verification is performed using different verified methods such as double precision Taylor Models, High Precision intervals and High Precision Taylor Models. Results and performance of each method are compared. An automated rigorous fixed point finder is implemented, allowing the fully automated search for all fixed points of a function within a given domain. It returns a list of verified enclosures of each fixed point, optionally verifying uniqueness within these enclosures. An application of the fixed point finder to the rigorous analysis of beam transfer maps in accelerator physics is presented. Previous work done by

  17. Design Considerations for Miniaturized Control Moment Gyroscopes for Rapid Retargeting and Precision Pointing of Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Kunal; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design as well as characterization of a practical control moment gyroscope (CMG) based attitude control system (ACS) for small satellites in the 15-20 kilogram mass range performing rapid retargeting and precision pointing maneuvers. The paper focuses on the approach taken in the design of miniaturized CMGs while considering the constraints imposed by the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as well as the size of the satellite. It is shown that a hybrid mode is more suitable for COTS based moment exchange actuators; a mode that uses the torque amplification of CMGs for rapid retargeting and direct torque capabilities of the flywheel motors for precision pointing. A simulation is provided to demonstrate on-orbit slew and pointing performance.

  18. Some aspects of improving Multi-GNSS real-time precise point positioning services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Ge, Maorong; Li, Xingxing; Schuh, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Multi-GNSS is expected to achieve a real-time precise point positioning service with better accuracy and reliability than GPS-only service. In this contribution, we address several critical challenges in implementing a GPS+GLONASS+BeiDou+Galileo service to provide global users with centimeter-level positioning in real-time based on the software system developed at GFZ. The specific issues of improving GLONASS orbit quality by resolving ambiguity over long baselines, estimation of inter-system/frequency biases, ambiguity resolution in real-time clock estimation and positioning, and computation efficiency are discussed and investigated in detail. Experimental validation is carried out based on the data streams of the IGS/MGEX network. The real-time orbit and clock products are assessed by comparison with the IGS/MGEX final products, and orbits are also assessed by overlapping day boundaries and satellite laser ranging. The phase bias (uncalibrated phase delay) products are evaluated by comparison with the post-processing results. It is demonstrated that multi-GNSS can contribute significantly to improving the global real-time precise point positioning service in terms of convergence time and accuracy. Keywords: Multi-GNSS, Real-Time, Precise Orbit Determination, Precise Point Positioning, Ambiguity Resolution, Inter-System/Frequency Bias, Algorithm Efficiency

  19. Ultrahigh precision synchronization of optical and microwave frequency sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaydzhyan, A.; Peng, M. Y.; Kartner, F. X.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that balanced optical-microwave phase detectors (BOMPD) are able to provide a robust long-term optical-RF synchronization with subfemtosecond residual timing drift over 24 hours in laboratory conditions without active temperature control of optical and electronic paths. Moreover, 10.833 GHz Sapphire-loaded cavity oscillator (SLCO) was successfully disciplined by 216.66 MHz laser oscillator using the BOMPD which resulted in a sub-femtosecond RMS jitter integrated from 1 Hz to 1 MHz.

  20. A Comparative Study of Precise Point Positioning (PPP Accuracy Using Online Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a technique used to determine the position of receiver antenna without communication with the reference station. It may be an alternative solution to differential measurements, where maintaining a connection with a single RTK station or a regional network of reference stations RTN is necessary. This situation is especially common in areas with poorly developed infrastructure of ground stations. A lot of research conducted so far on the use of the PPP technique has been concerned about the development of entire day observation sessions. However, this paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of accuracy of absolute determination of position from observations which last between 1 to 7 hours with the use of four permanent services which execute calculations with PPP technique such as: Automatic Precise Positioning Service (APPS, Canadian Spatial Reference System Precise Point Positioning (CSRS-PPP, GNSS Analysis and Positioning Software (GAPS and magicPPP - Precise Point Positioning Solution (magicGNSS. On the basis of acquired results of measurements, it can be concluded that at least two-hour long measurements allow acquiring an absolute position with an accuracy of 2-4 cm. An evaluation of the impact on the accuracy of simultaneous positioning of three points test network on the change of the horizontal distance and the relative height difference between measured triangle vertices was also conducted. Distances and relative height differences between points of the triangular test network measured with a laser station Leica TDRA6000 were adopted as references. The analyses of results show that at least two hours long measurement sessions can be used to determine the horizontal distance or the difference in height with an accuracy of 1-2 cm. Rapid products employed in calculations conducted with PPP technique reached the accuracy of determining coordinates on a close level as in elaborations which employ

  1. A New Blind Pointing Model Improves Large Reflector Antennas Precision Pointing at Ka-Band (32 GHz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochblatt, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)-Deep Space Network (DSN) subnet of 34-m Beam Waveguide (BWG) Antennas was recently upgraded with Ka-Band (32-GHz) frequency feeds for space research and communication. For normal telemetry tracking a Ka-Band monopulse system is used, which typically yields 1.6-mdeg mean radial error (MRE) pointing accuracy on the 34-m diameter antennas. However, for the monopulse to be able to acquire and lock, for special radio science applications where monopulse cannot be used, or as a back-up for the monopulse, high-precision open-loop blind pointing is required. This paper describes a new 4th order pointing model and calibration technique, which was developed and applied to the DSN 34-m BWG antennas yielding 1.8 to 3.0-mdeg MRE pointing accuracy and amplitude stability of 0.2 dB, at Ka-Band, and successfully used for the CASSINI spacecraft occultation experiment at Saturn and Titan. In addition, the new 4th order pointing model was used during a telemetry experiment at Ka-Band (32 GHz) utilizing the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft while at a distance of 0.225 astronomical units (AU) from Earth and communicating with a DSN 34-m BWG antenna at a record high rate of 6-megabits per second (Mb/s).

  2. Figuring and Polishing Precision Optical Surfaces, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The requirements for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of large optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of future NASA programs such as LISA,...

  3. A Compact, High-Precision Optical Payload Enabling Earth-Sized Exoplanet Detection Using Nanosatellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed research program is to design, build, test, and fly a compact, high-precision optical payload that is compatible with nanosatellite...

  4. Real-Time IGS products verification in the context of their use in Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Tomasz; Bosy, Jaroslaw; Kaplon, Jan; Sierny, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a positioning technique of single GNSS receiver which applies high quality products from permanent GNSS observations to utilize the computational potential of global network analysis. Estimated satellite orbits and clocks corrections are introduced into equation system as known parameters. PPP requires the application of precise products, since their quality directly reflects the positioning accuracy. In June 2007 IGS Real-time Pilot Project has started in order to satisfy real-time users, which is especially important for Precise Point Positioning. Currently available streams including precise orbits, clocks and code biases are standardized on RTCM-SC 104 formats and may be used as a substitute for ultra-rapid products. The target combination product performances are 0.3ns for satellite clock accuracy and orbit accuracy at the level of the IGS Ultra predictions with maximum latency of 10s. This study presents the quality assessment of currently available Real-Time IGS products. Long-term test include comparisons of disseminated information with final and high-rate products, stability assessment over time, as well as latency validation of available RTCM streams.

  5. Navy Precision Optical Interferometer Measurements of 10 Stellar Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    precision for giant stars. Hopefully future observations with planned spacecraft such as Gaia (Perryman 2003) and TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey...Perryman, M. A. C. 2003, in Proc. ASP Conf. Ser. Vol. 298, GAIA Spectroscopy: Science and Technology, ed. U. Munari (San Francisco, CA: ASP), 3 Pickles, A

  6. Precision nutrition - review of methods for point-of-care assessment of nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Lee, Seoho; Erickson, David; Mehta, Saurabh

    2017-04-01

    Precision nutrition encompasses prevention and treatment strategies for optimizing health that consider individual variability in diet, lifestyle, environment and genes by accurately determining an individual's nutritional status. This is particularly important as malnutrition now affects a third of the global population, with most of those affected or their care providers having limited means of determining their nutritional status. Similarly, program implementers often have no way of determining the impact or success of their interventions, thus hindering their scale-up. Exciting new developments in the area of point-of-care diagnostics promise to provide improved access to nutritional status assessment, as a first step towards enabling precision nutrition and tailored interventions at both the individual and community levels. In this review, we focus on the current advances in developing portable diagnostics for assessment of nutritional status at point-of-care, along with the numerous design challenges in this process and potential solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Precision optical slit for high heat load or ultra high vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, N.C.; DiGennaro, R.S.; Swain, T.L.

    1995-01-24

    This invention relates generally to slits used in optics that must be precisely aligned and adjusted. The optical slits of the present invention are useful in x-ray optics, x-ray beam lines, optical systems in which the entrance slit is critical for high wavelength resolution. The invention is particularly useful in ultra high vacuum systems where lubricants are difficult to use and designs which avoid the movement of metal parts against one another are important, such as monochromators for high wavelength resolution with ultra high vacuum systems. The invention further relates to optical systems in which temperature characteristics of the slit materials is important. The present invention yet additionally relates to precision slits wherein the opposing edges of the slit must be precisely moved relative to a center line between the edges with each edge retaining its parallel orientation with respect to the other edge and/or the center line. 21 figures.

  8. High precision optical fiber alignment using tube laser bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, Ger; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Herder, Justus Laurens

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to align optical fibers within 0.2 μm of the optimal position, using tube laser bending and in situ measuring of the coupling efficiency. For near-UV wavelengths, passive alignment of the fibers with respect to the waveguides on photonic integrated circuit chips

  9. An Investigation on the Contribution of GLONASS to the Precise Point Positioning for Short Time Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulug, R.; Ozludemir, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    After 2011, through the modernization process of GLONASS, the number of satellites increased rapidly. This progress has made the GLONASS the only fully operational system alternative to GPS in point positioning. So far, many researches have been conducted to investigate the contribution of GLONASS to point positioning considering different methods such as Real Time Kinematic (RTK) and Precise Point Positioning (PPP). The latter one, PPP, is a method that performs precise position determination using a single GNSS receiver. PPP method has become very attractive since the early 2000s and it provided great advantages for engineering and scientific applications. However, PPP method needs at least 2 hours observation time and the required observation length may be longer depending on several factors, such as the number of satellites, satellite configuration etc. The more satellites, the less observation time. Nevertheless the impact of the number of satellites included must be known very well. In this study, to determine the contribution of GLONASS on PPP, GLONASS satellite observations were added one by one from 1 to 5 satellite in 2, 4 and 6 hours of observations. For this purpose, the data collected at the IGS site ISTA was used. Data processing has been done for Day of Year (DOY) 197 in 2016. 24 hours GPS observations have been processed by Bernese 5.2 PPP module and the output was selected as the reference while 2, 4 and 6 hours GPS and GPS/GLONASS observations have been processed by magic GNSS PPP module. The results clearly showed that GPS/GLONASS observations improved positional accuracy, precision, dilution of precision and convergence to the reference coordinates. In this context, coordinate differences between 24 hours GPS observations and 6 hours GPS/GLONASS observations have been obtained as less than 2 cm.

  10. Flight-Test Evaluation of Kinematic Precise Point Positioning of Small UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason N. Gross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS flight data collected onboard a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV is conducted in order to demonstrate that postprocessed kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP solutions with precisions approximately 6 cm 3D Residual Sum of Squares (RSOS can be obtained on SUAVs that have short duration flights with limited observational periods (i.e., only ~≤5 minutes of data. This is a significant result for the UAV flight testing community because an important and relevant benefit of the PPP technique over traditional Differential GPS (DGPS techniques, such as Real-Time Kinematic (RTK, is that there is no requirement for maintaining a short baseline separation to a differential GNSS reference station. Because SUAVs are an attractive platform for applications such as aerial surveying, precision agriculture, and remote sensing, this paper offers an experimental evaluation of kinematic PPP estimation strategies using SUAV platform data. In particular, an analysis is presented in which the position solutions that are obtained from postprocessing recorded UAV flight data with various PPP software and strategies are compared to solutions that were obtained using traditional double-differenced ambiguity fixed carrier-phase Differential GPS (CP-DGPS. This offers valuable insight to assist designers of SUAV navigation systems whose applications require precise positioning.

  11. Vibration isolation and dual-stage actuation pointing system for space precision payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yongfang; Huang, Hai

    2018-02-01

    Pointing and stability requirements for future space missions are becoming more and more stringent. This work follows the pointing control method which consists of a traditional spacecraft attitude control system and a payload active pointing loop, further proposing a vibration isolation and dual-stage actuation pointing system for space precision payloads based on a soft Stewart platform. Central to the concept is using the dual-stage actuator instead of the traditional voice coil motor single-stage actuator to improve the payload active pointing capability. Based on a specified payload, the corresponding platform was designed to be installed between the spacecraft bus and the payload. The performance of the proposed system is demonstrated by preliminary closed-loop control investigations in simulations. With the ordinary spacecraft bus, the line-of-sight pointing accuracy can be controlled to below a few milliarcseconds in tip and tilt. Meanwhile, utilizing the voice coil motor with the softening spring in parallel, which is a portion of the dual-stage actuator, the system effectively achieves low-frequency motion transmission and high-frequency vibration isolation along the other four degree-of-freedom directions.

  12. High-precision optical systems with inexpensive hardware: a unified alignment and structural design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winrow, Edward G.; Chavez, Victor H.

    2011-09-01

    High-precision opto-mechanical structures have historically been plagued by high costs for both hardware and the associated alignment and assembly process. This problem is especially true for space applications where only a few production units are produced. A methodology for optical alignment and optical structure design is presented which shifts the mechanism of maintaining precision from tightly toleranced, machined flight hardware to reusable, modular tooling. Using the proposed methodology, optical alignment error sources are reduced by the direct alignment of optics through their surface retroreflections (pips) as seen through a theodolite. Optical alignment adjustments are actualized through motorized, sub-micron precision actuators in 5 degrees of freedom. Optical structure hardware costs are reduced through the use of simple shapes (tubes, plates) and repeated components. This approach produces significantly cheaper hardware and more efficient assembly without sacrificing alignment precision or optical structure stability. The design, alignment plan and assembly of a 4" aperture, carbon fiber composite, Schmidt-Cassegrain concept telescope is presented.

  13. A Study on the Estimation of the Scale Factor for Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Bahattin; Kayacik, Orhan

    2017-04-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique is one of the most important subject in Geomatic Engineering. PPP technique needs only one GNSS receiver and users have preferred it instead of traditional relative positioning technique for several applications. Scientific software has been used for PPP solutions and the software may underestimate the formal errors of the estimated coordinates. The formal errors have major effects on statistical interpretation. Variance-Covariance (VCV) matrix derived from GNSS processing software plays important role for deformation analysis and scientists sometimes need to scale VCV matrix. In this study, 10 continuously operating reference stations have been considered for 11 days dated 2014. All points have been analyzed by Gipsy-OASIS v6.4 scientific software. The solutions were derived for different session durations as 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours to obtain repeatability of the coordinates and analyses were carried out in order to estimate scale factor for Gipsy-OASIS v6.4 PPP results. According to the first results scale factors slightly increase depending on the raises in respect of session duration. Keywords: Precise Point Positioning, Gipsy-OASIS v6.4, Variance-Covariance Matrix, Scale Factor

  14. Stabilisation and precision pointing quadrupole magnets in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC)

    CERN Document Server

    Janssens, Stef; Linde, Frank; van den Brand, Jo; Bertolini, Alessandro; Artoos, Kurt

    This thesis describes the research done to provide stabilisation and precision positioning for the main beam quadrupole magnets of the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. The introduction describes why new particle accelerators are needed to further the knowledge of our universe and why they are linear. A proposed future accelerator is the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) which consists of a novel two beam accelerator concept. Due to its linearity and subsequent single pass at the interaction point, this new accelerator requires a very small beam size at the interaction point, in order to increase collision effectiveness. One of the technological challenges, to obtain these small beam sizes at the interaction point, is to keep the quadrupole magnets aligned and stable to 1.5 nm integrated r.m.s. in vertical and 5 nm integrated root mean square (r.m.s.) in lateral direction. Additionally there is a proposal to create an intentional offset (max. 50 nm every 20 ms with a precision of +/- 1 nm), for several quadrupole ma...

  15. Datum maintenance of the main Egyptian geodetic control networks by utilizing Precise Point Positioning "PPP" technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Mostafa; Elmewafey, Mahmoud; Farahan, Magda H.

    2016-06-01

    A geodetic control network is the wire-frame or the skeleton on which continuous and consistent mapping, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and surveys are based. Traditionally, geodetic control points are established as permanent physical monuments placed in the ground and precisely marked, located, and documented. With the development of satellite surveying methods and their availability and high degree of accuracy, a geodetic control network could be established by using GNSS and referred to an international terrestrial reference frame used as a three-dimensional geocentric reference system for a country. Based on this concept, in 1992, the Egypt Survey Authority (ESA) established two networks, namely High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) and the National Agricultural Cadastral Network (NACN). To transfer the International Terrestrial Reference Frame to the HARN, the HARN was connected with four IGS stations. The processing results were 1:10,000,000 (Order A) for HARN and 1:1,000,000 (Order B) for NACN relative network accuracy standard between stations defined in ITRF1994 Epoch1996. Since 1996, ESA did not perform any updating or maintaining works for these networks. To see how non-performing maintenance degrading the values of the HARN and NACN, the available HARN and NACN stations in the Nile Delta were observed. The Processing of the tested part was done by CSRS-PPP Service based on utilizing Precise Point Positioning "PPP" and Trimble Business Center "TBC". The study shows the feasibility of Precise Point Positioning in updating the absolute positioning of the HARN network and its role in updating the reference frame (ITRF). The study also confirmed the necessity of the absent role of datum maintenance of Egypt networks.

  16. Dynamic metrology and data processing for precision freeform optics fabrication and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Maham; Trumper, Isaac; Huang, Lei; Choi, Heejoo; Zhao, Wenchuan; Graves, Logan; Oh, Chang Jin; Kim, Dae Wook

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic metrology holds the key to overcoming several challenging limitations of conventional optical metrology, especially with regards to precision freeform optical elements. We present two dynamic metrology systems: 1) adaptive interferometric null testing; and 2) instantaneous phase shifting deflectometry, along with an overview of a gradient data processing and surface reconstruction technique. The adaptive null testing method, utilizing a deformable mirror, adopts a stochastic parallel gradient descent search algorithm in order to dynamically create a null testing condition for unknown freeform optics. The single-shot deflectometry system implemented on an iPhone uses a multiplexed display pattern to enable dynamic measurements of time-varying optical components or optics in vibration. Experimental data, measurement accuracy / precision, and data processing algorithms are discussed.

  17. Process influences and correction possibilities for high precision injection molded freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Lars; Risse, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Modern injection molding processes offer a cost-efficient method for manufacturing high precision plastic optics for high volume applications. Besides form deviation of molded freeform optics, internal material stress is a relevant influencing factor for the functionality of a freeform optics in an optical system. This paper illustrates dominant influence parameters of an injection molding process relating to form deviation and internal material stress based on a freeform demonstrator geometry. Furthermore, a deterministic and efficient way for 3D mold correcting of systematic, asymmetrical shrinkage errors is shown to reach micrometer range shape accuracy at diameters up to 40 mm. In a second case, a stress-optimized parameter combination using unusual molding conditions was 3D corrected to reach high precision and low stress freeform polymer optics.

  18. Real-Time Single Frequency Precise Point Positioning Using SBAS Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Real-time single frequency precise point positioning (PPP is a promising technique for high-precision navigation with sub-meter or even centimeter-level accuracy because of its convenience and low cost. The navigation performance of single frequency PPP heavily depends on the real-time availability and quality of correction products for satellite orbits and satellite clocks. Satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS provides the correction products in real-time, but they are intended to be used for wide area differential positioning at 1 meter level precision. By imposing the constraints for ionosphere error, we have developed a real-time single frequency PPP method by sufficiently utilizing SBAS correction products. The proposed PPP method are tested with static and kinematic data, respectively. The static experimental results show that the position accuracy of the proposed PPP method can reach decimeter level, and achieve an improvement of at least 30% when compared with the traditional SBAS method. The positioning convergence of the proposed PPP method can be achieved in 636 epochs at most in static mode. In the kinematic experiment, the position accuracy of the proposed PPP method can be improved by at least 20 cm relative to the SBAS method. Furthermore, it has revealed that the proposed PPP method can achieve decimeter level convergence within 500 s in the kinematic mode.

  19. Dimensional synthesis of six-bar Stephenson II linkage for fifteen precision points path generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Nafees

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dimensional synthesis of a planar six-bar Stephenson II linkage having single degree of freedom with rotational constraints. The objective of the synthesis is to determine all the link lengths with their orientations of the linkage that is capable to follow the path specified by fifteen precision points. The analytical loop closure equations are formed using dyad and triad technique by means of complex number mathematics for path generation. These equations are solved simultaneously for fifteen displacement positions of coupler tracing point to determine various link lengths with their corresponding orientations. The displacement vector and coupler link motion are the prescribed parameters. The effectiveness of mechanism synthesis has been demonstrated on a numerical example. The solution of loop closure equations has been obtained using a MATLAB code. Finally, the determined link lengths with their orientations have been verified using SAM software.

  20. Optically-Selected Cluster Catalogs As a Precision Cosmology Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U. /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KICP, Chicago /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Michigan U. /Chicago U., Astron.; Evrard, August E.; McKay, Timothy A.; /Michigan U.

    2007-03-26

    We introduce a framework for describing the halo selection function of optical cluster finders. We treat the problem as being separable into a term that describes the intrinsic galaxy content of a halo (the Halo Occupation Distribution, or HOD) and a term that captures the effects of projection and selection by the particular cluster finding algorithm. Using mock galaxy catalogs tuned to reproduce the luminosity dependent correlation function and the empirical color-density relation measured in the SDSS, we characterize the maxBCG algorithm applied by Koester et al. to the SDSS galaxy catalog. We define and calibrate measures of completeness and purity for this algorithm, and demonstrate successful recovery of the underlying cosmology and HOD when applied to the mock catalogs. We identify principal components--combinations of cosmology and HOD parameters--that are recovered by survey counts as a function of richness, and demonstrate that percent-level accuracies are possible in the first two components, if the selection function can be understood to {approx} 15% accuracy.

  1. Further characterization of the time transfer capabilities of precise point positioning (PPP): the Sliding Batch Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyennon, Nicolas; Cerretto, Giancarlo; Tavella, Patrizia; Lahaye, François

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, many national timing laboratories have installed geodetic Global Positioning System receivers together with their traditional GPS/GLONASS Common View receivers and Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer equipment. Many of these geodetic receivers operate continuously within the International GNSS Service (IGS), and their data are regularly processed by IGS Analysis Centers. From its global network of over 350 stations and its Analysis Centers, the IGS generates precise combined GPS ephemeredes and station and satellite clock time series referred to the IGS Time Scale. A processing method called Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is in use in the geodetic community allowing precise recovery of GPS antenna position, clock phase, and atmospheric delays by taking advantage of these IGS precise products. Previous assessments, carried out at Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM; formerly IEN) with a PPP implementation developed at Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), showed PPP clock solutions have better stability over short/medium term than GPS CV and GPS P3 methods and significantly reduce the day-boundary discontinuities when used in multi-day continuous processing, allowing time-limited, campaign-style time-transfer experiments. This paper reports on follow-on work performed at INRiM and NRCan to further characterize and develop the PPP method for time transfer applications, using data from some of the National Metrology Institutes. We develop a processing procedure that takes advantage of the improved stability of the phase-connected multi-day PPP solutions while allowing the generation of continuous clock time series, more applicable to continuous operation/monitoring of timing equipment.

  2. High precision series solutions of differential equations: Ordinary and regular singular points of second order ODEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Amna; Olaussen, Kåre

    2012-10-01

    A subroutine for a very-high-precision numerical solution of a class of ordinary differential equations is provided. For a given evaluation point and equation parameters the memory requirement scales linearly with precision P, and the number of algebraic operations scales roughly linearly with P when P becomes sufficiently large. We discuss results from extensive tests of the code, and how one, for a given evaluation point and equation parameters, may estimate precision loss and computing time in advance. Program summary Program title: seriesSolveOde1 Catalogue identifier: AEMW_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 991 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 488116 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC's or higher performance computers. Operating system: Linux and MacOS RAM: Few to many megabytes (problem dependent). Classification: 2.7, 4.3 External routines: CLN — Class Library for Numbers [1] built with the GNU MP library [2], and GSL — GNU Scientific Library [3] (only for time measurements). Nature of problem: The differential equation -s2({d2}/{dz2}+{1-ν+-ν-}/{z}{d}/{dz}+{ν+ν-}/{z2})ψ(z)+{1}/{z} ∑n=0N vnznψ(z)=0, is solved numerically to very high precision. The evaluation point z and some or all of the equation parameters may be complex numbers; some or all of them may be represented exactly in terms of rational numbers. Solution method: The solution ψ(z), and optionally ψ'(z), is evaluated at the point z by executing the recursion A(z)={s-2}/{(m+1+ν-ν+)(m+1+ν-ν-)} ∑n=0N Vn(z)A(z), ψ(z)=ψ(z)+A(z), to sufficiently large m. Here ν is either ν+ or ν-, and Vn(z)=vnz. The recursion is initialized by A(z)=δzν,for n

  3. Spacecraft precision entry navigation using an adaptive sigma point Kalman filter bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, Martin Cornelius

    This work documents the development of a sigma point Kalman filter for the purpose of precision spacecraft navigation during the atmospheric entry, descent and landing phase. The use of the sigma point Kalman filter is driven by the desire to avoid complex partial derivatives associated with the standard extended Kalman filter. The strategy increases the likelihood that the navigation algorithm will be compatible with the Electra. Using Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (MER-A) and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) data, experiments were conducted to validate the proposed navigation concept. Beginning at atmospheric entry interface, the hypersonic entry phase is considered and the navigation architecture performance is quantified. Using the sigma point Kalman filter as the main computational unit, a filter bank for environmental parameter identification is investigated. The focus of the investigation is atmospheric parameter identification. The MER-A mission is used to verify the ability of the filter bank to make appropriate selections. The navigation architecture is implemented on the Electra programmable radio, a flight hardware communication node available on spacecraft build for Mars exploration. The investigations show that the sigma point Kalman filter structure is very applicable to the atmospheric entry navigation problem. When used in conjunction with the filter bank concept, the overall navigation architecture is shown to be able to improve navigation accuracy over standard dead-reckoning, while providing robustness to uncertainties in the atmosphere. The navigation algorithm is successfully hosted on the Electra programmable radio and is capable of processing actual MER inertial measurement data.

  4. Precision Pointing in Space Using Arrays of Shape Memory Based Linear Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Nikhil

    Space systems such as communication satellites, earth observation satellites and telescope require accurate pointing to observe fixed targets over prolonged time. These systems typically use reaction wheels to slew the spacecraft and gimballing systems containing motors to achieve precise pointing. Motor based actuators have limited life as they contain moving parts that require lubrication in space. Alternate methods have utilized piezoelectric actuators. This paper presents Shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators for control of a deployable antenna placed on a satellite. The SMAs are operated as a series of distributed linear actuators. These distributed linear actuators are not prone to single point failures and although each individual actuator is imprecise due to hysteresis and temperature variation, the system as a whole achieves reliable results. The SMAs can be programmed to perform a series of periodic motion and operate as a mechanical guidance system that is not prone to damage from radiation or space weather. Efforts are focused on developing a system that can achieve 1 degree pointing accuracy at first, with an ultimate goal of achieving a few arc seconds accuracy. Bench top model of the actuator system has been developed and working towards testing the system under vacuum. A demonstration flight of the technology is planned aboard a CubeSat.

  5. Research on the high-precision non-contact optical detection technology for banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaofeng; Liang, Tiancai; Luo, Pengfeng; Sun, Jianfeng

    2015-09-01

    The technology of high-precision laser interferometry was introduced for optical measurement of the banknotes in this paper. Taking advantage of laser short wavelength and high sensitivity, information of adhesive tape and cavity about the banknotes could be checked efficiently. Compared with current measurement devices, including mechanical wheel measurement device, Infrared measurement device, ultrasonic measurement device, the laser interferometry measurement has higher precision and reliability. This will improve the ability of banknotes feature information in financial electronic equipment.

  6. GNSS Antenna Caused Near-Field Interference Effect in Precise Point Positioning Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Karol; Baryła, Radosław

    2017-06-01

    Results of long-term static GNSS observation processing adjustment prove that the often assumed "averaging multipath effect due to extended observation periods" does not actually apply. It is instead visible a bias that falsifies the coordinate estimation. The comparisons between the height difference measured with a geometrical precise leveling and the height difference provided by GNSS clearly verify the impact of the near-field multipath effect. The aim of this paper is analysis the near-field interference effect with respect to the coordinate domain. We demonstrate that the way of antennas mounting during observation campaign (distance from nearest antennas) can cause visible changes in pseudo-kinematic precise point positioning results. GNSS measured height differences comparison revealed that bias of up to 3 mm can be noticed in Up component when some object (additional GNSS antenna) was placed in radiating near-field region of measuring antenna. Additionally, for both processing scenario (GPS and GPS/GLONASS) the scattering of results clearly increased when additional antenna crosses radiating near-field region of measuring antenna. It is especially true for big choke ring antennas. In short session (15, 30 min.) the standard deviation was about twice bigger in comparison to scenario without additional antenna. When we used typical surveying antennas (short near-field region radius) the effect is almost invisible. In this case it can be observed the standard deviation increase of about 20%. On the other hand we found that surveying antennas are generally characterized by lower accuracy than choke ring antennas. The standard deviation obtained on point with this type of antenna was bigger in all processing scenarios (in comparison to standard deviation obtained on point with choke ring antenna).

  7. Near-real-time regional troposphere models for the GNSS precise point positioning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadas, T; Kaplon, J; Bosy, J; Sierny, J; Wilgan, K

    2013-01-01

    The GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) technique requires high quality product (orbits and clocks) application, since their error directly affects the quality of positioning. For real-time purposes it is possible to utilize ultra-rapid precise orbits and clocks which are disseminated through the Internet. In order to eliminate as many unknown parameters as possible, one may introduce external information on zenith troposphere delay (ZTD). It is desirable that the a priori model is accurate and reliable, especially for real-time application. One of the open problems in GNSS positioning is troposphere delay modelling on the basis of ground meteorological observations. Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (IGG WUELS) has developed two independent regional troposphere models for the territory of Poland. The first one is estimated in near-real-time regime using GNSS data from a Polish ground-based augmentation system named ASG-EUPOS established by Polish Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography (GUGiK) in 2008. The second one is based on meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure and humidity) gathered from various meteorological networks operating over the area of Poland and surrounding countries. This paper describes the methodology of both model calculation and verification. It also presents results of applying various ZTD models into kinematic PPP in the post-processing mode using Bernese GPS Software. Positioning results were used to assess the quality of the developed models during changing weather conditions. Finally, the impact of model application to simulated real-time PPP on precision, accuracy and convergence time is discussed. (paper)

  8. Performance Analysis of Several GPS/Galileo Precise Point Positioning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-06-19

    This paper examines the performance of several precise point positioning (PPP) models, which combine dual-frequency GPS/Galileo observations in the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) modes. These include the traditional un-differenced model, the decoupled clock model, the semi-decoupled clock model, and the between-satellite single-difference model. We take advantage of the IGS-MGEX network products to correct for the satellite differential code biases and the orbital and satellite clock errors. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to handle the various GPS/Galileo PPP models. A total of six data sets of GPS and Galileo observations at six IGS stations are processed to examine the performance of the various PPP models. It is shown that the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model, the GPS decoupled clock model, and the semi-decoupled clock GPS/Galileo PPP model improve the convergence time by about 25% in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. In addition, the semi-decoupled GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution precision by about 25% compared to the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model. Moreover, the BSSD GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution convergence time by about 50%, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS PPP model, regardless of the type of BSSD combination used. As well, the BSSD model improves the precision of the estimated parameters by about 50% and 25% when the loose and the tight combinations are used, respectively, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. Comparable results are obtained through the tight combination when either a GPS or a Galileo satellite is selected as a reference.

  9. Slant Wet Delays from GNSS observations - Precise Point Positioning vs. Double Difference Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Gregor; Weber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The tropospheric parameter SWD (Slant Wet Delay) is the path delay caused by the highly variable amount of humidity in the atmosphere at altitudes below 12 km. It can be derived from Numerical Weather Predication data or even more precisely from dual- or multi-frequency observations of a regional GNSS reference network. In order to find the most adequate processing strategy dual GNSS observations of a small network of reference stations were simulated and tropospheric parameters were estimated in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and in Double Difference (DD) mode. In DD mode the integer character of the phase ambiguities remains which allows to fix them to their true values and to obtain the tropospheric zenith delay as well as north and east (N/E) gradients with highest precision over very short time periods. In PPP mode orbit and clock errors are not cancelled out which affects the quality of the tropospheric estimates. On the other hand it has the advantage that the GNSS observations are processed undifferenced. Latter is important because the Zero Difference Residuals (ZDR) contain the azimuthal-anisotropic part of the tropospheric delay which is not covered by the estimated parameters. From Double Difference Residuals (DDR) the ZDR can be recovered too but only conditionally since common tropospheric effects have been cancelled out in advance by differencing. In this presentation we show how good the anisotropic slant path delays can be obtained from GNSS observations processed using both concepts - the PPP and the DD approach. Therefore tropospheric zenith delays and N/E gradients were estimated and Pseudo-ZDR were reconstructed from DDR and afterwards compared with ZDR derived from the PPP solution. In addition it is shown how good both concepts are applicable for observations at very low elevation angles and under extreme weather conditions. The IGS final and ultra-rapid service products were taken into account to define the best strategy not only for post

  10. Development of Precise Point Positioning Method Using Global Positioning System Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Kyu Choi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Precise point positioning (PPP is increasingly used in several parts such as monitoring of crustal movement and maintaining an international terrestrial reference frame using global positioning system (GPS measurements. An accuracy of PPP data processing has been increased due to the use of the more precise satellite orbit/clock products. In this study we developed PPP algorithm that utilizes data collected by a GPS receiver. The measurement error modelling including the tropospheric error and the tidal model in data processing was considered to improve the positioning accuracy. The extended Kalman filter has been also employed to estimate the state parameters such as positioning information and float ambiguities. For the verification, we compared our results to other of International GNSS Service analysis center. As a result, the mean errors of the estimated position on the East-West, North-South and Up-Down direction for the five days were 0.9 cm, 0.32 cm, and 1.14 cm in 95% confidence level.

  11. Development of the Kinematic Global Positioning System Precise Point Positioning Method Using 3-Pass Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Kyu Choi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinematic global positioning system precise point positioning (GPS PPP technology is widely used to the several area such as monitoring of crustal movement and precise orbit determination (POD using the dual-frequency GPS observations. In this study we developed a kinematic PPP technology and applied 3-pass (forward/backward/forward filter for the stabilization of the initial state of the parameters to be estimated. For verification of results, we obtained GPS data sets from six international GPS reference stations (ALGO, AMC2, BJFS, GRAZ, IENG and TSKB and processed in daily basis by using the developed software. As a result, the mean position errors by kinematic PPP showed 0.51 cm in the east-west direction, 0.31 cm in the north-south direction and 1.02 cm in the up-down direction. The root mean square values produced from them were 1.59 cm for the east-west component, 1.26 cm for the south-west component and 2.95 cm for the up-down component.

  12. Collaborative Paradigm of Preventive, Personalized, and Precision Medicine With Point-of-Care Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Atam P

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biosensors, medical instrumentation, and information processing and communication technologies (ICT) have enabled significant improvements in healthcare. However, these technologies have been mainly applied in clinical environments, such as hospitals and healthcare facilities, under managed care by well-trained and specialized individuals. The global challenge of providing quality healthcare at affordable cost leads to the proposed paradigm of P reventive, Personalized, and Precision Medicine that requires a seamless use of technology and infrastructure support for patients and healthcare providers at point-of-care (POC) locations including homes, semi or pre-clinical facilities, and hospitals. The complexity of the global healthcare challenge necessitates strong collaborative interdisciplinary synergies involving all stakeholder groups including academia, federal research institutions, industry, regulatory agencies, and clinical communities. It is critical to evolve with collaborative efforts on the translation of research to technology development toward clinical validation and potential healthcare applications. This special issue is focused on technology innovation and translational research for POC applications with potential impact in improving global healthcare in the respective areas. Some of these papers were presented at the NIH-IEEE Strategic Conference on Healthcare Innovations and POC Technologies for Precision Medicine (HI-POCT) held at the NIH on November 9-10, 2015. The papers included in the Special Issue provide a spectrum of critical issues and collaborative resources on translational research of advanced POC devices and ICT into global healthcare environment.

  13. A new stochastic model considering satellite clock interpolation errors in precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengli; Yang, Fanlin; Gao, Wang; Yan, Lizi; Ge, Yulong

    2018-03-01

    Precise clock products are typically interpolated based on the sampling interval of the observational data when they are used for in precise point positioning. However, due to the occurrence of white noise in atomic clocks, a residual component of such noise will inevitable reside within the observations when clock errors are interpolated, and such noise will affect the resolution of the positioning results. In this paper, which is based on a twenty-one-week analysis of the atomic clock noise characteristics of numerous satellites, a new stochastic observation model that considers satellite clock interpolation errors is proposed. First, the systematic error of each satellite in the IGR clock product was extracted using a wavelet de-noising method to obtain the empirical characteristics of atomic clock noise within each clock product. Then, based on those empirical characteristics, a stochastic observation model was structured that considered the satellite clock interpolation errors. Subsequently, the IGR and IGS clock products at different time intervals were used for experimental validation. A verification using 179 stations worldwide from the IGS showed that, compared with the conventional model, the convergence times using the stochastic model proposed in this study were respectively shortened by 4.8% and 4.0% when the IGR and IGS 300-s-interval clock products were used and by 19.1% and 19.4% when the 900-s-interval clock products were used. Furthermore, the disturbances during the initial phase of the calculation were also effectively improved.

  14. Kinematic Precise Point Positioning Using Multi-Constellation Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xidong Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-constellation global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs are expected to enhance the capability of precise point positioning (PPP by improving the positioning accuracy and reducing the convergence time because more satellites will be available. This paper discusses the performance of multi-constellation kinematic PPP based on a multi-constellation kinematic PPP model, Kalman filter and stochastic models. The experimental dataset was collected from the receivers on a vehicle and processed using self-developed software. A comparison of the multi-constellation kinematic PPP and real-time kinematic (RTK results revealed that the availability, positioning accuracy and convergence performance of the multi-constellation kinematic PPP were all better than those of both global positioning system (GPS-based PPP and dual-constellation PPP. Multi-constellation kinematic PPP can provide a positioning service with centimetre-level accuracy for dynamic users.

  15. Analysis of web-based online services for GPS relative and precise point positioning techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Ocalan

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Global Positioning System (GPS has been used effectively in several engineering applications for the survey purposes by multiple disciplines. Web-based online services developed by several organizations; which are user friendly, unlimited and most of them are free; have become a significant alternative against the high-cost scientific and commercial software on achievement of post processing and analyzing the GPS data. When centimeter (cm or decimeter (dm level accuracies are desired, that can be obtained easily regarding different quality engineering applications through these services. In this paper, a test study was conducted at ISKI-CORS network; Istanbul-Turkey in order to figure out the accuracy analysis of the most used web based online services around the world (namely OPUS, AUSPOS, SCOUT, CSRS-PPP, GAPS, APPS, magicGNSS. These services use relative and precise point positioning (PPP solution approaches. In this test study, the coordinates of eight stations were estimated by using of both online services and Bernese 5.0 scientific GPS processing software from 24-hour GPS data set and then the coordinate differences between the online services and Bernese processing software were computed. From the evaluations, it was seen that the results for each individual differences were less than 10 mm regarding relative online service, and less than 20 mm regarding precise point positioning service. The accuracy analysis was gathered from these coordinate differences and standard deviations of the obtained coordinates from different techniques and then online services were compared to each other. The results show that the position accuracies obtained by associated online services provide high accurate solutions that may be used in many engineering applications and geodetic analysis.

  16. The contribution of Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) to precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Jinling

    2017-06-01

    In response to the changing world of GNSS, the International GNSS Service (IGS) has initiated the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX). As part of the MGEX project, initial precise orbit and clock products have been released for public use, which are the key prerequisites for multi-GNSS precise point positioning (PPP). In particular, precise orbits and clocks at intervals of 5 min and 30 s are presently available for the new emerging systems. This paper investigates the benefits of multi-GNSS for PPP. Firstly, orbit and clock consistency tests (between different providers) were performed for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. In general, the differences of GPS are, respectively, 1.0-1.5 cm for orbit and 0.1 ns for clock. The consistency of GLONASS is worse than GPS by a factor of 2-3, i.e. 2-4 cm for orbit and 0.2 ns for clock. However, the corresponding differences of Galileo and BeiDou are significantly larger than those of GPS and GLONASS, particularly for the BeiDou GEO satellites. Galileo as well as BeiDou IGSO/MEO products have a consistency of 0.1-0.2 m for orbit, and 0.2-0.3 ns for clock. As to BeiDou GEO satellites, the difference of their orbits reaches 3-4 m in along-track, 0.5-0.6 m in cross-track, and 0.2-0.3 m in the radial directions, together with an average RMS of 0.6 ns for clock. Furthermore, the short-term stability of multi-GNSS clocks was analyzed by Allan deviation. Results show that clock stability of the onboard GNSS is highly dependent on the satellites generations, operational lifetime, orbit types, and frequency standards. Finally, kinematic PPP tests were conducted to investigate the contribution of multi-GNSS and higher rate clock corrections. As expected, the positioning accuracy as well as convergence speed benefit from the fusion of multi-GNSS and higher rate of precise clock corrections. The multi-GNSS PPP improves the positioning accuracy by 10-20%, 40-60%, and 60-80% relative to the GPS-, GLONASS-, and BeiDou-only PPP. The usage of 30 s

  17. Imaging Optical Frequencies with 100 μ Hz Precision and 1.1 μ m Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, G. Edward; Hutson, Ross B.; Goban, Akihisa; Campbell, Sara L.; Poli, Nicola; Ye, Jun

    2018-03-01

    We implement imaging spectroscopy of the optical clock transition of lattice-trapped degenerate fermionic Sr in the Mott-insulating regime, combining micron spatial resolution with submillihertz spectral precision. We use these tools to demonstrate atomic coherence for up to 15 s on the clock transition and reach a record frequency precision of 2.5 ×10-19. We perform the most rapid evaluation of trapping light shifts and record a 150 mHz linewidth, the narrowest Rabi line shape observed on a coherent optical transition. The important emerging capability of combining high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy will improve the clock precision, and provide a path towards measuring many-body interactions and testing fundamental physics.

  18. Precise orbit determination and point positioning using GPS, Glonass, Galileo and BeiDou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegedor J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available State of the art Precise Point Positioning (PPP is currently based on dual-frequency processing of GPS and Glonass navigation systems. The International GNSS Service (IGS is routinely providing the most accurate orbit and clock products for these constellations, allowing point positioning at centimeter-level accuracy. At the same time, the GNSS landscape is evolving rapidly, with the deployment of new constellations, such as Galileo and BeiDou. The BeiDou constellation currently consists of 14 operational satellites, and the 4 Galileo In-Orbit Validation (IOV satellites are transmitting initial Galileo signals. This paper focuses on the integration of Galileo and BeiDou in PPP, together with GPS and Glonass. Satellite orbits and clocks for all constellations are generated using a network adjustment with observation data collected by the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX, as well as from Fugro proprietary reference station network. The orbit processing strategy is described, and orbit accuracy for Galileo and BeiDou is assessed via orbit overlaps, for different arc lengths. Kinematic post-processed multi-GNSS positioning results are presented. The benefits of multiconstellation PPP are discussed in terms of enhanced availability and positioning accuracy.

  19. Optical Interface States Protected by Synthetic Weyl Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Weyl fermions have not been found in nature as elementary particles, but they emerge as nodal points in the band structure of electronic and classical wave crystals. Novel phenomena such as Fermi arcs and chiral anomaly have fueled the interest in these topological points which are frequently perceived as monopoles in momentum space. Here, we report the experimental observation of generalized optical Weyl points inside the parameter space of a photonic crystal with a specially designed four-layer unit cell. The reflection at the surface of a truncated photonic crystal exhibits phase vortexes due to the synthetic Weyl points, which in turn guarantees the existence of interface states between photonic crystals and any reflecting substrates. The reflection phase vortexes have been confirmed for the first time in our experiments, which serve as an experimental signature of the generalized Weyl points. The existence of these interface states is protected by the topological properties of the Weyl points, and the trajectories of these states in the parameter space resembles those of Weyl semimetal “Fermi arc surface states” in momentum space. Tracing the origin of interface states to the topological character of the parameter space paves the way for a rational design of strongly localized states with enhanced local field.

  20. Optical Interface States Protected by Synthetic Weyl Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Xiao, Meng; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Chan, C. T.

    2017-07-01

    Weyl fermions have not been found in nature as elementary particles, but they emerge as nodal points in the band structure of electronic and classical wave crystals. Novel phenomena such as Fermi arcs and chiral anomaly have fueled the interest in these topological points which are frequently perceived as monopoles in momentum space. Here, we report the experimental observation of generalized optical Weyl points inside the parameter space of a photonic crystal with a specially designed four-layer unit cell. The reflection at the surface of a truncated photonic crystal exhibits phase vortexes due to the synthetic Weyl points, which in turn guarantees the existence of interface states between photonic crystals and any reflecting substrates. The reflection phase vortexes have been confirmed for the first time in our experiments, which serve as an experimental signature of the generalized Weyl points. The existence of these interface states is protected by the topological properties of the Weyl points, and the trajectories of these states in the parameter space resembles those of Weyl semimetal "Fermi arc surface states" in momentum space. Tracing the origin of interface states to the topological character of the parameter space paves the way for a rational design of strongly localized states with enhanced local field.

  1. ACADEMIC TRAINING: Probing nature with high precision; particle traps, laser spectroscopy and optical combs

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    17, 18, 19 June LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Probing nature with high precision; particle traps, laser spectroscopy and optical combs by G. GABRIELSE / Harvard University, USA Experiments with atomic energy scales probe nature and its symmetries with exquisite precision. Particle traps allow the manipulation of single charged particles for months at a time, allow the most accurate comparison of theory and experiment, and promise to allow better measurement of fundamental quantities like the fine structure constant. Ions and atoms can be probed with lasers that are phase locked to microwave frequency standards via optical combs, thus calibrating optical sources in terms of the official cesium second. A series of three lectures will illustrate what can be measured and discuss key techniques.  ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  2. Precise and efficient evaluation of gravimetric quantities at arbitrarily scattered points in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Kamen G.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Petrushev, Pencho

    2017-12-01

    Gravimetric quantities are commonly represented in terms of high degree surface or solid spherical harmonics. After EGM2008, such expansions routinely extend to spherical harmonic degree 2190, which makes the computation of gravimetric quantities at a large number of arbitrarily scattered points in space using harmonic synthesis, a very computationally demanding process. We present here the development of an algorithm and its associated software for the efficient and precise evaluation of gravimetric quantities, represented in high degree solid spherical harmonics, at arbitrarily scattered points in the space exterior to the surface of the Earth. The new algorithm is based on representation of the quantities of interest in solid ellipsoidal harmonics and application of the tensor product trigonometric needlets. A FORTRAN implementation of this algorithm has been developed and extensively tested. The capabilities of the code are demonstrated using as examples the disturbing potential T, height anomaly ζ , gravity anomaly Δ g , gravity disturbance δ g , north-south deflection of the vertical ξ , east-west deflection of the vertical η , and the second radial derivative T_{rr} of the disturbing potential. After a pre-computational step that takes between 1 and 2 h per quantity, the current version of the software is capable of computing on a standard PC each of these quantities in the range from the surface of the Earth up to 544 km above that surface at speeds between 20,000 and 40,000 point evaluations per second, depending on the gravimetric quantity being evaluated, while the relative error does not exceed 10^{-6} and the memory (RAM) use is 9.3 GB.

  3. Three-frequency BDS precise point positioning ambiguity resolution based on raw observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2018-02-01

    All BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) satellites are transmitting signals on three frequencies, which brings new opportunity and challenges for high-accuracy precise point positioning (PPP) with ambiguity resolution (AR). This paper proposes an effective uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation and AR strategy which is based on a raw PPP model. First, triple-frequency raw PPP models are developed. The observation model and stochastic model are designed and extended to accommodate the third frequency. Then, the UPD is parameterized in raw frequency form while estimating with the high-precision and low-noise integer linear combination of float ambiguity which are derived by ambiguity decorrelation. Third, with UPD corrected, the LAMBDA method is used for resolving full or partial ambiguities which can be fixed. This method can be easily and flexibly extended for dual-, triple- or even more frequency. To verify the effectiveness and performance of triple-frequency PPP AR, tests with real BDS data from 90 stations lasting for 21 days were performed in static mode. Data were processed with three strategies: BDS triple-frequency ambiguity-float PPP, BDS triple-frequency PPP with dual-frequency (B1/B2) and three-frequency AR, respectively. Numerous experiment results showed that compared with the ambiguity-float solution, the performance in terms of convergence time and positioning biases can be significantly improved by AR. Among three groups of solutions, the triple-frequency PPP AR achieved the best performance. Compared with dual-frequency AR, additional the third frequency could apparently improve the position estimations during the initialization phase and under constraint environments when the dual-frequency PPP AR is limited by few satellite numbers.

  4. Triple-frequency GPS precise point positioning with rapid ambiguity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jianghui; Bock, Yehuda

    2013-05-01

    At present, reliable ambiguity resolution in real-time GPS precise point positioning (PPP) can only be achieved after an initial observation period of a few tens of minutes. In this study, we propose a method where the incoming triple-frequency GPS signals are exploited to enable rapid convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in real-time PPP. Specifically, extra-wide-lane ambiguity resolution can be first achieved almost instantaneously with the Melbourne-Wübbena combination observable on L2 and L5. Then the resultant unambiguous extra-wide-lane carrier-phase is combined with the wide-lane carrier-phase on L1 and L2 to form an ionosphere-free observable with a wavelength of about 3.4 m. Although the noise of this observable is around 100 times the raw carrier-phase noise, its wide-lane ambiguity can still be resolved very efficiently, and the resultant ambiguity-fixed observable can assist much better than pseudorange in speeding up succeeding narrow-lane ambiguity resolution. To validate this method, we use an advanced hardware simulator to generate triple-frequency signals and a high-grade receiver to collect 1-Hz data. When the carrier-phase precisions on L1, L2 and L5 are as poor as 1.5, 6.3 and 1.5 mm, respectively, wide-lane ambiguity resolution can still reach a correctness rate of over 99 % within 20 s. As a result, the correctness rate of narrow-lane ambiguity resolution achieves 99 % within 65 s, in contrast to only 64 % within 150 s in dual-frequency PPP. In addition, we also simulate a multipath-contaminated data set and introduce new ambiguities for all satellites every 120 s. We find that when multipath effects are strong, ambiguity-fixed solutions are achieved at 78 % of all epochs in triple-frequency PPP whilst almost no ambiguities are resolved in dual-frequency PPP. Therefore, we demonstrate that triple-frequency PPP has the potential to achieve ambiguity-fixed solutions within a few minutes, or even shorter if raw carrier-phase precisions are

  5. Analysis and Optimization of Dynamic Measurement Precision of Fiber Optic Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the dynamic performance of high precision interferometer fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG, the influencing factors of the fast response characteristics are analyzed based on a proposed assistant design setup, and a high dynamic detection method is proposed to suppress the adverse effects of the key influencing factors. The assistant design platform is built by using the virtual instrument technology for IFOG, which can monitor the closed-loop state variables in real time for analyzing the influence of both the optical components and detection circuit on the dynamic performance of IFOG. The analysis results indicate that nonlinearity of optical Sagnac effect, optical parameter uncertainty, dynamic characteristics of internal modules and time delay of signal detection circuit are the major causes of dynamic performance deterioration, which can induce potential system instability in practical control systems. By taking all these factors into consideration, we design a robust control algorithm to realize the high dynamic closed-loop detection of IFOG. Finally, experiments show that the improved 0.01 deg/h high precision IFOG with the proposed control algorithm can achieve fast tracking and good dynamic measurement precision.

  6. Precise measurement of inner diameter of mono-capillary optic using X-ray imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soonmu; Lim, Jae Hong; Namba, Yoshiharu; Chon, Kwon Su

    2017-11-16

    Mono-capillary optics have been applied to increase the performance of X-ray instruments. However, performance of a mono-capillary optic strongly depends on the shape accuracy, which is determined by the diameters of the inner hollow of the capillary along the axial direction. To precisely determine the inner diameter of the capillary optic used in X-ray imaging technique, which aims to replace the conventional method using a visible microscope. High spatial resolution X-ray images of the mono-capillary optic were obtained by a synchrotron radiation beamline. The inner diameter of the mono-capillary optic was measured and analyzed by the pixel values of the X-ray image. Edge enhancement effect was quite useful in determining the inner diameter, and the accuracy of the diameter determination was less than 1.32 μm. Many images obtained by scanning the mono-capillary optic along the axial direction were combined, and the axial profile, consisting of diameters along the axial direction, was obtained from the combined image. The X-ray imaging method could provide an accurate measurement with slope error of±19 μrad. Applying X-ray imaging technique to determine the inner diameter of a mono-capillary optic can contribute to increasing fabrication accuracy of the mono-capillary optic through a feedback process between the fabrication and measurement of its diameter.

  7. Design of a self-calibration high precision micro-angle deformation optical monitoring scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingying; Wang, Li; Guo, Shaogang; Wu, Yun; Liu, Da

    2018-03-01

    In order to meet the requirement of high precision and micro-angle measurement on orbit, a self-calibrated optical non-contact real-time monitoring device is designed. Within three meters, the micro-angle variable of target relative to measuring basis can be measured in real-time. The range of angle measurement is +/-50'', the angle measurement accuracy is less than 2''. The equipment can realize high precision real-time monitoring the micro-angle deformation, which caused by high strength vibration and shock of rock launching, sun radiation and heat conduction on orbit and so on.

  8. Accuracy assessment of Precise Point Positioning with multi-constellation GNSS data under ionospheric scintillation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Haroldo Antonio; Marques, Heloísa Alves Silva; Aquino, Marcio; Veettil, Sreeja Vadakke; Monico, João Francisco Galera

    2018-02-01

    GPS and GLONASS are currently the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) with full operational capacity. The integration of GPS, GLONASS and future GNSS constellations can provide better accuracy and more reliability in geodetic positioning, in particular for kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP), where the satellite geometry is considered a limiting factor to achieve centimeter accuracy. The satellite geometry can change suddenly in kinematic positioning in urban areas or under conditions of strong atmospheric effects such as for instance ionospheric scintillation that may degrade satellite signal quality, causing cycle slips and even loss of lock. Scintillation is caused by small scale irregularities in the ionosphere and is characterized by rapid changes in amplitude and phase of the signal, which are more severe in equatorial and high latitudes geomagnetic regions. In this work, geodetic positioning through the PPP method was evaluated with integrated GPS and GLONASS data collected in the equatorial region under varied scintillation conditions. The GNSS data were processed in kinematic PPP mode and the analyses show accuracy improvements of up to 60% under conditions of strong scintillation when using multi-constellation data instead of GPS data alone. The concepts and analyses related to the ionospheric scintillation effects, the mathematical model involved in PPP with GPS and GLONASS data integration as well as accuracy assessment with data collected under ionospheric scintillation effects are presented.

  9. Accuracy Analysis of Precise Point Positioning of Compass Navigation System Applied to Crustal Motion Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuebing

    2017-04-01

    Based on the observation data of Compass/GPSobserved at five stations, time span from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2016. UsingPPP positioning model of the PANDA software developed by Wuhan University,Analyzedthe positioning accuracy of single system and Compass/GPS integrated resolving, and discussed the capability of Compass navigation system in crustal motion monitoring. The results showed that the positioning accuracy in the east-west directionof the Compass navigation system is lower than the north-south direction (the positioning accuracy de 3 times RMS), in general, the positioning accuracyin the horizontal direction is about 1 2cm and the vertical direction is about 5 6cm. The GPS positioning accuracy in the horizontal direction is better than 1cm and the vertical direction is about 1 2cm. The accuracy of Compass/GPS integrated resolving is quite to GPS. It is worth mentioning that although Compass navigation system precision point positioning accuracy is lower than GPS, two sets of velocity fields obtained by using the Nikolaidis (2002) model to analyze the Compass and GPS time series results respectively, the results showed that the maximum difference of the two sets of velocity field in horizontal directions is 1.8mm/a. The Compass navigation system can now be used to monitor the crustal movement of the large deformation area, based on the velocity field in horizontal direction.

  10. Impact of the initial tropospheric zenith path delay on precise point positioning convergence during active conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, J Z; Rzepecka, Z

    2017-01-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the key factors that influence the convergence time of the precise point positioning (PPP) method. Current models do not allow for the fixing of the zenith path delay tropospheric parameter, leaving the difference between nominal and final value to the estimation process. Here, we present an analysis of several PPP result-sets using the tropospheric parameter’s nominal value adopted from models: VMF1, GPT2w, MOPS, and ZERO-WET. The last variant assumes a zero value for the initial wet part of the zenith delay. The PPP results are subtracted from a solution based on the final tropospheric product from the International GNSS Service (IGS). Several days exhibiting the most active tropospheric conditions were selected for each of the 7 stations located in the mid-latitude Central European region. During the active days, application of the VMF1 model increases the resulting height component’s quality by about 33–36% when compared to the GPT2w and MOPS. The respective improvement in VMF1 latitude and longitude components is 27% and 15%. The average relative deterioration in the result standard deviations between active and calm tropospheric conditions reaches about 20–30% of the former. We discuss the impact of the initial tropospheric parameter’s variance and bias on positioning. In addition, we compare the results with those of other studies over the impact of active tropospheric conditions on the PPP method. (paper)

  11. Impact of the initial tropospheric zenith path delay on precise point positioning convergence during active conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, J. Z.; Rzepecka, Z.

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the key factors that influence the convergence time of the precise point positioning (PPP) method. Current models do not allow for the fixing of the zenith path delay tropospheric parameter, leaving the difference between nominal and final value to the estimation process. Here, we present an analysis of several PPP result-sets using the tropospheric parameter’s nominal value adopted from models: VMF1, GPT2w, MOPS, and ZERO-WET. The last variant assumes a zero value for the initial wet part of the zenith delay. The PPP results are subtracted from a solution based on the final tropospheric product from the International GNSS Service (IGS). Several days exhibiting the most active tropospheric conditions were selected for each of the 7 stations located in the mid-latitude Central European region. During the active days, application of the VMF1 model increases the resulting height component’s quality by about 33-36% when compared to the GPT2w and MOPS. The respective improvement in VMF1 latitude and longitude components is 27% and 15%. The average relative deterioration in the result standard deviations between active and calm tropospheric conditions reaches about 20-30% of the former. We discuss the impact of the initial tropospheric parameter’s variance and bias on positioning. In addition, we compare the results with those of other studies over the impact of active tropospheric conditions on the PPP method.

  12. Accuracy assessment of Precise Point Positioning with multi-constellation GNSS data under ionospheric scintillation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Haroldo Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available GPS and GLONASS are currently the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS with full operational capacity. The integration of GPS, GLONASS and future GNSS constellations can provide better accuracy and more reliability in geodetic positioning, in particular for kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP, where the satellite geometry is considered a limiting factor to achieve centimeter accuracy. The satellite geometry can change suddenly in kinematic positioning in urban areas or under conditions of strong atmospheric effects such as for instance ionospheric scintillation that may degrade satellite signal quality, causing cycle slips and even loss of lock. Scintillation is caused by small scale irregularities in the ionosphere and is characterized by rapid changes in amplitude and phase of the signal, which are more severe in equatorial and high latitudes geomagnetic regions. In this work, geodetic positioning through the PPP method was evaluated with integrated GPS and GLONASS data collected in the equatorial region under varied scintillation conditions. The GNSS data were processed in kinematic PPP mode and the analyses show accuracy improvements of up to 60% under conditions of strong scintillation when using multi-constellation data instead of GPS data alone. The concepts and analyses related to the ionospheric scintillation effects, the mathematical model involved in PPP with GPS and GLONASS data integration as well as accuracy assessment with data collected under ionospheric scintillation effects are presented.

  13. Real-time Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Meng, X.; Teferle, F. N.; Dodson, A. H.; Ge, M.; Shi, C.; Liu, J.

    2009-04-01

    Real-time provision of information on large scale crustal deformation during an earthquake can be crucial in assessing property damage and managing relief operations. Moreover, such a real-time monitoring system may even lead to the accurate prediction of earthquakes in future and help the subsequent studies on the mechanism involved. During the past two decades, Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements have been extensively applied to investigate such processes in the geosciences. Precise point positioning (PPP) using GPS based on single stations can achieve comparable accuracies to conventional relative positioning, when precise satellite orbits and clocks, and Earth rotation products are used. Thus, PPP does not need any reference stations to achieve high positioning accuracy, e.g. at the millimetre level in static and centimetre level in kinematic applications. This has both technical and economic advantages and may be the only feasible option in some specific applications such as Tsunami early warning systems. However, unlike relative positioning, PPP suffers from unresolved integer ambiguities, which prevented further accuracy improvements within short observation periods or in real-time. On account of the great potential of PPP, we developed a prototype real-time PPP system which also employs ambiguity resolution at a single station. This development is based on the PANDA (Positioning And Navigation Data Analyst) software, which was originally developed at Wuhan University in China, and has been significantly refined by the authors. To assess this system, about 30 stations from the EUREF Permanent Network Internet Protocol (EUREF-IP) pilot project are used to produce the real-time satellite clocks, with satellite orbits and Earth rotation parameters (ERP) fixed to the predicted part of the IGS (International GNSS Service) ultra-rapid products. This is followed by the estimation of the uncalibrated hardware delays (UHD), which are crucial in resolving the

  14. Proceedings of the meeting for coordinating precision machining of optics research and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.T.

    1975-12-01

    The meeting for ''Coordinating Precision Machining of Optics Research and Requirements'' on September 18, 1975, was sponsored by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory at Kirtland AFB, NM. These proceedings contain an introduction to the meeting including a brief description of the participants and the objectives. The developments and capabilities of Union Carbide Y-12 plant are described in detail. A short summary of the new Moore no. 5 machine at Bendix, Kansas City, Mo. is included as well as a description of using light scattering for roughness characterization at Rockwell International, Rocky Flats, Colorado. The executive summary of the meeting mentions some of the discussions that also followed. Important conclusions of the meeting were that a 5 y lead time is required to obtain a machine and acquire the necessary skills for precision machining, and that demands for diamond turning optics will be increasing

  15. Machining approach of freeform optics on infrared materials via ultra-precision turning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zexiao; Fang, Fengzhou; Chen, Jinjin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-02-06

    Optical freeform surfaces are of great advantage in excellent optical performance and integrated alignment features. It has wide applications in illumination, imaging and non-imaging, etc. Machining freeform surfaces on infrared (IR) materials with ultra-precision finish is difficult due to its brittle nature. Fast tool servo (FTS) assisted diamond turning is a powerful technique for the realization of freeform optics on brittle materials due to its features of high spindle speed and high cutting speed. However it has difficulties with large slope angles and large rise-and-falls in the sagittal direction. In order to overcome this defect, the balance of the machining quality on the freeform surface and the brittle nature in IR materials should be realized. This paper presents the design of a near-rotational freeform surface (NRFS) with a low non-rotational degree (NRD) to constraint the variation of traditional freeform optics to solve this issue. In NRFS, the separation of the surface results in a rotational part and a residual part denoted as a non-rotational surface (NRS). Machining NRFS on germanium is operated by FTS diamond turning. Characteristics of the surface indicate that the optical finish of the freeform surface has been achieved. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the freeform optics shows a good agreement to the design expectation. Images of the final optical system confirm that the fabricating strategy is of high efficiency and high quality. Challenges and prospects are discussed to provide guidance of future work.

  16. Micro-Fresnel Zone Plate Optical Devices Using Densely Accumulated Ray Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An embodiment generally relates to an optical device suitable for use with an optical medium for the storage and retrieval of data. The optical device includes an illumination means for providing a beam of optical radiation of wavelength .lamda. and an optical path that the beam of optical radiation follows. The optical device also includes a diffractive optical element defined by a plurality of annular sections. The plurality of annular sections having a first material alternately disposed with a plurality of annular sections comprising a second material. The diffractive optical element generates a plurality of focal points and densely accumulated ray points with phase contrast phenomena and the optical medium is positioned at a selected focal point or ray point of the diffractive optical element.

  17. Ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning with hourly data for global single receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan; Guo, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) can improve precise point positioning (PPP) performance significantly. IAR for PPP became a highlight topic in global positioning system (GPS) community in recent years. More and more researchers focus on this issue. Progress has been made in the latest years. In this paper, we aim at investigating and demonstrating the performance of a global zero-differenced (ZD) PPP IAR service for GPS users by providing routine ZD uncalibrated fractional offsets (UFOs) for wide-lane and narrow-lane. Data sets from all IGS stations collected on DOY 1, 100, 200 and 300 of 2010 are used to validate and demonstrate this global service. Static experiment results show that an accuracy better than 1 cm in horizontal and 1-2 cm in vertical could be achieved in ambiguity-fixed PPP solution with only hourly data. Compared with PPP float solution, an average improvement reaches 58.2% in east, 28.3% in north and 23.8% in vertical for all tested stations. Results of kinematic experiments show that the RMS of kinematic PPP solutions can be improved from 21.6, 16.6 and 37.7 mm to 12.2, 13.3 and 34.3 mm for the fixed solutions in the east, north and vertical components, respectively. Both static and kinematic experiments show that wide-lane and narrow-lane UFO products of all satellites can be generated and provided in a routine way accompanying satellite orbit and clock products for the PPP user anywhere around the world, to obtain accurate and reliable ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions.

  18. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

  19. A closer look at the concept of regional clocks for Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Robert; Karabatic, Ana; Thaler, Gottfried; Abart, Christoph; Huber, Katrin

    2010-05-01

    Under the precondition of at least two successfully tracked signals at different carrier frequencies we may obtain their ionosphere free linear combination. By introducing approximate values for geometric effects like orbits and tropospheric delay as well as an initial bias parameter N per individual satellite we can solve for the satellite clock with respect to the receiver clock. Noting, that residual effects like orbit errors, remaining tropospheric delays and a residual bias parameter map into these parameters, this procedure leaves us with a kind of virtual clock differences. These clocks cover regional effects and are therefore clearly correlated with clocks at nearby station. Therefore we call these clock differences, which are clearly different from clock solutions provided for instance by IGS, the "regional clocks". When introducing the regional clocks obtained from real-time data of a GNSS reference station network we are able to process the coordinates of a nearby isolated station via a PPP .In terms of PPP-convergence time which will be reduced down to 30 minutes or less, this procedure is clearly favorable. The accuracy is quite comparable with state of the art PPP procedures. Nevertheless, this approach cannot compete in fixing times with double-difference approaches but the correlation holds over hundreds of kilometers distance to our master station and the clock differences can easily by obtained, even in real-time. This presentation provides preliminary results of the project RA-PPP. RA-PPP is a research project financed by the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology, managed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) in the course of the 6th call of the Austrian Space Application Program (ASAP). RA-PPP stands for Rapid Precise Point Positioning, which denotes the wish for faster and more accurate algorithms for PPP. The concept of regional clocks which will be demonstrated in detail in this presentation is one out of 4

  20. Satellite- and Epoch Differenced Precise Point Positioning Based on a Regional Augmentation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Precise Point Positioning (PPP has been demonstrated as a simple and effective approach for user positioning. The key issue in PPP is how to shorten convergence time and improve positioning efficiency. Recent researches mainly focus on the ambiguity resolution by correcting residual phase errors at a single station. The success of this approach (referred to hereafter as NORM-PPP is subject to how rapidly one can fix wide-lane and narrow-lane ambiguities to achieve the first ambiguity-fixed solution. The convergence time of NORM-PPP is receiver type dependent, and normally takes 15–20 min. Different from the general algorithm and theory by which the float ambiguities are estimated and the integer ambiguities are fixed, we concentrate on a differential PPP approach: the satellite- and epoch differenced (SDED approach. In general, the SDED approach eliminates receiver clocks and ambiguity parameters and thus avoids the complicated residual phase modeling procedure. As a further development of the SDED approach, we use a regional augmentation network to derive tropospheric delay and remaining un-modeled errors at user sites. By adding these corrections and applying the Robust estimation, the weak mathematic properties due to the ED operation is much improved. Implementing this new approach, we need only two epochs of data to achieve PPP positioning converging to centimeter-positioning accuracy. Using seven days of GPS data at six CORS stations in Shanghai, we demonstrate the success rate, defined as the case when three directions converging to desired positioning accuracy of 10 cm, reaches 100% when the interval between the two epochs is longer than 15 min. Comparing the results of 15 min’ interval to that of 10 min’, it is observed that the position RMS improves from 2.47, 3.95, 5.78 cm to 2.21, 3.93, 4.90 cm in the North, East and Up directions, respectively. Combining the SDED coordinates at the starting point and the ED relative

  1. Satellite- and epoch differenced precise point positioning based on a regional augmentation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojun; Chen, Junping; Wang, Jiexian; Wu, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has been demonstrated as a simple and effective approach for user positioning. The key issue in PPP is how to shorten convergence time and improve positioning efficiency. Recent researches mainly focus on the ambiguity resolution by correcting residual phase errors at a single station. The success of this approach (referred to hereafter as NORM-PPP) is subject to how rapidly one can fix wide-lane and narrow-lane ambiguities to achieve the first ambiguity-fixed solution. The convergence time of NORM-PPP is receiver type dependent, and normally takes 15-20 min. Different from the general algorithm and theory by which the float ambiguities are estimated and the integer ambiguities are fixed, we concentrate on a differential PPP approach: the satellite- and epoch differenced (SDED) approach. In general, the SDED approach eliminates receiver clocks and ambiguity parameters and thus avoids the complicated residual phase modeling procedure. As a further development of the SDED approach, we use a regional augmentation network to derive tropospheric delay and remaining un-modeled errors at user sites. By adding these corrections and applying the Robust estimation, the weak mathematic properties due to the ED operation is much improved. Implementing this new approach, we need only two epochs of data to achieve PPP positioning converging to centimeter-positioning accuracy. Using seven days of GPS data at six CORS stations in Shanghai, we demonstrate the success rate, defined as the case when three directions converging to desired positioning accuracy of 10 cm, reaches 100% when the interval between the two epochs is longer than 15 min. Comparing the results of 15 min' interval to that of 10 min', it is observed that the position RMS improves from 2.47, 3.95, 5.78 cm to 2.21, 3.93, 4.90 cm in the North, East and Up directions, respectively. Combining the SDED coordinates at the starting point and the ED relative coordinates thereafter, we

  2. Accuracy improvement techniques in Precise Point Positioning method using multiple GNSS constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileios Psychas, Dimitrios; Delikaraoglou, Demitris

    2016-04-01

    The future Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), including modernized GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou, offer three or more signal carriers for civilian use and much more redundant observables. The additional frequencies can significantly improve the capabilities of the traditional geodetic techniques based on GPS signals at two frequencies, especially with regard to the availability, accuracy, interoperability and integrity of high-precision GNSS applications. Furthermore, highly redundant measurements can allow for robust simultaneous estimation of static or mobile user states including more parameters such as real-time tropospheric biases and more reliable ambiguity resolution estimates. This paper presents an investigation and analysis of accuracy improvement techniques in the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method using signals from the fully operational (GPS and GLONASS), as well as the emerging (Galileo and BeiDou) GNSS systems. The main aim was to determine the improvement in both the positioning accuracy achieved and the time convergence it takes to achieve geodetic-level (10 cm or less) accuracy. To this end, freely available observation data from the recent Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service, as well as the open source program RTKLIB were used. Following a brief background of the PPP technique and the scope of MGEX, the paper outlines the various observational scenarios that were used in order to test various data processing aspects of PPP solutions with multi-frequency, multi-constellation GNSS systems. Results from the processing of multi-GNSS observation data from selected permanent MGEX stations are presented and useful conclusions and recommendations for further research are drawn. As shown, data fusion from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou systems is becoming increasingly significant nowadays resulting in a position accuracy increase (mostly in the less favorable East direction) and a large reduction of convergence

  3. Injection molding of high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopmann, Christian; Röbig, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Light Emitting Diodes (LED) conquer the growing global market of lighting technologies. Due to their advantages, they are increasingly used in consumer products, in lighting applications in the home and in the mobility sector as well as in industrial applications. Particularly, with regard to the increasing use of high-power LED (HP-LED) the materials in the surrounding area of the light emitting semiconductor chip are of utmost importance. While the materials behind the semiconductor chip are optimized for maximum heat dissipation, the materials currently used for the encapsulation of the semiconductor chip (primary optics) and the secondary optics encounter their limits due to the high temperatures. In addition certain amounts of blue UV radiation degrade the currently used materials such as epoxy resins or polyurethanes for primary optics. In the context of an ongoing joint research project with various partners from the industry, an innovative manufacturing method for high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber (LSR) is analyzed at the Institut of Plastics Processing (IKV), Aachen. The aim of this project is to utilize the material-specific advantages of high transparent LSR, especially the excellent high temperature resistance and the great freedom in design. Therefore, a high integrated injection molding process is developed. For the production of combined LED primary and secondary optics a LED board is placed in an injection mold and overmolded with LSR. Due to the integrated process and the reduction of subcomponents like the secondary optics the economics of the production process can be improved significantly. Furthermore combined LED optics offer an improved effectiveness, because there are no losses of the light power at the transition of the primary and secondary optics.

  4. Injection molding of high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Christian; Röbig, Malte [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV), RWTH Aachen University, Pontstraße 49, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-03-09

    Light Emitting Diodes (LED) conquer the growing global market of lighting technologies. Due to their advantages, they are increasingly used in consumer products, in lighting applications in the home and in the mobility sector as well as in industrial applications. Particularly, with regard to the increasing use of high-power LED (HP-LED) the materials in the surrounding area of the light emitting semiconductor chip are of utmost importance. While the materials behind the semiconductor chip are optimized for maximum heat dissipation, the materials currently used for the encapsulation of the semiconductor chip (primary optics) and the secondary optics encounter their limits due to the high temperatures. In addition certain amounts of blue UV radiation degrade the currently used materials such as epoxy resins or polyurethanes for primary optics. In the context of an ongoing joint research project with various partners from the industry, an innovative manufacturing method for high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber (LSR) is analyzed at the Institut of Plastics Processing (IKV), Aachen. The aim of this project is to utilize the material-specific advantages of high transparent LSR, especially the excellent high temperature resistance and the great freedom in design. Therefore, a high integrated injection molding process is developed. For the production of combined LED primary and secondary optics a LED board is placed in an injection mold and overmolded with LSR. Due to the integrated process and the reduction of subcomponents like the secondary optics the economics of the production process can be improved significantly. Furthermore combined LED optics offer an improved effectiveness, because there are no losses of the light power at the transition of the primary and secondary optics.

  5. GNSS related periodic signals in coordinate time-series from Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraha, K. E.; Teferle, F. N.; Hunegnaw, A.; Dach, R.

    2017-03-01

    In Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) coordinate time-series unrecognized errors and unmodelled (periodic) effects may bias nonlinear motions induced by geophysical signals. Hence, understanding and mitigating these errors is vital to reducing biases and on revealing subtle geophysical signals. To assess the nature of periodic signals in coordinate time-series Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solutions for the period 2008-2015 are generated. The solutions consider Global Positioning System (GPS), GLObalnaya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) or combined GPS+GLONASS (GNSS) observations. We assess the periodic signals of station coordinates computed using the combined International GNSS Service (IGS) and four of its Analysis Centers (ACs) products. Furthermore, we make use of different filtering methods to investigate the sources of the periodic signals. A faint fortnightly signal in our PPP solution based on Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) products and the existence of an 8 d period for those ACs generating combined GPS+GLONASS products are the main features in the GPS-only solutions. The existence of the 8 d period in the GPS-only solution indicates that GPS orbits computed in a combined GNSS solution contain GLONASS-specific signals. The GLONASS-only solution shows highly elevated powers at the third draconitic harmonic (∼120 d period), at the 8 d period and its harmonics (4 d, 2.67 d) besides the well-known annual, semi-annual and other draconitic harmonics. We show that the GLONASS constellation gaps before December 2011 contribute to the power at some of the frequencies. However, the well-known fortnightly signal in GPS-only solutions is not discernible in the GLONASS-only solution. The combined GNSS solution contains periodic signals from both systems, with most of the powers being reduced when compared to the single-GNSS solutions. A 52 per cent reduction for the horizontal components and a 36 per cent reduction for the vertical component

  6. High-precision, accurate optical frequency reference using a Fabry-Perót diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna; Smith, David D.; Liaghati-Mobarhan, Hassan R.

    2017-06-01

    We show that the optical output of a temperature and current-tuned Fabry-Perót diode laser system, with no external optical feedback and in which the frequency is locked to Doppler-free hyperfine resonances of the 87Rb D2 line, can achieve high frequency stability and accuracy. Experimental results are presented for the spectral linewidth, frequency stability, and frequency accuracy of the source. Although our optical source is limited by a short-term spectral linewidth greater than 2 MHz, beat signal measurements from two such sources demonstrate a frequency stability of 1.1 kHz, or minimum Allan deviation of 4 ×1 0-12, at an integration time τ =15 s and with a frequency accuracy of 60 kHz at τ =300 s. We demonstrate the use of the optical source for the precision measurement of hyperfine level frequency spacings in the 5 P3 /2 excited state of 87Rb and provide an accurate frequency scale for optical spectroscopy.

  7. A Precision Optical Calibration Module (POCAM for IceCube-Gen2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkovič M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a new concept of an in-situ self-calibrated isotropic light source for the future IceCube-Gen2 neutrino detector called the Precision Optical Calibration Module (POCAM. IceCube-Gen2 will be a matrix of light sensors buried deep in the ice at the geographic South Pole. The timing, the location, and the amount of Cherenkov light deposited by the secondary charged particles are used to reconstruct the properties of the incident neutrinos. The reconstruction relies on a detailed detector model that includes the response of optical modules to the Cherenkov light, as well as the optical properties of the detector medium – the natural Antarctic ice. To understand these properties, both natural, and artificial light sources are already used for calibration. New calibration devices are being developed in order to improve the precision of these measurements, and reduce systematic errors. The POCAM concept is based on the principle of an inverted integrating sphere. The main components are LEDs emitting light at several wavelengths and solid-state light sensors e.g. calibrated photodiode or silicon photomultipliers to monitor the emitted light intensity. We report on the current status of the POCAM R&D.

  8. Nonisothermal glass molding for the cost-efficient production of precision freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh-Tuan; Kreilkamp, Holger; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, Fritz

    2016-07-01

    Glass molding has become a key replication-based technology to satisfy intensively growing demands of complex precision optics in the today's photonic market. However, the state-of-the-art replicative technologies are still limited, mainly due to their insufficiency to meet the requirements of mass production. This paper introduces a newly developed nonisothermal glass molding in which a complex-shaped optic is produced in a very short process cycle. The innovative molding technology promises a cost-efficient production because of increased mold lifetime, less energy consumption, and high throughput from a fast process chain. At the early stage of the process development, the research focuses on an integration of finite element simulation into the process chain to reduce time and labor-intensive cost. By virtue of numerical modeling, defects including chill ripples and glass sticking in the nonisothermal molding process can be predicted and the consequent effects are avoided. In addition, the influences of process parameters and glass preforms on the surface quality, form accuracy, and residual stress are discussed. A series of experiments was carried out to validate the simulation results. The successful modeling, therefore, provides a systematic strategy for glass preform design, mold compensation, and optimization of the process parameters. In conclusion, the integration of simulation into the entire nonisothermal glass molding process chain will significantly increase the manufacturing efficiency as well as reduce the time-to-market for the mass production of complex precision yet low-cost glass optics.

  9. Laser Induced Damage of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP Optical Crystal Machined by Water Dissolution Ultra-Precision Polishing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchuan Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser induced damage threshold (LIDT is an important optical indicator for nonlinear Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP crystal used in high power laser systems. In this study, KDP optical crystals are initially machined with single point diamond turning (SPDT, followed by water dissolution ultra-precision polishing (WDUP and then tested with 355 nm nanosecond pulsed-lasers. Power spectral density (PSD analysis shows that WDUP process eliminates the laser-detrimental spatial frequencies band of micro-waviness on SPDT machined surface and consequently decreases its modulation effect on the laser beams. The laser test results show that LIDT of WDUP machined crystal improves and its stability has a significant increase by 72.1% compared with that of SPDT. Moreover, a subsequent ultrasonic assisted solvent cleaning process is suggested to have a positive effect on the laser performance of machined KDP crystal. Damage crater investigation indicates that the damage morphologies exhibit highly thermal explosion features of melted cores and brittle fractures of periphery material, which can be described with the classic thermal explosion model. The comparison result demonstrates that damage mechanisms for SPDT and WDUP machined crystal are the same and WDUP process reveals the real bulk laser resistance of KDP optical crystal by removing the micro-waviness and subsurface damage on SPDT machined surface. This improvement of WDUP method makes the LIDT more accurate and will be beneficial to the laser performance of KDP crystal.

  10. A study on ultra-precision machining technique for Al6061-T6 to fabricate space infrared optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Geun-man; Lee, Gil-jae; Hyun, Sang-won; Sung, Ha-yeong; Chung, Euisik; Kim, Geon-hee

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, analysis of variance on designed experiments with full factorial design was applied to determine the optimized machining parameters for ultra-precision fabrication of the secondary aspheric mirror, which is one of the key elements of the space cryogenic infrared optics. A single point diamond turning machine (SPDTM, Nanotech 4μpL Moore) was adopted to fabricate the material, AL6061-T6, and the three machining parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were selected. With several randomly assigned experimental conditions, surface roughness of each condition was measured by a non-contact optical profiler (NT2000; Vecco). As a result of analysis using Minitab, the optimum cutting condition was determined as following; cutting speed: 122 m/min, feed rate: 3 mm/min and depth of cut: 1 μm. Finally, a 120 mm diameter aspheric secondary mirror was attached to a particularly designed jig by using mixture of paraffin and wax and successfully fabricated under the optimum machining parameters. The profile of machined surface was measured by a high-accuracy 3-D profilometer(UA3P; Panasonic) and we obtained the geometrical errors of 30.6 nm(RMS) and 262.4 nm(PV), which satisfy the requirements of the space cryogenic infrared optics.

  11. Precise ion optical description of strip-line pulsed magnetic lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsov, D.; Spiller, P.; Eickhoff, H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.

    2002-01-01

    A specific computer code has been developed to investigate ion optical properties of a new generation of pulsed strip-line high current magnets. The code is based on a modern 'Differential Algebra' computational technique and it is able to calculate transfer matrices of pulsed strip-line magnets up to arbitrary order. The realistic three-dimensional distribution of the magnetic field in pulsed lenses as well as all the fringing field effects are taken into account in the simulations. We have demonstrated, that for precise description of such magnets one cannot use the existing ion optical codes where ideal multipole field distributions and fringing fields, typical for conventional iron-dominated magnets are assumed. The transfer matrix elements of pulsed strip-line lenses differ significantly from those of conventional magnets, especially in higher orders

  12. Analyzing logistic map pseudorandom number generators for periodicity induced by finite precision floating-point representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persohn, K.J.; Povinelli, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A chaotic pseudorandom number generator (C-PRNG) poorly explores the key space. ► A C-PRNG is finite and periodic when implemented on a finite precision computer. ► We present a method to determine the period lengths of a C-PRNG. - Abstract: Because of the mixing and aperiodic properties of chaotic maps, such maps have been used as the basis for pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs). However, when implemented on a finite precision computer, chaotic maps have finite and periodic orbits. This manuscript explores the consequences finite precision has on the periodicity of a PRNG based on the logistic map. A comparison is made with conventional methods of generating pseudorandom numbers. The approach used to determine the number, delay, and period of the orbits of the logistic map at varying degrees of precision (3 to 23 bits) is described in detail, including the use of the Condor high-throughput computing environment to parallelize independent tasks of analyzing a large initial seed space. Results demonstrate that in terms of pathological seeds and effective bit length, a PRNG based on the logistic map performs exponentially worse than conventional PRNGs.

  13. tweezercalib 2.0: Faster version of MatLab package for precise calibration of optical tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Martin; Tolic-Nørrelykke, Iva Marija; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a vectorized version of the MatLab (MathWorks Inc) package tweezercalib for calibration of optical tweezers with precision. The calibration is based on the power spectrum of the Brownian motion of a dielectric bead trapped in the tweezers. Precision is achieved by accounting for a number...

  14. High-precision two-way optic-fiber time transfer using an improved time code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guiling; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jianping

    2014-11-01

    We present a novel high-precision two-way optic-fiber time transfer scheme. The Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG-B) time code is modified by increasing bit rate and defining new fields. The modified time code can be transmitted directly using commercial optical transceivers and is able to efficiently suppress the effect of the Rayleigh backscattering in the optical fiber. A dedicated codec (encoder and decoder) with low delay fluctuation is developed. The synchronization issue is addressed by adopting a mask technique and combinational logic circuit. Its delay fluctuation is less than 27 ps in terms of the standard deviation. The two-way optic-fiber time transfer using the improved codec scheme is verified experimentally over 2 m to100 km fiber links. The results show that the stability over 100 km fiber link is always less than 35 ps with the minimum value of about 2 ps at the averaging time around 1000 s. The uncertainty of time difference induced by the chromatic dispersion over 100 km is less than 22 ps.

  15. Multiobjective Optimization of Injection Molding Process Parameters for the Precision Manufacturing of Plastic Optical Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection molding process parameters (IMPP have a significant effect on the optical performance and surface waviness of precision plastic optical lens. This paper presents a set of procedures for the optimization of IMPP, with haze ratio (HR reflecting the optical performance and peak-to-valley 20 (PV20 reflecting the surface waviness as the optimization objectives. First, the orthogonal experiment was carried out with the Taguchi method, and the results were analyzed by ANOVA to screen out the IMPP having a significant effect on the objectives. Then, the 34 full-factor experiment was conducted on the key IMPP, and the experimental results were used as the training and testing samples. The BPNN algorithm and the M-SVR algorithm were applied to establish the mapping relationships between the IMPP and objectives. Finally, the multiple-objective optimization was performed by applying the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II, with the built M-SVR models as the fitness function of the objectives, to obtain a Pareto-optimal set, which improved the quality of plastic optical lens comprehensively. Through the experimental verification on the optimization results, the mean prediction error (MPE of HR and PV20 is 7.16% and 9.78%, respectively, indicating that the optimization method has high accuracy.

  16. Multifocus microscopy with precise color multi-phase diffractive optics applied in functional neuronal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Sara; Ilic, Rob; Wisniewski, Jan; Mehl, Brian; Yu, Liya; Chen, Lei; Davanco, Marcelo; Oudjedi, Laura; Fiche, Jean-Bernard; Hajj, Bassam; Jin, Xin; Pulupa, Joan; Cho, Christine; Mir, Mustafa; El Beheiry, Mohamed; Darzacq, Xavier; Nollmann, Marcelo; Dahan, Maxime; Wu, Carl; Lionnet, Timothée; Liddle, J Alexander; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-03-01

    Multifocus microscopy (MFM) allows high-resolution instantaneous three-dimensional (3D) imaging and has been applied to study biological specimens ranging from single molecules inside cells nuclei to entire embryos. We here describe pattern designs and nanofabrication methods for diffractive optics that optimize the light-efficiency of the central optical component of MFM: the diffractive multifocus grating (MFG). We also implement a "precise color" MFM layout with MFGs tailored to individual fluorophores in separate optical arms. The reported advancements enable faster and brighter volumetric time-lapse imaging of biological samples. In live microscopy applications, photon budget is a critical parameter and light-efficiency must be optimized to obtain the fastest possible frame rate while minimizing photodamage. We provide comprehensive descriptions and code for designing diffractive optical devices, and a detailed methods description for nanofabrication of devices. Theoretical efficiencies of reported designs is ≈90% and we have obtained efficiencies of > 80% in MFGs of our own manufacture. We demonstrate the performance of a multi-phase MFG in 3D functional neuronal imaging in living C. elegans.

  17. Experimental demonstration of 1.5Hz passive isolation system for precision optical payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xin; Wang, Guang-yuan; Cao, Dong-jing; Tang, Shao-fan; Chen, Xiang; Liang, Lu; Zheng, Gang-tie

    2017-11-01

    The ground resolution of remote sensing satellite has been raised from hundreds of meters to less than one meter in recent few decades. As a result, the precision optical payload becomes more and more sensitive to structure vibrations of satellite buses. Although these vibrations generally have extremely low magnitude, they can result in significant image quality degradation to an optical payload. The suggestion of using vibration isolators to isolate payload from the satellite bus has been put forward in 1980s'[1]. Recently, WorldView-2 achieved its perfect image quality via using a set of low frequency isolators[2]. Recently, some of the optical payload manufacturers begin to provide vibration isolators as standard parts together with their main products . During the prototype testing of an earth resource satellite, the image of the optical payload was found to jitter for 5 10 pixels due to disturbances transmitted from the satellite bus structure. Test results indicated that the acceleration level of the vibration was of mG magnitude. To solve the problem, a highly sensitive vibration isolation system was developed to reduce the transmission of disturbances. Integrated isolation performance tests showed that the image jitter can be decreased to below 0.3 pixels.

  18. IEEE-754 compliant Algorithms for Fast Multiplication of Double Precision Floating Point Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Geetanjali Wasson

    2011-01-01

    In image and signal processing applications floating-point multiplication is major concern in calculations. Performing multiplication on floating point data is a long course of action and requires huge quantity of processing time. By improving the speed of multiplication task overall speed of the system can be enhanced. The Bottleneck in the floating point multiplication process is the multiplication of mantissas which needs 53*53 bit integer multiplier f...

  19. Convergence Time and Positioning Accuracy Comparison between BDS and GPS Precise Point Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BDS/GPS data from MGEX were processed by TriP 2.0 software developed at Wuhan University. Both static and kinematic float PPP are tested by adopting precise satellite orbits and clocks provided by Research Center of GNSS, Wuhan University. The results show that the convergence time of BDS static PPP is about 80min while kinematic PPP is about 100min. For 3h observations, static positioning accuracy of 5 cm and kinematic positioning accuracy of 8 cm in horizontal, about 12 cm in vertical can be achieved. Similar to GPS PPP, precision in east component is worse than north. At present, BDS PPP needs longer convergence time than GPS PPP to reach an absolute positioning accuracy of cm~dm due to the lack of global tracking stations and the limited accuracy of orbit and clock products.

  20. A novel array processing method for precise depth detection of ultrasound point scatter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamantis, Konstantinos; Dalgarno, Paul A.; Greenaway, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    simulation software. A 7 MHz linear transducer is used to scan a single point scatterer phantom that can move in the axial direction. Individual beamformer outputs from 3 different foci are post-processed using the highly-dependent on focusing errors, metric of sharpness to estimate the position of the point...

  1. Precision Determination of Atmospheric Extinction at Optical and Near IR Wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Blondin, Stephane; /European Southern Observ. /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2011-08-24

    The science goals for future ground-based all-sky surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, PanSTARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, require calibration of broadband photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the sky to precisions of a per cent or better, and absolute calibration of color measurements that are similarly accurate. This performance will need to be achieved with measurements made from multiple images taken over the course of many years, and these surveys will observe in less than ideal conditions. This paper describes a technique to implement a new strategy to directly measure variations of atmospheric transmittance at optical wavelengths and application of these measurements to calibration of ground-based observations. This strategy makes use of measurements of the spectra of a small catalog of bright 'probe' stars as they progress across the sky and back-light the atmosphere. The signatures of optical absorption by different atmospheric constituents are recognized in these spectra by their characteristic dependences on wavelength and airmass. State-of-the-art models of atmospheric radiation transport and modern codes are used to accurately compute atmospheric extinction over a wide range of observing conditions. We present results of an observing campaign that demonstrate that correction for extinction due to molecular constituents and aerosols can be done with precisions of a few millimagnitudes with this technique.

  2. High-resolution imaging optomechatronics for precise liquid crystal display module bonding automated optical inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Guangming; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Juanxiu; Liu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    With the development of the liquid crystal display (LCD) module industry, LCD modules become more and more precise with larger sizes, which demands harsh imaging requirements for automated optical inspection (AOI). Here, we report a high-resolution and clearly focused imaging optomechatronics for precise LCD module bonding AOI inspection. It first presents and achieves high-resolution imaging for LCD module bonding AOI inspection using a line scan camera (LSC) triggered by a linear optical encoder, self-adaptive focusing for the whole large imaging region using LSC, and a laser displacement sensor, which reduces the requirements of machining, assembly, and motion control of AOI devices. Results show that this system can directly achieve clearly focused imaging for AOI inspection of large LCD module bonding with 0.8 μm image resolution, 2.65-mm scan imaging width, and no limited imaging width theoretically. All of these are significant for AOI inspection in the LCD module industry and other fields that require imaging large regions with high resolution.

  3. Fiber design and realization of point-by-point written fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Stecher, Matthias; Town, Graham E.

    2012-01-01

    . The grating was inspected under Differential Interferometric Contrast microscope and the reflection spectrum was measured. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first FBGs written into a mPOF with the point-by-point technique and also the fastest ever written into a polymer optical fiber, with less than......An increasing interest in making sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written in polymer optical fibers (POFs) has been seen recently. Mostly microstructured POFs (mPOFs) have been chosen for this purpose because they are easier to fabricate compared, for example, to step index fibers...... and realization of a microstructured polymer optical fiber made of PMMA for direct writing of FBGs. The fiber was designed specifically to avoid obstruction of the writing beam by air-holes. The realized fiber has been used to point-by-point write a 5 mm long fourth order FBG with a Bragg wavelength of 1518 nm...

  4. Utilizing the Double-Precision Floating-Point Computing Power of GPUs for RSA Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankuo Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cryptographic algorithm (e.g., RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography implementations on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs have been researched for over a decade. The basic idea of most previous contributions is exploiting the highly parallel GPU architecture and porting the integer-based algorithms from general-purpose CPUs to GPUs, to offer high performance. However, the great potential cryptographic computing power of GPUs, especially by the more powerful floating-point instructions, has not been comprehensively investigated in fact. In this paper, we fully exploit the floating-point computing power of GPUs, by various designs, including the floating-point-based Montgomery multiplication/exponentiation algorithm and Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT implementation in GPU. And for practical usage of the proposed algorithm, a new method is performed to convert the input/output between octet strings and floating-point numbers, fully utilizing GPUs and further promoting the overall performance by about 5%. The performance of RSA-2048/3072/4096 decryption on NVIDIA GeForce GTX TITAN reaches 42,211/12,151/5,790 operations per second, respectively, which achieves 13 times the performance of the previous fastest floating-point-based implementation (published in Eurocrypt 2009. The RSA-4096 decryption precedes the existing fastest integer-based result by 23%.

  5. Surface ice flow velocity and tide retrieval of the amery ice shelf using precise point positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2006-01-01

    of the observed point was derived from PPP to be 2.25 m/day toward the northeast with an azimuth of 41 degrees. Major semi-diurnal and diurnal oceanic tide constituents could be recovered from the 5 days of PPP-derived height variations and compared well with a hydrodynamic ocean tide model. The PPP technique can...

  6. Coherent demodulation of microwave signals by using optical heterodyne technique with applications to point to point indoor wireless communications systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Juarez, A; Gomez-Colin, M R; Rojas-Hernandez, A G [Universidad de Sonora (Mexico); Zaldivar-Huerta, I E; Aguayo-Rodriguez, G [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Mexico); Rodriguez-Asomoza, J, E-mail: agarcia@cifus.uson.mx [Universidad de las Americas-Puebla (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    An optical communications system using a couple microstrip antennas for distributing point to point analog TV with coherent demodulation based on optical heterodyne in close vicinity is reported in this paper. In the proposed experimental setup, two optical waves at different wavelengths are mixed and applied to a photodetector. Then a beat signal with a frequency equivalent to the spacing of the two wavelengths is obtained at the output of the photodetector. This signal corresponds to a microwave signal located at 1.25 GHz, which it is used as a microwave carrier in the transmitter and as a local oscillator in the receiver of our optical communication system. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated transmitting a TV signal of 66-72 MHz.

  7. Sub-microradian pointing for deep space optical telecommunications network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, G.; Lee, S.; Alexander, J.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will cover innovative hardware, algorithms, architectures, techniques and recent laboratory results that are applicable to all deep space optical communication links, such as the Mars Telecommunication Network to future interstellar missions.

  8. Development and beam-shape analysis of an integrated fiber-optic confocal probe for high-precision central thickness measurement of small-radius lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutapun, Boonsong; Somboonkaew, Armote; Amarit, Ratthasart; Chanhorm, Sataporn

    2015-04-13

    This work describes a new design of a fiber-optic confocal probe suitable for measuring the central thicknesses of small-radius optical lenses or similar objects. The proposed confocal probe utilizes an integrated camera that functions as a shape-encoded position-sensing device. The confocal signal for thickness measurement and beam-shape data for off-axis measurement can be simultaneously acquired using the proposed probe. Placing the probe's focal point off-center relative to a sample's vertex produces a non-circular image at the camera's image plane that closely resembles an ellipse for small displacements. We were able to precisely position the confocal probe's focal point relative to the vertex point of a ball lens with a radius of 2.5 mm, with a lateral resolution of 1.2 µm. The reflected beam shape based on partial blocking by an aperture was analyzed and verified experimentally. The proposed confocal probe offers a low-cost, high-precision technique, an alternative to a high-cost three-dimensional surface profiler, for tight quality control of small optical lenses during the manufacturing process.

  9. Development and Beam-Shape Analysis of an Integrated Fiber-Optic Confocal Probe for High-Precision Central Thickness Measurement of Small-Radius Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonsong Sutapun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a new design of a fiber-optic confocal probe suitable for measuring the central thicknesses of small-radius optical lenses or similar objects. The proposed confocal probe utilizes an integrated camera that functions as a shape-encoded position-sensing device. The confocal signal for thickness measurement and beam-shape data for off-axis measurement can be simultaneously acquired using the proposed probe. Placing the probe’s focal point off-center relative to a sample’s vertex produces a non-circular image at the camera’s image plane that closely resembles an ellipse for small displacements. We were able to precisely position the confocal probe’s focal point relative to the vertex point of a ball lens with a radius of 2.5 mm, with a lateral resolution of 1.2 µm. The reflected beam shape based on partial blocking by an aperture was analyzed and verified experimentally. The proposed confocal probe offers a low-cost, high-precision technique, an alternative to a high-cost three-dimensional surface profiler, for tight quality control of small optical lenses during the manufacturing process.

  10. Impacts of real-time satellite clock errors on GPS precise point positioning-based troposphere zenith delay estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junbo; Xu, Chaoqian; Li, Yihe; Gao, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) has become a cost-effective tool to determine troposphere zenith total delay (ZTD) with accuracy comparable to other atmospheric sensors such as the radiosonde, the water vapor radiometer, the radio occultation and so on. However, the high accuracy of GPS troposphere ZTD estimates relies on the precise satellite orbit and clock products available with various latencies. Although the International GNSS Service (IGS) can provide predicted orbit and clock products for real-time applications, the predicted clock accuracy of 3 ns cannot always guarantee the high accuracy of troposphere ZTD estimates. Such limitations could be overcome by the use of the newly launched IGS real-time service which provides 5 cm orbit and 0.2-1.0 ns (an equivalent range error of 6-30 cm) clock products in real time. Considering the relatively larger magnitude of the clock error than that of the orbit error, this paper investigates the effect of real-time satellite clock errors on the GPS precise point positioning (PPP)-based troposphere ZTD estimation. Meanwhile, how the real-time satellite clock errors impact the GPS PPP-based troposphere ZTD estimation has also been studied to obtain the most precise ZTD solutions. First, two types of real-time satellite clock products are assessed with respect to the IGS final clock product in terms of accuracy and precision. Second, the real-time GPS PPP-based troposphere ZTD estimation is conducted using data from 34 selected IGS stations over three independent weeks in April, July and October, 2013. Numerical results demonstrate that the precision, rather than the accuracy, of the real-time satellite clock products impacts the real-time PPP-based ZTD solutions more significantly. In other words, the real-time satellite clock product with better precision leads to more precise real-time PPP-based troposphere ZTD solutions. Therefore, it is suggested that users should select and apply real-time satellite products with

  11. The research on surface characteristics of optical lens by 3D printing technique and precise diamond turning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yao; Chang, Chun-Ming; Ho, Cheng-Fong; Lee, Tai-Wen; Lin, Ping-Hung; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2017-06-01

    The advantage of 3D printing technique is flexible in design and fabrication. Using 3D printing technique, the traditional manufacturing limitations are not considered. The optical lens is the key component in an optical system. The traditional process to manufacture optical plastic lens is injection molding. However injection molding is only suitable for plastics lens, it cannot fabricate optical and mechanical components at same time. The assembly error of optical system can be reduced effectively with fabricating optical and mechanical components at same time. The process of printing optical and mechanical components simultaneously is proposed in previous papers, but the optical surface of printing components is not transparent. If we increase the transmittance of the optical surface, the printing components which fabricated by 3D printing process could be high transmission. Therefore, precise diamond turning technique has been used to turning the surface of 3D printing optical lens in this paper. The precise diamond turning techniques could process surfaces of components to meet the requirements of optical system. A 3D printing machine, Stratasys Connex 500, and a precise diamond turning machine, Precitech Freeform705XG, have been used in this paper, respectively. The dimension, roughness, transmission and printing types of 3D printing components have been discussed in this paper. After turning and polishing process, the roughness of 3D printing component is below 0.05 μm and the transmittance increase above 80 %. This optical module can be used in hand-held telescope and other system which need lens and special mechanical structure fabricated simultaneously.

  12. Development of high precision digital driver of acoustic-optical frequency shifter for ROG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Kong, Mei; Xu, Yameng

    2016-10-01

    We develop a high precision digital driver of the acoustic-optical frequency shifter (AOFS) based on the parallel direct digital synthesizer (DDS) technology. We use an atomic clock as the phase-locked loop (PLL) reference clock, and the PLL is realized by a dual digital phase-locked loop. A DDS sampling clock up to 320 MHz with a frequency stability as low as 10-12 Hz is obtained. By constructing the RF signal measurement system, it is measured that the frequency output range of the AOFS-driver is 52-58 MHz, the center frequency of the band-pass filter is 55 MHz, the ripple in the band is less than 1 dB@3MHz, the single channel output power is up to 0.3 W, the frequency stability is 1 ppb (1 hour duration), and the frequency-shift precision is 0.1 Hz. The obtained frequency stability has two orders of improvement compared to that of the analog AOFS-drivers. For the designed binary frequency shift keying (2-FSK) and binary phase shift keying (2-PSK) modulation system, the demodulating frequency of the input TTL synchronous level signal is up to 10 kHz. The designed digital-bus coding/decoding system is compatible with many conventional digital bus protocols. It can interface with the ROG signal detecting software through the integrated drive electronics (IDE) and exchange data with the two DDS frequency-shift channels through the signal detecting software.

  13. Ultra-precise measurement of optical aberrations for sub-Aangstroem transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, J.

    2008-06-15

    Quantitative investigations of material structures on an atomic scale by means of highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) impose not only extreme demands on the mechanic and electromagnetic stability of the applied instruments but require also their precise electron-optical adjustment. Today a physical resolution well below one Aangstroem can be achieved with commercially available microscopes on a daily basis. However, the achieved resolution can often not be reliably exploited for the interpretation of the resulting microscopical data due to the presence of so-called higher-order lens aberrations. At the starting time of this work, a sufficiently accurate procedure to measure higher-order aberrations was urgently missing. Since aberration measurement is a mandatory prerequisite for any technique of aberration control enabling quantitative high-resolution microscopy, the goal of this work is to develop such a measurement procedure for the Sub-Aangstroem regime. The measurement procedures developed in the course of this work are based on the numerical evaluation of a series of images taken from an amorphous object under electron-beam illumination with varying tilt. New techniques have been developed for the evaluation of single images as well as for the optimised evaluation of the whole series. These procedures allow microscope users to perform quantitative HRTEM even at a resolution of 0.5 Aangstroem. The precision reached with the newly developed measurement procedures is unprecedented and surpasses existing solutions by at least one order of magnitude in any respect. All the concepts and procedures for aberration measurement developed in this work have been implemented in a software package which satisfies professional demands with respect to robustness, precision, speed and user-friendliness. The new automatic aberrationmeasurement procedures are suitable to establish HRTEM as a quantitative technique for material science investigations in the

  14. Ultra-precise measurement of optical aberrations for sub-Aangstroem transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, J.

    2008-06-01

    Quantitative investigations of material structures on an atomic scale by means of highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) impose not only extreme demands on the mechanic and electromagnetic stability of the applied instruments but require also their precise electron-optical adjustment. Today a physical resolution well below one Aangstroem can be achieved with commercially available microscopes on a daily basis. However, the achieved resolution can often not be reliably exploited for the interpretation of the resulting microscopical data due to the presence of so-called higher-order lens aberrations. At the starting time of this work, a sufficiently accurate procedure to measure higher-order aberrations was urgently missing. Since aberration measurement is a mandatory prerequisite for any technique of aberration control enabling quantitative high-resolution microscopy, the goal of this work is to develop such a measurement procedure for the Sub-Aangstroem regime. The measurement procedures developed in the course of this work are based on the numerical evaluation of a series of images taken from an amorphous object under electron-beam illumination with varying tilt. New techniques have been developed for the evaluation of single images as well as for the optimised evaluation of the whole series. These procedures allow microscope users to perform quantitative HRTEM even at a resolution of 0.5 Aangstroem. The precision reached with the newly developed measurement procedures is unprecedented and surpasses existing solutions by at least one order of magnitude in any respect. All the concepts and procedures for aberration measurement developed in this work have been implemented in a software package which satisfies professional demands with respect to robustness, precision, speed and user-friendliness. The new automatic aberrationmeasurement procedures are suitable to establish HRTEM as a quantitative technique for material science investigations in the

  15. Influence of material removal programming on ion beam figuring of high-precision optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenlin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui

    2014-09-01

    Ion beam figuring (IBF) provides a nanometer/subnanometer precision fabrication technology for optical components, where the surface materials on highlands are gradually removed by the physical sputtering effect. In this deterministic method, the figuring process is usually divided into several iterations and the sum of the removed material in each iteration is expected to approach the ideally removed material as nearly as possible. However, we find that the material removal programming in each iteration would influence the surface error convergence of the figuring process. The influence of material removal programming on the surface error evolution is investigated through the comparative study of the contour removal method (CRM) and the geometric proportion removal method (PRM). The research results indicate that the PRM can maintenance the smoothness of the surface topography during the whole figuring process, which would benefit the stable operation of the machine tool and avoid the production of mid-to-high spatial frequency surface errors. Additionally, the CRM only has the corrective effect on the area above the contour line in each iteration, which would result in the nonuniform convergence of the surface errors in various areas. All these advantages distinguish PRM as an appropriate material removal method for ultraprecision optical surfaces.

  16. Enabling Precision Medicine With Digital Case Classification at the Point-of-Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Obermeier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system are difficult to identify early. Case definitions for aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM are available, but rarely put to use. The VACC-Tool (Vienna Vaccine Safety Initiative Automated Case Classification-Tool is a mobile application enabling immediate case ascertainment based on consensus criteria at the point-of-care. The VACC-Tool was validated in a quality management program in collaboration with the Robert-Koch-Institute. Results were compared to ICD-10 coding and retrospective analysis of electronic health records using the same case criteria. Of 68,921 patients attending the emergency room in 10/2010–06/2013, 11,575 were hospitalized, with 521 eligible patients (mean age: 7.6 years entering the quality management program. Using the VACC-Tool at the point-of-care, 180/521 cases were classified successfully and 194/521 ruled out with certainty. Of the 180 confirmed cases, 116 had been missed by ICD-10 coding, 38 misclassified. By retrospective application of the same case criteria, 33 cases were missed. Encephalitis and ADEM cases were most likely missed or misclassified. The VACC-Tool enables physicians to ask the right questions at the right time, thereby classifying cases consistently and accurately, facilitating translational research. Future applications will alert physicians when additional diagnostic procedures are required.

  17. Enabling Precision Medicine With Digital Case Classification at the Point-of-Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Patrick; Muehlhans, Susann; Hoppe, Christian; Karsch, Katharina; Tief, Franziska; Seeber, Lea; Chen, Xi; Conrad, Tim; Boettcher, Sindy; Diedrich, Sabine; Rath, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system are difficult to identify early. Case definitions for aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are available, but rarely put to use. The VACC-Tool (Vienna Vaccine Safety Initiative Automated Case Classification-Tool) is a mobile application enabling immediate case ascertainment based on consensus criteria at the point-of-care. The VACC-Tool was validated in a quality management program in collaboration with the Robert-Koch-Institute. Results were compared to ICD-10 coding and retrospective analysis of electronic health records using the same case criteria. Of 68,921 patients attending the emergency room in 10/2010-06/2013, 11,575 were hospitalized, with 521 eligible patients (mean age: 7.6 years) entering the quality management program. Using the VACC-Tool at the point-of-care, 180/521 cases were classified successfully and 194/521 ruled out with certainty. Of the 180 confirmed cases, 116 had been missed by ICD-10 coding, 38 misclassified. By retrospective application of the same case criteria, 33 cases were missed. Encephalitis and ADEM cases were most likely missed or misclassified. The VACC-Tool enables physicians to ask the right questions at the right time, thereby classifying cases consistently and accurately, facilitating translational research. Future applications will alert physicians when additional diagnostic procedures are required.

  18. Evaluation of hybrid polymers for high-precision manufacturing of 3D optical interconnects by two-photon absorption lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleunitz, A.; Klein, J. J.; Krupp, A.; Stender, B.; Houbertz, R.; Gruetzner, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of optical interconnects has been widely investigated for the generation of optical circuit boards. Twophoton absorption (TPA) lithography (or high-precision 3D printing) as an innovative production method for direct manufacture of individual 3D photonic structures gains more and more attention when optical polymers are employed. In this regard, we have evaluated novel ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers tailored for the manufacture of optical waveguides by means of high-precision 3D printing. In order to facilitate future industrial implementation, the processability was evaluated and the optical performance of embedded waveguides was assessed. The results illustrate that hybrid polymers are not only viable consumables for industrial manufacture of polymeric micro-optics using generic processes such as UV molding. They also are potential candidates to fabricate optical waveguide systems down to the chip level where TPA-based emerging manufacturing techniques are engaged. Hence, it is shown that hybrid polymers continue to meet the increasing expectations of dynamically growing markets of micro-optics and optical interconnects due to the flexibility of the employed polymer material concept.

  19. Kinematična metoda PPP (Precise Point Positioning) določitve položaja v GNSS

    OpenAIRE

    Šanca, Simon

    2017-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je obravnavana kinematična metoda PPP (Precise Point Positioning). Predstavljeni so osnovni teoretični koncepti in prednosti ter slabosti metode. Predstavljena je programska oprema, ki omogoča obdelavo opazovanj z metodo PPP. Za namen raziskave smo izvedli statična in kinematična opazovanja GPS in GLONASS. Kinematične meritve z GNSS smo spremljali s tahimetrom ter tako pridobili referenčne koordinate za oceno kakovosti koordinat določenih z metodo PPP. Opazovanja GNSS smo o...

  20. Study of multi-functional precision optical measuring system for large scale equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Lao, Dabao; Zhou, Weihu; Zhang, Wenying; Jiang, Xingjian; Wang, Yongxi

    2017-10-01

    The effective application of high performance measurement technology can greatly improve the large-scale equipment manufacturing ability. Therefore, the geometric parameters measurement, such as size, attitude and position, requires the measurement system with high precision, multi-function, portability and other characteristics. However, the existing measuring instruments, such as laser tracker, total station, photogrammetry system, mostly has single function, station moving and other shortcomings. Laser tracker needs to work with cooperative target, but it can hardly meet the requirement of measurement in extreme environment. Total station is mainly used for outdoor surveying and mapping, it is hard to achieve the demand of accuracy in industrial measurement. Photogrammetry system can achieve a wide range of multi-point measurement, but the measuring range is limited and need to repeatedly move station. The paper presents a non-contact opto-electronic measuring instrument, not only it can work by scanning the measurement path but also measuring the cooperative target by tracking measurement. The system is based on some key technologies, such as absolute distance measurement, two-dimensional angle measurement, automatically target recognition and accurate aiming, precision control, assembly of complex mechanical system and multi-functional 3D visualization software. Among them, the absolute distance measurement module ensures measurement with high accuracy, and the twodimensional angle measuring module provides precision angle measurement. The system is suitable for the case of noncontact measurement of large-scale equipment, it can ensure the quality and performance of large-scale equipment throughout the process of manufacturing and improve the manufacturing ability of large-scale and high-end equipment.

  1. Testing of an End-Point Control Unit Designed to Enable Precision Control of Manipulator-Coupled Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Ghosh, Dave; Tobbe, Patrick A.; Weathers, John M.; Manouchehri, Davoud; Lindsay, Thomas S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an end-point control concept designed to enable precision telerobotic control of manipulator-coupled spacecraft. The concept employs a hardware unit (end-point control unit EPCU) that is positioned between the end-effector of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System and the payload. Features of the unit are active compliance (control of the displacement between the end-effector and the payload), to allow precision control of payload motions, and inertial load relief, to prevent the transmission of loads between the end-effector and the payload. This paper presents the concept and studies the active compliance feature using a simulation and hardware. Results of the simulation show the effectiveness of the EPCU in smoothing the motion of the payload. Results are presented from initial, limited tests of a laboratory hardware unit on a robotic arm testbed at the l Space Flight Center. Tracking performance of the arm in a constant speed automated retraction and extension maneuver of a heavy payload with and without the unit active is compared for the design speed and higher speeds. Simultaneous load reduction and tracking performance are demonstrated using the EPCU.

  2. On the convergence of ionospheric constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) based on undifferential uncombined raw GNSS observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongping; Gao, Zhouzheng; Ge, Maorong; Niu, Xiaoji; Huang, Ling; Tu, Rui; Li, Xingxing

    2013-11-18

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has become a very hot topic in GNSS research and applications. However, it usually takes about several tens of minutes in order to obtain positions with better than 10 cm accuracy. This prevents PPP from being widely used in real-time kinematic positioning services, therefore, a large effort has been made to tackle the convergence problem. One of the recent approaches is the ionospheric delay constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) that uses the spatial and temporal characteristics of ionospheric delays and also delays from an a priori model. In this paper, the impact of the quality of ionospheric models on the convergence of IC-PPP is evaluated using the IGS global ionospheric map (GIM) updated every two hours and a regional satellite-specific correction model. Furthermore, the effect of the receiver differential code bias (DCB) is investigated by comparing the convergence time for IC-PPP with and without estimation of the DCB parameter. From the result of processing a large amount of data, on the one hand, the quality of the a priori ionosphere delays plays a very important role in IC-PPP convergence. Generally, regional dense GNSS networks can provide more precise ionosphere delays than GIM and can consequently reduce the convergence time. On the other hand, ignoring the receiver DCB may considerably extend its convergence, and the larger the DCB, the longer the convergence time. Estimating receiver DCB in IC-PPP is a proper way to overcome this problem. Therefore, current IC-PPP should be enhanced by estimating receiver DCB and employing regional satellite-specific ionospheric correction models in order to speed up its convergence for more practical applications.

  3. On the Convergence of Ionospheric Constrained Precise Point Positioning (IC-PPP) Based on Undifferential Uncombined Raw GNSS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongping; Gao, Zhouzheng; Ge, Maorong; Niu, Xiaoji; Huang, Ling; Tu, Rui; Li, Xingxing

    2013-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has become a very hot topic in GNSS research and applications. However, it usually takes about several tens of minutes in order to obtain positions with better than 10 cm accuracy. This prevents PPP from being widely used in real-time kinematic positioning services, therefore, a large effort has been made to tackle the convergence problem. One of the recent approaches is the ionospheric delay constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) that uses the spatial and temporal characteristics of ionospheric delays and also delays from an a priori model. In this paper, the impact of the quality of ionospheric models on the convergence of IC-PPP is evaluated using the IGS global ionospheric map (GIM) updated every two hours and a regional satellite-specific correction model. Furthermore, the effect of the receiver differential code bias (DCB) is investigated by comparing the convergence time for IC-PPP with and without estimation of the DCB parameter. From the result of processing a large amount of data, on the one hand, the quality of the a priori ionosphere delays plays a very important role in IC-PPP convergence. Generally, regional dense GNSS networks can provide more precise ionosphere delays than GIM and can consequently reduce the convergence time. On the other hand, ignoring the receiver DCB may considerably extend its convergence, and the larger the DCB, the longer the convergence time. Estimating receiver DCB in IC-PPP is a proper way to overcome this problem. Therefore, current IC-PPP should be enhanced by estimating receiver DCB and employing regional satellite-specific ionospheric correction models in order to speed up its convergence for more practical applications. PMID:24253190

  4. Precision of high definition spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for measuring central corneal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Pérez, María E; López-Miguel, Alberto; Miranda-Anta, Silvia; Iglesias-Cortiñas, Darío; Alió, Jorge L; Maldonado, Miguel J

    2012-04-06

    This study was intended to assess the reliability of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) in healthy subjects and its accuracy compared with ultrasonic pachymetry. Seventy-seven consecutive subjects were recruited for evaluating repeatability, and agreement between two examiners. To analyze repeatability, one examiner measured 77 eyes four times in succession. To study agreement between two observers, a second independently trained examiner obtained another CCT measurement. We also measured eyes in a subgroup of 20 patients using standard ultrasonic pachymetry. Within-subject standard deviation (S(w)), coefficient of variation (CV), limits of agreement (LoA), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) data were obtained. For repeatability, the S(w) and precision (1.96 × S(w)) were 4.86 and 9.52 μm, respectively. Intraobserver CV was 0.89% and the ICC was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-0.99). For agreement between two examiners, the S(w) and precision were 7.58 and 14.85 μm, respectively; the CV was 1.40%. The mean difference between observers was -0.13 μm (95% CI, -1.85 to 1.58; P = 0.87). The width of the LoA was 29.64 μm. Median difference between Cirrus HD-OCT and ultrasound CCT measurements was -4.5 μm (interquartile range, -7.0-0.0; P = 0.04). Cirrus HD-OCT provides repeatable CCT measurements, good agreement between two independently trained examiners, and its systematic bias compared to ultrasonic pachymetry is clinically negligible. Therefore, research laboratories and eye clinics using Cirrus HD-OCT as a diagnostic imaging method, can also benefit from a reliable noncontact pachymeter when counseling patients with glaucoma and those undergoing corneal and refractive surgeries.

  5. Optical properties of two-dimensional magnetoelectric point scattering lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Sersic, Ivana; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2013-01-01

    We explore the electrodynamic coupling between a plane wave and an infinite two-dimensional periodic lattice of magnetoelectric point scatterers, deriving a semianalytical theory with consistent treatment of radiation damping, retardation, and energy conservation. We apply the theory to arrays...

  6. Study of a high-precision SAW-MOEMS strain sensor with laser optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinwei; Chen, Shufen; Zou, Zhengfeng; Fu, Lei; Meng, Yanbin; Li, Honglang

    2015-01-01

    A novel structure design of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) micro-optic-electro-mechanical-system (MOEMS) strain sensor with a light readout unit is presented in this paper. By measuring the polarization intensity ratio of the TE/TM mode outputted from the waveguide, the strain produced from an object can be measured precisely. The basic working principle of the SAW MOEMS strain sensor is introduced and the mathematical model of the strain sensor system is established. The SAW characteristics effected by the strain sensor are mathematically deduced. The coupling coefficient between the SAW modes and light modes can be calculated based on the theory of coupling modes. The conversion coefficient of polarized light modes is obtained. Due to the restrictions of the specific parameters of the device, the level of technology and the material characteristics, the sensitivity of the strain sensor system is calculated through simulation as 0.1 με, with a dynamic range of 0 ∼ ±50 με. (paper)

  7. Estimation of Centers and Stagnation points in optical flow fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    distribution of spatio-temporal energy, which is sampled using a set of spatio-temporal quadrature filters. These observations of normal flows are then integrated into smooth flow fields by locally approximating first order polynomials in the spatial coordinates to the flow vectors. This technique furthermore......In a topological sense fluid flows are characterised by their stagnation points. Given a temporal sequence of images of fluids we will consider the application of local polynomials to the estimation of smooth fluid flow fields. The normal flow at intensity contours is estimated from the local...... allows us to give a qualitative local description of the flow field and to estimate the position of stagnation points (e.g. nodes, saddles, and centers). We will apply the algorithm to two data sets. The first sequence consists of infrared images from the meteorological satellite Meteosat. Here...

  8. Multi-GNSS Real-Time Precise Point Positioning Services and its Application for Geohazard Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, M.; Li, X.; Yang, L.; Chen, K.; Schuh, H.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-GNSS real-time precise point positioning service is expected to have a much better performance than any single system in terms of accuracy, reliability and availability. However, there are several critical challenges in implementing such a multi-GNSS service to provide global users with centimeter-level positioning. In this contribution, after a short introduction of the EPOS-RT software package developed at the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), we present a method to resolve GLONASS ambiguities over long baselines to improve its orbit quality. The estimation of inter-system/frequency range and phase biases are discussed in detail. Especially the estimation of the phase biases enables inter-system ambiguity resolution, and thus increases the performance in severe observing environment. Of course, computation efficiency is also a critical issue due to the large number of satellites and special measures are taken in order to process data of all the systems integratedly. Experimental validation is carried out based on the data streams of the IGS/MGEX network. The real-time orbit and clock products are assessed by comparison with the IGS/MGEX final products, and the orbits are also assessed by overlap difference over day boundaries and by comparing with satellite laser ranging data. Multi-GNSS real-time PPP is carried out at stations in different geographical locations and the results are evaluated. It is demonstrated that multi-GNSS can significantly improve the global real-time precise point positioning service in terms of convergence time and accuracy, although BDS and Galileo do not have their full constellations yet. Finally, site displacements derived from GPS and multi-GNSS PPP are applied to source inversion for geohazard early warning to assess the multi-GNSS contribution.

  9. Near real-time and real-time GNSS Precise Point Positioning with external a priori troposphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Tomasz; Santos, Marcelo; Garcia, Alex; Bosy, Jaroslaw; Kaplon, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a positioning technique that uses a single GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receiver that requires external information from analysis of global GNSS permanent network, in particular precise orbits and satellite clocks. This technique is commonly used in post-processing mode and gives results comparable to relative positioning. A shortcoming of this technique is the time required for the solution to converge, which is a main limitation for near real-time and real-time applications. The convergence time depends on the quality of GNSS data, on the accuracy of the a priori parameters and on fast ambiguity resolution. Until recently, near real-time and real-time users were limited in the sources of precise products, since only the predicted part of the ultra-rapid products were available. In 2012, the International GNSS Service (IGS) launched the Real-Time Service (RTS), making available a dedicated set of real-time products, known as IGS-RTS. Nevertheless, there is still no standard procedure for handling the troposphere delay. The a priori troposphere delay, as well as mapping functions, has to be derived from an external source and the adjustment model should account for the correction to an apriori value of the delay. Currently, a number of empirical troposphere state models and mapping functions are available for users in real-time. Near-real time model of troposphere delay can also be determined from the analysis of regional GNSS permanent network. In this paper, we make use of the IGS-RTS along with a number of a priori tropospheric models in order the assess how they influence convergence time and estimated position. For this purpose, we use GPS Analysis and Positioning Software (GAPS) for near-real time processing and GNSS-Wroclaw Algorithms for Real-time Positioning (GNSS-WARP) software for real-time processing of GPS only data together with IGS-RTS precise orbits and satellite clocks. As a priori troposphere model

  10. EXAMINATION ABOUT INFLUENCE FOR PRECISION OF 3D IMAGE MEASUREMENT FROM THE GROUND CONTROL POINT MEASUREMENT AND SURFACE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results

  11. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  12. Miniature x-ray point source for alignment and calibration of x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Boyle, M.J.; Glaros, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature x-ray point source of high brightness similar to that of Rovinsky, et al. is described. One version of the x-ray source is used to align the x-ray optics on the Argus and Shiva laser systems. A second version is used to determine the spatial and spectral transmission functions of the x-ray optics. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the x-ray emission from the x-ray point source are described. The physical constraints including size, intensity and thermal limitations, and useful lifetime are discussed. The alignment and calibration techniques for various x-ray optics and detector combinations are described

  13. Effects of reduced terrestrial LiDAR point density on high-resolution grain crop surface models in precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerle, Martin; Höfle, Bernhard

    2014-12-16

    3D geodata play an increasingly important role in precision agriculture, e.g., for modeling in-field variations of grain crop features such as height or biomass. A common data capturing method is LiDAR, which often requires expensive equipment and produces large datasets. This study contributes to the improvement of 3D geodata capturing efficiency by assessing the effect of reduced scanning resolution on crop surface models (CSMs). The analysis is based on high-end LiDAR point clouds of grain crop fields of different varieties (rye and wheat) and nitrogen fertilization stages (100%, 50%, 10%). Lower scanning resolutions are simulated by keeping every n-th laser beam with increasing step widths n. For each iteration step, high-resolution CSMs (0.01 m2 cells) are derived and assessed regarding their coverage relative to a seamless CSM derived from the original point cloud, standard deviation of elevation and mean elevation. Reducing the resolution to, e.g., 25% still leads to a coverage of >90% and a mean CSM elevation of >96% of measured crop height. CSM types (maximum elevation or 90th-percentile elevation) react differently to reduced scanning resolutions in different crops (variety, density). The results can help to assess the trade-off between CSM quality and minimum requirements regarding equipment and capturing set-up.

  14. A precision test of Lorentz invariance using room-temperature high-finesse optical resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisele, Christian

    2009-10-28

    necessary, since a tilt of the resonators with respect to the local direction of gravitation leads to a shift of the resonance frequencies. Finally, servo systems have been implemented to stabilize the optical power circulating in the resonators and the temperature of the setup. The complete experiment can be actively rotated by means of an high precision air bearing rotation table, which allows for a considerable increase of the rate of data taking as compared to a stationary system. This allows for a comparatively fast reduction of statistical errors. Another advantage of the active rotation is the relaxation of stability demands for long timescales. A high frequency stability is needed on a timescale of half a rotation, here {approx} 45 s, while for stationary systems it would be 12 hours since one has to rely on the rotation of the earth. With the setup just described we have performed measurements between march 2008 and may 2009 yielding {approx} 135000 rotations distributed over the entire timespan. This data was analyzed according to two different test theories, the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl theory (RMS) and the Standard Modell extension (SME). Within the RMS theory a single parameter combination ({delta} - {beta} + 1/2) describes a possible anisotropy. For an isotropic speed of light it equals zero. We determined an upper limit of ({delta} - {beta} + 1/2) {<=} 8 . 10{sup -12} corresponding to a relative anisotropy of the speed of light below (1)/(2) vertical stroke {delta}c({pi}/2)/c vertical stroke {<=} 6 . 10{sup -18} (1{sigma} bounds). This value is more than one order of magnitude smaller than the values published so far. Within the framework of the SME we could determine 8 parameters describing a possible violation of the Lorentz invariance by photons. Upper limits for these parameters could be improved considerably compared to the experimental predecessor of the setup and to the values determined by other groups. Parts of this thesis have already been published

  15. A precision test of Lorentz invariance using room-temperature high-finesse optical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisele, Christian

    2009-01-01

    necessary, since a tilt of the resonators with respect to the local direction of gravitation leads to a shift of the resonance frequencies. Finally, servo systems have been implemented to stabilize the optical power circulating in the resonators and the temperature of the setup. The complete experiment can be actively rotated by means of an high precision air bearing rotation table, which allows for a considerable increase of the rate of data taking as compared to a stationary system. This allows for a comparatively fast reduction of statistical errors. Another advantage of the active rotation is the relaxation of stability demands for long timescales. A high frequency stability is needed on a timescale of half a rotation, here ∼ 45 s, while for stationary systems it would be 12 hours since one has to rely on the rotation of the earth. With the setup just described we have performed measurements between march 2008 and may 2009 yielding ∼ 135000 rotations distributed over the entire timespan. This data was analyzed according to two different test theories, the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl theory (RMS) and the Standard Modell extension (SME). Within the RMS theory a single parameter combination (δ - β + 1/2) describes a possible anisotropy. For an isotropic speed of light it equals zero. We determined an upper limit of (δ - β + 1/2) ≤ 8 . 10 -12 corresponding to a relative anisotropy of the speed of light below (1)/(2) vertical stroke Δc(π/2)/c vertical stroke ≤ 6 . 10 -18 (1σ bounds). This value is more than one order of magnitude smaller than the values published so far. Within the framework of the SME we could determine 8 parameters describing a possible violation of the Lorentz invariance by photons. Upper limits for these parameters could be improved considerably compared to the experimental predecessor of the setup and to the values determined by other groups. Parts of this thesis have already been published in Optics Communications: Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, A

  16. Precision Membrane Optical Shell (PMOS) Technology for RF/Microwave to Lightweight LIDAR Apertures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Membrane Optical Shell Technology (MOST) is an innovative combination of 1) very low areal density (40 to 200g/m2) optically smooth (<20 nm rms), metallic coated...

  17. An investigation into the performance of real-time GPS+GLONASS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harima, Ken; Choy, Suelynn; Rizos, Chris; Kogure, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the performance of real-time Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in New Zealand. The motivation of the research is to evaluate the feasibility of using PPP technique and a satellite based augmentation system such as the Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) to deliver a real-time precise positioning solution in support of a nation-wide high accuracy GNSS positioning coverage in New Zealand. Two IGS real-time correction streams are evaluated alongside with the PPP correction messages transmitted by the QZSS satellite known as MDC1. MDC1 corrections stream is generated by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) using the Multi-GNSS Advanced Demonstration tool for Orbit and Clock Analysis (MADOCA) software and are currently transmitted in test mode by the QZSS satellite. The IGS real-time streams are the CLK9B real-time corrections stream generated by the French Centre National D'études Spatiales (CNES) using the PPP-Wizard software, and the CLK81 real-time corrections stream produced by GMV using their MagicGNSS software. GNSS data is collected from six New Zealand CORS stations operated by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) over a one-week period in 2015. GPS and GLONASS measurements are processed in a real-time PPP mode using the satellite orbit and clock corrections from the real-time streams. The results show that positioning accuracies of 6 cm in horizontal component and 15 cm in vertical component can be achieved in real-time PPP. The real-time GPS+GLONASS PPP solution required 30 minutes to converge to within 10 cm horizontal positioning accuracy.

  18. Atmosphere Mitigation in Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution for Earthquake Early Warning in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Bock, Y.; Reuveni, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) is a time-critical system and typically relies on seismic instruments in the area around the source to detect P waves (or S waves) and rapidly issue alerts. Thanks to the rapid development of real-time Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), a good number of sensors have been deployed in seismic zones, such as the western U.S. where over 600 GPS stations are collecting 1-Hz high-rate data along the Cascadia subduction zone, San Francisco Bay area, San Andreas fault, etc. GNSS sensors complement the seismic sensors by recording the static offsets while seismic data provide highly-precise higher frequency motions. An optimal combination of GNSS and accelerometer data (seismogeodesy) has advantages compared to GNSS-only or seismic-only methods and provides seismic velocity and displacement waveforms that are precise enough to detect P wave arrivals, in particular in the near source region. Robust real-time GNSS and seismogeodetic analysis is challenging because it requires a period of initialization and continuous phase ambiguity resolution. One of the limiting factors is unmodeled atmospheric effects, both of tropospheric and ionospheric origin. One mitigation approach is to introduce atmospheric corrections into precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) of clients/stations within the monitored regions. NOAA generates hourly predictions of zenith troposphere delays at an accuracy of a few centimeters, and 15-minute slant ionospheric delays of a few TECU (Total Electron Content Unit) accuracy from both geodetic and meteorological data collected at hundreds of stations across the U.S. The Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) is experimenting with a regional ionosphere grid using a few hundred stations in southern California, and the International GNSS Service (IGS) routinely estimates a Global Ionosphere Map using over 100 GNSS stations. With these troposphere and ionosphere data as additional

  19. tweezercalib 2.1: Faster version of MatLab package for precise calibration of optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Poul Martin; Tolic-Nørrelykke, Iva Marija; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2006-10-01

    routines based on Refs. [1,2]. Statistical support for fit is given, with several plots facilitating inspection of consistency and quality of data and fit. Reasons for the new version:Recent progress in the field has demonstrated a better approximation of the formula for the theoretical power spectrum with corrections due to frequency dependence of motion and distance to a surface nearby. Summary of revisions:The expression for the theoretical power spectrum when accounting for corrections to Stokes law, P(f), has been updated to agree with a better approximation of the theoretical spectrum, as discussed in Ref. [4] The units of the kinematic viscosity applied in the program is now stated in the input window. Greek letters and exponents are inserted in the input window. The graphical output has improved: The figures now bear a meaningful title and four figures that test the quality of the fit are now combined in one figure with four parts. Restrictions: Data should be positions of bead doing Brownian motion while held by optical tweezers. For high precision in final results, data should be time series measured over a long time, with sufficiently high experimental sampling rate; The sampling rate should be well above the characteristic frequency of the trap, the so-called corner frequency. Thus, the sampling frequency should typically be larger than 10 kHz. The Fast Fourier Transform used works optimally when the time series contain 2 data points, and long measurement time is obtained with n>12-15. Finally, the optics should be set to ensure a harmonic trapping potential in the range of positions visited by the bead. The fitting procedure checks for harmonic potential. Running time:seconds ReferencesJ. Nocedal, Y.x. Yuan, Combining trust region and line search techniques, Technical Report OTC 98/04, Optimization Technology Center, 1998. W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes. The Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press

  20. Development of precision optical systems for the control and measurement of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolling, S. [NxtPhase Corporation , Vancouver BC (Canada)

    2000-01-01

    Various fibre-optics-based instrumentation designed to measure optical current and voltage at transmission levels have been recently introduced to the market. Honeywell Corporation is the U.S.-based global leader in navigational gyro systems; they have now applied the same fibre-optic gyro technology to develop instruments for the measurement of current. Similar developments at Integrated Optic Pockels Cell (IOPC), a successful spinoff from the University of British Columbia, led to an extremely accurate optical voltage transducer that avoids environmental concerns of alternative optical and conventional technologies. NxtPhase, a new company that is targeting optical current and voltage transducers for deployment at high voltage substations, is introducing new optical instrument transducers that offer higher accuracy, wider bandwidth, greater dynamic range, greater personnel safety , no oil-cellulose or SF6 insulation, and greater flexibility than existing CTs and VTs. Details of the development of the optical current transducer, the optical voltage transducer, and the ongoing field testing of prototypes are summarized.

  1. Analysing the Zenith Tropospheric Delay Estimates in On-line Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Services and PPP Software Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez Astudillo, Jorge; Lau, Lawrence; Tang, Yu-Ting; Moore, Terry

    2018-02-14

    As Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals travel through the troposphere, a tropospheric delay occurs due to a change in the refractive index of the medium. The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique can achieve centimeter/millimeter positioning accuracy with only one GNSS receiver. The Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) is estimated alongside with the position unknowns in PPP. Estimated ZTD can be very useful for meteorological applications, an example is the estimation of water vapor content in the atmosphere from the estimated ZTD. PPP is implemented with different algorithms and models in online services and software packages. In this study, a performance assessment with analysis of ZTD estimates from three PPP online services and three software packages is presented. The main contribution of this paper is to show the accuracy of ZTD estimation achievable in PPP. The analysis also provides the GNSS users and researchers the insight of the processing algorithm dependence and impact on PPP ZTD estimation. Observation data of eight whole days from a total of nine International GNSS Service (IGS) tracking stations spread in the northern hemisphere, the equatorial region and the southern hemisphere is used in this analysis. The PPP ZTD estimates are compared with the ZTD obtained from the IGS tropospheric product of the same days. The estimates of two of the three online PPP services show good agreement (PPP services perform better than the selected PPP software packages at all stations.

  2. Effect of Multimodal Plasmon Resonances on the Optical Properties of Five-pointed Nanostars

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Shaoli; Cortie, Michael; Blakey, Idriss

    2015-01-01

    The optical transmission and electric field distribution of plasmonic nanostructures dictate their performance in nano-optics and nano-biosensors. Here, we consider the use of hollow, five-pointed, star-shaped nanostructures made of Al, Ag, Au or Cu. We use simulations based on finite-difference time-domain and the discrete dipole approximation to identify the strongest plasmon resonan‐ ces in these structures. In particular, we were seeking plasmon resonances within the visible part of the s...

  3. Precise Prediction of Optical Performance for Near Infrared Instrument Using Adaptive Fitting Line

    OpenAIRE

    Kyeongyeon Ko; Jeong-Yeol Han; Jakyoung Nah; Heeyoung Oh; In-Soo Yuk; Chan Park; Moo-Young Chun; Jae Sok Oh; Kang-Min Kim; Hanshin Lee; Ueejeong Jeong; Daniel T. Jaffe

    2013-01-01

    Infrared optical systems are operated at low temperature and vacuum (LT-V) condition, whereas the assembly and alignment are performed at room temperature and non-vacuum (RT-NV) condition. The differences in temperature and pressure between assembly/alignment environments and operation environment change the physical characteristics of optical and opto-mechanical parts (e.g., thickness, height, length, curvature, and refractive index), and the resultant optical performance changes...

  4. Highly efficient machining of non-circular freeform optics using fast tool servo assisted ultra-precision turning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zexiao; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Xianlei; Gao, Huimin

    2017-10-16

    Freeform optics has been regarded as the next generation of the optical components, especially those with non-circular apertures are playing an increasingly significant role in scanning field and specialized optical system. However, there still exist challenges to machine non-circular optical freeform surface. This paper is focused on highly efficiently generating freeform surfaces with optical surface quality by ultra-precision turning using a fast tool servo (FTS). A systematic strategy of machining smooth freeform surfaces with rectangular aperture is proposed in this paper. The contour of freeform optics is decomposed and assigned to the motions of slide and FTS back-and-forth. An optimized model is established for deriving the profile of the rotational component to cater for the capacity of FTS. Tool path reconstruction is carried out to generate a smooth tool trajectory and modified the contour to cater for the stroke of FTS. Simulation is adopted to analyze the machining property of a typical rectangular freeform surface. A rectangular freeform surface is efficiently machined via the proposed method, where a micron level profile error and nanometric finish in Ra are realized. Characteristics of reflection are analyzed via experiment and simulation. Prospects of such machining approach are discussed to provide guidance to future study.

  5. Critical point of a rotating Bose–Einstein condensates in optical lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, Azza M., E-mail: elbadry.azza@yahoo.com; Soliman, Shemi S.M.; Hassan, Ahmed S.

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, we have considered the critical point (critical atoms’ number and the corresponding critical temperature) of rotating condensate bosons trapped in optical lattices. Our system is formed by loading three dimensional harmonically trapped boson atoms into a 1D (axial direction) or 2D (radial direction) optical lattice. The system subjected to rotating with angular velocity Ω around to the axial direction z-axis. We employ the semiclassical approximation to calculate the critical point. Effects of the optical lattice depth, direction (axial or radial) and the rotation rate on the critical point are investigated using the semiclassical approximation. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the critical point is changed in an optical lattice and depends crucially on the rotation rate. The effect of the finite size for one-dimensional optical lattice case, as required by experiment, is discussed. The outcome results furnish useful qualitatively theoretical results for the future Bose–Einstein condensation experiments in such traps.

  6. GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution (PPP-AR) and its Integration with GPS for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Geng, J.; Avallone, A.; Ganas, A.; Melgar, D.; Riquelme, S.

    2015-12-01

    GPS has been recognized as an essential technique to measure static and dynamic displacements for earthquake early warning (EEW), in particular for near-field large earthquake monitoring where broadband seismometers clip, filtering of strong-motion accelerometer data eliminates the static component, and seismic data are affected by magnitude saturation. We have developed a prototype EEW system for the U.S. West Coast using real-time precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR). It includes about 200 GPS stations spanning the areas of greatest seismic risk: Cascadia, the San Francisco Bay Area and southern California, using IGS ultra-rapid orbits and a North-America based GPS network well outside the region of expected deformation to estimate satellite clock and fractional cycle biases. We have analyzed, retrospectively in real time, earthquakes from Mw5.1 to Mw9.0; we can detect dynamic displacements with a precision of about one cm, but we've encountered several issues that could improve our operational system. Reinitialization of the integer-cycle phase ambiguities is problematic when a (not unusual) data gap of more than about 5 minutes is encountered. Also, ambiguity resolution is less reliable when there are only a limited number (six or less) of GPS satellites available. Nowadays, GNSS is evolving to a true multi-constellation environment with GLONASS having been restored to a 24-satellite constellation in 2012. We present a method for GNSS (GPS+GLONASS) PPP-AR to improve on the performance of GPS PPP-AR in EEW. We find that GNSS-AR has higher reliability in achieving ambiguity-fixed solutions, improves vertical accuracy by 20%, reduces initialization time to less than 7 minutes from about 20 minutes, and reduces outlier rates from 1.2% to below 0.2%. We use three earthquakes to demonstrate GNSS-AR, the M7.8 2014 Iquique, Chile aftershock, and Mw 6.9 2014 North Aegean, Greece and Mw 6.3 2009 L'Aquila, Italy earthquakes.

  7. Impact of ambiguity resolution and application of transformation parameters obtained by regional GNSS network in Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, S.; Poluzzi, L.; Tavasci, L.

    2012-12-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is one of the possible approaches for GNSS data processing. As known this technique is faster and more flexible compared to the others which are based on a differenced approach and constitute a reliable methods for accurate positioning of remote GNSS stations, even in some remote area such as Antarctica. Until few years ago one of the major limits of the method was the impossibility to resolve the ambiguity as integer but nowadays many methods are available to resolve this aspect. The first software package permitting a PPP solution was the GIPSY OASIS realized, developed and maintained by JPL (NASA). JPL produce also orbits and files ready to be used with GIPSY. Recently, using these products came possible to resolve ambiguities improving the stability of solutions. PPP permit to estimate position into the reference frame of the orbits (IGS) and when coordinate in others reference frames, such al ITRF, are needed is necessary to apply a transformation. Within his products JPL offer, for each day, a global 7 parameter transformation that permit to locate the survey into the ITRF RF. In some cases it's also possible to create a costumed process and obtain analogous parameters using local/regional reference network of stations which coordinates are available also in the desired reference frame. In this work some tests on accuracy has been carried out comparing different PPP solutions obtained using the same software packages (GIPSY) but considering the ambiguity resolution, the global and regional transformation parameters. In particular two test area have been considered, first one located in Antarctica and the second one in Italy. Aim of the work is the evaluation of the impact of ambiguity resolution and the use of local/regional transformation parameter in the final solutions. Tests shown how the ambiguity resolution improve the precision, especially in the EAST component with a scattering reduction about 8%. And the use of global

  8. Precision Mobile-Joint and Latching Technologies for Deployable Optical Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planned future NASA missions in astrophysics will push the state of the art in current opto-mechanical technologies. Specifically, precision deployable structures...

  9. Cryogenic Stepping Piezomotor for Large Torque, Precise Rotary Motion Control in Passive Optics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes novel single crystal piezomotors for large torque, high precision, and cryogenic actuation with capability of position set-hold with...

  10. Analysing the Zenith Tropospheric Delay Estimates in On-line Precise Point Positioning (PPP Services and PPP Software Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mendez Astudillo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signals travel through the troposphere, a tropospheric delay occurs due to a change in the refractive index of the medium. The Precise Point Positioning (PPP technique can achieve centimeter/millimeter positioning accuracy with only one GNSS receiver. The Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD is estimated alongside with the position unknowns in PPP. Estimated ZTD can be very useful for meteorological applications, an example is the estimation of water vapor content in the atmosphere from the estimated ZTD. PPP is implemented with different algorithms and models in online services and software packages. In this study, a performance assessment with analysis of ZTD estimates from three PPP online services and three software packages is presented. The main contribution of this paper is to show the accuracy of ZTD estimation achievable in PPP. The analysis also provides the GNSS users and researchers the insight of the processing algorithm dependence and impact on PPP ZTD estimation. Observation data of eight whole days from a total of nine International GNSS Service (IGS tracking stations spread in the northern hemisphere, the equatorial region and the southern hemisphere is used in this analysis. The PPP ZTD estimates are compared with the ZTD obtained from the IGS tropospheric product of the same days. The estimates of two of the three online PPP services show good agreement (<1 cm with the IGS ZTD values at the northern and southern hemisphere stations. The results also show that the online PPP services perform better than the selected PPP software packages at all stations.

  11. An Apparatus of increased precision for the Measurement of Electro-Optical parameters of Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Singh Chandel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs are demanding high attention now a day, because of their potential applications in many electro-optical devices, particularly in displays. The suitable applications of FLCs in devices are decided by their electro-optical properties like tilt angle, birefringence and spontaneous polarization. In this paper  we are presenting a new apparatus for highly accurate measurement of electro-optical parameters of FLCs. The accuracy of the apparatus is the best among the currently available equipments in the market. The accuracy and performance of the apparatus has been confirmed by performing the experiments on standard ferroelectric liquid crystals.

  12. Implications of diamond-turned versus diamond-ground mold fabrication techniques on precision-molded optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertus, Lou; Symmons, Alan

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the trend within the molded optics community has been an overall advancement in the capability to diamond grind molds using a variety of grinding techniques. Improvements in grinding equipment, materials and tooling have enabled higher quality ceramic and carbide molds and thereby lenses. Diamond turned molds from ductile metals are still used prevalently throughout the molding industry. Each technology presents a unique set of advantages and disadvantages whether used for precision injection molding of plastic optics or precision glass molding. This paper reviews the manufacturing techniques for each approach and applicable molding process. The advantages and disadvantages of each are compared and analyzed. The subtle differences that exist in optics molded from each technique and the impact they have on the performance in various applications is reviewed. Differences stemming from tooling material properties, material-specific minor defects, as well as cutting and grinding process-induced artifacts are described in detail as well as their influence on the roughness, waviness, and form errors present on the molded surface. A comparison with results between similar surfaces for both diamond grinding and diamond turning is presented.

  13. Precision optical systems for the control and measurement of electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKellar, R.

    2000-01-01

    Development od three optical systems for use in the measurement of electric power -- the optical current transducer (NXCT), the optical voltage transducer (NCVT) and the optical voltage and current transducer (NXVCT) -- are discussed. Market for these systems is estimated at $ 600 million and growing, based on the aging infrastructure, the effects of deregulation and application in other market areas. Some competing products by other developers are also described, along with some discussion of the economic advantages to NxtPhase customers in terms of lower acquisition and installation cost, accuracy, and bandwidth. The importance of strategic partnerships and the strengths that strategic partners bring to a enterprise (domain knowledge, access, site for installation, investment capital, critical feedback) are reviewed. Preliminary results of field trials of NxtPhase's NXVCT are also discussed

  14. Two-way time transfer via optical fiber providing subpicosecond precision and high temperature stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodet, J.; Pánek, Petr; Procházka, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2015), s. 18-26 ISSN 0026-1394 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : optical fiber * time transfer * TWOTT Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2015

  15. Two-way time transfer via optical fiber providing subpicosecond precision and high temperature stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodet, J.; Pánek, Petr; Procházka, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2016), s. 18-26 ISSN 0026-1394 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : TWOTT * Time transfer * Optical fiber Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  16. Improved optical-to-mechanical software export process for precision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ian B.; Ma, Jerry

    2015-05-01

    BAE Systems has developed an improved tool for exporting optical design coordinates to Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) software. Existing scripts within common lens design packages export element shapes and rays which is enough for standard systems, but complex system design requires knowledge of surface vertices and coordinates for each component. Fixed coordinates for each element allows the mechanical engineer to place parts more accurately than allowed by the standard surface export algorithms, as well as locking optical elements in space so that mating surfaces do not inadvertently move optical elements during mechanical optimization. Including optical element vertex coordinates is useful for rotationally-symmetric systems, especially after multiple design iterations, and is essential for multi-channel, off-axis systems where apertures are not centered on surface vertices.

  17. High sensitivity 1.06 micron optical receiver for precision laser range finding. [YAG laser design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, F. W.; Harris, J. S., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Aluminum gallium antimonide avalanche photodiodes with average gain of 10, internal quantum efficiency of greater than 60%, capacitance less than 0.2pf, and dark current of less than 1 micron were designed and fabricated for use in a low noise optical receiver suitable for 2 cm accuracy rangefinding. Topics covered include: (1) design of suitable photodetector structures; (2) epitaxial growth of AlGaSb devices; (3) fabrication of photodetectors; and (4) electro-optics characterization.

  18. Precise Prediction of Optical Performance for Near Infrared Instrument Using Adaptive Fitting Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongyeon Ko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infrared optical systems are operated at low temperature and vacuum (LT-V condition, whereas the assembly and alignment are performed at room temperature and non-vacuum (RT-NV condition. The differences in temperature and pressure between assembly/alignment environments and operation environment change the physical characteristics of optical and opto-mechanical parts (e.g., thickness, height, length, curvature, and refractive index, and the resultant optical performance changes accordingly. In this study, using input relay optics (IO, among the components of the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph (IGRINS which is an infrared spectrograph, a simulation based on the physical information of this optical system and an actual experiment were performed; and optical performances in the RT-NV, RT-V, and LT-V environments were predicted with an accuracy of 0.014±0.007 λ rms WFE, by developing an adaptive fitting line. The developed adaptive fitting line can quantitatively control assembly and alignment processes below λ/70 rms WFE. Therefore, it is expected that the subsequent processes of assembly, alignment, and performance analysis could not be repeated.

  19. Precise Prediction of Optical Performance for Near Infrared Instrument Using Adaptive Fitting Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyeongyeon; Han, Jeong-Yeol; Nah, Jakyoung; Oh, Heeyoung; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Oh, Jae Sok; Kim, Kang-Min; Lee, Hanshin; Jeong, Ueejeong; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2013-12-01

    Infrared optical systems are operated at low temperature and vacuum (LT-V) condition, whereas the assembly and alignment are performed at room temperature and non-vacuum (RT-NV) condition. The differences in temperature and pressure between assembly/alignment environments and operation environment change the physical characteristics of optical and opto-mechanical parts (e.g., thickness, height, length, curvature, and refractive index), and the resultant optical performance changes accordingly. In this study, using input relay optics (IO), among the components of the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) which is an infrared spectrograph, a simulation based on the physical information of this optical system and an actual experiment were performed; and optical performances in the RT-NV, RT-V, and LT-V environments were predicted with an accuracy of 0.014±0.007 λ rms WFE, by developing an adaptive fitting line. The developed adaptive fitting line can quantitatively control assembly and alignment processes below λ/70 rms WFE. Therefore, it is expected that the subsequent processes of assembly, alignment, and performance analysis could not be repeated.

  20. Conoscopic Patterns for Optically Uniaxial Gyrotropic Crystals in the Vicinity of Isotropic Point

    OpenAIRE

    Vasylkiv, Yu.; Nastishin, Yu.; Vlokh, R.

    2007-01-01

    We have presented computer simulations of conoscopic patterns occurring in optically uniaxial gyrotropic crystals in the vicinity of isotropic point for a number of sets of crystal parameters and orientations. The appearance of special directions characterized by equalization of linear and circular birefringences has been revealed.

  1. Bubble shape and orientation determination with a four-point optical fibre probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guet, S.; Luther, S.; Ooms, G.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new method to estimate the aspect ratio and orientation of bubbles by using their time series obtained with a four-point optical-fibre probe. The feasibility and accuracy of the method was first analysed by using synthetic bubble–probe interaction data and single bubble experiments in

  2. High Precision Optical Observations of Space Debris in the Geo Ring from Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.; Downes, J. J.; Casanova, D.; Tresaco, E.

    2018-01-01

    We present preliminary results to demonstrate that our method for detection and location of Space Debris (SD) in the geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) ring, based on observations at the OAN of Venezuela is of high astrometric precision. A detailed explanation of the method, its validation and first results is available in (Lacruz et al. 2017).

  3. Self-calibration method based on navigation in high-precision inertial navigation system with fiber optic gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Qian; Gao, Pengyu

    2014-06-01

    A rotary inertial navigation system requires higher calibration accuracy of some error parameters owing to rotation. Conventional multiposition and rotation calibration methods are limited, for they do not consider sensors' actual operating condition. In order to achieve these parameters' values as closely as possible to their true values in application, their influence on navigation is analyzed, and a relevant new calibration method based on a system's velocity output during navigation is designed for the vital error parameters, including inertial sensors' installation errors and the scale factor error of fiber optic gyro. Most importantly, this approach requires no additional devices compared to the conventional method and costs merely several minutes. Experimental results from a real dual-axis rotary fiber optic gyro inertial navigation system demonstrate the practicability and higher precision of the suggested approach.

  4. Applications of Optical Interferometer Techniques for Precision Measurements of Changes in Temperature, Growth and Refractive Index of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Reddy Bommareddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical metrology techniques used to measure changes in thickness; temperature and refractive index are surveyed. Optical heterodyne detection principle and its applications for precision measurements of changes in thickness and temperature are discussed. Theoretical formulations are developed to estimate crystal growth rate, surface roughness and laser cooling/heating of solids. Applications of Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers to measure temperature changes in laser heating of solids are described. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to measure refractive index and concentration variations of solutions in crystal growth experiments. Additionally, fluorescence lifetime sensing and fluorescence ratio method are described for temperature measurement. For all the above techniques, uncertainty calculations are included.

  5. Modeling tropospheric wet delays with national GNSS reference network in China for BeiDou precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fu; Lou, Yidong; Gu, Shengfeng; Gong, Xiaopeng; Shi, Chuang

    2017-10-01

    During past decades, precise point positioning (PPP) has been proven to be a well-known positioning technique for centimeter or decimeter level accuracy. However, it needs long convergence time to get high-accuracy positioning, which limits the prospects of PPP, especially in real-time applications. It is expected that the PPP convergence time can be reduced by introducing high-quality external information, such as ionospheric or tropospheric corrections. In this study, several methods for tropospheric wet delays modeling over wide areas are investigated. A new, improved model is developed, applicable in real-time applications in China. Based on the GPT2w model, a modified parameter of zenith wet delay exponential decay wrt. height is introduced in the modeling of the real-time tropospheric delay. The accuracy of this tropospheric model and GPT2w model in different seasons is evaluated with cross-validation, the root mean square of the zenith troposphere delay (ZTD) is 1.2 and 3.6 cm on average, respectively. On the other hand, this new model proves to be better than the tropospheric modeling based on water-vapor scale height; it can accurately express tropospheric delays up to 10 km altitude, which potentially has benefits in many real-time applications. With the high-accuracy ZTD model, the augmented PPP convergence performance for BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) and GPS is evaluated. It shows that the contribution of the high-quality ZTD model on PPP convergence performance has relation with the constellation geometry. As BDS constellation geometry is poorer than GPS, the improvement for BDS PPP is more significant than that for GPS PPP. Compared with standard real-time PPP, the convergence time is reduced by 2-7 and 20-50% for the augmented BDS PPP, while GPS PPP only improves about 6 and 18% (on average), in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. When GPS and BDS are combined, the geometry is greatly improved, which is good enough to get a

  6. Precision spectroscopy of Mg atoms in a magneto-optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A. N.; Bonert, A. E.; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Shilov, A. M.; Bagayev, S. N.

    2014-06-01

    We report the results of experimental investigations aimed at creation of the optical frequency standard based on magnesium atoms cooled and localised in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). An experimentally realised MOT for magnesium made it possible to obtain a cloud comprising ~106 - 107 atoms at a temperature of 3 - 5 mK. The results of ultra-high resolution spectroscopy of intercombination 1S0 - 3P1 transition for Mg atom are presented, the resonances in time-domain separated optical fields with the half-width of Γ = 500 Hz are recorded, which corresponds to the Q-factor of the reference line Q = ν/Δν ~ 1.3 × 1012.

  7. Electro optic sensor for high precision absolute distance measurement using multiwavelength interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sucheta; Eiswirt, Peter; Petter, Jürgen

    2018-02-05

    A prototype multi-wavelength interferometric, phase shifting distance sensor based on linear electro optic effect has been demonstrated in this work to improve the measurement speed of a commercial four-wavelength interferometer. Experimental results revealed the phase modulation ability of the sensor, preserving equivalent efficiency for nanometer-scale absolute distance measurement similar to present piezoelectricity driven mechanical phase modulation. The electro optic sensor working under free beam propagation can significantly overcome the limitations experienced by mechanical phase modulation technique such as the restricted value for the modulating frequency and as well the high driving voltage requirement.

  8. Analysis method of beam pointing stability based on optical transmission matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanchuan; Huang, PingXian; Li, Xiaotong; Cen, Zhaofen

    2016-10-01

    Quite a lot of factors will make effects on beam pointing stability of an optical system, Among them, the element tolerance is one of the most important and common factors. In some large laser systems, it will make final micro beams spot on the image plane deviate obviously. So it is essential for us to achieve effective and accurate analysis theoretically on element tolerance. In order to make the analysis of beam pointing stability convenient and theoretical, we consider transmission of a single chief ray rather than beams approximately to stand for the whole spot deviation. According to optical matrix, we also simplify this complex process of light transmission to multiplication of many matrices. So that we can set up element tolerance model, namely having mathematical expression to illustrate spot deviation in an optical system with element tolerance. In this way, we can realize quantitative analysis of beam pointing stability theoretically. In second half of the paper, we design an experiment to get the spot deviation in a multipass optical system caused by element tolerance, then we adjust the tolerance step by step and compare the results with the datum got from tolerance model, finally prove the correction of tolerance model successfully.

  9. Diffractive-refractive optics: low aberration Bragg-case focusing by precise parabolic surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Mikulík, J.; Kittler, Martin; Hrdý, Jaromír; Peverini, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2010), s. 36-40 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412; GA AV ČR IAA100100716 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : aberrations * parabolic groove * focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2010

  10. A real-time artifact reduction algorithm based on precise threshold during short-separation optical probe insertion in neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During neurosurgery, an optical probe has been used to guide the micro-electrode, which is punctured into the globus pallidus (GP to create a lesion that can relieve the cardinal symptoms. Accurate target localization is the key factor to affect the treatment. However, considering the scattering nature of the tissue, the “look ahead distance (LAD” of optical probe makes the boundary between the different tissues blurred and difficult to be distinguished, which is defined as artifact. Thus, it is highly desirable to reduce the artifact caused by LAD. In this paper, a real-time algorithm based on precise threshold was proposed to eliminate the artifact. The value of the threshold was determined by the maximum error of the measurement system during the calibration procession automatically. Then, the measured data was processed sequentially only based on the threshold and the former data. Moreover, 100μm double-fiber probe and two-layer and multi-layer phantom models were utilized to validate the precision of the algorithm. The error of the algorithm is one puncture step, which was proved in the theory and experiment. It was concluded that the present method could reduce the artifact caused by LAD and make the real boundary sharper and less blurred in real-time. It might be potentially used for the neurosurgery navigation.

  11. An optical test bench for the precision characterization of absolute quantum efficiency for the TESS CCD detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, A.; Villasenor, J.; Kissel, S.; Ricker, G.; Vanderspek, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will search for planets transiting bright stars with Ic ∼< 13. TESS has been selected by NASA for launch in 2018 as an Astrophysics Explorer mission, and is expected to discover a thousand or more planets that are smaller in size than Neptune. TESS will employ four wide-field optical charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras with a band-pass of 650 nm–1050 nm to detect temporary drops in brightness of stars due to planetary transits. The 1050 nm limit is set by the quantum efficiency (QE) of the CCDs. The detector assembly consists of four back-illuminated MIT Lincoln Laboratory CCID-80 devices. Each CCID-80 device consists of 2048×2048 imaging array and 2048×2048 frame store regions. Very precise on-ground calibration and characterization of CCD detectors will significantly assist in the analysis of the science data obtained in space. The characterization of the absolute QE of the CCD detectors is a crucial part of the characterization process because QE affects the performance of the CCD significantly over the redder wavelengths at which TESS will be operating. An optical test bench with significantly high photometric stability has been developed to perform precise QE measurements. The design of the test setup along with key hardware, methodology, and results from the test campaign are presented.

  12. Precise characterization of self-catalyzed III-V nanowire heterostructures via optical second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Wei, Yu-Ming; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Wang, Xue-Hua; Yu, Si-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate the utility of optical second harmonic generation (SHG) polarimetry to perform structural characterization of self-assembled zinc-blende/wurtzite III-V nanowire heterostructures. By analyzing four anisotropic SHG polarimetric patterns, we distinguish between wurtzite (WZ), zinc-blende (ZB) and ZB/WZ mixing III-V semiconducting crystal structures in nanowire systems. By neglecting the surface contributions and treating the bulk crystal within the quasi-static approximation, we can well explain the optical SHG polarimetry from the NWs with diameter from 200-600 nm. We show that the optical in-coupling and out-coupling coefficients arising from depolarization field can determine the polarization of the SHG. We also demonstrate micro-photoluminescence of GaAs quantum dots in related ZB and ZB/WZ mixing sections of core-shell NW structure, in agreement with the SHG polarimetry results. The ability to perform in situ SHG-based crystallographic study of semiconducting single and multi-crystalline nanowire heterostructures will be useful in displaying structure-property relationships of nanodevices.

  13. High-precision micro-displacement optical-fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zongda; Liu, Lu; Liu, Zhihai; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yaxun

    2017-05-15

    We propose and demonstrate a novel optical-fiber micro-displacement sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) by fabricating a Kretschmann configuration on graded-index multimode fiber (GIMMF). We employ a single-mode fiber to change the radial position of the incident beam as the displacement. In the GIMMF, the angle between the light beam and fiber axis, which is closely related to the resonance angle, is changed by the displacement; thus, the resonance wavelength of the fiber SPR shifts. This micro-displacement fiber sensor has a wide detection range of 0-25 μm, a high sensitivity with maximum up to 10.32 nm/μm, and a nanometer resolution with minimum to 2 nm, which transcends almost all of other optical-fiber micro-displacement sensors. In addition, we also research that increasing the fiber polishing angle or medium refractive index can improve the sensitivity. This micro-displacement sensor will have a great significance in many industrial applications and provide a neoteric, rapid, and accurate optical measurement method in micro-displacement.

  14. Apparatus and method using a holographic optical element for converting a spectral distribution to image points

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matthew J. (Inventor); Scott, Vibart S. (Inventor); Marzouk, Marzouk (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A holographic optical element transforms a spectral distribution of light to image points. The element comprises areas, each of which acts as a separate lens to image the light incident in its area to an image point. Each area contains the recorded hologram of a point source object. The image points can be made to lie in a line in the same focal plane so as to align with a linear array detector. A version of the element has been developed that has concentric equal areas to match the circular fringe pattern of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The element has high transmission efficiency, and when coupled with high quantum efficiency solid state detectors, provides an efficient photon-collecting detection system. The element may be used as part of the detection system in a direct detection Doppler lidar system or multiple field of view lidar system.

  15. Optical synchronization of a free-electron laser with femtosecond precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehl, F.

    2009-09-15

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) are capable of generating sub-10 fs long light pulses. In order to take full advantage of these extremely short light pulses in time-resolved experiments, synchronization with a so far unprecedented timing accuracy is required. Within this thesis, an optical synchronization system providing sub-10 fs stability has been developed and was implemented at the ultra-violet and soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH at DESY, Hamburg. The system uses a mode-locked laser as a timing reference. The laser pulses are distributed via length stabilized optical fiber-links to the remote locations. A key feature of the system is a bunch arrival-time monitor detecting the electron bunch arrival-time with an unrivaled resolution of 6 fs. A feedback system based on the arrival-time monitor was established, improving the arrival-time fluctuations from 200 fs in the unstabilized case to 25 fs with active feedback. In order to achieve the high peak current of several thousand amperes required for the FEL process, the electron bunches are longitudinally compressed in two magnetic chicanes. A second feedback system was developed stabilizing the bunch compression process based on measurements of diffraction radiation. The combination of both feedback systems improves the stability of the FEL radiation significantly. (orig.)

  16. Optical synchronization of a free-electron laser with femtosecond precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehl, F.

    2009-09-01

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) are capable of generating sub-10 fs long light pulses. In order to take full advantage of these extremely short light pulses in time-resolved experiments, synchronization with a so far unprecedented timing accuracy is required. Within this thesis, an optical synchronization system providing sub-10 fs stability has been developed and was implemented at the ultra-violet and soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH at DESY, Hamburg. The system uses a mode-locked laser as a timing reference. The laser pulses are distributed via length stabilized optical fiber-links to the remote locations. A key feature of the system is a bunch arrival-time monitor detecting the electron bunch arrival-time with an unrivaled resolution of 6 fs. A feedback system based on the arrival-time monitor was established, improving the arrival-time fluctuations from 200 fs in the unstabilized case to 25 fs with active feedback. In order to achieve the high peak current of several thousand amperes required for the FEL process, the electron bunches are longitudinally compressed in two magnetic chicanes. A second feedback system was developed stabilizing the bunch compression process based on measurements of diffraction radiation. The combination of both feedback systems improves the stability of the FEL radiation significantly. (orig.)

  17. Precise optical dosimetry in low-level laser therapy of soft tissues in oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykova, Elena V.; Sabotinov, O.

    2004-06-01

    The new low level laser therapy (LLLT) is widely applied for treatment of diseases of the oral mucosa and parodont. Depending on indication, different optical tips and light-guides are used to create beams with a required shape. However, to the best of our knowledge, the developed irradiation geometries are usually proposed assuming validity of Bouger-Lambert law. This hardly corresponds to the real situation because of the dominating multiple scattering within 600-1200 nm range that destroys correlation between the emitted laser beam and the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose inside the tissue. The aim of this work is to base the dosimetry of the LLLT procedures of periodontal tissues on radiation transfer theory using a flexible Monte-Carlo code. We studied quantitatively the influence of tissue optical parameters (absorption and scattering coefficients, tissue refraction index, anisotropy factor) on decreasing of correlation between the emitted beam and the energy deposition for converging or diverging beams. We evaluated energy deposition for the developed by us LLLT system in a 3-D model of periodontal tissues created using a cross-sectional image of this region with internal structural information on the gingival and the tooth. The laser source is a CW diode laser emitting elliptical beam within 650-675 nm at output power 5-30 mW. To determine the geometry of the irradiating beam we used CCD camera Spiricon LBA 300.

  18. Optical wireless communication through fog in the presence of pointing errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, Debbie; Arnon, Shlomi

    2003-08-20

    Terrestrial optical wireless communication (OWC) is emerging as a promising technology, which makes connectivity possible between high-rise buildings and metropolitan and intercity communication infrastructures. A light beam carries the information, which facilitates extremely high data rates. However, strict alignment between the transmitter and the receiver must be maintained at all times, and a pointing error can result in a total severance of the communication link. In addition, the presence of fog and haze in the propagation channel hampers OWC as the small water droplets scatter the propagating light. This causes attenuation due to the resultant spatial, angular, and temporal spread of the light signal. Furthermore, the ensuing low visibility may impede the operation of the tracking and pointing system so that pointing errors occur. We develop a model of light transmission through fogs of different optical densities and types using Monte Carlo simulations. Based on this model, the performance of OWC in fogs is evaluated at different wavelengths. The handicap of a transceiver pointing error is added to the model, and the paradoxically advantageous aspects of the transmission medium are exposed. The concept of a variable field of view receiver for narrow-beam OWC is studied, and the possibility of thus enhancing communication system performance through fog in an inexpensive and simple way is indicated.

  19. Crosstalk of High-precision Optical Pickup Actuator with Optimal Structure Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxi JIA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available he crosstalk characteristic is a key factor that affects the pickup actuator dynamic property and consequently the accuracy of reading and writing operation in the future ultra-high density optical storage systems. In this paper, the actuator spatial magnetic field distribution model is first established. Then the crosstalk movement phenomenon of the actuator is analyzed and simulated in CST software based on FDTD principle. Moreover, the crosstalk degree in both tracking and focusing directions are defined with respect to the produced crosstalk forces. The relationship between the crosstalk degree and the structure parameters of the actuator such as the height and width of the permanent magnet is analyzed. Taguchi orthogonal method is further used to obtain the optimal structure parameters. It is concluded that the crosstalk can be effectively reduced by an optimal design of the structure parameters, thereby, the dynamic performance of the actuator can be improved.

  20. Mars-GRAM: Increasing the Precision of Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.; Badger, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM's perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). It has been discovered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process that Mars-GRAM, when used for sensitivity studies for MapYear=0 and large optical depth values such as tau=3, is less than realistic. A comparison study between Mars atmospheric density estimates from Mars-GRAM and measurements by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been undertaken for locations of varying latitudes, Ls, and LTST on Mars. The preliminary results from this study have validated the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) limb data. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). MGCM results that were used for Mars-GRAM with MapYear=0 were from a MGCM run with a fixed value of tau=3 for the entire year at all locations. This has resulted in an imprecise atmospheric density at all altitudes. To solve this pressure-density problem, density factor values were determined for tau=.3, 1 and 3 that will adjust the input values of MGCM MapYear 0 pressure and density to achieve a better match of Mars-GRAM MapYear 0 with TES observations for MapYears 1 and 2 at comparable dust loading. The addition of these density factors to Mars-GRAM will improve the results of the sensitivity studies done for large optical depths.

  1. LSPV+7, a branch-point-tolerant reconstructor for strong turbulence adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Michael J; Hyde, Milo W; Schmidt, Jason D

    2014-06-20

    Optical wave propagation through long paths of extended turbulence presents unique challenges to adaptive optics (AO) systems. As scintillation and branch points develop in the beacon phase, challenges arise in accurately unwrapping the received wavefront and optimizing the reconstructed phase with respect to branch cut placement on a continuous facesheet deformable mirror. Several applications are currently restricted by these capability limits: laser communication, laser weapons, remote sensing, and ground-based astronomy. This paper presents a set of temporally evolving AO simulations comparing traditional least-squares reconstruction techniques to a complex-exponential reconstructor and several other reconstructors derived from the postprocessing congruence operation. The reconstructors' behavior in closed-loop operation is compared and discussed, providing several insights into the fundamental strengths and limitations of each reconstructor type. This research utilizes a self-referencing interferometer (SRI) as the high-order wavefront sensor, driving a traditional linear control law in conjunction with a cooperative point source beacon. The SRI model includes practical optical considerations and frame-by-frame fiber coupling effects to allow for realistic noise modeling. The "LSPV+7" reconstructor is shown to offer the best performance in terms of Strehl ratio and correction stability-outperforming the traditional least-squares reconstructed system by an average of 120% in the studied scenarios. Utilizing a continuous facesheet deformable mirror, these reconstructors offer significant AO performance improvements in strong turbulence applications without the need for segmented deformable mirrors.

  2. SIMO optical wireless links with nonzero boresight pointing errors over M modeled turbulence channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, G. K.; Nistazakis, H. E.; Petkovic, M. I.; Djordjevic, G. T.; Tombras, G. S.

    2017-11-01

    Over the last years terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have demonstrated an increasing scientific and commercial interest in response to the growing demands for ultra high bandwidth, cost-effective and secure wireless data transmissions. However, due the signal propagation through the atmosphere, the performance of such links depends strongly on the atmospheric conditions such as weather phenomena and turbulence effect. Additionally, their operation is affected significantly by the pointing errors effect which is caused by the misalignment of the optical beam between the transmitter and the receiver. In order to address this significant performance degradation, several statistical models have been proposed, while particular attention has been also given to diversity methods. Here, the turbulence-induced fading of the received optical signal irradiance is studied through the M (alaga) distribution, which is an accurate model suitable for weak to strong turbulence conditions and unifies most of the well-known, previously emerged models. Thus, taking into account the atmospheric turbulence conditions along with the pointing errors effect with nonzero boresight and the modulation technique that is used, we derive mathematical expressions for the estimation of the average bit error rate performance for SIMO FSO links. Finally, proper numerical results are given to verify our derived expressions and Monte Carlo simulations are also provided to further validate the accuracy of the analysis proposed and the obtained mathematical expressions.

  3. 20 years of KVH fiber optic gyro technology: the evolution from large, low performance FOGs to compact, precise FOGs and FOG-based inertial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Precision fiber optic gyroscopes (FOGs) are critical components for an array of platforms and applications ranging from stabilization and pointing orientation of payloads and platforms to navigation and control for unmanned and autonomous systems. In addition, FOG-based inertial systems provide extremely accurate data for geo-referencing systems. Significant improvements in the performance of FOGs and FOG-based inertial systems at KVH are due, in large part, to advancements in the design and manufacture of optical fiber, as well as in manufacturing operations and signal processing. Open loop FOGs, such as those developed and manufactured by KVH Industries, offer tactical-grade performance in a robust, small package. The success of KVH FOGs and FOG-based inertial systems is due to innovations in key fields, including the development of proprietary D-shaped fiber with an elliptical core, and KVH's unique ThinFiber. KVH continually improves its FOG manufacturing processes and signal processing, which result in improved accuracies across its entire FOG product line. KVH acquired its FOG capabilities, including its patented E•Core fiber, when the company purchased Andrew Corporation's Fiber Optic Group in 1997. E•Core fiber is unique in that the light-guiding core - critical to the FOG's performance - is elliptically shaped. The elliptical core produces a fiber that has low loss and high polarization-maintaining ability. In 2010, KVH developed its ThinFiber, a 170-micron diameter fiber that retains the full performance characteristics of E•Core fiber. ThinFiber has enabled the development of very compact, high-performance open-loop FOGs, which are also used in a line of FOG-based inertial measurement units and inertial navigation systems.

  4. Higher precision in pointing movements of the preferred vs. non-preferred hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of anticipatory postural adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bruttini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a common experience to exhibit a greater dexterity when performing a pointing movement with the preferred limb vs. the non-preferred one. Here we provide evidence that the higher precision in pointing movements of the preferred vs. non-preferred hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of the Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs.In this aim, we compared the APAs which stabilize the left or the right arm when performing a pen-pointing movement (prime mover Flexor Carpi Radialis. Moreover, we analysed the elbow and wrist kinematics as well as the precision of the pointing movement. The mean kinematics of wrist movement and its latency, with respect to prime mover recruitment, were similar in the two sides, while APAs in Triceps Brachii, Biceps Brachii and Anterior Deltoid were more anticipated when movements were performed with the preferred than with the non-preferred hand (60-70 vs. 20-30 ms. APAs amplitudes were comparable in the muscles of the two sides. Earlier APAs in the preferred limb were associated with a better fixation of the elbow, which showed a lower excursion, and with a less scattered pointing error (preferred: 10.1 ± 0.8 mm; non-preferred: 16.3 ± 1.7.Present results suggest that, by securing the more proximal joints dynamics, an appropriate timing of the intra-limb APAs is necessary for refining the voluntary movement precision, which is known to be scarce on the non-preferred side.

  5. PRECISE MEASUREMENT OF THE REIONIZATION OPTICAL DEPTH FROM THE GLOBAL 21 cm SIGNAL ACCOUNTING FOR COSMIC HEATING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    As a result of our limited data on reionization, the total optical depth for electron scattering, τ, limits precision measurements of cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). It was recently shown that the predicted 21 cm signal of neutral hydrogen contains enough information to reconstruct τ with sub-percent accuracy, assuming that the neutral gas was much hotter than the CMB throughout the entire epoch of reionization (EoR). Here we relax this assumption and use the global 21 cm signal alone to extract τ for realistic X-ray heating scenarios. We test our model-independent approach using mock data for a wide range of ionization and heating histories and show that an accurate measurement of the reionization optical depth at a sub-percent level is possible in most of the considered scenarios even when heating is not saturated during the EoR, assuming that the foregrounds are mitigated. However, we find that in cases where heating sources had hard X-ray spectra and their luminosity was close to or lower than what is predicted based on low-redshift observations, the global 21 cm signal alone is not a good tracer of the reionization history

  6. Optical Properties And Thermal Stability Of Single-Point Diamond-Machined Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloza, A. A.; Decker, D. L.; Archibald, P. C.; O'Connor, D. A.; Bueltmann, E. R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of diamond-turned surfaces of a wide range of aluminum alloys. The alloys machined included a sand-cast A201 alloy manufactured by Specialty Aluminum Inc., conventionally extruded plate alloys 2024, 3003, 5052, 6061, 7075, and for comparison as a best and worst case possible a high-purity aluminum single crystal, and tooling plate. The surfaces were obtained by diamond single-point machining using an interferometrically controlled two-axis, air-bearing lathe. The effect of tool-rake angle and machining fluid on surface quality is examined. Surface characterization was performed by Nomarski microscopy and noncontact optical surface profilometry. The optical properties measured included absolute reflectance at 3.8 μm, total integrated scatter at 752.5 nm, and bidirectional reflection distribution function measurements at 632.8 nm. The dimensional stability of the aluminum alloys subject to thermal cycling is examined.

  7. Optical functions and critical points of dilute bismide alloys studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, Z. L.; Joseph, R. M.; Nattermann, L.; Ludewig, P.; Volz, K.; Keddie, J. L.; Sweeney, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Critical point transition energies and optical functions of the novel GaAs-based dilute bismide alloys GaAsBi, GaNAsBi, and GaPAsBi were determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The ellipsometry data were analyzed using a parameterized semiconductor model to represent the dielectric function of the alloys as the sum of Gaussian oscillators centered on critical points in the band structure, and from this extracting the energies of those critical points. The band gap and spin-orbit splitting were measured for samples for a range of alloy compositions. The first experimental measurements of the spin-orbit splitting in the GaNAsBi quaternary alloy were obtained, which showed that it is approximately independent of N content, in agreement with theory. The real component of the refractive index in the transparent region below the band gap was found to decrease as the band gap increased for all of the alloys studied, following the usual relations for conventional semiconductors. This work provides key electronic and optical parameters for the development of photonic devices based on these novel alloys.

  8. Optical biosensor technologies for molecular diagnostics at the point-of-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotter, Joerg; Schrittwieser, Stefan; Muellner, Paul; Melnik, Eva; Hainberger, Rainer; Koppitsch, Guenther; Schrank, Franz; Soulantika, Katerina; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang; Ludwig, Frank; Dieckhoff, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Label-free optical schemes for molecular biosensing hold a strong promise for point-of-care applications in medical research and diagnostics. Apart from diagnostic requirements in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and multiplexing capability, also other aspects such as ease of use and manufacturability have to be considered in order to pave the way to a practical implementation. We present integrated optical waveguide as well as magnetic nanoparticle based molecular biosensor concepts that address these aspects. The integrated optical waveguide devices are based on low-loss photonic wires made of silicon nitride deposited by a CMOS compatible plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process that allows for backend integration of waveguides on optoelectronic CMOS chips. The molecular detection principle relies on evanescent wave sensing in the 0.85 μm wavelength regime by means of Mach-Zehnder interferometers, which enables on-chip integration of silicon photodiodes and, thus, the realization of system-on-chip solutions. Our nanoparticle-based approach is based on optical observation of the dynamic response of functionalized magneticcore/ noble-metal-shell nanorods (`nanoprobes') to an externally applied time-varying magnetic field. As target molecules specifically bind to the surface of the nanoprobes, the observed dynamics of the nanoprobes changes, and the concentration of target molecules in the sample solution can be quantified. This approach is suitable for dynamic real-time measurements and only requires minimal sample preparation, thus presenting a highly promising point-of-care diagnostic system. In this paper, we present a prototype of a diagnostic device suitable for highly automated sample analysis by our nanoparticle-based approach.

  9. Effect of modulation frequency bandwidth on measurement accuracy and precision for digital diffuse optical spectroscopy (dDOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) frequency-domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS) is an emerging technology with a growing number of potential clinical applications. In an effort to reduce DOS system complexity and improve portability, we recently demonstrated a direct digital sampling method that utilizes digital signal generation and detection as a replacement for more traditional analog methods. In our technique, a fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) samples the detected time-domain radio frequency (RF) waveforms at each modulation frequency in a broad-bandwidth sweep (50- 300MHz). While we have shown this method provides comparable results to other DOS technologies, the process is data intensive as digital samples must be stored and processed for each modulation frequency and wavelength. We explore here the effect of reducing the modulation frequency bandwidth on the accuracy and precision of extracted optical properties. To accomplish this, the performance of the digital DOS (dDOS) system was compared to a gold standard network analyzer based DOS system. With a starting frequency of 50MHz, the input signal of the dDOS system was swept to 100, 150, 250, or 300MHz in 4MHz increments and results were compared to full 50-300MHz networkanalyzer DOS measurements. The average errors in extracted μa and μs' with dDOS were lowest for the full 50-300MHz sweep (less than 3%) and were within 3.8% for frequency bandwidths as narrow as 50-150MHz. The errors increased to as much as 9.0% when a bandwidth of 50-100MHz was tested. These results demonstrate the possibility for reduced data collection with dDOS without critical compensation of optical property extraction.

  10. Atmospheric-Fade-Tolerant Tracking and Pointing in Wireless Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gerardo; Lee, Shinhak

    2003-01-01

    An acquisition, tracking, and pointing (ATP) system, under development at the time of reporting the information for this article, is intended to enable a terminal in a free-space optical communication system to continue to aim its transmitting laser beam toward a receiver at a remote terminal when the laser beacon signal from the remote terminal temporarily fades or drops out of sight altogether. Such fades and dropouts can be caused by adverse atmospheric conditions (e.g., rain or clouds). They can also occur when intervening objects block the line of sight between terminals as a result of motions of those objects or of either or both terminals

  11. High precision micro-scale Hall Effect characterization method using in-line micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole; Lin, Rong

    2008-01-01

    effect is measured with collinear micro four-point probes (M4PP). We derive the sensitivity to electrode position errors and describe a position error suppression method to enable rapid reliable Hall effect measurements with just two measurement points. We show with both Monte Carlo simulations......Accurate characterization of ultra shallow junctions (USJ) is important in order to understand the principles of junction formation and to develop the appropriate implant and annealing technologies. We investigate the capabilities of a new micro-scale Hall effect measurement method where Hall...... and experimental measurements, that the repeatability of a micro-scale Hall effect measurement is better than 1 %. We demonstrate the ability to spatially resolve Hall effect on micro-scale by characterization of an USJ with a single laser stripe anneal. The micro sheet resistance variations resulting from...

  12. Optical tools and techniques for aligning solar payloads with the SPARCS control system. [Solar Pointing Aerobee Rocket Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N. L.; Chisel, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The success of a rocket-borne experiment depends not only on the pointing of the attitude control system, but on the alignment of the attitude control system to the payload. To ensure proper alignment, special optical tools and alignment techniques are required. Those that were used in the SPARCS program are described and discussed herein. These tools include theodolites, autocollimators, a 38-cm diameter solar simulator, a high-performance 1-m heliostat to provide a stable solar source during the integration of the rocket payload, a portable 75-cm sun tracker for use at the launch site, and an innovation called the Solar Alignment Prism. Using the real sun as the primary reference under field conditions, the Solar Alignment Prism facilitates the coalignment of the attitude sun sensor with the payload. The alignment techniques were developed to ensure the precise alignment of the solar payloads to the SPARCS attitude sensors during payload integration and to verify the required alignment under field conditions just prior to launch.

  13. Demonstration of dynamic point-to-multipoint LSPs in automatic switched optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiqiang; Wei, Xueqing; Zhang, Guoyin; Jin, Yaohui; Sun, Jun; Guo, Wei; Hu, Weisheng

    2005-11-01

    Automatic Switched Optical Networks, or ASON, is regarded as one promising networking technology for future optical networks. From network operators' perspective, it is well agreed that ASON should provide the following features: fast provisioning, easier network operation, higher network reliability, scalability, simpler planning and design, and multi-vendor inter-operability. Fast provisioning enables ASON to meet the requirements of more dynamic applications such as bandwidth on demand and content distribution. Protection and restoration is crucial because of the extremely high data-rate the network will carry. Mesh type network and fast provisioning capability leave more space for a more reliable and flexible network. Unlike traditional transport networks that are constructed purely for point-to-point connectivity, ASON deployed in regional or metro-area networks needs to provide high connectivity to its clients. And, as a result, the planning and designing problem becomes very complex due to the large number of devices, the variety of interface types and network protocols. It is also important that the network will be able to inter-connect devices from different vendors and provide support to different client signals such as SONET/SDH, Ethernet, IP, ATM and Frame Relay.

  14. GPS satellite clock determination in case of inter-frequency clock biases for triple-frequency precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang; Geng, Jianghui

    2017-12-01

    Significant time-varying inter-frequency clock biases (IFCBs) within GPS observations prevent the application of the legacy L1/L2 ionosphere-free clock products on L5 signals. Conventional approaches overcoming this problem are to estimate L1/L5 ionosphere-free clocks in addition to their L1/L2 counterparts or to compute IFCBs between the L1/L2 and L1/L5 clocks which are later modeled through a harmonic analysis. In contrast, we start from the undifferenced uncombined GNSS model and propose an alternative approach where a second satellite clock parameter dedicated to the L5 signals is estimated along with the legacy L1/L2 clock. In this manner, we do not need to rely on the correlated L1/L2 and L1/L5 ionosphere-free observables which complicates triple-frequency GPS stochastic models, or account for the unfavorable time-varying hardware biases in undifferenced GPS functional models since they can be absorbed by the L5 clocks. An extra advantage over the ionosphere-free model is that external ionosphere constraints can potentially be introduced to improve PPP. With 27 days of triple-frequency GPS data from globally distributed stations, we find that the RMS of the positioning differences between our GPS model and all conventional models is below 1 mm for all east, north and up components, demonstrating the effectiveness of our model in addressing triple-frequency observations and time-varying IFCBs. Moreover, we can combine the L1/L2 and L5 clocks derived from our model to calculate precisely the L1/L5 clocks which in practice only depart from their legacy counterparts by less than 0.006 ns in RMS. Our triple-frequency GPS model proves convenient and efficient in combating time-varying IFCBs and can be generalized to more than three frequency signals for satellite clock determination.

  15. A time domain design technique for high precision full digital pointing system in balloon-borne remote infrared sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscaleri, A.; Venturi, V.; Tronconi, A.; Colzi, R.

    1990-09-01

    The design of two motor servoloops for an azimuth stabilization of a gondola of a large telescope is described. The system uses two dc torque motors, one for any motion of the platform around the vertical axis and one placed at the interconnecting point balloon-payload for attenuating the friction bearing. Mechanical nonlinearities impose a time domain design for any settling time control whenever the gondola experiences a new step in azimuth coordinate. A simplified equations of motion in the time domain are shown which enable this settling time to be controlled. A mechanical approach using an active pivot to avoid disturbances of the balloon rotation on current tracking of the sky azimuthal target is described.

  16. A review of scale factors, fixed-point precision, soft decisions, and hard decisions on the performance of the UMTS (3GPP) turbo codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, John

    2007-04-01

    Since their introduction in 1993, turbo codes have received a significant amount of attention in the communications theory field due to their Shannon-capacity approaching performance. In recent years, the cellular systems market has embraced turbo code technology and made it part of the latest standards. This paper will review the effects of scale factors, fixed-point precision, soft decisions and hard decisions on the performance of the turbo codes defined in the UMTS third-generation cellular system. In addition, a new scale factor estimation technique which provides improved performance at low signal to noise ratios will be presented.

  17. Validation and Assessment of Multi-GNSS Real-Time Precise Point Positioning in Simulated Kinematic Mode Using IGS Real-Time Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a popular technology for precise applications based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. Multi-GNSS combined PPP has become a hot topic in recent years with the development of multiple GNSSs. Meanwhile, with the operation of the real-time service (RTS of the International GNSS Service (IGS agency that provides satellite orbit and clock corrections to broadcast ephemeris, it is possible to obtain the real-time precise products of satellite orbits and clocks and to conduct real-time PPP. In this contribution, the real-time multi-GNSS orbit and clock corrections of the CLK93 product are applied for real-time multi-GNSS PPP processing, and its orbit and clock qualities are investigated, first with a seven-day experiment by comparing them with the final multi-GNSS precise product ‘GBM’ from GFZ. Then, an experiment involving real-time PPP processing for three stations in the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX network with a testing period of two weeks is conducted in order to evaluate the convergence performance of real-time PPP in a simulated kinematic mode. The experimental result shows that real-time PPP can achieve a convergence performance of less than 15 min for an accuracy level of 20 cm. Finally, the real-time data streams from 12 globally distributed IGS/MGEX stations for one month are used to assess and validate the positioning accuracy of real-time multi-GNSS PPP. The results show that the simulated kinematic positioning accuracy achieved by real-time PPP on different stations is about 3.0 to 4.0 cm for the horizontal direction and 5.0 to 7.0 cm for the three-dimensional (3D direction.

  18. A point of application study to determine the accuracy, precision and reliability of a low-cost balance plate for center of pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Daniel J; Khan, Ehran; Baweja, Harsimran S; O'Connor, Shawn M

    2018-04-11

    Changes in postural sway measured via force plate center of pressure have been associated with many aspects of human motor ability. A previous study validated the accuracy and precision of a relatively new, low-cost and portable force plate called the Balance Tracking System (BTrackS). This work compared a laboratory-grade force plate versus BTrackS during human-like dynamic sway conditions generated by an inverted pendulum device. The present study sought to extend previous validation attempts for BTrackS using a more traditional point of application (POA) approach. Computer numerical control (CNC) guided application of ∼155 N of force was applied five times to each of 21 points on five different BTrackS Balance Plate (BBP) devices with a hex-nose plunger. Results showed excellent agreement (ICC > 0.999) between the POAs and measured COP by the BBP devices, as well as high accuracy (average percent error) and precision (average standard deviation of residuals). The ICC between BBP devices was exceptionally high (ICC > 0.999) providing evidence of almost perfect inter-device reliability. Taken together, these results provide an important, static corollary to the previously obtained dynamic COP results from inverted pendulum testing of the BBP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative rainfall data analysis from two vertically pointing radars, an optical disdrometer, and a rain gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Nikolopoulos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present results of a comparative analysis of rainfall data from several ground-based instruments. The instruments include two vertically pointing Doppler radars, S-band and X-band, an optical disdrometer, and a tipping-bucket rain gauge. All instruments were collocated at the Iowa City Municipal Airport in Iowa City, Iowa, for a period of several months. The authors used the rainfall data derived from the four instruments to first study the temporal variability and scaling characteristics of rainfall and subsequently assess the instrumental effects on these derived properties. The results revealed obvious correspondence between the ground and remote sensors, which indicates the significance of the instrumental effect on the derived properties.

  20. Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-04-01

    A unified capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for nonzero boresight pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/ direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed in this work. More specifically, an exact closed-form expression for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system is presented in terms of well-known elementary functions. Capitalizing on these new moments expressions, we present approximate and simple closedform results for the ergodic capacity at high and low SNR regimes. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  1. Effect of Multimodal Plasmon Resonances on the Optical Properties of Five-pointed Nanostars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoli Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The optical transmission and electric field distribution of plasmonic nanostructures dictate their performance in nano-optics and nano-biosensors. Here, we consider the use of hollow, five-pointed, star-shaped nanostructures made of Al, Ag, Au or Cu. We use simulations based on finite-difference time-domain and the discrete dipole approximation to identify the strongest plasmon resonan‐ ces in these structures. In particular, we were seeking plasmon resonances within the visible part of the spec‐ trum. The silver pentagrams exhibited the strongest such resonance, at a wavelength of about 530 nm. The visible- light resonances of Au and Cu pentagrams were relative‐ ly weaker and red-shifted by about 50 nm. The main resonances of the Al pentagrams were in the ultra-violet. All the nanostars also showed a broad, dipolar-like resonance at about 1000 nm. Surprisingly, the maximum field intensities for the visible light modes were greatest along the flanks of the stars rather than at their tips, whereas those of the dipolar-like modes in the near-infrared were greatest at the tips of the star. These findings have practical implications for sensor design. The inclusion of a confor‐ mally hollow interior is beneficial because it provides additional ‘hot spots’.

  2. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS, which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  3. Optical coherence tomographic findings at the fixation point in a case of bilateral congenital macular coloboma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kosuke; Shirane, Jumi; Sakamoto, Masuo; Tanabe, Fumi; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Chota; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Congenital macular coloboma is a rare ocular disease that consists of atrophic lesions in the macula with well-circumscribed borders. We report the findings of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) at the fixation point in a case of bilateral macular coloboma. The subject is a 4-year-old boy. He visited our hospital at age 1 year and 4 months for the evaluation of strabismus. The fundus examination of both eyes showed round-shaped sharply-demarcated atrophic lesions involving the macula with large choroidal vessels and bared sclera at the base. Immunologic tests including toxoplasmosis, rubella, varicella, herpes virus, and human T-cell leukemia virus were all negative. At age 4 years and 1 month, cycloplegic refraction showed insignificant refractive errors and his best corrected visual acuity was 0.6 bilaterally. The SD-OCT showed a crater-like depression accompanying atrophic neurosensory retina, and the absence of retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. Examination of the fixation behavior by visuscope showed steady fixation with an area 0.5° nasal to the nasal edge of the atrophic lesion bilaterally. The SD-OCT findings at fixation area showed remaining normal retinal structures involving inner segment-outer segment (IS/OS) junction line. The findings of SD-OCT have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of macular coloboma. In the fixation point, the structure of retina and choroid were well preserved.

  4. Sensor system for multi-point monitoring using bending loss of single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Applications of smart sensors have been extended to safety systems in the aerospace, transportation and civil engineering fields. In particular, structural health monitoring techniques using smart sensors have gradually become necessary and have been developed to prevent dangers to human life and damage to assets. Generally, smart sensors are based on electro-magnets and have several weaknesses, including electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Therefore, fiber optic sensors are an outstanding alternative to overcome the weaknesses of electro-magnetic sensors. However, they require expensive devices and complex systems. This paper proposes a new, affordable and simple sensor system that uses a single fiber to monitor pressures at multiple-points. Moreover, a prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested for a feasibility study. Based on the results of this experimental test, a relationship was carefully observed between the bend loss conditions and light-intensity. As a result, it was shown that impacts at multiple-points could be monitored.

  5. Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (RTPPP) with raw observations and its application in real-time regional ionospheric VTEC modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Teng; Zhang, Baocheng; Yuan, Yunbin; Li, Min

    2018-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is an absolute positioning technology mainly used in post data processing. With the continuously increasing demand for real-time high-precision applications in positioning, timing, retrieval of atmospheric parameters, etc., Real-Time PPP (RTPPP) and its applications have drawn more and more research attention in recent years. This study focuses on the models, algorithms and ionospheric applications of RTPPP on the basis of raw observations, in which high-precision slant ionospheric delays are estimated among others in real time. For this purpose, a robust processing strategy for multi-station RTPPP with raw observations has been proposed and realized, in which real-time data streams and State-Space-Representative (SSR) satellite orbit and clock corrections are used. With the RTPPP-derived slant ionospheric delays from a regional network, a real-time regional ionospheric Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) modeling method is proposed based on Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Functions and a Moving-Window Filter. SSR satellite orbit and clock corrections from different IGS analysis centers are evaluated. Ten globally distributed real-time stations are used to evaluate the positioning performances of the proposed RTPPP algorithms in both static and kinematic modes. RMS values of positioning errors in static/kinematic mode are 5.2/15.5, 4.7/17.4 and 12.8/46.6 mm, for north, east and up components, respectively. Real-time slant ionospheric delays from RTPPP are compared with those from the traditional Carrier-to-Code Leveling (CCL) method, in terms of function model, formal precision and between-receiver differences of short baseline. Results show that slant ionospheric delays from RTPPP are more precise and have a much better convergence performance than those from the CCL method in real-time processing. 30 real-time stations from the Asia-Pacific Reference Frame network are used to model the ionospheric VTECs over Australia in real time

  6. Assessment of high precision, high accuracy Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy to obtain concentration uncertainties less than 0.2% with variable matrix concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabb, Savelas A.; Olesik, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to obtain high precision, high accuracy measurements in samples with complex matrices using High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (HP-ICP-OES) was investigated. The Common Analyte Internal Standard (CAIS) procedure was incorporated into the High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy method to correct for matrix-induced changes in emission intensity ratios. Matrix matching and standard addition approaches to minimize matrix-induced errors when using High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy were also assessed. The High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy method was tested with synthetic solutions in a variety of matrices, alloy standard reference materials and geological reference materials

  7. Comparison of Ballistic-Coefficient-Based Estimation Algorithms for Precise Tracking of a Re-Entry Vehicle and its Impact Point Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Rok Moon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of tracking a re-entry vehicle (RV in order to predict its impact point on the ground. Re-entry target dynamics combined with super-high speed has a complex non-linearity due to ballistic coefficient variations. However, it is difficult to construct a database for the ballistic coefficient of a unknown vehicle for a wide range of variations, thus the reliability of target tracking performance cannot be guaranteed if accurate ballistic coefficient estimation is not achieved. Various techniques for ballistic coefficient estimation have been previously proposed, but limitations exist for the estimation of non-linear parts accurately without obtaining prior information. In this paper we propose the ballistic coefficient β model-based interacting multiple model-extended Kalman filter (β-IMM-EKF for precise tracking of an RV. To evaluate the performance, other ballistic coefficient model based filters, which are gamma augmented filter, gamma bootstrapped filter were compared and assessed with the proposed β-IMM-EKF for precise tracking of an RV.

  8. Development and Positioning Accuracy Assessment of Single-Frequency Precise Point Positioning Algorithms by Combining GPS Code-Pseudorange Measurements with Real-Time SSR Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miso Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a suite of real-time precise point positioning programs to process GPS pseudorange observables, and validated their performance through static and kinematic positioning tests. To correct inaccurate broadcast orbits and clocks, and account for signal delays occurring from the ionosphere and troposphere, we applied State Space Representation (SSR error corrections provided by the Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS in South Korea. Site displacements due to solid earth tide loading are also considered for the purpose of improving the positioning accuracy, particularly in the height direction. When the developed algorithm was tested under static positioning, Kalman-filtered solutions produced a root-mean-square error (RMSE of 0.32 and 0.40 m in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. For the moving platform, the RMSE was found to be 0.53 and 0.69 m in the horizontal and vertical directions.

  9. Native point defects in MoS2 and their influences on optical properties by first principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ashim Kumar; Yoshiya, Masato

    2018-03-01

    Stability of native point defect species and optical properties are quantitatively examined through first principles calculations in order to identify possible native point defect species in MoS2 and its influences on electronic structures and resultant optical properties. Possible native point defect species are identified as functions of thermodynamic environment and location of Fermi-level in MoS2. It is found that sulphur vacancies can be introduced more easily than other point defect species which will create impurity levels both in bandgap and in valence band. Additionally, antisite Mo and/or Mo vacancies can be created depending on chemical potential of sulphur, both of which will create impurity levels in bandgap and in valence band. Those impurity levels result in pronounced photon absorption in visible light region, though each of these point defects alone has limited impact on the optical properties unless their concentration remained low. Thus, attention must be paid when intentional impurity doping is made to MoS2 to avoid unwanted modification of optical properties of MoS2. Those impurity may enable further exploitation of photovoltaic energy conversion at longer wavelength.

  10. Optical coherence tomographic findings at the fixation point in a case of bilateral congenital macular coloboma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kosuke Abe,1,2 Jumi Shirane,2 Masuo Sakamoto,1 Fumi Tanabe,1 Kazuki Kuniyoshi,1 Chota Matsumoto,1 Yoshikazu Shimomura11Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka, Japan; 2Nara Hospital, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Ikoma, Nara, JapanBackground: Congenital macular coloboma is a rare ocular disease that consists of atrophic lesions in the macula with well-circumscribed borders. We report the findings of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT at the fixation point in a case of bilateral macular coloboma.Case report: The subject is a 4-year-old boy. He visited our hospital at age 1 year and 4 months for the evaluation of strabismus. The fundus examination of both eyes showed round-shaped sharply-demarcated atrophic lesions involving the macula with large choroidal vessels and bared sclera at the base. Immunologic tests including toxoplasmosis, rubella, varicella, herpes virus, and human T-cell leukemia virus were all negative. At age 4 years and 1 month, cycloplegic refraction showed insignificant refractive errors and his best corrected visual acuity was 0.6 bilaterally. The SD-OCT showed a crater-like depression accompanying atrophic neurosensory retina, and the absence of retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. Examination of the fixation behavior by visuscope showed steady fixation with an area 0.5° nasal to the nasal edge of the atrophic lesion bilaterally. The SD-OCT findings at fixation area showed remaining normal retinal structures involving inner segment-outer segment (IS/OS junction line.Conclusion: The findings of SD-OCT have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of macular coloboma. In the fixation point, the structure of retina and choroid were well preserved.Keywords: pediatric macular disease, macular structure, strabismus

  11. Extended Nijboer-Zernike approach for the computation of optical point-spread functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2002-05-01

    New Bessel-series representations for the calculation of the diffraction integral are presented yielding the point-spread function of the optical system, as occurs in the Nijboer-Zernike theory of aberrations. In this analysis one can allow an arbitrary aberration and a defocus part. The representations are presented in full detail for the cases of coma and astigmatism. The analysis leads to stably converging results in the case of large aberration or defocus values, while the applicability of the original Nijboer-Zernike theory is limited mainly to wave-front deviations well below the value of one wavelength. Because of its intrinsic speed, the analysis is well suited to supplement or to replace numerical calculations that are currently used in the fields of (scanning) microscopy, lithography, and astronomy. In a companion paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 860 (2002)], physical interpretations and applications in a lithographic context are presented, a convergence analysis is given, and a comparison is made with results obtained by using a numerical package.

  12. Extremely broadband, on-chip optical nonreciprocity enabled by mimicking nonlinear anti-adiabatic quantum jumps near exceptional points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngsun; Hahn, Choloong; Yoon, Jae Woong; Song, Seok Ho; Berini, Pierre

    2017-01-20

    Time-asymmetric state-evolution properties while encircling an exceptional point are presently of great interest in search of new principles for controlling atomic and optical systems. Here, we show that encircling-an-exceptional-point interactions that are essentially reciprocal in the linear interaction regime make a plausible nonlinear integrated optical device architecture highly nonreciprocal over an extremely broad spectrum. In the proposed strategy, we describe an experimentally realizable coupled-waveguide structure that supports an encircling-an-exceptional-point parametric evolution under the influence of a gain saturation nonlinearity. Using an intuitive time-dependent Hamiltonian and rigorous numerical computations, we demonstrate strictly nonreciprocal optical transmission with a forward-to-backward transmission ratio exceeding 10 dB and high forward transmission efficiency (∼100%) persisting over an extremely broad bandwidth approaching 100 THz. This predicted performance strongly encourages experimental realization of the proposed concept to establish a practical on-chip optical nonreciprocal element for ultra-short laser pulses and broadband high-density optical signal processing.

  13. Broad frequency band full field measurements for advanced applications: Point-wise comparisons between optical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The progress of optical systems gives nowadays at disposal on lightweight structures complex dynamic measurements and modal tests, each with its own advantages, drawbacks and preferred usage domains. It is thus more easy than before to obtain highly spatially defined vibration patterns for many applications in vibration engineering, testing and general product development. The potential of three completely different technologies is here benchmarked on a common test rig and advanced applications. SLDV, dynamic ESPI and hi-speed DIC are here first deployed in a complex and unique test on the estimation of FRFs with high spatial accuracy from a thin vibrating plate. The latter exhibits a broad band dynamics and high modal density in the common frequency domain where the techniques can find an operative intersection. A peculiar point-wise comparison is here addressed by means of discrete geometry transforms to put all the three technologies on trial at each physical point of the surface. Full field measurement technologies cannot estimate only displacement fields on a refined grid, but can exploit the spatial consistency of the results through neighbouring locations by means of numerical differentiation operators in the spatial domain to obtain rotational degrees of freedom and superficial dynamic strain distributions, with enhanced quality, compared to other technologies in literature. Approaching the task with the aid of superior quality receptance maps from the three different full field gears, this work calculates and compares rotational and dynamic strain FRFs. Dynamic stress FRFs can be modelled directly from the latter, by means of a constitutive model, avoiding the costly and time-consuming steps of building and tuning a numerical dynamic model of a flexible component or a structure in real life conditions. Once dynamic stress FRFs are obtained, spectral fatigue approaches can try to predict the life of a component in many excitation conditions. Different

  14. Extracting Precise and Affordable Dems Despite of the Clouds. Ajax: the Joining of Radar and Optical Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunin, 1 L.; Nonin, 2 P.; Janoth, 3 J.; Bernard, 4 M.

    2012-07-01

    On the one hand, onboard SPOT 5, the HRS instrument systematically collects stereopairs around the Globe since 2002. Each stereopair can encompass an area up to 600 km x 120 km within a single pass (i.e. 72 000 km² stereoscopic strips). Covering now more than 120 millions sq.km of the Earth landmasses, SPOT 5 stereoscopic imagery has become one of main satellite data sources for accurate DEM extraction, at least where the cloud coverage leaves a chance to do so ! On the other hand, the TerraSAR-X satellite, launched in June 2007, is able to collect radar data through the clouds in several modes. An approach to extract height information by radargrammetry was developed, and the commercial distribution of Digital Elevation Models based on TerraSAR-X StripMap and SpotLight Modes (resp. 3m and 1m resolution) has started in 2010. To improve the overall height accuracy of the DEM, acquisitions from both orbit directions are utilised, each point on the ground being thus imaged at least 4 times by TerraSAR-X. Since 2002, Spot Image and French National Cartographic Institute (IGN) are building a worldwide database called Elevation30/Reference3D™, which includes a Digital Elevation Model at 1-arc-second resolution (DTED level 2) extracted from HRS stereopairs. To answer the wide demand of precise DEMs over Tropical and Northern areas, frequently covered by clouds, a study was performed to integrate StripMap radargrammetric TerraSAR-X data into the Reference3D process, and two prototype products were issued, over Colombia and Congo areas. During this experiment, efforts have been made to stick to technical steps that could be integrated within a standardized production process, in order to keep offering affordable prices while maintaining a high standard of horizontal and vertical accuracy. The DEMs extracted from TerraSAR-X and HRS proved extremely consistent with each other, showing a mean difference of 0.80m. This allows to propose a unified Elevation30 product to the

  15. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links Over Malaga (M) Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-08-12

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closedform expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer’s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the scintillation index (SI), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where we present closed-form lower bound results), all in terms of Meijer’s G functions except for the SI that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer’s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer’s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  16. Effect of Pointing Error on the BER Performance of an Optical CDMA FSO Link with SIK Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazrul Islam, A. K. M.; Majumder, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    An analytical approach is presented for an optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system over free space optical (FSO) channel considering the effect of pointing error between the transmitter and the receiver. Analysis is carried out with an optical sequence inverse keying (SIK) correlator receiver with intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) to find the bit error rate (BER) with pointing error. The results are evaluated numerically in terms of signal-to-noise plus multi-access interference (MAI) ratio, BER and power penalty due to pointing error. It is noticed that the OCDMA FSO system is highly affected by pointing error with significant power penalty at a BER of 10-6 and 10-9. For example, penalty at BER 10-9 is found to be 9 dB corresponding to normalized pointing error of 1.4 for 16 users with processing gain of 256 and is reduced to 6.9 dB when the processing gain is increased to 1,024.

  17. Improving the precision of linear optics measurements based on turn-by-turn beam position monitor data after a pulsed excitation in lepton storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Beam optics control is of critical importance for machine performance and protection. Nowadays, turn-by-turn (TbT beam position monitor (BPM data are increasingly exploited as they allow for fast and simultaneous measurement of various optics quantities. Nevertheless, so far the best documented uncertainty of measured β-functions is of about 10‰ rms. In this paper we compare the β-functions of the ESRF storage ring measured from two different TbT techniques—the N-BPM and the Amplitude methods—with the ones inferred from a measurement of the orbit response matrix (ORM. We show how to improve the precision of TbT techniques by refining the Fourier transform of TbT data with properly chosen excitation amplitude. The precision of the N-BPM method is further improved by refining the phase advance measurement. This represents a step forward compared to standard TbT measurements. First experimental results showing the precision of β-functions pushed down to 4‰ both in TbT and ORM techniques are reported and commented.

  18. Improving the precision of linear optics measurements based on turn-by-turn beam position monitor data after a pulsed excitation in lepton storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, L.; Coello de Portugal, J.; Persson, T.; Skowroński, P. K.; Tomás, R.; Franchi, A.; Liuzzo, S.

    2017-08-01

    Beam optics control is of critical importance for machine performance and protection. Nowadays, turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data are increasingly exploited as they allow for fast and simultaneous measurement of various optics quantities. Nevertheless, so far the best documented uncertainty of measured β -functions is of about 10‰ rms. In this paper we compare the β -functions of the ESRF storage ring measured from two different TbT techniques—the N-BPM and the Amplitude methods—with the ones inferred from a measurement of the orbit response matrix (ORM). We show how to improve the precision of TbT techniques by refining the Fourier transform of TbT data with properly chosen excitation amplitude. The precision of the N-BPM method is further improved by refining the phase advance measurement. This represents a step forward compared to standard TbT measurements. First experimental results showing the precision of β -functions pushed down to 4‰ both in TbT and ORM techniques are reported and commented.

  19. Property Analysis of the Real-Time Uncalibrated Phase Delay Product Generated by Regional Reference Stations and Its Influence on Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Qing; Jiang, Xinyuan

    2017-05-19

    The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD) of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR) are experimentally analyzed according to real-time data obtained from the regional Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) network located in Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, etc. The results show that the real-time wide-lane and narrow-lane UPD products differ significantly from each other in time-domain characteristics; the wide-lane UPDs have daily stability, with a change rate of less than 0.1 cycle/day, while the narrow-lane UPDs have short-term stability, with significant change in one day. The UPD products generated by different regional networks have obvious spatial characteristics, thus significantly influencing RTPPP-AR: the adoption of real-time UPD products employing the sparse stations in the regional network for estimation is favorable for improving the regional RTPPP-AR up to 99%; the real-time UPD products of different regional networks slightly influence PPP-AR positioning accuracy. After ambiguities are successfully fixed, the real-time dynamic RTPPP-AR positioning accuracy is better than 3 cm in the plane and 8 cm in the upward direction.

  20. Precise parallel optical spectrum analysis using the advanced two-phonon light scattering combined with the cross-disperser technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, A S; Arellanes, A O; Chavushyan, V

    2016-12-01

    We develop an advanced approach to the optical spectrometer with acousto-optical dynamic grating for the Guillermo Haro astrophysical observatory (Mexico). The progress consists of two principle novelties. First is the use of the acousto-optical nonlinearity of two-phonon light scattering in crystals with linear acoustic losses. This advanced regime of light scattering exhibits a recently revealed additional degree of freedom, which allows tuning of the frequency of elastic waves and admits the nonlinear apodization improving the dynamic range. The second novelty is the combination of the cross-disperser with acousto-optical processing. A similar pioneering step provides an opportunity to operate over all the visible range in a parallel regime with maximal achievable resolution. The observation window of the optical spectrometer in that observatory is ∼9  cm, so that the theoretical estimations of maximal performances for a low-loss LiNbO3 crystal for this optical aperture at λ=405  nm give spectral resolution of 0.0523 Å, resolving power of 77,400, and 57,500 spots. The illustrative proof-of-principle experiments with a 6 cm LiNbO3 crystal have been performed.

  1. Adaptive Optics to Counteract Thermal Aberrations : System Design for EUV-Lithography with Sub-nm Precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saathof, R.

    2013-01-01

    In highly precise systems the thermal expansion of system-parts is of increasing concern, since it can severely compromise its performance at sub-nanometre level. An example of such a system is an Extreme UltraViolet (EUV)-lithography machine that is used in the semi-conductor industry to project

  2. Quenching Mo optical losses in CIGS solar cells by a point contacted dual-layer dielectric spacer: a 3-D optical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Nasim; Isabella, Olindo; Vroon, Zeger; Zeman, Miro

    2018-01-22

    A 3-D optical modelling was calibrated to calculate the light absorption and the total reflection of fabricated CIGS solar cells. Absorption losses at molybdenum (Mo) / CIGS interface were explained in terms of plasmonic waves. To quench these losses, we assumed the insertion of a lossless dielectric spacer between Mo and CIGS, whose optical properties were varied. We show that such a spacer with low refractive index and proper thickness can significantly reduce absorption in Mo in the long wavelength regime and improve the device's rear reflectance, thus leading to enhanced light absorption in the CIGS layer. Therefore, we optimized a realistic two-layer MgF 2 / Al 2 O 3 dielectric spacer to exploit (i) the passivation properties of ultra-thin Al 2 O 3 on the CIGS side for potential high open-circuit voltage and (ii) the low refractive index of MgF 2 on the Mo side to reduce its optical losses. Combining our realistic spacer with optically-optimized point contacts increases the implied photocurrent density of a 750 nm-thick CIGS layer by 10% for the wavelengths between 700 and 1150 nm with respect to the reference cell. The elimination of plasmonic resonances in the new structure leads to a higher electric field magnitude at the bottom of CIGS layer and justifies the improved optical performance.

  3. Performance analysis of relay-assisted all-optical FSO networks over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we consider a relay-assisted free-space optical communication scheme over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with misalignment-induced pointing errors. The links from the source to the destination are assumed to be all-optical links. Assuming a variable gain relay with amplify-and-forward protocol, the electrical signal at the source is forwarded to the destination with the help of this relay through all-optical links. More specifically, we first present a cumulative density function (CDF) analysis for the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio. Based on this CDF, the outage probability, bit-error rate, and average capacity of our proposed system are derived. Results show that the system diversity order is related to the minimum value of the channel parameters.

  4. High Precision Thermal, Structural and Optical Analysis of an External Occulter Using a Common Model and the General Purpose Multi-Physics Analysis Tool Cielo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Claus; Cady, Eric; Chainyk, Mike; Kissil, Andrew; Levine, Marie; Moore, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The efficient simulation of multidisciplinary thermo-opto-mechanical effects in precision deployable systems has for years been limited by numerical toolsets that do not necessarily share the same finite element basis, level of mesh discretization, data formats, or compute platforms. Cielo, a general purpose integrated modeling tool funded by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Exoplanet Exploration Program, addresses shortcomings in the current state of the art via features that enable the use of a single, common model for thermal, structural and optical aberration analysis, producing results of greater accuracy, without the need for results interpolation or mapping. This paper will highlight some of these advances, and will demonstrate them within the context of detailed external occulter analyses, focusing on in-plane deformations of the petal edges for both steady-state and transient conditions, with subsequent optical performance metrics including intensity distributions at the pupil and image plane.

  5. Influence of annealing and deformation on optical properties of ultra precision diamond turned and anodized 6060 aluminium alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabrizian-Ghalehno, Naja; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hansen, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Influence of cold forging, and subsequent heat treatment and diamond turning on optical quality of anodized film on 6060 (AlMgSi) alloy was investigated and compared with microstructural changes. Heat treatment of the samples was carried out either prior to forging, post-forging, or both....... The surface of the forged material was then diamond turned to a mirror like finish. The diamond turned samples were subsequently anodized in a sulphuric acid bath. The microstructure of the samples was analysed using optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X......-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Colour/brightness measurements were carried out using CIE Lab system. An optical method was used to measure the thickness of the oxide film and roughness of the surface was measured before and after anodizing using stylus, a mechanical instrument, and bidirectional reflection distribution...

  6. Ultrasonically Assisted Single Point Diamond Turning of Optical Mold of Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To realize high efficiency, low/no damage and high precision machining of tungsten carbide used for lens mold, a high frequency ultrasonic vibration cutting system was developed at first. Then, tungsten carbide was precisely machined with a polycrystalline diamond (PCD tool assisted by the self-developed high frequency ultrasonic vibration cutting system. Tool wear mechanism was investigated in ductile regime machining of tungsten carbide. The cutter back-off phenomenon in the process was analyzed. The subsequent experimental results of ultra-precision machining with a single crystal diamond tool showed that: under the condition of high frequency ultrasonic vibration cutting, nano-scale surface roughness can be obtained by the diamond tool with smaller tip radius and no defects like those of ground surface were found on the machined surface. Tool wear mechanisms of the single crystal diamond tool are mainly abrasive wear and micro-chipping. To solve the problem, a method of inclined ultrasonic vibration cutting with negative rake angle was put forward according to force analysis, which can further reduce tool wear and roughness of the machined surface. The investigation was important to high efficiency and quality ultra-precision machining of tungsten carbide.

  7. pH-Induced Surface Modification of Atomically Precise Silver Nanoclusters: An Approach for Tunable Optical and Electronic Properties

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Lina G.

    2016-10-24

    Noble metal nanoclusters (NCs) play a pivotal role in bridging the gap between molecules and quantum dots. Fundamental understanding of the evolution of the structural, optical, and electronic properties of these materials in various environments is of paramount importance for many applications. Using state-of-the-art spectroscopy, we provide the first decisive experimental evidence that the structural, electronic, and optical properties of Ag-44(MNBA)(30) NCs can now be tailored by controlling the chemical environment. Infrared and photoelectron spectroscopies clearly indicate that there is a dimerization between two adjacent ligands capping the NCs that takes place upon lowering the pH from 13 to 7.

  8. Gold-reinforced silver nanoprisms on optical fiber tapers—A new base for high precision sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wieduwilt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique optical properties, metallic nanoparticles offer a great potential for important applications such as disease diagnostics, demanding highly integrated device solutions with large refractive index sensitivity. Here we introduce a new type of monolithic localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR waveguide sensor based on the combination of an adiabatic optical fiber taper and a high-density ensemble of immobilized gold-reinforced silver nanoprisms, showing sensitivities up to 900 nm/RIU. This result represents the highest value reported so far for a fiber optic sensor using the LSPR effect and exceeds the corresponding value of the bulk solution by a factor of two. The plasmonic resonance is efficiently excited via the evanescent field of the propagating taper mode, leading to pronounced transmission dips (−20 dB. The particle density is so high (approx. 210 particle/μm2 that neighboring particles are able to interact, boosting the sensitivity, as confirmed by qualitative infinite element simulations. We additionally introduce a qualitative model explaining the interaction of plasmon resonance and taper mode on the basis of light extinction, allowing extracting key parameters of the plasmonic taper (e.g., modal attenuation. Due to the monolithic design and the extremely high sensitivity we expect our finding to be relevant in fields such as biomedicine, disease diagnostics, and molecular sensing.

  9. A passion for precision

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2006-01-01

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.

  10. Fusion of ALS Point Cloud and Optical Imagery for 3D Reconstruction of Building's Roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hujebri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional building models are important in various applications such as disaster management and urban planning. In this paper a method based on fusion of LiDAR point cloud and aerial image data sources has been proposed. Firstly using 2D map, the point set relevant to each building separated from the overall LiDAR point cloud. In the next step, the mean shift clustering algorithm applied to the points of different buildings in the feature space. Finally the segmentation stage ended with the separation of parallel and coplanar segments. Then using the adjacency matrix, adjacent segments are intersected and inner vertices are determined. In the other space, the area of any building cropped in the image space and the mean shift algorithm applied to it. Then, the lines of roof’s outline edge extracted by the Hough transform algorithm and the points obtained from the intersection of these lines transformed to the ground space. Finally, by integration of structural points of intersected adjacent facets and the transformed points from image space, reconstruction performed. In order to evaluate the efficiency of proposed method, buildings with different shapes and different level of complexity selected and the results of the 3D model reconstruction evaluated. The results showed credible efficiency of method for different buildings.

  11. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  12. Tightly Coupled Integration of GPS Ambiguity Fixed Precise Point Positioning and MEMS-INS through a Troposphere-Constrained Adaptive Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzeng Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Precise Point Positioning (PPP makes use of the undifferenced pseudorange and carrier phase measurements with ionospheric-free (IF combinations to achieve centimeter-level positioning accuracy. Conventionally, the IF ambiguities are estimated as float values. To improve the PPP positioning accuracy and shorten the convergence time, the integer phase clock model with between-satellites single-difference (BSSD operation is used to recover the integer property. However, the continuity and availability of stand-alone PPP is largely restricted by the observation environment. The positioning performance will be significantly degraded when GPS operates under challenging environments, if less than five satellites are present. A commonly used approach is integrating a low cost inertial sensor to improve the positioning performance and robustness. In this study, a tightly coupled (TC algorithm is implemented by integrating PPP with inertial navigation system (INS using an Extended Kalman filter (EKF. The navigation states, inertial sensor errors and GPS error states are estimated together. The troposphere constrained approach, which utilizes external tropospheric delay as virtual observation, is applied to further improve the ambiguity-fixed height positioning accuracy, and an improved adaptive filtering strategy is implemented to improve the covariance modelling considering the realistic noise effect. A field vehicular test with a geodetic GPS receiver and a low cost inertial sensor was conducted to validate the improvement on positioning performance with the proposed approach. The results show that the positioning accuracy has been improved with inertial aiding. Centimeter-level positioning accuracy is achievable during the test, and the PPP/INS TC integration achieves a fast re-convergence after signal outages. For troposphere constrained solutions, a significant improvement for the height component has been obtained. The overall positioning accuracies

  13. Transmission system for distribution of video over long-haul optical point-to-point links using a microwave photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01-10 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldívar Huerta, Ignacio E.; Pérez Montaña, Diego F.; Nava, Pablo Hernández; Juárez, Alejandro García; Asomoza, Jorge Rodríguez; Leal Cruz, Ana L.

    2013-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of an electro-optical transmission system for distribution of video over long-haul optical point-to-point links using a microwave photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01-10 GHz. The frequency response of the microwave photonic filter consists of four band-pass windows centered at frequencies that can be tailored to the function of the spectral free range of the optical source, the chromatic dispersion parameter of the optical fiber used, as well as the length of the optical link. In particular, filtering effect is obtained by the interaction of an externally modulated multimode laser diode emitting at 1.5 μm associated to the length of a dispersive optical fiber. Filtered microwave signals are used as electrical carriers to transmit TV-signal over long-haul optical links point-to-point. Transmission of TV-signal coded on the microwave band-pass windows located at 4.62, 6.86, 4.0 and 6.0 GHz are achieved over optical links of 25.25 km and 28.25 km, respectively. Practical applications for this approach lie in the field of the FTTH access network for distribution of services as video, voice, and data.

  14. Assessment of an extended Nijboer-Zernike approach for the computation of optical point-spread functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braat, Joseph; Dirksen, Peter; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2002-05-01

    We assess the validity of an extended Nijboer-Zernike approach [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 849 (2002)], based on ecently found Bessel-series representations of diffraction integrals comprising an arbitrary aberration and a defocus part, for the computation of optical point-spread functions of circular, aberrated optical systems. These new series representations yield a flexible means to compute optical point-spread functions, both accurately and efficiently, under defocus and aberration conditions that seem to cover almost all cases of practical interest. Because of the analytical nature of the formulas, there are no discretization effects limiting the accuracy, as opposed to the more commonly used numerical packages based on strictly numerical integration methods. Instead, we have an easily managed criterion, expressed in the number of terms to be included in the Bessel-series representations, guaranteeing the desired accuracy. For this reason, the analytical method can also serve as a calibration tool for the numerically based methods. The analysis is not limited to pointlike objects but can also be used for extended objects under various illumination conditions. The calculation schemes are simple and permit one to trace the relative strength of the various interfering complex-amplitude terms that contribute to the final image intensity function.

  15. Variational Principles, Lie Point Symmetries, and Similarity Solutions of the Vector Maxwell Equations in Non-linear Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Garry; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Brio, Moysey

    2004-01-01

    to circumvent this problem, non-canonical Poisson bracket formulations of the equations are obtained in which the electric field is one of the non-canonical variables. Noether's theorem, and the Lie point symmetries admitted by the equations are used to obtain four conservation laws, including......The vector Maxwell equations of nonlinear optics coupled to a single Lorentz oscillator and with instantaneous Kerr nonlinearity are investigated by using Lie symmetry group methods. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of the equations are obtained. The aim of the analysis is to explore...... the properties of Maxwell's equations in nonlinear optics, without resorting to the commonly used nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) equation approximation in which a high frequency carrier wave is modulated on long length and time scales due to nonlinear sideband wave interactions. This is important in femto...

  16. Optics of short-pitch deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystals: Symmetries, exceptional points, and polarization-resolved angular patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Chigrinov, Vladimir G.

    2014-10-01

    In order to explore electric-field-induced transformations of polarization singularities in the polarization-resolved angular (conoscopic) patterns emerging after deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) cells with subwavelength helix pitch, we combine the transfer matrix formalism with the results for the effective dielectric tensor of biaxial FLCs evaluated using an improved technique of averaging over distorted helical structures. Within the framework of the transfer matrix method, we deduce a number of symmetry relations and show that the symmetry axis of L lines (curves of linear polarization) is directed along the major in-plane optical axis which rotates under the action of the electric field. When the angle between this axis and the polarization plane of incident linearly polarized light is above its critical value, the C points (points of circular polarization) appear in the form of symmetrically arranged chains of densely packed star-monstar pairs. We also emphasize the role of phase singularities of a different kind and discuss the enhanced electro-optic response of DHFLCs near the exceptional point where the condition of zero-field isotropy is fulfilled.

  17. Two-point Stokes vector parameters of object field for diagnosis and differentiation of optically anisotropic biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubolazov, O. V.; Trifonyuk, L.; Marchuk, Yu.; Ushenko, Yu. O.; Zhytaryuk, V. G.; Prydiy, O. G.; Kushnerik, L.; Meglinskiy, I.

    2017-08-01

    A new method of Stokes correlometry of polarization-inhomogeneous images of biological layers is presented. Analytic relations are determined for the modulus of complex parameters of the Stokes vector. A technique for measuring the coordinate distributions of the magnitude of the two-point modulus of the Stokes vector is proposed. Objective criteria for differentiating the optical anisotropy of polycrystalline urine films of healthy donors and patients with albuminuria have been found. An excellent level of balanced accuracy of differential diagnostics has been achieved.

  18. Bit error rate analysis of free-space optical communication over general Malaga turbulence channels with pointing error

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2016-12-24

    In this work, we present a bit error rate (BER) and achievable spectral efficiency (ASE) performance of a freespace optical (FSO) link with pointing errors based on intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) and heterodyne detection over general Malaga turbulence channel. More specifically, we present exact closed-form expressions for adaptive and non-adaptive transmission. The closed form expressions are presented in terms of generalized power series of the Meijer\\'s G-function. Moreover, asymptotic closed form expressions are provided to validate our work. In addition, all the presented analytical results are illustrated using a selected set of numerical results.

  19. A simple but precise method for quantitative measurement of the quality of the laser focus in a scanning optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trägårdh, J; Macrae, K; Travis, C; Amor, R; Norris, G; Wilson, S H; Oppo, G-L; McConnell, G

    2015-07-01

    We report a method for characterizing the focussing laser beam exiting the objective in a laser scanning microscope. This method provides the size of the optical focus, the divergence of the beam, the ellipticity and the astigmatism. We use a microscopic-scale knife edge in the form of a simple transmission electron microscopy grid attached to a glass microscope slide, and a light-collecting optical fibre and photodiode underneath the specimen. By scanning the laser spot from a reflective to a transmitting part of the grid, a beam profile in the form of an error function can be obtained and by repeating this with the knife edge at different axial positions relative to the beam waist, the divergence and astigmatism of the postobjective laser beam can be obtained. The measured divergence can be used to quantify how much of the full numerical aperture of the lens is used in practice. We present data of the beam radius, beam divergence, ellipticity and astigmatism obtained with low (0.15, 0.7) and high (1.3) numerical aperture lenses and lasers commonly used in confocal and multiphoton laser scanning microscopy. Our knife-edge method has several advantages over alternative knife-edge methods used in microscopy including that the knife edge is easy to prepare, that the beam can be characterized also directly under a cover slip, as necessary to reduce spherical aberrations for objectives designed to be used with a cover slip, and it is suitable for use with commercial laser scanning microscopes where access to the laser beam can be limited. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Correlation Wave-Front Sensing Algorithms for Shack-Hartmann-Based Adaptive Optics using a Point Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poynee, L A

    2003-01-01

    Shack-Hartmann based Adaptive Optics system with a point-source reference normally use a wave-front sensing algorithm that estimates the centroid (center of mass) of the point-source image 'spot' to determine the wave-front slope. The centroiding algorithm suffers for several weaknesses. For a small number of pixels, the algorithm gain is dependent on spot size. The use of many pixels on the detector leads to significant propagation of read noise. Finally, background light or spot halo aberrations can skew results. In this paper an alternative algorithm that suffers from none of these problems is proposed: correlation of the spot with a ideal reference spot. The correlation method is derived and a theoretical analysis evaluates its performance in comparison with centroiding. Both simulation and data from real AO systems are used to illustrate the results. The correlation algorithm is more robust than centroiding, but requires more computation

  1. POINT-BY-POINT INSCRIPTION OF FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS INTO BIREFRINGENT OPTICAL FIBER THROUGH PROTECTIVE ACRYLATE COATING BY TI:SA FEMTOSECOND LASER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Arkhipov,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals withpoint-by-point inscriptionof fiber Bragg gratings by the 800 nm Ti:Sa femtosecond laser pulses into a unique birefringent fiber with elliptical stress cladding of home manufacture. The proposed inscriptionmethod has advantages over the conventional phase mask method. The possibility to create complex grating structures and relatively high transparency of acrylate coating to the Ti:Sa femtosecond laser radiation of 800 nm gives the possibility for inscriptionof phase shifting gratings, chirped grating and superstructures without stripping the fiber. Also, this method makes it possible to inscribethese diffractive structures with and without co-doping of GeO2 in the fiber core. Achieved reflectance was 10%. The microscopic image of the diffractive structure in the fiber core is presented. The grating of 1.07 µm is realized by pulling the fiber with constant speed while the laser pulses are applied with a repetition frequency of 1 kHz. The results are usable in the sphere of creation of different fiber optic sensitive elements based on Bragg gratings.

  2. [Sensitivity, precision and resolution of the optical microscope in the study of environmental pollution by asbestos fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, G; Patroni, M; Trimarchi, R; Clerici, C; Occella, E

    1991-01-01

    The authors comment on the methods and equipment used in two Italian laboratories for sampling and microscopic phase contrast analysis of asbestos and other respirable fibres in the air of the general environment, i.e., the Dust Analysis Laboratory, Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology Department of the Institute of Occupational Health (Clinica del Lavoro), University of Milan and the Technical Microscopy Laboratory, Ground Resources and Land Control (Georisorse e Territorio) Department of Turin Polytechnic, which use identical methods. Airborne dust samples are taken with personal samplers, 1 l/min air flow (sample duration 4-8 h), filtering air on 25 mm diameter, 0.8 micropore cellulose filters (about 300 mm total net surface of dust deposit). The following equipment is used for counting and analysis of fibres: a) Clinica del Lavoro, Milan: Polyvar Reichert-Jung microscope, 500 magnitudes, Zernike positive phase contrast; numerical counting on 100 whole ocular fields, equal to 6.38% of the total net surface of dust deposit on the membrane; b) Turin Polytechnic: Leitz Ortholux microscope, 500 magnitudes, Heine and Zernike phase contrast with mean standard contrast; numerical counting on square grid, with explored surface total equal to 1.68% of the total net surface of dust deposit on the membrane. Measurements performed: Clinica del Lavoro, Milan: 2,980 since 1960; Turin Polytechnic: 875 since 1965. The sensitivity of the methods for counting airborne fibres is discussed, concluding that the methods used by the two laboratories have a sensitivity between 0.05 and 1.6 fibre/litre of air, according to the overall dustiness of the environment under study. Analysis of the accuracy of the optic determinations, based on the repeated counts, shows a repeatability of 0.4 (40%) within 95% confidence limits. A resolution power of 0.35 microns is reported; however, the possibility exists (and is normally achieved in analytical practice in both laboratories) of identifying and

  3. Precision mechanical design of an ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer system with CDFDW optics at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D; Stoupin, S; Khachatryan, R; Goetze, K A; Roberts, T; Shvyd'ko, Y; Mundboth, K; Collins, S

    2013-01-01

    There are many scientific applications, especially involving topics related to the equilibrium atomic-scale dynamics of condensed matter, that require both a narrower and a steeper resolution function and access to a broader dynamic range than are currently available. To meet these important scientific needs, a prototype of a novel ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer system has been designed and constructed at undulator-based beamline 30-ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This prototype is designed to meet challenging mechanical and optical specifications for performing so-called CDFDW angular-dispersive x-ray crystal optics, which include a central ultra-thin CFW crystal and a pair of dispersing elements. The abbreviation CDFDW stands for: C – collimating crystal, D – dispersing-element crystal (two D-crystals are used in each CDFDW), F – anomalous transmission filter, and W – wavelength-selector crystal [1]. The mechanical design of the ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer, as well as the preliminary test results of its precision positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  4. Precision Machining

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue of S¯adhan¯a is devoted to Precision Engineering. Recent progress in this field clearly indicates the transition of precision technology to precision science. Dr. Mer- chant's new theory on the mechanics of metal cutting in 1944 heralded a new approach, moving away from the empirical work of Taylor ...

  5. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  6. Two-point active microrheology in a viscous medium exploiting a motional resonance excited in dual-trap optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shuvojit; Kumar, Randhir; Banerjee, Ayan

    2018-04-01

    Two-point microrheology measurements from widely separated colloidal particles approach the bulk viscosity of the host medium more reliably than corresponding single-point measurements. In addition, active microrheology offers the advantage of enhanced signal to noise over passive techniques. Recently, we reported the observation of a motional resonance induced in a probe particle in dual-trap optical tweezers when the control particle was driven externally [Paul et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 050102(R) (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevE.96.050102]. We now demonstrate that the amplitude and phase characteristics of the motional resonance can be used as a sensitive tool for active two-point microrheology to measure the viscosity of a viscous fluid. Thus, we measure the viscosity of viscous liquids from both the amplitude and phase response of the resonance, and demonstrate that the zero crossing of the phase response of the probe particle with respect to the external drive is superior compared to the amplitude response in measuring viscosity at large particle separations. We compare our viscosity measurements with those using a commercial rheometer and obtain an agreement ˜1 % . The method can be extended to viscoelastic material where the frequency dependence of the resonance may provide further accuracy for active microrheological measurements.

  7. Optical sensing of anticoagulation status: Towards point-of-care coagulation testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Tshikudi

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant overdose is associated with major bleeding complications. Rapid coagulation sensing may ensure safe and accurate anticoagulant dosing and reduce bleeding risk. Here, we report the novel use of Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR for measuring anticoagulation and haemodilution status in whole blood. In the LSR approach, blood from 12 patients and 4 swine was placed in disposable cartridges and time-varying intensity fluctuations of laser speckle patterns were measured to quantify the viscoelastic modulus during clotting. Coagulation parameters, mainly clotting time, clot progression rate (α-angle and maximum clot stiffness (MA were derived from the clot viscoelasticity trace and compared with standard Thromboelastography (TEG. To demonstrate the capability for anticoagulation sensing in patients, blood samples from 12 patients treated with warfarin anticoagulant were analyzed. LSR clotting time correlated with prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time (r = 0.57-0.77, p<0.04 and all LSR parameters demonstrated good correlation with TEG (r = 0.61-0.87, p<0.04. To further evaluate the dose-dependent sensitivity of LSR parameters, swine blood was spiked with varying concentrations of heparin, argatroban and rivaroxaban or serially diluted with saline. We observed that anticoagulant treatments prolonged LSR clotting time in a dose-dependent manner that correlated closely with TEG (r = 0.99, p<0.01. LSR angle was unaltered by anticoagulation whereas TEG angle presented dose-dependent diminution likely linked to the mechanical manipulation of the clot. In both LSR and TEG, MA was largely unaffected by anticoagulation, and LSR presented a higher sensitivity to increased haemodilution in comparison to TEG (p<0.01. Our results establish that LSR rapidly and accurately measures the response of various anticoagulants, opening the opportunity for routine anticoagulation monitoring at the point-of-care or for patient self-testing.

  8. The influence of image sensor irradiation damage on the tracking and pointing accuracy of optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoliang; Luo, Lei; Li, Pengwei; Yu, Qingkui

    2018-03-01

    The image sensor in satellite optical communication system may generate noise due to space irradiation damage, leading to deviation for the determination of the light spot centroid. Based on the irradiation test data of CMOS devices, simulated defect spots in different sizes have been used for calculating the centroid deviation value by grey-level centroid algorithm. The impact on tracking & pointing accuracy of the system has been analyzed. The results show that both the amount and the position of irradiation-induced defect pixels contribute to spot centroid deviation. And the larger spot has less deviation. At last, considering the space radiation damage, suggestions are made for the constraints of spot size selection.

  9. Performance analysis of multihop heterodyne free-space optical communication over general Malaga turbulence channels with pointing error

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2017-09-21

    This work investigates the end-to-end performance of a free space optical amplify-and-forward (AF) channel-state-information (CSI)-assisted relaying system using heterodyne detection over Malaga turbulence channels at the presence of pointing error employing rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (R-QAM). More specifically, we present exact closed-form expressions for average bit-error rate for adaptive/non-adaptive modulation, achievable spectral efficiency, and ergodic capacity by utilizing generalized power series of Meijer\\'s G-function. Moreover, asymptotic closed form expressions are provided to validate our work at high power regime. In addition, all the presented analytical results are illustrated using a selected set of numerical results. Moreover, we applied the bisection method to find the optimum beam width for the proposed FSO system.

  10. Optimization of an Optical Inspection System Based on the Taguchi Method for Quantitative Analysis of Point-of-Care Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsien Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an optical inspection system for detecting a commercial point-of-care testing product and a new detection model covering from qualitative to quantitative analysis. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG strips (cut-off value of the hCG commercial product is 25 mIU/mL were the detection target in our study. We used a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensor to detect the colors of the test line and control line in the specific strips and to reduce the observation errors by the naked eye. To achieve better linearity between the grayscale and the concentration, and to decrease the standard deviation (increase the signal to noise ratio, S/N, the Taguchi method was used to find the optimal parameters for the optical inspection system. The pregnancy test used the principles of the lateral flow immunoassay, and the colors of the test and control line were caused by the gold nanoparticles. Because of the sandwich immunoassay model, the color of the gold nanoparticles in the test line was darkened by increasing the hCG concentration. As the results reveal, the S/N increased from 43.48 dB to 53.38 dB, and the hCG concentration detection increased from 6.25 to 50 mIU/mL with a standard deviation of less than 10%. With the optimal parameters to decrease the detection limit and to increase the linearity determined by the Taguchi method, the optical inspection system can be applied to various commercial rapid tests for the detection of ketamine, troponin I, and fatty acid binding protein (FABP.

  11. Remote sensing optical instrumentation for enhanced space weather monitoring from the L1 and L5 Lagrange points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, S.; Puschmann, K. G.; Luntama, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Space Situational Awareness Programme (SSA), ESA has initiated the assessment of two missions currently foreseen to be implemented to enable enhanced space weather monitoring. These missions utilize the positioning of satellites at the Lagrangian L1 and L5 points. These Phase 0 or Pre-Phase A mission studies are about to be completed and will thereby have soon passed the Mission Definition Review. Phase A studies are planned to start in 2017. The space weather monitoring system currently considers four remote sensing optical instruments and several in-situ instruments to analyse the Sun and the solar wind conditions, in order to provide early warnings of increased solar activity and to identify and mitigate potential threats to society and ground, airborne and space based infrastructure. The suggested optical instruments take heritage from ESA and NASA science missions like SOHO, STEREO and Solar Orbiter, but the instruments are foreseen to be optimized for operational space weather monitoring purposes with high reliability and robustness demands. The instruments are required to provide high quality measurements particularly during severe space weather events. The program intends to utilize the results of the on-going ESA instrument prototyping and technology development activities, and to initiate pre-developments of the operational space weather instruments to ensure the required maturity before the mission implementation.

  12. Not to put too fine a point on it - does increasing precision of geographic referencing improve species distribution models for a wide-ranging migratory bat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark A.; Ozenberger, Katharine; Cryan, Paul M.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Bat specimens held in natural history museum collections can provide insights into the distribution of species. However, there are several important sources of spatial error associated with natural history specimens that may influence the analysis and mapping of bat species distributions. We analyzed the importance of geographic referencing and error correction in species distribution modeling (SDM) using occurrence records of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus). This species is known to migrate long distances and is a species of increasing concern due to fatalities documented at wind energy facilities in North America. We used 3,215 museum occurrence records collected from 1950–2000 for hoary bats in North America. We compared SDM performance using five approaches: generalized linear models, multivariate adaptive regression splines, boosted regression trees, random forest, and maximum entropy models. We evaluated results using three SDM performance metrics (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity) and two data sets: one comprised of the original occurrence data, and a second data set consisting of these same records after the locations were adjusted to correct for identifiable spatial errors. The increase in precision improved the mean estimated spatial error associated with hoary bat records from 5.11 km to 1.58 km, and this reduction in error resulted in a slight increase in all three SDM performance metrics. These results provide insights into the importance of geographic referencing and the value of correcting spatial errors in modeling the distribution of a wide-ranging bat species. We conclude that the considerable time and effort invested in carefully increasing the precision of the occurrence locations in this data set was not worth the marginal gains in improved SDM performance, and it seems likely that gains would be similar for other bat species that range across large areas of the continent, migrate, and are habitat generalists.

  13. Adaptive-optics SLO imaging combined with widefield OCT and SLO enables precise 3D localization of fluorescent cells in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Miller, Eric B; Goswami, Mayank; Wang, Xinlei; Jonnal, Ravi S; Lee, Sang-Hyuck; Kim, Dae Yu; Flannery, John G; Werner, John S; Burns, Marie E; Pugh, Edward N

    2015-06-01

    Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) has recently been used to achieve exquisite subcellular resolution imaging of the mouse retina. Wavefront sensing-based AO typically restricts the field of view to a few degrees of visual angle. As a consequence the relationship between AO-SLO data and larger scale retinal structures and cellular patterns can be difficult to assess. The retinal vasculature affords a large-scale 3D map on which cells and structures can be located during in vivo imaging. Phase-variance OCT (pv-OCT) can efficiently image the vasculature with near-infrared light in a label-free manner, allowing 3D vascular reconstruction with high precision. We combined widefield pv-OCT and SLO imaging with AO-SLO reflection and fluorescence imaging to localize two types of fluorescent cells within the retinal layers: GFP-expressing microglia, the resident macrophages of the retina, and GFP-expressing cone photoreceptor cells. We describe in detail a reflective afocal AO-SLO retinal imaging system designed for high resolution retinal imaging in mice. The optical performance of this instrument is compared to other state-of-the-art AO-based mouse retinal imaging systems. The spatial and temporal resolution of the new AO instrumentation was characterized with angiography of retinal capillaries, including blood-flow velocity analysis. Depth-resolved AO-SLO fluorescent images of microglia and cone photoreceptors are visualized in parallel with 469 nm and 663 nm reflectance images of the microvasculature and other structures. Additional applications of the new instrumentation are discussed.

  14. Why precision?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2012-05-15

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  15. Deviations from plane-wave Mie scattering and precise retrieval of refractive index for a single spherical particle in an optical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Bernard J; Walker, Jim S; Reid, Jonathan P; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2014-03-20

    The extinction cross-sections of individual, optically confined aerosol particles with radii of a micrometer or less can, in principle, be measured using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). However, when the particle radius is comparable in magnitude to the wavelength of light stored in a high-finesse cavity, the phenomenological cross-section retrieved from a CRDS experiment depends on the location of the particle in the intracavity standing wave and differs from the Mie scattering cross-section for plane-wave irradiation. Using an evaporating 1,2,6-hexanetriol particle of initial radius ∼1.75 μm confined within the 4.5 μm diameter core of a Bessel beam, we demonstrate that the scatter in the retrieved extinction efficiency of a single particle is determined by its lateral motion, which spans a few wavelengths of the intracavity standing wave used for CRDS measurements. Fits of experimental measurements to Mie calculations, modified to account for the intracavity standing wave, allow precise retrieval of the refractive index of 1,2,6-hexanetriol particles (with relative humidity, RH < 10%) of 1.47824 ± 0.00072.

  16. High Dynamics and Precision Optical Measurement Using a Position Sensitive Detector (PSD in Reflection-Mode: Application to 2D Object Tracking over a Smart Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Alexandru Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When related to a single and good contrast object or a laser spot, position sensing, or sensitive, detectors (PSDs have a series of advantages over the classical camera sensors, including a good positioning accuracy for a fast response time and very simple signal conditioning circuits. To test the performance of this kind of sensor for microrobotics, we have made a comparative analysis between a precise but slow video camera and a custom-made fast PSD system applied to the tracking of a diffuse-reflectivity object transported by a pneumatic microconveyor called Smart-Surface. Until now, the fast system dynamics prevented the full control of the smart surface by visual servoing, unless using a very expensive high frame rate camera. We have built and tested a custom and low cost PSD-based embedded circuit, optically connected with a camera to a single objective by means of a beam splitter. A stroboscopic light source enhanced the resolution. The obtained results showed a good linearity and a fast (over 500 frames per second response time which will enable future closed-loop control by using PSD.

  17. A radio optical reference frame. I. Precise radio source positions determined by Mark III VLBI - Observations from 1979 to 1988 and a tie to the FK5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.; Shaffer, D.B.; De Vegt, C.; Johnston, K.J.; Russell, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Observations from 600 Mark III VLBI experiments from 1979 to 1988, resulting in 237,681 acceptable pairs of group delay and phase delay rate observations, have been used to derive positions of 182 extragalactic radio sources with typical formal standard errors less than 1 mas. The sources are distributed fairly evenly above delta = -30 deg, and 70 sources have delta greater than 0 deg. Analysis with different troposphere models, as well as internal and external comparisons, indicates that a coordinate frame defined by this set of radio sources should be reliable at the 1 mas level. The right ascension zero point of this reference frame has been aligned with the FK5 by using the optical positions of 28 extragalactic radio sources whose positions are on the FK5 system. Because of known defects in the knowledge of astronomical constants, daily nutation offsets in longitude and obliquity were determined relative to an arbitrary reference day in the set of experiments. 30 refs

  18. A passion for precision

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  19. Lessons Learnt from the Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, M.; Portillo, A.; Racho, C.; Lee, S.; Erickson, D.; DePew, J.; Monacos, S.; Biswas, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) is a laboratory based lasercom terminal that was developed to validate several key technologies such as precision beam pointing, high bandwidth beacon tracking and beacon acquisition.

  20. Adobe photoshop quantification (PSQ) rather than point-counting: A rapid and precise method for quantifying rock textural data and porosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Kaibo; Wu, Shuanglin

    2014-08-01

    Commonly used petrological quantification methods are visual estimation, counting, and image analyses. However, in this article, an Adobe Photoshop-based analyzing method (PSQ) is recommended for quantifying the rock textural data and porosities. Adobe Photoshop system provides versatile abilities in selecting an area of interest and the pixel number of a selection could be read and used to calculate its area percentage. Therefore, Adobe Photoshop could be used to rapidly quantify textural components, such as content of grains, cements, and porosities including total porosities and different genetic type porosities. This method was named as Adobe Photoshop Quantification (PSQ). The workflow of the PSQ method was introduced with the oolitic dolomite samples from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, for example. And the method was tested by comparing with the Folk's and Shvetsov's "standard" diagrams. In both cases, there is a close agreement between the "standard" percentages and those determined by the PSQ method with really small counting errors and operator errors, small standard deviations and high confidence levels. The porosities quantified by PSQ were evaluated against those determined by the whole rock helium gas expansion method to test the specimen errors. Results have shown that the porosities quantified by the PSQ are well correlated to the porosities determined by the conventional helium gas expansion method. Generally small discrepancies (mostly ranging from -3% to 3%) are caused by microporosities which would cause systematic underestimation of 2% and/or by macroporosities causing underestimation or overestimation in different cases. Adobe Photoshop could be used to quantify rock textural components and porosities. This method has been tested to be precise and accurate. It is time saving compared with usual methods.

  1. Precision Time-series Photometry in the Thermal Infrared with a “Wall-eyed” Pointing Mode at the Large Binocular Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Eckhart; Hinz, Phil; Skemer, Andrew; Hill, John; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Vaz, Amali

    2018-01-01

    Time-series photometry taken from ground-based facilities is improved with the use of comparison stars due to the short timescales of atmospheric-induced variability. However, the sky is bright in the thermal infrared (3-5 μm), and the correspondingly small fields of view of available detectors make it highly unusual to have a calibration star in the same field as a science target. Here, we present a new method of obtaining differential photometry by simultaneously imaging a science target and a calibrator star, separated by ≲2 amin, onto a 10 × 10 asec2 field-of-view detector. We do this by taking advantage of the Large Binocular Telescope’s (LBT) unique binocular design to point the two co-mounted telescopes apart and simultaneously obtain both targets in three sets of observations. Results indicate that the achievable scatter in L S -band ({λ }c=3.3 μm) is at the percent level for bright targets and possibly better with heavier sampling and characterization of the systematics.

  2. Fiber Scrambling for High Precision Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Zachary; Spronck, J. F. P.; Fischer, D.

    2011-05-01

    The detection of Earth-like exoplanets with the radial velocity method requires extreme Doppler precision and long-term stability in order to measure tiny reflex velocities in the host star. Recent planet searches have led to the detection of so called "super-Earths” (up to a few Earth masses) that induce radial velocity changes of about 1 m/s. However, the detection of true Earth analogs requires a precision of 10 cm/s. One of the largest factors limiting Doppler precision is variation in the Point Spread Function (PSF) from observation to observation due to changes in the illumination of the slit and spectrograph optics. Thus, this stability has become a focus of current instrumentation work. Fiber optics have been used since the 1980's to couple telescopes to high-precision spectrographs, initially for simpler mechanical design and control. However, fiber optics are also naturally efficient scramblers. Scrambling refers to a fiber's ability to produce an output beam independent of input. Our research is focused on characterizing the scrambling properties of several types of fibers, including circular, square and octagonal fibers. By measuring the intensity distribution after the fiber as a function of input beam position, we can simulate guiding errors that occur at an observatory. Through this, we can determine which fibers produce the most uniform outputs for the severest guiding errors, improving the PSF and allowing sub-m/s precision. However, extensive testing of fibers of supposedly identical core diameter, length and shape from the same manufacturer has revealed the "personality” of individual fibers. Personality describes differing intensity patterns for supposedly duplicate fibers illuminated identically. Here, we present our results on scrambling characterization as a function of fiber type, while studying individual fiber personality.

  3. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  4. Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth

    2017-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to Precision Agriculture (PA) with a short historic pathway of the development and the status of current available technologies. Part of this description also provides an overview of some of the economic barriers and technical obstacles when applying variable......-steering and Controlled Traffic Systems. Finally, the chapter looks into new developments of autonomous systems with an example of robotic seeding, farm information management in precision agriculture and different methods on the adoption of PA. The last chapter focuses on how PA can fulfil the current policy trends...

  5. A Unified Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links over Gamma-Gamma Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2013-11-13

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the higher-order amount of fading (AF), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity, all in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions except for the higher-order AF that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer\\'s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer\\'s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  6. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  7. Design and Analysis of Precise Pointing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young K.

    2000-01-01

    The mathematical models of Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g- LIMIT) dynamics/control system, which include six degrees of freedom (DOF) equations of motion, mathematical models of position sensors, accelerometers and actuators, and acceleration and position controller, were developed using MATLAB and TREETOPS simulations. Optimal control parameters of G-LIMIT control system were determined through sensitivity studies and its performance were evaluated with the TREETOPS model of G-LIMIT dynamics and control system. The functional operation and performance of the Tektronix DTM920 digital thermometer were studied and the inputs to the crew procedures and training of the DTM920 were documented.

  8. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  9. On the Performance of Free-Space Optical Systems over Generalized Atmospheric Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-03-01

    Generalized fading has been an imminent part and parcel of wireless communications. It not only characterizes the wireless channel appropriately but also allows its utilization for further performance analysis of various types of wireless communication systems. Under the umbrella of generalized fading channels, a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link over the Malaga (M) atmospheric turbulence channel that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. indirect modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection) is presented. Specifically, unified exact closed-form expressions for the probability density function (PDF), the cumulative distribution function (CDF), the moment generating function (MGF), and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system are presented, all in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Then capitalizing on these unified results, unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems are offered, such as, the outage probability (OP), the higher-order amount of fading (AF), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where closed-form lower bound results are presented), all in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions except for the higher-order AF that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, the asymptotic results are derived for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer\\'s G function. Furthermore, new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes are derived in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are

  10. Defining Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy from a Continuous Measure of Optic Nerve Damage - The Optimal Cut-off Point for Risk-factor Analysis in Population-based Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Diseases characterized by a continuous trait can be defined by setting a cut-off point for the disease measure in question, accepting some misclassification. The 97.5th percentile is commonly used as a cut-off point. However, it is unclear whether this percentile is the optimal cut-off

  11. Precision genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram

    2014-01-01

    of glycobiology, primarily due to their low efficiencies, with resultant failure to impose substantial phenotypic consequences upon the final glycosylation products. Here, we review novel nuclease-based precision genome editing techniques enabling efficient and stable gene editing, including gene disruption......Precise and stable gene editing in mammalian cell lines has until recently been hampered by the lack of efficient targeting methods. While different gene silencing strategies have had tremendous impact on many biological fields, they have generally not been applied with wide success in the field...... by introducing single or double-stranded breaks at a defined genomic sequence. We here compare and contrast the different techniques and summarize their current applications, highlighting cases from the field of glycobiology as well as pointing to future opportunities. The emerging potential of precision gene...

  12. Quenching Mo optical losses in CIGS solar cells by a point contacted dual-layer dielectric spacer : A 3-D optical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei, N.; Isabella, O.; Vroon, Zeger; Zeman, M.

    2018-01-01

    A 3-D optical modelling was calibrated to calculate the light absorption and the total reflection of fabricated CIGS solar cells. Absorption losses at molybdenum (Mo) / CIGS interface were explained in terms of plasmonic waves. To quench these losses, we assumed the insertion of a lossless

  13. Precise models deserve precise measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E. Hilbig

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH --- which predicts non-compensatory reliance on recognition in comparative judgments --- has attracted much research and some disagreement, at times. Most studies have dealt with whether or under which conditions the RH is truly used in paired-comparisons. However, even though the RH is a precise descriptive model, there has been less attention concerning the precision of the methods applied to measure RH-use. In the current work, I provide an overview of different measures of RH-use tailored to the paradigm of natural recognition which has emerged as a preferred way of studying the RH. The measures are compared with respect to different criteria --- with particular emphasis on how well they uncover true use of the RH. To this end, both simulations and a re-analysis of empirical data are presented. The results indicate that the adherence rate --- which has been pervasively applied to measure RH-use --- is a severely biased measure. As an alternative, a recently developed formal measurement model emerges as the recommended candidate for assessment of RH-use.

  14. Precision Polarization of Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Couture, Aaron; Crawford, Christopher; Chupp, Tim; Danagoulian, Areg; Estes, Mary; Hona, Binita; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andi; Penttila, Seppo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Determining polarization of a cold neutron beam to high precision is required for the next generation neutron decay correlation experiments at the SNS, such as the proposed abBA and PANDA experiments. Precision polarimetry measurements were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the goal of determining the beam polarization to the level of 10-3 or better. The cold neutrons from FP12 were polarized using optically polarized ^3He gas as a spin filter, which has a highly spin-dependent absorption cross section. A second ^ 3He spin filter was used to analyze the neutron polarization after passing through a resonant RF spin rotator. A discussion of the experiment and results will be given.

  15. Experimental and statistical models of impact determination of the electron beam parameters on surface layers properties of optical elements in precision instruments building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Yatsenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern devices with optical elements for measurement and thermal control of different physical nature objects subjected to intense external thermal actions. To prevent destruction of optical elements the electron beam methods of work surfaces finishing at the stage of manufacture has practical significance. These methods can improve the properties of the element surface layers and thus make them more resistant to external thermal and mechanical action. Aim: The aim is to determine the optimal ranges of parameters of the electron beam and the development of experimental and statistical models that will automatically generate database with improved properties of the surface layers of optical elements in real time mode after previous electron beam treatment. Materials and Methods: To study the influence of parameters of the electron beam on the properties of the surface layers of the optical elements used plates of optical glass (K8, K108, etc. and ceramics (KO1, KO2, etc.. The strip electron beam has the following characteristics: density of heat flow Fn = 5∙10^6…9∙10^8 W/m2 and rate of displacement V = 0…0.1 m/s. Determination of the surface layers properties of the optical elements before and after electron beam treatment was carried out by known methods of physical and chemical analysis. Results: It was established that under the influence of the electron beam on the surface of the optical element there is visible clearing of various impurities take place, various micro-defects that remain on it after standard processing methods (mechanical, chemical, etc. remove and also its smoothness significantly increases, i.e. height of residual asperities on the surface is reduced. It was also found that the processing of optical glass elements by electron beam their surface layers change their structure, which is close to the quartz. It is shown that the surface of the preprocessed electron beam elements able to withstand the critical value of

  16. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  17. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  18. Novel wavelength division multiplex-radio over fiber-passive optical network architecture for multiple access points based on multitone generation and triple sextupling frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangming; Guo, Banghong; Liu, Songhao; Huang, Xuguang

    2014-01-01

    An innovative wavelength division multiplex-radio over fiber-passive optical network architecture for multiple access points (AP) based on multitone generation and triple sextupling frequency is proposed and demonstrated. A dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM) is utilized to realize the multitone generation. Even sidebands are suppressed to make the adjacent frequency separation twice the frequency of the local oscillator by adjusting the modulation voltage of the DD-MZM. Due to adopting three fiber Bragg gratings to reflect the unmodulated sidebands for uplink communications source free at optical network unit (ONU), is achieved. The system can support at least three APs at one ONU simultaneously with a 30 km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission and 5 Gb/s data rate both for uplink and downlink communications. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show the architecture has an excellent performance and will be a promising candidate in future hybrid access networks.

  19. Easy-DHPSF open-source software for three-dimensional localization of single molecules with precision beyond the optical diffraction limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Matthew D; von Diezmann, Alexander R S; Moerner, W E

    2013-02-25

    Automated processing of double-helix (DH) microscope images of single molecules (SMs) streamlines the protocol required to obtain super-resolved three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of ultrastructures in biological samples by single-molecule active control microscopy. Here, we present a suite of MATLAB subroutines, bundled with an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI), that facilitates 3D localization of single emitters (e.g. SMs, fluorescent beads, or quantum dots) with precisions of tens of nanometers in multi-frame movies acquired using a wide-field DH epifluorescence microscope. The algorithmic approach is based upon template matching for SM recognition and least-squares fitting for 3D position measurement, both of which are computationally expedient and precise. Overlapping images of SMs are ignored, and the precision of least-squares fitting is not as high as maximum likelihood-based methods. However, once calibrated, the algorithm can fit 15-30 molecules per second on a 3 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo workstation, thereby producing a 3D super-resolution reconstruction of 100,000 molecules over a 20×20×2 μm field of view (processing 128×128 pixels × 20000 frames) in 75 min.

  20. What is precision medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Inke R; Fuchs, Oliver; Hansen, Gesine; von Mutius, Erika; Kopp, Matthias V

    2017-10-01

    The term "precision medicine" has become very popular over recent years, fuelled by scientific as well as political perspectives. Despite its popularity, its exact meaning, and how it is different from other popular terms such as "stratified medicine", "targeted therapy" or "deep phenotyping" remains unclear. Commonly applied definitions focus on the stratification of patients, sometimes referred to as a novel taxonomy, and this is derived using large-scale data including clinical, lifestyle, genetic and further biomarker information, thus going beyond the classical "signs-and-symptoms" approach.While these aspects are relevant, this description leaves open a number of questions. For example, when does precision medicine begin? In which way does the stratification of patients translate into better healthcare? And can precision medicine be viewed as the end-point of a novel stratification of patients, as implied, or is it rather a greater whole?To clarify this, the aim of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive definition that focuses on precision medicine as a process. It will be shown that this proposed framework incorporates the derivation of novel taxonomies and their role in healthcare as part of the cycle, but also covers related terms. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  1. Development of Optical System for ARGO-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakyoung Nah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ARGO-M is a satellite laser ranging (SLR system developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute with the consideration of mobility and daytime and nighttime satellite observation. The ARGO-M optical system consists of 40 cm receiving telescope, 10 cm transmitting telescope, and detecting optics. For the development of ARGO-M optical system, the structural analysis was performed with regard to the optics and optomechanics design and the optical components. To ensure the optical performance, the quality was tested at the level of parts using the laser interferometer and ultra-high-precision measuring instruments. The assembly and alignment of ARGO-M optical system were conducted at an auto-collimation facility. As the transmission and reception are separated in the ARGO-M optical system, the pointing alignment between the transmitting telescope and receiving telescope is critical for precise target pointing. Thus, the alignment using the ground target and the radiant point observation of transmitting laser beam was carried out, and the lines of sight for the two telescopes were aligned within the required pointing precision. This paper describes the design, structural analysis, manufacture and assembly of parts, and entire process related with the alignment for the ARGO-M optical system.

  2. Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, X.; Vahala, K.; Li, J.; Diddams, S.; Ycas, G.; Plavchan, P.; Leifer, S.; Sandhu, J.; Vasisht, G.; Chen, P.; Gao, P.; Gagne, J.; Furlan, E.; Bottom, M.; Martin, E. C.; Fitzgerald, M. P.; Doppmann, G.; Beichman, C.

    2016-01-01

    An important technique for discovering and characterizing planets beyond our solar system relies upon measurement of weak Doppler shifts in the spectra of host stars induced by the influence of orbiting planets. A recent advance has been the introduction of optical frequency combs as frequency references. Frequency combs produce a series of equally spaced reference frequencies and they offer extreme accuracy and spectral grasp that can potentially revolutionize exoplanet detection. Here we demonstrate a laser frequency comb using an alternate comb generation method based on electro-optical modulation, with the comb centre wavelength stabilized to a molecular or atomic reference. In contrast to mode-locked combs, the line spacing is readily resolvable using typical astronomical grating spectrographs. Built using commercial off-the-shelf components, the instrument is relatively simple and reliable. Proof of concept experiments operated at near-infrared wavelengths were carried out at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Keck-II telescope. PMID:26813804

  3. Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, X; Vahala, K; Li, J; Diddams, S; Ycas, G; Plavchan, P; Leifer, S; Sandhu, J; Vasisht, G; Chen, P; Gao, P; Gagne, J; Furlan, E; Bottom, M; Martin, E C; Fitzgerald, M P; Doppmann, G; Beichman, C

    2016-01-27

    An important technique for discovering and characterizing planets beyond our solar system relies upon measurement of weak Doppler shifts in the spectra of host stars induced by the influence of orbiting planets. A recent advance has been the introduction of optical frequency combs as frequency references. Frequency combs produce a series of equally spaced reference frequencies and they offer extreme accuracy and spectral grasp that can potentially revolutionize exoplanet detection. Here we demonstrate a laser frequency comb using an alternate comb generation method based on electro-optical modulation, with the comb centre wavelength stabilized to a molecular or atomic reference. In contrast to mode-locked combs, the line spacing is readily resolvable using typical astronomical grating spectrographs. Built using commercial off-the-shelf components, the instrument is relatively simple and reliable. Proof of concept experiments operated at near-infrared wavelengths were carried out at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Keck-II telescope.

  4. Acquisition, tracking, and pointing III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 27-29, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrinathan, Sankaran

    1989-09-01

    The present conference on components and sensors, image processing algorithms, and astronomical applications for pointing and tracking gives attention to a CCD daylight stellar sensor, an optical coordinate transfer assembly for precision boresight applications, a grating carousel mechanism for the HST high resolution spectrograph, an IR antiship-seeker simulator, line-of-sight stabilization using image motion compensation, the effects of illumination beam jitter on photodetection statistics, and the enhancement of armored vehicle fire control performance. Also discussed are active angular tracking with a photon-bucket, moving target estimation with autodyne detection, multiresolution object detection and segmentation, a beacon tracker and point-ahead system for optical communications, a precision-pointing mechanism for intersatellite optical communication, high-precision lunar tracking for laser ranging, multimirror beam control, and fundamental limits in the resolution of double-star targets.

  5. Simultaneous preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples by cloud point extraction using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol and their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edson Luiz, E-mail: edsonqmc@hotmail.com [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario, 303, CP 96, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Santos Roldan, Paulo dos [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Campus A.C. Simoes, Av. Lourival Melo Mota, Tabuleiro do Martins, CEP: 57072-970 AL (Brazil); Gine, Maria Fernanda [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario, 303, CP 96, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    A procedure for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples, based on cloud point extraction (CPE) as a prior step to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), has been developed. The analytes reacted with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) at pH 5 to form hydrophobic chelates, which were separated and preconcentrated in a surfactant-rich phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, buffer amount, surfactant concentration, temperature, kinetics of complexation reaction, and incubation time were optimized and their respective values were 5, 0.6 mmol L{sup -1}, 0.3 mL, 0.15% (w/v), 50 deg. C, 40 min, and 10 min for 15 mL of preconcentrated solution. The method presented precision (R.S.D.) between 1.3% and 2.6% (n = 9). The concentration factors with and without dilution of the surfactant-rich phase for the analytes ranged from 9.4 to 10.1 and from 94.0 to 100.1, respectively. The limits of detection (L.O.D.) obtained for copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel were 1.2, 1.1, 1.0, and 6.3 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was evaluated through recovery experiments on aqueous samples.

  6. Clinical trial of pin-point photodynamic therapy using an optic fiber for the improvement of enlarged facial pores: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangeun; Cho, Kyeong-Hun

    2009-01-01

    There are few publications on the treatment options for facial pore size reduction. A focused therapy is needed. To evaluate the efficacy of selective photodynamic therapy (PDT) using an optic fiber for the size reduction of large facial pores. A series of five patients (skin phototypes IV-V) with large facial pores received two successive weekly treatments with an 810-nm diode laser using a fine optic fiber after indocyanine green (ICG) was applied selectively to enlarged pores. Patients were evaluated using digital photography at each treatment session, and at 3 months post-operation. Clinical assessment scores were determined at each treatment session and follow-up visit. Patient satisfaction surveys were obtained at the end of the study. All five participants who completed the 3-month follow-up gave a subjective assessment of reduction of facial pore size. Modest to excellent improvement was achieved. This study demonstrates that treatment with pin-point PDT using an optic fiber is a well-tolerated and effective regimen for the reduction of facial pore size.

  7. X-ray beam-shaping via deformable mirrors: surface profile and point spread function computation for Gaussian beams using physical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, D

    2018-01-01

    X-ray mirrors with high focusing performances are commonly used in different sectors of science, such as X-ray astronomy, medical imaging and synchrotron/free-electron laser beamlines. While deformations of the mirror profile may cause degradation of the focus sharpness, a deliberate deformation of the mirror can be made to endow the focus with a desired size and distribution, via piezo actuators. The resulting profile can be characterized with suitable metrology tools and correlated with the expected optical quality via a wavefront propagation code or, sometimes, predicted using geometric optics. In the latter case and for the special class of profile deformations with monotonically increasing derivative, i.e. concave upwards, the point spread function (PSF) can even be predicted analytically. Moreover, under these assumptions, the relation can also be reversed: from the desired PSF the required profile deformation can be computed analytically, avoiding the use of trial-and-error search codes. However, the computation has been so far limited to geometric optics, which entailed some limitations: for example, mirror diffraction effects and the size of the coherent X-ray source were not considered. In this paper, the beam-shaping formalism in the framework of physical optics is reviewed, in the limit of small light wavelengths and in the case of Gaussian intensity wavefronts. Some examples of shaped profiles are also shown, aiming at turning a Gaussian intensity distribution into a top-hat one, and checks of the shaping performances computing the at-wavelength PSF by means of the WISE code are made.

  8. Dimension reduction technique using a multilayered descriptor for high-precision classification of ovarian cancer tissue using optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Catherine; Madore, Wendy-Julie; De Montigny, Etienne; Trudel, Dominique; Boudoux, Caroline; Godbout, Nicolas; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Rahimi, Kurosh; Leblond, Frédéric

    2017-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) yields microscopic volumetric images representing tissue structures based on the contrast provided by elastic light scattering. Multipatient studies using OCT for detection of tissue abnormalities can lead to large datasets making quantitative and unbiased assessment of classification algorithms performance difficult without the availability of automated analytical schemes. We present a mathematical descriptor reducing the dimensionality of a classifier's input data, while preserving essential volumetric features from reconstructed three-dimensional optical volumes. This descriptor is used as the input of classification algorithms allowing a detailed exploration of the features space leading to optimal and reliable classification models based on support vector machine techniques. Using imaging dataset of paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 38 ovarian cancer patients, we report accuracies for cancer detection [Formula: see text] for binary classification between healthy fallopian tube and ovarian samples containing cancer cells. Furthermore, multiples classes of statistical models are presented demonstrating [Formula: see text] accuracy for the detection of high-grade serous, endometroid, and clear cells cancers. The classification approach reduces the computational complexity and needed resources to achieve highly accurate classification, making it possible to contemplate other applications, including intraoperative surgical guidance, as well as other depth sectioning techniques for fresh tissue imaging.

  9. Investigating Water Movement Within and Near Wells Using Active Point Heating and Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Selker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few methods to provide high-resolution in-situ characterization of flow in aquifers and reservoirs. We present a method that has the potential to quantify lateral and vertical (magnitude and direction components of flow with spatial resolution of about one meter and temporal resolution of about one day. A fiber optic distributed temperature sensor is used with a novel heating system. Temperatures before heating may be used to evaluate background geothermal gradient and vertical profile of thermal diffusivity. The innovation presented is the use of variable energy application along the well, in this case concentrated heating at equally-spaced (2 m localized areas (0.5 m. Relative to uniform warming this offers greater opportunity to estimate water movement, reduces required heating power, and increases practical length that can be heated. Numerical simulations are presented which illustrate expected behaviors. We estimate relative advection rates near the well using the times at which various locations diverge from a heating trajectory expected for pure conduction in the absence of advection. The concept is demonstrated in a grouted 600 m borehole with 300 heated patches, though evidence of vertical water movement was not seen.

  10. Precision measurement of single atoms strongly coupled to the higher-order transverse modes of a high-finesse optical cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jinjin; Li, Wenfang; Wen, Ruijuan; Li, Gang; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Tiancai [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2013-08-19

    We have experimentally demonstrated the strong coupling between single atoms and the higher-order Hermite-Gaussian transverse modes in a high-finesse optical microcavity. Compared to the usual low-order symmetric transverse modes, multiple lobes and the asymmetric spatial pattern of the titled modes provide more information about the motion of single atoms in the cavity. The motional information can be extracted from the measured transmission spectra, which includes the velocities and the positions of the atoms in vertical and off-axis directions. The scheme has great potential in time-resolved atom-cavity microscopy and in tracking the three-dimensional single atom trajectory in real time.

  11. On the Performance Analysis of Hybrid ARQ With Incremental Redundancy and With Code Combining Over Free-Space Optical Channels With Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2014-07-16

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) and with code combining (CC) from an information-theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we introduce new closed-form expressions for the probability density function, the cumulative distribution function, the moment generating function, and the moments of an FSO link modeled by the Gamma fading channel subject to pointing errors and using intensity modulation with direct detection technique at the receiver. Based on these formulas, we derive exact results for the average bit error rate and the capacity in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions. Moreover, we present asymptotic expressions by utilizing the Meijer\\'s G function expansion and using the moments method, too, for the ergodic capacity approximations. Then, we provide novel analytical expressions for the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate for HARQ with IR, assuming a maximum number of rounds for the HARQ protocol. Besides, we offer asymptotic expressions for these results in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we compare the performance of HARQ with IR and HARQ with CC. Our analysis demonstrates that HARQ with IR outperforms HARQ with CC.

  12. First principles predictions of magneto-optical data for semiconductor point defect identification: the case of divacancy defects in 4H–SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Joel; Ivády, Viktor; Armiento, Rickard; Son, N. T.; Gali, Adam; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2018-02-01

    Study and design of magneto-optically active single point defects in semiconductors are rapidly growing fields due to their potential in quantum bit (qubit) and single photon emitter applications. Detailed understanding of the properties of candidate defects is essential for these applications, and requires the identification of the defects microscopic configuration and electronic structure. In multi-component semiconductors point defects often exhibit several non-equivalent configurations of similar but different characteristics. The most relevant example of such point defect is the divacancy in silicon carbide, where some of the non-equivalent configurations implement room temperature qubits. Here, we identify four different configurations of the divacancy in 4H–SiC via the comparison of experimental measurements and results of first-principle calculations. In order to accomplish this challenging task, we carry out an exhaustive numerical accuracy investigation of zero-phonon line and hyperfine coupling parameter calculations. Based on these results, we discuss the possibility of systematic quantum bit search.

  13. High precision relative position sensing system for formation flying spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test an optical sensing system that provides high precision relative position sensing for formation flying spacecraft.  A high precision...

  14. Precise measurements of spatial density distributions of damages introduced into GaP by MeV-electron beam irradiations based on its optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Nakanishi, Y.; Wada, T.

    1985-01-01

    GaP crystals were irradiated uniformly on their flat surfaces by 10 MeV-electrons. The 'below-gap' absorption coefficient Δαsub(b)(hν) and the normalized white-light optical density D/d in these samples increased linearly with a dose phi as Δαsub(b)(2.0) = 3.3 x 10 -16 phi and D/d = 1.42 x 10 -16 phi. The free electron density n in the conduction band estimated from the X 1 -> X 3 absorption band decreased with phi, and as the decrease in the free electron density Δn is equivalent to the density of introduced defects N, it could be expressed that N = Δn = Rsub(c)phi where the value of the carrier removal rate Rsub(c) was 5.8 cm -1 for the S-doped sample. These expressions lead to the basic relation that N is proportional to D/d as expressed in N = 4.1 x 10 16 D/d. Two-dimensional distributions of D/d were measured in the samples irradiated by collimated electron beams at 10 and 16 MeV by using a microdensitometer, and they were converted into the two-dimensional distributions of damage density according to the linear relation of N-D/d. Damages gradually spread laterally with increasing depth at first and then shrink. (author)

  15. Prior surgical intervention and tumor size impact clinical outcome after precision radiotherapy for the treatment of optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeberg, Sebastian; Welzel, Thomas; Rieken, Stefan; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed our long-term experience with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with meningioma of the optic nerve sheath (ONSM). Between January 1991 and January 2010, 40 patients with ONSM were treated using FSRT. Of these, 19 patients received radiotherapy as primary treatment, and 21 patients were treated after surgical resection. The median target volume was 9.2 ml, median total dose was 54 Gy in median single fractions of 1,8 Gy. Local progression-free survival was 100%. Median survival after FSRT was 60 months (range 4-228 months). In all patients overall toleration of FSRT was very good. Acute toxicity was mild. Prior to RT, 29 patients complained about any kind of visual impairment including visual field deficits, diplopia or amaurosis. Prior surgical resection was identified as a negative prognostic factor for visual outcome, whereas patients with larger tumor volumes demonstrated a higher number of patients with improvement of pre-existing visual deficits. Long-term outcome after FSRT for ONSM shows improved vision in patients not treated surgically prior to RT; moreover, the best improvement of visual deficits are observed in patients with larger target volumes. The absence of tumor recurrences supports that FSRT is a strong alternative to surgical resection especially in small tumors without extensive compression of normal tissue structures

  16. Hybrid optical navigation by crater detection for lunar pin-point landing: trajectories from helicopter flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Guilherme F.; Maass, Bolko; Krüger, Hans; Theil, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate autonomous navigation capabilities are essential for future lunar robotic landing missions with a pin-point landing requirement, since in the absence of direct line of sight to ground control during critical approach and landing phases, or when facing long signal delays the herein before mentioned capability is needed to establish a guidance solution to reach the landing site reliably. This paper focuses on the processing and evaluation of data collected from flight tests that consisted of scaled descent scenarios where the unmanned helicopter of approximately 85 kg approached a landing site from altitudes of 50 m down to 1 m for a downrange distance of 200 m. Printed crater targets were distributed along the ground track and their detection provided earth-fixed measurements. The Crater Navigation (CNav) algorithm used to detect and match the crater targets is an unmodified method used for real lunar imagery. We analyze the absolute position and attitude solutions of CNav obtained and recorded during these flight tests, and investigate the attainable quality of vehicle pose estimation using both CNav and measurements from a tactical-grade inertial measurement unit. The navigation filter proposed for this end corrects and calibrates the high-rate inertial propagation with the less frequent crater navigation fixes through a closed-loop, loosely coupled hybrid setup. Finally, the attainable accuracy of the fused solution is evaluated by comparison with the on-board ground-truth solution of a dual-antenna high-grade GNSS receiver. It is shown that the CNav is an enabler for building autonomous navigation systems with high quality and suitability for exploration mission scenarios.

  17. Investigation on cytoskeleton dynamics for no-adherent cells subjected to point-like stimuli by digital holographic microscopy and holographic optical trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccio, Lisa; Merola, Francesco; Memmolo, Pasquale; Mugnano, Martina; Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo A.; Ferraro, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    Guiding, controlling and studying cellular functions are challenging themes in the biomedical field, as they are fundamental prerequisites for new therapeutic strategies from tissue regeneration to controlled drug delivery. In recent years, multidisciplinary studies in nanotechnology offer new tools to investigate important biophysical phenomena in response to the local physical characteristics of the extracellular environment, some examples are the mechanisms of cell adhesion, migration, communication and differentiation. Indeed for reproducing the features of the extracellular matrix in vitro, it is essential to develop active devices that evoke as much as possible the natural cellular environment. Our investigation is in the framework of studying and clarifying the biophysical mechanisms of the interaction between cells and the microenvironment in which they exist. We implement an optical tweezers setup to investigate cell material interaction and we use Digital Holography as non-invasive imaging technique in microscopy. We exploit Holographic Optical Tweezers arrangement in order to trap and manage functionalized micrometric latex beads to induce mechanical deformation in suspended cells. A lot of papers in literature examine the dynamics of the cytoskeleton when cells adhere on substrates and nowadays well established cell models are based on such research activities. Actually, the natural cell environment is made of a complex extracellular matrix and the single cell behavior is due to intricate interactions with the environment and are strongly correlated to the cell-cell interactions. Our investigation is devoted to understand the inner cell mechanism when it is mechanically stressed by point-like stimulus without the substrate influence.

  18. Precision production: enabling deterministic throughput for precision aspheres with MRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Chris; Entezarian, Navid; Dumas, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Aspherical lenses offer advantages over spherical optics by improving image quality or reducing the number of elements necessary in an optical system. Aspheres are no longer being used exclusively by high-end optical systems but are now replacing spherical optics in many applications. The need for a method of production-manufacturing of precision aspheres has emerged and is part of the reason that the optics industry is shifting away from artisan-based techniques towards more deterministic methods. Not only does Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) empower deterministic figure correction for the most demanding aspheres but it also enables deterministic and efficient throughput for series production of aspheres. The Q-flex MRF platform is designed to support batch production in a simple and user friendly manner. Thorlabs routinely utilizes the advancements of this platform and has provided results from using MRF to finish a batch of aspheres as a case study. We have developed an analysis notebook to evaluate necessary specifications for implementing quality control metrics. MRF brings confidence to optical manufacturing by ensuring high throughput for batch processing of aspheres.

  19. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Johnathan Lee [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  20. Precision mechatronics based on high-precision measuring and positioning systems and machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerd; Manske, Eberhard; Hausotte, Tino; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Dorozhovets, Natalja; Hofmann, Norbert

    2007-06-01

    Precision mechatronics is defined in the paper as the science and engineering of a new generation of high precision systems and machines. Nanomeasuring and nanopositioning engineering represents important fields of precision mechatronics. The nanometrology is described as the today's limit of the precision engineering. The problem, how to design nanopositioning machines with uncertainties as small as possible will be discussed. The integration of several optical and tactile nanoprobes makes the 3D-nanopositioning machine suitable for various tasks, such as long range scanning probe microscopy, mask and wafer inspection, nanotribology, nanoindentation, free form surface measurement as well as measurement of microoptics, precision molds, microgears, ring gauges and small holes.

  1. Enhancing the Usability of an Optical Reader System to Support Point-of-Care Rapid Diagnostic Testing: An Iterative Design Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Jess; O'Dell, Dakota; Murnane, Elizabeth L; Lu, Zhengda; Erickson, David; Gay, Geri

    2017-11-21

    In today's health care environment, increasing costs and inadequate medical resources have created a worldwide need for more affordable diagnostic tools that are also portable, fast, and easy to use. To address this issue, numerous research and commercial efforts have focused on developing rapid diagnostic technologies; however, the efficacy of existing systems has been hindered by usability problems or high production costs, making them infeasible for deployment in at-home, point-of-care (POC), or resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to create a low-cost optical reader system that integrates with any smart device and accepts any type of rapid diagnostic test strip to provide fast and accurate data collection, sample analysis, and diagnostic result reporting. An iterative design methodology was employed by a multidisciplinary research team to engineer three versions of a portable diagnostic testing device that were evaluated for usability and overall user receptivity. Repeated design critiques and usability studies identified a number of system requirements and considerations (eg, software compatibility, biomatter contamination, and physical footprint) that we worked to incrementally incorporate into successive system variants. Our final design phase culminated in the development of Tidbit, a reader that is compatible with any Wi-Fi-enabled device and test strip format. The Tidbit includes various features that support intuitive operation, including a straightforward test strip insertion point, external indicator lights, concealed electronic components, and an asymmetric shape, which inherently signals correct device orientation. Usability testing of the Tidbit indicates high usability for potential user communities. This study presents the design process, specification, and user reception of the Tidbit, an inexpensive, easy-to-use, portable optical reader for fast, accurate quantification of rapid diagnostic test results. Usability testing suggests

  2. Determination of gold nanoparticles in environmental water samples by second-order optical scattering using dithiotreitol-functionalized CdS quantum dots after cloud point extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandyla, Spyridoula P.; Tsogas, George Z.; Vlessidis, Athanasios G.; Giokas, Dimosthenis L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method has been developed to determine gold nanoparticles in water samples. • Extraction was achieved by cloud point extraction. • A nano-hybrid assembly between AuNPs and dithiol-coated quantum dots was formulated. • Detection was accomplished at pico-molar levels by second-order light scattering. • The method was selective against ionic gold and other nanoparticle species. - Abstract: This work presents a new method for the sensitive and selective determination of gold nanoparticles in water samples. The method combines a sample preparation and enrichment step based on cloud point extraction with a new detection motif that relies on the optical incoherent light scattering of a nano-hybrid assembly that is formed by hydrogen bond interactions between gold nanoparticles and dithiotreitol-functionalized CdS quantum dots. The experimental parameters affecting the extraction and detection of gold nanoparticles were optimized and evaluated to the analysis of gold nanoparticles of variable size and surface coating. The selectivity of the method against gold ions and other nanoparticle species was also evaluated under different conditions reminiscent to those usually found in natural water samples. The developed method was applied to the analysis of gold nanoparticles in natural waters and wastewater with satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity (detection limit at the low pmol L −1 levels), recoveries (>80%) and reproducibility (<9%). Compared to other methods employing molecular spectrometry for metal nanoparticle analysis, the developed method offers improved sensitivity and it is easy-to-operate thus providing an additional tool for the monitoring and the assessment of nanoparticles toxicity and hazards in the environment.

  3. Determination of gold nanoparticles in environmental water samples by second-order optical scattering using dithiotreitol-functionalized CdS quantum dots after cloud point extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandyla, Spyridoula P.; Tsogas, George Z.; Vlessidis, Athanasios G.; Giokas, Dimosthenis L., E-mail: dgiokas@cc.uoi.gr

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • A new method has been developed to determine gold nanoparticles in water samples. • Extraction was achieved by cloud point extraction. • A nano-hybrid assembly between AuNPs and dithiol-coated quantum dots was formulated. • Detection was accomplished at pico-molar levels by second-order light scattering. • The method was selective against ionic gold and other nanoparticle species. - Abstract: This work presents a new method for the sensitive and selective determination of gold nanoparticles in water samples. The method combines a sample preparation and enrichment step based on cloud point extraction with a new detection motif that relies on the optical incoherent light scattering of a nano-hybrid assembly that is formed by hydrogen bond interactions between gold nanoparticles and dithiotreitol-functionalized CdS quantum dots. The experimental parameters affecting the extraction and detection of gold nanoparticles were optimized and evaluated to the analysis of gold nanoparticles of variable size and surface coating. The selectivity of the method against gold ions and other nanoparticle species was also evaluated under different conditions reminiscent to those usually found in natural water samples. The developed method was applied to the analysis of gold nanoparticles in natural waters and wastewater with satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity (detection limit at the low pmol L{sup −1} levels), recoveries (>80%) and reproducibility (<9%). Compared to other methods employing molecular spectrometry for metal nanoparticle analysis, the developed method offers improved sensitivity and it is easy-to-operate thus providing an additional tool for the monitoring and the assessment of nanoparticles toxicity and hazards in the environment.

  4. Determination of gold nanoparticles in environmental water samples by second-order optical scattering using dithiotreitol-functionalized CdS quantum dots after cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandyla, Spyridoula P; Tsogas, George Z; Vlessidis, Athanasios G; Giokas, Dimosthenis L

    2017-02-05

    This work presents a new method for the sensitive and selective determination of gold nanoparticles in water samples. The method combines a sample preparation and enrichment step based on cloud point extraction with a new detection motif that relies on the optical incoherent light scattering of a nano-hybrid assembly that is formed by hydrogen bond interactions between gold nanoparticles and dithiotreitol-functionalized CdS quantum dots. The experimental parameters affecting the extraction and detection of gold nanoparticles were optimized and evaluated to the analysis of gold nanoparticles of variable size and surface coating. The selectivity of the method against gold ions and other nanoparticle species was also evaluated under different conditions reminiscent to those usually found in natural water samples. The developed method was applied to the analysis of gold nanoparticles in natural waters and wastewater with satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity (detection limit at the low pmolL -1 levels), recoveries (>80%) and reproducibility (metal nanoparticle analysis, the developed method offers improved sensitivity and it is easy-to-operate thus providing an additional tool for the monitoring and the assessment of nanoparticles toxicity and hazards in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost- and reliability-oriented aggregation point association in long-term evolution and passive optical network hybrid access infrastructure for smart grid neighborhood area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao; Feng, Lei; Zhou, Fanqin; Wei, Lei; Yu, Peng; Li, Wenjing

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of the smart grid, the data aggregation point (AP) in the neighborhood area network (NAN) is becoming increasingly important for forwarding the information between the home area network and wide area network. Due to limited budget, it is unable to use one-single access technology to meet the ongoing requirements on AP coverage. This paper first introduces the wired and wireless hybrid access network with the integration of long-term evolution (LTE) and passive optical network (PON) system for NAN, which allows a good trade-off among cost, flexibility, and reliability. Then, based on the already existing wireless LTE network, an AP association optimization model is proposed to make the PON serve as many APs as possible, considering both the economic efficiency and network reliability. Moreover, since the features of the constraints and variables of this NP-hard problem, a hybrid intelligent optimization algorithm is proposed, which is achieved by the mixture of the genetic, ant colony and dynamic greedy algorithm. By comparing with other published methods, simulation results verify the performance of the proposed method in improving the AP coverage and the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of convergence.

  6. Investigation on iterative multiuser detection physical layer network coding in two-way relay free-space optical links with turbulences and pointing errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Almaalie, Zina; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Bhatnagar, Manav R; Le-Minh, Hoa; Aslam, Nauman; Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Lee, It Ee

    2016-11-20

    Physical layer network coding (PNC) improves the throughput in wireless networks by enabling two nodes to exchange information using a minimum number of time slots. The PNC technique is proposed for two-way relay channel free space optical (TWR-FSO) communications with the aim of maximizing the utilization of network resources. The multipair TWR-FSO is considered in this paper, where a single antenna on each pair seeks to communicate via a common receiver aperture at the relay. Therefore, chip interleaving is adopted as a technique to separate the different transmitted signals at the relay node to perform PNC mapping. Accordingly, this scheme relies on the iterative multiuser technique for detection of users at the receiver. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed system is examined under the combined influences of atmospheric loss, turbulence-induced channel fading, and pointing errors (PEs). By adopting the joint PNC mapping with interleaving and multiuser detection techniques, the BER results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a significant performance improvement against the degrading effects of turbulences and PEs. It is also demonstrated that a larger number of simultaneous users can be supported with this new scheme in establishing a communication link between multiple pairs of nodes in two time slots, thereby improving the channel capacity.

  7. New optical method for heat flux measurements in stagnation point laminar methane/air flames and hydrogen/methane/air flames using thermographic phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmnefi, Mohamed Salem

    2010-11-24

    In the present study, a new optical method was implemented to study the heat transfer from flat stagnation point flames which can be regarded as one-dimensional in the central part. Premixed methane-air flames and hydrogen-methane-air flames were investigated. The effects of burner-to-plate distance and the fresh gas mixture velocity on heat transfer were examined. Experiments were performed using light induced phosphorescence from thermographic phosphors to study the wall temperatures and heat fluxes of nearly one-dimensional flat premixed flames impinging upward normally on a horizontal water cooled circular flat plate. The investigated flames were stoichiometric, lean and rich laminar methane/air flames with different equivalence ratios of {phi} =1, {phi} = 0.75 and {phi} = 1.25 and stoichiometric laminar hydrogen/methane/air flames. Mixtures of air with 10, 25, 50 and 75 % hydrogen in methane (CH{sub 4}) as well as a pure hydrogen flames at ambient pressure were investigated. The central part of this plate was an alumina ceramic plate coated from both sides with chromium doped alumina (ruby) and excited with a Nd:YAG laser or a green light emitting diode (LED) array to measure the wall temperature from both sides and thus the heat flux rate from the flame. The outlet velocity of the gases was varied from 0.1 m/s to 1.2 m/s. The burner to plate distance ranged from 0.5 to 2 times the burner exit diameter (d = 30 mm).The accuracy of the method was evaluated. The measured heat flux indicate the change of the flame stabilization mechanism from a burner stabilized to a stagnation plate stabilized flame. The results were compared to modeling results of a one dimensional stagnation point flow, with a detailed reaction mechanism. In order to prove the model, also measured gas phase temperatures by OH LIF for a stoichiometric stagnation point flame were discussed. It turns out that the flame stabilization mechanism and with it the heat fluxes change from low to high

  8. High precision tungsten cutting for optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reglero, V.; Velasco, T.; Rodrigo, J.; Gasent, L.J.; Alamo, J.; Chato, R.; Ruiz Urien, I.; Santos, I.; Zarauz, J.; Clemente, G.; Sanz-Tudanca, C.; Lopez, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The results obtained during the INTEGRAL masks development program an implementing the HURA and MURA codes on tungsten plates of different thickness are presented. Hard scientific requirements on pixels size and location tolerances (tenths of microns over large areas -1 m 2 - and thickness from 0.5 mm to 60 mm) required the set up of a dedicated program for testing cutting technologies: laser, photochemical milling, spark machining and electro discharge wire cutting. After a very intensive test campaign the wire cutting process was selected as the optimum technology for code manufacturing . Accuracies achieved an the code cutting fulfill scientific requirements. In fact, they are 5 times better than required. Pixel size and centroids location accuracies of 0.01 mm over a 1 m 2 area have been obtained for the 10,000 pixels on IBIS, 100 pixels on SPI and 24000 pixels on JEM-X masks. Comparative results among different cutting technologies are also discussed. (author)

  9. On-line complexation/cloud point preconcentration for the sensitive determination of dysprosium in urine by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Claudia; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Maria F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700, San Luis (Argentina); Olsina, Roberto A.; Martinez, Luis D. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700, San Luis (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Avda. Rivadavia 1917, CP C1033AAJJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2003-01-01

    An on-line dysprosium preconcentration and determination system based on the hyphenation of cloud point extraction (CPE) to flow injection analysis (FIA) associated with ICP-OES was studied. For the preconcentration of dysprosium, a Dy(III)-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol complex was formed on-line at pH 9.22 in the presence of nonionic micelles of PONPE-7.5. The micellar system containing the complex was thermostated at 30 C in order to promote phase separation, and the surfactant-rich phase was retained in a microcolumn packed with cotton at pH 9.2. The surfactant-rich phase was eluted with 4 mol L{sup -1} nitric acid at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min{sup -1}, directly in the nebulizer of the plasma. An enhancement factor of 50 was obtained for the preconcentration of 50 mL of sample solution. The detection limit value for the preconcentration of 50 mL of aqueous solution of Dy was 0.03 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 2.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}Dy level was 2.2% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for dysprosium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 100 {mu}g L {sup -1}. The method was successfully applied to the determination of dysprosium in urine. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of Laser and Stereo Optical, SAR and InSAR Point Clouds from Air- and Space-Borne Sources in the Retrieval of Forest Inventory Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that many of the future forest mapping applications will be based on three-dimensional (3D point clouds. A comparison study was conducted to verify the explanatory power and information contents of several 3D remote sensing data sources on the retrieval of above ground biomass (AGB, stem volume (VOL, basal area (G, basal-area weighted mean diameter (Dg and Lorey’s mean height (Hg at the plot level, utilizing the following data: synthetic aperture radar (SAR Interferometry, SAR radargrammetry, satellite-imagery having stereo viewing capability, airborne laser scanning (ALS with various densities (0.8–6 pulses/m2 and aerial stereo imagery. Laser scanning is generally known as the primary source providing a 3D point cloud. However, photogrammetric, radargrammetric and interferometric techniques can be used to produce 3D point clouds from space- and air-borne stereo images. Such an image-based point cloud could be utilized in a similar manner as ALS providing that accurate digital terrain model is available. In this study, the performance of these data sources for providing point cloud data was evaluated with 91 sample plots that were established in Evo, southern Finland within a boreal forest zone and surveyed in 2014 for this comparison. The prediction models were built using random forests technique with features derived from each data sources as independent variables and field measurements of forest attributes as response variable. The relative root mean square errors (RMSEs varied in the ranges of 4.6% (0.97 m–13.4% (2.83 m for Hg, 11.7% (3.0 cm–20.6% (5.3 cm for Dg, 14.8% (4.0 m2/ha–25.8% (6.9 m2/ha for G, 15.9% (43.0 m3/ha–31.2% (84.2 m3/ha for VOL and 14.3% (19.2 Mg/ha–27.5% (37.0 Mg/ha for AGB, respectively, depending on the data used. Results indicate that ALS data achieved the most accurate estimates for all forest inventory attributes. For image-based 3D data, high-altitude aerial images and WorldView-2

  11. Numerical precision and data structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, W.

    1978-01-01

    Technical proposals and recommendations for revising FORTRAN were studied and categorized. In the area of numerical precision, the proposals basically agree on a set of necessary parameters, although a wide range of nomenclature and specific function names are used. Environmental parameters identified include the following: (1) base of floating point representation, (2) largest positive real number, exponent and integer, (3) largest negative real number, exponent and integer, (4) number of significant digits, and (5) exponent bias.

  12. Innovative Deterministic Optical Surface Finishing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Increasing the optical surface finishing precision and reducing surface roughness will greatly benefit astronomy telescope and other optical systems. Conventional...

  13. Quantum optics for experimentalists

    CERN Document Server

    Ou, Zhe-Yu Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This book on quantum optics is from the point of view of an experimentalist. It approaches the theory of quantum optics with the language of optical modes of classical wave theory, with which experimentalists are most familiar.

  14. Acquisition, tracking, and pointing; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3, 4, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auelmann, Richard R. (Editor); Richard, Herbert L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The present conference discusses the effect of target signatures on active tracking, the high resolution obtainable with a two-degrees-of-freedom angle sensor having a high update rate, solar object tracking for the Hubble Space Telescope, scaled experiments for the assessment of precise active tracking, and large aperture high-accuracy satellite laser tracking. Also discussed are laboratory test results for the Spaceborne Geodynamic Ranging System's high speed optical tracking system, jitter stabilization for precise optical pointing, scan stabilization and jitter control for an airborne telescope, a simulation of the Solar Optical Telescope's pointing performance, a microprocessor-based dual-speed angle converter, and image localization for alignment by means of adaptive preprocessing.

  15. Precision Clock Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Tests and evaluates high-precision atomic clocks for spacecraft, ground, and mobile applications. Supports performance evaluation, environmental testing,...

  16. Surfaces in Precision Engineering, Microengineering and Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Kunzmann, H.; Peggs, G. N.

    2003-01-01

    with precision engineering, microengineering and nanotechnology are presented, encompassing surfaces in computers, MEMS, biomedical systems, light and X-ray optics, as well as in chemical systems. Surface properties at micro and nanoscale are considered, including geometry as well as physical and chemical...

  17. Precision Engineering within the National Ignition Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J S; Carlisle, K; Klingmann, J L; Geraghty, P; Saito, T T; Montesanti, R C

    2010-02-17

    In this very brief talk, we'll discuss how precision engineering impacts 4 key areas of NIF: (1) Diamond turning of KDP crystals; (2) Mitigation of laser damage on optics; (3) Alignment of lasers, targets, diagnostics; (4) Target fabrication.

  18. Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Motta Streva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following commercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines, was measured by an operator using an optical microscope coupled to a computer. The values were compared to those established by the MBT prescription. RESULTS: The results showed that for the maxillary canine brackets, only the Morelli torque (-3.33º presented statistically significant difference from the proposed values (-7º. For the mandibular canines, American Orthodontics (-6.34º and Ortho Organizers (-6.25º presented statistically significant differences from the standards (-6º. Comparing the brands, Morelli presented statistically significant differences in comparison with all the other brands for maxillary canine brackets. For the mandibular canine brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the brands. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant variations in torque values of some of the brackets assessed, which would clinically compromise the buccolingual positioning of the tooth at the end of orthodontic treatment.

  19. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  20. High precision spectrophotometric analysis of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, H.E.L.

    1984-01-01

    An accurate and precise determination of thorium is proposed. Precision of about 0,1% is required for the determination of macroquantities of thorium when processed. After an extensive literature search concerning this subject, spectrophotometric titration has been chosen, using dissodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) solution and alizarin-S as indicator. In order to obtain such a precision, an amount of 0,025 M EDTA solution precisely measured has been added and the titration was completed with less than 5 ml of 0,0025 M EDTA solution. It is usual to locate the end-point graphically, by plotting added titrant versus absorbance. The non-linear minimum square fit, using the Fletcher e Powell's minimization process and a computer programme. Besides the equivalence point, other parameters of titration were determined: the indicator concentration, the absorbance of the metal-indicator complex, and the stability constants of the metal-indicator and the metal-EDTA complexes. (Author) [pt

  1. Mechanics and Physics of Precise Vacuum Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Deulin, E. A; Panfilov, Yu V; Nevshupa, R. A

    2010-01-01

    In this book the Russian expertise in the field of the design of precise vacuum mechanics is summarized. A wide range of physical applications of mechanism design in electronic, optical-electronic, chemical, and aerospace industries is presented in a comprehensible way. Topics treated include the method of microparticles flow regulation and its determination in vacuum equipment and mechanisms of electronics; precise mechanisms of nanoscale precision based on magnetic and electric rheology; precise harmonic rotary and not-coaxial nut-screw linear motion vacuum feedthroughs with technical parameters considered the best in the world; elastically deformed vacuum motion feedthroughs without friction couples usage; the computer system of vacuum mechanisms failure predicting. This English edition incorporates a number of features which should improve its usefulness as a textbook without changing the basic organization or the general philosophy of presentation of the subject matter of the original Russian work. Exper...

  2. Distributed Control Architectures for Precision Spacecraft Formations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc. (LaunchPoint) proposes to develop synthesis methods and design architectures for distributed control systems in precision spacecraft...

  3. submitter LEP precision results

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, T

    2001-01-01

    Precision measurements at LEP are reviewed, with main focus on the electroweak measurements and tests of the Standard Model. Constraints placed by the LEP measurements on possible new physics are also discussed.

  4. NCI Precision Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This illustration represents the National Cancer Institute’s support of research to improve precision medicine in cancer treatment, in which unique therapies treat an individual’s cancer based on specific genetic abnormalities of that person’s tumor.

  5. Optics measurement algorithms and error analysis for the proton energy frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Langner, A

    2015-01-01

    Optics measurement algorithms have been improved in preparation for the commissioning of the LHC at higher energy, i.e., with an increased damage potential. Due to machine protection considerations the higher energy sets tighter limits in the maximum excitation amplitude and the total beam charge, reducing the signal to noise ratio of optics measurements. Furthermore the precision in 2012 (4 TeV) was insufficient to understand beam size measurements and determine interaction point (IP) β-functions (β). A new, more sophisticated algorithm has been developed which takes into account both the statistical and systematic errors involved in this measurement. This makes it possible to combine more beam position monitor measurements for deriving the optical parameters and demonstrates to significantly improve the accuracy and precision. Measurements from the 2012 run have been reanalyzed which, due to the improved algorithms, result in a significantly higher precision of the derived optical parameters and decreased...

  6. Laser precision microfabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Sugioka, Koji; Pique, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Miniaturization and high precision are rapidly becoming a requirement for many industrial processes and products. As a result, there is greater interest in the use of laser microfabrication technology to achieve these goals. This book composed of 16 chapters covers all the topics of laser precision processing from fundamental aspects to industrial applications to both inorganic and biological materials. It reviews the sate of the art of research and technological development in the area of laser processing.

  7. Precision remote sensor for oxygen and carbon dioxide, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mesa Photonics proposes development of a passive optical sensor for simultaneous high-precision measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide profiles within the full...

  8. GPS Precision Timing at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Beetham, C G

    1999-01-01

    For the past decade, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been used to provide precise time, frequency and position co-ordinates world-wide. Recently, equipment has become available specialising in providing extremely accurate timing information, referenced to Universal Time Co-ordinates (UTC). This feature has been used at CERN to provide time of day information for systems that have been installed in the Proton Synchrotron (PS), Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Electron Positron (LEP) machines. The different systems are described as well as the planned developments, particularly with respect to optical transmission and the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group IRIG-B standard, for future use in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  9. Precision Alignment Determination and Control System for a Precision Formation Flying Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM-PFF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many proposed science missions use separated optics and detectors on free-flying platforms, maintained in very precise alignment to form a new type of science...

  10. Laser fusion and precision engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao

    1989-01-01

    The development of laser nuclear fusion energy for attaining the self supply of energy in Japan and establishing the future perspective as the nation is based in the wide fields of high level science and technology. Therefore to its promotion, large expectation is placed as the powerful traction for the development of creative science and technology which are particularly necessary in Japan. The research on laser nuclear fusion advances steadily in the elucidation of the physics of pellet implosion which is its basic concept and compressed plasma parameters. In September, 1986, the number of neutron generation 10 13 , and in October, 1988, the high density compression 600 times as high as solid density have been achieved. Based on these results, now the laser nuclear fusion is in the situation to begin the attainment of ignition condition for nuclear fusion and the realization of break even. The optical components, high power laser technology, fuel pellet production, high resolution measurement, the simulation of implosion using a supercomputer and so on are closely related to precision engineering. In this report, the mechanism of laser nuclear fusion, the present status of its research, and the basic technologies and precision engineering are described. (K.I.)

  11. Contribution to the precise measurement of the activity of non-point sources by the use of the well-type ionization chamber; Contribution a la mesure precise de l'activite de sources non ponctuelles au moyen de la chambre d'ionisation a puits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazzone, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-10-01

    The well-type ionisation chamber is commonly used to measure the activity of solid, liquid or gaseous {beta}, {gamma} and {beta}-{gamma} sources (the first by making use of Bremsstrahlung) over a wide activity range (from a few {mu}Ci to several Ci). The volume of these sources can be appreciable owing to the existence of large 'zones of equal sensitivity' verified by means of a Ra point source. However the response of the chamber is closely dependent on the geometry of the source, in particular its volume, for weakly penetrating radiations such as ({beta}'S, Bremsstrahlung and soft {gamma}'S (E{sub {gamma}} below 100 keV), because of the attenuating power of the materials making up the source, the measuring apparatus and the comparatively high ionising power of low-energy X and {gamma} rays (predominant photoelectric effect). As a result the concept of zones of equal sensitivity depends not only on the geometry of the chamber but also on that of the source and on the energy of the photons (X or {gamma}) emitted by it. We have thus made a systematic study of the importance of the source geometry in activity measurements with the well- type chamber, for 18 {beta}, {gamma} or {beta}-{gamma} emitting radionuclides. (author) [French] La chambre d'ionisation a puits est couramment utilisee pour mesurer l'activite de sources {beta} (par l'intermediaire des X de freinage), {gamma} et {beta} - {gamma} solides, liquides ou gazeuses dans un large domaine d'activite (de quelques {mu}Ci a quelques Ci). Ces sources peuvent avoir des volumes appreciables grace a l'existence de 'zones d'egales sensibilites' importantes verifiees a l'aide d'une source ponctuelle de Ra. Cependant la reponse de la chambre depend etroitement de la geometrie de la source, en particulier, de son volume, pour les rayonnements peu penetrants tels que {beta}, X de freinage et {gamma} mous (E{sub {gamma}} inferieure a une centaine de ke

  12. Precision Experiments at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) established the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics with unprecedented precision, including all its radiative corrections. These led to predictions for the masses of the top quark and Higgs boson, which were beautifully confirmed later on. After these precision measurements the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1999 jointly to 't Hooft and Veltman "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics". Another hallmark of the LEP results were the precise measurements of the gauge coupling constants, which excluded unification of the forces within the SM, but allowed unification within the supersymmetric extension of the SM. This increased the interest in Supersymmetry (SUSY) and Grand Unified Theories, especially since the SM has no candidate for the elusive dark matter, while Supersymmetry provides an excellent candidate for dark matter. In addition, Supersymmetry removes the quadratic divergencies of the SM and {\\it predicts} the Hig...

  13. Precision machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Slocum, Alexander H

    1992-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive engineering exploration of all the aspects of precision machine design - both component and system design considerations for precision machines. It addresses both theoretical analysis and practical implementation providing many real-world design case studies as well as numerous examples of existing components and their characteristics. Fast becoming a classic, this book includes examples of analysis techniques, along with the philosophy of the solution method. It explores the physics of errors in machines and how such knowledge can be used to build an error budget for a machine, how error budgets can be used to design more accurate machines.

  14. Precision electron polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudakov, E.

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. Mo/ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at 300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100%-polarized electron target for Mo/ller polarimetry

  15. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, Eugene A. [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  16. Geometric optics of a refringent sphere illuminated by a point source: caustics, wavefronts, and zero phase-fronts for every rainbow "k" order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Paul-Étienne

    2018-01-01

    This study relates to a refringent sphere illuminated by a point source placed at a distance h from its center; for h→∞ the light beam becomes parallel. A selection of variables, principally angular with the center of the sphere as a common point, allows a global, straightforward, and geometrically transparent way to the rays, caustics, and wavefronts, internal as well as external, for every k order, k being the number of internal reflections. One obtains compact formulas for generating the rays and the wavefronts.

  17. Vibration reduction for commercial optical intersatellite communication links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, T. Tupper; Davis, L. Porter

    1998-07-01

    The increasing demand for global communications and limitations on RF communication bandwidth has driven several corporations to baseline optical intersatellite communication links in their constellations. The use of laser communications over a long distance dictates the need for accurate pointing and jitter suppression in order to maintain signal. Vibrations on a satellite cause excessive line-of-sight jitter for optical performance. The solution to these vibration sources is a systems problem involving optical control of coarse and fine steering, vibration isolation of the optical payload, or reduction of the spacecraft disturbances. This paper explains the basics of tracking control of a laser communication package and details the systems trades for vibration isolation. Simulation results based on a vibration isolation and precision pointing of a hypothetical commercial LEO to LEO 4 Gbit/sec laser cross-link system are presented.

  18. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    mixing of unrelated types. Secondly, we present an improvement of the type checking algorithm in Java which enables the compiler to detect and ease the use of a common programming idiom called guarded casts. Thirdly, we present an improvement of the precision with which classes generated by a parser...

  19. Precise subtyping for synchronous multiparty sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The notion of subtyping has gained an important role both in theoretical and applicative domains: in lambda and concurrent calculi as well as in programming languages. The soundness and the completeness, together referred to as the preciseness of subtyping, can be considered from two different points of view: operational and denotational. The former preciseness has been recently developed with respect to type safety, i.e. the safe replacement of a term of a smaller type when a term of a bigger type is expected. The latter preciseness is based on the denotation of a type which is a mathematical object that describes the meaning of the type in accordance with the denotations of other expressions from the language. The result of this paper is the operational and denotational preciseness of the subtyping for a synchronous multiparty session calculus. The novelty of this paper is the introduction of characteristic global types to prove the operational completeness.

  20. Thorium spectrophotometric analysis with high precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, H.E.L.

    1983-06-01

    An accurate and precise determination of thorium is proposed. Precision of about 0,1% is required for the determination of macroquantities of thorium processed. After an extensive literature search concerning this subject, spectrophotometric titration has been chosen, using disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) solution and alizarin S as indicator. In order to obtain such a precision, an amount of 0,025 M EDTA solution precisely measured has been added and the titration was completed with less than 5 ml of 0,0025 M EDTA solution. It is usual to locate the end-point graphically, by plotting added titrant versus absorbance. The non-linear minimum square fit, using the Fletcher e Powell's minimization process and a computer program. (author)

  1. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  2. Recent advancements in robotic micro-optical assembly at the Lockheed Martin Optical Payload Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, David; Larson, Thomas M.

    2017-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company Optical Payloads Center of Excellence is in process of standing up the Robotic Optical Assembly System (ROAS) capability at Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies in Colorado. This currently implemented Robotic Optical Assembly has enabled Lockheed Martin to create world-leading, ultra-lowSWAP photonic devices using a closed-loop control robot to precisely position and align micro-optics with a potential fill factor of >25 optics per square inch. This paper will discuss the anticipated applications and optical capability when ROAS is fully operational, as well as challenge the audience to update their "rules of thumb" and best practices when designing low-SWAP optical-mechanical systems that take advantage of Lockheed Martin's ROAS capability. This paper will reveal demonstrated optical pointing and stability performance achievable with ROAS and why we believe these optical specifications are relevant for the majority of anticipated applications. After a high level overview of the ROAS current state, this paper will focus in on recent results of the "Reworkable Micro-Optics Mounting IRAD". Results from this IRAD will correlate to the anticipated optical specifications required for relevant applications.

  3. Influences of point defects on electrical and optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes at cryogenic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yi; Ruan, Yujiao; Zhu, Lihong; Tu, Qingzhen; Wang, Hongwei; Chen, Jie; Lu, Yijun; Gao, Yulin; Shih, Tien-Mo; Chen, Zhong; Lin, Yue

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the cryogenic external quantum efficiency (EQE) for some InGaN light-emitting diodes with different indium contents. We observe a monotonic decrease in EQE with the increasing forward current before the "U-turn" point, beyond which the thermal effect increases the EQE. We discover positive dependences among the droop rate (χ), differential electrical resistance (Rd), and indium content. Also, χ and Rd of individual green samples shift correspondingly during the aging test, when the Mg ions are activated at high injection density and diffuse into the active region. Considering the fact that both In and Mg ions would introduce point defects (PDs), we proposed a model that reveals the mechanism of interplay between PDs and carriers. PDs serve as both energy traps and non-radiative recombination centers. They attract and confine carriers, leading to an increase in Rd and a decrease in EQE.

  4. Optical Airborne Tracker System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Airborne Tracker System (OATS) is an airborne dual-axis optical tracking system capable of pointing at any sky location or ground target.  The objectives...

  5. Attaining the Photometric Precision Required by Future Dark Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, Christopher [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-01-21

    This report outlines our progress towards achieving the high-precision astronomical measurements needed to derive improved constraints on the nature of the Dark Energy. Our approach to obtaining higher precision flux measurements has two basic components: 1) determination of the optical transmission of the atmosphere, and 2) mapping out the instrumental photon sensitivity function vs. wavelength, calibrated by referencing the measurements to the known sensitivity curve of a high precision silicon photodiode, and 3) using the self-consistency of the spectrum of stars to achieve precise color calibrations.

  6. PRECISION MOTION SYSTEM FOR OPTO-MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT OF MICROELECTRONICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Dainiak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a structure of precision motion system built on the basis of a circular multi-coordinate synchronous segment motor and reconfigurable parallel kinematic mechanism. The multi-coordinate synchronous segment motor may have from two to six movable segments depending on the design, and number of the segments generally defines an internal mobility of the motor. A specific feature of the parallel kinematic mechanism consists in the possibility of its structure reconfiguration by serial connection of two neighboring rods with the help of free elements of their spherical joints into triangular circuits with one spherical hinge at the common vertex. As result of this, the controlled motion of motor movable segments is transformed into the complex spatial displacement of circular platform with number of degrees of freedom up to six inclusively.A mathematical model for solution of the kinematic problem in the investigated parallel mechanism has been offered in the paper. The model allows to calculate a position of movable segments of multi-coordinate synchronous motor depending on the desired position and orientation of the executive circular platform. The parametric definition of base point positions in the motor segments in time allows eventually to form algorithms of programmable motions.The paper substantiates ability to embed the developed motion system into projection unit of opto-mechanical equipment while preserving traditional configuration scheme. This provides the possibility of adaptive adjustment of optical elements during operation; it allows to adjust the optical elements when the geometry of projection system is changed due to deterioration. As result, main characteristics of projection system: resolution, depth of field and image contrast and distortion are maintained at the required level. The developed motion system can be used as a coordinate system of positioning, alignment and scanning in the assembly and other

  7. Fast calculation method of computer-generated hologram using a depth camera with point cloud gridding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Shi, Chen-Xiao; Kwon, Ki-Chul; Piao, Yan-Ling; Piao, Mei-Lan; Kim, Nam

    2018-03-01

    We propose a fast calculation method for a computer-generated hologram (CGH) of real objects that uses a point cloud gridding method. The depth information of the scene is acquired using a depth camera and the point cloud model is reconstructed virtually. Because each point of the point cloud is distributed precisely to the exact coordinates of each layer, each point of the point cloud can be classified into grids according to its depth. A diffraction calculation is performed on the grids using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtain a CGH. The computational complexity is reduced dramatically in comparison with conventional methods. The feasibility of the proposed method was confirmed by numerical and optical experiments.

  8. The design of the layout of faceted multi-channel electro-optical spatial coordinates measuring instrument for point-like bright objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repin, Vladislav A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2017-06-01

    For many applied problems it is necessary to obtain information about the situation in a wide angular field in order to measure various parameters of objects: their spatial coordinates, instantaneous velocities, and so on. In this case, one interesting bionic approach can be used - a mosaic (or discrete, otherwise, facet) angular field. Such electro-optical system constructively imitates the visual apparatus of insects: many photodetectors like ommatidia (elements of the facet eye structure) are located on a non-planar surface. Such devices can be used in photogrammetry and aerial photography systems (if the space is sufficient), in the transport sector as vehicle orientation organs, as systems for monitoring in unmanned aerial vehicles, in endoscopy for obtaining comprehensive information on the state of various cavities, in intelligent robotic systems. In this manuscript discusses the advantages and disadvantages of multi-channeled optoelectronic systems with a mosaic angular field, presents possible options for their use, and discusses some of the design procedures performed when developing a layout of a coordinate measuring device.

  9. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddhibi, F; Amara, M Ben; Balghouthi, M; Guizani, A

    2015-01-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature

  10. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  11. Measurement of optical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1978-11-01

    The possibilities of measurement of the optical glasses parameters needed in building optical devices especially in lasers devices are presented. In the first chapter the general features of the main optical glasses as well as the modalities of obtaining them are given. Chapter two defines the optical glass parameters, and the third chapter describes the measuring methods of the optical glass parameters. Finally, the conclusions which point out the utilization of this paper are presented. (author)

  12. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  13. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Automatic titrator for high precision plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Highly precise assay of plutonium metal is required for accountability measurements. We have developed an automatic titrator for this determination which eliminates analyst bias and requires much less analyst time. The analyst is only required to enter sample data and start the titration. The automated instrument titrates the sample, locates the end point, and outputs the results as a paper tape printout. Precision of the titration is less than 0.03% relative standard deviation for a single determination at the 250-mg plutonium level. The titration time is less than 5 min

  15. Precision electroweak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro e + e - and p anti p colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct m t measurements. Using the world's electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs' mass are discussed

  16. The Surface Brightness-color Relations Based on Eclipsing Binary Stars: Toward Precision Better than 1% in Angular Diameter Predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graczyk, Dariusz; Gieren, Wolfgang [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS) (Chile); Konorski, Piotr [Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478, Warsaw (Poland); Pietrzyński, Grzegorz [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomia, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Storm, Jesper [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Nardetto, Nicolas [Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Nice (France); Gallenne, Alexandre [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Maxted, Pierre F. L. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Kervella, Pierre [Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS UMI 3386), Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Kołaczkowski, Zbigniew, E-mail: darek@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: darek@ncac.torun.pl [Instytut Astronomiczny, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Kopernika 11, 51-622 Wrocław (Poland)

    2017-03-01

    In this study we investigate the calibration of surface brightness–color (SBC) relations based solely on eclipsing binary stars. We selected a sample of 35 detached eclipsing binaries with trigonometric parallaxes from Gaia DR1 or Hipparcos whose absolute dimensions are known with an accuracy better than 3% and that lie within 0.3 kpc from the Sun. For the purpose of this study, we used mostly homogeneous optical and near-infrared photometry based on the Tycho-2 and 2MASS catalogs. We derived geometric angular diameters for all stars in our sample with a precision better than 10%, and for 11 of them with a precision better than 2%. The precision of individual angular diameters of the eclipsing binary components is currently limited by the precision of the geometric distances (∼5% on average). However, by using a subsample of systems with the best agreement between their geometric and photometric distances, we derived the precise SBC relations based only on eclipsing binary stars. These relations have precisions that are comparable to the best available SBC relations based on interferometric angular diameters, and they are fully consistent with them. With very precise Gaia parallaxes becoming available in the near future, angular diameters with a precision better than 1% will be abundant. At that point, the main uncertainty in the total error budget of the SBC relations will come from transformations between different photometric systems, disentangling of component magnitudes, and for hot OB stars, the main uncertainty will come from the interstellar extinction determination. We argue that all these issues can be overcome with modern high-quality data and conclude that a precision better than 1% is entirely feasible.

  17. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs

  18. Precision Joining Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. W.; Westphal, D. A.

    1991-08-01

    A workshop to obtain input from industry on the establishment of the Precision Joining Center (PJC) was held on July 10-12, 1991. The PJC is a center for training Joining Technologists in advanced joining techniques and concepts in order to promote the competitiveness of U.S. industry. The center will be established as part of the DOE Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Initiative, and operated by EG&G Rocky Flats in cooperation with the American Welding Society and the Colorado School of Mines Center for Welding and Joining Research. The overall objectives of the workshop were to validate the need for a Joining Technologists to fill the gap between the welding operator and the welding engineer, and to assure that the PJC will train individuals to satisfy that need. The consensus of the workshop participants was that the Joining Technologist is a necessary position in industry, and is currently used, with some variation, by many companies. It was agreed that the PJC core curriculum, as presented, would produce a Joining Technologist of value to industries that use precision joining techniques. The advantage of the PJC would be to train the Joining Technologist much more quickly and more completely. The proposed emphasis of the PJC curriculum on equipment intensive and hands-on training was judged to be essential.

  19. Research on a high-precision calibration method for tunable lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Na; Li, Zhengying; Gui, Xin; Wang, Fan; Hou, Yarong; Wang, Honghai

    2018-03-01

    Tunable lasers are widely used in the field of optical fiber sensing, but nonlinear tuning exists even for zero external disturbance and limits the accuracy of the demodulation. In this paper, a high-precision calibration method for tunable lasers is proposed. A comb filter is introduced and the real-time output wavelength and scanning rate of the laser are calibrated by linear fitting several time-frequency reference points obtained from it, while the beat signal generated by the auxiliary interferometer is interpolated and frequency multiplied to find more accurate zero crossing points, with these points being used as wavelength counters to resample the comb signal to correct the nonlinear effect, which ensures that the time-frequency reference points of the comb filter are linear. A stability experiment and a strain sensing experiment verify the calibration precision of this method. The experimental result shows that the stability and wavelength resolution of the FBG demodulation can reach 0.088 pm and 0.030 pm, respectively, using a tunable laser calibrated by the proposed method. We have also compared the demodulation accuracy in the presence or absence of the comb filter, with the result showing that the introduction of the comb filter results to a 15-fold wavelength resolution enhancement.

  20. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  1. Program to make remote time measurement on the new precise clock system on totem

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, David

    2016-01-01

    For my project at CERN, I worked in the TOTEM team with Michele Quinto and Francesco Cafagna as supervisors. Their team is currently working on an update on TOTEM that includes a module able to measure precisely the time of flight of particles emitted from the collision at CMS. With this additional data, TOTEM will be able to reconstruct precisely the point of the collision in CMS. The main problem posed for this new module is to provide a precise synchronized clock signal to both the TOTEM detectors situated 200 meters after and before CMS. In fact, due to some external parameters, as temperature, the length of the optical fiber guiding the clock signal can vary yielding thus a unwanted phase difference of the clock between the two detectors. The idea is to get rid of the noisy phase difference to make very precise time of flight measurement of the order of the picosecond. This is achieved by continuously measuring the phase difference and correcting the time measurements according to the current phase diffe...

  2. Piezoelectric actuators for active optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Letty, R.; Barillot, F.; Fabbro, H.; Guay, Ph.; Cadiergues, L.

    2017-11-01

    Piezoelectric actuators find their first applications in active space optics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of the art and some applications. Piezo actuators display attractive features for space applications, such as precise positioning, unlubricated, non magnetic and compact features, and low power consumption. However, piezo mechanisms cannot be considered separately from their driving and control electronic. Piezo actuators, such as Amplified Piezo Actuators or Parallel Pre-stressed Actuators, initially designed under CNES contracts, shall find their first space flight applications in optics on the PHARAO Laser bench: • fine pointing of the laser beams, • laser cavity tuning. Breadboard mechanisms based on piezo actuators have also been tested for refocusing purposes. Other applications includes the improvement of the CCD resolution through an oversampling technique, such as in the SOHO/LASCO instrument, fast optical shutter operation, optical filter in combination with a Fabry - Perot interferometer, such as in future LIDAR for earth observation. The first applications shall be described and an overview of the future potential applications shall be given.

  3. Registration of vehicle based panoramic image and LiDAR point cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjun; Cao, Liang; Xie, Hong; Zhuo, Xiangyu

    2013-10-01

    Higher quality surface information would be got when data from optical images and LiDAR were integrated, owing to the fact that optical images and LiDAR point cloud have unique characteristics that make them preferable in many applications. While most previous works focus on registration of pinhole perspective cameras to 2D or 3D LiDAR data. In this paper, a method for the registration of vehicle based panoramic image and LiDAR point cloud is proposed. Using the translation among panoramic image, single CCD image, laser scanner and Position and Orientation System (POS) along with the GPS/IMU data, precise co-registration between the panoramic image and the LiDAR point cloud in the world system is achieved. Results are presented under a real world data set collected by a new developed Mobile Mapping System (MMS) integrated with a high resolution panoramic camera, two laser scanners and a POS.

  4. Advances in precision mirror figure metrology (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K.; Church, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    New developments in optical measurement techniques have made it possible to test the surface quality on grazing incidence optics with extreme precision and accuracy. An instrument developed at Brookhaven, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), measures the figure of large (up to 1 m long) cylindrical aspheres with nanometer accuracy. The LTP optical system is based around a common-path interferometer design belonging to the class of slope measuring interferometers and, as such, it is very robust, stable, and vibration insensitive. A unique error correction technique removes the effect of tilt errors in the optical head as it traverses the air bearing, thus allowing one to accurately measure the absolute surface profile and radius of curvature. This is of critical importance to the manufacture of long-radius spherical optics used in high-resolution soft x-ray monochromators and in the testing of mirror bending systems. This talk will review the principle of operation of the LTP, probe the factors limiting the performance of the system, and will examine the current state of the art in synchrotron radiation mirror manufacturing quality (as viewed by our metrology techniques). This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH00016

  5. Near Real Time Change-Point detection in Optical and Thermal Infrared Time Series Using Bayesian Inference over the Dry Chaco Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza Bernadas, V.; Grings, F.; Roitberg, E.; Perna, P.; Karszenbaum, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Dry Chaco region (DCF) has the highest absolute deforestation rates of all Argentinian forests. The most recent report indicates a current deforestation rate of 200,000 Ha year-1. In order to better monitor this process, DCF was chosen to implement an early warning program for illegal deforestation. Although the area is intensively studied using medium resolution imagery (Landsat), the products obtained have a yearly pace and therefore unsuited for an early warning program. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of an online Bayesian change-point detection algorithm for MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) datasets. The goal was to to monitor the abrupt changes in vegetation dynamics associated with deforestation events. We tested this model by simulating 16-day EVI and 8-day LST time series with varying amounts of seasonality, noise, length of the time series and by adding abrupt changes with different magnitudes. This model was then tested on real satellite time series available through the Google Earth Engine, over a pilot area in DCF, where deforestation was common in the 2004-2016 period. A comparison with yearly benchmark products based on Landsat images is also presented (REDAF dataset). The results shows the advantages of using an automatic model to detect a changepoint in the time series than using only visual inspection techniques. Simulating time series with varying amounts of seasonality and noise, and by adding abrupt changes at different times and magnitudes, revealed that this model is robust against noise, and is not influenced by changes in amplitude of the seasonal component. Furthermore, the results compared favorably with REDAF dataset (near 65% of agreement). These results show the potential to combine LST and EVI to identify deforestation events. This work is being developed within the frame of the national Forest Law for the protection and sustainable development of Native Forest in Argentina in

  6. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  7. Fixed-point signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, Wayne T

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to fill the gap between the ""ideal precision"" digital signal processing (DSP) that is widely taught, and the limited precision implementation skills that are commonly required in fixed-point processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These skills are often neglected at the university level, particularly for undergraduates. We have attempted to create a resource both for a DSP elective course and for the practicing engineer with a need to understand fixed-point implementation. Although we assume a background in DSP, Chapter 2 contains a review of basic theory

  8. Precision monitoring of bridge deck curvature change during replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This project was focused on development and deployment of a system for monitoring vertical : displacement in bridge decks and bridge spans. The system uses high precision wireless inclinometer : sensors to monitor inclinations at various points of a ...

  9. Per-Pixel, Dual-Counter Scheme for Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William H.; Bimbaum, Kevin M.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Sburlan, Suzana; Sahasrabudhe, Adit

    2013-01-01

    Free space optical communications links from deep space are projected to fulfill future NASA communication requirements for 2020 and beyond. Accurate laser-beam pointing is required to achieve high data rates at low power levels.This innovation is a per-pixel processing scheme using a pair of three-state digital counters to implement acquisition and tracking of a dim laser beacon transmitted from Earth for pointing control of an interplanetary optical communications system using a focal plane array of single sensitive detectors. It shows how to implement dim beacon acquisition and tracking for an interplanetary optical transceiver with a method that is suitable for both achieving theoretical performance, as well as supporting additional functions of high data rate forward links and precision spacecraft ranging.

  10. Simplified freeform optics design for complicated laser beam shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zexin; Froese, Brittany D; Liang, Rongguang; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian

    2017-11-20

    Control of the optical fields of laser beams, i.e., laser beam shaping, is of great importance to many laser applications. Freeform optics offers plenty of advantages for complex beam shaping requirements, including precise beam control, energy efficiency, compact structure, and relatively low cost. We present a modified ray-mapping method to simplify the freeform optics design for complicated optical field control and achieve a challenging task of producing two prescribed beam profiles on two successive target planes. This method begins by calculating an approximate output ray sequence that connects the two prescribed beam profiles and a corresponding input ray sequence. After setting an initial profile of the first freeform optical surface on the input ray sequence, we can obtain the second freeform optical surface based on the optical path length constancy between the given input wavefront and the computed output wavefront. Then, we can acquire all the normal vectors of the first freeform optical surface using Snell's law and approximately reconstruct the first freeform optical surface by solving a relationship between the surface points and normal vectors using a fast least squares method. The surface construction process is repeated until the stop criterion is satisfied. We design three freeform lenses, and Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate their abilities of simultaneously producing two challenging beam profiles from a divergent Gaussian beam.

  11. Laser-to-RF phase detection with femtosecond precision for remote reference phase stabilization in particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Thorsten

    2017-05-15

    The operation of modern free-electron lasers (FELs) requires the synchronization of different accelerator subsystems with femtosecond precision. A pulsed optical synchronization system is for this reason operated at the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and it is under construction for the upcoming European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL). Laser pulses from the optical master oscillator are transmitted by timing stabilized optical fiberlinks to dedicated end stations along the accelerator. Devices which cannot operate with optical synchronization signals are instead conventionally synchronized with radio frequency (RF) reference signals. These signals are distributed in the accelerator by coaxial cables. Especially the low -level radio frequency (LLRF) system requires RF reference signals with femtosecond stability in order to meet nowadays femtosecond demands. Due to cable drifts and the length of the accelerators, this level of stability cannot be provided by conventional RF transport. A laser-to-RF (L2RF) phase detector has been invented, which allows to measure with femtosecond precision the relative phase between a phase stable optical pulse train from an optical fiberlink and an RF signal. The L2RF phase detector is based on an integrated MACH-ZEHNDER modulator (MZM) in which the phase error between both signals is encoded in an amplitude modulation of the optical pulse train. Different configurations, based on single output and dual output MZMs have been evaluated for different operation scenarios. A full mathematical representation of the chosen configuration has been derived. The impact of multiple error sources has been investigated. It has been proven that most error sources have only second or higher order influence on the detection principle which is a significant advantage over existing schemes. The invented L2RF phase detector is for example balanced and in its working point insensitive to power variations of the optical reference pulse train

  12. Laser-to-RF phase detection with femtosecond precision for remote reference phase stabilization in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Thorsten

    2017-05-01

    The operation of modern free-electron lasers (FELs) requires the synchronization of different accelerator subsystems with femtosecond precision. A pulsed optical synchronization system is for this reason operated at the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and it is under construction for the upcoming European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL). Laser pulses from the optical master oscillator are transmitted by timing stabilized optical fiberlinks to dedicated end stations along the accelerator. Devices which cannot operate with optical synchronization signals are instead conventionally synchronized with radio frequency (RF) reference signals. These signals are distributed in the accelerator by coaxial cables. Especially the low -level radio frequency (LLRF) system requires RF reference signals with femtosecond stability in order to meet nowadays femtosecond demands. Due to cable drifts and the length of the accelerators, this level of stability cannot be provided by conventional RF transport. A laser-to-RF (L2RF) phase detector has been invented, which allows to measure with femtosecond precision the relative phase between a phase stable optical pulse train from an optical fiberlink and an RF signal. The L2RF phase detector is based on an integrated MACH-ZEHNDER modulator (MZM) in which the phase error between both signals is encoded in an amplitude modulation of the optical pulse train. Different configurations, based on single output and dual output MZMs have been evaluated for different operation scenarios. A full mathematical representation of the chosen configuration has been derived. The impact of multiple error sources has been investigated. It has been proven that most error sources have only second or higher order influence on the detection principle which is a significant advantage over existing schemes. The invented L2RF phase detector is for example balanced and in its working point insensitive to power variations of the optical reference pulse train

  13. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale cohorts and multiomics are critical components of precision medicine. Here we summarize the application of precision medicine to cardiovascular diseases based on cohort and omic studies, and hope to elicit discussion about future health care.

  14. Cloud point extraction with/without chelating agent on-line coupled with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the determination of trace rare earth elements in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yingjie; Hu Bin

    2010-01-01

    The on-line incorporation of cloud point extraction (CPE) with/without 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-Ox) as chelating agent into flow injection analysis associated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for determining trace rare earth elements (REEs) is presented and evaluated. The significant parameters affecting on-line cloud point extraction of REEs such as sample pH, flow rate, 8-Ox concentration, Triton X-114 concentration were systematically studied. Under the optimized conditions, with the consumption of 3.0 mL sample solution, the limits of detection (3σ) were ranged from 41.4 pg mL -1 (Yb) to 448 pg mL -1 (Gd) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0% (Eu)-5.9% (Sm) for on-line CPE-ICP-OES with 8-Ox as chelating agent, and 69.0 pg mL -1 (Sc) to 509.5 pg mL -1 (Sm) with RSDs of 2.9% (Yb)-7.5% (Ho) for on-line CPE-ICP-OES without 8-Ox as chelating agent, respectively. The sample throughput of 17 samples h -1 was obtained for both systems. The developed methods of on-line CPE-ICP-OES were validated by the analysis of certified reference material (GBW07605, tea leaves) and real biological samples of pig liver, Auricularia auricula and mushroom.

  15. Estimation Methods of the Point Spread Function Axial Position: A Comparative Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Eduardo Diaz Zamboni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise knowledge of the point spread function is central for any imaging system characterization. In fluorescence microscopy, point spread function (PSF determination has become a common and obligatory task for each new experimental device, mainly due to its strong dependence on acquisition conditions. During the last decade, algorithms have been developed for the precise calculation of the PSF, which fit model parameters that describe image formation on the microscope to experimental data. In order to contribute to this subject, a comparative study of three parameter estimation methods is reported, namely: I-divergence minimization (MIDIV, maximum likelihood (ML and non-linear least square (LSQR. They were applied to the estimation of the point source position on the optical axis, using a physical model. Methods’ performance was evaluated under different conditions and noise levels using synthetic images and considering success percentage, iteration number, computation time, accuracy and precision. The main results showed that the axial position estimation requires a high SNR to achieve an acceptable success level and higher still to be close to the estimation error lower bound. ML achieved a higher success percentage at lower SNR compared to MIDIV and LSQR with an intrinsic noise source. Only the ML and MIDIV methods achieved the error lower bound, but only with data belonging to the optical axis and high SNR. Extrinsic noise sources worsened the success percentage, but no difference was found between noise sources for the same method for all methods studied.

  16. Precision frequency measurements with interferometric weak values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starling, David J.; Dixon, P. Ben; Jordan, Andrew N.; Howell, John C.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an experiment which utilizes a Sagnac interferometer to measure a change in optical frequency of 129 ± 7 kHz/√(Hz) with only 2 mW of continuous-wave, single-mode input power. We describe the measurement of a weak value and show how even higher-frequency sensitivities may be obtained over a bandwidth of several nanometers. This technique has many possible applications, such as precision relative frequency measurements and laser locking without the use of atomic lines.

  17. Precisely Tracking Childhood Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Tamer H; Koplan, Jeffrey P; Breiman, Robert F; Madhi, Shabir A; Heaton, Penny M; Mundel, Trevor; Ordi, Jaume; Bassat, Quique; Menendez, Clara; Dowell, Scott F

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting a new surveillance system called the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance network, which will determine cause of death using MITS in combination with other information, and yield cause-specific population-based mortality rates, eventually in up to 12-15 sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. However, the Gates Foundation funding alone is not enough. We call on governments, other funders, and international stakeholders to expand the use of pathology-based cause of death determination to provide the information needed to end preventable childhood mortality.

  18. Fundamental limits of scintillation detector timing precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review the primary factors that affect the timing precision of a scintillation detector. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to explore the dependence of the timing precision on the number of photoelectrons, the scintillator decay and rise times, the depth of interaction uncertainty, the time dispersion of the optical photons (modeled as an exponential decay), the photodetector rise time and transit time jitter, the leading-edge trigger level, and electronic noise. The Monte Carlo code was used to estimate the practical limits on the timing precision for an energy deposition of 511 keV in 3 mm × 3 mm × 30 mm Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce and LaBr 3 :Ce crystals. The calculated timing precisions are consistent with the best experimental literature values. We then calculated the timing precision for 820 cases that sampled scintillator rise times from 0 to 1.0 ns, photon dispersion times from 0 to 0.2 ns, photodetector time jitters from 0 to 0.5 ns fwhm, and A from 10 to 10 000 photoelectrons per ns decay time. Since the timing precision R was found to depend on A −1/2  more than any other factor, we tabulated the parameter B, where R = BA −1/2 . An empirical analytical formula was found that fit the tabulated values of B with an rms deviation of 2.2% of the value of B. The theoretical lower bound of the timing precision was calculated for the example of 0.5 ns rise time, 0.1 ns photon dispersion, and 0.2 ns fwhm photodetector time jitter. The lower bound was at most 15% lower than leading-edge timing discrimination for A from 10 to 10 000 photoelectrons ns −1 . A timing precision of 8 ps fwhm should be possible for an energy deposition of 511 keV using currently available photodetectors if a theoretically possible scintillator were developed that could produce 10 000 photoelectrons ns −1 . (paper)

  19. OPTICAL TRANSIENT DETECTOR (OTD) LIGHTNING V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Transient Detector (OTD) records optical measurements of global lightning events in the daytime and nighttime. The data includes individual point...

  20. Truss Assembly and Welding by Intelligent Precision Jigging Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an Intelligent Precision Jigging Robot (IPJR) prototype that enables the precise alignment and welding of titanium space telescope optical benches. The IPJR, equipped with micron accuracy sensors and actuators, worked in tandem with a lower precision remote controlled manipulator. The combined system assembled and welded a 2 m truss from stock titanium components. The calibration of the IPJR, and the difference between the predicted and the truss dimensions as-built, identified additional sources of error that should be addressed in the next generation of IPJRs in 2D and 3D.

  1. Product Surfaces in Precision Engineering, Micorengineering and Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Kunzmann, H.; Peggs, G. N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is and excerpt from a recently published CIRP Key-Note paper on surfaces in Precision Engineering, Micorengineering and Nanotechnology [1]. It is focussed on the relevance of surface metrology at the micrometric and nanometric length scales. The applied measurement technologies...... are strongly dependent from the functional requirements on those surfaces. Examples of surfaces obtained with precision engineering, microengineering and nanotechnology are mentioned, encompassing surfaces in computers, MEMS, biomedical systems, ligth and X-ray optics, as well as in chemical systems. Surface...... in surface metrology at micro and nanoscale are strongly required for future progress of Precision Engineering, Microengineering, and Nanotechnology; and their fundamental importance can not be overestimated....

  2. Precision Measurement and Improvement of e+, e- Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.T.; Cai, Y.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F-J.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Turner, J.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.

    2006-01-01

    Through horizontal and vertical excitations, we have been able to make a precision measurement of linear geometric optics parameters with a Model-Independent Analysis (MIA). We have also been able to build up a computer model that matches the real accelerator in linear geometric optics with an SVD-enhanced Least-square fitting process. Recently, with the addition of longitudinal excitation, we are able to build up a computer virtual machine that matches the real accelerators in linear optics including dispersion without additional fitting variables. With this optics-matched virtual machine, we are able to find solutions that make changes of selected normal and skew quadrupoles for machine optics improvement. It has made major contributions to improve PEP-II optics and luminosity. Examples from application to PEP-II machines will be presented

  3. TMDs: Evolution, modeling, precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Alesio Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The factorization theorem for qT spectra in Drell-Yan processes, boson production and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering allows for the determination of the non-perturbative parts of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions. Here we discuss the fit of Drell-Yan and Z-production data using the transverse momentum dependent formalism and the resummation of the evolution kernel. We find a good theoretical stability of the results and a final χ2/points ≲ 1. We show how the fixing of the non-perturbative pieces of the evolution can be used to make predictions at present and future colliders.

  4. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  5. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope MeasuringInstruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-08-01

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 {micro}rad (rms).

  6. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope Measuring Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-01-01

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 (micro)rad (rms)

  7. Precision requirements and innovative manufacturing for ultrahigh precision laser interferometry of gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei-Tou; Han, Sen; Jin, Tao

    2016-11-01

    With the LIGO announcement of the first direct detection of gravitational waves (GWs), the GW Astronomy was formally ushered into our age. After one-hundred years of theoretical investigation and fifty years of experimental endeavor, this is a historical landmark not just for physics and astronomy, but also for industry and manufacturing. The challenge and opportunity for industry is precision and innovative manufacturing in large size - production of large and homogeneous optical components, optical diagnosis of large components, high reflectance dielectric coating on large mirrors, manufacturing of components for ultrahigh vacuum of large volume, manufacturing of high attenuating vibration isolation system, production of high-power high-stability single-frequency lasers, production of high-resolution positioning systems etc. In this talk, we address the requirements and methods to satisfy these requirements. Optical diagnosis of large optical components requires large phase-shifting interferometer; the 1.06 μm Phase Shifting Interferometer for testing LIGO optics and the recently built 24" phase-shifting Interferometer in Chengdu, China are examples. High quality mirrors are crucial for laser interferometric GW detection, so as for ring laser gyroscope, high precision laser stabilization via optical cavities, quantum optomechanics, cavity quantum electrodynamics and vacuum birefringence measurement. There are stringent requirements on the substrate materials and coating methods. For cryogenic GW interferometer, appropriate coating on sapphire or silicon are required for good thermal and homogeneity properties. Large ultrahigh vacuum components and high attenuating vibration system together with an efficient metrology system are required and will be addressed. For space interferometry, drag-free technology and weak-light manipulation technology are must. Drag-free technology is well-developed. Weak-light phase locking is demonstrated in the laboratories while

  8. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Liu; Jie Du

    2017-01-01

    Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale c...

  9. On Recall Rate of Interest Point Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2010-01-01

    , and for each scene we have 119 precisely located camera positions obtained from a camera mounted on an industrial robot arm. The scene surfaces have been scanned using structured light, providing precise 3D ground truth. We have investigated a number of the most popular interest point detectors. This is done...

  10. On recall rate of interest point detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Lindbjerg Dahl, Anders; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2010-01-01

    , and for each scene we have 119 precisely located camera positions obtained from a camera mounted on an industrial robot arm. The scene surfaces have been scanned using structured light, providing precise 3D ground truth. We have investigated a number of the most popular interest point detectors where we...

  11. QUANTUM OPTICS. Universal linear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Jacques; Harrold, Christopher; Sparrow, Chris; Martín-López, Enrique; Russell, Nicholas J; Silverstone, Joshua W; Shadbolt, Peter J; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Oguma, Manabu; Itoh, Mikitaka; Marshall, Graham D; Thompson, Mark G; Matthews, Jonathan C F; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Laing, Anthony

    2015-08-14

    Linear optics underpins fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and quantum technologies. We demonstrate a single reprogrammable optical circuit that is sufficient to implement all possible linear optical protocols up to the size of that circuit. Our six-mode universal system consists of a cascade of 15 Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 30 thermo-optic phase shifters integrated into a single photonic chip that is electrically and optically interfaced for arbitrary setting of all phase shifters, input of up to six photons, and their measurement with a 12-single-photon detector system. We programmed this system to implement heralded quantum logic and entangling gates, boson sampling with verification tests, and six-dimensional complex Hadamards. We implemented 100 Haar random unitaries with an average fidelity of 0.999 ± 0.001. Our system can be rapidly reprogrammed to implement these and any other linear optical protocol, pointing the way to applications across fundamental science and quantum technologies. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. An Emprical Point Error Model for Tls Derived Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozendi, Mustafa; Akca, Devrim; Topan, Hüseyin

    2016-06-01

    The random error pattern of point clouds has significant effect on the quality of final 3D model. The magnitude and distribution of random errors should be modelled numerically. This work aims at developing such an anisotropic point error model, specifically for the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) acquired 3D point clouds. A priori precisions of basic TLS observations, which are the range, horizontal angle and vertical angle, are determined by predefined and practical measurement configurations, performed at real-world test environments. A priori precision of horizontal (𝜎𝜃) and vertical (𝜎𝛼) angles are constant for each point of a data set, and can directly be determined through the repetitive scanning of the same environment. In our practical tests, precisions of the horizontal and vertical angles were found as 𝜎𝜃=±36.6𝑐𝑐 and 𝜎𝛼=±17.8𝑐𝑐, respectively. On the other hand, a priori precision of the range observation (𝜎𝜌) is assumed to be a function of range, incidence angle of the incoming laser ray, and reflectivity of object surface. Hence, it is a variable, and computed for each point individually by employing an empirically developed formula varying as 𝜎𝜌=±2-12 𝑚𝑚 for a FARO Focus X330 laser scanner. This procedure was followed by the computation of error ellipsoids of each point using the law of variance-covariance propagation. The direction and size of the error ellipsoids were computed by the principal components transformation. The usability and feasibility of the model was investigated in real world scenarios. These investigations validated the suitability and practicality of the proposed method.

  13. Fault location in optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Rick C [Apple Valley, MN; Kryzak, Charles J [Mendota Heights, MN; Keeler, Gordon A [Albuquerque, NM; Serkland, Darwin K [Albuquerque, NM; Geib, Kent M [Tijeras, NM; Kornrumpf, William P [Schenectady, NY

    2008-07-01

    One apparatus embodiment includes an optical emitter and a photodetector. At least a portion of the optical emitter extends a radial distance from a center point. The photodetector provided around at least a portion of the optical emitter and positioned outside the radial distance of the portion of the optical emitter.

  14. Surface finish in ultra-precision diamond turning of single-crystal silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayomoh, M.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2015-10-01

    Silicon is an optical material widely used in the production of infrared optics. However, silicon as a brittle material exhibits some difficulties when ultra-precision machined by mono-crystalline single point diamond. Finish turning of silicon with mono- crystalline diamond inserts results in accelerated tool wear rates if the right combination of the machining parameters is not properly selected. In this study, we conducted a series of machining tests on an ultra-high precision machine tool using finish turning conditions when using mono-crystalline diamond inserts with negative rake angle and relatively big nose radius. The study yields some recommendations on the best combination of machining parameters that will result in maximum material removal rates with smallest possible surface finish. In this work, standard non-controlled waviness diamond inserts having nose radius of about 1.5 mm, rake angle of negative 25°, and clearance angle of 5° were used to produce flat surfaces on silicon disk. From the results, it has been established that feed rate has the most influential effect followed by the depth of cut and cutting speed.

  15. Star Tracker Based ATP System Conceptual Design and Pointing Accuracy Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfiz, Gerardo G.; Lee, Shinhak

    2006-01-01

    A star tracker based beaconless (a.k.a. non-cooperative beacon) acquisition, tracking and pointing concept for precisely pointing an optical communication beam is presented as an innovative approach to extend the range of high bandwidth (> 100 Mbps) deep space optical communication links throughout the solar system and to remove the need for a ground based high power laser as a beacon source. The basic approach for executing the ATP functions involves the use of stars as the reference sources from which the attitude knowledge is obtained and combined with high bandwidth gyroscopes for propagating the pointing knowledge to the beam pointing mechanism. Details of the conceptual design are presented including selection of an orthogonal telescope configuration and the introduction of an optical metering scheme to reduce misalignment error. Also, estimates are presented that demonstrate that aiming of the communications beam to the Earth based receive terminal can be achieved with a total system pointing accuracy of better than 850 nanoradians (3 sigma) from anywhere in the solar system.

  16. Precision electroweak measurement at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Saeki, T

    2002-01-01

    LEP started in 1989 and finished its operation in November 2000. The four experiments of LEP, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, collected data and have been performing series of electroweak (EW) precision measurements. This article presents current status of the EW precision measurements at LEP. (8 refs).

  17. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  18. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-03-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  19. High-Precision Phenotyping of Grape Bunch Architecture Using Fast 3D Sensor and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Florian; Herzog, Katja; Mack, Jenny; Richter, Robert; Steinhage, Volker; Töpfer, Reinhard

    2018-03-02

    Wine growers prefer cultivars with looser bunch architecture because of the decreased risk for bunch rot. As a consequence, grapevine breeders have to select seedlings and new cultivars with regard to appropriate bunch traits. Bunch architecture is a mosaic of different single traits which makes phenotyping labor-intensive and time-consuming. In the present study, a fast and high-precision phenotyping pipeline was developed. The optical sensor Artec Spider 3D scanner (Artec 3D, L-1466, Luxembourg) was used to generate dense 3D point clouds of grapevine bunches under lab conditions and an automated analysis software called 3D-Bunch-Tool was developed to extract different single 3D bunch traits, i.e., the number of berries, berry diameter, single berry volume, total volume of berries, convex hull volume of grapes, bunch width and bunch length. The method was validated on whole bunches of different grapevine cultivars and phenotypic variable breeding material. Reliable phenotypic data were obtained which show high significant correlations (up to r² = 0.95 for berry number) compared to ground truth data. Moreover, it was shown that the Artec Spider can be used directly in the field where achieved data show comparable precision with regard to the lab application. This non-invasive and non-contact field application facilitates the first high-precision phenotyping pipeline based on 3D bunch traits in large plant sets.

  20. High-Precision Phenotyping of Grape Bunch Architecture Using Fast 3D Sensor and Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Rist

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wine growers prefer cultivars with looser bunch architecture because of the decreased risk for bunch rot. As a consequence, grapevine breeders have to select seedlings and new cultivars with regard to appropriate bunch traits. Bunch architecture is a mosaic of different single traits which makes phenotyping labor-intensive and time-consuming. In the present study, a fast and high-precision phenotyping pipeline was developed. The optical sensor Artec Spider 3D scanner (Artec 3D, L-1466, Luxembourg was used to generate dense 3D point clouds of grapevine bunches under lab conditions and an automated analysis software called 3D-Bunch-Tool was developed to extract different single 3D bunch traits, i.e., the number of berries, berry diameter, single berry volume, total volume of berries, convex hull volume of grapes, bunch width and bunch length. The method was validated on whole bunches of different grapevine cultivars and phenotypic variable breeding material. Reliable phenotypic data were obtained which show high significant correlations (up to r2 = 0.95 for berry number compared to ground truth data. Moreover, it was shown that the Artec Spider can be used directly in the field where achieved data show comparable precision with regard to the lab application. This non-invasive and non-contact field application facilitates the first high-precision phenotyping pipeline based on 3D bunch traits in large plant sets.

  1. Noise mitigation techniques for high-precision laser spectroscopy and integrated photonic chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Eric J.

    In this dissertation, laser spectroscopy is utilized to monitor trace-gas species for environmental and health applications. Due to their non-invasive and in situ sensing capabilities, optical platforms are attractive for on-site, real-time diagnostics. Two main techniques are investigated: (i) Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) and (ii) tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS), where noise reduction techniques are implemented in both cases for precise and accurate quantification of analytes. A variety of sensing configurations are demonstrated, including benchtop laboratory sensors [Chapters 4, 6, 7], transportable extractive point sensors [Chapter 5], and on-chip integrated sensors [Chapter 7]. Chapters 4 to 6 demonstrate FRS for detection of paramagnetic molecules. Using a combination of phase-sensitive signal recovery, balanced-detection and polarizer angle optimization, these sensors consistently demonstrate near shot-noise limited performance with minimum fractional absorption 10 2x beyond conventional TDLS. Given that FRS is an ideal platform for implementation of common noise reduction techniques, it presents a viable solution to precision spectroscopy of chemical radicals. Chapter 7 contributes toward a new generation of integrated spectrometers, with the goal of scalable precision sensing nodes. To this end, we present examples of compact TDLS sensor modalities, including integrated sources for broadband, multi-heterodyne spectroscopy, and evanescent waveguide spectroscopy on a silicon-photonic chip. We conclude this dissertation with a vision of a fully integrated TDLS sensor node applicable for real-time sample quantification and localization.

  2. Optics Alignment of a Balloon-Borne Far-Infrared Interferometer BETTII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabal, Arnab; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Rizzo, Maxime J.; Mundy, Lee; Sampler, Henry; Juanola Parramon, Roser; Veach, Todd; Fixsen, Dale; Vila Hernandez De Lorenzo, Jor; Silverberg, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-m baseline far-infrared (FIR: 30 90 micrometer) interferometer providing spatially resolved spectroscopy. The initial scientific focus of BETTII is on clustered star formation, but this capability likely has a much broader scientific application.One critical step in developing an interferometer, such as BETTII, is the optical alignment of the system. We discuss how we determine alignment sensitivities of different optical elements on the interferogram outputs. Accordingly, an alignment plan is executed that makes use of a laser tracker and theodolites for precise optical metrology of both the large external optics and the small optics inside the cryostat. We test our alignment on the ground by pointing BETTII to bright near-infrared sources and obtaining their images in the tracking detectors.

  3. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Kai [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875 (China); Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Marshall, Philip J., E-mail: xlmeng919@gmail.com, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: aagnello@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: liaokai@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: dr.phil.marshall@gmail.com [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ''Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρ{sub tot}∝ r{sup −γ'} for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation

  4. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao -Lei [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Treu, Tommaso [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Agnello, Adriano [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Liao, Kai [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marshall, Philip J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive

  5. Precision Assessment of Near Real Time Precise Orbit Determination for Low Earth Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Yeoun; Lee, Sang-Jeong

    2011-03-01

    The precise orbit determination (POD) of low earth orbiter (LEO) has complied with its required positioning accuracy by the double-differencing of observations between International GNSS Service (IGS) and LEO to eliminate the common clock error of the global positioning system (GPS) satellites and receiver. Using this method, we also have achieved the 1 m positioning accuracy of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT)-2. However double-differencing POD has huge load of processing the global network of lots of ground stations because LEO turns around the Earth with rapid velocity. And both the centimeter accuracy and the near real time (NRT) processing have been needed in the LEO POD applications--atmospheric sounding or urgent image processing--as well as the surveying. An alternative to differential GPS for high accuracy NRT POD is precise point positioning (PPP) to use measurements from one satellite receiver only, to replace the broadcast navigation message with precise post processed values from IGS, and to have phase measurements of dual frequency GPS receiver. PPP can obtain positioning accuracy comparable to that of differential positioning. KOMPSAT-5 has a precise dual frequency GPS flight receiver (integrated GPS and occultation receiver, IGOR) to satisfy the accuracy requirements of 20 cm positioning accuracy for highly precise synthetic aperture radar image processing and to collect GPS radio occultation measurements for atmospheric sounding. In this paper we obtained about 3-5 cm positioning accuracies using the real GPS data of the Gravity Recover and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites loaded the Blackjack receiver, a predecessor of IGOR. And it is important to reduce the latency of orbit determination processing in the NRT POD. This latency is determined as the volume of GPS measurements. Thus changing the sampling intervals, we show their latency to able to reduce without the precision degradation as the assessment of their precision.

  6. Aiming of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope based on auxiliary optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shengling; Mu Baozhong; Yi Shengzhen; Wang Xin; Wang Zhanshan; Ding Yongkun; Miao Wenyong; Dong Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    An auxiliary optical system has been designed, which can provide precise positioning for aiming Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope object location. An 8 keV X-ray imaging system by KB microscope with periodic multilayer films has been designed. The field of view and depth of field in the resolution of 5 μm are got, and then the corresponding point and depth of field in diagnostic experiments are calculated. Based on the object-image relations and precision of the KB microscope, an auxiliary visible light imaging system is designed and X-ray imaging experiments are performed, which can achieve equivalent aiming between the visible imaging system and the KB microscope. The results show that ±20 μm vertical axis plane and ±300 μm axial accuracy are achieved through the auxiliary optical path, which can meet the object point positioning requirements of the KB microscope. (authors)

  7. Adhesion kinetics of human primary monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages: Dynamic cell adhesion measurements with a label-free optical biosensor and their comparison with end-point assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgovan, Norbert; Ungai-Salánki, Rita; Lukácsi, Szilvia; Sándor, Noémi; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Szabó, Bálint; Horvath, Robert

    2016-09-01

    obtained with the high-temporal-resolution Epic BT, but could only provide end-point data. In contrast, complex, nonmonotonic cell adhesion kinetics measured by the high-throughput optical biosensor is expected to open a window on the hidden background of the immune cell-extracellular matrix interactions.

  8. Precision Oncology: Between Vaguely Right and Precisely Wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Amy; Huang, Sui

    2017-12-01

    Precision Oncology seeks to identify and target the mutation that drives a tumor. Despite its straightforward rationale, concerns about its effectiveness are mounting. What is the biological explanation for the "imprecision?" First, Precision Oncology relies on indiscriminate sequencing of genomes in biopsies that barely represent the heterogeneous mix of tumor cells. Second, findings that defy the orthodoxy of oncogenic "driver mutations" are now accumulating: the ubiquitous presence of oncogenic mutations in silent premalignancies or the dynamic switching without mutations between various cell phenotypes that promote progression. Most troublesome is the observation that cancer cells that survive treatment still will have suffered cytotoxic stress and thereby enter a stem cell-like state, the seeds for recurrence. The benefit of "precision targeting" of mutations is inherently limited by this counterproductive effect. These findings confirm that there is no precise linear causal relationship between tumor genotype and phenotype, a reminder of logician Carveth Read's caution that being vaguely right may be preferable to being precisely wrong. An open-minded embrace of the latest inconvenient findings indicating nongenetic and "imprecise" phenotype dynamics of tumors as summarized in this review will be paramount if Precision Oncology is ultimately to lead to clinical benefits. Cancer Res; 77(23); 6473-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Support systems for optics in the experiment stations at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraza, J.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Support systems have been designed for optics in the experiment stations of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. These systems utilize modular precision positioning slides and stages arranged in 3-point kinematic mount fashion for optimum mechanical stability. Through the use of novel configurations, these systems can achieve large linear motions, six degree-of-freedom motion, and large load capacities without sacrificing valuable experimental station space. This paper will discuss the designs and specifications of the positioning systems developed

  10. How GNSS Enables Precision Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Precision farming: Feeding a Growing Population Enables Those Who Feed the World. Immediate and Ongoing Needs - population growth (more to feed) - urbanization (decrease in arable land) Double food production by 2050 to meet world demand. To meet thi...

  11. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  12. Environment-assisted precision measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, G.; Cappellaro, P.; Maze, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which are ...... achieves nearly Heisenberg-limited precision measurement, using a novel class of entangled states. We discuss specific applications to improve clock sensitivity using trapped ions and magnetic sensing based on electronic spins in diamond...

  13. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  14. FROM PERSONALIZED TO PRECISION MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Raskina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to maintain a high quality of life against a backdrop of its inevitably increasing duration is one of the main problems of modern health care. The concept of "right drug to the right patient at the right time", which at first was bearing the name "personalized", is currently unanimously approved by international scientific community as "precision medicine". Precision medicine takes all the individual characteristics into account: genes diversity, environment, lifestyles, and even bacterial microflora and also involves the use of the latest technological developments, which serves to ensure that each patient gets assistance fitting his state best. In the United States, Canada and France national precision medicine programs have already been submitted and implemented. The aim of this review is to describe the dynamic integration of precision medicine methods into routine medical practice and life of modern society. The new paradigm prospects description are complemented by figures, proving the already achieved success in the application of precise methods for example, the targeted therapy of cancer. All in all, the presence of real-life examples, proving the regularity of transition to a new paradigm, and a wide range  of technical and diagnostic capabilities available and constantly evolving make the all-round transition to precision medicine almost inevitable.

  15. Accuracy of optical scanning methods of the Cerec®3D system in the process of making ceramic inlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifković Branka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the results of many years of Cerec® 3D CAD/CAM system technological development is implementation of one intraoral and two extraoral optical scanning methods which, depending on the current indications, are applied in making fixed restorations. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of precision of optical scanning methods by the use of the Cerec®3D CAD/CAM system in the process of making ceramic inlays. Methods. The study was conducted in three experimental groups of inlays prepared using the procedure of three methods of scanning Cerec ®3D system. Ceramic inlays made by conventional methodology were the control group. The accuracy of optical scanning methods of the Cerec®3D system computer aided designcomputer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM was indirectly examined by measuring a marginal gap size between inlays and demarcation preparation by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. The results of the study showed a difference in the accuracy of the existing methods of scanning dental CAD/CAM systems. The highest level of accuracy was achieved by the extraoral optical superficial scanning technique. The value of marginal gap size inlays made with the technique of extraoral optical superficial scanning was 32.97 ± 13.17 μ. Techniques of intraoral optical superficial and extraoral point laser scanning showed a lower level of accuracy (40.29 ± 21.46 μ for inlays of intraoral optical superficial scanning and 99.67 ± 37.25 μ for inlays of extraoral point laser scanning. Conclusion. Optical scanning methods in dental CAM/CAM technologies are precise methods of digitizing the spatial models; application of extraoral optical scanning methods provides the hightest precision.

  16. Reaching sub-milimag photometric precision on Beta Pictoris with a nanosat: the PicSat mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, M.; Lacour, S.; Lapeyrère, V.; David, L.; Crouzier, A.; Dufoing, C.; Faiz, H.; Lemoult, T.; Trébuchet, P.

    2016-07-01

    PicSat is a nanosatellite currently being developed to observe the transit of the giant planet β Pictoris, expected some time between July 2017 and June 2018. The mission is based on a Cubesat architecture, with a small but ambitious 2 kg opto-mechanical payload specifically designed for high precision photometry. The satellite will be launched in early 2017, probably on a 600 km Sun synchronous orbit. The main objective of the mission is the constant monitoring of the brightness of Pic at an unprecedented combination of reliability and precision (200 ppm per hour, with interruptions of at most 30 minutes) to finely characterize the transiting exoplanet and detect exocomets in the Pictoris system. To achieve this difficult objective, the payload is designed with a 3.5 cm effective aperture telescope which injects the light in a single-mode optical fiber linked to an avalanche photodioode. A two-axis piezoelectric actuation system, driven by a tailor-made feedback loop control algorithm, is used to lock the fiber on the center of the star in the focal plane. These actuators complement the attitude determination and control system of the satellite to maintain the sub-arcsecond pointing accuracy required to reach the excellent level of photometric precision. Overall, the mission raises multiple very difficult challenges: high temperature stability of the avalanche detector (achieved with a thermoelectric colling device), high pointing accuracy and stability, and short timeframe for the development.

  17. Precision genome editing in the CRISPR era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, Jayme; Dellaire, Graham

    2017-04-01

    With the introduction of precision genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, we have entered a new era of genetic engineering and gene therapy. With RNA-guided endonucleases, such as Cas9, it is possible to engineer DNA double strand breaks (DSB) at specific genomic loci. DSB repair by the error-prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway can disrupt a target gene by generating insertions and deletions. Alternatively, Cas9-mediated DSBs can be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) using an homologous DNA repair template, thus allowing precise gene editing by incorporating genetic changes into the repair template. HDR can introduce gene sequences for protein epitope tags, delete genes, make point mutations, or alter enhancer and promoter activities. In anticipation of adapting this technology for gene therapy in human somatic cells, much focus has been placed on increasing the fidelity of CRISPR-Cas9 and increasing HDR efficiency to improve precision genome editing. In this review, we will discuss applications of CRISPR technology for gene inactivation and genome editing with a focus on approaches to enhancing CRISPR-Cas9-mediated HDR for the generation of cell and animal models, and conclude with a discussion of recent advances and challenges towards the application of this technology for gene therapy in humans.

  18. Atomic physics precise measurements and ultracold matter

    CERN Document Server

    Inguscio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atomic Physics provides an expert guide to two spectacular new landscapes in physics: precision measurements, which have been revolutionized by the advent of the optical frequency comb, and atomic physics, which has been revolutionized by laser cooling. These advances are not incremental but transformative: they have generated a consilience between atomic and many-body physics, precipitated an explosion of scientific and technological applications, opened new areas of research, and attracted a brilliant generation of younger scientists. The research is advancing so rapidly, the barrage of applications is so dazzling, that students can be bewildered. For both students and experienced scientists, this book provides an invaluable description of basic principles, experimental methods, and scientific applications.

  19. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Precision Radial Velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J; Muterspaugh, M W; Edelstein, J; Lloyd, J; Herter, T; Feuerstein, W M; Muirhead, P; Wishnow, E

    2007-03-27

    Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) is the series combination of a fixed-delay field-widened Michelson interferometer with a dispersive spectrograph. This combination boosts the spectrograph performance for both Doppler velocimetry and high resolution spectroscopy. The interferometer creates a periodic spectral comb that multiplies against the input spectrum to create moire fringes, which are recorded in combination with the regular spectrum. The moire pattern shifts in phase in response to a Doppler shift. Moire patterns are broader than the underlying spectral features and more easily survive spectrograph blurring and common distortions. Thus, the EDI technique allows lower resolution spectrographs having relaxed optical tolerances (and therefore higher throughput) to return high precision velocity measurements, which otherwise would be imprecise for the spectrograph alone.

  20. Precise Multi-Spectral Dermatological Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2004-01-01

    In this work, an integrated imaging system to obtain accurate and reproducible multi-spectral dermatological images is proposed. The system is made up of an integrating sphere, light emitting diodes and a generic monochromatic camera. The system can collect up to 10 different spectral bands....... These spectral bands vary from ultraviolet to near infrared. The welldefined and diffuse illumination of the optically closed scene aims to avoid shadows and specular reflections. Furthermore, the system has been developed to guarantee the reproducibility of the collected images. This allows for comparative...... studies of time series of images. Two experiments are conducted to show the ability of the system to acquire highly precise and standardized multi-spectral images. The first experiment aims to show the capacity of the system to collect reproducible images. The second experiment demonstrates that the multi...

  1. From optics testing to micro optics testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Christian; Dorn, Ralf; Pfund, Johannes

    2017-10-01

    Testing micro optics, i.e. lenses with dimensions down to 0.1mm and less, with high precision requires a dedicated design of the testing device, taking into account propagation and wave-optical effects. In this paper, we discuss testing methods based on Shack-Hartmann wavefront technology for functional testing in transmission and for the measurement of surface shape in reflection. As a first example of more conventional optics testing, i.e. optics in the millimeter range, we present the measurement of binoculars in transmission, and discuss the measured wave aberrations and imaging quality. By repeating the measurement at different wavelengths, information on chromatic effects is retrieved. A task that is often tackled using Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors is the alignment of collimation optics in front of a light source. In case of a micro-optical collimation unit with a 1/e² beam diameter of ca. 1mm, we need adapted relay optics for suitable beam expansion and well-defined imaging conditions. In this example, we will discuss the alignment process and effects of the relay optics magnification, as well as typical performance data. Oftentimes, micro optics are fabricated not as single pieces, but as mass optics, e.g. by lithographic processes. Thus, in order to reduce tooling and alignment time, an automated test procedure is necessary. We present an approach for the automated testing of wafer- or tray-based micro optics, and discuss transmission and reflection measurement capabilities. Exemplary performance data is shown for a sample type with 30 microns in diameter, where typical repeatabilities of a few nanometers (rms) are reached.

  2. Optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.; Trautman, A.

    1988-01-01

    The geometry of classical physics is Lorentzian; but weaker geometries are often more appropriate: null geodesics and electromagnetic fields, for example, are well known to be objects of conformal geometry. To deal with a single null congruence, or with the radiative electromagnetic fields associated with it, even less is needed: flag geometry for the first, optical geometry, with which this paper is chiefly concerned, for the second. The authors establish a natural one-to-one correspondence between optical geometries, considered locally, and three-dimensional Cauchy-Riemann structures. A number of Lorentzian geometries are shown to be equivalent from the optical point of view. For example the Goedel universe, the Taub-NUT metric and Hauser's twisting null solution have an optical geometry isomorphic to the one underlying the Robinson congruence in Minkowski space. The authors present general results on the problem of lifting a CR structure to a Lorentz manifold and, in particular, to Minkowski space; and exhibit the relevance of the deviation form to this problem

  3. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2008-01-01

    In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Metamaterials- Polarization Techniques- Linear Baisotropic Mediums- Ultrafast Optical Pulses- Quantum Imaging- Point-Spread Funcions- Discrete Wigner Functions

  4. Structurally uniform and atomically precise carbon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Yasutomo; Ito, Hideto; Itami, Kenichiro

    2016-01-01

    Nanometre-sized carbon materials consisting of benzene units oriented in unique geometric patterns, hereafter named nanocarbons, conduct electricity, absorb and emit light, and exhibit interesting magnetic properties. Spherical fullerene C60, cylindrical carbon nanotubes and sheet-like graphene are representative forms of nanocarbons, and theoretical simulations have predicted several exotic 3D nanocarbon structures. At present, synthetic routes to nanocarbons mainly lead to mixtures of molecules with a range of different structures and properties, which cannot be easily separated or refined into pure forms. Some researchers believe that it is impossible to synthesize these materials in a precise manner. Obtaining ‘pure’ nanocarbons is a great challenge in the field of nanocarbon science, and the construction of structurally uniform nanocarbons, ideally as single molecules, is crucial for the development of functional materials in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and biomedical applications. This Review highlights the organic chemistry approach — more specifically, bottom-up construction with atomic precision — that is currently the most promising strategy towards this end.

  5. Optical analogy. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The authors report the study of conditions under which light attenuation (reflection, diffusion, absorption) and the attenuation of some radiations (notably thermal neutrons) can be described with analogical calculations. The analogy between light physical properties and neutron properties is not searched for, but the analogy between their attenuation characteristics. After having discussed this possible analogy, they propose a mathematical formulation of neutron and optical phenomena which could theoretically justify the optical analogy. The second part reports a more practical study of optics problems such as the study of simple optics materials and illumination measurements, or more precisely the study of angular distributions of optical reflections, a determination of such angular distributions, and an experimental determination of the albedo

  6. Imaging of Stellar Surfaces with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    Imaging stellar surfaces requires aperture diameters of sometimes hundreds of meters. In general, the diffraction limited angular resolution of an aper ...many practical complications of large aper - tures, ranging from the mechanical problems of building and supporting large mirrors to the computational...appropriate observatory layout and a data ac- quisition system tailored to the types of observations, as well as specific data processing techniques

  7. Precision Vapor Deposited Coatings for Detector and Optical Coupling Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multilayer thin films comprised of superconductors, normal metals, and dielectrics will be investigated. Fabrication of nanoporous metals for use as a stable...

  8. High-Precision Optical Interferometry and Application to Be Stars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tycner, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    .... For certain classes of objects such as emission-line sources or binary systems, the new technique allows the calibration corrections and source characteristics to be obtained from the observations...

  9. Precise determination of micromotion for trapped-ion optical clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J.; Partner, H. L.; Burgermeister, T.; Mehlstäubler, T. E.

    2015-09-01

    As relative systematic frequency uncertainties in trapped-ion spectroscopy are approaching the low 10-18 range, motional frequency shifts account for a considerable fraction of the uncertainty budget. Micromotion, a driven motion fundamentally connected to the principle of the Paul trap, is a particular concern in these systems. In this article, we experimentally investigate at this level three common methods for minimizing and determining the micromotion amplitude. We develop a generalized model for a quantitative application of the photon-correlation technique, which is applicable in the commonly encountered regime where the transition linewidth is comparable to the rf drive frequency. We show that a fractional frequency uncertainty due to the 2nd-order Doppler shift below |Δν/ν|=1 ×10-20 can be achieved. The quantitative evaluation is verified in an interleaved measurement with the conceptually simpler resolved sideband method. If not performed deep within the Lamb-Dicke regime, a temperature-dependent offset at the level of 10-19 is observed in resolved sideband measurements due to sampling of intrinsic micromotion. By direct comparison with photon-correlation measurements, we show that the simple to implement parametric heating method is sensitive to micromotion at the level of |Δν/ν|=1 ×10-20 as well.

  10. Optical systems engineering - A tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the use of the systems engineering approach in the design of optical systems, noting that the use of such an approach which involves an integrated interdisciplinary approach to the development of systems is most appropriate for optics. It is shown that the high precision character of optics leads to complex and subtle effects on optical system performance, resulting from structural, thermal dynamical, control system, and manufacturing and assembly considerations. Attention is given to communication problems that often occur among users and optical engineers due to the unique factors of optical systems. It is concluded that it is essential that the optics community provide leadership to resolve communication problems and fully formalize the field of optical systems engineering.

  11. Precision Constellation Position Determination Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For a distributed aperture sensor, especially at infrared and optical wavelengths, the relative position of the aperture components must be known and controlled...

  12. Ultrafast, high precision gated integrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator has been developed by introducing new design approaches that overcome the problems associated with earlier gated integrator circuits. The very high speed is evidenced by the output settling time of less than 50 ns and 20 MHz input pulse rate. The very high precision is demonstrated by the total output offset error of less than 0.2mV and the output droop rate of less than 10{mu}V/{mu}s. This paper describes the theory of this new gated integrator circuit operation. The completed circuit test results are presented.

  13. Precision agriculture and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  14. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  15. Design and realization of test system for testing parallelism and jumpiness of optical axis of photoelectric equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-bing; Chen, Zhen-xing; Qin, Shao-gang; Song, Chun-yan; Jiang, Yun-hong

    2014-09-01

    With the development of science and technology, photoelectric equipment comprises visible system, infrared system, laser system and so on, integration, information and complication are higher than past. Parallelism and jumpiness of optical axis are important performance of photoelectric equipment,directly affect aim, ranging, orientation and so on. Jumpiness of optical axis directly affect hit precision of accurate point damage weapon, but we lack the facility which is used for testing this performance. In this paper, test system which is used fo testing parallelism and jumpiness of optical axis is devised, accurate aim isn't necessary and data processing are digital in the course of testing parallelism, it can finish directly testing parallelism of multi-axes, aim axis and laser emission axis, parallelism of laser emission axis and laser receiving axis and first acuualizes jumpiness of optical axis of optical sighting device, it's a universal test system.

  16. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  17. Precision glass molding technology for low Tg glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Yunlong; Zhang, Feng; Tian, Minqiang; Shao, Xinzheng

    2017-02-01

    Precision glass molding (PGM) technology is a cost-effective manufacturing process for high precision optical elements with complex surfaces. With this processing technology, one or more pieces of lenses may be produced through one-step molding. Due to the high efficiency of the replicative process, PGM has found wide applications in high volume production of optical elements. At present, it has been well developed and widely used in mass industry production in Japan and South Korea, but in China PGM technology research is still in the elementary stage. To develop the PGM technology, we need to conquer several technical difficulties, such as the melting technology of low Tg glasses, highprecision mold design and the corresponding machining technology and the coating technology for the molds. In this paper, we discussed the PGM technology as a complete manufacturing process, focused on the technical difficulties mentioned above, and introduced the development directions for this technology in China.

  18. CHEOPS: a space telescope for ultra-high precision photometry of exoplanet transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessa, V.; Beck, T.; Benz, W.; Broeg, C.; Ehrenreich, D.; Fortier, A.; Peter, G.; Magrin, D.; Pagano, I.; Plesseria, J.-Y.; Steller, M.; Szoke, J.; Thomas, N.; Ragazzoni, R.; Wildi, F.

    2017-11-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry whose launch readiness is expected end 2017. The CHEOPS instrument will be the first space telescope dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. By being able to point at nearly any location on the sky, it will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for a subset of those planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based spectroscopic surveys. CHEOPS will also provide precision radii for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The main science goals of the CHEOPS mission will be to study the structure of exoplanets with radii typically ranging from 1 to 6 Earth radii orbiting bright stars. With an accurate knowledge of masses and radii for an unprecedented sample of planets, CHEOPS will set new constraints on the structure and hence on the formation and evolution of planets in this mass range. To reach its goals CHEOPS will measure photometric signals with a precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time for a 9th magnitude star. This corresponds to a signal to noise of 5 for a transit of an Earth-sized planet orbiting a solar-sized star (0.9 solar radii). This precision will be achieved by using a single frame-transfer backside illuminated CCD detector cool down at 233K and stabilized within {10 mK . The CHEOPS optical design is based on a Ritchey-Chretien style telescope with 300 mm effective aperture diameter, which provides a defocussed image of the target star while minimizing straylight using a dedicated field stop and baffle system. As CHEOPS will be in a LEO orbit, straylight suppression is a key point to allow the observation of faint stars. The telescope will be the only payload on a spacecraft platform providing pointing stability of < 8

  19. Digital microwave communication engineering point-to-point microwave systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kizer, George

    2013-01-01

    The first book to cover all engineering aspects of microwave communication path design for the digital age Fixed point-to-point microwave systems provide moderate-capacity digital transmission between well-defined locations. Most popular in situations where fiber optics or satellite communication is impractical, it is commonly used for cellular or PCS site interconnectivity where digital connectivity is needed but not economically available from other sources, and in private networks where reliability is most important. Until now, no book has adequately treated all en

  20. Thickness monitoring of optical filters for DWDM applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postava, Kamil; Pistora, Jaromır; Kojima, Masashi; Kikuchi, Kazuo; Endo, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tomuo

    2003-03-24

    A method for thickness monitoring and turning-point prediction during deposition of narrow band pass optical filters (NBPF) for dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) applications is proposed. The method is based on a recurrent approach, with relative transmittance .tting, and includes partial coherence and monochromator bandpass e.ects. We show that the partial coherence e.ects in thin .lm structures are signi.cant and can not be neglected. The proposed method is applicable for precise thickness monitoring and deposition control of any complex multilayer coating.

  1. Spin and precision electroweak physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    A perspective on fundamental parameters and precision tests of the Standard Model is given. Weak neutral current reactions are discussed with emphasis on those processes involving (polarized) electrons. The role of electroweak radiative corrections in determining the top quark mass and probing for ''new physics'' is described

  2. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  3. Spin and precision electroweak physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A perspective on fundamental parameters and precision tests of the Standard Model is given. Weak neutral current reactions are discussed with emphasis on those processes involving (polarized) electrons. The role of electroweak radiative corrections in determining the top quark mass and probing for {open_quotes}new physics{close_quotes} is described.

  4. Precision Tests of Electroweak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Akhundov, Arif

    2008-01-01

    The status of the precision tests of the electroweak interactions is reviewed in this paper. An emphasis is put on the Standard Model analysis based on measurements at LEP/SLC and the Tevatron. The results of the measurements of the electroweak mixing angle in the NuTeV experiment and the future prospects are discussed.

  5. Future challenges for precision QCD

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Precision measurements at Run II of the LHC continue to demand smaller theoretical uncertainties. In this meeting we aim to bring together experts in the field to discuss current issues in the theoretical models. Topics of particular interest are Higgs and Top quark physics, new techniques for infrared subtraction and loop integrals as well as fixed order and parton shower matching beyond NLO.

  6. The road to precision oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Biankin, Andrew V.

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate goal of precision medicine is to use population-based molecular, clinical and other data to make individually tailored clinical decisions for patients, although the path to achieving this goal is not entirely clear. A new study shows how knowledge banks of patient data can be used to make individual treatment decisions in acute myeloid leukemia.

  7. Optical networks for wideband sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lin Horng

    2011-12-01

    This thesis presents the realization of novel systems for optical sensing networks with an array of long-period grating (LPG) sensors. As a launching point of the thesis, the motivation to implement optical sensing network in precisely catering LPG sensors is presented. It highlights the flexibility of the sensing network to act as the foundation in order to boost the application of the various LPG sensor design in biological and chemical sensing. After the thorough study on the various optical sensing networks, sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM) and optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) schemes are adopted in conjunction with tunable laser source (TLS) to facilitate simultaneous interrogation of the LPG sensors array. In fact, these systems are distinct to have the capability to accommodate wideband optical sensors. Specifically, the LPG sensors which is in 20nm bandwidth are identified to operate in these systems. The working principles of the systems are comprehensively elucidated in this thesis. It highlights the mathematical approach to quantify the experimental setup of the optical sensing network. Additionally, the system components of the designs are identified and methodically characterized so that the components well operate in the designed environment. A mockup has been setup to demonstrate the application in sensing of various liquid indices and analyse the response of the LPG sensors in order to evaluate the performance of the systems. Eventually, the resemblance of the demultiplexed spectral response to the pristine spectral response are quantified to have excellent agreement. Finally, the promising result consistency of the systems is verified through repeatability test.

  8. Advances in Text Mining and Visualization for Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Graciela; Sarker, Abeed; O'Connor, Karen; Greene, Casey; Liu, Hongfang

    2018-01-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), precision medicine is "an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person." Although the text mining community has explored this realm for some years, the official endorsement and funding launched in 2015 with the Precision Medicine Initiative are beginning to bear fruit. This session sought to elicit participation of researchers with strong background in text mining and/or visualization who are actively collaborating with bench scientists and clinicians for the deployment of integrative approaches in precision medicine that could impact scientific discovery and advance the vision of precision medicine as a universal, accessible approach at the point of care.

  9. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  10. Unidirectional reflectionless light propagation at exceptional points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of unidirectional reflectionless light propagation in photonic devices at exceptional points (EPs. EPs, which are branch point singularities of the spectrum, associated with the coalescence of both eigenvalues and corresponding eigenstates, lead to interesting phenomena, such as level repulsion and crossing, bifurcation, chaos, and phase transitions in open quantum systems described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Recently, it was shown that judiciously designed photonic synthetic matters could mimic the complex non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in quantum mechanics and realize unidirectional reflection at optical EPs. Unidirectional reflectionlessness is of great interest for optical invisibility. Achieving unidirectional reflectionless light propagation could also be potentially important for developing optical devices, such as optical network analyzers. Here, we discuss unidirectional reflectionlessness at EPs in both parity-time (PT-symmetric and non-PT-symmetric optical systems. We also provide an outlook on possible future directions in this field.

  11. Precise determination of protein extinction coefficients under native and denaturing conditions using SV-AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Andreas; Grassl, Kerstin; Gommert, Janine; Schlesak, Christian; Bepperling, Alexander

    2018-04-17

    The accurate determination of protein concentration is an important though non-trivial task during the development of a biopharmaceutical. The fundamental prerequisite for this is the availability of an accurate extinction coefficient. Common approaches for the determination of an extinction coefficient for a given protein are either based on the theoretical prediction utilizing the amino acid sequence or the photometric determination combined with a measurement of absolute protein concentration. Here, we report on an improved SV-AUC based method utilizing an analytical ultracentrifuge equipped with absorbance and Rayleigh interference optics. Global fitting of datasets helped to overcome some of the obstacles encountered with the traditional method employing synthetic boundary cells. Careful calculation of dn/dc values taking glycosylation and solvent composition into account allowed the determination of the extinction coefficients of monoclonal antibodies and an Fc-fusion protein under native as well as under denaturing conditions. An intra-assay precision of 0.9% and an accuracy of 1.8% compared to the theoretical value was achieved for monoclonal antibodies. Due to the large number of data points of a single dataset, no meaningful difference between the ProteomeLab XL-I and the new Optima AUC platform could be observed. Thus, the AUC-based approach offers a precise, convenient and versatile alternative to conventional methods like total amino acid analysis (AAA).

  12. Should precise numerical dating overrule glacial geomorphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Numerical age dating techniques, namely different types of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND), have achieved an impressive progress in both laboratory precision and regional calibration models during the past few decades. It is now possible to apply precise TCND even to young landforms like Late Holocene moraines, a task seemed hardly achievable just about 15 years ago. An increasing number of studies provide very precise TCND ages for boulders from Late Holocene moraines enabling related reconstruction of glacier chronologies and the interpretation of these glacial landforms in a palaeoclimatological context. These studies may also solve previous controversies about different ages assigned to moraines obtained by different dating techniques, for example relative-age dating techniques or techniques combining relative-age dating with few fixed points derived from numerical age dating. There are a few cases, for example Mueller Glacier and nearby long debris-covered valley glacier in Aoraki/Mt.Cook National Park (Southern Alps, New Zealand), where the apparent "supremacy" of TCND-ages seem to overrule glacial geomorphological principles. Enabled by a comparatively high number of individual boulders precisely dated by TCND, moraine ridges on those glacier forelands have been primarily clustered on basis of these boulder ages rather than on their corresponding morphological position. To the extreme, segments of a particular moraine complex morphologically and sedimentologically proven to be formed during one event have become split and classified as two separate "moraines" on different parts of the glacier foreland. One ledge of another moraine complex contains 2 TCND-sampled boulders apparently representing two separate "moraines"-clusters of an age difference in the order of 1,500 years. Although recently criticism has been raised regarding the non-contested application of the arithmetic mean for calculation of TCND-ages for individual moraines, this

  13. Active Figure Control Effects on Mounting Strategy for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Atkins, Carolyn; Roche, Jacqueline M.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing development efforts at MSFC, we have begun to investigate mounting strategies for highly nested xray optics in both full-shell and segmented configurations. The analytical infrastructure for this effort also lends itself to investigation of active strategies. We expect that a consequence of active figure control on relatively thin substrates is that errors are propagated to the edges, where they might affect the effective precision of the mounting points. Based upon modeling, we describe parametrically, the conditions under which active mounts are preferred over fixed ones, and the effect of active figure corrections on the required number, locations, and kinematic characteristics of mounting points.

  14. Towards High Productivity in Precision Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Brian Rowe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, substantial advances have been made, based on improved understanding of the requirements of grinding processes, machines, control systems, materials, abrasives, wheel preparation, coolants, lubricants, and coolant delivery. This paper reviews a selection of areas in which the application of scientific principles and engineering ingenuity has led to the development of new grinding processes, abrasives, tools, machines, and systems. Topics feature a selection of areas where relationships between scientific principles and new techniques are yielding improved productivity and better quality. These examples point towards further advances that can fruitfully be pursued. Applications in modern grinding technology range from high-precision kinematics for grinding very large lenses and reflectors through to medium size grinding machine processes and further down to grinding very small components used in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS devices. The importance of material issues is emphasized for the range of conventional engineering steels, through to aerospace materials, ceramics, and composites. It is suggested that future advances in productivity will include the wider application of artificial intelligence and robotics to improve precision, process efficiency, and features required to integrate grinding processes into wider manufacturing systems.

  15. Precise object tracking under deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This frame-work focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling , rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results.

  16. Precision electroweak physics at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannelli, M.

    1994-12-01

    Copious event statistics, a precise understanding of the LEP energy scale, and a favorable experimental situation at the Z{sup 0} resonance have allowed the LEP experiments to provide both dramatic confirmation of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions and to place substantially improved constraints on the parameters of the model. The author concentrates on those measurements relevant to the electroweak sector. It will be seen that the precision of these measurements probes sensitively the structure of the Standard Model at the one-loop level, where the calculation of the observables measured at LEP is affected by the value chosen for the top quark mass. One finds that the LEP measurements are consistent with the Standard Model, but only if the mass of the top quark is measured to be within a restricted range of about 20 GeV.

  17. Precise Object Tracking under Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results. xiiiThe precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high

  18. Precision Strike Annual Programs Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-11

    Damage Area*• GPS / INS Navigation + SAL Terminal • Precise əm CEP • Low Probability of Collateral Damage • GPS Extends Glide Range to 10+km • Agile...Page 311 Mar 09 Unclassified Unclassified Viper Strike Lineage Viper Strike SAL Seeker Proof of Principle Demos I & II Hunter-Viper Strike Quick...Information Management • CCA - Clinger Cohen Act • RIT- Rapid Improvement Team • BMMP – Business Management Modernization Program • BTA/ERAM – Business

  19. Precision titration mini-calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensor, D.; Kullberg, L.; Choppin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and test of a small volume calorimeter of high precision and simple design is described. The calorimeter operates with solution sample volumes in the range of 3 to 5 ml. The results of experiments on the entropy changes for two standard reactions: (1) reaction of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane with hydrochloric acid and (2) reaction between mercury(II) and bromide ions are reported to confirm the accuracy and overall performance of the calorimeter

  20. Higgs Precision Measurements with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of the Higgs boson, precise measurements of its properties are of particular importance to understand the true nature of the found particle, which could be the Standard Model predicted Higgs, or indeed offering to be a portal for new physics beyond the Standard Model. In this talk measurement of the mass, cross sections and the couplings of the Higgs boson in bosonic and fermionic decay channels with the ATLAS detector will be presented and compared with Standard Model predictions.