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Sample records for point thomson area

  1. A parallelized Python based Multi-Point Thomson Scattering analysis in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jared; Diallo, Ahmed; Leblanc, Benoit

    2014-10-01

    Multi-Point Thomson Scattering (MPTS) is a reliable and accurate method of finding the temperature, density, and pressure of a magnetically confined plasma. Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers are fired into the plasma with a frequency of 60 Hz, and the light is Doppler shifted by Thomson scattering. Polychromators on the midplane of the tokamak pick up the light at various radii/scattering angles, and the avalanche photodiode's voltages are added to an MDSplus tree for later analysis. This project ports and optimizes the prior serial IDL MPTS code into a well-documented Python package that runs in parallel. Since there are 30 polychromators in the current NSTX setup (12 more will be added when NSTX-U is completed), using parallelism offers vast savings in performance. NumPy and SciPy further accelerate numerical calculations and matrix operations, Matplotlib and PyQt make an intuitive GUI with plots of the output, and Multiprocessing parallelizes the computationally intensive calculations. The Python package was designed with portability and flexibility in mind so it can be adapted for use in any polychromator-based MPTS system.

  2. The real time multi point Thomson scattering diagnostic at NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laggner, Florian; Kolemen, Egemen; Diallo, Ahmed; Leblanc, Benoit; Rozenblat, Roman; Tchilinguirian, Greg; NSTX-U team Team

    2017-10-01

    This contribution presents the upgrade of the multi point Thomson scattering (MPTS) diagnostic for real time application. As a key diagnostic at NSTX-U, the MPTS diagnostic simultaneously measures the electron density (ne) and electron temperature (Te) profiles of a plasma discharge. Therefore, this powerful diagnostic can directly access the electron pressure of the plasma. Currently, only post-discharge evaluation of the data is available, however, since the plasma pressure is one important drive for instabilities, real time measurements of this quantities would be beneficial for plasma control. In a first step, ten MPTS channels were equipped with real time electronics, which improve the data acquisition rate by five orders of magnitude. The commissioning of the system is ongoing and first benchmarks of the real time evaluation routines against the standard, post-discharge evaluation show promising results: The Te as well as ne profiles of both types of analyses agree within their uncertainties. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-SC0015878 and DE-SC0015480.

  3. Progress on the HIT--II Multi-Point Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamp, W. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Smith, R. J.; Nelson, B. A.; Rogers, J. A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Phillips, P. E.

    2002-11-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus (HIT--II) multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic (MPTS) has been designed and built to determine electron temperature and density at 11 radial positions at one time during the plasma discharge. The system includes collection optics and a Littrow mount spectrometer on loan from Princeton, and a 1 GW laser and multi-anode microchannel plate detector (MCP) from the University of Texas. The MPTS is currently operational at 6 spatial positions, indicating electron temperatures greater than 100 eV in transformer driven plasmas. The remaining 5 spatial positions are overloaded by stray laser light. Light reemerging from the beam dump is the primary suspect for stray light. A new beam dump has been constructed in an effort to reduce the stray light and increase the number of operational channels. A new diffraction grating has been constructed to increase the dispersion of the spectrometer to counteract the excessively broad frequency response of the MCP. Plans for MPTS operation include the characterization of density and temperature evolution across reconnection events in CHI driven plasmas, as well as temperature and density characterizations of optimized CHI and transformer driven plasmas in the HIT--II device.

  4. Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suter, Aude-Annick; Itin, Peter; Heinimann, Karl

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poikiloderma is defined as a chronic skin condition presenting with a combination of punctate atrophy, areas of depigmentation, hyperpigmentation and telangiectasia. In a variety of hereditary syndromes such as Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), Clericuzio-type poikiloderma...

  5. Heldi Thomson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Teaduspreemia autorite kollektiivile arstiteaduse alal töö "Vähktõbi Eestis 1968-1992: haigestumus, levimus, elulemus ja suremus" eest - Mati Rahu (kollektiivi juht), Tiiu Aarelaid, Kaja Gornoi, Heldi Thomson

  6. The Kelvin-Thomson atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The examination of the contributions made by Kelvin and later by J.J. Thomson to knowledge of the structure of the atom, which was carried out in Pt. I of this article (Phys. Educ.; 12:326 (1977)), is here extended to the structure of atoms containing more than six electrons, the point at which Thomson's contribution becomes important. It is shown that it is possible to have a mechanically stable ring of more than three electrons provided the ring is rotating. Some properties predicted for elements in the Kelvin-Thomson model are also examined. (U.K.)

  7. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas (Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents point equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas in EPA New England. This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally...

  8. Rothmund - Thomson Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma N. L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is a rare geno-photodermatosis of children. Poikilodermatous cutaneous changes, growth retardation, juvenile cataract and high incidence of malignancy are its classical features. A Thomson type of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome with characteristic poikiloderma congenitale, growth retardation, absence of juvenile cataract and parental non-consanguinity is described in an 8 year old Indian girl.

  9. LIDAR Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This collection contains 21 papers on the application and development of LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Thomson scattering techniques for the determination of spatially resolved electron temperature and density in magnetic confinement experiments, particularly tokamaks. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This point theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as points. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  11. The Thomson scattering system at DANTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadeberg, M.

    1983-08-01

    The construction and operation of the 90 deg Thomson Scattering diagnostic at DANTE is described. The system is based on a double-pulse ruby laser and a three channel spectrometer. Two single point measurements can be made during each plasma discharge. (Auth.)

  12. Leiper, Prof. Robert Thomson

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1938 Honorary. Leiper, Prof. Robert Thomson. Date of birth: 17 April 1881. Date of death: 21 May 1969. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the ...

  13. Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suter, Aude-Annick; Itin, Peter; Heinimann, Karl

    2016-01-01

    with neutropenia (PN) and Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC), poikiloderma occurs as one of the main symptoms. Here, we report on genotype and phenotype data of a cohort of 44 index patients with RTS or related genodermatoses. METHODS: DNA samples from 43 patients were screened for variants in the 21 exons of the RECQL4...... to assess the patients' cancer risk, to avoid continuous and inconclusive clinical evaluations and to clarify the recurrence risk in the families. Additionally, it shows that the phenotype of more than 50% of the patients with suspected Rothmund-Thomson disease may be due to mutations in other genes raising...

  14. Bobina de Thomson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Munguía Aguilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los instrumentos más didácticos en la enseñanza de las leyes del electromagnetismo es la denominada Bobina de Thomson. Con ella se pueden realizar diferentes experimentos sobre las leyes de Ampere y Faraday. En el presente trabajo se muestra su funcionamiento, se explica el mecanismo de levitación del anillo de inducción, se presenta los detalles de un modelo construido y se mencionan otros experimentos que enriquecen su funcionalidad.

  15. Rothmund-thomson Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Z Mani

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome in an 8-year-old Indian male is reported. The patient had bilaterally symmertrical superficial pigmentary deposition of thin nebulae in the lower one-third of the cornea and oonjunctiva. Urinary togmphy rcvmw a dibasic aininoacid with excretion of arginine, lysine;.hmncicystine and glycine. Other features of interest in this patient were onset at the age of 8 days and start of the disease on the hands and feet rather than face. The patient also developed repeated ulcerations on the hands and feet subsequent to minor trauma.

  16. Equipment of Thomson scattering measurement on DIVA plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kumagai, Katsuaki; Funahashi, Akimasa; Matoba, Thoru; Sengoku, Seio

    1980-02-01

    Equipment of Thomson scattering measurement using ruby-laser light is explained. DIVA device was shut down in September 1979; it gave numerous fruitful experimental results during its five years operation. We measured the profiles of electron temperature and density with the Thomson scattering equipment, which played an important role in research of the energy confinement and heating characteristics. In Thomson scattering measurements on DIVA, studies and improvements were made for reduction of stray light, increase of measuring points and data processing. The profile of electron temperature and density were thus measured successful. In this report is given an over-all view of the Thomson scattering equipment together with the above improvements. As two representative examples, the measured results of electron temperature profiles on DIVA plasma under divertor operation and low-q discharge respectively are described. (author)

  17. Multichannel Thomson scattering apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretz, N.; Dimock, D.; Foote, V.; Johnson, D.; Long, D.; Tolnas, E.

    1977-07-01

    A Thomson scattering apparatus for measuring the electron temperature and density along a 90 cm diameter of the PLT plasma has been built. A wide angle objective images the 3 mm x 900 mm ruby laser beam onto an image dissector which rearranges the 300 : 1 image to 20 : 1 forming the input slit of a spectrometer. The stigmatic spectrometer provides 20 wavelength elements of approximately 70 A each. A micro-channel-plate image intensifier optically coupled to a cooled SIT tube provides detection with single frame linearity and 1000 : 1 dynamic range. Spatial profiles of N/sub e/ and T/sub e/ in the range 10 13 - 10 14 cm -3 and 0.05 - 3 keV have an accuracy of 30 √10 13 /N/sub e/ (cm -3 ) percent per 1.2 cm element

  18. Design and development of the large helical device TV Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, I.; Narihara, K.; Funaba, H.; Hayashi, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a television (TV) Thomson scattering and installed it on the large helical device (LHD). The LHD TV Thomson scattering consists of a yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser, beam transport system, scattered light collection optics, spectrometer, intensified charge coupled device camera, and data acquisition system. The spatial and temporal resolutions are about 7 mm and a few seconds, respectively. The temporal resolution of the LHD TV Thomson scattering is not good, but will be enough for long-time, steady-state discharge experiments in LHD. In the initial experiments, we measured electron temperature profiles of LHD plasmas at five spatial points. It has been found that the electron temperatures measured by the LHD TV Thomson scattering reasonably agree with those obtained by the LHD YAG Thomson scattering. We will report the details of the LHD TV Thomson scattering system with some experimental data

  19. POINT CLOUD ORIENTED SHOULDER LINE EXTRACTION IN LOESS HILLY AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Min

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder line is the significant line in hilly area of Loess Plateau in China, dividing the surface into positive and negative terrain (P-N terrains. Due to the point cloud vegetation removal methods of P-N terrains are different, there is an imperative need for shoulder line extraction. In this paper, we proposed an automatic shoulder line extraction method based on point cloud. The workflow is as below: (i ground points were selected by using a grid filter in order to remove most of noisy points. (ii Based on DEM interpolated by those ground points, slope was mapped and classified into two classes (P-N terrains, using Natural Break Classified method. (iii The common boundary between two slopes is extracted as shoulder line candidate. (iv Adjust the filter gird size and repeat step i-iii until the shoulder line candidate matches its real location. (v Generate shoulder line of the whole area. Test area locates in Madigou, Jingbian County of Shaanxi Province, China. A total of 600 million points are acquired in the test area of 0.23km2, using Riegl VZ400 3D Laser Scanner in August 2014. Due to the limit Granted computing performance, the test area is divided into 60 blocks and 13 of them around the shoulder line were selected for filter grid size optimizing. The experiment result shows that the optimal filter grid size varies in diverse sample area, and a power function relation exists between filter grid size and point density. The optimal grid size was determined by above relation and shoulder lines of 60 blocks were then extracted. Comparing with the manual interpretation results, the accuracy of the whole result reaches 85%. This method can be applied to shoulder line extraction in hilly area, which is crucial for point cloud denoising and high accuracy DEM generation.

  20. Vertical Pointing Weather Radar for Built-up Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

      A cost effective vertical pointing X-band weather radar (VPR) has been tested for measurement of precipitation in urban areas. Stationary tests indicate that the VPR performs well compared to horizontal weather radars, such as the local area weather radars (LAWR). The test illustrated...

  1. Operation of the NSTX Thomson Scattering System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B.P.; Bell, R.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Hoffman, D.E.; Long, D.C.; Palladino, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The NSTX multi-point Thomson scattering system has been in operation for nearly two years and provides routine Te(R,t) and ne(R,t) measurements. The laser beams from two 30-Hz Nd:YAG lasers are imaged by a spherical mirror onto 36 fiber-optics bundles. In the present configuration, the output ends of 20 of these bundles are instrumented with filter polychromators and avalanche photodiode detectors. In this paper, we discuss the laser implementation and the installed collection optics. We follow with examples of raw and analyzed data. We close with some comments about calibration

  2. On the improved point-to-point calculations for noise mapping in shielded urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornikx, M.; Forssen, J.; Ogren, M.; Botteldooren, D.; Renterghem, T. van; Wei, W.; Salomons, E.

    2012-01-01

    Noise mapping of urban areas according to standardized engineering calculation methods systematically results in an underestimation of noise levels at areas shielded from direct exposure to noise, such as inner yards. In these methods, road traffic lanes are represented by point sources and noise

  3. Investigating pointing tasks across angularly coupled display areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennecke, Fabian; De Luca, Alexander; Nguyen, Ngo Dieu Huong

    2013-01-01

    user performance still hold – in particular when pointing is performed across differently oriented areas. To answer this question, we conducted an experiment on an angularly coupled display – the Curve – with two input conditions: direct touch and indirect mouse pointer. Our findings show......Pointing tasks are a crucial part of today’s graphical user interfaces. They are well understood for flat displays and most prominently are modeled through Fitts’ Law. For novel displays (e.g., curved displays with multi-purpose areas), however, it remains unclear whether such models for predicting...... that the target position affects overall pointing speed and offset in both conditions. However, we also found that Fitts’ Law can in fact still be used to predict performance as on flat displays. Our results help designers to optimize user interfaces on angularly coupled displays when pointing tasks are involved....

  4. EDITORIAL: J J Thomson's Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Steve

    1997-07-01

    . One of the greatest of these was Paul Dirac, a marvellously reticent man with an eye for mathematical beauty. David Miller, one of the winners of William Waldegrave's 'Higgs Challenge' in 1993, shows how Dirac constructed his famous equation, and how it describes the behaviour of the electron and its neutrino and led to the prediction of antimatter and the explanation of spin. He draws an interesting parallel between Dirac's negative energy electrons and the contemporary development of solid state physics. G P Thomson, JJ's son, also got in on the act: father got the Nobel Prize (1906) for showing the electron is a particle and son (1937) won it for showing it also behaves like a wave! This has had a profound impact both on the interpretation and experimental testing of quantum theory and in the way we use electrons. Electron waves are essential to understand solid state physics and wave-like properties are fundamental to the behaviour of many electronic devices. But it is not just in physics and electronics that the electron has been revolutionary, and John Squire's article reviews the use of the electron microscope in biology. Having crossed the border into biology (as so many physicists have done this century) it should be pointed out that electron physics also caused a paradigm shift in chemistry. Electronic structure made the Periodic Table comprehensible and led to a theory of bonding that accounts for the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of many materials. This is described in Peter Hughes's article. Which brings me back to JJT and those sound-bites, and the Royal Institution for that matter.... On 10 March 1905 JJT gave another of his Friday Evening Discourses. This one was called 'The Structure of the Atom'. In it he developed a model suggested by Lord Kelvin, in which negative corpuscles arrange themselves in a stable configuration within a sphere of positively charged fluid. This is the infamous `plum pudding'. There is not room to go into

  5. The Gibbs equation versus the Kelvin and the Gibbs-Thomson equations to describe nucleation and equilibrium of nano-materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptay, George

    2012-03-01

    The Kelvin equation, the Gibbs equation and the Gibbs-Thomson equation are compared. It is shown that the Kelvin equation (on equilibrium vapor pressure above nano-droplets) can be derived if the inner pressure due to the curvature (from the Laplace equation) is substituted incorrectly into the external pressure term of the Gibbs equation. Thus, the Kelvin equation is excluded in its present form. The Gibbs-Thomson equation (on so-called equilibrium melting point of a nano-crystal) is an analog of the Kelvin equation, and thus it is also excluded in its present form. The contradiction between the critical nucleus size (from the Gibbs equation) and the so-called equilibrium melting point of nano-crystals (from the Gibbs-Thomson equation) is explained. The contradiction is resolved if the Gibbs equation is applied to study both nucleation and equilibrium of nano-crystals. Thus, the difference in the behavior of nano-systems compared to macro-systems is due to their high specific surface area (Gibbs) and not to the high curvature of their interface (Kelvin). Modified versions of the Kelvin equation and the Gibbs-Thomson equation are derived from the Gibbs equation for phases with a general shape and for a spherical phase.

  6. Digital filter polychromator for Thomson scattering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solokha, V.; Kurskiev, G.; Mukhin, E.; Tolstyakov, S.; Babinov, N.; Bazhenov, A.; Bukreev, I.; Dmitriev, A.; Kochergin, M.; Koval, A.; Litvinov, A.; Masyukevich, S.; Razdobarin, A.; Samsonov, D.; Semenov, V.; Solovey, V.; Chernakov, P.; Chernakov, Al; Chernakov, An

    2018-02-01

    Incoherent Thomson scattering diagnostics (TS) is a proven technique capable of reliable and robust instantaneous measurement of electron temperature (T e) and density (n e) local values in wide area of plasma physics experiments: from hall-effect thrusters to tokamaks and stellarators. The TS cross section is very low (˜ 6.7 × 10-30 m2), and the corresponding TS signals, measured in fusion experiments, are usually of ˜10-15 of incident power. This paper represents 6 (7) channel filter polychromator equipped with avalanche photodiodes and low-noise preamplifiers. The incorporated ADC system (5 GS/s, 12 bit) provides digital optical output preventing acquisition system from electromagnetic interferences. The calibration techniques and T e, n e with corresponding errors measured in Globus-M plasma are given for the digital polychromator test-bench.

  7. Downscaling remotely sensed imagery using area-to-point cokriging and multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunwei; Atkinson, Peter M.; Zhang, Jingxiong

    2015-03-01

    A cross-scale data integration method was developed and tested based on the theory of geostatistics and multiple-point geostatistics (MPG). The goal was to downscale remotely sensed images while retaining spatial structure by integrating images at different spatial resolutions. During the process of downscaling, a rich spatial correlation model in the form of a training image was incorporated to facilitate reproduction of similar local patterns in the simulated images. Area-to-point cokriging (ATPCK) was used as locally varying mean (LVM) (i.e., soft data) to deal with the change of support problem (COSP) for cross-scale integration, which MPG cannot achieve alone. Several pairs of spectral bands of remotely sensed images were tested for integration within different cross-scale case studies. The experiment shows that MPG can restore the spatial structure of the image at a fine spatial resolution given the training image and conditioning data. The super-resolution image can be predicted using the proposed method, which cannot be realised using most data integration methods. The results show that ATPCK-MPG approach can achieve greater accuracy than methods which do not account for the change of support issue.

  8. Special Important Aspects of the Thomson Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkevych, Igor; Velázquez, J. E.; Titov, Oleg Yu.; Gurevich, Yuri G.

    2018-03-01

    A comprehensive study of the mechanisms of heating and cooling originating from an electrical current in semiconductor devices is reported. The variation in temperature associated with the Peltier effect is not related to the presence of heat sources and sinks if the heat flux is correctly determined. The Thomson effect is commonly regarded as a heat source/sink proportional to the Thomson coefficient, which is added to the Joule heating. In the present work, we will show that this formulation of the Thomson effect is not sufficiently clear. When the heat flux is correctly defined, the Thomson heat source/sink is proportional to the Seebeck coefficient. In the conditions in which the Peltier effect takes place, the temperature gradient is created, and, consequently, the Thomson effect will occur naturally.

  9. Emergency response guide for Point Lepreau area residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The design, construction and operating procedures of CANDU nuclear generating stations ensure that an accident causing a significant risk to people living near these stations is extremely unlikely. However, despite the excellent safety record of nuclear stations, it is common practice to prepare an emergency plan for such facilities. In this regard, The New Brunswick Emergency Measures Organization is responsible for developing and implementing the Off-Site Emergency Plan for the Point Lepreau Generating Station. Work for the Off-Site Emergency Plan began in 1976 and, under the leadership of N.B.E.M.O., a number of government agencies co-operated in this project. The completed plan thus represents agreement among a number of Province of New Brunswick departments, various community groups, NB Power, and representatives of the Government of Canada. Also, information gathered in the annual door-to-door survey of the Lepreau area enabled government planners to make specialized arrangements such as an extensive warden service, a siren system, and evacuation assistance for the disabled

  10. LIDAR Thomson scattering diagnostic on JET (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzmann, H.; Bundgaard, J.; Gadd, A.

    1988-01-01

    By combining the time-of-flight or LIDAR principle with a Thomson backscatter diagnostic, spatial profiles of the electron temperature and density are measured in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. This technique was realized for the first time on the JET tokamak. A ruby laser (3-J pulse energy, 300-ps pulse duration, 0.5-Hz repetition rate) together with a 700-MHz bandwidth detection and registration system yields a spatial resolution of about 12 cm. A spectrometer with six channels in the wavelength range 400--800 nm gives a dynamic range of the temperature measurements of 0.3--20 keV. The stray light problem in the backscatter geometry is overcome by spectral discrimination and gating of the photomultipliers. A ruby filter in the spectral channel containing the laser wavelength allows calibration of the vignetting along the line of sight by means of Raman scattering, enabling the measurement of density profiles. The low level of background signal due to the short integration time for a single spatial point yields low statistical errors (ΔT/sub e/ /T/sub e/ ≅6%, Δn/sub e/ /n/sub e/ ≅4% at T/sub e/ = 6 keV, n/sub e/ = 3 x 10/sup 19/ m/sup -3/ ). Goodness-of-fit tests indicate that the systematic errors are within the same limits. The system is described and examples of measurements are given

  11. Thomson parabola ion energy analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobble, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Offermann, Dustin T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mastrosimone, Dino [UNIV OF ROCHESTER

    2010-01-01

    A new, versatile Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) analyzer has been designed and constructed for use at the OMEGA-EP facility. Multi-MeV ions from EP targets are transmitted through a W pinhole into a (5- or 8-kG) magnetic field and subsequently through a parallel electric field of up to 30 kV/cm. The ion drift region may have a user-selected length of 10, 50, or 80 cm. With the highest fields, 500-Me V C{sup 6+} and C{sup 5+} may be resolved. TPIE is TIM-mounted at OMEGA-EP and is qualified in all existing TIMs. The instrument runs on pressure-interlocked 15-VDC power available in EP TIM carts. It may be inserted to within several inches of the target to attain sufficient flux for a measurement. For additional flux control, the user may select a square-aperture W pinhole of 0.004-inch or 0.010-inch. The detector consists of CR-39 backed by an image plate. The fully relativistic design code and design features are discussed. Ion spectral results from first use at OMEGA-EP are expected.

  12. Progress in development of the advanced Thomson scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatae, T; Naito, O; Howard, J; Ebizuka, N; Yoshida, H; Nakatsuka, M; Fujita, H; Kajita, S; Narihara, K; Yamada, I; Funaba, H; Hirano, Y; Koguchi, H

    2010-01-01

    We have been studied the advanced Thomson scattering diagnostics from viewpoints of new concepts, laser technology and spectrum analysis. This paper summarizes results of development on technologies for advanced Thomson scattering diagnostics.

  13. Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, P M; Crowley, B J B; Gericke, D O; Regan, S P; Gregori, G

    2016-04-12

    Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems.

  14. Spatial Expansion and Automation of the Pegasus Thomson Scattering Diagnostic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    The Pegasus Thomson scattering diagnostic system has recently undergone modifications to increase the spatial range of the diagnostic and automate the Thomson data collection process. Two multichannel spectrometers have been added to the original configuration, providing a total of 24 data channels to view the plasma volume. The new system configuration allows for observation of three distinct regions of the plasma: the local helicity injection (LHI) source (R ~ 67-73.8 cm), the plasma edge (R ~ 51.5-57.6 cm), and the plasma core (R ~ 35-41.1 cm). Each spectrometer utilizes a volume-phase holographic (VPH) grating and a gated-intensified CCD camera. The edge and the LHI spectrometers have been fitted with low-temperature VPH gratings to cover Te = 10 - 100 eV, while the core spectrometer has been fitted with a high-temperature VPH grating to cover Te = 0 . 1 - 1 . 0 keV. The additional spectrometers have been calibrated to account for detector flatness, detector linearity, and vignetting. Operation of the Thomson system has been overhauled to utilize LabVIEW software to synchronize the major components of the Thomson system with the Pegasus shot cycle and to provide intra-shot beam alignment. Multi-point Thomson scattering measurements will be obtained in the aforementioned regions of LHI and Ohmic discharges and will be compared to Langmuir probe measurements. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  15. Recent improvements in Thomson scattering data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Lazarus, E.A.

    1980-04-01

    A new profile analysis package for use with the Thomson scattering data on ISX-B has recently been implemented. The primary feature of this package is a weighted least squares fitting of temperature and density data to generate a representative curve, as opposed to the previous hand-fitting technique. The changes will automate the manner in which data are transmitted and manipulated, without affecting the calculational techniques previously used. The computer programs have also been used to estimate the sensitivity of various plasma quantities to the accuracy of the Thomson scattering data

  16. Exploration of quantitative sensory testing in latent trigger points and referred pain areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Arías-Buría, José L.; Courtney, Carol A.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate somato-sensory nerve fibre function by applying different quantitative sensory testing including thermal, mechanical and vibration thresholds over latent trigger points (TrP) and in its associated referred pain area. METHODS: A total of 20 subjects with unilateral latent......P area and contra-lateral mirror point compared to their respectively referred pain areas. Finally, VT was higher over the TrP area than in the referred pain area and over both mirror contra-lateral points. DISCUSSION: Assessing sensory changes over latent myofascial TrPs reveal mechanical hyperesthesia...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. 334.1400 Section 334.1400 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area... the Officer in Charge, Fleet Area Control and Surveillance Facility, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 96860-7625...

  18. The ITER Thomson scattering core LIDAR diagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naylor, G.A.; Scannell, R.; Beurskens, M.; Walsh, M.J.; Pastor, I.; Donné, A.J.H.; Snijders, B.; Biel, W.; Meszaros, B.; Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Marot, L.

    2012-01-01

    The central electron temperature and density of the ITER plasma may be determined by Thomson scattering. A LIDAR topology is proposed in order to minimize the port access required of the ITER vacuum vessel. By using a LIDAR technique, a profile of the electron temperature and density can be

  19. JJ Thomson-A'Thinking'Experimentalist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. J. J. Thomson - A 'Thinking' Experimentalist. Rohini M Godbole. Article-in-a-Box Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 2-4. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/12/0002-0004 ...

  20. JJ Thomson-A'Thinking'Experimentalist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. J. J. Thomson - A 'Thinking' Experimentalist. Rohini Godbole. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 55-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/12/0055-0057 ...

  1. On some Challenges of Thomson Scattering Measurement in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Benoit

    2008-11-01

    The large field of view of the Multi-Point Thomson Scattering (MPTS) diagnostic, on the horizontal midplane of the NTSX device, makes the installation of a viewing dump unpractical. Hence one challenge that sometimes occurs during measurement is the presence of high background radiation, which can precludes normal operation of the diagnostic, particularly since the inception of lithium evaporation. A palliative measure has been the installation of polarizer into the viewing optics, which successfully increased the detection dynamic range in presence of high background radiation. Nevertheless cases still occur when detection saturation is present. Some background radiation sources have been identified to be plasma-wall interaction and metallic impurity accumulation. Thomson scattering analysis with a reduced number of spectral channels is being considered as a means to deal with high background-light plasmas. Another challenge recently appeared in the form of significant window coating, observed in 2007 and 2008. An in-situ illumination apparatus has been installed to monitor the transmission during the 2008 run. Details and discussions will be presented along with the effects on the Te and ne measurements. This work is supported by United States DOE contract DE-AC02- 76CH03073.

  2. ITER Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Larsen, Axel Wright; Meo, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The EFDA Contract 04-1213 with Risø National Laboratory concerning a detailed integrated design of a Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic for ITER was signed on 31 December 2004. In 2003 the Risø CTS group finished a feasibility study and a conceptual design of an ITER Fast Ion...... Collective Thomson Scattering System (Contract 01.654) [1, 2]. The purpose of the CTS diagnostic is to measure the distribution function of fast ions in the plasma. The feasibility study demonstrated that the only system that can fully meet the ITER measurement requirements for confined fusion alphas is a 60...... GHz system. The study showed that with two powerful microwave sources of this frequency (gyrotron) and two antenna systems, one on the low field side (LFS) and one on the high field side (HFS), it should be possible to resolve the distribution function of fast ions both for perpendicular and parallel...

  3. The SPARC-LAB Thomson source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccarezza, C., E-mail: cristina.vaccarezza@lnf.infn.it [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Alesini, D.; Anania, M.P. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bacci, A. [INFN-MI, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Biagioni, A.; Bisesto, F.; Bellaveglia, M. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Cardarelli, P. [University of Ferrara and INFN-FE, via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Cardelli, F. [University La Sapienza and INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Rome (Italy); Cianchi, A. [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Chiadroni, E.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Delogu, P. [University of Pisa and INFN-PI, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Giovenale, D. Di [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Domenico, G. Di [University of Ferrara and INFN-FE, via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Pirro, G. Di [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Drebot, I. [INFN-MI, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrario, M. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Filippi, F. [University La Sapienza and INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Rome (Italy); and others

    2016-09-01

    The SPARC-LAB Thomson source is a compact X-ray source based on the Thomson backscattering process presently under its second phase of commissioning at the LNF. The electron beam energy ranges between 30 and 150 MeV, the electrons collide head-on with the Ti:Sapphire FLAME laser pulse the energy of which ranges between 1 and 5 J with pulse lengths in the 25 fs–10 ps range, this provides an X-ray energy tunability in the range of 20–500 keV, with the further capability to generate strongly non-linear phenomena and to drive diffusion processes due to multiple and plural scattering effects. The experimental results of the obtained X-ray radiation are presented.

  4. Optimization of Measurement Points Choice in Preparation of Green Areas Acoustic Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztubecka Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the selection of measuring points of sustainable sound level in the spa park. A set of points should allow to make on their basis an acoustic climate map for the park at certain times of day by usage available tools. Practical part contains a comparative analysis of developed noise maps, taking into account different variants of the distribution and number of measuring points on the selected area of the park.

  5. Optimization of Measurement Points Choice in Preparation of Green Areas Acoustic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztubecka, Małgorzata; Bujarkiewicz, Adam; Sztubecki, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the article is to analyze the selection of measuring points of sustainable sound level in the spa park. A set of points should allow to make on their basis an acoustic climate map for the park at certain times of day by usage available tools. Practical part contains a comparative analysis of developed noise maps, taking into account different variants of the distribution and number of measuring points on the selected area of the park.

  6. Area law for fixed points of rapidly mixing dissipative quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Cubitt, Toby S.; Lucia, Angelo; Michalakis, Spyridon; Perez-Garcia, David

    2015-01-01

    We prove an area law with a logarithmic correction for the mutual information for fixed points of local dissipative quantum system satisfying a rapid mixing condition, under either of the following assumptions: the fixed point is pure or the system is frustration free

  7. Double-confocal resonator for X-ray generation via intracavity Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    There has been a growing interest in developing compact X-ray sources through Thomson scattering of a laser beam by a relativistic electron beam. For higher X-ray flux it is desirable to have the scattering to occur inside an optical resonator where the laser power is higher. In this paper I propose a double-confocal resonator design optimized for head-on Thomson scattering inside an FEL oscillator and analyze its performance taking into account the diffraction and FEL gain. A double confocal resonator is equivalent to two confocal resonators in series. Such a resonator has several advantages: it couples electron beam through and X-ray out of the cavity with holes on cavity mirrors, thus allowing the system to be compact; it supports the FEL mode with minimal diffraction loss through the holes; it provides a laser focus in the forward direction for a better mode overlap with the electron beam; and it provides a focus at the same location in the backward direction for higher Thomson scattering efficiency; in addition, the mode size at the focal point and hence the Rayleigh range can be adjusted simply through intracavity apertures; furthermore, it gives a large mode size at the mirrors to reduce power loading. Simulations as well as analytical results will be presented. Also other configurations of intracavity Thomson scattering where the double-confocal resonator could be useful will be discussed.

  8. 33 CFR 334.200 - Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to... Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U.S. Naval Air... of Chesapeake Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at the easternmost extremity of...

  9. Integrated Change Detection and Classification in Urban Areas Based on Airborne Laser Scanning Point Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Huong Giang; Ressl, Camillo; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2018-02-03

    This paper suggests a new approach for change detection (CD) in 3D point clouds. It combines classification and CD in one step using machine learning. The point cloud data of both epochs are merged for computing features of four types: features describing the point distribution, a feature relating to relative terrain elevation, features specific for the multi-target capability of laser scanning, and features combining the point clouds of both epochs to identify the change. All these features are merged in the points and then training samples are acquired to create the model for supervised classification, which is then applied to the whole study area. The final results reach an overall accuracy of over 90% for both epochs of eight classes: lost tree, new tree, lost building, new building, changed ground, unchanged building, unchanged tree, and unchanged ground.

  10. Integrated Change Detection and Classification in Urban Areas Based on Airborne Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Huong Giang Tran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a new approach for change detection (CD in 3D point clouds. It combines classification and CD in one step using machine learning. The point cloud data of both epochs are merged for computing features of four types: features describing the point distribution, a feature relating to relative terrain elevation, features specific for the multi-target capability of laser scanning, and features combining the point clouds of both epochs to identify the change. All these features are merged in the points and then training samples are acquired to create the model for supervised classification, which is then applied to the whole study area. The final results reach an overall accuracy of over 90% for both epochs of eight classes: lost tree, new tree, lost building, new building, changed ground, unchanged building, unchanged tree, and unchanged ground.

  11. Thomson scattering in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welander, A.

    1996-11-01

    A Thomson scattering system has been installed on the EXTRAP-T2 RFP experiment. The system measures the electron density and temperature in three radial points using three spectral channels. A description of the system, the calibration techniques and examples of data obtained are given. The error bars for the electron temperature measurements are estimated to be < 10% for typical T2-plasmas. 4 refs

  12. Thomson scattering of polarized photons in an intense laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byung Yunn

    2006-02-21

    We present a theoretical analysis of the Thomson scattering of linearly and circularly polarized photons from a pulsed laser by electrons. The analytical expression for the photon distribution functions presented in this paper should be useful to designers of Thomson scattering experiments.

  13. Thomson scattering on the PRETEXT Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCool, S.C.

    1982-03-01

    Ruby laser Thomson scattering was performed on the PRETEXT tokamak. A 10 Joule Q-switched laser and a 1 meter 10 channel polychromator were used to diagnose the electron temperature and density profiles in the PRETEXT plasma. These parameters were measured as a function of time and radial position on a shot to shot basis. The density measurement was calibrated by Rayleigh and Raman scattering and by comparison with data from a 4 mm microwave interferometer. Electron densities ranging from 1 x 10 12 cm -3 to 2 x 10 13 cm -3 and temperatures ranging from 3 eV to 400 eV were observed. Detailed measurements were made throughout the 40 ms discharge with particular emphasis on the current rise phase. The Thomson scattering data was used as input to a one dimensional magnetic diffusion code. This code modelled the evolution of the current density and safety factor profiles. The results of this analysis were compared with existing theories of tokamak current penetration. The growth of resitive MHD tearing modes was proposed as a likely explanation for the anomalously rapid current penetration observed in PRETEXT

  14. Some biodiversity points and suggestions for the Myanmar Protected Area System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel H. Henning

    2007-01-01

    This paper is divided into a brief background section followed by Part I: Biodiversity Points, and Part II: Suggestions that are needed for the ecological integrity of actual and potential protected areas in Myanmar. Part I consists of general and Myanmar Biodiversity Considerations, and Part II consists of the following suggestions: (l) international financial and...

  15. Stray light analysis for the Thomson scattering diagnostic of the ETE Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, L. A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais (LAS), 12.227-010 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, B. F. C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Engenharia e Tecnologia Espaciais, Divisao de Eletronica Aeroespacial, 12.227-010 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Thomson scattering is a well-established diagnostic for measuring local electron temperature and density in fusion plasma, but this technique is particularly difficult to implement due to stray light that can easily mask the scattered signal from plasma. To mitigate this problem in the multipoint Thomson scattering system implemented at the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) a detailed stray light analysis was performed. The diagnostic system was simulated in ZEMAX software and scattering profiles of the mechanical parts were measured in the laboratory in order to have near realistic results. From simulation, it was possible to identify the main points that contribute to the stray signals and changes in the dump were implemented reducing the stray light signals up to 60 times.

  16. Quantum Joule-Thomson Effect in a Saturated Homogeneous Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidutz, Tobias F.; Gotlibovych, Igor; Gaunt, Alexander L.; Smith, Robert P.; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation in a weakly interacting quasihomogeneous atomic gas, prepared in an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for condensation and observe saturation of the thermal component in a partially condensed cloud, in agreement with Einstein's textbook picture of a purely statistical phase transition. Finally, we observe the quantum Joule-Thomson effect, namely isoenthalpic cooling of an (essentially) ideal gas. In our experiments this cooling occurs spontaneously, due to energy-independent collisions with the background gas in the vacuum chamber. We extract a Joule-Thomson coefficient μJT>109 K /bar, about 10 orders of magnitude larger than observed in classical gases.

  17. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - A PowerPoint Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This Open-File Report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Earthquake Insight St. Louis, Mo., field trip held on May 28, 2009. The presentation focused on summarizing the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) justification, goals, achievements, and products, for an audience of business and public officials. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight, in an abbreviated format, the topics addressed; they are discussed below and are explained with additional text as appropriate.

  18. Thomson scattering in strong external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varró, S.; Ehlotzky, F.

    1992-09-01

    In the present paper we shall investigate relativistic Thomson scattering in two external fields. A free classical electron will be embedded in a strong, constant and homogeneous magnetic field and in a powerful electromagnetic field. Both fields will be considered in the Redmond configuration, in which case the electromagnetic wave is circularly polarized and propagates in the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. The electron will be allowed to have arbitrary initial conditions and the electromagnetic wave will be switched on either suddenly or adiabatically. We shall present the exact solution of the Lorentz equation of motion in the above external field configuration and we shall evaluate the spectrum and cross sections of the scattered radiation. In particular, we shall consider scattering close to resonance and we shall compare our results with the findings of earlier work.

  19. Thomson Scattering on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Benoit; Diallo, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    The MPTS Thomson scattering diagnostic has been supporting NSTX-U since its start of operation in August 2015. At the time of this writing more than 1000 plasmas have been documented. While most MPTS elements from ``NSTX'' were reutilized, significant changes were necessitated: The laser-beam path was re-aimed in order to accommodate for the larger center-stack diameter of NSTX-U. The presence of a new neutral beam box required the introduction of mirror optics in order to dump the laser beams away from the measurement region. The FY2016 run marks the start of operation of a previously installed upgrade to 42 channels. Details of the new MPTS configuration will be given and experimental results will be presented. Future plans will also be discussed. This work was funded by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  20. The LIDAR Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salzmann, H.; Bundgaard, J.; Gadd, A.

    1988-01-01

    By combining the time‐of‐flight or LIDAR principle with a Thomson backscatter diagnostic, spatial profiles of the electron temperature and density are measured in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. This technique was realized for the first time on the JET tokamak. A ruby laser (3‐J pulse energy......, 300‐ps pulse duration, 0.5‐Hz repetition rate) together with a 700‐MHz bandwidth detection and registration system yields a spatial resolution of about 12 cm. A spectrometer with six channels in the wavelength range 400–800 nm gives a dynamic range of the temperature measurements of 0.3–20 ke...

  1. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N L; Schlossberg, D J; Dowd, A S; Fonck, R J; Winz, G R

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l∕mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  2. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scatteringa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of Te VPH grating and measurements Te > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (˜2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ˜45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  3. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T{sub e} < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements T{sub e} > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated ({approx}2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides {approx}45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  4. Oscillations in the spectrum of nonlinear Thomson-backscattered radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Brau

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available When an electron beam collides with a high-intensity laser beam, the spectrum of the nonlinear Thomson scattering in the backward direction shows strong oscillations like those in the spectrum of an optical klystron. Laser gain on the backward Thomson scattering is estimated using the Madey theorem, and the results suggest that Thomson-backscatter free-electron lasers are possible at wavelengths extending to the far uv using a terawatt laser beam from a chirped-pulse amplifier and a high-brightness electron beam from a needle cathode.

  5. Development of an Internet-Enabled Tool for NSTX-U Thomson Diagnostic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Diallo, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    MultiPoint Thomson Scattering (MPTS) is an established, accurate method of finding the temperature, density, and pressure of a magnetically confined plasma. Two Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers are fired into the plasma with a effective frequency of 60 Hz, and the light is Doppler shifted by Thomson scattering. Polychromators on the NSTX-U midplane collect the scattered photons at various radii/scattering angles, and the avalanche photodiode voltages are saved to an MDSplus tree for later analysis. IDL code is then used to determine plasma temperature, pressure, and density from the captured polychromator measurements via Selden formulas.[1] OMFIT, from the General Atomics Fusion Theory Team, is a rich data workflow package used on DIII-D, NSTX-U, and other experiments to rapidly investigate and draw conclusions from collated data sets and simulations. OMFIT can also be used as a data access source into other toolkits and fusion analysis software. This project, written in Python and taking advantage of late-generation Internet software technologies, uses OMFIT to rapidly find and visualize Thomson diagnostic plasma characteristics enabling scientists to gain a quick understanding of shot behavior and timeframes.

  6. A new approach for automatic matching of ground control points in urban areas from heterogeneous images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Chao; Liu, Dingsheng; Zhao, Lingjun

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses a new method for the automatic matching of ground control points (GCPs) between satellite remote sensing Image and digital raster graphic (DRG) in urban areas. The key of this method is to automatically extract tie point pairs according to geographic characters from such heterogeneous images. Since there are big differences between such heterogeneous images respect to texture and corner features, more detail analyzations are performed to find similarities and differences between high resolution remote sensing Image and (DRG). Furthermore a new algorithms based on the fuzzy-c means (FCM) method is proposed to extract linear feature in remote sensing Image. Based on linear feature, crossings and corners extracted from these features are chosen as GCPs. On the other hand, similar method was used to find same features from DRGs. Finally, Hausdorff Distance was adopted to pick matching GCPs from above two GCP groups. Experiences shown the method can extract GCPs from such images with a reasonable RMS error.

  7. Research of Fast DAQ system in KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, D. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic is one of the most important diagnostic systems in fusion plasma research. It provides reliable electron temperature and density profiles in magnetically confined plasma. A Q-switched Nd:YAG Thomson system was installed several years ago in KSTAR tokamak to measure the electron temperature and density profiles. For the KSTAR Thomson scattering system, a Charge-to-Digital Conversion (QDC) type data acquisition system was used to measure a pulse type Thomson signal. Recently, however, an error was found during the Te, ne calculation, because the QDC system had integrated the pulse Thomson signal that included a signal similar to stray light. To overcome such errors, we introduce a fast data acquisition (F-DAQ) system. To test this, we use CAEN V1742 5 GS/s, a Versa Module Eurocard Bus (VMEbus) type 12-bit switched capacitor digitizer with 32 channels. In this experiment, we compare the calculated Te results of Thomson scattering data measured simultaneously using QDC and F-DAQ. In the F-DAQ system, the shape of the pulse was restored by fitting.

  8. Strategies for satellite-based monitoring of CO2 from distributed area and point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Miller, Charles E.; Duren, Riley M.; Natraj, Vijay; Eldering, Annmarie; Gunson, Michael R.; Crisp, David

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric CO2 budgets are controlled by the strengths, as well as the spatial and temporal variabilities of CO2 sources and sinks. Natural CO2 sources and sinks are dominated by the vast areas of the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere. In contrast, anthropogenic and geogenic CO2 sources are dominated by distributed area and point sources, which may constitute as much as 70% of anthropogenic (e.g., Duren & Miller, 2012), and over 80% of geogenic emissions (Burton et al., 2013). Comprehensive assessments of CO2 budgets necessitate robust and highly accurate satellite remote sensing strategies that address the competing and often conflicting requirements for sampling over disparate space and time scales. Spatial variability: The spatial distribution of anthropogenic sources is dominated by patterns of production, storage, transport and use. In contrast, geogenic variability is almost entirely controlled by endogenic geological processes, except where surface gas permeability is modulated by soil moisture. Satellite remote sensing solutions will thus have to vary greatly in spatial coverage and resolution to address distributed area sources and point sources alike. Temporal variability: While biogenic sources are dominated by diurnal and seasonal patterns, anthropogenic sources fluctuate over a greater variety of time scales from diurnal, weekly and seasonal cycles, driven by both economic and climatic factors. Geogenic sources typically vary in time scales of days to months (geogenic sources sensu stricto are not fossil fuels but volcanoes, hydrothermal and metamorphic sources). Current ground-based monitoring networks for anthropogenic and geogenic sources record data on minute- to weekly temporal scales. Satellite remote sensing solutions would have to capture temporal variability through revisit frequency or point-and-stare strategies. Space-based remote sensing offers the potential of global coverage by a single sensor. However, no single combination of orbit

  9. Ultra-high temperature stability Joule-Thomson cooler with capability to accomodate pressure variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Steven (Inventor); Wu, Jiunn-Jeng (Inventor); Trimble, Curtis A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A Joule-Thomson cryogenic refrigeration system capable of achieving high temperature stabilities in the presence of varying temperature, atmospheric pressure, and heat load is provided. The Joule-Thomson cryogenic refrigeration system includes a demand flow Joule-Thomson expansion valve disposed in a cryostat of the refrigeration system. The expansion valve has an adjustable orifice that controls the flow of compressed gas therethrough and induces cooling and partial liquefaction of the gas. A recuperative heat exchanger is disposed in the cryostat and coupled to the expansion valve. A thermostatically self-regulating mechanism is disposed in the cryostat and coupled to the J-T expansion valve. The thermostatically self-regulating mechanism automatically adjusts the cross sectional area of the adjustable valve orifice in response to environmental temperature changes and changes in power dissipated at a cold head. A temperature sensing and adjusting mechanism is coupled to a cold head for adjusting the temperature of the cold head in response to the change in heat flow in the cold head. The temperature sensing and adjusting mechanism comprises a temperature sensitive diode, a wound wire heater, and an electrical feedback control circuit coupling the diode to the heater. An absolute pressure relief valve is interposed between the output of the cryostat and an exhaust port for maintaining a constant exhaust temperature in the refrigerating system, independent of the changes in atmospheric pressure.

  10. High-rep-rate Thomson scattering for LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, D. J.; Borchardt, M. T.; Holly, D. J.; Schmitz, O.; Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Osakabe, M.; Morisaki, T.

    2017-10-01

    A high-rep-rate pulse-burst laser system is being built for the LHD Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. This laser will have two operating scenarios, a fast-burst sequence of 15 kHz rep rate for at least 15 ms, and a slow-burst sequence of 1 kHz for at least 50 ms. There will be substantial flexibility in burst sequences for tailoring to experimental requirements. This new laser system will operate alongside the existing lasers in the LHD TS diagnostic, and will use the same beamline. This increase in temporal resolution capability complements the high spatial resolution (144 points) of the LHD TS diagnostic, providing unique measurement capability unmatched on any other fusion experiment. The new pulse-burst laser is a straightforward application of technology developed at UW-Madison, consisting of a Nd:YAG laser head with modular flashlamp drive units and a customized control system. Variable pulse-width drive of the flashlamps is accomplished by IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) switching of electrolytic capacitor banks. Direct control of the laser Pockels cell drive enables optimal pulse energy extraction, producing >1.5 J q-switched pulses with 20 ns FWHM. Burst operation of this laser system will be used to capture fast time evolution of the electron temperature and density profiles during events such as ELMs, RMP perturbations, and various MHD modes. This work is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy and the National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan).

  11. Point-of-sale alcohol promotions in the Perth and Sydney metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Barrie, Lance; Robinson, Laura; Allsop, Steve; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2012-09-01

    Point-of-sale (POS) is increasingly being used as a marketing tool for alcohol products, and there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that these materials are positively associated with drinking and contribute to creating a pro-alcohol environment. The purpose of the present study was to document the nature and extent of POS alcohol promotions in bottle shops in two Australian capital cities. A purposive sample of 24 hotel bottle shops and liquor stores was selected across Sydney (New South Wales) and Perth (Western Australia) and audited for the presence and nature of POS marketing. Point-of-sale promotions were found to be ubiquitous, with an average of 33 promotions per outlet. Just over half were classified as 'non-price' promotions (e.g. giveaways and competitions). Spirits were the most commonly promoted type of alcohol. The average number of standard drinks required to participate in the promotions ranged from 12 for ready to drinks to 22 for beer. Alcohol outlets that were part of supermarket chains had a higher number of promotions, more price-based promotions, and required a greater quantity of alcohol to be purchased to participate in the promotion. The data collected in this study provides a starting point for our understanding of POS promotions in Australia, and poses important questions for future research in this area. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. 154 GHz collective Thomson scattering in LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Saito, T.; Moseev, D.; Abramovic, I.

    2018-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) was developed by using a 154 GHz gyrotron, and the first data has been obtained. Already, 77 GHz CTS has worked successfully. However, in order to access higher density region, 154 GHz option enhances the usability that reduces the refraction effect, which deteriorates in the local measurements. The system in the down converted frequency was almost identical to the system for 77 GHz. Probing beam, a notch filter, a mixer, and a local oscillator in the receiver system for 77 GHz option were replaced to those for the 154 GHz option. 154 GHz gyrotron was originally prepared for the second harmonic electron cyclotron heating (ECRH) at 2.75 T. However, scattering signal was masked by the second harmonic electron cyclotron emission (ECE) at 2.75 T. Therefore, 154 GHz CTS was operated at 1.375 T with fourth harmonic ECE, and an acceptable signal to noise ratio was obtained. There is a signature of fast ion components with neutral beam (NB) injection. In addition, the CTS spectrum became broader in hydrogen discharge than in deuterium discharge, as the theoretical CTS spectrum expects. This observation indicates a possibility to identify ion species ratio by the 154 GHz CTS diagnostic.

  13. Improvements to the MST Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. T.; Borchardt, M. T.; den Hartog, D. J.; Holly, D. J.; Kile, T.; Kubala, S. Z.; Jacobson, C. M.; Thomas, M. A.; Wallace, J. P.; Young, W. C.; MST Thomson Scattering Team

    2017-10-01

    Multiple upgrades to the MST Thomson Scattering diagnostic have been implemented to expand capabilities of the system. In the past, stray laser light prevented electron density measurements everywhere and temperature measurements for -z/a >0.75. To mitigate stray light, a new laser beamline is being commissioned that includes a longer entrance flight tube, close-fitting apertures, and baffles. A polarizer has been added to the collection optics to further reduce stray light. An absolute density calibration using Rayleigh scattering in argon will be performed. An insertable integrating sphere will provide a full-system spectral calibration as well as maps optical fibers to machine coordinates. Reduced transmission of the collection optics due to coatings from plasma-surface interactions is regularly monitored to inform timely replacements of the first lens. Long-wavelength filters have been installed to better characterize non-Maxwellian electron distribution features. Previous work has identified residual photons not described by a Maxwellian distribution during m =0 magnetic bursts. Further effort to characterize the distribution function will be described. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program under Award No. DE-FC02-05ER54814.

  14. Thomson scattering on ELMO Bumpy Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobble, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    Below 10 12 cm -3 density, a Thomson scattering experiment is an exacting task. Aside from the low signal level, the core plasma in this instance is bathed in high-energy x rays, surrounded by a glowing molecular surface plasma, and heated steady state by microwaves. This means that the noise level from radiation is high and the environment is extremely harsh-so harsh that much effort is required to overcome system damage. In spite of this, the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) system has proven itself capable of providing reliable n/sub e/ and T/sub e/ measurements at densities as low as 2 x 10 11 cm -3 . Radial scans across 20 cm of the plasma diameter have been obtained on a routine basis, and the resulting information has been a great help in understanding confinement in the EBT plasma. The bulk electron properties are revealed as flat profiles of n/sub e/ and T/sub e/, with density ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 x 10 12 cm -3 and temperature decreasing from 100 to 20 eV as pressure in the discharge is increased at constant power. Evidence is presented for a suprathermal tail, which amounts to about 10% of the electron distribution at low pressures. The validity of this conclusion is supported by two independent sensitivity calibrations

  15. Streaked Thomson Scattering on Laboratory Plasma Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasek, Jacob; Byvank, Tom; Rocco, Sophia; Kusse, Bruce; Hammer, David

    2017-10-01

    Streaked Thomson scattering measurements have been performed on plasma jets created from a 15 μm thick radial Al or Ti foil load on COBRA, a 1 MA pulsed power machine. The goal was to measure the electron temperatures inside the center of the plasma jet created by the radial foil. The laser used for these measurements had a maximum energy of 10 J at 526.5 nm in a 3 ns duration pulse. Early experiments showed using the full energy significantly heats the 5 ×1018 cm-3 jet by inverse bremsstrahlung radiation. Here we used a streak camera to record the scattered spectrum and measure the evolving electron temperature of this laser heated jet. Analysis of the streak camera image showed that the electron temperature of the Al jet was increased from about 25 eV to 80-100 eV within about 2 ns. The Ti jets showed even stronger interaction with the laser, being heated to over 150 eV, and showed some heating even when only 1 J of laser energy was used. Also, the ion-acoustic peaks in the scattered spectrum from the Ti jets were significantly narrower than those from Al jets. Initial results will also be presented with scattered spectra taken at two different times within a single experiment by splitting the probe beam. This research is supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001836.

  16. An automatic, stagnation point based algorithm for the delineation of Wellhead Protection Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea; di Molfetta, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    Time-related capture areas are usually delineated using the backward particle tracking method, releasing circles of equally spaced particles around each well. In this way, an accurate delineation often requires both a very high number of particles and a manual capture zone encirclement. The aim of this work was to propose an Automatic Protection Area (APA) delineation algorithm, which can be coupled with any model of flow and particle tracking. The computational time is here reduced, thanks to the use of a limited number of nonequally spaced particles. The particle starting positions are determined coupling forward particle tracking from the stagnation point, and backward particle tracking from the pumping well. The pathlines are postprocessed for a completely automatic delineation of closed perimeters of time-related capture zones. The APA algorithm was tested for a two-dimensional geometry, in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous aquifers, steady state flow conditions, single and multiple wells. Results show that the APA algorithm is robust and able to automatically and accurately reconstruct protection areas with a very small number of particles, also in complex scenarios.

  17. Control and acquisition for MAST Thomson scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibaev, S.; Naylor, G.; Scannell, R.; McArdle, G.; O'Gorman, T.; Walsh, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The MAST (mega-amp spherical tokamak) Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics have been radically upgraded and expanded. Eight 30 Hz 1.6 J Nd:YAG lasers have been combined to produce a sampling rate of 240 Hz. The scattered signals are acquired by two spectrometer systems: core and edge. The core system has been built anew: collection optics, polychromators, digitizers, and control computers. It allows measurement of electron temperature and density at 130 spatial points with ∼10 mm resolution across the plasma. The Nd:YAG scattered light signals are registered in 650 channels as polychromator outputs; each channel is registered on two ADCs: at 1 GHz rate in a short interval around each laser pulse and at 100 kHz for background data. The fast ADCs are combined in 26 data acquisition units. Each unit is assembled in a 6 U PXI chassis with embedded controller and six 4-channel 1 GHz ADC cards. Some chassis contain a 96-channel slow ADC card with Ethernet control. The Ruby TS has been rebuilt with a new spectrometer and CCD camera to provide higher spatial resolution - 512 points; the laser has been modified to add double pulse capability. A new control and acquisition system has been developed; it has modular design allowing flexibility and seamless expansion. The system supports event-triggered and real-time operation (will be added in a later stage). A smart trigger device has been developed for TS timing and synchronisation. It provides complex pulse sequences for laser firing with resynchronisation on a number of digital and analogue inputs including plasma events. This device also triggers TS acquisition. The system is integrated by a TS master process running on the dedicated computer; it is represented as a standard MAST data acquisition unit. The Ruby TS is also implemented as a standard MAST unit linked with the Nd:YAG TS by MAST system services.

  18. mtDNA point and length heteroplasmy in high- and low radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, L.; Forster, P.; Gurney, S.M.; Spencer, M.; Huang, C.; Röhl, A.; Brinkmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal peninsula in Kerala (India) contains the world's highest level of natural radioactivity in a densely populated area, offering an opportunity to characterize radiation-associated DNA mutations. Here, we focus on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, which are passed exclusively from the mother to her children. To analyse point mutations, we sampled 248 pedigrees (988 individuals) in the high-radiation peninsula and in nearby low-radiation islands as a control population. Then, in an extended sample of 1,172 mtDNA sequences (containing some non-Indians for comparison), we also analysed length mutations, which in mtDNA can lead to the phenomenon of length heteroplasmy, i.e. the existence of different DNA types in the same cell. We wished to find out how fast mtDNA mutates between generations, and whether the mutation rate is increased in radioactive conditions compared to the low-irradiation sample

  19. Development of large-area high-temperature fixed-point blackbodies for photometry and radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlevnoy, Boris; Grigoryeva, Irina; Anhalt, Klaus; Waehmer, Martin; Ivashin, Evgeniy; Otryaskin, Denis; Solodilov, Maxim; Sapritsky, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Large-area high-temperature fixed-point (HTFP) blackbodies with working temperatures of approximately 2748 K and 3021 K, based on an Re-C eutectic and a WC-C peritectic respectively, have been developed and investigated. The blackbodies have an emissivity of 0.9997, show high-quality phase-transition plateaus and have high repeatability of the melting temperatures, but demonstrate temperature differences (from 0.2 K to 0.6 K) compared with small-cell blackbodies of the same HTFP. We associate these temperature differences with the temperature drop effect, which may differ from cell to cell. The large radiating cavity diameter of 14 mm allows developed HTFP blackbodies to be used for photometric and radiometric applications in irradiance mode with uncertainties as small as 0.12% (k  =  1) in the visible. A photometer and an irradiance-mode filter radiometer (visible range), previously calibrated at VNIIOFI, were used to measure illuminance and irradiance of the HTFP blackbodies equipped with a precise outer aperture. The values measured by the detectors agreed with those based on the blackbody calculation to within 0.2%. The large-area HTFP blackbodies will be used in a joint PTB-VNIIOFI experiment on measuring thermodynamic temperature.

  20. Point of care investigations in pediatric care to improve health care in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Kamini

    2013-07-01

    The good quality laboratory services in developing countries are often limited to major urban centers. As a result, many commercially available high-quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases are neither accessible nor affordable to patients in the rural areas. Health facilities in rural areas are compromised and this limits the usability and performance of the best medical diagnostic technologies in rural areas as they are designed for air-conditioned laboratories, refrigerated storage of chemicals, a constant supply of calibrators and reagents, stable electrical power, highly trained personnel and rapid transportation of samples. The advent of new technologies have allowed miniaturization and integration of complex functions, which has made it possible for sophisticated diagnostic tools to move out of the developed-world laboratory in the form of a "point of care"(POC) tests. Many diagnostic tests are being developed using these platforms. However, the challenge is to develop diagnostics which are inexpensive, rugged and well suited to the medical and social contexts of the developing world and do not compromise on accuracy and reliability. The already available POC tests which are reliable and affordable, like for HIV infection, malaria, syphilis, and some neglected tropical diseases, and POC tests being developed for other diseases if correctly used and effectively regulated after rigorous evaluation, have the potential to make a difference in clinical management and improve surveillance. In order to use these tests effectively they would need to be supported by technically competent manpower, availability of good-quality reagents, and healthcare providers who value and are able to interpret laboratory results to guide treatment; and a system for timely communication between the laboratory and the healthcare provider. Strengthening the laboratories at the rural level can enable utilization of these diagnostics for improving the diagnosis and management of

  1. Molecular origin of background light in Thomson scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, D.H.

    1986-06-01

    The plasma background light in Thomson scattering measurements is often far higher than expected for a pure hydrogen plasma. The spectral distribution of light from three plasmas (duration: 1 ms to steady state; electron density: below 10 12 to over 10 14 cm -3 ; temperature: below 20 to over 1000 eV) and signal-to-noise and intensity data from the Thomson scattering systems used on them are compared with analytic estimates to show that in two of these plasmas molecular light dominates the spectrum, while in the other, molecular light is present, but bremsstrahlung is usually more intense. Knowledge of the mechanism for background light can aid in designing detection systems for Thomson scattering and provide information on the neutral species composition and effective charge of the plasma

  2. Onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil Point area, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Pete; Conrad, James E.; Stanley, Richard G.; Guy R. Cochrane, Guy R.

    2011-01-01

    Geologic maps that span the shoreline and include both onshore and offshore areas are potentially valuable tools that can lead to a more in depth understanding of coastal environments. Such maps can contribute to the understanding of shoreline change, geologic hazards, both offshore and along-shore sediment and pollutant transport. They are also useful in assessing geologic and biologic resources. Several intermediate-scale (1:100,000) geologic maps that include both onshore and offshore areas (herein called onshore-offshore geologic maps) have been produced of areas along the California coast (see Saucedo and others, 2003; Kennedy and others, 2007; Kennedy and Tan, 2008), but few large-scale (1:24,000) maps have been produced that can address local coastal issues. A cooperative project between Federal and State agencies and universities has produced an onshore-offshore geologic map at 1:24,000 scale of the Coal Oil Point area and part of the Santa Barbara Channel, southern California (fig. 1). As part of the project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) hosted a workshop (May 2nd and 3rd, 2007) for producers and users of coastal map products (see list of participants) to develop a consensus on the content and format of onshore-offshore geologic maps (and accompanying GIS files) so that they have relevance for coastal-zone management. The USGS and CGS are working to develop coastal maps that combine geospatial information from offshore and onshore and serve as an important tool for addressing a broad range of coastal-zone management issues. The workshop was divided into sessions for presentations and discussion of bathymetry and topography, geology, and habitat products and needs of end users. During the workshop, participants reviewed existing maps and discussed their merits and shortcomings. This report addresses a number of items discussed in the workshop and details the onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil

  3. Multiple ECG Fiducial Points-Based Random Binary Sequence Generation for Securing Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guanglou; Fang, Gengfa; Shankaran, Rajan; Orgun, Mehmet A; Zhou, Jie; Qiao, Li; Saleem, Kashif

    2017-05-01

    Generating random binary sequences (BSes) is a fundamental requirement in cryptography. A BS is a sequence of N bits, and each bit has a value of 0 or 1. For securing sensors within wireless body area networks (WBANs), electrocardiogram (ECG)-based BS generation methods have been widely investigated in which interpulse intervals (IPIs) from each heartbeat cycle are processed to produce BSes. Using these IPI-based methods to generate a 128-bit BS in real time normally takes around half a minute. In order to improve the time efficiency of such methods, this paper presents an ECG multiple fiducial-points based binary sequence generation (MFBSG) algorithm. The technique of discrete wavelet transforms is employed to detect arrival time of these fiducial points, such as P, Q, R, S, and T peaks. Time intervals between them, including RR, RQ, RS, RP, and RT intervals, are then calculated based on this arrival time, and are used as ECG features to generate random BSes with low latency. According to our analysis on real ECG data, these ECG feature values exhibit the property of randomness and, thus, can be utilized to generate random BSes. Compared with the schemes that solely rely on IPIs to generate BSes, this MFBSG algorithm uses five feature values from one heart beat cycle, and can be up to five times faster than the solely IPI-based methods. So, it achieves a design goal of low latency. According to our analysis, the complexity of the algorithm is comparable to that of fast Fourier transforms. These randomly generated ECG BSes can be used as security keys for encryption or authentication in a WBAN system.

  4. A variational proof of Thomson's theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiolhais, Miguel C.N., E-mail: miguel.fiolhais@cern.ch [Department of Physics, City College of the City University of New York, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Department of Physics, New York City College of Technology, 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); LIP, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Essén, Hanno [Department of Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm SE-10044 (Sweden); Gouveia, Tomé M. [Cavendish Laboratory, 19 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-12

    Thomson's theorem of electrostatics, which states the electric charge on a set of conductors distributes itself on the conductor surfaces to minimize the electrostatic energy, is reviewed in this letter. The proof of Thomson's theorem, based on a variational principle, is derived for a set of normal charged conductors, with and without the presence of external electric fields produced by fixed charge distributions. In this novel approach, the variations are performed on both the charge densities and electric potentials, by means of a local Lagrange multiplier associated with Poisson's equation, constraining the two variables.

  5. Analysis method for Thomson scattering diagnostics in GAMMA 10/PDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, K.; Yoshikawa, M.; Yasuhara, R.; Chikatsu, M.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakasima, Y.; Imai, T.; Ichimura, M.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Minami, T.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed an analysis method to improve the accuracies of electron temperature measurement by employing a fitting technique for the raw Thomson scattering (TS) signals. Least square fitting of the raw TS signals enabled reduction of the error in the electron temperature measurement. We applied the analysis method to a multi-pass (MP) TS system. Because the interval between the MPTS signals is very short, it is difficult to separately analyze each Thomson scattering signal intensity by using the raw signals. We used the fitting method to obtain the original TS scattering signals from the measured raw MPTS signals to obtain the electron temperatures in each pass.

  6. Improved thermoelectric cooling based on the Thomson effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Khanna, Raghav; Toberer, Eric S.; Heinz, Nicholas A.; Seifert, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Traditional thermoelectric cooling relies on the Peltier effect which produces a temperature drop limited by the figure of merit, zT. This cooling limit is not required from classical thermodynamics but can be traced to problems of thermoelectric compatibility. Alternatively, if a thermoelectric cooler can be designed to achieve full thermoelectric compatibility, lower temperature can be achieved even if the zT is low. In such a device the Thomson effect plays an important role. We present the theoretical concept of a "Thomson cooler," for cryogenic cooling which is designed to maintain thermoelectric compatibility and we derive the requirements for the Seebeck coefficient.

  7. REACHING ULTRA HIGH PEAK CHARACTERISTICS IN RELATIVISTIC THOMSON BACKSCATTERING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POGORELSKY, I.V.; BEN ZVI, I.; HIROSE, T.; KASHIWAGI, S.; YAKIMENKO, V.; KUSCHE, K.; SIDDONS, P.; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    The concept of x-ray laser synchrotron sources (LSS) based on Thomson scattering between laser photons and relativistic electrons leads to future femtosecond light-source facilities fit to multidisciplinary research in ultra-fast structural dynamics. Enticed by these prospects, the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) embarked into development of the LSS based on a combination of a photocathode RF linac and a picosecond CO 2 laser. We observed the record 1.7 x 10 8 x-ray photons/pulse yield generated via relativistic Thomson scattering between the 14 GW CO 2 laser and 60 MeV electron beam

  8. 78 FR 8587 - Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,755] Thomson Reuters, Finance... of Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, including on-site leased workers from... administrative services. New findings show that workers of Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology...

  9. Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, high speed point/area photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of a high speed point/area photometer for the space telescope are summarized. The scientific objectives, photometer requirements, and design concepts are presented.

  10. Area under rheogram as multi-point viscosity characteristic of the sterilized hypromellose hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklubalová, Zdenka; Zatloukal, Zdenek

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the cone and plate rheological viscometry readings of the sterilized hydrogels of hypromellose 4000 (60 g/L) were investigated by using of the three-parameter Herschel a nd Bulkley powerlaw and the new empirical two-parameter model. In it, the independent variable of shear rate was transformed by logarithm and the dependent variable of shear stress by square root. The two-parameter model showed only non-significantly lower mean value of the coefficient of determination when compared with the results of the three-parameter power law model being of good promise in other investigation of the near pseudoplastic rheograms of hypromellose hydrogels. To express the influence of the addition of the isotonic concentration of sodium chloride and/or pilocarpine hydrochloride, respectively, on the viscosity of sterilized hydrogels of hypromellose, the area under rheogram (AUR) data was employed as a multi-point theological characteristic. No significant differences were noted between AUR calculated using three parameters of the power law model and those calculated using two parameters of the proposed one. The significant increase in viscosity was observed in the presence of the isotonic concentration of sodium chloride in comparison to the hydrogel without additives. In the opposite, the addition of the isotonic concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride resulted in the significant viscosity decrease. In conclusion, the proposed empirical two-parameter model could be used as the rheological model in investigation of the near pseudoplastic rheograms of the sterilized hypromellose hydrogels.

  11. On the 'area to point' flow problem based on constructal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wenjun; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui

    2007-01-01

    The study of the 'area to point' flow problem, which generates heat uniformly, is conducted based on constructal theory in this paper. Bejan [Bejan A. Constructal-theory network of conducting path for cooling a heat generating volume. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1997;40(4):799-816] analyzed the problem using an effective thermal conductivity, which simplified the optimization greatly, and deduced an approximate result. Ghodoossi and Egrican [Ghodoossi L, Egrican N. Exact solution for cooling of electronics using constructal theory. J Appl Phys 2003;93(8):4922-9] analyzed the problem without the simplification of an effective conductivity, obtained an exact result, found a great deviation from Bejan's approximate result and stated that the simplification is the cause of the deviation in the approximate solution. It is proved in this paper that the cause of the deviation in the approximate solution is not the reasonable simplification of an effective conductivity but the mistakenly derived effective thermal conductivity. The approximate solution is revised, and the corresponding result, which is consistent with the exact solution, is obtained

  12. Gated integrator PXI-DAQ system for Thomson scattering diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kiran, E-mail: kkpatel@ipr.res.in; Pillai, Vishal; Singh, Neha; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai

    2017-06-15

    Gated Integrator (GI) PXI based data acquisition (DAQ) system has been designed and developed for the ease of acquiring fast Thomson Scattered signals (∼50 ns pulse width). The DAQ system consists of in-house designed and developed GI modules and PXI-1405 chassis with several PXI-DAQ modules. The performance of the developed system has been validated during the SST-1 campaigns. The dynamic range of the GI module depends on the integrating capacitor (C{sub i}) and the modules have been calibrated using 12 pF and 27 pF integrating capacitors. The developed GI module based data acquisition system consists of sixty four channels for simultaneous sampling using eight PXI based digitization modules having eight channels per module. The error estimation and functional tests of this unit are carried out using standard source and also with the fast detectors used for Thomson scattering diagnostics. User friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been developed using LabVIEW on Windows platform to control and acquire the Thomson scattering signal. A robust, easy to operate and maintain with low power consumption, having higher dynamic range with very good sensitivity and cost effective DAQ system is developed and tested for the SST-1 Thomson scattering diagnostics.

  13. Revision of the genus Microterys Thomson (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The species of Microterys Thomson from China are revised. Forty-three species are described and illustrated, of which 17 are new to science. Seventeen new species are described and illustrated, 26 species of the genus are revised and redescribed. The hosts of 33 species of the genus Microterys are

  14. Joule-Thomson microcooling developments at University of Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, H. S.; Vanapalli, S.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; Ter Brake, H. J.M.; Lerou, P. P.P.M.; Tirolien, T.

    2017-01-01

    The development of Joule-Thomson microcoolers has been an on-going and successful research project at the University of Twente for many years. The aim of the research is to develop small and fully integrated cryogenic cooling systems for cooling small electronic devices such as pre-amplifiers and

  15. Collective Thomson scattering capabilities to diagnose fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) is a versatile technique for diagnosing fusion plasmas. In particular, experiments on diagnosing the ion temperature and fast ion velocity distribution have been executed on a number of fusion devices. In this article the main aim is to describe the technique, ...

  16. Experiment of laser thomson scattering at HL-1 tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Henian; Chen Jiafu; Yan Derong; Liu Aiping; Shi Peilan; Wang Wei; Liu Xiaomei

    1989-05-01

    The structure and performance of the Ruby Laser Thomson Scattering apparatus for HL-1 tokamak device is described. The method of acquisition and calibration of multichannel scattered signals are presented. Examples of measured electron temperature T. with experimental error are given

  17. Characterization of a thermoelectric/Joule–Thomson hybrid microcooler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Haishan; Vanapalli, Srinivas; Holland, Herman J.; Vermeer, Cristian Hendrik; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Micromachined Joule–Thomson (JT) coolers are attractive for cooling small electronic devices. However, microcoolers operated with pure gases, such as nitrogen gas require high pressures of about 9 MPa to achieve reasonable cooling powers. Such high pressures severely add complexity to the

  18. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. 334.412 Section 334.412 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA...

  19. Buildings and Terrain of Urban Area Point Cloud Segmentation based on PCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhong, Ruofei

    2014-01-01

    One current problem with laser radar point data classification is building and urban terrain segmentation, this paper proposes a point cloud segmentation method base on PCL libraries. PCL is a large cross-platform open source C++ programming library, which implements a large number of point cloud related efficient data structures and generic algorithms involving point cloud retrieval, filtering, segmentation, registration, feature extraction and curved surface reconstruction, visualization, etc. Due to laser radar point cloud characteristics with large amount of data, unsymmetrical distribution, this paper proposes using the data structure of kd-tree to organize data; then using Voxel Grid filter for point cloud resampling, namely to reduce the amount of point cloud data, and at the same time keep the point cloud shape characteristic; use PCL Segmentation Module, we use a Euclidean Cluster Extraction class with Europe clustering for buildings and ground three-dimensional point cloud segmentation. The experimental results show that this method avoids the multiple copy system existing data needs, saves the program storage space through the call of PCL library method and class, shortens the program compiled time and improves the running speed of the program

  20. The influence of Thomson effect in the performance optimization of a two stage thermoelectric cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.

    2015-12-01

    The exoreversible and irreversible thermodynamic models of a two stage thermoelectric cooler (TTEC) considering Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction effects have been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for the interstage temperature, optimum current for the maximum cooling power, energy and exergy efficiency conditions, energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of a TTEC are derived as well. The number of thermocouples in the first and second stages of a TTEC for the maximum cooling power, energy and exergy efficiency conditions are optimized. The results show that the exergy efficiency is lower than the energy efficiency e.g., in an irreversible TTEC with total 30 thermocouples, heat sink temperature (TH) of 300 K and heat source temperature (TC) of 280 K, the obtained maximum cooling power, maximum energy and exergy efficiency are 20.37 W, 0.7147 and 5.10% respectively. It has been found that the Thomson effect increases the cooling power and energy efficiency of the TTEC system e.g., in the exoreversible TTEC the cooling power and energy efficiency increased from 14.87 W to 16.36 W and from 0.4079 to 0.4998 respectively for ΔTC of 40 K when Thomson effect is considered. It has also been found that the heat transfer area at the hot side of an irreversible TTEC should be higher than the cold side for maximum performance operation. This study will help in the designing of the actual multistage thermoelectric cooling systems.

  1. Hawaii ESI: CASS_PT (Coral Areas of Special Significance - Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Coral Areas of Special Significance in coastal Hawaii. Coral Areas of Special Significance were...

  2. Progress on the multipulse Thomson Scattering diagnostic on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, R.E.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Hsieh, C.L.; Makariou, C.C.

    1994-05-01

    The DIII-D Thomson scattering diagnostic, operational since 1990, uses 8 Nd: YAG 20 Hz lasers to measure electron temperature and density profiles (40 spatial points) throughout the plasma discharge. Recent progress has enabled a new set of operating modes to better fullfill varying plasma physics requirements. Custom circuitry for laser control (programmable with los precision) has successfully replaced a previous scheme which used real-time 68030 software. Two new modes of operation have been demonstrated. Burst Mode is useful to study a transient plasma event: a series of laser pulses axe fired at a rate ≤10 kHz after an external asynchronous event trigger. Burst Mode is also useful to synchronize the Thomson lasers with other systems, such as an asynchronous Michelson ECE diagnostic scanning near 40 Hz. Group Mode allows a programmed set of lasers to fire simultaneously into the same (65 nanosecond) data acquisition gate. Improved signal/noise then yields smaller statistical errors in the profile results. This provides profile data for lower density plasmas, such as those anticipated during fast wave current drive experiments. Plans for a new CCD-based laser alignment system for position monitoring and feedback control will also be presented

  3. Thomson Scattering Density Calibration by Rayleigh and Rotational Raman Scattering on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. LeBlanc

    2008-07-16

    The multi-point Thomson scattering (MPTS) diagnostic measures the profiles of the electron temperature Te(R) and density ne(R) on the horizontal midplane of NSTX. Normal operation makes use of Rayleigh scattering in nitrogen or argon to derive the density profile. While the Rayleigh scattering ne(R) calibration has been validated by comparison with other density measurements and through its correlation with plasma phenomena, it does require dedicated detectors at the laser wavelength in this filter polychromator based diagnostic. The presence of dust and/or stray laser light precludes routine use of these dedicated spectral channels for Thomson scattering measurement. Hence it is of interest to investigate the use of Raman scattering in nitrogen for the purpose of density calibration, since it could free up detection equipment, which could then be used for the instrumentation of additional radial channels. In this paper the viewing optics "geometrical factor" profiles obtained from Rayleigh and Raman scattering are compared. While both techniques agree nominally, residual effects on the order of 10% remain and will be discussed.

  4. Continued Development of Python-Based Thomson Data Analysis and Associated Visualization Tool for NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Miller, Jared; Diallo, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    MultiPoint Thomson Scattering (MPTS) is an established, accurate method of finding the temperature, density, and pressure of a magnetically confined plasma. Two Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers are fired into the plasma with a effective frequency of 60 Hz, and the light is Doppler shifted by Thomson scattering. Polychromators on the NSTX-U midplane collect the scattered photons at various radii/scattering angles, and the avalanche photodiode voltages are saved to an MDSplus tree for later analysis. IDL code is then used to determine plasma temperature, pressure, and density from the captured polychromator measurements via Selden formulas. [1] Previous work [2] converted the single-processor IDL code into Python code, and prepared a new architecture for multiprocessing MPTS in parallel. However, that work was not completed to the generation of output data and curve fits that match with the previous IDL. This project refactored the Python code into a object-oriented architecture, and created a software test suite for the new architecture which allowed identification of the code which generated the difference in output. Another effort currently underway is to display the Thomson data in an intuitive, interactive format. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Community College Internship (CCI) program.

  5. MODIS 250m burned area mapping based on an algorithm using change point detection and Markov random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Bernardo; Pereira, Jose; Campagnolo, Manuel; Killick, Rebeca

    2013-04-01

    Area burned in tropical savannas of Brazil was mapped using MODIS-AQUA daily 250m resolution imagery by adapting one of the European Space Agency fire_CCI project burned area algorithms, based on change point detection and Markov random fields. The study area covers 1,44 Mkm2 and was performed with data from 2005. The daily 1000 m image quality layer was used for cloud and cloud shadow screening. The algorithm addresses each pixel as a time series and detects changes in the statistical properties of NIR reflectance values, to identify potential burning dates. The first step of the algorithm is robust filtering, to exclude outlier observations, followed by application of the Pruned Exact Linear Time (PELT) change point detection technique. Near-infrared (NIR) spectral reflectance changes between time segments, and post change NIR reflectance values are combined into a fire likelihood score. Change points corresponding to an increase in reflectance are dismissed as potential burn events, as are those occurring outside of a pre-defined fire season. In the last step of the algorithm, monthly burned area probability maps and detection date maps are converted to dichotomous (burned-unburned maps) using Markov random fields, which take into account both spatial and temporal relations in the potential burned area maps. A preliminary assessment of our results is performed by comparison with data from the MODIS 1km active fires and the 500m burned area products, taking into account differences in spatial resolution between the two sensors.

  6. Warm dense matter and Thomson scattering at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeustlin, Roland Rainer

    2010-05-01

    X-ray free electron lasers are powerful tools to investigate moderately to strongly correlated solid density low temperature plasmas, named warm dense matter. These plasmas are of most interest for astrophysics and laser plasma interaction, particularly inertial confinement fusion. This work utilizes the ultrashort soft x-ray pulse duration and high brilliance of the free electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH, to generate warm dense matter and to study its ultrafast processes. The techniques applied are absorption measurement, emission spectroscopy and Thomson scattering. Radiative hydrodynamics and Thomson scattering simulations are used to investigate the impact of temperature and density gradients in the sample and to fit the experimental data. The measurements result in a comprehensive picture of soft x-ray matter interaction related to warm dense matter and yield insight into ultrafast equilibration and relaxation mechanisms, in particular impact ionization and radiative recombination. (orig.)

  7. Warm dense matter and Thomson scattering at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeustlin, Roland Rainer

    2010-05-15

    X-ray free electron lasers are powerful tools to investigate moderately to strongly correlated solid density low temperature plasmas, named warm dense matter. These plasmas are of most interest for astrophysics and laser plasma interaction, particularly inertial confinement fusion. This work utilizes the ultrashort soft x-ray pulse duration and high brilliance of the free electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH, to generate warm dense matter and to study its ultrafast processes. The techniques applied are absorption measurement, emission spectroscopy and Thomson scattering. Radiative hydrodynamics and Thomson scattering simulations are used to investigate the impact of temperature and density gradients in the sample and to fit the experimental data. The measurements result in a comprehensive picture of soft x-ray matter interaction related to warm dense matter and yield insight into ultrafast equilibration and relaxation mechanisms, in particular impact ionization and radiative recombination. (orig.)

  8. Thomson scattering diagnostic for the measurement of ion species fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J. S.; Park, H.-S.; Amendt, P.; Divol, L.; Kugland, N. L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Rozmus, W.

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous Thomson scattering measurements of collective electron-plasma and ion-acoustic fluctuations have been utilized to determine ion species fraction from laser produced CH plasmas. The CH 2 foil is heated with 10 laser beams, 500 J per beam, at the Omega Laser facility. Thomson scattering measurements are made 4 mm from the foil surface using a 30 J 2ω probe laser with a 1 ns pulse length. Using a series of target shots the plasma evolution is measured from 2.5 ns to 9 ns after the rise of the heater beams. Measuring the electron density and temperature from the electron-plasma fluctuations constrains the fit of the two-ion species theoretical form factor for the ion feature such that the ion temperature, plasma flow velocity and ion species fraction are determined. The ion species fraction is determined to an accuracy of ±0.06 in species fraction.

  9. First 50 pps Thomson scattering diagnostics in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehr, H.; Schramm, G.; Steuer, K.H.; Hirsch, K.; Salzmann, H.

    1981-12-01

    Electron temperature and density measurements by Thomson scattering were performed for the first time for the whole duration of a tokamak discharge. A 50 pps Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 μm was used in ASDEX in combination with Si avalanche photodiode detectors. Density calibration was done by rotational anti-Stokes Raman scattering from hydrogen. The system is used for measurements at electron densities of as low as 2 x 10 12 cm -3 . (orig.)

  10. Thomson parabola spectrometry for gold laser generated plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Andó, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2013), 023106-023106 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : acceleration * ions * Thomson parabola spectrometry * PALS laser * laser targets * gold ions Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.249, year: 2013 http://pop.aip.org/resource/1/phpaen/v20/i2/p023106_s1

  11. Fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for ITER: Design elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakadze, Erekle; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2008-01-01

    The proposed fast ion collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic system for ITER provides the unique capability of measuring the temporally and spatially resolved velocity distribution of the confined fast ions and fusion alpha particles in a burning ITER plasma. The present paper describes t...... in the studies, and new HFS receiver mock-up measurements are presented as well as neutron flux calculations of the influence of the increased slot height....

  12. Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and tolerance of chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, M.F.; Olver, I.N.; Hill, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare disorder with a predisposition for cutaneous and non-cutaneous malignancy. It is speculated that ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity and deficient DNA repair may account for this predisposition and influence the tolerance of chemoradiotherapeutic management. A case is reported of the management of an RTS patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue who demonstrated increased radiosensitivity and tissue intolerance to chemotherapy. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Optical design of the TMX Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on TMX was built to measure the electron temperature in the plug. The design was based on the 2XII system built by Tom Simonen. Substantial improvements were realized over the original design, these include: (1) improved sensitivity, (2) simultaneous multiple position sampling, (3) multiple pulse capability, (4) achromatic imaging, (5) vacuum alignment capability, (6) high reliability, and (7) built in calibration and performance monitoring

  14. Applications of phase conjugate mirror to Thomson scattering diagnostics (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatae, T.; Naito, O.; Nakatsuka, M.; Yoshida, H.

    2006-01-01

    A high performance phase conjugate mirror based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS-PCM) has been applied to the Thomson scattering system in the JT-60U tokamak for the first time in order to improve the measurement performance. A SBS-PCM realized a high reflectivity of 95% at a high input power of 145 W (2.9 J, 50 Hz). Using the SBS-PCM, two methods have been developed to increase the intensity of scattered light. For the first method, we have developed a new optical design to provide a double-pass scattering method with the SBS-PCM. A laser beam passing through the plasma is reflected by the SBS-PCM. The reflected beam passes the plasma again along the same path by means of the phase conjugation of the optically nonlinear stimulated Brillouin scattering process. The double-pass Thomson scattering method using the SBS-PCM has demonstrated an increase of the scattered light by a factor of 1.6 compared with the single-pass scattering method in JT-60U. A multipass Thomson scattering method in which the laser beam can be confined between a couple of SBS-PCMs is also proposed. It is estimated that the multipass scattering method generates the scattered light more than several times as large as that of the single-pass scattering method. For the second method, a high-average-power yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser system has been developed using the SBS-PCM. The SBS-PCM effectively compensated thermal degradation at two amplifier lines, and the average power was increased by a factor of >8 from 45 W (1.5 J, 30 Hz) to 373 W (7.46 J, 50 Hz). A Nd:YAG laser (5 J, 100 Hz) for the edge Thomson scattering in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been designed based on the result

  15. Four new species of Nyctonympha Thomson, 1868 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santos-Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Nyctonympha Thomson, 1868 are described: N. antonkozlovi sp. nov. and N. sinjaevi sp. nov. from Colombia, N. birai sp. nov. from Venezuela and N. mariahelenae sp. nov. from Brazil (Rondônia, Bolivia and Peru. Nyctonympha flavipes Aurivillius, 1990 is formally excluded from the Peruvian and Brazilian fauna. A provisional key to species of Nyctonympha is provided.

  16. Accurate calculation of high harmonics generated by relativistic Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    The recent emergence of the field of ultraintense laser pulses, corresponding to beam intensities higher than 10 18 W cm -2 , brings about the problem of the high harmonic generation (HHG) by the relativistic Thomson scattering of the electromagnetic radiation by free electrons. Starting from the equations of the relativistic motion of the electron in the electromagnetic field, we give an exact solution of this problem. Taking into account the Lienard-Wiechert equations, we obtain a periodic scattered electromagnetic field. Without loss of generality, the solution is strongly simplified by observing that the electromagnetic field is always normal to the direction electron-detector. The Fourier series expansion of this field leads to accurate expressions of the high harmonics generated by the Thomson scattering. Our calculations lead to a discrete HHG spectrum, whose shape and angular distribution are in agreement with the experimental data from the literature. Since no approximations were made, our approach is also valid in the ultrarelativistic regime, corresponding to intensities higher than 10 23 W cm -2 , where it predicts a strong increase of the HHG intensities and of the order of harmonics. In this domain, the nonlinear Thomson scattering could be an efficient source of hard x-rays

  17. Upgraded divertor Thomson scattering system on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, F., E-mail: glassf@fusion.gat.com; Carlstrom, T. N.; Du, D.; Taussig, D. A.; Boivin, R. L. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); McLean, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A design to extend the unique divertor Thomson scattering system on DIII-D to allow measurements of electron temperature and density in high triangularity plasmas is presented. Access to this region is selectable on a shot-by-shot basis by redirecting the laser beam of the existing divertor Thomson system inboard — beneath the lower floor using a moveable, high-damage threshold, in-vacuum mirror — and then redirecting again vertically. The currently measured divertor region remains available with this mirror retracted. Scattered light is collected from viewchords near the divertor floor using in-vacuum, high temperature optical elements and relayed through the port window, before being coupled into optical fiber bundles. At higher elevations from the floor, measurements are made by dynamically re-focusing the existing divertor system collection optics. Nd:YAG laser timing, analysis of the scattered light spectrum via polychromators, data acquisition, and calibration are all handled by existing systems or methods of the current multi-pulse Thomson scattering system. Existing filtered polychromators with 7 spectral channels are employed to provide maximum measurement breadth (T{sub e} in the range of 0.5 eV–2 keV, n{sub e} in the range of 5 × 10{sup 18}–1 × 10{sup 21} m{sup 3}) for both low T{sub e} in detachment and high T{sub e} measurement up beyond the separatrix.

  18. Reasearches of Thomson Scattering X-Ray Source at Tsinghua University

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wenhui; Cheng, C; Cheng, Y; Du, Q; Du Tai Bin; Du, Y C; Ge, Y; He, X Z; Hua, J F; Huang, G; Lin, Y Z; Tang, C X; Xia, B; Xu, M J; Yuan, X D; Zheng, Sh X

    2004-01-01

    The bright and tunable short pulse X-ray sources are being widely used in various research fields including materials, chemistry, biology and solid physics. Thomson scattering source is one of the most promising approaches to short pulsed X-ray sources. Researches on Thomson scattering x-ray sources are being carried out in Tsinghua University. Some theoretical results and the preliminary experiment on the Thomson scattering between electron beams and laser pulses are described in this paper.

  19. Teaching Mathematics Online in the European Area of Higher Education: An Instructor's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Angel A.; Steegmann, Cristina; Huertas, Antonia; Martinez, M. Jesus; Simosa, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article first discusses how information technologies are changing the way knowledge is delivered at universities worldwide. Then, the article reviews some of the most popular learning management systems available today and some of the most useful online resources in the areas of Mathematics and Statistics. After that, some long-term…

  20. Area efficient radix 4/sup 2/ 64 point pipeline fft architecture using modified csd multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiq, F.; Muhammad, T.; Iqbal, M.

    2014-01-01

    A modified Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based radix 42 algorithm for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems is presented. When compared with similar schemes like Canonic signed digit (CSD) Constant Multiplier, the modified CSD multiplier can provide a improvement of more than 36% in terms of multiplicative complexity. In Comparison of area being occupied the amount of Full adders is reduced by 32% and amount of half adders is reduced by 42%. The modified CSD multiplier scheme is implemented on Xilinx ISE 10.1 using Spartan-III XC3S1000 FPGA as a target device. The synthesis results of modified CSD Multiplier on Xilinx show efficient Twiddle Factor ROM Design and effective area reduction in comparison to CSD constant multiplier. (author)

  1. THE DETERMINATION OF GREEN AREAS IN CITY FROM THE VIEW POINT OF CITY FURNITURE IN EMINONU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız AKSOY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Eminönü district is selected; for being found in Historical Penninsula, being the most important center in the Metropolitan and for having historical, natural and available to tourists properties. Paper is formed by third chapter. In the first part; concept of urban green areas and its importance was mentioned and urban green areas were classified. In the second part; design of city furnitures, properties of users were determined in Eminönü district. Also problems of the existing city furnitures were found which are deficiency of material and workmanship, functional and ecological usage and problems due to human. In the third part; general evaluation of the subject and recommendations were done.

  2. INTRAMUSCULAR TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE MID-POINT AND PERIPHERAL EFFECTIVE RADIATING AREA WITH ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michale G. Miller

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine whether uniform intramuscular heating is achieved throughout a treatment area 2 times the transducer head at both 1 and 3 MHz. Seven male and three female subjects (Age: 23.6 ± 1.0 yrs, Weight: 83.8 ± 23.2 kg, Site Skinfold: 13.9 ± 7.3 mm underwent two ultrasound treatments (1 and 3 MHz in the triceps surae muscle group. Thermocouples were inserted at the midpoint and periphery of the treatment area. Ten minute baseline temperatures were recorded followed by a ten minute ultrasound treatment. Two (site X 10 (time repeated measures ANOVAs were separately used to determine significance for 1 and 3 MHz treatments. Post-hoc testing was performed using the Bonferroni adjustment. A significant site-by-time interaction was observed for both the 1 and 3 MHz treatments. From baseline to the end of the treatment, temperature increased approximately 2.62°C and 1.58°C for the midpoint and periphery of the 1 MHz treatment and 5.88°C and 3.64°C for the 3 MHz treatment. The differences in temperature suggest that uniform heating does not occur throughout the treatment area

  3. Identification of the Area for Proper Integration of Three Current Storage Objects into One Complex Logistics Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chenguang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an option to identify the suitable area for locating the specific storage object in order to integrate three current storage objects into one complex logistics point. Initial chapters of the paper are focused on overview of theoretical terms related to the storage objects, their activities, services, parameters as well as their location and allocation. Other parts of this paper outline specific methods regarding the issue of storage objects location. Its main part describes individual steps for identifying the suitable storage object location in the certain area using the specific method.

  4. Defining optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for modelling hydrologically sensitive areas in agricultural catchments dominated by microtopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I. A.; Jordan, P.; Shine, O.; Fenton, O.; Mellander, P.-E.; Dunlop, P.; Murphy, P. N. C.

    2017-02-01

    Defining critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments depends upon the accurate delineation of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest risk of generating surface runoff pathways. In topographically complex landscapes, this delineation is constrained by digital elevation model (DEM) resolution and the influence of microtopographic features. To address this, optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for spatially modelling HSAs were investigated, for onward use in delineating CSAs. The surface runoff framework was modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and maps were derived from 0.25 m LiDAR DEMs (40 bare-earth points m-2), resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs, and a radar generated 5 m DEM. Furthermore, the resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs were regenerated with reduced bare-earth point densities (5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 points m-2) to analyse effects on elevation accuracy and important microtopographic features. Results were compared to surface runoff field observations in two 10 km2 agricultural catchments for evaluation. Analysis showed that the accuracy of modelled HSAs using different thresholds (5%, 10% and 15% of the catchment area with the highest TWI values) was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (70-100% and 10-84%, respectively). This was attributed to the DEM capturing microtopographic features such as hedgerow banks, roads, tramlines and open agricultural drains, which acted as topographic barriers or channels that diverted runoff away from the hillslope scale flow direction. Furthermore, the identification of 'breakthrough' and 'delivery' points along runoff pathways where runoff and mobilised pollutants could be potentially transported between fields or delivered to the drainage channel network was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (75-100% and 0-100%, respectively). Optimal DEM resolutions of 1-2 m were identified for modelling HSAs, which balanced the need

  5. Test-retest reliability of myofascial trigger point detection in hip and thigh areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, E; Finestone, A S; Moran, U; Damri, E; Kalichman, L

    2017-10-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrP's) are a primary source of pain in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Nevertheless, they are frequently underdiagnosed. Reliable MTrP palpation is the necessary for their diagnosis and treatment. The few studies that have looked for intra-tester reliability of MTrPs detection in upper body, provide preliminary evidence that MTrP palpation is reliable. Reliability tests for MTrP palpation on the lower limb have not yet been performed. To evaluate inter- and intra-tester reliability of MTrP recognition in hip and thigh muscles. Reliability study. 21 patients (15 males and 6 females, mean age 21.1 years) referred to the physical therapy clinic, 10 with knee or hip pain and 11 with pain in an upper limb, low back, shin or ankle. Two experienced physical therapists performed the examinations, blinded to the subjects' identity, medical condition and results of the previous MTrP evaluation. Each subject was evaluated four times, twice by each examiner in a random order. Dichotomous findings included a palpable taut band, tenderness, referred pain, and relevance of referred pain to patient's complaint. Based on these, diagnosis of latent MTrP's or active MTrP's was established. The evaluation was performed on both legs and included a total of 16 locations in the following muscles: rectus femoris (proximal), vastus medialis (middle and distal), vastus lateralis (middle and distal) and gluteus medius (anterior, posterior and distal). Inter- and intra-tester reliability (Cohen's kappa (κ)) values for single sites ranged from -0.25 to 0.77. Median intra-tester reliability was 0.45 and 0.46 for latent and active MTrP's, and median inter-tester reliability was 0.51 and 0.64 for latent and active MTrPs, respectively. The examination of the distal vastus medialis was most reliable for latent and active MTrP's (intra-tester k = 0.27-0.77, inter-tester k = 0.77 and intra-tester k = 0.53-0.72, inter-tester k = 0.72, correspondingly

  6. Late-onset Rothmund-Thomson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Sharma, Prafulla Kumar; Gautam, Ram Krishan; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Kar, Hemanta Kumar

    2007-05-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented with complaints of exfoliation of the skin and mottled pigmentation all over the body, intolerance to sunlight for the last 14 years, and swelling on the lower one-third of the neck for 15 years. She was apparently well until the age of 29 years when she noticed redness on her shins which later progressed to involve the upper limbs, chest, and face. Three months later, she observed multiple, small, brownish plaques over the erythematous areas, which gradually spread to the sun-exposed areas, namely the face, forearms, hands, and nape of the neck. The erythema disappeared within 5 months of onset. The patient experienced redness of the face, intolerance to the sun, and reduced sweating, particularly during the summer. There was no history of bullous eruption, difficulty during deglutition, tremors, or pedal edema. She suffered five miscarriages and, ultimately, was successful in delivering a normal boy who is now 16 years of age. She had menarche at the age of 14 years and her menstrual cycle was regular. There was no history of similar illness in the family. On cutaneous examination, the skin on the face, neck, trunk, buttocks, and limbs was found to be dry, lusterless, thin, and covered with fine scales. Mottled hyperpigmentation was observed all over the body. Atrophy and telangiectasia were seen over the neck (Fig. 1), face (Fig. 2), nape of the neck, upper and lower limbs, back, and chest. Mild erythema was observed over the face, nose, ears, and forearms. The hair on the scalp, eyebrows, axillae, and pubic area was sparse and thin. The teeth were loose and discolored due to caries, and a foul odor emanated from the mouth. The nails were lusterless and centrally depressed. The thyroid gland was enlarged, smooth, nontender, and moved with deglutition. No bruit was heard over it. No ocular abnormality was detected. The patient had a haemoglobin level of 7.6 g%, total serum iron binding capacity of 70 micromol/L (normal, 45

  7. Statistical analysis of the ionospheric ion density recorded by DEMETER in the epicenter areas of earthquakes as well as in their magnetically conjugate point areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Parrot, Michel

    2018-02-01

    Results of a statistical variation of total ion density observed in the vicinity of epicenters as well as around magnetically conjugated points of earthquakes are presented in this paper. Two data sets are used: the ion density measured by DEMETER during about 6.5 years and the list of strong earthquakes (MW ≥ 4.8) occurring globally during this period (14,764 earthquakes in total). First of all, ionospheric perturbations with 23-120 s observation time corresponding to spatial scales of 160-840 km are automatically detected by a software (64,287 anomalies in total). Second, it is checked if a perturbation could be associated either with the epicenter of an earthquake or with its magnetically conjugated point (distance earthquake). The index Kp epicenter areas as well as above their conjugated points. About one third of the earthquakes are detected with ionospheric influence on both sides of the Earth. There is a trend showing that the perturbation length increases as the magnitude of the detected EQs but it is more obvious for large magnitude. The probability that a perturbation appears is higher on the day of the earthquake and then gradually decreases when the time before the earthquake increases. The spatial distribution of perturbations shows that the probability of perturbations appearing southeast of the epicenter before an earthquake is a little bit higher and that there is an obvious trend because perturbations appear west of the conjugated point of an earthquake.

  8. Progress of development of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on COMPASS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Petra; Melich, Radek; Aftanas, Milan; Böhm, Petr; Šesták, David; Jareš, Daniel; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Stöckel, Jan; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír; Scannell, R.; Walsh, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 10 (2010), 10D531-10D531 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference on High-Tempertaure Plasma Diagnostics/18th./. Wildwood, New Jersey, 16.05.2009-20.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1467; GA ČR GD202/08/H057; GA MŠk LA08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thomson scattering * laser diagnostic * electron temperature * electron density * calibration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.598, year: 2010 http://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/81/10D531

  9. Collective Thomson scattering measurements with high frequency resolution at TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the development and first results of a receiver system for the collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic at TEXTOR with frequency resolution in the megahertz range or better. The improved frequency resolution expands the diagnostic range and utility of CTS measurements in general ...... and is a prerequisite for measurements of ion Bernstein wave signatures in CTS spectra. The first results from the new acquisition system are shown to be consistent with theory and with simultaneous measurements by the standard receiver system. © 2010 EURATOM...

  10. Thomson scattering on COMPASS – commissioning and first data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aftanas, Milan; Böhm, Petr; Scannell, R.; Tripsky, M.; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír; Stöckel, Jan; Walsh, M.; Bílková, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), C01074-C01074 ISSN 1748-0221. [INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LASER AIDED PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS/15./. Jeju, 13.10.2011-19.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1467 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thomson scattering * electron temperature * laser diagnostic * Plasma diagnostics - charged-particle spectroscopy * Plasma diagnostics - interferometry * spectroscopy and imaging * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/7/01/C01074/pdf/1748-0221_7_01_C01074.pdf

  11. Design of new Thomson scattering diagnostic system on COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Petra; Aftanas, Milan; Böhm, Petr; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Šesták, David; Melich, Radek; Stöckel, Jan; Scannell, R.; Walsh, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 623, č. 2 (2010), s. 656-659 ISSN 0168-9002. [International Conference on Frontiers in Diagnostic Technologies/1st./. Frascati, 25.11.2009-27.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1467; GA ČR GD202/08/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thomson scattering * Laser diagnostic * Electron temperature * Electron density Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2010 www.elsevier.com/locate/nima

  12. APD detector electronics for the NSTX Thomson scattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Long, D.L.; Renda, G.

    2000-01-01

    An electronics system has been installed and tested for the readout of APD detectors for the NSTX Thomson scattering system. Similar to previous designs, it features preamps with a fast and a slow output. The fast output uses pulse shaping to optimize sensitivity for the 8 nsec scattered light pulse while rejecting noise in the intrinsic plasma background. A low readout noise of approximately25 photoelectrons is achieved at an APD gain of 75. The design incorporates a number of features to provide flexibility for various modes of calibration

  13. Collective Thomson scattering data analysis for Wendelstein 7-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramovic, I.; Pavone, A.; Svensson, J.

    2017-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic is being installed on the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator to measure the bulk ion temperature in the upcoming experimental campaign. In order to prepare for the data analysis, a forward model of the diagnostic (eCTS) has been developed and integrated...... into the Bayesian data analysis framework Minerva. Synthetic spectra have been calculated with the forward model and inverted using Minerva in order to demonstrate the feasibility to measure the ion temperature in the presence of nuisance parameters that also influence CTS spectra. In this paper we report...... on the results of this anlysis and discuss the main sources of uncertainty in the CTS data analysis....

  14. Optical Thomson scatter from laser-ablated plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delserieys, A.; Khattak, F. Y.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Riley, D.; Pedregosa Gutierrez, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained density and temperature informations on an expanding KrF laser-ablated magnesium plume via optical Thomson scatter with a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. The electron temperature was found to decay with the expected T e ∝t -1 dependence. However, we have found the electron density to have a time dependence n e ∝t -4.95 which can be explained by strong recombination processes. We also observed atomic Raman satellites originating from transitions between the different angular momentum levels of the metastable 3 P 0 term in Mg I

  15. The Kelvin-Thomson Atom. Part 2: The Many-Electron Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Alan J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents part two of a two-part article describing the Kelvin-Thomson atom. This part discusses the arrangement of electrons within the atom and examines some of the properties predicted for elements in the Kelvin-Thomson model. (SL)

  16. The role of R. B. Thomson brief heralds of the science in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... The second, Stibbe, fulfilled a similar role at the South. African School of Mines and Technology, ... in recognition of their historical roles, the Thomson-Stibbe. Lecture. The order of the two names in the ... Both Thomson and Stibbe are examples of those remarkable sons of Scotia's soil - as Professor Maxie ...

  17. Multiple Low Energy Long Bone Fractures in the Setting of Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Beckmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by a poikilodermatous rash starting in infancy as well as various skeletal anomalies, juvenile cataracts, and predisposition to certain cancers. Although Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is associated with diminished bone mineral density in addition to multiple skeletal abnormalities, there are few reports of the association with stress fractures or pathologic fractures in low energy trauma or delayed healing of fractures. Presented is a case of a young adult male with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome presenting with multiple episodes of long bone fractures caused by low energy trauma with one of the fractures exhibiting significantly delayed healing. The patient was also found to have an asymptomatic stress fracture of the lower extremity, another finding of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome rarely reported in the literature. A thorough review of the literature and comprehensive presentation of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is provided in conjunction with our case.

  18. Semi-Automatic Selection of Ground Control Points for High Resolution Remote Sensing Data in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulbe Linda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical accuracy of remote sensing data often is ensured by geometrical transforms based on Ground Control Points (GCPs. Manual selection of GCP is a time-consuming process, which requires some sort of automation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present and evaluate methodology for easier, semi-automatic selection of ground control points for urban areas. Custom line scanning algorithm was implemented and applied to data in order to extract potential GCPs for an image analyst. The proposed method was tested for classical orthorectification and special object polygon transform. Results are convincing and show that in the test case semi-automatic methodology is able to correct locations of 70 % (thermal data – 80 % (orthophoto images of buildings. Geometrical transform for subimages of approximately 3 hectares with approximately 12 automatically found GCPs resulted in RSME approximately 1 meter with standard deviation of 1.2 meters.

  19. Miniature Joule-Thomson cryocooling principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Maytal, Ben-Zion

    2013-01-01

    This book is the first in English being entirely dedicated to Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling. The category of Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers takes us back to the roots of cryogenics, in 1895, with figures like Linde and Hampson. The "cold finger" of these cryocoolers is compact, lacks moving parts, and sustains a large heat flux extraction at a steady temperature. Potentially, they cool down unbeatably fast. For example, cooling to below 100 K (minus 173 Celsius) might be accomplished within only a few seconds by liquefying argon. A level of about 120 K can be reached almost instantly with krypton. Indeed, the species of coolant plays a central role dictating the size, the intensity and the level of cryocooling. It is the JT effect that drives these cryocoolers and reflects the deviation of the "real" gas from the ideal gas properties. The nine chapters of the book are arranged in five parts. • The Common Principle of Cyrocoolers shared across the broad variety of cryocooler types • Theoretical Aspec...

  20. Thomson scattering diagnostic for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.; Barter, J.D.; Sewall, N.R.; Jolly, J.J.; Schlander, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Thomson-scattering diagnostic system (TSS) on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at LLNL routinely monitors electron temperature (T e ) and density. Typical measured values at the plasma center under clean conditions are 900 ± 70 eV and 1 to 2 x 10 14 (±30%) cm -3 . The TSS apparatus is compact, with all elements mounted on one sturdy, two-level optics table. Because of this, we maintain with minimum effort the alignment of both the ruby-laser input optics and the scattered-light collecting optics. Undesired background signals, e.g., plasma light as well as ruby-laser light scattered off obstacles and walls, are generally small compared with the Thomson-scattered signals we normally detect. In the MTX T e region, the TSS data are definitely fitted better when relativistic effects are included in the equations. Besides determining the temperature of the Maxwellian electron distribution, the system is designed to detect electron heating from GW-level free-electron laser (FEL) pulses by measuring large wavelength shifts of the scattered laser photons. TSS data suggest that we may indeed by able to detect these electrons, which can have energies up to 10 keV, according to computer simulation. 7 refs., 4 figs

  1. Effective leaf area index retrieving from terrestrial point cloud data: coupling computational geometry application and Gaussian mixture model clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Tamura, M.; Susaki, J.

    2014-09-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most important structural parameters of forestry studies which manifests the ability of the green vegetation interacted with the solar illumination. Classic understanding about LAI is to consider the green canopy as integration of horizontal leaf layers. Since multi-angle remote sensing technique developed, LAI obliged to be deliberated according to the observation geometry. Effective LAI could formulate the leaf-light interaction virtually and precisely. To retrieve the LAI/effective LAI from remotely sensed data therefore becomes a challenge during the past decades. Laser scanning technique can provide accurate surface echoed coordinates with densely scanned intervals. To utilize the density based statistical algorithm for analyzing the voluminous amount of the 3-D points data is one of the subjects of the laser scanning applications. Computational geometry also provides some mature applications for point cloud data (PCD) processing and analysing. In this paper, authors investigated the feasibility of a new application for retrieving the effective LAI of an isolated broad leaf tree. Simplified curvature was calculated for each point in order to remove those non-photosynthetic tissues. Then PCD were discretized into voxel, and clustered by using Gaussian mixture model. Subsequently the area of each cluster was calculated by employing the computational geometry applications. In order to validate our application, we chose an indoor plant to estimate the leaf area, the correlation coefficient between calculation and measurement was 98.28 %. We finally calculated the effective LAI of the tree with 6 × 6 assumed observation directions.

  2. Quintessence Reissner Nordström Anti de Sitter Black Holes and Joule Thomson Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarnejad, H.; Yaraie, E.; Farsam, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this work we investigate corrections of the quintessence regime of the dark energy on the Joule-Thomson (JT) effect of the Reissner Nordström anti de Sitter (RNAdS) black hole. The quintessence dark energy has equation of state as p q = ω ρ q in which -1Hawking temperature on the T-P plan. We determine position of the inverse point versus different numerical values of the mass M and the charge Q of the quintessence AdS RN black hole. The cooling-heating phase transition (JT effect) is happened for M > Q in which the causal singularity is still covered by the horizon. Our calculations show sensitivity of the inverse point {T i , P i } position on the T-P plan to existence of the quintessence dark energy just for large numerical values of the AdS RN black holes charge Q. In other words the quintessence dark energy dose not affect on position of the inverse point when the AdS RN black hole takes on small charges.

  3. 33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney Point, Vermont. 165.T01-0176 Section 165...; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney Point, Vermont. (a) Description... and south of the Lake Champlain Bridge construction zone at Crown Point, New York and Chimney Point...

  4. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell email = campbek@nv.doe.gov

    2002-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are located in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262 are

  5. Local point sources that affect ground-water quality in the East Meadow area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    The extent and chemical characteristics of ground water affected by three local point sources--a stormwater basin, uncovered road-salt-storage piles, and an abandoned sewage-treatment plant--were delineated during a 3-year study of the chemical characteristics and migration of a body of reclaimed wastewater that was applied to the watertable aquifer during recharge experiments from October 1982 through January 1984 in East Meadow. The timing, magnitude, and chemical quality of recharge from these point sources is highly variable, and all sources have the potential to skew determinations of the quality of ambient ground-water and of the reclaimed-wastewater plume if they are not taken into account. Ground water affected by recharge from the stormwater basin is characterized by low concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (less than 5 mg/L [milligrams per liter] as N) and sulfate (less than 40 mg/L) and is almost entirely within the upper glacial aquifer. The plume derived from road-salt piles is narrow, has high concentrations of chloride (greater than 50 mg/L) and sodium (greater than 75 mg/L), and also is limited to the upper glacial aquifer. The sodium, in high concentrations, could react with aquifer material and exchange for sorbed cations such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Water affected by secondary-treated sewage from the abandoned treatment plant extends 152 feet below land surface into the upper part of the Magothy aquifer and longitudinally beyond the southern edge of the study area, 7,750 feet south of the recharge site. Ground water affected by secondary-treated sewage within the study area typically contains elevated concentrations of reactive chemical constituents, such as potassium and ammonium, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Conservative or minimally reactive constituents such as chloride and sodium have been transported out of the study area in the upper glacial aquifer and the intermediate (transitional) zone but remain in the less

  6. The best cutoff point for median nerve cross sectional area at the level of carpal tunnel inlet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Sarraf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy. It accounts 90% of all entrapment neuropathies all over the world. Ultrasound is a non-invasive, cost effective and available para-clinical method which could be applied for CTS diagnosis. Cross-sectional area of the median nerve at the level of the inlet is considered as a diagnostic criterion in CTS cases. In this study, thirty-eight patients with electrophysiologically confirmed idiopathic CTS and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventy-one affected nerves and 42 unaffected nerves were evaluated within 14 days after electrophysiological examination. The largest cross-sectional area (CSA was measured at the level of the carpal tunnel inlet and the maximum nerve perimeter was also recorded by means of the software. Mean CSA and perimeter were 14.02 ± 4.5 mm2 and 1.7±0.28m in all patients and 8.2±2.1 mm2, 1.3±0.19 m in controls (P<0.001, P<0.001. Mean CSA and Perimeter were significantly different between patient's groups and control. The best cut off point for CSA of the tunnel inlet was 10.5 mm2 with sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 76% (AUC (Area under the Curve = 0.9, P<0.001. The best cut off point for inlet perimeter was 1.44 m with sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 77 % (AUC=0.87, P<0.001. Our findings showed that median nerve CSA at carpal tunnel inlet could be used as the diagnostic criteria for CTS.

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of TEG-TEC Device Including Influence of Thomson Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanli; Chen, Lingen; Meng, Fankai; Sun, Fengrui

    2018-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of a thermoelectric cooler driven by thermoelectric generator (TEG-TEC) device is established considering Thomson effect. The performance is analyzed and optimized using numerical calculation based on non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory. The influence characteristics of Thomson effect on the optimal performance and variable selection are investigated by comparing the condition with and without Thomson effect. The results show that Thomson effect degrades the performance of TEG-TEC device, it decreases the cooling capacity by 27 %, decreases the coefficient of performance (COP) by 19 %, decreases the maximum cooling temperature difference by 11 % when the ratio of thermoelectric elements number is 0.6, the cold junction temperature of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is 285 K and the hot junction temperature of thermoelectric generator (TEG) is 450 K. Thomson effect degrades the optimal performance of TEG-TEC device, it decreases the maximum cooling capacity by 28 % and decreases the maximum COP by 28 % under the same junction temperatures. Thomson effect narrows the optimal variable range and optimal working range. In the design of the devices, limited-number thermoelectric elements should be more allocated appropriately to TEG when consider Thomson effect. The results may provide some guidelines for the design of TEG-TEC devices.

  8. Syphilis screening among 27,150 pregnant women in South Chinese rural areas using point-of-care tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Gang Yang

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and correlates of syphilis among pregnant women in rural areas of South China.Point-of-care syphilis testing was provided at 71 health facilities in less developed, rural areas of Guangdong Province. Positive samples were confirmed at a local referral center by toluidine red unheated serum tests (TRUST and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA tests.Altogether 27,150 pregnant women in rural Guangdong were screened for syphilis. 106 (0.39% syphilis cases were diagnosed, of which 78 (73.6% received treatment for syphilis. Multivariate analysis revealed that older pregnant women (31-35 years old, aOR 2.7, 95% CI 0.99-7.32; older than 35 years old, aOR 5.9, 95% CI 2.13-16.34 and those with a history of adverse pregnant outcomes (aOR 3.64, 95% CI 2.30-5.76 were more likely to be infected with syphilis.A high prevalence of syphilis exists among pregnant women living in rural areas of South China. Enhanced integration of syphilis screening with other routine women's health services (OB GYN, family planning may be useful for controlling China's syphilis epidemic.

  9. The Thomson scattering system at Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, E.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Bozhenkov, S. A.; Fuchert, G.; Knauer, J.; Wolf, R. C.

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the design of the Thomson scattering system at the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. For the first operation campaign we installed a 10 spatial channel system to cover a radial half profile of the plasma cross section. The start-up system is based on one Nd:YAG laser with 10 Hz repetition frequency, one observation optics, five fiber bundles with one delay line each, and five interference filter polychromators with five spectral channels and silicon avalanche diodes as detectors. High dynamic range analog to digital converters with 14 bit, 1 GS/s are used to digitize the signals. The spectral calibration of the system was done using a pulsed super continuum laser together with a monochromator. For density calibration we used Raman scattering in nitrogen gas. Peaked temperature profiles and flat density profiles are observed in helium and hydrogen discharges.

  10. Multichannel Thomson scattering diagnostics for the GOL-3 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polosatkin, S. V.; Burdakov, A. V.; Ivantsivskii, M. V.; Koidan, V. S.; Ovchar, V. K.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Semionov, V. V.; Fedotov, M. G.

    2006-01-01

    A multichannel Thomson scattering diagnostics for measuring the plasma parameters in the GOL-3 facility was designed and created at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The diagnostics operates at the fundamental harmonic of a neodymium laser (1.06 μm) and allows one to perform measurements over a wide range of electron temperatures and densities with high spatial and time resolutions. A special multipulse oscillator is developed that makes it possible to perform up to 20 measurements of the plasma temperature and density over a period of 300 μs during one shot. The laser used to generate probing radiation, the recording system, and the calibration procedure are described. Results from measurements of the temporal evolution of the plasma density in the GOL-3 in different stages of the discharge are presented to illustrate the system operation

  11. Mark Thomson presents the book "Modern Particle Physics"

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday 5 November 2013 at 4 p.m. in the Library, Bldg. 52 1-052 This new textbook covers all the main aspects of modern particle physics, providing a clear connection between the theory and recent experimental results, including the recent discovery of a Higgs boson and the most recent developments in neutrino physics. It provides a comprehensive and self-contained description of the Standard Model of particle physics suitable for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying experimental particle physics. Physical theory is introduced in a relatively straightforward manner with step-by-step mathematical derivations. In each chapter, fully worked examples link the theory to central experimental results in contemporary particle physics. Modern Particle Physics, by Mark Thomson, Cambridge University Press, 2013, ISBN 9781107034266. *Coffee will be served from 3.30 p.m.*

  12. Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic for fusion product alpha particle measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Kondoh, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    In JT-60U, a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser (10.6 {mu}m 10 MW) have been developed to measure ion temperature and velocity distribution of fast ions to demonstrate feasibility of measurements of confined alpha particles in ITER. High power pulsed CO{sub 2} laser and heterodyne receiver system (a quantum-well infrared photodetector, QWIP) has been developed and installed in the diagnostic room (in collaboration with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory team). We describe the present states of the JT-60U CTS (Collective Thomson Scattering) system and also present a calculation of the scattered spectrum associated with the density and velocity distribution of energetic fusion produced alpha particles. Scattering of CO{sub 2} radiation is evaluated for the plasma condition for both ITER and JT-60U. (author)

  13. Thomson scattering diagnostic upgrade on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce-Marquez, D. M.; Bray, B. D.; Deterly, T. M.; Liu, C.; Eldon, D.

    2010-01-01

    The DIII-D Thomson scattering system has been upgraded. A new data acquisition hardware was installed, adding the capacity for additional spatial channels and longer acquisition times for temperature and density measurements. Detector modules were replaced with faster transimpedance circuitry, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2. This allows for future expansion to the edge system. A second phase upgrade scheduled for 2010-2011 includes the installation of four 1 J/pulse Nd:YAG lasers at 50 Hz repetition rate. This paper presents the first completed phase of the upgrade and performance comparison between the original system and the upgraded system. The plan for the second phase is also presented.

  14. Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Lai, Xinsheng; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Hua; Qu, Shanshan

    2014-02-01

    Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed activation in right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 7 and 19), the right temporal lobe (Brodmann area 39), the right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 23) and bilateral occipital lobes (Brodmann area 18). Furthermore, inhibition of bilateral frontal lobes (Brodmann area 4, 6, and 45), right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 1 and 5) and left temporal lobe (Brodmann area 21) were observed in the true point group. Activation in the precuneus of right parietal lobe (Brodmann area 7) and inhibition of the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 10) was observed in the sham group. Compared with sham acupuncture, acupuncture at Waiguan in stroke patients inhibited Brodmann area 5 on the healthy side. Results indicated that the altered specificity of sensation-associated cortex (Brodmann area 5) is possibly associated with a central mechanism of acupuncture at Waiguan for stroke patients.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiason, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well

  16. Psühhofüsioloogilised mängud / Kaivo Thomson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thomson, Kaivo, 1956-

    2002-01-01

    Rmt.: Thomson, Kaivo. Psühhofüsioloogilised mängud : teooria & värvitoonide, helikõrguste ja liikumiskiiruste eristamisvõime testimine ning arendamine meetodiga "WinPsycho 2000" (CD-1). Tartu : Atlex, 2001.

  17. Thomson, the right to life, and partial birth abortion or two MULES for Sister Sarah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alward, P

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, I argue that Thomson's famous attempt to reconcile the fetus's putative right to life with robust abortion rights is not tenable. Given her view, whether or not an abortion violates the fetus's right to life depends on the abortion procedure utilised. And I argue that Thomson's view implies that any late term abortion that involves feticide is impermissible. In particular, this would rule out the partial birth abortion technique which has been so controversial of late.

  18. Disaggregation of legacy soil data using area to point kriging for mapping soil organic carbon at the regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Rawlins, Barry G; Marchant, Ben P

    2012-01-15

    Legacy data in the form of soil maps, which often have typical property measurements associated with each polygon, can be an important source of information for digital soil mapping (DSM). Methods of disaggregating such information and using it for quantitative estimation of soil properties by methods such as regression kriging (RK) are needed. Several disaggregation processes have been investigated; preferred methods include those which include consideration of scorpan factors and those which are mass preserving (pycnophylactic) making transitions between different scales of investigation more theoretically sound. Area to point kriging (AtoP kriging) is pycnophylactic and here we investigate its merits for disaggregating legacy data from soil polygon maps. Area to point regression kriging (AtoP RK) which incorporates ancillary data into the disaggre-gation process was also applied. The AtoP kriging and AtoP RK approaches do not involve collection of new soil measurements and are compared with disaggregation by simple rasterization. Of the disaggregation methods investigated, AtoP RK gave the most accurate predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations (smaller mean absolute errors (MAEs) of cross-validation) for disaggregation of soil polygon data across the whole of Northern Ireland. Legacy soil polygon data disaggregated by AtoP kriging and simple rasterization were used in a RK framework for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations across the whole of Northern Ireland, using soil sample data from the Tellus survey of Northern Ireland and with other covariates (altitude and airborne radiometric potassium). This allowed direct comparison with previous analysis of the Tellus survey data. Incorporating the legacy data, whether from simple rasterization of the polygons or AtoP kriging, substantially reduced the MAEs of RK compared with previous analyses of the Tellus data. However, using legacy data disaggregated by AtoP kriging in RK resulted in

  19. A point-infiltration model for estimating runoff from rainfall on small basins in semiarid areas of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankl, James G.

    1990-01-01

    A physically based point-infiltration model was developed for computing infiltration of rainfall into soils and the resulting runoff from small basins in Wyoming. The user describes a 'design storm' in terms of average rainfall intensity and storm duration. Information required to compute runoff for the design storm by using the model include (1) soil type and description, and (2) two infiltration parameters and a surface-retention storage parameter. Parameter values are tabulated in the report. Rainfall and runoff data for three ephemeral-stream basins that contain only one type of soil were used to develop the model. Two assumptions were necessary: antecedent soil moisture is some long-term average, and storm rainfall is uniform in both time and space. The infiltration and surface-retention storage parameters were determined for the soil of each basin. Observed rainstorm and runoff data were used to develop a separation curve, or incipient-runoff curve, which distinguishes between runoff and nonrunoff rainfall data. The position of this curve defines the infiltration and surface-retention storage parameters. A procedure for applying the model to basins that contain more than one type of soil was developed using data from 7 of the 10 study basins. For these multiple-soil basins, the incipient-runoff curve defines the infiltration and retention-storage parameters for the soil having the highest runoff potential. Parameters were defined by ranking the soils according to their relative permeabilities and optimizing the position of the incipient-runoff curve by using measured runoff as a control for the fit. Analyses of runoff from multiple-soil basins indicate that the effective contributing area of runoff is less than the drainage area of the basin. In this study, the effective drainage area ranged from 41.6 to 71.1 percent of the total drainage area. Information on effective drainage area is useful in evaluating drainage area as an independent variable in

  20. Access Point Backhaul Resource Aggregation as a Many-to-One Matching Game in Wireless Local Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawther Hassine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies backhaul bandwidth aggregation in the context of a wireless local area network composed of two different types of access points: those with spare backhaul capacity (which we term providers and those in shortage of it (beneficiaries; the aim is to transfer excess capacity from providers to beneficiaries. We model the system as a matching game with many-to-one setting wherein several providers can be matched to one beneficiary and adopt the so-called deferred acceptance algorithm to reach an optimal and stable solution. We consider two flavors, when the beneficiaries are limited in their resource demands and when they are not, and two scenarios, when resources are abundant and when they are scarce. Our results show that the many-to-one setting outperforms the one-to-one case in terms of overall throughput gain, resource usage, and individual beneficiaries satisfaction by up to 50%, whether resources are scarce or abundant. As of the limited versus nonlimited case, the former ensures more fair sharing of spectral resources and higher satisfaction percentage between beneficiaries.

  1. Service design: a review of methods and techniques inthe point of view of service operations management area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Torres Júnior

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As in many developing countries, the service sector in Brazil is responsible for generating income and employment for a significant portion of the population. Due to this economic relevance, service organizations are faced with an increasingly demanding and competitive market. This demand greater innovation and business planning. Despite this, the process of service development remains a relatively unexplored subject in the literature. Several issues regarding the planning and management remain without clear ideas or propositions that guide their appropriate treatment. The result of this situation, the methods and techniques that help design the services are not properly disseminated. These are scattered through the literature of operations management services. Given this framework, the light of a review of the literature and concerning the elements that compose the service project according to the works of Machuca, Zamora-Gonzalez and Aguilar-Escobar (2007 and Edvardsson (1997, the present work points and examine the methods and techniques suggested by many authors and works on the area of Service Operations. It was found that the knowledge about the methods and techniques is diffuse. This knowledge is concentrated on the design process and determining the location of services.

  2. Fractal Dimension Change Point Model for Hydrothermal Alteration Anomalies in Silk Road Economic Belt, the Beishan Area, Gansu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H. H.; Wang, Y. L.; Ren, G. L.; LI, J. Q.; Gao, T.; Yang, M.; Yang, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration of “One Belt One Road” plan. One of its applications is extracting and locating hydrothermal alteration zones that are related to mines. At present, the extracting method for alteration anomalies from principal component image mainly relies on the data's normal distribution, without considering the nonlinear characteristics of geological anomaly. In this study, a Fractal Dimension Change Point Model (FDCPM), calculated by the self-similarity and mutability of alteration anomalies, is employed to quantitatively acquire the critical threshold of alteration anomalies. The realization theory and access mechanism of the model are elaborated by an experiment with ASTER data in Beishan mineralization belt, also the results are compared with traditional method (De-Interfered Anomalous Principal Component Thresholding Technique, DIAPCTT). The results show that the findings produced by FDCPM are agree with well with a mounting body of evidence from different perspectives, with the extracting accuracy over 80%, indicating that FDCPM is an effective extracting method for remote sensing alteration anomalies, and could be used as an useful tool for mineral exploration in similar areas in Silk Road Economic Belt.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL OF GALACTIC INTERSTELLAR EMISSION FOR STANDARD POINT-SOURCE ANALYSIS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J.; Buson, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Bruel, P., E-mail: isabelle.grenier@cea.fr, E-mail: casandjian@cea.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2016-04-01

    Most of the celestial γ rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point-source and extended-source studies rely on the modeling of this diffuse emission for accurate characterization. Here, we describe the development of the Galactic Interstellar Emission Model (GIEM), which is the standard adopted by the LAT Collaboration and is publicly available. This model is based on a linear combination of maps for interstellar gas column density in Galactocentric annuli and for the inverse-Compton emission produced in the Galaxy. In the GIEM, we also include large-scale structures like Loop I and the Fermi bubbles. The measured gas emissivity spectra confirm that the cosmic-ray proton density decreases with Galactocentric distance beyond 5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The measurements also suggest a softening of the proton spectrum with Galactocentric distance. We observe that the Fermi bubbles have boundaries with a shape similar to a catenary at latitudes below 20° and we observe an enhanced emission toward their base extending in the north and south Galactic directions and located within ∼4° of the Galactic Center.

  4. Development of the Model of Galactic Interstellar Emission for Standard Point-Source Analysis of Fermi Large Area Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, F.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Brandt, T. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Most of the celestial gamma rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point-source and extended-source studies rely on the modeling of this diffuse emission for accurate characterization. Here, we describe the development of the Galactic Interstellar Emission Model (GIEM),which is the standard adopted by the LAT Collaboration and is publicly available. This model is based on a linear combination of maps for interstellar gas column density in Galactocentric annuli and for the inverse-Compton emission produced in the Galaxy. In the GIEM, we also include large-scale structures like Loop I and the Fermi bubbles. The measured gas emissivity spectra confirm that the cosmic-ray proton density decreases with Galactocentric distance beyond 5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The measurements also suggest a softening of the proton spectrum with Galactocentric distance. We observe that the Fermi bubbles have boundaries with a shape similar to a catenary at latitudes below 20deg and we observe an enhanced emission toward their base extending in the north and south Galactic directions and located within approximately 4deg of the Galactic Center.

  5. High resolution Thomson scattering system for steady-state linear plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. Y.; Lee, K. I.; Kim, J. H.; Lho, T.

    2018-01-01

    The high resolution Thomson scattering system with 63 points along a 25 mm line measures the radial electron temperature (Te) and its density (ne) in an argon plasma. By using a DC arc source with lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) electrode, plasmas with electron temperature of over 5 eV and densities of 1.5 × 1019 m-3 have been measured. The system uses a frequency doubled (532 nm) Nd:YAG laser with 0.25 J/pulse at 20 Hz. The scattered light is collected and sent to a triple-grating spectrometer via optical-fibers, where images are recorded by an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. Although excellent in stray-light reduction, a disadvantage comes with its relatively low optical transmission and in sampling a tiny scattering volume. Thus requires accumulating multitude of images. In order to improve photon statistics, pixel binning in the ICCD camera as well as enlarging the intermediate slit-width inside the triple-grating spectrometer has been exploited. In addition, the ICCD camera capture images at 40 Hz while the laser is at 20 Hz. This operation mode allows us to alternate between background and scattering shot images. By image subtraction, influences from the plasma background are effectively taken out. Maximum likelihood estimation that uses a parameter sweep finds best fitting parameters Te and ne with the incoherent scattering spectrum.

  6. Progress On The Thomson Scattering Diagnostic For The Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A.; Emami, T.; Davies, R.; Frank, J.; Hopson, J.; Karama, J.; James, R. W.; Hopson, J.; Paolino, R. N.; Sandri, E.; Turk, J.; Wicke, M.; Cgapl Team

    2017-10-01

    A high-performance spectrometer utilizing volume-phase-holographic (VPH) grating and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with a range of 380-1090 nm and resolution of 1024x1024 has been assembled on HPX at the Coast Guard Academy Plasma Laboratory (CGAPL). This spectrometer will collect doppler shifted photons, emitted from the plasma by the first harmonic (1064 nm) of a 2.5 J Nd:YAG laser. Direct measurements of the plasma's temperature and density will be determined using HPX's Thomson Scattering (TS) single spatial point diagnostic system. A zero order half wave plate rotates the polarization of the second harmonic TS laser beam when operating at a wavelength of 532 nm. A linear actuated periscope has been constructed to remotely redirect the beam so that 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths can both be used. TS has the capability of determining plasma properties on short time scales and will be used to create a robust picture of the internal plasma parameters. Operating at both 532 and 1064 nm results in a self-consistent measurement and better use our existing spectrometer and soon to be constructed polychrometer. A prototype spectrometer has been constructed to explore the Andor CCD camera's resolution and sensitivity. The current status of the diagnostic development, spectrometer, and collection optics system will be reported. Supported by U.S. DEPS Grant [HEL-JTO] PRWJFY17.

  7. GPIB based instrumentation and control system for ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kiran, E-mail: kkpatel@ipr.res.in; Pillai, Vishal; Singh, Neha; Chaudhary, Vishnu; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai

    2016-11-15

    The ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic is a single point Ruby laser based system with a spectrometer for spectral dispersion and photomultiplier tubes for the detection of scattered light. The system uses CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement And Control) based control and data acquisition system, which synchronizes the Ruby laser, detectors and the digitizer. Previously used serial based CAMAC controller is upgraded to GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) based CAMAC controller for configuration and data transfer. The communication protocols for different instruments are converted to a single GPIB based for better interface. The entire control and data acquisition program is developed on LabVIEW platform for versatile operation of diagnostics with improved user friendly GUI (Graphical User Interfaces) and allows user to remotely update the laser firing time with respect to the plasma shot. The software is in handshake with the Tokamak main control program through network to minimize manual interventions for the operation of the diagnostics. The upgraded system improved the performance of the diagnostics in comparison to earlier in terms of better data transmission rate, easy to maintain and program is upgradable.

  8. Enhanced Thomson scattering theory applied to eight experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.; Short, R.W.; Seka, W.; Goldman, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The onset of an instability, such as the 2ω/sub p/ at the n/sub c//4 surface, usually leads to wave breaking and the emission of hot electron pulses which can profoundly influence instability thresholds and scattering behavior elsewhere in the plasma. In particular, enhanced Thomson scattering (via the plasma line) can occur, and this has been used to explain the observation of the SRS instability well below the theoretical threshold. A simple model of the hot electron pulses based on measured values of the hot and cold electron temperatures, T/sub h/ and T/sub c/, has yielded good agreement with experimental observation of the Raman spectral frequency bands. The agreement has continued, even for experiments which are clearly above the SRS threshold, with the enhanced noise likely acting as a ''seed'' for the SRS growth. We will show details of the successful comparison of this theory with six experiments carried out on SHIVA, ARGUS, NOVETTE(2), and GDL(2), and also with an upscattering feature seen at Garching. In addition, a recent experiment using 6 beams of OMEGA (at 0.35μ) will be discussed, and compared with the theory. The report is comprised of viewgraphs of the talks

  9. Mixture optimization for mixed gas Joule-Thomson cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlor, J.; Pfotenhauer, J.; Nellis, G.

    2017-12-01

    An appropriate gas mixture can provide lower temperatures and higher cooling power when used in a Joule-Thomson (JT) cycle than is possible with a pure fluid. However, selecting gas mixtures to meet specific cooling loads and cycle parameters is a challenging design problem. This study focuses on the development of a computational tool to optimize gas mixture compositions for specific operating parameters. This study expands on prior research by exploring higher heat rejection temperatures and lower pressure ratios. A mixture optimization model has been developed which determines an optimal three-component mixture based on the analysis of the maximum value of the minimum value of isothermal enthalpy change, ΔhT , that occurs over the temperature range. This allows optimal mixture compositions to be determined for a mixed gas JT system with load temperatures down to 110 K and supply temperatures above room temperature for pressure ratios as small as 3:1. The mixture optimization model has been paired with a separate evaluation of the percent of the heat exchanger that exists in a two-phase range in order to begin the process of selecting a mixture for experimental investigation.

  10. TFTR 60 GHz alpha particle collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuzak, J.S.; Woskov, P.P.; Gilmore, J.; Bretz, N.L.; Park, H.K.; Bindslev, H.

    1995-03-01

    A 60 GHz gyrotron collective Thomson Scattering alpha particle diagnostic has been implemented for the D-T period on TFM. Gyrotron power of 0.1-1 kW in pulses of up to 1 second can be launched in X-mode. Efficient corrugated waveguides are used with antennaes and vacuum windows of the TFTR Microwave Scattering system. A multichannel synchronous detector receiver system and spectrum analyzer acquire the scattered signals. A 200 Megasample/sec digitizer is used to resolve fine structure in the frequency spectrum. By scattering nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field, this experiment will take advantage of an enhancement of the scattered signal which results from the interaction of the alpha particles with plasma resonances in the lower hybrid frequency range. Significant enhancements are expected, which will make these measurements possible with gyrotron power less than 1 kW, while maintaining an acceptable signal to noise ratio. We hope to extract alpha particle density and velocity distribution functions from the data. The D and T fuel densities and temperatures may also be obtainable by measurement of the respective ion cyclotron harmonic frequencies

  11. Electron Beam Final Focus System For Thomson Scattering At Elbe

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødkera, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensena, J.P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  12. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; .Jochmann A.; Kristensen, J.P.; Lehnert U., HZDR; Michel, P.; Schrammb, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  13. X-Ray Thomson Scattering Without the Chihara Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Rudolph; Baczewski, Andrew; Shulenburger, Luke; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Sandia National Laboratories Collaboration

    X-Ray Thomson Scattering is an important experimental technique used in dynamic compression experiments to measure the properties of warm dense matter. The fundamental property probed in these experiments is the electronic dynamic structure factor that is typically modeled using an empirical three-term decomposition (Chihara, J. Phys. F, 1987). One of the crucial assumptions of this decomposition is that the system's electrons can be either classified as bound to ions or free. This decomposition may not be accurate for materials in the warm dense regime. We present unambiguous first principles calculations of the dynamic structure factor independent of the Chihara decomposition that can be used to benchmark these assumptions. Results are generated using a finite-temperature real-time time-dependent density functional theory applied for the first time in these conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Progress on Thomson scattering in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Schoenbeck, N. L.; Winz, G. R.

    2013-11-01

    A novel Thomson scattering system has been implemented on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment where typical densities of 1019 m-3 and electron temperatures of 10 to 500 eV are expected. The system leverages technological advances in high-energy pulsed lasers, volume phase holographic (VPH) diffraction gratings, and gated image intensified (ICCD) cameras to provide a relatively low-maintenance, economical, robust diagnostic system. Scattering is induced by a frequency-doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (2 J at 532 nm, 7 ns FWHM pulse) directed to the plasma over a 7.7 m long beam path, and focused to VPH transmission gratings (eff. > 80%) and fast-gated ICCDs (gate > 2 ns, Gen III intensifier) with high-throughput (F/1.8), achromatic lensing. A stray light mitigation facility has been implemented, consisting of a multi-aperture optical baffle system and a simple beam dump. Successful stray light reduction has enabled detection of scattered signal, and Rayleigh scattering has been used to provide a relative calibration. Initial temperature measurements have been made and data analysis algorithms are under development.

  15. The genus Rosalba Thomson, 1864 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M; Joly, Luis J; Tavakilian, GÉrard L

    2018-02-26

    Nineteen new species are described: Rosalba wappesi, from Bolivia; R. giesberti, from Bolivia; R. skillmani, from Bolivia; R. lingafelteri, from Bolivia; R. senecauxi, from French Guiana; R. dalensi, from French Guiana; R. giuglarisi, from French Guiana; R. nearnsi, from French Guiana; R. cerdai, from French Guiana; R. gaianii, from Venezuela; R. pittieri, from Venezuela; R. clinei, from Bolivia and Brazil; R. morrisi, from Costa Rica and Panama; R. schneppi, from Panama; R. birai, from Colombia; R. stenodesma, from Venezuela and French Guiana; R. similis, from Peru and Ecuador; R. bezarki, from Ecuador; and R.seraisorum, from Ecuador and Brazil (Amazonas). The following new synonymies are established: Aletretia dissimilis Belon, 1903 = A. fimbriata Belon, 1903; Aletretia consobrina Melzer, 1934, Rosalba gounellei Galileo Martins, 2013 and Rosalba vanini Galileo Martins, 2013 = Aletretia inscripta Bates, 1866; Aletretia mediofasciata Breuning, 1943 = Aletretia bucki Melzer, 1934; Aletretia peraffinis Breuning, 1940 = Aletretia approximata Melzer, 1934. The following species are redescribed: Rosalba strandiella (Breuning, 1940); and Rosalba rufescens (Breuning, 1940). The following new records are reported: Rosalba strandiella for Bolivia; R. strandi (Breuning, 1943) from the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina; R. inscripta from Peru and the Brazilian state of Acre; R. smaragdina (Breuning, 1940) from the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais; R. obliqua (Thomson, 1868) from Brazil; and Rosalba fimbriata (Belon, 1903) from Ecuador.

  16. 78 FR 30797 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Point Thomson, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ..., ``Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures'' prior to any FAA final regulatory action. List of Subjects in... Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. The... proposal to the U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor...

  17. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Primary Health Care: Usual Points of Access and Temporal Trends in a Major US Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mustafa; Diez Roux, Ana V; Field, Robert I

    2016-12-01

    Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), an overall marker of neighborhood conditions, may determine residents' access to health care, independently of their own individual characteristics. It remains unclear, however, how the distinct settings where individuals seek care vary by neighborhood SES, particularly in US urban areas. With existing literature being relatively old, revealing how these associations might have changed in recent years is also timely in this US health care reform era. Using data on the Philadelphia region from 2002 to 2012, we performed multilevel analysis to examine the associations of neighborhood SES (measured as census tract median household income) with access to usual sources of primary care (physician offices, community health centers, and hospital outpatient clinics). We found no evidence that residence in a low-income (versus high-income) neighborhood was associated with poorer overall access. However, low-income neighborhood residence was associated with less reliance on physician offices [-4.40 percentage points; 95 % confidence intervals (CI) -5.80, -3.00] and greater reliance on the safety net provided by health centers [2.08; 95 % CI 1.42, 2.75] and outpatient clinics [1.61; 95 % CI 0.97, 2.26]. These patterns largely persisted over the 10 years investigated. These findings suggest that safety-net providers have continued to play an important role in ensuring access to primary care in urban, low-income communities, further underscoring the importance of supporting a strong safety net to ensure equitable access to care regardless of place of residence.

  18. Detection of Single Tree Stems in Forested Areas from High Density ALS Point Clouds Using 3d Shape Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, N.; Polewski, P.; Yao, W.; Krzystek, P.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is a widespread method for forest mapping and management purposes. While common ALS techniques provide valuable information about the forest canopy and intermediate layers, the point density near the ground may be poor due to dense overstory conditions. The current study highlights a new method for detecting stems of single trees in 3D point clouds obtained from high density ALS with a density of 300 points/m2. Compared to standard ALS data, due to lower flight height (150-200 m) this elevated point density leads to more laser reflections from tree stems. In this work, we propose a three-tiered method which works on the point, segment and object levels. First, for each point we calculate the likelihood that it belongs to a tree stem, derived from the radiometric and geometric features of its neighboring points. In the next step, we construct short stem segments based on high-probability stem points, and classify the segments by considering the distribution of points around them as well as their spatial orientation, which encodes the prior knowledge that trees are mainly vertically aligned due to gravity. Finally, we apply hierarchical clustering on the positively classified segments to obtain point sets corresponding to single stems, and perform ℓ1-based orthogonal distance regression to robustly fit lines through each stem point set. The ℓ1-based method is less sensitive to outliers compared to the least square approaches. From the fitted lines, the planimetric tree positions can then be derived. Experiments were performed on two plots from the Hochficht forest in Oberösterreich region located in Austria.We marked a total of 196 reference stems in the point clouds of both plots by visual interpretation. The evaluation of the automatically detected stems showed a classification precision of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively for Plot 1 and 2, with recall values of 0.7 and 0.67.

  19. Applying the CO2 laser collective Thomson scattering results from JT-60U to other machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R. K.; Hutchinson, D. P.; Bennett, C. A.; Kondoh, T.; Miura, Y.; Lee, S.

    2003-03-01

    A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system based on a pulsed CO2 laser is being developed to demonstrate the feasibility of alpha-particle diagnostics. Tests on this system are being conducted on the JT-60U tokamak. The system consists of a pulsed laser (15 J in 1:s at 10.6:m) and a wide band (˜8 GHz) heterodyne receiver with a quantum-well infrared photodetector [Liu et al., IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 253 (1995)]. Stray light is reduced by a notch filter containing hot CO2 gas. The heterodyne receiver is absolutely calibrated using a large area blackbody radiation source [Bennett et al., Appl. Opt. 27, 3324 (1988)]. Results from the tests on JT-60U indicate a larger than expected noise background, especially for the lower velocity measurements determined by the smaller frequency shifts from the laser line. These results are used to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio that would be expected for a CTS diagnostic installed on other devices; ITER ("the way" in Latin), Joint European Torus-Enhanced Performance JET-EP, and axially symmetric divertor experiment (ASDEX). Calculations and possible system improvements are presented.

  20. Deconvolution of the two-dimensional point-spread function of area detectors using the maximum-entropy algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafsma, H; de Vries, R.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The maximum-entropy method (MEM) has been applied for the deconvolution of the point-spread function (PSF) of two-dimensional X-ray detectors. The method is robust, model and image independent, and only depends on the correct description of the two-dimensional point-spread function and gain factor

  1. Relaxation of Summer Gasoline Volatility Standard for Florida and the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Area (Triangle Area) and the Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point Area (Triad Area) in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is taking final action to relax the federal volatility (RVP) standard applicable to summer gasoline supplied to three areas in Florida and the Triangle and Triad Areas in North Carolina from 7.8 pounds per square inch (psi) to 9.0 psi.

  2. X-ray Thomson Scattering from Spherically Imploded ICF Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, Andrea; Doeppner, Tilo; Landen, Otto; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2010-11-01

    Time-resolved X-ray Thomson scattering measurements from spherically imploded inertial fusion capsules-type targets have been obtained for the first time at the Omega OMEGA laser facility to characterize the in-flight properties of ICF ablators. In these experiments, the non-collective, or microscopic particle behavior, of imploding CH and Be shells, was probed using a 9 keV Zn He-alpha x-ray source at scattering angles of 113^o and 135^o. for two drive pulse shapes.As an example, the analysis of In-flight scattering measurements from one set of directly-driven compressed 8600 μm-diameter, 40-μm thick Be shells taken (4.2 ns after the start of the compression beamswhen compressed a factor of 4.83x) yielded electron densities of ˜ 1.2±0.23x10^24cm-3, temperatures of ˜13±32 eV, and an ionization state of Be(+2), with uncertainties in the temperature and density of about 40% and 20%. These conditions resulting in an inferred adiabat (ratio of plasma pressure to Fermi degenerate pressure) of 1.797 +0.3/-.5 with an error of about 30%. The high signal-to-noise and high signal-to-background ratio of data obtained in these experiments provides a platform for studying the adiabat of other indirect-drive ICF ablators such as CH and High Density Carbon (HDC) ablators and demonstrates the viability of using this diagnostic to study the in-flight properties adiabat of implosion targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  3. Relaxation of Summer Gasoline Volatility Standard for Florida and the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Area (Triangle Area) and the Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point Area (Triad Area) in North Carolina Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Registers and fact sheets about EPA approving a request from Florida to relax the federal Reid Vapor Pressure standard applicable to gasoline introduced into commerce in the Miami, Tampa and Jacksonville areas.

  4. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  5. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of pipework in the LHC LSS7 area at Point 7

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of pipework in the LHC LSS7 area at Point 7. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with INIZIATIVE INDUSTRIALI (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of pipework in the LHC LSS7 area Point 7 for a total amount of 511 234 euros (786 515 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  6. Iterative noise removal from temperature and density profiles in the TJ-II Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, G.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Vega, J.; Santos, M.; Pastor, I.; Fingerhuth, S.; Ascencio, J.

    2014-01-01

    TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic provides temperature and density profiles of plasma. The CCD camera acquires images that are corrupted with some kind of noise called stray-light. This noise degrades both image contrast and measurement accuracy, which could produce unreliable profiles of the diagnostic. So far, several approaches have been applied in order to decrease the noise in the TJ-II Thomson scattering images. Since the presence of the noise is not global but located in some particular regions of the image, advanced processing techniques are needed. However such methods require of manual fine-tuning of parameters to reach a good performance. In this contribution, an iterative image processing approach is applied in order to reduce the stray light effects in the images of the TJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic. The proposed solution describes how the noise can be iteratively reduced in the images when a key parameter is automatically adjusted during the iterative process

  7. Iterative noise removal from temperature and density profiles in the TJ-II Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, G., E-mail: gonzalo.farias@ucv.cl [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile); Dormido-Canto, S., E-mail: sebas@dia.uned.es [Departamento de Informática y Automática, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega, J., E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santos, M., E-mail: msantos@ucm.es [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I., E-mail: ignacio.pastor@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fingerhuth, S., E-mail: sebastian.fingerhuth@ucv.cl [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile); Ascencio, J., E-mail: j_ascencio21@hotmail.com [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2014-05-15

    TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic provides temperature and density profiles of plasma. The CCD camera acquires images that are corrupted with some kind of noise called stray-light. This noise degrades both image contrast and measurement accuracy, which could produce unreliable profiles of the diagnostic. So far, several approaches have been applied in order to decrease the noise in the TJ-II Thomson scattering images. Since the presence of the noise is not global but located in some particular regions of the image, advanced processing techniques are needed. However such methods require of manual fine-tuning of parameters to reach a good performance. In this contribution, an iterative image processing approach is applied in order to reduce the stray light effects in the images of the TJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic. The proposed solution describes how the noise can be iteratively reduced in the images when a key parameter is automatically adjusted during the iterative process.

  8. A simple, high performance Thomson scattering diagnostic for high temperature plasma research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, D.J.D.; Cekic, M.

    1994-02-01

    This Thomson scattering diagnostic is used to measure the electron temperature and density of the plasma in the MST reversed-field pinch, a magnetic confinement fusion research device. This diagnostic system is unique for its type in that it combines high performance with simple design and low cost components. In the design of this instrument, careful attention was given to the suppression of stray laser line light with simple and effective beam dumps, viewing dumps, aperatures, and a holographic edge filter. This allows the use of a single grating monochromator for dispersion of the Thomson scattered spectrum onto the microchannel plate detector. Alignment and calibration procedures for the laser beam delivery system, the scattered light collection system, and the spectrometer and detector are described. A sample Thomson scattered spectrum illustrates typical data

  9. 75 FR 1015 - Directing Certain Actions with Respect to Acquisition and Use of Thomson Correctional Center to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... expeditiously as possible with respect to the facility known as the Thomson Correctional Center (TCC) in Thomson, Illinois: 1. The Attorney General shall acquire and activate the TCC as a United States Penitentiary, which.... The Attorney General shall also provide to the Department of Defense a sufficient portion of the TCC...

  10. ICSW2AN : An Inter-vehicle Communication System Using Mobile Access Point over Wireless Wide Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tae-Young

    This paper presents a prototype of inter-vehicle communication system using mobile access point that internetworks wired or wireless LAN and wireless WAN anywhere. Implemented mobile access point can be equipped with various wireless WAN interfaces such as WCDMA and HSDPA. Mobile access point in the IP mechanism has to process connection setup procedure to one wireless WAN. To show the applicability of the mobile access point to inter-vehicle communication, a simplified V2I2V-based car communication system called ICSW2AN is implemented to evaluate major performance metrics by road test. In addition, results of road test for traffic information service are investigated in view of RTT, latency and server processing time. The experimental result indicates that V2I2V-based car communication system sufficiently can provide time-tolerant traffic information to moving vehicles while more than two mobile devices in restricted spaces such as car, train and ship access wireless Internet simultaneously.

  11. Comparing line-intersect, fixed-area, and point relascope sampling for dead and downed coarse woody material in a managed northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. J. Jordan; M. J. Ducey; J. H. Gove

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a timed field trial comparing the bias characteristics and relative sampling efficiency of line-intersect, fixed-area, and point relascope sampling for downed coarse woody material. Seven stands in a managed northern hardwood forest in New Hampshire were inventoried. Significant differences were found among estimates in some stands, indicating...

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. Final report, October 19, 1996 - October 24, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1997-12-01

    Radioactivity surrounding the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area, which encompasses the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure-rate measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 10-14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) in cultivated fields, (b) from 8-10 μR/h in adjacent areas and along roadways, and (c) below 6 μR/h over waterways and wetland areas. Man-made radiation (102-202 μR/h) was found at the plant site; cobalt-60 was the primary source of activity found at the Point Beach site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. The exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1970 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

  13. Monthly leaf area index estimates from point-in-time measurements and needle phenology for Pinus taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.A. Sampson; T.J. Albaugh; Kurt H. Johnsen; H.L. Allen; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Leaf area index (LAI) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees of the southern United States varies almost twofold interannually; loblolly pine, essentially, carries two foliage cohorts at peak LAI (September) and one at minimum (March–April). Herein, we present an approach that may be site invariant to estimate monthly...

  14. Measurement of electron temperature and density by Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Tokamak CASTOR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brotánková, Jana; Plíšek, Pavel; Žáček, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, supplement D (2002), s. 51-58 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/20th./. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : tokamak, Thomson scattering, electron temperature Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  15. Investigations of laser-induced plasma in argon by Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendys, A., E-mail: agata.mendys@uj.edu.pl [Instytut Fizyki im. M. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Dzierzega, K.; Grabiec, M. [Instytut Fizyki im. M. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Pellerin, S. [GREMI - site de Bourges, Universite d' Orleans, CNRS, rue Gaston Berger BP 4043, 18028 Bourges (France); Pokrzywka, B. [Obserwatorium Astronomiczne na Suhorze, Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny, ulica Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Travaille, G.; Bousquet, B. [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence CEDEX (France)

    2011-09-15

    The Thomson scattering method was applied to quantify the electron number density and temperature of a laser spark formed in argon. The laser spark was generated by focusing a 15 mJ beam from the second harmonic ({lambda}{sub L} = 532 nm) of a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser with an 80 mm focal length lens. Images of the spark emission were obtained for times between 1 ns and 20 {mu}s after the laser pulse in order to characterize its spatial evolution. The electron density and temperature for the core of the plasma plume at different instants of its evolution were determined from the Thomson scattered spectra of another nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 10 to 60 mJ/pulse). In the time interval between 400 ns and 10 {mu}s between the laser induced plasma and Thomson scattering probe pulses, we found n{sub e} and T{sub e} to decrease from 4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} m{sup -3} to 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} m{sup -3} and from 50 700 K to 11 100 K, respectively. Special care was paid to the plasma disturbance by the probe laser pulse in Thomson scattering experiments due to absorption of laser photons by electrons through the inverse bremsstrahlung process.

  16. Temporal evolution of confined fast-ion velocity distributions measured by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik; Porte, L.

    2008-01-01

    Fast ions created in the fusion processes will provide up to 70% of the heating in ITER. To optimize heating and current drive in magnetically confined plasmas insight into fast-ion dynamics is important. First measurements of such dynamics by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) were recently rep...

  17. The spectrometer of the High-Resolution Multi position Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, J.; Barth, C.J.; Castejon, F.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; Mirones, E.; Pastor, I.; Perez, D.; Rodriguez, C.

    2001-07-01

    Since 1998, a high-resolution multiposition thompson scattering system is in operation at the stellarator TJ-II, combining high accuracy and excellent spatial resolution. A description of the diagnostic spectrometer is presented. The main characteristics of the spectrometer that allow YJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic to have high spatial and spectral resolution are described in this paper. (Author)

  18. Verification of the Thomson-Onsager reciprocity relation for spin caloritronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejene, F. K.; Flipse, J.; van Wees, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the Thomson-Onsager relation between the spin-dependent Seebeck and spin-dependent Peltier effect. To maintain identical device and measurement conditions we measure both effects in a single Ni80Fe20/Cu/Ni80Fe20 nanopillar spin valve device subjected to either an electrical or a

  19. Joseph John Thomson's models of matter and radiation in the early 1890s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Stefano

    In the late nineteenth century, Joseph John Thomson moved away from Maxwell's specific theoretical models of matter and energy, even though he continued to rely on the general framework of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. In his 1893 book, he accomplished the conceptual drift towards a discrete model for matter, electricity, and fields. In Thomson's model, energy was linked to tubes of force, in particular to the aether contained in them and surrounding them: the energy was the kinetic energy of aether, of both a rotational and translational kind. Starting from Maxwell's electromagnetic fields, namely stresses propagating through a continuous solid medium, Thomson arrived at a representation of fields as a sea of discrete units carrying energy and momentum. He tried to transform Maxwell's theory into a unified picture in which atomic models of matter stood beside atomic models of fields. In 1904 his interpretation of X-rays was based on the integration between two complementary features of electromagnetic radiation, the continuity and the discreteness, and on some kind of fibrous aether. In recent secondary literature, the problematic conceptual link between J. J. Thomson's theory and contemporary theories on electromagnetic radiation has been underestimated. On the contrary, in the first half of the twentieth century, some physicists inquired into that link, and a widespread debate emerged, misunderstandings included.

  20. Preliminary project of s Thomson scattering system for the ETE tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berni, Luiz Angelo

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary project of the injection and laser light block system for the Thomson (ET) scattering diagnostic to be implanted at the ETE spheric tokamak of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE/LAP). Also, a scanning system for the optics of scattered light

  1. Calibration procedure and data processing for a TV Thomson scattering system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, C. J.; Chu, C.C.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2001-01-01

    Calibration procedures for Thomson scattering systems based on television-like cameras, so-called TVTS systems, are described. The TVTS systems of the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP), the TJ-II stellarator, and the Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR) tokamak combine a 10-15 J

  2. Sensitivity of Micromachined Joule-Thomson Cooler to Clogging Due to Moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Haishan; Vanapalli, Srinivas; Holland, Herman J.; Vermeer, Cristian Hendrik; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major issue in long-term operation of micromachined Joule-Thomson coolers is the clogging of the microchannels and/or the restriction due to the deposition of water molecules present in the working fluid. In this study, we present the performance of a microcooler operated with nitrogen gas with

  3. Measurements of the electron energy spectrum by using small-angle Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, S. S.; Burdakov, A. V.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Ivantsivskii, M. V.; Ovchar, V. K.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Fedotov, M. G.

    2008-01-01

    A novel diagnostic method is developed for studying the high-energy plasma electron component in the GOL-3 facility by using small-angle Thomson scattering. The method is based on the enhancement of the spectral density of scattered radiation as compared to the conventional large-angle scattering technique.

  4. Measurements of the electron energy spectrum by using small-angle Thomson scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S. S.; Burdakov, A. V.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Ivantsivskii, M. V.; Ovchar, V. K.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Fedotov, M. G.

    2008-03-01

    A novel diagnostic method is developed for studying the high-energy plasma electron component in the GOL-3 facility by using small-angle Thomson scattering. The method is based on the enhancement of the spectral density of scattered radiation as compared to the conventional large-angle scattering technique.

  5. 3 CFR - Directing Certain Actions With Respect to Acquisition and Use of Thomson Correctional Center To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Correctional Center (TCC) in Thomson, Illinois: 1. The Attorney General shall acquire and activate the TCC as a... sufficient portion of the TCC to serve as a detention facility to be operated by the Department of Defense in... General, shall prepare the TCC for secure housing of detainees currently held at the Guantanamo Bay Naval...

  6. Dynamics of fast ions during sawtooth oscillations in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigations of sawteeth interaction with fast ions measured by collective Thomson scattering on TEXTOR are presented. Time-resolved measurements of localized 1D fast-ion distribution functions allow us to study fast-ion dynamics during several sawtooth cycles. Sawtooth oscillation...

  7. CO2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic for fusion product alpha particle measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R. K.; Bennett, C. A.; Fletcher, L. K.; Hunter, H. T.; Hutchinson, D. P.

    1988-08-01

    A description of a CO2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic for fusion product alpha particles is presented. Scattering calculations based on CIT plasma parameters are presented and compared to previous work based on TFTR parameters. System components are described and a proof-of-principle test in a nonburning plasma is discussed.

  8. A CO2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic for fusion product alpha particle measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R. K.; Bennett, C. A.; Fletcher, L. K.; Hunter, H. T.; Hutchinson, D. P.

    A description of a CO2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic for fusion alpha particles is presented. Scattering calculations based on CIT plasma parameters are presented and compared to previous work based on TFTR parameters. Systems components are described and a proof-of-principle test in a nonburning plasma is discussed.

  9. A CO2 Laser Thomson Scattering Diagnostic For The Measurement Of Fusion Product Alpha Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R. K.; Bennett, C. A.; Fletcher, L. K.; Hunter, H. T.; Hutchinson, D. P.

    1988-11-01

    A Thomson scattering diagnostic for measuring the alpha particle velocity distribution is described. Calculations of scattering are made for a CIT type plasma using available CO2 laser and heterodyne technology. Tests of a long pulse CO2 laser, multichannel heterodyne detector, and an absorption cell for stray laser radiation are presented.

  10. Optimization of the working fluid for a soprtion-based Joule-Thomson cooler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Roger; Zalewski, D.R.; Vermeer, Cristian Hendrik; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sorption-based Joule–Thomson coolers operate vibration-free, have a potentially long life time, and cause no electromagnetic interference. Therefore, they are appealing to a wide variety of applications, such as cooling of low-noise amplifiers, superconducting electronics, and optical detectors. The

  11. Recent development of collective Thomson scattering for magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Michelsen, Poul; Hansen, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Here we review recent experimental developments within the field of collective Thomson scattering with a focus on the progress made on the devices TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade. We discuss recently discovered possibilities and limitations of the diagnostic technique. Diagnostic applications with respect...

  12. Optics for electron cyclotron resonance heating and collective Thomson scattering at the stellarator W7-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasparek, W.; Erckmann, V.; Laqua, H. P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper will provide a brief review on the optical transmission system, describe its performance and first experiences, and will concentrate on new developments like in-vessel grating reflectors, Remote-steering (RS) antennas used as launchers and receivers for ECRH and collective Thomson scat...

  13. Temporally resolved plasma composition measurements by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion plasma composition measurements by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) were demonstrated in recent proof-of-principle measurements in TEXTOR [S. B. Korsholm et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 165004 (2011)]. Such measurements rely on the ability to resolve and interpret ion cyclotron structure ...

  14. The spectrometer of the High-Resolution Multi position Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, J.; Barth, C. J.; Castejon, F.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; Mirones, E.; Pastor, I.; Perez, D.; Rodriguez, C.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1998, a high-resolution multiposition thompson scattering system is in operation at the stellarator TJ-II, combining high accuracy and excellent spatial resolution. A description of the diagnostic spectrometer is presented. The main characteristics of the spectrometer that allow YJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic to have high spatial and spectral resolution are described in this paper. (Author)

  15. A New Version of an Old Demonstration Experiment Using the Elihu Thomson Jumping Ring Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Theodore; Cary, Arthur; Mottmann, John; van Wyngaarden, Willem

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to make more widely known an eye-catching demonstration experiment in which a hanging conducting can is made to spin when placed near the iron core of an Elihu Thomson "jumping ring" apparatus. An explanation is given based on Faraday's law of induced voltages and the magnetic forces due to the core's fields…

  16. A miniature Joule-Thomson cooler for optical detectors in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derking, J.H.; Holland, Herman J.; Tirolien, T.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of single-stage micromachined Joule-Thomson (JT) coolers for cooling small optical detectors is investigated. A design of a micromachined JT cold stage–detector system is made that focuses on the interface between a JT cold stage and detector, and on the wiring of the detector. Among

  17. Optimization of the working fluid in a Joule-Thomson cold stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derking, J.H.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Sirbi, A.; Linder, M.; Rogalla, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Vibration-free miniature Joule–Thomson (JT) coolers are of interest for cooling a wide variety of devices, including low-noise amplifiers, semiconducting and superconducting electronics, and small optical detectors used in space applications. For cooling such devices, coolers are needed which have

  18. Non-point source analysis of a railway bridge area using statistical method: case study of a concrete road-bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Kyungik; Im, Jiyeol

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to protect the quality of the water system, interest in non-point source pollution is increasing. Recently, studies of non-point sources pollution are continuing in relation to various land-use areas, but such studies have not been fully conducted in railway facility sites. Using monitoring data of railway bridge area with concrete road-bed, the runoff characteristics, pollutant unit loads, and first flush criteria were assessed. Railway bridge area with concrete road-bed typically show the first flush effect, and the pollutant unit load was determined to be higher than other public facilities areas. Further, the first flush criteria show an effective rainfall amount of 7 mm. In other words, from the runoff of railway facilities, considerable amounts of non-point source pollutants are occurred, indicating the need to create best management practices which are adequate for railway facility sites. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lateral and vertical distribution of soil organic carbon in recently deglaciated areas of Elephant Point (Livingstone island, Maritime Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Ana; Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Lizaga, Iván

    2017-04-01

    In Maritime Antarctica important environmental changes are affecting ice-free environments of the South Shetland Islands and the northern Antarctica Peninsula. In the Elephant Point Peninsula (Livingstone Island) a rapid glacier retreat during the last decades has exposed already around 20% of its 1.16 km2 surface. Despite soil development is taken place in these new created lands little is known on the characteristics and properties of soils on different parent materials and landforms. One of the main soil properties is the organic carbon but the SOC pool dynamics in Antarctica environments is still poorly understood. This work aims to gain knowledge on the lateral and vertical variations of soil organic carbon (SOC) and organic carbon fractions in surface profiles that have been exposed succeeding the phases of glacier retreat. To this purpose a sampling scheme following the direction of the glacier retreat was established along a moraine extending from the western to the eastern coastlines and a sequence of Holocene marine terraces in Elephant Point. To assess the lateral and vertical variations of SOC and SOC fractions a total of 10 sites were sampled until a depth of 12 cm then sectioned at 3 cm depth intervals. According to its chemical stability and turnover times, SOC can be divided into the active carbon fraction (ACF) composed of labile aliphatic and carboxyl groups with turnover rates of days to few years and a more stable refractory aromatic carbon fraction (SCF) with turnover rates from few years to centuries, highly resistant to microbial and chemical decomposition. The SOC content (%) was measured at 550 °C by the dry combustion method using a LECO, RC-612 multiphase carbon analyser. For the characterization of the active and stable carbon fractions the temperature of the furnace was stepped at 350 °C and 550 °C, respectively. Estimates of SOC and SOC fractions inventories (kg m-2) were done to assess their stocks on the different landforms. SOC

  20. Modelling Mean Albedo of Individual Roofs in Complex Urban Areas Using Satellite Images and Airborne Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar, B.; Mansor, S.; Khuzaimah, Z.; Sameen, M. Ibrahim; Pradhan, B.

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of surface albedo at individual roof scale is important for mitigating urban heat islands and understanding urban climate change. This study presents a method for quantifying surface albedo of individual roofs in a complex urban area using the integration of Landsat 8 and airborne LiDAR data. First, individual roofs were extracted from airborne LiDAR data and orthophotos using optimized segmentation and supervised object based image analysis (OBIA). Support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier in OBIA process for extracting individual roofs. The user-defined parameters required in SVM classifier were selected using v-fold cross validation method. After that, surface albedo was calculated for each individual roof from Landsat images. Finally, thematic maps of mean surface albedo of individual roofs were generated in GIS and the results were discussed. Results showed that the study area is covered by 35% of buildings varying in roofing material types and conditions. The calculated surface albedo of buildings ranged from 0.16 to 0.65 in the study area. More importantly, the results indicated that the types and conditions of roofing materials significantly effect on the mean value of surface albedo. Mean albedo of new concrete, old concrete, new steel, and old steel were found to be equal to 0.38, 0.26, 0.51, and 0.44 respectively. Replacing old roofing materials with new ones should highly prioritized.

  1. MODELLING MEAN ALBEDO OF INDIVIDUAL ROOFS IN COMPLEX URBAN AREAS USING SATELLITE IMAGES AND AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kalantar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of surface albedo at individual roof scale is important for mitigating urban heat islands and understanding urban climate change. This study presents a method for quantifying surface albedo of individual roofs in a complex urban area using the integration of Landsat 8 and airborne LiDAR data. First, individual roofs were extracted from airborne LiDAR data and orthophotos using optimized segmentation and supervised object based image analysis (OBIA. Support vector machine (SVM was used as a classifier in OBIA process for extracting individual roofs. The user-defined parameters required in SVM classifier were selected using v-fold cross validation method. After that, surface albedo was calculated for each individual roof from Landsat images. Finally, thematic maps of mean surface albedo of individual roofs were generated in GIS and the results were discussed. Results showed that the study area is covered by 35% of buildings varying in roofing material types and conditions. The calculated surface albedo of buildings ranged from 0.16 to 0.65 in the study area. More importantly, the results indicated that the types and conditions of roofing materials significantly effect on the mean value of surface albedo. Mean albedo of new concrete, old concrete, new steel, and old steel were found to be equal to 0.38, 0.26, 0.51, and 0.44 respectively. Replacing old roofing materials with new ones should highly prioritized.

  2. The simulation research of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution in Xiao-Jiang watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Long, Tian-Yu; Li, Chong-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Xiao-jiang, with a basin area of almost 5,276 km(2) and a length of 182.4 km, is located in the center of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and is the largest tributary of the central section in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, farmland accounts for a large proportion of Xiao-jiang watershed, and the hilly cropland of purple soil is much of the farmland of the watershed. After the second phase of water storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the majority of sub-rivers in the reservoir area experienced eutrophication phenomenon frequently, and non-point source (NPS) pollution has become an important source of pollution in Xiao-jiang Watershed. Because dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution are related to surface runoff and interflow, using climatic, topographic and land cover data from the internet and research institutes, the Semi-Distributed Land-use Runoff Process (SLURP) hydrological model was introduced to simulate the complete hydrological cycle of the Xiao-jiang Watershed. Based on the SLURP distributed hydrological model, non-point source pollution annual output load models of land use and rural residents were respectively established. Therefore, using GIS technology, considering the losses of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the course of transport, a dissolved non-point source pollution load dynamic model was established by the organic coupling of the SLURP hydrological model and land-use output model. Through the above dynamic model, the annual dissolved non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution output as well as the load in different types were simulated and quantitatively estimated from 2001 to 2008, furthermore, the loads of Xiao-jiang Watershed were calculated and expressed by temporal and spatial distribution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The simulation results show that: the temporal changes of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus load in the watershed are close to the inter-annual changes of rainfall runoff, and the

  3. [Tolerance and resistance: abortion from the point of view of traditional midwives in a rural area of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Muñoz, J; Castañeda-Camey, X

    1999-08-01

    An evaluation of the perception, resources and practices regarding abortion of traditional midwives in a rural area in the municipality of Yecapixtla, state of Morelos, located in the central region of Mexico. A qualitative methodology consisting of a detailed interview, focal groups and participating observation, was used. The subjects investigated were socio-cultural aspects, reproduction, sexuality and health related to abortion. Nine midwives were interviewed and a focal group was formed in which 16 midwives participated. The results demonstrated a profound rejection of abortion whether inducted or spontaneous. The former was considered a major sin and the latter a serious failure of a womańs reproductive function. Women who abort are called "pigs", "hogs" or "bitches" and the midwives are reluctant to attend them. However, a common practice among the women in the community is to "regulate the menstruation", that is, to use substances that provoke menstruation when this is delayed. This specific practice is not considered abortive by these women. Local popular beliefs about abortion are indispensible for the construction of effective strategies, which when provided by the institutional health services, reinforce the bonds between these and the traditional midwives in such a way as to increase accessibility to the health services as well as the quality of care to women.

  4. A tiered risk-based approach for predicting diffuse and point source phosphorus losses in agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathwaite, A L; Dils, R M; Liu, S; Carvalho, L; Brazier, R E; Pope, L; Hughes, M; Phillips, G; May, L

    2005-05-15

    %); England the most (88%), with Wales having an intermediate percentage (56%). A comparison of P pressures on freshwaters using the tier 2 approach with other pressures on waterbodies (e.g. nitrate, sediment) in GB is shown as risk maps on the Environment Agency website at: . The tier 3 approach was applied to data-rich catchments and identified at the 1 km(2) areas of relatively high risk of P delivery to water.

  5. Urban green areas as the starting point for planning hydroelectric and urban developments: The case of the Sava River in the City of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the landscape and urbanistic layout of the Sava River space and North part of the Bežigrad stretch of Ljubljana. Focus is on methodological and content starting points for the layout preparation and development of urban green areas of the wider Sava River space, which as a connecting link and simultaneously independent spatial and functional entity represents the starting point for planning hydro-energetic and urban arrangements. The necessity of recognising and resolving real spatial planning issues, formulation of clear goals and concepts, confrontation of different spatial systems and interests, as well as the sensibility of devising alternative development scenarios are emphasised. One of the most important starting points of the proposed layout is comprehensive design of public open spaces and green areas. The urbanistic solution relies on a programmatically strong, distinct and structured Dunajska Street, which should transform into the public space of a modern urban artery, with a clear ending that simultaneously gradually adapts to the morphology akin to the surroundings and Sava River space. Because of its natural characteristics, preserved cultural landscape and good accessibility, this area has great potential for development of leisure activities. The proposed solution stems from the fact that the chain of hydro-electric plants shouldn't be seen as buildings with negative environmental effects, but also as development opportunities – the actual execution of a recreation area along the Sava River and a method for rehabilitating the degraded spaces. Comprehensive solutions along the river have been proposed as parts of the hydro-electric developments, with special attention focusing on active design of various riverbank types.

  6. A Classification-Segmentation Framework for the Detection of Individual Trees in Dense MMS Point Cloud Data Acquired in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weinmann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel framework for detecting individual trees in densely sampled 3D point cloud data acquired in urban areas. Given a 3D point cloud, the objective is to assign point-wise labels that are both class-aware and instance-aware, a task that is known as instance-level segmentation. To achieve this, our framework addresses two successive steps. The first step of our framework is given by the use of geometric features for a binary point-wise semantic classification with the objective of assigning semantic class labels to irregularly distributed 3D points, whereby the labels are defined as “tree points” and “other points”. The second step of our framework is given by a semantic segmentation with the objective of separating individual trees within the “tree points”. This is achieved by applying an efficient adaptation of the mean shift algorithm and a subsequent segment-based shape analysis relying on semantic rules to only retain plausible tree segments. We demonstrate the performance of our framework on a publicly available benchmark dataset, which has been acquired with a mobile mapping system in the city of Delft in the Netherlands. This dataset contains 10.13 M labeled 3D points among which 17.6 % are labeled as “tree points”. The derived results clearly reveal a semantic classification of high accuracy (up to 90.77 % and an instance-level segmentation of high plausibility, while the simplicity, applicability and efficiency of the involved methods even allow applying the complete framework on a standard laptop computer with a reasonable processing time (less than 2.5 h.

  7. Features of Point Clouds Synthesized from Multi-View ALOS/PRISM Data and Comparisons with LiDAR Data in Forested Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenjian; Ranson, Kenneth Jon; Zhang, Zhiyu; Sun, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    LiDAR waveform data from airborne LiDAR scanners (ALS) e.g. the Land Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) havebeen successfully used for estimation of forest height and biomass at local scales and have become the preferredremote sensing dataset. However, regional and global applications are limited by the cost of the airborne LiDARdata acquisition and there are no available spaceborne LiDAR systems. Some researchers have demonstrated thepotential for mapping forest height using aerial or spaceborne stereo imagery with very high spatial resolutions.For stereo imageswith global coverage but coarse resolution newanalysis methods need to be used. Unlike mostresearch based on digital surface models, this study concentrated on analyzing the features of point cloud datagenerated from stereo imagery. The synthesizing of point cloud data from multi-view stereo imagery increasedthe point density of the data. The point cloud data over forested areas were analyzed and compared to small footprintLiDAR data and large-footprint LiDAR waveform data. The results showed that the synthesized point clouddata from ALOSPRISM triplets produce vertical distributions similar to LiDAR data and detected the verticalstructure of sparse and non-closed forests at 30mresolution. For dense forest canopies, the canopy could be capturedbut the ground surface could not be seen, so surface elevations from other sourceswould be needed to calculatethe height of the canopy. A canopy height map with 30 m pixels was produced by subtracting nationalelevation dataset (NED) fromthe averaged elevation of synthesized point clouds,which exhibited spatial featuresof roads, forest edges and patches. The linear regression showed that the canopy height map had a good correlationwith RH50 of LVIS data with a slope of 1.04 and R2 of 0.74 indicating that the canopy height derived fromPRISM triplets can be used to estimate forest biomass at 30 m resolution.

  8. Correlative analysis of the freezing point and of the microbial content of milk produced by indigenous cows bred in a sub-Carpathian mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Blidar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mountainous geo-climatic conditions exert major beneficial influences on the health and welfare of lactating cows and by default on the compositional and microbiological parameters of milk and also on the sensory characteristics of traditional milk products from those areas. Aims: Through research in this paper we propose to analyze new criteria for evaluation of freshness and health of milk obtained in conditions of sub-Carpathian mountain areas, based on the freezing point - TNG (total number of germs correlation. Materials and methods: During a time of 2 years there were investigated physicochemical (analyzer Ekomilk M and microbiological (with automatic system Soleris milk samples commodity from the mountain area Gurghiu Valley. Milk samples were taken from cows of indigenous breed belonging to traditional households (n=650, to microfarms (n=11 and commercial farms (n=2. From each source were analyzed 10 samples of milk each month, having a total of 240 sample/lot or 720 per entire amount of processed milk. According to the followed objectives, the interpretations were mainly focused on development of the freezing point and of TNG. Statistical analysis was focused on the correlations between these parameters and seasonal influences. Results: The evolution of the freezing point was characterized by insignificant statistically differences (p = 0.071 and very close mean values (between - 0.5660C and - 0.5650 C among 3 samples and by significant statistically differences (p = 0.0001 between winter seasons with the highest values (- 0.5600C and autumn, with the lowest levels (-0.5710C. Regarding the evolution of the microbial content of raw milk is important to note the oscillations of TNG, which are influenced by variables: sampled and season. At the level of the lot, TNG has reached higher levels (71.210 CFU/mL in the case of milk from individual farms. The evolution of the seasonal influences revealed minimal levels (64.300 CFU

  9. On the performance of dual-hop mixed RF/FSO wireless communication system in urban area over aggregated exponentiated Weibull fading channels with pointing errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Wang, Ping; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cao, Tian

    2018-03-01

    The performance of decode-and-forward dual-hop mixed radio frequency / free-space optical system in urban area is studied. The RF link is modeled by the Nakagami-m distribution and the FSO link is described by the composite exponentiated Weibull (EW) fading channels with nonzero boresight pointing errors (NBPE). For comparison, the ABER results without pointing errors (PE) and those with zero boresight pointing errors (ZBPE) are also provided. The closed-form expression for the average bit error rate (ABER) in RF link is derived with the help of hypergeometric function, and that in FSO link is obtained by Meijer's G and generalized Gauss-Laguerre quadrature functions. Then, the end-to-end ABERs with binary phase shift keying modulation are achieved on the basis of the computed ABER results of RF and FSO links. The end-to-end ABER performance is further analyzed with different Nakagami-m parameters, turbulence strengths, receiver aperture sizes and boresight displacements. The result shows that with ZBPE and NBPE considered, FSO link suffers a severe ABER degradation and becomes the dominant limitation of the mixed RF/FSO system in urban area. However, aperture averaging can bring significant ABER improvement of this system. Monte Carlo simulation is provided to confirm the validity of the analytical ABER expressions.

  10. High time resolved electron temperature measurements by using the multi-pass Thomson scattering system in GAMMA 10/PDX

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Yasuhara, Ryo; Ohta, Koichi; Chikatsu, Masayuki; Shima, Yoriko; Kohagura, Junko; Sakamoto, Mizuki; Nakashima, Yousuke; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ichimura, Makoto; Yamada, Ichihiro; Funaba, Hisamichi; Minami, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    High time resolved electron temperature measurements are useful for fluctuation study. A multi-pass Thomson scattering (MPTS) system is proposed for the improvement of both increasing the TS signal intensity and time resolution. The MPTS system in GAMMA 10/PDX has been constructed for enhancing the Thomson scattered signals for the improvement of measurement accuracy. The MPTS system has a polarization-based configuration with an image relaying system. We optimized the image relaying optics f...

  11. Impact of beam ions on α-particle measurements by collective Thomson scattering in ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egedal, J.; Bindslev, H.; Budny, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has been proposed as a viable diagnostic for characterizing fusion born a-distributions in ITER. However, the velocities of the planned 1 MeV deuterium heating beam ions in 1TER are similar to that of fusion born a-particles and may therefore mask the measureme......Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has been proposed as a viable diagnostic for characterizing fusion born a-distributions in ITER. However, the velocities of the planned 1 MeV deuterium heating beam ions in 1TER are similar to that of fusion born a-particles and may therefore mask...... and the alpha-particles are calculated. Our investigations show that the CTS measurements of alpha-particles will not be masked by the presence of the beam ions in H-mode plasmas. In lower density reversed shear plasmas, only a part of the CTS alpha-particle spectrum will be perturbed....

  12. Material Assessment for ITER’s Collective Thomson Scattering first mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, R.; Policarpo, H.; Gonçalves, B.

    2015-01-01

    ITER’s Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) system is a diagnostic instrument that will measure the plasma density and velocity through Thomson scattering of microwave radiation. Some of the key components of the CTS are quasioptical mirrors used to produce astigmatic beam patterns, which have....... In this work, three different materials (molybdenum (Mo), stainless steel 316L (SS-316L) and tungsten (W)) are considered for the first mirror of the CTS. The objective is to assess the suitability of these materials for this mirror and to provide a first ranking, considering the neutron radiation loads...... requirements defined by ITER, based on the resultant maximum Von Misses stresses and temperatures. For it, the neutron irradiation, and subsequent heat-load on the mirrors were simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. Based on the MCNP heat-load results, a transient thermal-structural Finite...

  13. A high-power spatial filter for Thomson scattering stray light reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, J. P.; Litzner, K. D.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.

    2011-03-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) is routinely used to measure electron temperature and density during plasma discharges. Avalanche photodiodes in a five-channel interference filter polychromator measure scattered light from a 6 ns, 800 mJ, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. A low cost, high-power spatial filter was designed, tested, and added to the laser beamline in order to reduce stray laser light to levels which are acceptable for accurate Rayleigh calibration. A detailed analysis of the spatial filter design and performance is given. The spatial filter can be easily implemented in an existing Thomson scattering system without the need to disturb the vacuum chamber or significantly change the beamline. Although apertures in the spatial filter suffer substantial damage from the focused beam, with proper design they can last long enough to permit absolute calibration.

  14. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing, E-mail: zangq@ipp.ac.cn; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Zhao, Junyu [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yu, Jin [Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases.

  15. U.S. Naval Weather Service Command. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations, North American Coastal Marine Areas - Revised. Pacific Coast. Volume 6. Area 36 - Point Arena, Area 37 - Eureka, Area 38 - Cape Blanco, Area 39 - Newport, Area 40 - Astoria, Area 41 - Vancouver Island SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    FE«CENT»6E ««EOUENCV OF CEILlNC HEIGHTS IFT>NH >*/•) »NO DCCL’MENCE OF NH ɡ/l »V VINO OUECTION 000 190 300 600 1000 2000 3900 5000 6500...IO0: (D»I»-»IL1 l»»J-l*7> JUNE Tlill II (CONTI PrT FKEO OF VINO SPEED IKTSI »ND DIRECTION VEHSuS $E« HEICHTS (FT) •HE« 001» POINT ««EN» M.SN...1.3 1.9 .a 16,6 •6.9 VINO SPEED IKTSI VS SE« HEIGHT (FTI 0-1 6-10 11-21 22-13 36-67 61» PCT (1 19.2 7.1 .0 .0

  16. Study of TJ-1 Tokamak plasmas with Thomson scattering and radiation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, C.; Zurro, B.

    1987-06-01

    The Thomson scattering system of TJ-1 is described in detail. The radial profiles of T e and n e obtained in TJ-1 discharges are presented. This data makes possible to deduce characteristic parameters of the plasma confinement in this machine, as energy confinement times, Z eff B. Using also radiation measurements (global and in the visible range) we obtained the particle confinement time and Z eff without non experimental assumptions. (author) 56 figs., 52 refs

  17. Fast ion dynamics in ASDEX upgrade and TEXTOR measured by collective Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseev, D.

    2011-11-01

    Fast ions are an essential ingredient in burning nuclear fusion plasmas: they are responsible for heating the bulk plasma, carry a significant amount of plasma current and moreover interact with various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic is sensitive to the projection of fast ion velocity distribution function. This thesis is mainly devoted to investigations of fast ion physics in tokamak plasmas by means of CTS. (Author)

  18. Collective thomson scattering based on pulsed CO{sub 2} laser in JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Takashi; Lee, S.; Tsukahara, Yoshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    In JT-60U, a collective Thomson scattering system (CTS system) based on a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser (10.6 {mu}m, 10J, 1 {mu}s) have been developed to measure ion temperature and fast-ion velocity distribution and also to demonstrate feasibility of measurements of confined alpha particles and ion temperature in ITER. In this paper, we describe the present status of the JT-60U CTS system. (author)

  19. Thomson parabola spectrometer for energetic ions emitted from sub-ns laser generated plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cutroneo, M.; Torrisi, L.; Andó, L.; Cavallaro, S.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krása, Josef; Margarone, Daniele; Velyhan, Andriy; Krouský, Eduard; Pfeifer, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2013), s. 138-141 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Thomson parabola spectrometer * high intensity laser * focal position * Opera 3D Tosca code * simulation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) http://ctn.cvut.cz/ap/index.php?idissue=85

  20. Records of the genus Micrambe Thomson, 1863 (Coleoptera, Cryptophagidae) from Madagascar and Réunion Island

    OpenAIRE

    Otero,Carlos; Pereira,José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    A study on the genus Micrambe Thomson, 1863 (Coleoptera, Cryptophagidae) from Madagascar and Réunion is presented. Six species are hitherto known from these countries: M. apicalis Grouvelle, M. brevitarsis Bruce, M. consors Grouvelle, M. madagascariensis Grouvelle, M. modesta (Grouvelle), and M. reuninensis Lyubarsky. A new species, M. leonardoi sp. n., is formally described from Boorg-Murat, Réunion Island. A key is presented to enable their identification. Micrambe consors Grouvelle previou...

  1. Fast ion dynamics in ASDEX upgrade and TEXTOR measured by collective Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseev, D.

    2011-11-15

    Fast ions are an essential ingredient in burning nuclear fusion plasmas: they are responsible for heating the bulk plasma, carry a significant amount of plasma current and moreover interact with various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic is sensitive to the projection of fast ion velocity distribution function. This thesis is mainly devoted to investigations of fast ion physics in tokamak plasmas by means of CTS. (Author)

  2. A taxonomic review of Korean Liogluta Thomson (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae) with descriptions of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Gyu; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2016-11-15

    A taxonomic review of the Liogluta Thomson in Korea is presented. The genus is represented in Korea by eight species including three new species, L. changwhani Lee & Ahn, sp. nov., L. jinilli Lee & Ahn, sp. nov. and L. rufescens Lee & Ahn, sp. nov. Two species [L. distans (Sharp) and L. ursi (Sawada)] are new to the Korean peninsula and L. pyonganica is recorded for the first time in South Korea. A key, descriptions, habitus photographs and illustrations of the diagnostic characters are provided.

  3. VLSI Architecture for 8-Point AI-based Arai DCT having Low Area-Time Complexity and Power at Improved Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jithra Adikari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A low complexity digital VLSI architecture for the computation of an algebraic integer (AI based 8-point Arai DCT algorithm is proposed. AI encoding schemes for exact representation of the Arai DCT transform based on a particularly sparse 2-D AI representation is reviewed, leading to the proposed novel architecture based on a new final reconstruction step (FRS having lower complexity and higher accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art. This FRS is based on an optimization derived from expansion factors that leads to small integer constant-coefficient multiplications, which are realized with common sub-expression elimination (CSE and Booth encoding. The reference circuit [1] as well as the proposed architectures for two expansion factors α† = 4.5958 and α′ = 167.2309 are implemented. The proposed circuits show 150% and 300% improvements in the number of DCT coefficients having error ≤ 0:1% compared to [1]. The three designs were realized using both 40 nm CMOS Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGAs and synthesized using 65 nm CMOS general purpose standard cells from TSMC. Post synthesis timing analysis of 65 nm CMOS realizations at 900 mV for all three designs of the 8-point DCT core for 8-bit inputs show potential real-time operation at 2.083 GHz clock frequency leading to a combined throughput of 2.083 billion 8-point Arai DCTs per second. The expansion-factor designs show a 43% reduction in area (A and 29% reduction in dynamic power (PD for FPGA realizations. An 11% reduction in area is observed for the ASIC design for α† = 4.5958 for an 8% reduction in total power (PT . Our second ASIC design having α′ = 167.2309 shows marginal improvements in area and power compared to our reference design but at significantly better accuracy.

  4. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the July 2003, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications.

  5. 1st February 2011-CERN Cultural Board for Engaging with the Arts, visiting CMS experimental area and LHC Tunnel at Point 5

    CERN Multimedia

    Michael Hoch

    2011-01-01

    Photo 1-4: Visit to CMS Control Room with G. Tonelli,CMS Collaboration Spokesperson Photo 5-9,16-20:CMS experimental area Photo 10-15:LHC Tunnel at Point 5 Photo 21:F. Madlener,Director of IRCAM Paris+S. Dorny,Director-General Lyon Opera House+C. Bollman,Art by Genève+M. Doser,AEgIS Collaboration Spokesperson,Former Physics Department Deputy Head+A. Koek,International Arts Development+G. Tonelli+M. Monje Cano,Arts Development Assistant (part-time work experience)+B. Ruf,Director of Kunsthalle Zürich

  6. U.S. Naval Weather Service Command. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations, North American Coastal Marine Areas - Revised. Pacific Coast. Volume 5. Area 30 - Baja, Area 31 - San Diego 200 SW, Area 32 - San Diego, Area 33 - Santa Rosa Island SW, Area 34 - Point Mugu NW, Area 35 - San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    DVER-4H.I 1>69-197* HHUMV TAILI ♦ PERCENTAGE FREOUENCV OF HIND SPEED BY HOUR ICHT) A«E» 00» SANTA RUSA IS, SM 32.6N...34" iWBWl’WMl mtmmwwfnf^v PEKinDl (PRIHAdV) 19*9-1974 (OVEP-tLL) 1B5«-197« APRIL TABLE 6 APE« 00» SANTA RUSA IS. 5M 32.7N 122.IN PIRCENT PREO DP KIND...FREQUENCV OF NEAThER OCCURRENCE BY HIND DIRECTION AREA 0033 SANTA RUSA IS. 5« 32.*N 122.ZH PRECIPITATION TYPE OTHER HEATHER

  7. Electron kinetic effects on interferometry, polarimetry and Thomson scattering measurements in burning plasmas (invited)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Brower, D. L.; Hartog, D. J. Den; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J.; Parke, E.

    2014-11-01

    At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on Thomson scattering (TS), toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP), and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be accurately treated. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in τ = Te/mec2 model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with τ2-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. The linear model is extended from Maxwellian to a more general class of anisotropic electron distributions that allows us to take into account distortions caused by equilibrium current, ECRH, and RF current drive effects. The classical problem of the degree of polarization of incoherent Thomson scattered radiation is solved analytically exactly without any approximations for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. The results are discussed in the context of the possible use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of Te measurement relevant to ITER operational scenarios.

  8. Soft X-Ray Thomson Scattering in Warm Dense Hydrogen at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faustlin, R R; Toleikis, S; Bornath, T; Doppner, T; Dusterer, S; Forster, E; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Gode, S; Gregori, G; Irsig, R; Laarmann, T; Lee, H J; Li, B; Meiwes-Broer, K; Mithen, J; Przystawik, A; Redlin, H; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Ropke, G; Tavella, F; Thiele, R; Tiggesbaumker, J; Uschmann, I; Zastrau, U; Tschentscher, T

    2009-07-15

    We present collective Thomson scattering with soft x-ray free electron laser radiation as a method to track the evolution of warm dense matter plasmas with {approx}200 fs time resolution. In a pump-probe scheme an 800 nm laser heats a 20 {micro}m hydrogen droplet to the plasma state. After a variable time delay in the order of ps the plasma is probed by an x-ray ultra violet (XUV) pulse which scatters from the target and is recorded spectrally. Alternatively, in a self-Thomson scattering experiment, a single XUV pulse heats the target while a portion of its photons are being scattered probing the target. From such inelastic x-ray scattering spectra free electron temperature and density can be inferred giving insight on relaxation time scales in plasmas as well as the equation of state. We prove the feasibility of this method in the XUV range utilizing the free electron laser facility in Hamburg, FLASH. We recorded Thomson scattering spectra for hydrogen plasma, both in the self-scattering and in the pump-probe mode using optical laser heating.

  9. STUDY ON THE DEW POINT TEMPERATURE IN AREAS COVERED BY COLLUVIAL MESOVOID SHALLOW SUBSTRATUM (CRYSTALLINE SCHISTS SCREE IN THE LEAOTA MOUNTAINS, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalin Leonard Dorobăţ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present and discussed the results of the monitoring of the dew point values, recorded in October and November 2014, in an ecological station in the Leaota Mountains. In this station, two polls were located in areas covered by colluvial mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS formed by epi- and mesometamorphic crystalline schists. In the ecological stations we located in the Leaota Mountains, almost always we found condensation on the walls of the polls tubes placed at different depths. Most often in spring or autumn or in other cold days, the dew point is more revealing regarding the recording actual amount of moisture in the air, than the relative humidity indicator. This work is part of a larger project that seeks correlations between ecological factors (humidity, temperature and dew point registered in various types of screes (limestone and crystalline schists and some zoocenotic components (invertebrates. This research aim to know the importance of mesovoid shallow substratum for invertebrates or small vertebrates fauna and represents a premiere for Leaota Mountains, not only regarding the continuous monitoring of some ecologic factors of these types of ecosystems (MSS, rarely researched even at global level, and also regarding the inventory of the invertebrate fauna in scree for these mountains.

  10. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

  11. Flash of the Cathode Rays: A History of J J Thomson's Electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechenberg, Helmut

    1997-01-01

    The author, a senior physicist from Berkeley having some experience in historical accounts, covers well the standard story of J J Thomson's discovery of the electron, one hundred years ago. Starting from the investigations of cathode rays in Germany, France and mainly England, the successful path of J J is covered in some detail using available information (letters, notebooks, diaries, publications), as well as his later work on positive rays and the atomic model. Lesser emphasis is given to the parallel developments connected with the Zeeman effect. However, a synopsis of the story of β-rays, the measurement of the elementary charge and the rise of the Rutherford - Bohr nuclear model of the atom is included. Dahl presents the physical contents from the standard literature in a clear and convincing way. He illustrates the narrative with (well-chosen and well-reproduced) portraits of the people involved and sketches of their original apparatus. Hence the book can be recommended highly to physicists, who will be reminded of one of the most important events in the earlier history of their field. A broader public, including other scientists, and perhaps attentive high school graduates, might also benefit from the book, not to mention professional science historians (who may appreciate the detailed, reliable description of subtle experiments and their tricky interpretation). The author succeeds far less well in providing the general background (in the history of physics and beyond) of the Thomson story. The electron as a fundamental concept existed and was applied long before J Pluecker's discovery of cathodes rays (for example, by A-M Ampere and his successors), and the importance of the work by W Weber, F Neumann and R Clausius (to mention just a few scientists in the 19th century) is mainly suppressed. Dahl's treatment of P Lenard's work around 1900, for which Lenard won the Nobel prize before Thomson, is quite unfair. Further, Chapter 14 on the French N-rays and

  12. Application of Thomson Scattering System at 1.06 μm for Study of Plasma Density Dynamics at Multimirror Trap GOL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polosatkin, S.V.; Burdakov, A.V.; Ivantsivsky, M.V.; Koidan, V.S.; Semionov, A.F.; Rovenskikh, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    Thomson scattering system for measurements of radial profile of plasma density (range 0.5-5x10 21 m -3 ) with temperature up to 2 keV was developed at the GOL-3 facility. First harmonics (λ=1.06 μm) of Nd glass laser is used. Scattered light from different points of plasma cross-section is imaged to a set of quartz optical fibers and detected by avalanche photodiodes.During the first 10 μs after start of the relativistic electron beam injection the intense light emission from plasma is observed. Single powerful laser pulse is used for providing of good signal-noise ratio in this period. Later the plasma radiation intensity decreases and the less powerful laser oscillator operated in multiple-pulsed regime is used.Description of the diagnostics, methodical aspects of operation, and results of the density dynamics measurements are presented in the paper

  13. Numerical simulation of tubes-in-tube heat exchanger in a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, R. M.; Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Atrey, M. D.

    2017-02-01

    Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MRJT) cryocoolers can produce cryogenic temperatures with high efficiency and low operating pressures. As compared to the high system pressures of around 150-200 bar with nitrogen, the operational pressures with non-azeotropic mixtures (e.g., nitrogen-hydrocarbons) come down to 10-25 bar. With mixtures, the heat transfer in the recuperative heat exchanger takes place in the two-phase region. The simultaneous boiling and condensation of the cold and hot gas streams lead to higher heat transfer coefficients as compared to single phase heat exchange. The two-phase heat transfer in the recuperative heat exchanger drastically affects the performance of a MRJT cryocooler. In this work, a previously reported numerical model for a simple tube-in-tube heat exchanger is extended to a multi tubes-in-tube heat exchanger with a transient formulation. Additionally, the J-T expansion process is also considered to simulate the cooling process of the heat exchanger from ambient temperature conditions. A tubes-in-tube heat exchanger offers more heat transfer area per unit volume resulting in a compact design. Also, the division of flow in multiple tubes reduces the pressure drop in the heat exchanger. Simulations with different mixtures of nitrogen-hydrocarbons are carried out and the numerical results are compared with the experimental data.

  14. Collective Thomson scattering based on CO2 laser for ion energy spectrum measurements in JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, T.; Miura, Y.; Lee, S.; Richards, R. K.; Hutchinson, D. P.; Bennett, C. A.

    2003-03-01

    A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic system based on a pulsed CO2 laser has been developed and brought into operation to establish a measurement technique for ion temperature and the energy spectrum of fast ions. The pulsed CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 μm, beam energy 15 J, pulse width 1 μs) and a heterodyne receiver were installed on the JT-60U tokamak. Calculation of the scattered power spectrum from high temperature plasma in JT-60U shows that a good signal-to-noise value is expected for the bulk-ion temperature measurement. Calibration of the heterodyne receiver system has been carried out using a large area (12×12 cm2) blackbody radiation source. Commissioning of the CTS system by injecting the CO2 laser into the plasmas has been accomplished. However, a scattered signal has not yet been detected due to electrical noise originating from the pulsed lasers discharge and stray signal coming from mode impurities in the pulsed laser. After the electrical and stray light reduction, ion temperature will be evaluated from the scattered spectrum using the CTS system.

  15. The sensitivity of modeled ozone to the temporal distribution of point, area, and mobile source emissions in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Patricia; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ehrman, Sheryl H.

    Ozone remains one of the most recalcitrant air pollution problems in the US. Hourly emissions fields used in air quality models (AQMs) generally show less temporal variability than corresponding measurements from continuous emissions monitors (CEM) and field campaigns would imply. If emissions control scenarios to reduce emissions at peak ozone forming hours are to be assessed with AQMs, the effect of emissions' daily variability on modeled ozone must be understood. We analyzed the effects of altering all anthropogenic emissions' temporal distributions by source group on 2002 summer-long simulations of ozone using the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) v4.5 and the Carbon Bond IV (CBIV) chemical mechanism with 12 km resolution. We find that when mobile source emissions were made constant over the course of a day, 8-h maximum ozone predictions changed by ±7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) in many urban areas on days when ozone concentrations greater than 80 ppbv were simulated in the base case. Increasing the temporal variation of point sources resulted in ozone changes of +6 and -6 ppbv, but only for small areas near sources. Changing the daily cycle of mobile source emissions produces substantial changes in simulated ozone, especially in urban areas at night; results suggest that shifting the emissions of NO x from day to night, for example in electric powered vehicles recharged at night, could have beneficial impacts on air quality.

  16. Analysis of the Sustainable Growth Indicator in the Area of Climate Change from the Point of View of Europe 2020 Strategy Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Blatná

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the results of an analysis of the indicator Greenhouse gas emissions (GGE. The GGE is one of the headline indicators tracked under the EU’s main socioeconomic strategy until the year 2020 – the EUROPE 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. In the area of sustainable growth, the Resource-efficient Europe initiative was established. For 2020, the EU has made a unilateral commitment to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions from its 28 member states by 20 % compared to 1990 levels. The GGE indicator shows total man-made emissions of the so-called Kyoto basket of greenhouse gases. It presents annual total emissions in relation to those observed in 1990. The aggregate greenhouse gas emissions are expressed in units of CO2 equivalent. The development of the GGE indicator in the EU and in the Czech Republic from 2000 to 2014 from the point of view of the ability to achieve the Strategy objectives is analyzed. In terms of the level of the analyzed indicator, the set of the EU countries can be divided into two significantly different groups – the euro area and the non-euro area; or into groups by the year of their joining the EU. Analyses of the dependency between the growth of GGE and the GDP growth for both the set of the 28 EU countries and the Czech Republic are presented as well.

  17. Cost- and reliability-oriented aggregation point association in long-term evolution and passive optical network hybrid access infrastructure for smart grid neighborhood area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao; Feng, Lei; Zhou, Fanqin; Wei, Lei; Yu, Peng; Li, Wenjing

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of the smart grid, the data aggregation point (AP) in the neighborhood area network (NAN) is becoming increasingly important for forwarding the information between the home area network and wide area network. Due to limited budget, it is unable to use one-single access technology to meet the ongoing requirements on AP coverage. This paper first introduces the wired and wireless hybrid access network with the integration of long-term evolution (LTE) and passive optical network (PON) system for NAN, which allows a good trade-off among cost, flexibility, and reliability. Then, based on the already existing wireless LTE network, an AP association optimization model is proposed to make the PON serve as many APs as possible, considering both the economic efficiency and network reliability. Moreover, since the features of the constraints and variables of this NP-hard problem, a hybrid intelligent optimization algorithm is proposed, which is achieved by the mixture of the genetic, ant colony and dynamic greedy algorithm. By comparing with other published methods, simulation results verify the performance of the proposed method in improving the AP coverage and the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of convergence.

  18. First measurements of electron temperature and density with divertor Thomson Scattering in radiative divertor discharges on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Hill, D.N.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Nilson, D.G.

    1996-10-01

    We have obtained the first measurements of n e and T e in the DIII-D divertor region with a multi-pulse (20 Hz) Divertor Thomson Scattering (DTS) system. Eight measurement locations are distributed vertically up to 21 cm above the divertor plate. Two-dimensional distributions have been obtained by sweeping the divertor plasma across the DTS measurement location. Several operating modes have been studied, including ohmic, L-mode, Elming H-mode, and Radiative Divertor operation with puffing of D 2 and impurities. Mapping of the data to either the (L pol , φ) or (R, Z) planes with the EFIT equilibrium is used to analyze the 2D profiles. We find that in ELMing H-mode: n e , T e , and P e are relatively constant along field lines from the X-point to the divertor plate, especially near the separatrix field line. With D 2 puffing, the DTS profiles indicate that T e in a large part of divertor region below the X-point is dramatically reduced from ∼30-40 eV in ELMing H-mode to 1-2 eV. This results in a fairly uniform low-T e divertor, with an increased electron density in the range of 2 to 4 x 10 20 m -3 . Detailed comparisons of the spatial profiles of n e , T e , and electron pressure P e , are presented for several operating modes. In addition, these data are compared with initial calculations from the UEDGE fluid code

  19. The life cycle cost of a building from the point of view of environmental criteria of selecting the most beneficial offer in the area of competitive tendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzyl Beata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses environmental and ecological criteria of selecting the most beneficial offer in the aspect of LCC. Construction works contracts and the potential method of defining the above criteria, among others, is pondered on (for example by the recommendation of a material, which is supposed to be used, a ban on substances that are harmful for human health as well for the environment. In the relation to the above, it is necessary to define technical parameters that have an impact on the environment, for example the level of pollution and noise emission, electricity and water consumption, or stating the minimal involvement of a processed ingredient. In addition the article presents also an account of the life cycle cost of a building from the point of view of environmental criteria constituting an element of selecting the most beneficial offer in the area of competitive tendering.

  20. The Small Area Health Statistics Unit: a national facility for investigating health around point sources of environmental pollution in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P; Westlake, A J; Hills, M; Kleinschmidt, I; Rodrigues, L; McGale, P; Marshall, K; Rose, G

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU) was established at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in response to a recommendation of the enquiry into the increased incidence of childhood leukaemia near Sellafield, the nuclear reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The aim of this paper was to describe the Unit's methods for the investigation of health around point sources of environmental pollution in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Routine data currently including deaths and cancer registrations are held in a large national database which uses a post code based retrieval system to locate cases geographically and link them to the underlying census enumeration districts, and hence to their populations at risk. Main outcome measures were comparison of observed/expected ratios (based on national rates) within bands delineated by concentric circles around point sources of environmental pollution located anywhere in Britain. MAIN RESULTS--The system is illustrated by a study of mortality from mesothelioma and asbestosis near the Plymouth naval dockyards during 1981-87. Within a 3 km radius of the docks the mortality rate for mesothelioma was higher than the national rate by a factor of 8.4, and that for asbestosis was higher by a factor of 13.6. CONCLUSIONS--SAHSU is a new national facility which is rapidly able to provide rates of mortality and cancer incidence for arbitrary circles drawn around any point in Britain. The example around Plymouth of mesothelioma and asbestosis demonstrates the ability of the system to detect an unusual excess of disease in a small locality, although in this case the findings are likely to be related to occupational rather than environmental exposure. PMID:1431704

  1. Validation of the Thomson, Perry and Miller (2007 Collaboration Instrument in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Roberts

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Collaboration is deemed important in today’s connected and complex business environment. People’s ability to collaborate with each other in organisations is becoming a business imperative. This study focuses on a valid measurement of collaboration within organisations. Research purpose: Thomson, Perry and Miller (2007 developed a collaboration measurement instrument in the United States. The aim of this study was to validate this instrument for a South African context. Motivation for the study: South African organisations face unique challenges that require optimal use of resources to improve business results. Effective collaboration is considered a powerful strategy to achieve this. Measuring the extent of collaboration can help to identify required changes in business practices. As far as could be established, there is no evidence of collaboration instruments developed and validated in South Africa. Research design, approach and method: Additional items were designed for further development of the Thomson, Perry and Miller (2007 Collaboration Instrument sub-scales, as suggested by the authors. The revised questionnaire consisting of 31 (17 existing, 14 new items was distributed electronically to 4200 employees in two organisations, with 343 valid responses received. Reliability and construct validity were tested, as was convergent validity of the norms factor with the Trust in Teams Scale. Main findings: The results of the study support a four-factor, 29-item model of collaboration when applied to a South African sample. Cronbach’s alpha ranged between 0.85 and 0.95. Confirmatory Factor Analysis fits were at an acceptable level. Convergent validity showed a moderate fit with the data. Practical/managerial implications: South African managers and human resources practitioners can utilise results to foster a collaborative environment. Contribution/value-add: This study builds on the theoretical concept of collaboration as

  2. Validation of the Thomson, Perry and Miller (2007 Collaboration Instrument in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Roberts

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Collaboration is deemed important in today’s connected and complex business environment. People’s ability to collaborate with each other in organisations is becoming a business imperative. This study focuses on a valid measurement of collaboration within organisations.Research purpose: Thomson, Perry and Miller (2007 developed a collaboration measurement instrument in the United States. The aim of this study was to validate this instrument for a South African context.Motivation for the study: South African organisations face unique challenges that require optimal use of resources to improve business results. Effective collaboration is considered a powerful strategy to achieve this. Measuring the extent of collaboration can help to identify required changes in business practices. As far as could be established, there is no evidence of collaboration instruments developed and validated in South Africa.Research design, approach and method: Additional items were designed for further development of the Thomson, Perry and Miller (2007 Collaboration Instrument sub-scales, as suggested by the authors. The revised questionnaire consisting of 31 (17 existing, 14 new items was distributed electronically to 4200 employees in two organisations, with 343 valid responses received. Reliability and construct validity were tested, as was convergent validity of the norms factor with the Trust in Teams Scale.Main findings: The results of the study support a four-factor, 29-item model of collaboration when applied to a South African sample. Cronbach’s alpha ranged between 0.85 and 0.95. Confirmatory Factor Analysis fits were at an acceptable level. Convergent validity showed a moderate fit with the data.Practical/managerial implications: South African managers and human resources practitioners can utilise results to foster a collaborative environment.Contribution/value-add: This study builds on the theoretical concept of collaboration as defined by

  3. The estimation of the load of non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus based on observation experiments and export coefficient method in Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, X. X.; Hu, B.; Xu, W. S.; Liu, J. G.; Zhang, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) was chosen to be the study area, the export coefficients of different land-use type were calculated through the observation experiments and literature consultation, and then the load of non-point source (NPS) nitrogen and phosphorus of different pollution sources such as farmland pollution sources, decentralized livestock and poultry breeding pollution sources and domestic pollution sources were estimated. The results show as follows: the pollution load of dry land is the main source of farmland pollution. The order of total nitrogen load of different pollution sources from high to low is livestock breeding pollution, domestic pollution, land use pollution, while the order of phosphorus load of different pollution sources from high to low is land use pollution, livestock breeding pollution, domestic pollution, Therefore, reasonable farmland management, effective control methods of dry land fertilization and sewage discharge of livestock breeding are the keys to the prevention and control of NPS nitrogen and phosphorus in TGRA.

  4. Design and development of distributed control system for SST-1 Thomson scattering experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, V.; Patel, K.; Srivastava, A.; Thomas, J.; kumar, A.

    2013-11-01

    For reliable and uninterrupted operation of Thomson scattering diagnostic, a reliable, simple and distributed control system is developed. The use of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based stand-alone control system, rugged PXI based timing system, simple digital input-output controller using micro-controller, USB based oscilloscope and Ethernet based data communication for client-server architecture makes the control system to operate in an effective manner. The LabVIEW based software architecture controls and monitors the action in a more simple and transparent manner. The developed control system is modular in terms ofup gradation, flexibility and redundant facility.

  5. Personnel protection during the operation of Thomson scattering laser system on COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, Petr; Hron, Martin; Kovar, J.; Sova, J.; Zvolanek, M.; Aftanas, Milan; Bílková, Petra; Pánek, Radomír; Walsh, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, 6-8 (2011), s. 699-702 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology, SOFT-26/26th./. Porto, 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1467; GA ČR GD202/08/H057; GA MŠk 7G09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * Thomson scattering * Laser safety * Personnel protection * PLC Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379611002432

  6. Thomson scattering measurements on the high beta pinch Extrap-T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, P.

    1989-11-01

    Electron temperature and density measurement on a high beta discharge in the Extrap-T1 device have been performed with Thomson scattering. It was found that the signal levels were low and the plasma background radiation high. The spread of the measured temperatures and densities was large. A computer code was developed to investigate whether this spread in measured temperatures was due to shot to shot variations or to photon statistics. The code showed that the scattered data could be explained by photon statistics

  7. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev, H; Nielsen, S K; Porte, L; Hoekzema, J A; Korsholm, S B; Meo, F; Michelsen, P K; Michelsen, S; Oosterbeek, J W; Tsakadze, E L; Westerhof, E; Woskov, P

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of fast ion populations in the TEXTOR tokamak are measured by collective Thomson scattering of millimetre wave radiation generated by a gyrotron operated at 110 GHz and 100-150 kW. Temporal evolution of the energetic ion velocity distribution at switch on of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the slowdown after switch off of NBI are measured. The turn on phase of the NBI has, furthermore, been measured in plasmas with a range of electron densities and temperatures. All of these measurements are shown to be in good agreement with simple Fokker-Planck modelling. Bulk ion rotation velocity is also measured

  8. ITER fast ion collective Thomson scattering. Conceptual design of 60 GHz system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meo, Fernando; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    The collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for ITER at the 60 GHz range is capable of measuring the fast ion distribution parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field at different radial locations simultaneously. The design is robust technologically with no moveable components near the plasma...... describes the two systems and their main components. Section 3 clarifies the impact of design parameters such as beam widths and scattering angle on the CTS measurements. With this in hand, the ITER measurement requirements are translated into constraints on the CTS system designs. An important result...

  9. Timing and triggering of the Thomson scattering diagnostics on the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulín, Ondřej; Hron, Martin; Böhm, Petr; Naylor, G.; Bílková, Petra; Janky, Filip; Salášek, J.; Pánek, Radomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2014), s. 693-697 ISSN 0920-3796. [The 9th Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition, and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/9./. Hefei, 06.05.2013-10.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7G10072; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021; GA ČR GAP205/11/2470 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tokamak * Timing and triggering * FPGA * Real-time control * Diagnostics control * Thomson scattering Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.152, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379614002105#

  10. Ultrashort hard x-ray pulses generated by 90 degrees Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.H.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Glover, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    Ultrashort x-ray pulses permit observation of fast structural dynamics in a variety of condensed matter systems. The authors have generated 300 femtosecond, 30 keV x-ray pulses by 90 degrees Thomson scattering between femtosecond laser pulses and relativistic electrons. The x-ray and laser pulses are synchronized on a femtosecond time scale, an important prerequisite for ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. Analysis of the x-ray beam properties also allows for electron bunch characterization on a femtosecond time scale

  11. Measurement of CO2 laser small angle Thomson scattering on a magnetically confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R. K.; Hutchinson, D. P.; Bennett, C. A.; Hunter, H. T.; Ma, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    We report the first successful small-angle (less than 1°) Thomson scattering measurement of 10 μm radiation from a magnetically confined toroidal plasma. This represents a proof-of-principle demonstration of a new diagnostic technique for confined deuterium-tritium fusion-product alpha particles in future fusion reactors. This result was achieved by detecting scattered CO2 laser light from the plasma of the ATF torsatron at an angle of 0.86° using a novel heterodyne receiver scheme. A predicted resonance in the scattered power as a function of plasma electron density is clearly resolved in the measurements.

  12. LIGHT SOURCE: A simulation study of Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuan-Xiang; Li, Ren-Kai; Huang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Huai-Bi; Du, Ying-Chao; Du, Qiang; Du, Tai-Bin; He, Xiao-Zhong; Hua, Jian-Fei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Qian, Hou-Jun; Shi, Jia-Ru; Xiang, Dao; Yan, Li-Xin; Yu, Pei-Cheng

    2009-06-01

    Thomson scattering X-ray sources are compact and affordable facilities that produce short duration, high brightness X-ray pulses enabling new experimental capacities in ultra-fast science studies, and also medical and industrial applications. Such a facility has been built at the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University, and upgrade is in progress. In this paper, we present a proposed layout of the upgrade with design parameters by simulation, aiming at high X-ray pulses flux and brightness, and also enabling advanced dynamics studies and applications of the electron beam. Design and construction status of main subsystems are also presented.

  13. Collective Thomson scattering of a high power electron cyclotron resonance heating beam in LHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubo, S.; Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system has been constructed at LHD making use of the high power ECRH system in LHD. The necessary features for CTS, high power probing beams and receiving beams, both with well defined Gaussian profile and with the fine controllability, are endowed in the ECRH...... system. The 32 channel radiometer with sharp notch filter at the front end is attached to the ECRH system transmission line as a CTS receiver. The validation of the CTS signal is performed by scanning the scattering volume. A new method to separate the CTS signal from background ECE is developed...

  14. Fast ion collective Thomson scattering - present results and plans for ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran

    by the CTS group at Risø DTU building on the experiences and expertise gained from the group’s construction and current operation of the CTS diagnostic systems on the tokamaks TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade. This contribution will introduce the technique of CTS, give an overview of the current diagnostic systems......Moving towards the era of burning fusion plasmas, a better knowledge of the physics of highly energetic particles, such as the 3.5 MeV fusion born alpha particles, becomes necessary. Diagnosing the fast ions in a fusion plasma is a challenging task, but the technique of collective Thomson...

  15. Edge Thomson scattering diagnostic on COMPASS tokamak: Installation, calibration,operation, improvements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, Petr; Aftanas, Milan; Bílková, Petra; Štefániková, Estera; Mikulín, Ondřej; Melich, Radek; Janky, Filip; Havlíček, Josef; Šesták, David; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Stöckel, Jan; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír; Scannell, R.; Frassinetti, L.; Fassina, A.; Naylor, G.; Walsh, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 11 (2014), 11E431-11E431 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference on High- Temperature Plasma Diagnostics/20./. Atlanta, Georgia, 01.06.2014-05.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * tokamak * pedestal * Thomson scattering * diagnostic Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.614, year: 2014 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/rsi/85/11/10.1063/1.4893995

  16. Fitting of the Thomson scattering density and temperature profiles on the COMPASS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanikova, E.; Peterka, M.; Bohm, P.; Bilkova, P.; Aftanas, M.; Urban, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.; Sos, M.

    2016-01-01

    A new technique for fitting the full radial profiles of electron density and temperature obtained by the Thomson scattering diagnostic in H-mode discharges on the COMPASS tokamak is described. The technique combines the conventionally used modified hyperbolic tangent function for the edge transport barrier (pedestal) fitting and a modification of a Gaussian function for fitting the core plasma. Low number of parameters of this combined function and their straightforward interpretability and controllability provide a robust method for obtaining physically reasonable profile fits. Deconvolution with the diagnostic instrument function is applied on the profile fit, taking into account the dependence on the actual magnetic configuration.

  17. Ultrashort hard x-ray pulses generated by 90 degrees Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, A.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Schoenlein, R.W.; Glover, T.E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ultrashort x-ray pulses permit observation of fast structural dynamics in a variety of condensed matter systems. The authors have generated 300 femtosecond, 30 keV x-ray pulses by 90 degrees Thomson scattering between femtosecond laser pulses and relativistic electrons. The x-ray and laser pulses are synchronized on a femtosecond time scale, an important prerequisite for ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. Analysis of the x-ray beam properties also allows for electron bunch characterization on a femtosecond time scale.

  18. Kirchhoff and thomson-tait transformations in the classical theory of plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, V. V.

    2012-09-01

    The transformation of the torque into the transverse force is considered; this transformation is traditional in the educational literature [1] and was proposed by Kirchhoff [2] and Thomson and Tait [3] to match the order of the differential equation of the classical theory of plates with the number of boundary conditions. It is shown that this transformation is not universal and its mathematical and physical justification depends on the conditions of the plate fixation and loading. It is shown that this justification is absent for the most widely used problems of bending of a rectangular plate freely supported and fixed on the contour.

  19. Elevation angle alignment of quasi optical receiver mirrors of collective Thomson scattering diagnostic by sawtooth measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseev, D.; Meo, Fernando; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2012-01-01

    Localized measurements of the fast ion velocity distribution function and the plasma composition measurements are of significant interest for the fusion community. Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostics allow such measurements with spatial and temporal resolution. Localized measurements...... require a good alignment of the optical path in the transmission line. Monitoring the alignment during the experiment greatly benefits the confidence in the CTS measurements. An in situ technique for the assessment of the elevation angle alignment of the receiver is developed. Using the CTS diagnostic...

  20. Surgical resection of low-grade gliomas in eloquent areas with the guidance of the preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging and craniometric points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Surgical resection of low-grade gliomas (LGGs in eloquent areas is one of the challenges in neurosurgery, using assistant tools to facilitate effective excision with minimal postoperative neurological deficits has been previously discussed (awake craniotomy and intraoperative cortical stimulation; however, these tools could have their own limitations thus implementation of a simple and effective technique that can guide to safe excision is needed in many situations. Materials and Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected data of 76 consecutive surgical cases of LGGs of these 21 cases were situated in eloquent areas. Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, pre- and post-operative MRI with volumetric analysis of the tumor size was conducted, and intraoperative determination of the craniometric points related to the tumor (navigation guided in 10 cases were studied to evaluate the effectiveness of the aforementioned tools in safe excision of the aforementioned tumors. Results: Total-near total excision in 14 (66.67% subtotal in 6 (28.57%, and biopsy in 1 case (4.57%. In long-term follow–up, only one case experienced persistent dysphasia. Conclusion: In spite of its simplicity, the identification of the safe anatomical landmarks guided by the preoperative fMRI is a useful technique that serves in safe excision of LGGs in eloquent areas. Such technique can replace intraoperative evoked potentials or the awake craniotomy in most of the cases. However, navigation-guided excision might be crucial in deeply seated and large tumors to allow safe and radical excision.

  1. Data Bank 28IM(FF) - T-100 International Market Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data (World Area Code) - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign Point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This CD presents data reported by U.S. carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data are often referred to as either "market" or on-flight ori...

  2. Data Bank 28IS(FF) - T-100 International Segment Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data (World Area Code) - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign Point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This CD presents nonstop operations (segments) as reported by U.S. air carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data fields contain informatio...

  3. Data Bank 28IM(FF) - T-100 International Market Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data (World Area Code) - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign Point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This CD presents data reported by U.S. carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data are often referred to as either "market" or on-flight ori...

  4. Amostragem probabilística estratificada por pontos para estimar a área cultivada com soja Probabilistic stratified point sampling to estimate soybean crop area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adami

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de um modelo probabilístico de amostragem estratificada por pontos, e definir um tamanho de amostra adequado para estimar a área cultivada com soja no Rio Grande do Sul. A área foi estratificada de acordo com a percentagem de soja cultivada em cada município do estado: menor que 20, de 20 a 40 e maior que 40%. Foram avaliadas estimativas obtidas por meio de seis tamanhos de amostras, resultantes da combinação de três níveis de significância (10, 5 e 1% e dois valores de erro amostral (5 e 2,5%. Para cada tamanho de amostra, foram realizados 400 sorteios aleatórios. As estimativas foram avaliadas com base na área de soja obtida de um mapa temático de referência proveniente de uma cuidadosa classificação automática e visual de imagens multitemporais dos satélites TM/Landsat-5 e ETM+/Landsat-7 disponível para a safra 2000/2001. A área de soja no Rio Grande do Sul pode ser estimada por meio de um modelo de amostragem probabilística estratificada por pontos, sendo que a melhor estimativa é obtida para o maior tamanho amostral (1.990 pontos, com diferença de apenas -0,14% em relação à estimativa do mapa de referência e um coeficiente de variação de 6,98%.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of a probabilistic sampling model stratified by points and to define an appropriate sample size to estimate the cultivated soybean area in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The area was stratified according to the percentage of soybean cultivated in each state municipality: less than 20, from 20 to 40 and more than 40%. Estimates were evaluated based on six sample sizes, resulting from the combination of three significance levels (10, 5 and 1% and two sampling errors (5 and 2,5%, choosing 400 random samples for each sample size. The estimates were compared to a reference soybean thematic map available for the crop year 2000/2001 that was derived from a careful

  5. Electron temperature measurements by the use of multi-pass Thomson scattering system in GAMMA 10/PDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Ohta, K.; Wang, X.; Morishita, M.; Chikatsu, M.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Yasuhara, R.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T.; Ichimura, M.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Kawataha, K.; Minami, T.

    2015-08-01

    A multi-pass (MP) Thomson scattering (TS) system modeled on the GAMMA 10/PDX TS system was constructed for enhancing the Thomson scattered signals. The MPTS system has a polarization-based configuration with an image relaying system. The former MPTS system in GAMMA 10/PDX can measure only four passing signals. We changed the larger aperture polarization control device for improving the MP laser confinement and obtaining the over four passing MPTS signals. The integrated MPTS signals increased about 1.2 times larger than that in the former system.

  6. Design and Development of a Novel Knudsen Compressor as a Part of a Joule-Thomson Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuvijayan, Indra; Antelius, Mikael; Björneklett, Are; Nilsson, Peter; Thorslund, Robert

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a novel Knudsen compressor, with no moving parts, as a part of a Joule-Thomson cryocooler. The compressor works by using the Knudsen diffusion principle and includes a combination of graphene-based layers and Knudsen membranes in a particular fashion to pressurize the fluid. The Knudsen membrane for this application was selected by testing several commercially available materials. Prototypes of single stage and a multistage compressors are presented together with experimental evaluations. Insights on a Tube-in-Tube heat exchanger, as another part a the Joule-Thomson cryocooler, intended to integrate with the Knudsen compressor, are also presented.

  7. Development of high-efficiency laser Thomson scattering measurement system for the investigation of EEDF in surface wave plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramaki, M.; Kobayashi, J.; Kono, A.; Stamate, E.; Sugai, H.

    2006-01-01

    A high-efficiency multichannel Thomson scattering measurement system was developed as a tool for studying the electron heating mechanisms in a surface wave plasma. By improving the output power and repetition rate of the Nd:YAG laser, an F-number of spectrograph, and a quantum efficiency of ICCD camera, the overall Thomson signal collection efficiency per unit measurement time has been improved by a factor larger than 40 in comparison with the previous measurement system developed by the authors. The one-dimensional electron velocity distribution functions were measured in the vicinity of the dielectric window of a surface wave plasma

  8. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessments of Fish Large-Area Stationary Point Count Surveys (SPC) in the Pacific Ocean from 2000-09-09 to 2007-06-08 (NCEI Accession 0162466)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The large-area stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  9. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessments of Fish Large-Area Stationary Point Count Surveys (SPC) at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Ocean from 2000 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The large-area stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  10. 28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

  11. 16 February 2012 - Chinese Taipei Ambassador to Switzerland F. Hsieh in the ATLAS visitor centre, ATLAS experimental area and LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Collaboration Deputy Sookesperson A. Lankford, throughout accompanied by International Relations Adviser R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    16 February 2012 - Chinese Taipei Ambassador to Switzerland F. Hsieh in the ATLAS visitor centre, ATLAS experimental area and LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Collaboration Deputy Sookesperson A. Lankford, throughout accompanied by International Relations Adviser R. Voss.

  12. A Concept for Measuring Electron Distribution Functions Using Collective Thomson Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, A. L.; Froula, D. H.

    2017-10-01

    A.B. Langdon proposed that stable non-Maxwellian distribution functions are realized in coronal inertial confinement fusion plasmas via inverse bremsstrahlung heating. For Zvosc2 Zvosc2 vth2 > 1 , vth2 > 1 , the inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate is sufficiently fast to compete with electron-electron collisions. This process preferentially heats the subthermal electrons leading to super-Gaussian distribution functions. A method to identify the super-Gaussian order of the distribution functions in these plasmas using collective Thomson scattering will be proposed. By measuring the collective Thomson spectra over a range of angles the density, temperature and super-Gaussian order can be determined. This is accomplished by fitting non-Maxwellian distribution data with a super-Gaussian model; in order to match the density and electron temperature to within 10%, the super-Gaussian order must be varied. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  13. Measurement of electron density of the plasma in the Tokamak TCABR, through Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeronimo, Leonardo Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years is remarkable, so increasingly evident the need for a new source of energy for mankind. One promising option is through nuclear fusion, where the plasma produced in the reactor can be converted into electrical energy. Therefore, knowing the characteristics of this plasma is very important to control it and understand it so desirable. One of the diagnostic options is called Thomson scattering . This is considered the most reliable method for the determination of important plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density, and may also help in the study and explanation of various internal mechanisms. The great advantage lies in the tact that they consist of a direct measurement and nonperturbative. But it is a diagnosis whose installation and execution is admittedly complex, limiting it only a few laboratories in the fíeld of fusion for the world. Among the main difficulties, wc can highlight the fact that the scattered signal is very small, thus requiring a large increase of the incident power. Moreover, the external physical conditions can cause mechanical vibrations that eliminate or minimize them as much as possible, is a great challenge, considering the optical micrometrically very sensitive and needs involved in the system. This work describes the entire process of installation and operation of Thomson scattering diagnostic in tokamak TCABR and through this diagnosis, we work on results of electron temperature, to finally be able to calculate the electron density of the plasma. (author)

  14. HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THYROID GLAND NEOPLASMS IN THOMSON'S GAZELLES ( EUDORCUS THOMSONII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Stephanie J; Garner, Michael M; Kiupel, Matti

    2018-03-01

    Published reports of neoplasms in Thomson's gazelles ( Eudorcas thomsonii) are very rare, but thyroid tumors were the most common neoplasm of this species, accounting for 12% of reported pathologies in a 1998-2012 retrospective study of cases submitted for histologic review of grossly enlarged thyroid glands. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms in 10 Thomson's gazelles from five different zoological collections. Neoplasms were submitted as biopsies from six gazelles or collected during necropsy from four gazelles. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Radiographic mineral density was detected in one of the neoplastic masses. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as microfollicular thyroid adenoma ( n = 2), solid thyroid adenoma ( n = 2), papillary thyroid adenoma ( n = 1), and solid thyroid carcinoma ( n = 5). Neoplastic cells in all 10 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin, but negative for calcitonin. While five cases had histologic features of malignancy, there was no evidence of metastatic disease either clinically (biopsies) or on necropsy. Numerous concurrent diseases, including cardiomyopathies and nephropathies, were present and led to choice for euthanasia in several cases.

  15. Generation of Attosecond X-Ray Pulse through Coherent Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K; Jeong, Y U; Lee, B C; Park, S H

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to some recent experimental results, which state that the Nonlinear Thomson Scattered (NTS) radiation is incoherent, a coherent condition under which the scattered radiation of an incident laser pulse by a bunch of electrons can be coherently superposed has been investigated. The Coherent Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattered (C-RNTS) radiation makes it possible utilizing the ultra-short pulse nature of NTS radiation with a bunch of electrons, such as plasma or electron beams. A numerical simulation shows that a 25 attosecond X-ray pulse can be generated by irradiating an ultra-intense laser pulse of 4x10(19) W/cm2 on an ultra-thin solid target of 50 nm thickness, which is commercially available. The coherent condition can be easily extended to an electron beam from accelerators. Different from the solid target, much narrower electron beam is required for the generation of an attosecond pulse. Instead, this condition could be applied for the generation of intense Compton scattered X-rays with a...

  16. Conceptual Design Studies of the KSTAR Bay-Nm Cassette and Thomson Scattering Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, R.; Ellis, R.; Johnson, D.; Park, H.; Lee, H. G.

    2005-09-26

    A Multi-Channel Thomson Scattering System viewing the edge and core of the KSTAR plasma will be installed at the mid-plane port Bay-N. An engineering design study was undertaken at PPPL in collaboration with the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) to determine the optimal optics and cassette design. Design criteria included environmental, mechanical and optical factors. All of the optical design options have common design features; the Thomson Scattering laser, an in-vacuum shutter, a quartz heat shield and primary vacuum window, a set of optical elements and a fiber optic bundle. Neutron radiation damage was a major factor in the choice of competing lens-based and mirror-based optical designs. Both the mirror based design and the lens design are constrained by physical limits of the Bay-N cassette and interference with the Bay-N micro-wave launcher. The cassette will contain the optics and a rail system for maintenance of the optics.

  17. Computer data-acquisition and control system for Thomson-scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, K.A.; Foskett, R.D.; Kindsfather, R.R.; Lazarus, E.A.; Thomas, C.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Thomson-Scattering Diagnostic System (SCATPAK II) used to measure the electron temperature and density in the Impurity Study Experiment is interfaced to a Perkin-Elmer 8/32 computer that operates under the OS/32 operating system. The calibration, alignment, and operation of this diagnostic are all under computer control. Data acquired from 106 photomultiplier tubes installed on 15 spectrometers are transmitted to the computer by eighteen 12-channel, analog-to-digital integrators along a CAMAC serial highway. With each laser pulse, 212 channels of data are acquired: 106 channels of signal plus background and 106 channels of background only. Extensive use of CAMAC instrumentation enables large amounts of data to be acquired and control processes to be performed in a time-dependent environment. The Thomson-scattering computer system currently operates in three modes: user interaction and control, data acquisition and transmission, and data analysis. This paper discusses the development and implementation of this system as well as data storage and retrieval

  18. Material Assessment for ITER's Collective Thomson Scattering first mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, R.; Policarpo, H.; Goncalves, B.; Varela, P. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Nonboel, E.; Klinkby, E.; Lauritzen, B. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Romanets, Y.; Luis, R.; Vaz, P. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    The International Thermonuclear Energy Reactor (ITER) Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) system is a diagnostic instrument that measures plasma density and velocity through Thomson scattering of microwave radiation. Some of the key components of the CTS are quasi-optical mirrors that are used to produce astigmatic beam patterns, which have impact on the strength and spatial resolution of the diagnostic signal. The mirrors are exposed to neutron radiation, which may alter the quality of the signal received. In this work, three different materials (molybdenum (Mo), stainless steel 316 (SS-316) and tungsten (W)) are considered for the first mirror of the CTS. The objective is to access which of the material studied are best suited for this mirror, considering different neutron radiation loads simulated scenarios defined by ITER, based on the resultant stresses and temperature distributions. For it, the neutron irradiation, and subsequent heat-load on the mirrors are simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. Based on the MCNP heat-load results, transient thermal-structural Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the mirror over a 400 s discharge, with and without cooling on the rear side, are conducted using in commercial FEA software ANSYS. Results show that of the tested materials Mo and W are the most suitable material for this application. Even though, this study does not yet consider the variation of the material properties with temperature, it presents a quick initial satisfactory assessment that may be considered in subsequent and more complex analysis. (authors)

  19. Gibbs–Thomson Effect in Planar Nanowires: Orientation and Doping Modulated Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde

    2016-06-02

    Epitaxy-enabled bottom-up synthesis of self-assembled planar nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism is an emerging and promising approach toward large-scale direct integration of nanowire-based devices without postgrowth alignment. Here, by examining large assemblies of indium tin oxide nanowires on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate, we demonstrate for the first time that the growth dynamics of planar nanowires follows a modified version of the Gibbs-Thomson mechanism, which has been known for the past decades to govern the correlations between thermodynamic supersaturation, growth speed, and nanowire morphology. Furthermore, the substrate orientation strongly influences the growth characteristics of epitaxial planar nanowires as opposed to impact at only the initial nucleation stage in the growth of vertical nanowires. The rich nanowire morphology can be described by a surface-energy-dependent growth model within the Gibbs-Thomson framework, which is further modulated by the tin doping concentration. Our experiments also reveal that the cutoff nanowire diameter depends on the substrate orientation and decreases with increasing tin doping concentration. These results enable a deeper understanding and control over the growth of planar nanowires, and the insights will help advance the fabrication of self-assembled nanowire devices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  20. Conceptual Design Studies of the KSTAR Bay-Nm Cassette and Thomson Scattering Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, R.; Ellis, R.; Johnson, D.; Park, H.; Lee, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    A Multi-Channel Thomson Scattering System viewing the edge and core of the KSTAR plasma will be installed at the mid-plane port Bay-N. An engineering design study was undertaken at PPPL in collaboration with the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) to determine the optimal optics and cassette design. Design criteria included environmental, mechanical and optical factors. All of the optical design options have common design features; the Thomson Scattering laser, an in-vacuum shutter, a quartz heat shield and primary vacuum window, a set of optical elements and a fiber optic bundle. Neutron radiation damage was a major factor in the choice of competing lens-based and mirror-based optical designs. Both the mirror based design and the lens design are constrained by physical limits of the Bay-N cassette and interference with the Bay-N micro-wave launcher. The cassette will contain the optics and a rail system for maintenance of the optics

  1. Solution for a window coating problem developed in the JT-60U Thomson scattering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Hidetoshi; Naito, Osamu; Hatae, Takaki; Nagashima, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1996-11-01

    For an exact measurement of fusion plasmas with higher electron temperature, the following two methods which can solve a window coating problem were developed in the JT-60U Thomson scattering system. One is an in situ monitoring method which can infer a window transmission with sufficient precision from a known attenuation of the deposited film. The other is an in situ window cleaning method which removes the film on the basis of a laser blow-off technique. As the results of the extensive investigations, the existence of chromatic upper limit has been found in the recovered transmission after the laser blow-off cleaning, however, which gives systematic errors only of less than 3% to the apparent measurement for both electron density and temperature at 10 keV or less. The attenuation itself was unchanged before and after the laser blow-off cleaning. So the first method can be also applicable to the window after the laser blow-off cleaning. A complementary use of both the methods against the window coating problem can be expected to provide the Thomson scattering measurement of high T{sub e} plasmas with durable reliability and sufficient precision in the present tokamaks and also the ITER. (author)

  2. A Large-Area Nanoplasmonic Sensor Fabricated by Rapid Thermal Annealing Treatment for Label-Free and Multi-Point Immunoglobulin Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Tzu-Han Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are important biomarkers to evaluate the immune status or development of infectious diseases. To provide timely clinical treatments, it is important to continuously monitor the level of multiple immunoglobulins. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR-based nanoplasmonic sensors have been demonstrated for multiplex immunoglobulins detection. However, the sensor fabrication process is usually slow and complicated, so it is not accessible for large-area and batch fabrication. Herein, we report a large-area (2 cm × 2 cm nanofabrication method using physical vapor deposition followed by a rapid thermal annealing treatment. To optimize the sensor performance, we systematically characterized three fabrication conditions, including (1 the deposition thickness; (2 the maximum annealing temperature, and (3 the annealing time. The corresponding absorbance spectrum profile and surface morphology of the nanostructures were observed by a UV-VIS spectrometer and atomic force microscopy. We then tested the sensitivity of the sensor using a glucose solution at different concentrations. The results showed that the sensor with 10 nm gold deposition thickness under 5-min 900 °C rapid thermal annealing can achieve the highest sensitivity (189 nm RIU−1. Finally, we integrated this nanoplasmonic sensor with a microchannel and a motorized stage to perform a 10-spot immunoglobulin detection in 50 min. Based on its real-time, dynamic and multi-point analyte detection capability, the nanoplasmonic sensor has the potential to be applied in high-throughput or multiplex immunoassay analysis, which would be beneficial for disease diagnosis or biomedical research in a simple and cost-effective platform.

  3. A Large-Area Nanoplasmonic Sensor Fabricated by Rapid Thermal Annealing Treatment for Label-Free and Multi-Point Immunoglobulin Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hana Tzu-Han; Yang, Chuan-Kai; Lin, Chi-Chen; Wu, Albert Meng-Hsin; Wang, Lon A; Huang, Nien-Tsu

    2017-05-02

    Immunoglobulins are important biomarkers to evaluate the immune status or development of infectious diseases. To provide timely clinical treatments, it is important to continuously monitor the level of multiple immunoglobulins. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based nanoplasmonic sensors have been demonstrated for multiplex immunoglobulins detection. However, the sensor fabrication process is usually slow and complicated, so it is not accessible for large-area and batch fabrication. Herein, we report a large-area (2 cm × 2 cm) nanofabrication method using physical vapor deposition followed by a rapid thermal annealing treatment. To optimize the sensor performance, we systematically characterized three fabrication conditions, including (1) the deposition thickness; (2) the maximum annealing temperature, and (3) the annealing time. The corresponding absorbance spectrum profile and surface morphology of the nanostructures were observed by a UV-VIS spectrometer and atomic force microscopy. We then tested the sensitivity of the sensor using a glucose solution at different concentrations. The results showed that the sensor with 10 nm gold deposition thickness under 5-min 900 °C rapid thermal annealing can achieve the highest sensitivity (189 nm RIU -1 ). Finally, we integrated this nanoplasmonic sensor with a microchannel and a motorized stage to perform a 10-spot immunoglobulin detection in 50 min. Based on its real-time, dynamic and multi-point analyte detection capability, the nanoplasmonic sensor has the potential to be applied in high-throughput or multiplex immunoassay analysis, which would be beneficial for disease diagnosis or biomedical research in a simple and cost-effective platform.

  4. Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Ji; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Lai, Xinsheng; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Hua; Qu, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revea...

  5. ANALISIS EROSI DAN SEDIMEN SEBAGAI DAMPAK PERUBAHAN LAHAN DI CATCHMENT AREA SUNGAI HAURAN MENGGUNAKAN MODEL AGNPS (AGRICULTURALNON POINT SOURCE POLLUTION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Astuti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sedimen yang adapada suatu aliran sungai umumnya terjadi akibat proses erosi yang berkaitan erat dengan siklus hidrologi. Beberapa parameter erosi dan sedimen adalah curah hujan, vegetasi tutupan lahan, jenis tanah dan kemiringan tanah. Catchment Area Sungai Hauran memiliki kondisi vegetasi tutupan lahan berbeda pada tahun 2005 dan 2014. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan penentuan nilai erosi dan sedimen terkini serta menganalisa dampak perubahan tutupan lahan tahun 2005 dan 2014 terhadap besarnya erosi dan sedimen pada satu kejadian hujan dengan data hujan yang sama. Agricultural Non Point Source Pollution Model (AGNPS adalah salah satu model terdistribusi yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisa erosi dan sedimen dengan kejadian hujan tunggal. Pengolahan data menggunakan model AGNPS diperoleh besar erosi persatuan luas yang terjadi pada tahun 2014 sebesar 256,43 ton/ha/tahun menunjukkan tingkat erosi berat dan total sedimen sebesar 17947,79 ton/tahun (17,60 ton/ha/tahun termasuk klasifikasi tingkat sedimen tinggi. Perbandingan tingkat erosi dan sedimen karena adanya perubahan tutupan lahan tahun 2005 dan 2014 dengan input hujan 18,2 mm mengalami peningkatan total erosi persatuan luas dari 1,93 ton/ha menjadi 11,46 ton/ha dan mengalami penurunan total sedimen pada tahun 2014 dari 50,7 ton menjadi 26,15 ton.

  6. DETERMINATION OF THE POINT-SPREAD FUNCTION FOR THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FROM ON-ORBIT DATA AND LIMITS ON PAIR HALOS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Asano, K. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro City, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [CNRS, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: mdwood@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: mar0@uw.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-03-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to detect photons with energies from Almost-Equal-To 20 MeV to >300 GeV. The pre-launch response functions of the LAT were determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and beam tests. The point-spread function (PSF) characterizing the angular distribution of reconstructed photons as a function of energy and geometry in the detector is determined here from two years of on-orbit data by examining the distributions of {gamma} rays from pulsars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Above 3 GeV, the PSF is found to be broader than the pre-launch PSF. We checked for dependence of the PSF on the class of {gamma}-ray source and observation epoch and found none. We also investigated several possible spatial models for pair-halo emission around BL Lac AGNs. We found no evidence for a component with spatial extension larger than the PSF and set upper limits on the amplitude of halo emission in stacked images of low- and high-redshift BL Lac AGNs and the TeV blazars 1ES0229+200 and 1ES0347-121.

  7. 77 FR 44221 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Point Thomson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... evaluated reasonable alternative designs and potential impacts to the environment. The proposed project includes the construction of structures in navigable waters of the United States (U.S.) and the discharge of dredged and/or fill materials into waters of the U.S., including wetlands. The proposed work...

  8. 76 FR 70979 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Point Thomson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Act (RHA) of 1899 and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA). The Draft EIS will be used to evaluate.... Authorities: Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1344) and Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability...

  9. Steady-state thermodynamic simulation and structural design of the dephlegmator used in mixed-refrigerant Joule-Thomson refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mei; Gong, Maoqiong; Guo, Hao; Sun, Zhaohu; Wu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Good agreements and the feasibility of the MESH model were found. • Fine applicability and low energy consumption of the dephlegmator were addressed. • A clear and comprehensive three-dimensional dephlegmator model was shown. - Abstract: Dephlegmators can be used to reduce the energy consumption and simplify the layout of the mixed-refrigerant Joule–Thomson (MRJT) cycle. Heat-exchange characteristics and refrigeration design are currently based on highly simplified assumptions. Synthesis methods to efficiently solve all design issues of dephlegmators in MRJT cycle are insufficient. No suitable separation module is available for the simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes in Aspen Plus because the module should be programmed and incorporated into Aspen Plus as a user-defined unit. In this paper, a systematic steady-state method was proposed for the detailed design of dephlegmators for gas mixture separation, considering the simulation and heat exchanger design simultaneously. The material balance, vapor–liquid equilibrium, mole fraction summation and heat balance (MESH) model was programmed in FORTRAN language. Good agreements and the feasibility of the MESH model were found. Deviations between the simulation results and patent data were all within 5%. The errors in the predicted temperatures of vapor and liquid products were less than 2% and 10%, respectively. Fine applicability and low energy consumption of the dephlegmator were addressed. The mole fraction of n-butane in the liquid phase had high recovery ratio of 90%. The dephlegmator decreased more than 30% of energy consumption compared with the traditional distillation tower under similar separation effects. In the structural design process, the dephlegmator was divided into certain segments by baffle plates on the basis of segmented calculation. The heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer area, pressure drop, and structural parameters of the dephlegmator were evaluated. A clear

  10. Interference characterisation of a commercial Joule-Thomson cooler to be used in a SQUID-based heart monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bangma, M.R.; Bangma, M.R.; Rijpma, A.P.; de Vries, E.; Reincke, H.A.; Holland, Herman J.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Rogalla, Horst

    2001-01-01

    At the University of Twente, a foetal heart monitor based on a high-TC SQUID magnetometer system is under development. The purpose of this system is to measure a foetal heart signal in a clinical environment. For cooling a first demonstrator version, a closed-cycle Joule–Thomson cooler from APD

  11. Mida kujutab endast IB õppekava? / Toomas Kruusimägi, Anu Parts, Karl Hendrik Thomson ; intervjueerinud Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruusimägi, Toomas, 1962-

    2010-01-01

    Uuest rahvusvahelisest International Baccalaureate'i (IB) õppekavast ja selle rakendamisest Tallinna Inglise Kolledži 11. klassis alates möödunud aastast räägivad kooli direktor Toomas Kruusimägi, õppedirektor Anu Parts ning õpilane Karl Hendrik Thomson

  12. Should chemoprophylaxis be a main strategy for preventing re-introduction of malaria in highly receptive areas? Sri Lanka a case in point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Herath, Hemantha D B; Fernando, S Deepika

    2017-03-04

    Imported malaria cases continue to be reported in Sri Lanka, which was declared 'malaria-free' by the World Health Organization in September 2016. Chemoprophylaxis, a recommended strategy for malaria prevention for visitors travelling to malaria-endemic countries from Sri Lanka is available free of charge. The strategy of providing chemoprophylaxis to visitors to a neighbouring malaria-endemic country within the perspective of a country that has successfully eliminated malaria but is highly receptive was assessed, taking Sri Lanka as a case in point. The risk of a Sri Lankan national acquiring malaria during a visit to India, a malaria-endemic country, was calculated for the period 2008-2013. The cost of providing prophylaxis for Sri Lankan nationals travelling to India for 1, 2 and 4 weeks was estimated for that same period. The risk of a Sri Lankan traveller to India acquiring malaria ranged from 5.25 per 100,000 travellers in 2012 to 13.45 per 100,000 travellers in 2010. If 50% of cases were missed by the Sri Lankan healthcare system, then the risk of acquiring malaria in India among returning Sri Lankans would double. The 95% confidence intervals for both risks are small. As chloroquine is the chemoprophylactic drug recommended for travellers to India by the Anti Malaria Campaign of Sri Lanka, the costs of chemoprophylaxis for travellers for a 1-, 2- and 4-weeks stay in India on average are US$ 41,604, 48,538 and 62,407, respectively. If all Sri Lankan travellers to India are provided with chemoprophylaxis for four weeks, it will comprise 0.65% of the national malaria control programme budget. Based on the low risk of acquiring malaria among Sri Lankan travellers returning from India and the high receptivity in previously malarious areas of the country, chemoprophylaxis should not be considered a major strategy in the prevention of re-introduction. In areas with high receptivity, universal access to quality-assured diagnosis and treatment cannot be

  13. Association of cross-sectional area of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle with active trigger points in chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ge, Hong-You; Pareja, Juan A

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether cross-sectional area (CSA) of the suboccipital muscles was associated with active trigger points (TrPs) in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine was performed in 11 females with CTTH aged from 26 to 50 yrs old. CSA for both rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmin) and rectus capitis posterior major (RCPmaj) muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images, using axial MRI slices aligned parallel to the C2/3 intervertebral disc. A headache diary was kept for 4 wks to record the pain history. TrPs in the suboccipital muscle were identified by eliciting referred pain to palpation, and increased referred pain with muscle contraction. TrPs were considered active if the elicited referred pain reproduced the head pain pattern and features of the pattern seen during spontaneous headache attacks. Active TrPs were found in six patients (55%), whereas the remaining five patients showed latent TrPs. CSA of the RCPmin was significantly smaller (F = 13.843; P = 0.002) in the patients with active TrPs (right side: 55.9 +/- 4.4 mm; left side: 61.1 +/-: 3.8 mm) than in patients with latent TrPs (right side: 96.9 +/- 14.4 mm; left side: 88.7 +/- 9.7 mm). No significant differences were found for CSA of the RCPmaj between the patients with either active or latent TrP (P > 0.5). It seems that muscle atrophy in the RCPmin, but not in the RCPmaj, was associated with suboccipital active TrPs in CTTH, although studies with larger sample sizes are now required. It may be that nociceptive inputs in active TrPs could lead to muscle atrophy of the involved muscles. Muscle disuse or avoidance behavior can also be involved in atrophy.

  14. Precision of ion temperature measurements in a tokamak plasma using collective Thomson scattering: a numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, P.A.

    1989-08-01

    A numerical simulation has been performed to investigate the precision of a T i -measurement of a tokamak plasma via collective Thomson scattering at 385 μm. The study is based on a parameter and data set referring to an experiment that has been carried out at the TCA tokamak using a pulsed D 2 O laser and a heterodyne receiver system. Apart from limitations due to the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection system, we investigate the influence of uncertainties in various plasma parameters required for the T i -evaluation from a scattered spectrum. In the experiment typical relative errors of ± 25% have been already been obtained, but careful optimization of the system, taking into account the results of this study, and further technical improvements should allow to reduce this limit to about ±10% for the plasma conditions considered. (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  15. Narrow bandwidth Laser-Plasma Accelerator driven Thomson photon source development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, C. G. R.; Tsai, H.-E.; Otero, G.; Liu, X.; van Tilborg, J.; Toth, Cs.; Vay, J.-L.; Lehe, R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Leemans, W. P.

    2017-10-01

    Compact, high-quality photon sources at MeV energies can be provided by Thomson scattering of a laser from the electron beam of a Laser-Plasma Accelerator (LPA). Recent experiments and simulations demonstrate controllable LPAs in the energy range appropriate to MeV sources. Simulations indicate that high flux with narrow energy spread can be achieved via control of the scattering laser pulse shape and laser guiding, and that undesired background bremsstrahlung can be mitigated by plasma based deceleration of the electron beam after photon production. Construction of experiments and laser capabilities to combine these elements will be presented, along with initial operations, towards a compact photon source system. Work supported by US DOE NNSA DNN R&D and by Sc. HEP under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of equine herpesvirus 1 isolates from onager, zebra and Thomson's gazelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Y M; Fukushi, H; Ibrahim, E S M; Ohya, K; Yamaguchi, T; Kennedy, M

    2008-01-01

    Viruses related to equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) were isolated from an aborted fetus of an onager (Equus hemionus) in 1984, an aborted fetus of Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) in 1984 and a Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsoni) with nonsuppurative encephalitis in 1996, all in the USA. The mother of the onager fetus and the gazelle were kept near plains zebras (Equus burchelli). In phylogenetic trees based on the nucleotide sequences of the genes for glycoproteins B (gB), I (gI), and E (gE), and teguments including ORF8 (UL51), ORF15 (UL45), and ORF68 (US2), the onager, Grevy's zebra and gazelle isolates formed a genetic group that was different from several horse EHV-1 isolates. Within this group, the onager and gazelle isolates were closely related, while the Grevy's zebra isolate was distantly related to these two isolates. The epizootiological origin of the viruses is discussed.

  17. Improved Collective Thomson Scattering measurements of fast ions at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Stejner Pedersen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Scattering (CTS) is well suited for reactor conditions and offers such an opportunity by providing measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. We currently operate a CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade using a gyrotron which generates probing radiation......Understanding the behaviour of the confined fast ions is important in both current and future fusion experiments. These ions play a key role in heating the plasma and will be crucial for achieving conditions for burning plasma in next-step fusion devices. Microwave-based Collective Thomson...... at 105 GHz. A new setup using two independent receiver systems has enabled improved subtraction of the background signal, and hence the first accurate characterization of fast-ion properties. Here we review this new dual-receiver CTS setup and present results on fast-ion measurements based...

  18. Impact of ICRH on the measurement of fusion alphas by collective Thomson scattering in ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Eriksson, L.-G.; Bindslev, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    , corresponding to an off-axis resonance. The sensitivities of the results to the He-3 concentration (0.1-4%) and the heating power (20-40 MW) are considered. Fusion born alphas dominate the total CTS signal for large Doppler shifts of the scattered radiation. The tritons generate a negligible fraction......Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has been proposed for measuring the phase space distributions of confined fast ion populations in ITER plasmas. This study determines the impact of fast ions accelerated by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) on the ability of CTS to diagnose fusion alphas...... perpendicular velocities, it may be difficult to draw conclusions about the physics of alpha particles alone by CTS. With this exception, the CTS diagnostic can reveal the physics of the fusion alphas in ITER even under the presence of fast ions due to ICRH....

  19. Use of fast scopes to enable Thomson scattering measurement in presence of fluctuating plasma light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, H.S.; Moller, J.; Hill, D.N.

    2004-01-01

    The addition of inexpensive high-speed oscilloscopes has enabled higher T e Thomson scattering measurements on the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment. Along with signal correlation techniques, the scopes allow analyses based on the shape of the scattered laser pulse to discriminate against fluctuating background plasma light that often make gated-integrator measurements unreliable. A 1.4 J Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm is the scattering source. Spatial locations are coupled by viewing optics and fibers to four-wavelength-channel filter polychrometers. Ratios between the channels determine T e while summations of the channels determine density. Typically, the channel that provides a scattered signal at higher T e is contaminated by fluctuating background light. Individual channels are correlated with either a modeled representation of the laser pulse or a noise-free scattered laser light signal to extract channel amplitudes

  20. Thomson scattering measurement of a collimated plasma jet generated by a high-power laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Morita, T.; Yamaura, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Moritaka, T.; Sano, T.; Shimoda, R.; Tomita, K.; Uchino, K.; Matsukiyo, S.; Mizuta, A.; Ohnishi, N.; Crowston, R.; Woolsey, N.; Doyle, H.; Gregori, G.; Koenig, M.; Michaut, C.; Pelka, A.; Yuan, D.; Li, Y.; Zhang, K.; Zhong, J.; Wang, F.; Takabe, H.

    2016-03-01

    One of the important and interesting problems in astrophysics and plasma physics is collimation of plasma jets. The collimation mechanism, which causes a plasma flow to propagate a long distance, has not been understood in detail. We have been investigating a model experiment to simulate astrophysical plasma jets with an external magnetic field [Nishio et al., EPJ. Web of Conferences 59, 15005 (2013)]. The experiment was performed by using Gekko XII HIPER laser system at Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. We shot CH plane targets (3 mm × 3 mm × 10 μm) and observed rear-side plasma flows. A collimated plasma flow or plasma jet was generated by separating focal spots of laser beams. In this report, we measured plasma jet structure without an external magnetic field with shadowgraphy, and simultaneously measured the local parameters of the plasma jet, i.e., electron density, electron and ion temperatures, charge state, and drift velocity, with collective Thomson scattering.

  1. Thomson scattering diagnostic analyses to determine the energetic particle distributions in TFTR. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Cheung, P.Y.; Russell, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lodestar has been an active participant in the low power Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic at TFTR in collaboration with MIT. Extensive studies were conducted regarding the use of gyrotron scattering as a low cost diagnostic for both energetic ions and alpha particles on TFTR. The numerical scattering code has been improved and compared with similar code developed at JET. The authors have participated and assisted in the CTS experiments through onsite visits and have successfully performed most of the data analysis tasks remotely. Through their analysis on the initial data base accumulated, they are able to understand qualitatively the general features of the anomalous large scattered signal, have proposed an explanation for its generation mechanism, and have suggested a potential new use of CTS as an edge diagnostic

  2. Investigation of first mirror heating for the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic in ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Meo, Fernando; Bindslev, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has the capabilities to measure phase space densities of fast ion populations in ITER resolved in configuration space, in velocity space, and in time. In the CTS system proposed for ITER, probing radiation at 60 GHz generated by two 1 MW gyrotrons is scattered...... in the plasma and collected by arrays of receivers. The transmission lines from the gyrotrons to the plasma and from the plasma to the receivers contain several quasioptical mirrors among other components. These are designed to produce astigmatic beam patterns in the plasma where the beam shapes will have...... a direct impact on the signal strength of the diagnostic, the spatial resolution, and the robustness of probe and receiver beam overlap against density excursions. The first mirror has a line of sight to the plasma and is thus exposed to severe neutron streaming. The present neutronics and thermomechanical...

  3. Proof-of-principle test of a Thomson scattering alpha particle diagnostic (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, D. P.; Richards, R. K.; Hunter, H. T.; Bennett, C. A.

    1990-10-01

    A CO2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic is being developed for the measurement of high-energy alpha particles in a burning plasma. To evaluate the system, a proof-of-principle test is presently in progress. The goal of the experiment is to perform small-angle scattering measurements on a nonburning plasma in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). In the absence of fusion-product alpha particles, measurements are being made on the smaller scattered signal from the background electrons in the plasma. Preliminary results, indicating receiver calibration and stray light measurements, and calculations of expected scattered power based on measured density and temperature profiles in ATF will be presented. This research was sponsored by Office of Fusion Energy, U. S. DOE, under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400 with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.

  4. Diagnostic of the Symbiotic Stars Environment by Thomson, Raman and Rayleigh Scattering Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sekeráš

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic stars are long-period interacting binaries consisting of a cool giant as the donor star and a white dwarf as the acretor. Due to acretion of the material from the giant’s stellar wind, the white dwarf becomes very hot and luminous. The circumstellar material partially ionized by the hot star, represents an ideal medium for processes of scattering. To investigate the symbiotic nebula we modeled the wide wings of the resonance lines OVI λ1032 Å, λ1038 Å and HeII λ1640 Å emission line in the spectrum of AG Dra, broadened by Thomson scattering. On the other hand, Raman and Rayleigh scattering arise in the neutral part of the circumstellar matter around the giant and provide a powerful tool to probe e.g. the ionization structure of the symbiotic systems and distribution of the neutral hydrogen atoms in the giant’s wind.

  5. The Thomson scattering experiment pulsed by CO2 laser in FT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolini, L.; Fornetti, G.; Nardi, M.; Occhionero, G.; Ferri de Collibus, M.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment carried out to measure the plasma ion temperature Tsub(i) in the tokamak FT in Frascati by Collective Thomson Scattering. A tandem laser system generates two single mode beams (10.6μ) one of which is pulsed and amplified up to levels of 5 MW, 1μs and actively frequency locked to a second continuous wave low pressure CO 2 laser. The pulse beam crosses the plasma and the forward scattered light is collected at angles between 1 degrees centigrade and 1.6 degrees centigrade. An heterodyne technique in which the c.w. beam is the local oscillator is used to measure the Doppler enlarged spectral density of the signal. The experimental apparatus is described and the results are reported and discussed

  6. Design and performance of the collective Thomson scattering receiver at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Vedran; Salewski, Mirko; Leipold, Frank

    2012-01-01

    is divided into 50 IF channels tightly spaced in frequency space. The channels are terminated by square-law detector diodes that convert the signal power into DC voltages. We present measurements of the transmission characteristics and performance of the main receiver components operating at mm-wave......Here we present the design of the fast-ion collective Thomson scattering receiver for millimeter wave radiation installed at ASDEX Upgrade, a tokamak for fusion plasma experiments. The receiver can detect spectral power densities of a few eV against the electron cyclotron emission background...... on the order of 100 eV under presence of gyrotron stray radiation that is several orders of magnitude stronger than the signal to be detected. The receiver down converts the frequencies of scattered radiation (100-110 GHz) to intermediate frequencies (IF) (4.5-14.5 GHz) by heterodyning. The IF signal...

  7. Principles of fuel ion ratio measurements in fusion plasmas by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    by the signatures of ion cyclotron motion and ion Bernstein waves which appear for scattering geometries with resolved wave vectors near perpendicular to the magnetic field. We investigate the origin and properties of these features in CTS spectra and give estimates of their relative importance for fuel ion ratio......For certain scattering geometries collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements are sensitive to the composition of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. CTS therefore holds the potential to become a new diagnostic for measurements of the fuel ion ratio—i.e. the tritium to deuterium density...... ratio. Measurements of the fuel ion ratio will be important for plasma control and machine protection in future experiments with burning fusion plasmas. Here we examine the theoretical basis for fuel ion ratio measurements by CTS. We show that the sensitivity to plasma composition is enhanced...

  8. Lasers As Particle Accelerators In Medicine: From Laser-Driven Protons To Imaging With Thomson Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelsky, I. V.; Babzien, M.; Polyanskiy, M. N.; Yakimenko, V.; Dover, N. P.; Palmer, C. A. J.; Najmudin, Z.; Shkolnikov, P.; Williams, O.; Rosenzweig, J.; Oliva, P.; Carpinelli, M.; Golosio, B.; Delogu, P.; Stefanini, A.; Endrizzi, M.

    2011-06-01

    We report our recent progress using a high-power, picosecond CO2 laser for Thomson scattering and ion acceleration experiments. These experiments capitalize on certain advantages of long-wavelength CO2 lasers, such as their high number of photons per energy unit and beneficial wavelength- scaling of the electrons' ponderomotive energy and critical plasma frequency. High X-ray fluxes produced in the interactions of the counter-propagating laser- and electron-beams for obtaining single-shot, high-contrast images of biological objects. The laser, focused on a hydrogen jet, generated a monoenergetic proton beam via the radiation-pressure mechanism. The energy of protons produced by this method scales linearly with the laser's intensity. We present a plan for scaling the process into the range of 100-MeV proton energy via upgrading the CO2 laser. This development will enable an advance to the laser-driven proton cancer therapy.

  9. Collective Thomson scattering energetic particle diagnostic in high performance tokamaks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, P.Y.; Aamodt, R.E.; Russell, D.A.

    1997-07-08

    This report summarizes the work performed under DOE grant DE-FG03-95ER54334. Lodestar was an active participant in the low power Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic experiment at TFTR in collaboration with MIT. A simple and effective fitting technique was developed to extract key parameters from the scattered data. Utilizing this new technique, the concept of lower hybrid resonance scattering was adapted for a feasibility study of a low/medium power collective scattering diagnostic for ITER. The implementation and the testing of such a technique for actual parameter extraction using TFTR data, however, was severely limited due to experimental and instrumentation complications. Based on the studies the authors have performed up to date, it is believed that a combination of non-physics related effects such as multiple wall reflection of incident signal and spectral impurity problem o the gyrotron can account for the anomalous signal strength. A collaborative effort with GA was initiated and a feasibility study of developing and implementing a collective thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic for the detection of energetic particles at DIII-D was completed. Specifically, the process of selecting an optimum receiver location for the diagnostic is discussed in detailed. Results presented here include detailed signal to noise calculations and ray-tracing studies. Critical physics issues and selection criteria are discussed and a procedure to detect anisotropic energetic ion temperatures is also outlined. Favorable results, obtained in the feasibility study, indicate that it should be possible to develop and implement a CTS diagnostic at DIII-D.

  10. Study of Number of Nitrogen Fertigations on Improvement of Quantity and Quality of Thomson Navel Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ebadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of various nitrogen (N fertigation frequencies on yield and fruit quality of Thomson navel orange, a field study was carried out in a randomized complete blocks design with five treatments and four replications during three years. Treatments included a subsoil N fertilizer placement (with drip irrigation and four N fertigation frequencies (2, 4, 6 and 8 applications per growing season. Results of soil and leaf analysis were used to determine the annul amount of applied fertilizers. In subsoil placement treatment, urea was applied two times (second half of March and second half of May and other fertilizers were applied only in March. In fertigation treatments, urea was applied by fertilizer tank in four frequencies, and other fertilizers were applied only in March. For all treatments, the amount and scheduling of irrigation was the same. The measured traits were total fruits weight (yield, single fruit weight, peel thickness, fruit diameter and length, acidity (TA and total soluble solids (TSS of the fruits. Analysis of the means showed that the yields of 6 and 8 fertigations were 5.6 to 32.1 percent more than the other treatments. But the yield of 8 applications per growing season differed significantly from 2 and 4 applications. Fruit weight and peel thickness of the treatments were not significantly different. Fruit diameter of 6-fertigation treatment was more than the other treatments, and had significant difference with 2-fertigation treatment. Significant difference between fruit juice quality of subsoil placement and fertigation treatments was not observed. But some differences were observed between fertigation treatments. In conclusion, for Thomson navel orange on the regions where similar to this research place, it can be suggested 6 applications of N fertigation.

  11. Thomson scattering measurements of ion interpenetration in cylindrically converging, supersonic magnetized plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, George

    2015-11-01

    Ion interpenetration driven by high velocity plasma collisions is an important phenomenon in high energy density environments such as the interiors of ICF vacuum hohlraums and fast z-pinches. The presence of magnetic fields frozen into these colliding flows further complicates the interaction dynamics. This talk focuses on an experimental investigation of ion interpenetration in collisions between cylindrically convergent, supersonic, magnetized flows (M ~10, Vflow ~ 100km/s, ni ~ 1017cm-3) . The flows used in this study were plasma ablation streams produced by tungsten wire array z-pinches, driven by the 1.4MA, 240ns Magpie facility at Imperial College, and diagnosed using a combination of optical Thomson scattering, Faraday rotation and interferometry. Optical Thomson scattering (TS) provides time-resolved measurements of local flow velocity and plasma temperature across multiple (7 to 14) spatial positions. TS spectra are recorded simultaneously from multiple directions with respect to the probing beam, resulting in separate measurements of the rates of transverse diffusion and slowing-down of the ion velocity distribution. The measurements demonstrate flow interpenetration through the array axis at early time, and also show an axial deflection of the ions towards the anode. This deflection is induced by a toroidal magnetic field (~ 10T), frozen into the plasma that accumulates near the axis. Measurements obtained later in time show a change in the dynamics of the stream interactions, transitioning towards a collisional, shock-like interaction of the streams, and rapid radial collapse of the magnetized plasma column. The quantitative nature of the spatial profiles of the density, flow velocities and ion temperatures measured in these experiments will allow detailed verification of MHD and PIC codes used by the HEDP community. Work Supported by EPSRC (Grant No. EP/G001324/1), DOE (Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-F03-02NA00057 & DE-SC-0001063) & Sandia National

  12. A pulse-burst laser system for Thomson scattering on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, D. J.; Borchardt, M. T.; Holly, D. J.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B.

    2017-10-01

    A pulse-burst laser system has been built for Thomson scattering on NSTX-U, and is currently being integrated into the NSTX-U Thomson scattering diagnostic system. The laser will be operated in three distinct modes. The base mode is continuous 30 Hz rep rate, and is the standard operating mode of the laser. The base mode will be interrupted to produce a "slow burst" (specified 1 kHz rep rate for 50 ms) or a "fast burst" (specified 10 kHz rep rate for 5 ms). The combination of base mode→ interruption→ burst mode is new and has not been implemented on any previous pulse-burst laser system. Laser pulsing is halted for a set period (~ 1 minute) following a burst to allow the YAG rods to cool; this type of operation is called a heat-capacity laser. The laser is Nd:YAG operated at 1064 nm, q-switched to produce >= 1.5 J pulses with ~ 20 ns FWHM. It is flashlamp pumped, with dual-rod oscillator (9 mm) and dual-rod amplifier (12 mm). Variable pulsewidth drive of the flashlamps is accomplished by IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) switching of electrolytic capacitor banks. Direct control of the laser Pockels cell drive enables optimal pulse energy extraction. The laser system has demonstrated compliance with all specifications, and is capable of exceeding design specifications by significant margins, e.g., higher rep rates for longer burst periods. Burst operation of this laser system will be used to capture fast time evolution of the electron temperature and density profiles during events such as ELMs, the L-H transition, and various MHD modes.

  13. Address Points, The Address Point layer contains an address point for almost every structure over 200 square feet and for some vacant properties. Attributes include addresses, sub-units, address use, LAT/LONG, 10-digit SDAT taxpins, political areas and more., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Baltimore County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2013. The Address Point layer contains an address point for almost every structure over 200 square feet and for some vacant...

  14. Smoke filtration in the glass industry. Thomson Videoglass` global approach with closed loop recycling; Fitration des fumees dans l`industrie du verre. L`approche globale avec recyclage en boucle fermee de thomson videoglass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocek, L. [Thomson Videoglass, 77 - Bagneaux-sur-Loing (France)

    1996-12-31

    Thomson Videoglass, an ISO 9002 certified manufacturer of glass components for Tv sets in France, has introduced a global closed-loop recycling dust filtration system for glass kilns; electrostatic filters and bag filters (for the lead-containing flat glass kiln) have been selected and collected dusts are recycled in the cone glass kiln. Energy savings, operating conditions, investment and operating costs are discussed together with filter corrosion, clogging-up and service life issues and dust extraction performances

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  16. Estimation of Freezing Point of Hydrocarbon and Hydrofluorocarbon Mixtures for Mixed Refrigerant jt Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, G.; Lee, J.; Jeong, S.

    2010-04-01

    Estimating the freezing point of refrigerant is an essential part in designing an MR JT (Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson) cryocooler to prevent itself from clogging and to operate with stability. There were researches on estimating freezing point, but some of them resulted in the wrong prediction of clogging. In this paper, the freezing point of the MR is precisely estimated with caution of clogging. The solubility of HC (hydrocarbon) and HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) mixture components are obtained with their activity coefficients, which represent the molecular interaction among the components. The freezing points of the MR JT cryocooler are systematically investigated in the operating temperature range from 70 K to 90 K.

  17. R2 & NE: NAVTEQ 2011 Q3 ZIP Code 5-Digit Area Points for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands in SDC Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The USA_ZIP5_PNTS layer contains 5 digit ZIP code points. Each feature in the USA_ZIP5_POLYS layer encloses an associated USA_ZIP5_PNTS feature. This NAVTEQ dataset...

  18. Thomson scattering laser-electron X-ray source for reduction of patient radiation dose in interventional coronary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukov, I. A.; Dyachkov, N. V.; Feshchenko, R. M.; Polunina, A. V.; Popov, N. L.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Vinogradov, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    It was medical applications that stimulated F. Carrol in the early 1990s to start the research of on relativistic Thomson scattering X-ray sources, as a part of the infrastructure of the future society. The possibility to use such a source in interventional cardiology is discussed in this paper. The replacement of X-ray tube by relativistic Thomson scattering Xray source is predicted to lower the patient radiation dose by a factor of 3 while image quality remains the same. The required general characteristics of accelerator and laser units are found. They can be reached by existing technology. A semiempirical method for simulation of medical and technical parameters of interventional coronary angiography systems is suggested.

  19. High time resolved electron temperature measurements by using the multi-pass Thomson scattering system in GAMMA 10/PDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Yasuhara, Ryo; Ohta, Koichi; Chikatsu, Masayuki; Shima, Yoriko; Kohagura, Junko; Sakamoto, Mizuki; Nakashima, Yousuke; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ichimura, Makoto; Yamada, Ichihiro; Funaba, Hisamichi; Minami, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    High time resolved electron temperature measurements are useful for fluctuation study. A multi-pass Thomson scattering (MPTS) system is proposed for the improvement of both increasing the TS signal intensity and time resolution. The MPTS system in GAMMA 10/PDX has been constructed for enhancing the Thomson scattered signals for the improvement of measurement accuracy. The MPTS system has a polarization-based configuration with an image relaying system. We optimized the image relaying optics for improving the multi-pass laser confinement and obtaining the stable MPTS signals over ten passing TS signals. The integrated MPTS signals increased about five times larger than that in the single pass system. Finally, time dependent electron temperatures were obtained in MHz sampling.

  20. An Encyclopedia of the History of Classical Archaeology, edited by Nancy Thomson de Grummond, Green­wood Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Thomson de Grummond has done a tremendous service for those scholars interested in the history of Classical Archaeology. In the 1330 pages that are the two handsome volumes that makeup the set, Thomson de Grummond provides a series of biographical sketches a many classical archaeologists and discussions of archaeological site locations which provide an excellent and concise look at the conduct of classical archae­ology through time. The biographical sketches contained in the volumes represent both the lay and profes­sional classical archaeologist. Represented in the volumes are archaeologists from established religious orders in the classical world as well as those who derived their interest in classical archaeology from the burgeoning interest in the development of the European scientific community. In addition, discussion of selected artifact discoveries are included in both volumes to round out the interest that anyone might have in the origins and development of classical archaeology.

  1. Two-pulse Thomson scattering system for measurements of fast fluctuations of electron density in multimirror trap GOL-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S. S.; Burdakov, A. V.; Ivantsivskiy, M. V.; Kasatov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Postupaev, V. V.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.

    2013-08-01

    Two-pulse modification of the Thomson scattering system that is used at GOL-3 for studies of fast large-amplitude local density fluctuations is described. Two 1054 nm 20 J pulses are generated with two master oscillators that share the same power amplification chain. First experiments indicate existence of shots with a significant change of electron density at adjacent radial locations at ˜100 ns time scale.

  2. Thomson-scattering study of the subharmonic decay of ion-acoustic waves driven by the Brillouin instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandulet, H.C.; Labaune, C.; Lewis, K.; Depierreux, S.

    2004-01-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) has been used to investigate the two-ion decay instability of ion acoustic waves generated by stimulated Brillouin scattering in an underdense CH plasma. Two complementary TS diagnostics, spectrally and spatially resolved, demonstrate the occurrence of the subharmonic decay of the primary ion acoustic wave into two secondary waves. The study of the laser intensity dependence shows that the secondary ion acoustic waves are correlated with the SBS reflectivity saturation, at a level of a few percent

  3. Experimental considerations concerning the velocity measurement of the relativistic electron beam in a gyrotron by means of Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, M.R.; Soumagne, G.; Tran, M.Q.

    1992-11-01

    The feasibility of Thomson scattering to determine the beam velocity in a gyrotron has been analyzed and preliminary experiments to implement such a system on our 100 GHz quasi-optical gyrotron are reported. Although the project had to be abandoned due to technical problems, the conclusions are that for the 90 o scattering arrangement discussed it should be possible to determine at least one velocity component with an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio. (author) 11 figs., 10 refs

  4. Measurements of Relativistic Effects in Collective Thomson Scattering at Electron Temperatures less than 1 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, James Steven [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous scattering from electron-plasma waves and ion-acoustic waves is used to measure local laser-produced plasma parameters with high spatiotemporal resolution including electron temperature and density, average charge state, plasma flow velocity, and ion temperature. In addition, the first measurements of relativistic modifications in the collective Thomson scattering spectrum from thermal electron-plasma fluctuations are presented [1]. Due to the high phase velocity of electron-plasma fluctuations, relativistic effects are important even at low electron temperatures (Te < 1 keV). These effects have been observed experimentally and agree well with a relativistic treatment of the Thomson scattering form factor [2]. The results are important for the interpretation of scattering measurements from laser produced plasmas. Thomson scattering measurements are used to characterize the hydrodynamics of a gas jet plasma which is the foundation for a broad series of laser-plasma interaction studies [3, 4, 5, 6]. The temporal evolution of the electron temperature, density and ion temperature are measured. The measured electron density evolution shows excellent agreement with a simple adiabatic expansion model. The effects of high temperatures on coupling to hohlraum targets is discussed [7]. A peak electron temperature of 12 keV at a density of 4.7 × 1020cm-3 are measured 200 μm outside the laser entrance hole using a two-color Thomson scattering method we developed in gas jet plasmas [8]. These measurements are used to assess laser-plasma interactions that reduce laser hohlraum coupling and can significantly reduce the hohlraum radiation temperature.

  5. The upgrade of the Thomson scattering system for measurement on the C-2/C-2U devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, K.; Schindler, T.; Kinley, J.; Deng, B.; Thompson, M. C. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The C-2/C-2U Thomson scattering system has been substantially upgraded during the latter phase of C-2/C-2U program. A Rayleigh channel has been added to each of the three polychromators of the C-2/C-2U Thomson scattering system. Onsite spectral calibration has been applied to avoid the issue of different channel responses at different spots on the photomultiplier tube surface. With the added Rayleigh channel, the absolute intensity response of the system is calibrated with Rayleigh scattering in argon gas from 0.1 to 4 Torr, where the Rayleigh scattering signal is comparable to the Thomson scattering signal at electron densities from 1 × 10{sup 13} to 4 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}. A new signal processing algorithm, using a maximum likelihood method and including detailed analysis of different noise contributions within the system, has been developed to obtain electron temperature and density profiles. The system setup, spectral and intensity calibration procedure and its outcome, data analysis, and the results of electron temperature/density profile measurements will be presented.

  6. Calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer and Fujifilm imaging plate detectors for protons, deuterons, and alpha particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, C G; Fiksel, G; Stoeckl, C; Sinenian, N; Canfield, M J; Graeper, G B; Lombardo, A T; Stillman, C R; Padalino, S J; Mileham, C; Sangster, T C; Frenje, J A

    2011-07-01

    A Thomson parabola ion spectrometer has been designed for use at the Multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. This device uses parallel electric and magnetic fields to deflect particles of a given mass-to-charge ratio onto parabolic curves on the detector plane. Once calibrated, the position of the ions on the detector plane can be used to determine the particle energy. The position dispersion of both the electric and magnetic fields of the Thomson parabola was measured using monoenergetic proton and alpha particle beams from the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The sensitivity of Fujifilm BAS-TR imaging plates, used as a detector in the Thomson parabola, was also measured as a function of the incident particle energy over the range from 0.6 MeV to 3.4 MeV for protons and deuterons and from 0.9 MeV to 5.4 MeV for alpha particles. The device was used to measure the energy spectrum of laser-produced protons at MTW.

  7. An energy confinement study of the MST [Madison Symmetric Torus] reversed field pinch using a Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, D.J.

    1989-11-01

    Thomson scattering measurements of the central electron temperature and density during the plasma current peak have been performed on the MST Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). This Thomson scattering diagnostic was calibrated for absolute electron density measurements. These measurements of T e and n e , when combined with profile assumptions, were used to calculate estimates of energy confinement time (τ E ) and poloidal beta (β θ ). A standard discharge with I p ∼ 400 kA, F ∼ -0.1, and θ ∼ 1.6 typically exhibited T e ∼ 275 eV, n e ∼ 2.0 x 10 13 cm -3 , τ E ≤ 1 ms, and β θ ≤ 8%. The results of a limited plasma current scaling study did not indicate a strong scaling of T e or τ E with I p . The Thomson scattering diagnostic was used in conjunction with a bolometer, VUV radiation monitor, and edge magnetic coils to study the loss of energy from the plasma. Results indicate that thermal transport from stochastic magnetic fields, particle loss, and radiation are important energy loss processes. The experiments done for this study included an F-scan, a paddle limiter insertion series, and an argon doping series. The plasma maintained a constant βτ during these perturbation experiments, suggesting that increases in one energy loss channel are compensated by drops in other channels and increases in input power to the plasma

  8. Upgrades to improve the usability, reliability, and spectral range of the MST Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, S Z; Borchardt, M T; Den Hartog, D J; Holly, D J; Jacobson, C M; Morton, L A; Young, W C

    2016-11-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on MST records both equilibrium and fluctuating electron temperature with a range capability of 10 eV-5 keV. Standard operation with two modified commercial Nd:YAG lasers allows measurements at rates of 1 kHz-25 kHz. Several subsystems of the diagnostic are being improved. The power supplies for the avalanche photodiode detectors (APDs) that record the scattered light are being replaced to improve usability, reliability, and maintainability. Each of the 144 APDs will have an individual rack mounted switching supply, with bias voltage adjustable to match the APD. Long-wavelength filters (1140 nm center, 80 nm bandwidth) have been added to the polychromators to improve capability to resolve non-Maxwellian distributions and to enable directed electron flow measurements. A supercontinuum (SC) pulsed white light source has replaced the tungsten halogen lamp previously used for spectral calibration of the polychromators. The SC source combines substantial brightness produced in nanosecond pulses with a spectrum that covers the entire range of the polychromators.

  9. Upgrade to the MPTS Thomson scattering diagnostic in preparation for NSTX-U restart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Benoit; Diallo, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Upgrades to Multi-Pulse Thomson Scattering (MPTS) diagnostic are in progress. An innovative laser is being added to existing the two 30-Hz Nd:YAG lasers. The new laser also has 30-Hz base operation, but differs notably in its capacity of generating rapid bursts of nominally 50 pulses at either 1 KHz or 10 KHz. This Pulsed-Bursting Laser System (PBLS) is described elsewhere. The current laser delivery optics, which supports two paraxial beam paths, is maintained. One beam path will be occupied by PBLS. The other two laser beams will be actively combined coaxially and will occupy the second beam path. The new laser arrangement will result in a 90-Hz baseline operation, plus the PBLS burst capability. While the existing sample-and-hold electronics is expected to track a 1-KHz sequence, it will not be able to follow a 10-KHz burst. For this purpose, ten radial channels, dedicated to the pedestal region, will be instrumented with 250-MHz digitizers. The NSTX-U longer plasma duration and increased heating power will be conducive to situations with sustained high background light, a condition exacerbated by the absence of viewing dump necessitated by machine geometry. Additional work is slated to study the behavior of the fast signal detection in presence of strong background light. This work is supported by US DoE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and ECRP funding.

  10. X-ray Thomson scattering in warm dense matter at low frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Michael S

    2010-03-01

    The low-frequency portion of the x-ray Thomson scattering spectrum is determined by electrons that follow the slow ion motion. This ion motion is characterized by the ion-ion dynamic structure factor, which contains a wealth of information about the ions, including structure and collective modes. The frequency-integrated (diffraction) contribution is considered first. An effective dressed-particle description of warm dense matter is derived from the quantum Ornstein-Zernike equations, and this is used to identify a Yukawa model for warm dense matter. The efficacy of this approach is validated by comparing a predicted structure with data from the extreme case of a liquid metal; good agreement is found. A Thomas-Fermi model is then introduced to allow the separation of bound and free states at finite temperatures, and issues with the definition of the ionization state in warm dense matter are discussed. For applications, analytic structure factors are given on either side of the Kirkwood line. Finally, several models are constructed for describing the slow dynamics of warm dense matter. Two classes of models are introduced that both satisfy the basic sum rules. One class of models is the "plasmon-pole"-like class, which yields the dispersion of ion-acoustic waves. Damping is then included via generalized hydrodynamics models that incorporate viscous contributions.

  11. A compact, low cost, seven channel polychromator for Thomson scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.; DeBoo, J.C.; Evanko, R.; Greenfield, C.M.; Hsieh, C.; Snider, R.T.; Trost, P.

    1990-01-01

    A seven channel polychromator, utilizing high performance interference filters (transmission approx-gt 80%, rejection at laser wavelength>10 5 ), has been tested for use in the multi-Nd:YAG laser Thomson scattering system for the DIII-D tokamak. Unique features of this polychromator are the combination of high throughput, easy alignment, flexibility, compact size, and low cost when compared with other alternatives. Light is introduced to the polychromator (f/1.75) via a fiber optic bundle which permits the use of small (3.0 cm diam) optics and leads to a compact (44x24x8 cm) design, an important design consideration for multiple polychromator systems. The light is cascaded through a series of different bandpass interference filters and relay lenses which are mounted on two precision parallel rails in such a way that alignment is trivial. The relay lenses are positioned directly in front of the filters so that light reflected from the filter passes through the lens twice. This leads to an efficient, compact design and reduces the angle of incidence (4 degree) and the cone angle of light (4.5 degree) seen by the filter, an important factor for narrowband (3.0 nm) filters. The transmission (average 70%) was optimized for 700--1100 nm by using broadband coatings throughout. The output images of each channel (2.3 mm. diam) can be directly coupled to large format (3 mm diam) RCA silicon avalanche photodiode detectors, avoiding the losses caused by fiber optic coupling

  12. Instrument to synchronize Thomson scattering diagnostic measurements with MHD acitivity in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintenberg, A.L.

    1985-04-01

    An instrument to synchronize the firing of a ruby laser for a Thomson scattering diagnostic with plasma oscillations was designed, developed, and evaluated. The instrument will fire the laser at a user-selected phase of an input sine or sawtooth wave with an accuracy of +-15 0 . Allowable frequencies range from 20 to 500 Hz for a sawtooth and from 1 to 30 kHz for a sine wave. The instrument also allows synchronization with a sine wave to be enabled by a preselected sawtooth phase. The instrument uses analog signal processing circuits to separate the signal components, remove unwanted components, and produce zero-phase synchronization pulses. The instrument measures the period between zero-phase pulses in order to produce phase synchronization pulses delayed a fraction of the period from the zero-phase pulses. The laser is fired by the phase synchronization pulse. Unwanted signal components are attenuated by bandpass filters. A digitally controlled self-adjusting bandpass filter for sine processing. The instrument was used to investigate the variation of the electron temperature profile with the phase of the x-ray signal from an Impurity Studies Experiment (ISX-B) plasma exhibiting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity

  13. First operations with the new Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Castaldo, C.; De Angeli, M.; Figini, L.; Galperti, C.; Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, G.; Korsholm, S. B.; Lontano, M.; Mellera, V.; Minelli, D.; Moro, A.; Nardone, A.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Simonetto, A.; Stejner, M.; Tartari, U.

    2015-10-01

    Anomalous emissions were found over the last few years in spectra of Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in tokamak devices such as TEXTOR, ASDEX and FTU, in addition to real CTS signals. The signal frequency, down-shifted with respect to the probing one, suggested a possible origin in Parametric Decay Instability (PDI) processes correlated with the presence of magnetic islands and occurring for pumping wave power levels well below the threshold predicted by conventional models. A threshold below or close to the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) power levels could limit, under certain circumstances, the use of the ECRH in fusion devices. An accurate characterization of the conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon and of its consequences is thus of primary importance. Exploiting the front-steering configuration available with the real-time launcher, the implementation of a new CTS setup now allows studying these anomalous emission phenomena in FTU under conditions of density and wave injection geometry that are more similar to those envisaged for CTS in ITER. The upgrades of the diagnostic are presented as well as a few preliminary spectra detected with the new system during the very first operations in 2014. The present work has been carried out under an EUROfusion Enabling Research project. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  14. Thomson Parabola Spectrometer for Energetic Ions Emitted from Sub-ns Laser Generated Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariapompea Cutroneo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-generated plasmas were obtained in high vacuum by irradiating micrometric thin films (Au, Au/Mylar, Mylar with the Asterix laser at the PALS Research Infrastructure in Prague. Irradiations at the fundamental wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration, at intensities up to about 1016W/cm2, enabled ions to be accelerated in forward direction with kinetic energies of the order of 2 MeV/charge state. Protons above 2 MeV were obtained in the direction orthogonal to the target surface in selffocusing conditions. Gold ions up to about 120 MeV and 60+ charge state were detected. Ion collectors and semiconductor SiC detectors were employed in time-of-flight arrangement in order to measure the ion velocities as a function of the angle around the normal direction to the target surface. A Thomson parabola spectrometer (TPS with a multi-channel-plate detector was used to separate the different ion contributions to the charge emission in single laser shots, and to get information on the ion charge states, energy and proton acceleration. TPS experimental spectra were compared with accurate TOSCA simulations of TPS parabolas.

  15. Preliminary investigation of an atmospheric microplasma using Raman and Thomson laser scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Bradley; Adams, Steven

    2014-10-01

    A triple grating spectrometer system has been coupled with an ultraviolet laser at 266 nm for the purpose of investigating Rayleigh, Raman, and Thomson scattering within atmospheric plasma sources. Such laser interactions present a non-invasive diagnostic to investigate small scale atmospheric plasma sources, which have recently garnered interest for applications in remote optical sensing, materials processing, and environmental decontamination. In this work, the laser scatter and temperature relationship were calibrated with a heated nitrogen cell held at atmospheric pressure while subsequent scattering measurements were made in atmospheric discharges composed of nitrogen and air. An adjustable electrode configuration and dc circuit were assembled to produce a microdischarge operating in normal glow mode, thus providing a non-thermal plasma in which the translational, rotational, vibrational and electron temperatures are not in equilibrium. Preliminary results include measurements of these temperatures, which were calculated by fitting simulated scattering spectra to the experimental data obtained using the triple grating spectrometer. Measured temperatures were also compared with those obtained using standard optical emission spectroscopy methods. Special thanks to the NRC Research Associateship Program.

  16. Isotopic imaging via nuclear resonance fluorescence with laser-based Thomson radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J. [Hayward, CA; Hartemann, Frederic V [San Ramon, CA; McNabb, Dennis P [Alameda, CA; Pruet, Jason A [Brentwood, CA

    2009-07-21

    The present invention utilizes novel laser-based, high-brightness, high-spatial-resolution, pencil-beam sources of spectrally pure hard x-ray and gamma-ray radiation to induce resonant scattering in specific nuclei, i.e., nuclear resonance fluorescence. By monitoring such fluorescence as a function of beam position, it is possible to image in either two dimensions or three dimensions, the position and concentration of individual isotopes in a specific material configuration. Such methods of the present invention material identification, spatial resolution of material location and ability to locate and identify materials shielded by other materials, such as, for example, behind a lead wall. The foundation of the present invention is the generation of quasimonochromatic high-energy x-ray (100's of keV) and gamma-ray (greater than about 1 MeV) radiation via the collision of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons. Such a process as utilized herein, i.e., Thomson scattering or inverse-Compton scattering, produces beams having diameters from about 1 micron to about 100 microns of high-energy photons with a bandwidth of .DELTA.E/E of approximately 10E.sup.-3.

  17. Theoretical considerations for X-ray phase contrast mammography by Thomson source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedola, A. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IFN-CNR), via Cineto Romano 42, I-00156 Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro2, 00185 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: cedola@ifn.cnr.it; Bukreeva, I.; Lagomarsino, S. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IFN-CNR), via Cineto Romano 42, I-00156 Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Petrillo, V.; Maroli, C. [Universita di Milano, Physics Department and INFN Sezione di Milano Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-09-01

    The advent, in the near future, of compact X-ray sources like Thomson Back-Scattering (TBS) will allow the clinical application of advanced X-ray imaging techniques, such as phase contrast, with higher sensitivity and lower impact in terms of dose delivery. In this work, we theoretically investigated the possibility of using such sources for phase contrast imaging of micro-calcifications included in a breast tissue. In our study we analyzed the phase and amplitude distribution of the TBS source and we showed that this source can be used for phase contrast imaging since the source coherence at the sample position is sufficiently high for achieving good contrast and micrometer spatial resolution. Indeed the spatial coherence of a TBS source is closer to that of a synchrotron radiation source, and much better than that of a laboratory source. Moreover, we showed the advantages of phase imaging with respect to standard absorption imaging, in the specific case of micro-calcifications detection.

  18. Theoretical considerations for X-ray phase contrast mammography by Thomson source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedola, A.; Bukreeva, I.; Lagomarsino, S.; Petrillo, V.; Maroli, C.

    2009-01-01

    The advent, in the near future, of compact X-ray sources like Thomson Back-Scattering (TBS) will allow the clinical application of advanced X-ray imaging techniques, such as phase contrast, with higher sensitivity and lower impact in terms of dose delivery. In this work, we theoretically investigated the possibility of using such sources for phase contrast imaging of micro-calcifications included in a breast tissue. In our study we analyzed the phase and amplitude distribution of the TBS source and we showed that this source can be used for phase contrast imaging since the source coherence at the sample position is sufficiently high for achieving good contrast and micrometer spatial resolution. Indeed the spatial coherence of a TBS source is closer to that of a synchrotron radiation source, and much better than that of a laboratory source. Moreover, we showed the advantages of phase imaging with respect to standard absorption imaging, in the specific case of micro-calcifications detection.

  19. Equation-of-State Measurements of Resorcinol Formaldehyde Foam Using Imaging X-Ray Thomson Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belancourt, Patrick; Theobald, W.; Keiter, P. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Bonino, M. J.; Kozlowski, P.; Drake, R. P.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the equation of state of materials under shocked conditions is important for laboratory astrophysics and high-energy-density physics experiments. This talk will focus on experiments dedicated to developing a platform for measuring the equation of state of shocked foams on OMEGA EP. The foam used in the development of this platform is resorcinol formaldehyde foam with an initial density of 0.34 g/cc. One OMEGA EP beam drives a shock into the foam, while the remaining three beams irradiate a nickel foil to create the x-ray backlighter. The primary diagnostic for this platform, the imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS), spectrally resolves the scattered x-ray beam while imaging in one spatial dimension. The IXTS is ideally suited to measure plasma conditions upstream, downstream and at the shock front in the foam. Preliminary results from these experiments will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944, the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas DE-NA0001840, and by the National Laser User Facility Program DE-NA0000850.

  20. Equation of state measurements of shocked carbon foam using x-ray Thomson scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belancourt, Patrick; Keiter, Paul; Drake, Paul; Theobald, Wolfgang; Hu, Suxing; Regan, Sean; Kozlowski, Pawel

    2017-10-01

    Simulating experiments of foams under high-energy-density physics (HEDP) conditions have been challenging due to the uncertainty of the equation of state (EOS) of foams in this regime. This motivated a recent experiment on the OMEGA EP laser system to measure the EOS of shocked 150 mg/cc carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde (CRF) foam. One OMEGA EP beam drives a shock into the CRF foam package, while the remaining three beams are used to create a nickel-He-alpha, x-ray probe. The x-ray probe penetrates the shocked foam and the imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) measures the scattered x-rays from the probe. The IXTS spectrally resolves the scattered x-ray beam while imaging in 1-D. This results in a temperature and ionization measurement at the shock front from the scattered x-ray spectrum and a density measurement from the imaging component. Preliminary results from this experiment will be shown. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956, and through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001944.

  1. A Platform for X-Ray Thomson Scattering Measurements of Radiation Hydrodynamics Experiments on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Heath; Ma, Kevin; Belancourt, Patrick; MacDonald, Michael; Doeppner, Tilo; Keiter, Paul; Kuranz, Carolyn

    2017-10-01

    A recent experiment on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) radiographed the evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability under high and low drive cases. This experiment showed that under a high drive the growth rate of the RT instability is reduced relative to the low drive case. The high drive launches a radiative shock, increases the temperature of the post-shock region, and ablates the spikes, which reduces the RT growth rate. The plasma parameters must be measured to validate this claim. We present a target design for making X-Ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) measurements on radiation hydrodynamics experiments on NIF to measure the electron temperature of the shocked region in the above cases. Specifically, we show that a previously fielded NIF radiation hydrodynamics platform can be modified to allow sufficient signal and temperature resolution for XRTS measurements. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956 and the National Science Foundation through the Basic Plasma Science and Engineering program.

  2. Development of a Thomson scattering diagnostic for the Caltech jet-target experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byong Hoon; Greig, Amelia; Bellan, Paul

    2016-10-01

    A Thomson scattering diagnostic is being developed for studying the Caltech jet-target impact experiment. This experiment has a high-speed MHD-driven jet impact a dense, high-mass target cloud. The compression of the jet upon impact simulates the compression of an imploding liner. A preliminary bench top system consisting of a low power laser, lenses, a beam rotator, a monochromator, and a PMT is being used for measuring the Rayleigh and eventually Raman scattering signals from atmospheric pressure N2 and O2. The laser is modulated at 500 Hz to 1 kHz and lock-in techniques are used to recover the low-amplitude signal. For the actual pulsed plasma experiment, the low-power laser will be replaced by a high power Nd:YAG laser. The detector will consist of a double monochromator consisting of two single monochromators separated by a mask in the focal plane to block Rayleigh scattered light; detection will be by an intensified, gated camera. The diagnostic will be used to study the compression and heating that occurs when the jet plasma collides with a dense, high mass target cloud. Supported by USDOE Grant DE-AR0000565.

  3. Modeling and design of radiative hydrodynamic experiments with X-ray Thomson Scattering measurements on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, K. H.; Lefevre, H. J.; Belancourt, P. X.; MacDonald, M. J.; Doeppner, T.; Keiter, P. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Johnsen, E.

    2017-10-01

    Recent experiments at the National Ignition Facility studied the effect of radiation on shock-driven hydrodynamic instability growth. X-ray radiography images from these experiments indicate that perturbation growth is lower in highly radiative shocks compared to shocks with negligible radiation flux. The reduction in instability growth is attributed to ablation from higher temperatures in the foam for highly radiative shocks. The proposed design implements the X-ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) technique in the radiative shock tube platform to measure electron temperatures and densities in the shocked foam. We model these experiments with CRASH, an Eulerian radiation hydrodynamics code with block-adaptive mesh refinement, multi-group radiation transport and electron heat conduction. Simulations are presented with SiO2 and carbon foams for both the high temperature, radiative shock and the low-temperature, hydrodynamic shock cases. Calculations from CRASH give estimations for shock speed, electron temperature, effective ionization, and other quantities necessary for designing the XRTS diagnostic measurement. This work is funded by the LLNL under subcontract B614207, and was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. X-Ray Thomson Scattering and Radiography from Spherical Implosions on the OMEGA Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A. M.; Laziki-Jenei, A.; Doeppner, T.; Landen, O. L.; MacDonald, M.; Nilsen, J.; Swift, D.; Falcone, R. W.

    2017-10-01

    X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) is an experimental technique that directly probes the physics of warm dense matter by measuring electron density, electron temperature, and ionization state. XRTS in combination with x-ray radiography offers a unique ability to measure an absolute equation of state (EOS) from material under compression. Recent experiments highlight uncertainties in EOS models and the predicted ionization of compressed matter, suggesting more validation of models is needed. We present XRTS and x-ray radiography measurements taken at the OMEGA Laser Facility from directly-driven solid carbon spheres at densities on the order of 1x1024 g cm-3 and temperatures on the order of 30 eV. The results shed light on the equations of state of matter under compression. This work performed under auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and under the Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship, Grant Number DE- NA0002135.

  5. Calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer using proton beams from a pelletron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Michael; Lombardo, Andrew; Graeper, Gavin; Stillman, Collin; Freeman, Charles; Fiksel, Gennady; Stoeckl, Christian; Sinenian, Nareg

    2010-11-01

    The position-to-energy calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer (TPIS) was measured using proton beams from the 1.7 MV tandem pelletron accelerator at SUNY Geneseo. The TPIS was designed for use on the multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The TPIS implements parallel electric and magnetic fields to separate ions of a given mass-to-charge ratio onto parabolic curves on the detector plane. The position of the ions along the parabola is used to determine the ions' energy. Monoenergetic proton beams with energies between approximately 1 and 3 MeV were directed into the TPIS. Both radiochromic film (RCF) and Fujifilm imaging plates (IP) were placed at the rear of the TPIS and were used to detect the protons. The horizontal deflection due to the electrostatic plates and the vertical deflection due to the permanent magnetic field were studied as a function of the proton energy. This research was funded in part by DOE.

  6. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models

  7. Improvements, upgrades, and plans for Thomson scattering on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, T. N.; Du, D.; Glass, F.; Liu, C.; Watkins, M.; McLean, A. G.

    2016-10-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on DIII-D consists of 3 beam lines that probe vertically, horizontally, and in the divertor region of the tokamak, with 54 spatial locations, edge spatial resolution down to 5 mm, and 10 Nd:YAG lasers. In its 25-year history, the collection lens optics and interference filters degraded and have been replaced, restoring previous performance. In addition, improved calibrations and detector temperature control (+/- 0.1 C) have reduced systematic errors. Cross calibration with the CO2 interferometer and ECE cut-off have improved the density calibration. Improvements to the beam line and lasers have increased the laser energy delivered to the scattering volume in the plasma. Future plans include moving the divertor system to measure regions of high triangularity using in-vessel mirrors to redirect the laser beam; adding a wide angle lens to the horizontal system to view the entire plasma radius near the plasma mid plane; and reversing the direction of the laser beam on the horizontal system to reduce the scattering angle and compressing the spectrum in wavelength space so that higher central Te measurements (<5 KeV) can be made with improved accuracy. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Plasma cleaning of ITER edge Thomson scattering mock-up mirror in the EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rong; Moser, Lucas; Wang, Baoguo; Peng, Jiao; Vorpahl, Christian; Leipold, Frank; Reichle, Roger; Ding, Rui; Chen, Junling; Mu, Lei; Steiner, Roland; Meyer, Ernst; Zhao, Mingzhong; Wu, Jinhua; Marot, Laurent

    2018-02-01

    First mirrors are the key element of all optical and laser diagnostics in ITER. Facing the plasma directly, the surface of the first mirrors could be sputtered by energetic particles or deposited with contaminants eroded from the first wall (tungsten and beryllium), which would result in the degradation of the reflectivity. The impurity deposits emphasize the necessity of the first mirror in situ cleaning for ITER. The mock-up first mirror system for ITER edge Thomson scattering diagnostics has been cleaned in EAST for the first time in a tokamak using radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma. The cleaning properties, namely the removal of contaminants and homogeneity of cleaning were investigated with molybdenum mirror insets (25 mm diameter) located at five positions over the mock-up plate (center to edge) on which 10 nm of aluminum oxide, used as beryllium proxy, were deposited. The cleaning efficiency was evaluated using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, reflectivity measurements and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Using argon or neon plasma without magnetic field in the laboratory and with a 1.7 T magnetic field in the EAST tokamak, the aluminum oxide films were homogeneously removed. The full recovery of the mirrors’ reflectivity was attained after cleaning in EAST with the magnetic field, and the cleaning efficiency was about 40 times higher than that without the magnetic field. All these results are promising for the plasma cleaning baseline scenario of ITER.

  9. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  10. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  11. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  13. Delayed Union of a Jones Fracture in a Patient With Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisonek, Kirsten L; Protzman, Nicole M; Wobst, Garrett M; Brigido, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis, characterized by poikiloderma, small stature, juvenile cataracts, sparse hair, skeletal abnormalities, and a predisposition to osteogenic sarcomas and skin cancers. Although numerous skeletal abnormalities have been described in patients with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, to our knowledge, only 1 study has shown evidence of delayed fracture healing in a patient with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. We present the case of a 13-year-old female diagnosed with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome who demonstrated delayed union of her fifth metatarsal after a Jones fracture. She was treated conservatively for 6 weeks with non-weightbearing cast immobilization and was then transitioned to a controlled ankle motion walker for an additional 4 weeks. Two months later, however, she continued to experience pain, and, on radiographic examination, the fracture remained unchanged. Therefore, with her guardian's consent, the patient elected to undergo open reduction and internal fixation of the fifth metatarsal fracture. At 8 weeks postoperatively, the patient reported a subsidence of symptoms and had returned to normal activity. With our report, we hope to increase practitioner awareness that delayed bone healing could be a possibility in patients with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and encourage consideration of routine imaging and supplementation with calcium and vitamin D. Additionally, the present findings suggest that patients with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome could benefit from early surgical intervention, given their poor bone healing capacity and high likelihood of nonunion. Although the association between impaired bone healing and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is rational, additional studies are needed to determine the prevalence of chronic nonunion in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diversity of marine biotoxins in the near-shore ocean area: presence of a palytoxin-like entity at Barber's Point Harbor, Oahu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachi, K M; Hokama, Y

    2001-11-01

    The presence of palytoxin or palytoxin-like compounds in fish extracts has been presented in this study. The hemolytic assay with sheep erythrocytes demonstrated the occurrence of hemolytic factors in fish extracts of Hawaiian reef fish from Barber's Point, Oahu. The rabbit anti-palytoxin inhibition assay with fish extracts and sheep erythrocytes demonstrated that palytoxin or its congener contributed to the lysis of sheep erythrocytes. From these results, it was concluded that sheep erythrocyte hemolysis was caused by palytoxin or palytoxin-like factors present in the fish extracts. Moderate correlation (R2) between mouse toxicity and sheep erythrocyte hemolysis was shown with 50 microg (R2 = 0.48) and 100 microg (R2 = 0.45) extracts. An inverse correlation of R2 = 0.64 was shown between hemolysis and MIA endpoint.

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  16. Climate change impact on the olive pollen season in Mediterranean areas of Italy: air quality in late spring from an allergenic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio; Ruga, Luigia; Romano, Bruno; Fornaciari, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that there are many effects of climate change on aeroallergens, and thus on allergic diseases in humans. In the Mediterranean region, despite the importance of the olive tree for production, there is high allergenicity of olive pollen and related risks to human health. Aerobiological sampling techniques can be used to analyse the pollinosis phenomenon through determination of mean daily pollen concentrations per cubic metre of air. The present study was carried out from 1999 to 2008 in 16 olive-growing areas in Italy, to update the information on the pollinosis characteristics of Olea europaea in the study areas. The analysis of the average flowering season over the study period highlights a temporal scaling of pollen in the atmosphere that depends on the different climatic characteristics. This is mainly dependent on temperature, and in part, determined by latitude. Generally, the levels of O. europaea pollen in the atmosphere are higher from mid-April to the end of June, with the period of greatest risk to human health due to this olive pollen in this area currently limited primarily to the last 10 days of May. However, the pollen season can move, depending on the climate scenario considered, and data here can be used to determine potential time shifts in pollinosis that might cause more precocious asthma and allergy problems. The allergy season for this type of pollen might be significantly precocious in future decades (20-30 days earlier in the year), which will impact on the severity and duration of allergies attributable to olive tree pollen.

  17. Model-based testing for space-time interaction using point processes: An application to psychiatric hospital admissions in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sebastian; Warnke, Ingeborg; Rössler, Wulf; Held, Leonhard

    2016-05-01

    Spatio-temporal interaction is inherent to cases of infectious diseases and occurrences of earthquakes, whereas the spread of other events, such as cancer or crime, is less evident. Statistical significance tests of space-time clustering usually assess the correlation between the spatial and temporal (transformed) distances of the events. Although appealing through simplicity, these classical tests do not adjust for the underlying population nor can they account for a distance decay of interaction. We propose to use the framework of an endemic-epidemic point process model to jointly estimate a background event rate explained by seasonal and areal characteristics, as well as a superposed epidemic component representing the hypothesis of interest. We illustrate this new model-based test for space-time interaction by analysing psychiatric inpatient admissions in Zurich, Switzerland (2007-2012). Several socio-economic factors were found to be associated with the admission rate, but there was no evidence of general clustering of the cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Assessing deinstitutionalization of the nursing home area of a large state mental hospital from the point of view of patients and staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallert, T W; Stoll, A; Leisse, M; Winiecki, P

    2004-08-01

    Within the deinstitutionalization process of a large psychiatric hospital, the development of two cohorts of patients with chronic schizophrenia is compared over a two-year period: patients living in the hospital's nursing-home area (n = 50) vs. patients already released to two social therapeutic hostels (n = 51). Results of the cohort study were compared with assessments of nurses working in the nursing home (n = 55), focusing on their subjective views of the deinstitutionalization process and its impact on their working conditions. Patients are assessed through yearly home-visits in their place of residence. The instruments used measure several outcome parameters: psychopathology, social disabilities, subjective quality of life, and normative needs for care. Concurrent staff assessments were conducted using standardized survey instruments focusing on current working conditions and quality of teamwork. Nineteen nurses participated in qualitative interviews evaluating the deinstitutionalization process. For all measures, patients living in the nursing home show significantly worse outcomes. Furthermore, during the study period 34 % experienced a change in their living situation with which they were dissatisfied. Needs for care and the number of areas of "unmet" need increased significantly for this subgroup. Patients living in social therapeutic hostels demonstrate stable levels of psychopathological symptoms, social disabilities, and needs for care. Assessments indicating a deterioration in patients' subjective quality of life focus mainly on areas important for social contacts. Regarding "personal concerns" and "insecurity at work", ratings from nursing home staff were significantly worse than those of a reference group from several other health care institutions (n = 224). Staff showed a tendency to give higher ratings for their opportunities to participate in decisions, in contrast with the low ratings for chances to improve their knowledge in the workplace, a

  19. Initial Thomson Scattering Survey of Local Helicity Injection and Ohmic Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    A multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been installed on the Pegasus ST. The system utilizes a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ0 ~ 532 nm), spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings, and a gated, intensified CCD camera. It provides measurements of Te and ne at 8 spatial locations for each spectrometer once per discharge. A new multiple aperture and beam dump system has been implemented to mitigate interference from stray light. This system has provided initial measurements in the core region of plasmas initiated by local helicity injection (LHI), as well as conventional Ohmic L- and H-mode discharges. Multi-shot averages of low-density (ne ~ 3 ×1018 m-3) , Ip ~ 0 . 1 MA LHI discharges show central Te ~ 75 eV at the end of the helicity injection phase. Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA Ohmic plasmas at moderate densities (ne ~ 2 ×1019 m-3) have core Te ~ 150 eV in L-mode. Generally, these plasmas do not reach transport equilibrium in the short 25 ms pulse length available. After an L-H transition, strong spectral broadening indicates increasing Te, to values above the range of the present spectrometer system with a high-dispersion VPH grating. Near-term system upgrades will focus on deploying a second spectrometer, with a lower-dispersion grating capable of measuring the 0.1-1.0 keV range. The second spectrometer system will also increase the available number of spatial channels, enabling study of H-mode pedestal structure. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  20. Research of the Rock Art from the point of view of geography: the neolithic painting of the Mediterranean area of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Berrocal, María

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rock art of the Mediterranean Arch (which includes what are conventionally called Levantine Rock Art, Schematic Rock Art and Macroschematic Rock Art, among other styles, designated as part of the Human Heritage in 1997, is studied from the point of view of the Archaeology of Landscape. The information sources used were field work, cartographic analysis and analysis in GIS, besides two Rock Art Archives: the UNESCO Document and the Corpus of Levantine Cave Painting (Corpus de Pintura Rupestre Levantina. The initial hypothesis was that this rock art was involved in the process of neolithisation of the Eastern part of Iberia, of which it is a symptom and a result, and it must be understood as an element of landscape construction. If this is true, it would have a concrete distribution in the form of locational patterns. Through statistical procedures and heuristical approaches, it has been demonstrated that there is a structure of the neolithic landscape, defined by rock art, which is possible to interpret functional and economically.

    Se estudia el arte rupestre del Arco Mediterráneo (que incluye a los convencionalmente conocidos como Arte Levantino, Arte Esquemático y Arte Macroesquemático, entre otros estilos, nombrado Patrimonio de la Humanidad en 1998, desde el punto de vista de su localización. Las fuentes de información utilizadas fueron trabajo de campo, revisión cartográfica y análisis en Sistema de Información Geográfica, además de dos archivos de arte rupestre: el Expediente UNESCO y el Corpus de Pintura Rupestre Levantina. La hipótesis inicial fue que este arte rupestre se imbrica en el proceso de neolitización del Levante peninsular, del que es síntoma y resultado, y debe entenderse como un elemento de construcción paisajística, de lo que se deduce que ha de presentar una distribución determinable en forma de patrones locacionales. Por medio tanto de contrastes y descripciones estadísticas como de

  1. Training Midwives to Perform Basic Obstetric Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Rural Areas Using a Tablet Platform and Mobile Phone Transmission Technology-A WFUMB COE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayak, Sudhir; Sande, Joyce; Nisenbaum, Harvey; Nolsøe, Christian Pállson

    2017-10-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become a topical subject and can be applied in a variety of ways with differing outcomes. The cost of all diagnostic procedures including obstetric ultrasound examinations is a major factor in the developing world and POCUS is only useful if it can be equated to good outcomes at a lower cost than a routine obstetric examination. The aim of this study was to assess a number of processes including accuracy of images and reports generated by midwives, performance of a tablet-sized ultrasound scanner, training of midwives to complete ultrasounds, teleradiology solution transmissions of images via internet, review of images by a radiologist, communication between midwife and radiologist, use of this technique to identify high-risk patients and improvement of the education and teleradiology model components. The midwives had no previous experience in ultrasound. They were stationed in rural locations where POCUS was available for the first time. After scanning the patients, an interim report was generated by the midwives and sent electronically together with all images to the main hospital for validation. Unique software was used to send lossless images by mobile phone using a modem. Transmission times were short and quality of images transmitted was excellent. All reports were validated by two experienced radiologists in our department and returned to the centers using the same transmission software. The transmission times, quality of scans, quality of reports and other parameters were recorded and monitored. Analysis showed excellent correlation between provisional and validated reports. Reporting accuracy of scans performed by the midwives was 99.63%. Overall flow turnaround time (from patient presentation to validated report) was initially 35 min but reduced to 25 min. The unique mobile phone transmission was faultless and there was no degradation of image quality. We found excellent correlation between final outcomes of the

  2. Points in the set-up of tests for fMRI. Toward the delineation of language-competent areas in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Hisaharu; Ejima, Mitsuhiro; Takeyama, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Masami; Sato, Yoshino [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan). Hospital

    2001-06-01

    This hospital has performed fMRI of language-competent areas of the brain to identify the language-dominant hemisphere and obtain the configuration of the focus in the language-dominant side of the brain. Until now, signals have been detected in only two of fifteen patients who were diagnosed by language tests of a last-syllable word chain. In the present experiment, we tried to have subjects select the type of test. The result was that changes in signals were detected in eight of ten patients. Although the set-up of tests for fMRI is said to hold significant value, clear-cut studies to back this up have rarely been seen. Because clinical medicine treats patients who have difficulty in communication or suffer from aphasia, it is important to take into consideration individual variations and to set up a test suitable for, or achievable by, these individuals. The present method enabled us to avoid failure in examination caused by unsuccessful tests. (author)

  3. Points in the set-up of tests for fMRI. Toward the delineation of language-competent areas in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Hisaharu; Ejima, Mitsuhiro; Takeyama, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Masami; Sato, Yoshino

    2001-01-01

    This hospital has performed fMRI of language-competent areas of the brain to identify the language-dominant hemisphere and obtain the configuration of the focus in the language-dominant side of the brain. Until now, signals have been detected in only two of fifteen patients who were diagnosed by language tests of a last-syllable word chain. In the present experiment, we tried to have subjects select the type of test. The result was that changes in signals were detected in eight of ten patients. Although the set-up of tests for fMRI is said to hold significant value, clear-cut studies to back this up have rarely been seen. Because clinical medicine treats patients who have difficulty in communication or suffer from aphasia, it is important to take into consideration individual variations and to set up a test suitable for, or achievable by, these individuals. The present method enabled us to avoid failure in examination caused by unsuccessful tests. (author)

  4. Ion temperature measurement of a tokamak plasma by collective Thomson scattering of D2O laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behn, R.; Salito, S.A.; Siegrist, M.R.; Dicken, D.; Hackmann, J.

    1988-10-01

    A D 2 O FIR laser emitting 0.5 J in 1.4 μs at 385 μm and a heterodyne receiver system comprising a Schottky barrier diode mixer with a noise temperature of 8000 K (DSB) were used in a Thomson scattering experiment to measure the ion temperature of a tokamak plasma during a single laser shot. Series of measurements under reproducible plasma conditions have been carried out in H, D and He-plasmas. Their statistical analysis yielded a typical relative error of 25 % for a single shot measurement. (author) 9 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs

  5. Diagnosis of energetic ions and ion composition in fusion plasmas by collective Thomson scattering of mm-waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Leipold, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In fusion plasmas, the dominant heating source will be fusion generated energetic ions slowing down in the plasma. The same ions can also drive waves and instabilities in the plasma. Their distribution in velocity and in space has major impact on plasma dynamics, and plasma dynamics in turn affects...... the energetic ion distributions. The dynamics of energetic ions is thus important to measure in order to understand fusion plasmas, and important to monitor as part of input to plasma control. The collective Thomson scattering of millimeter waves has proven to be a valuable means of diagnosing energetic ion...

  6. Benchmark and combined velocity-space tomography of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy and collective Thomson scattering measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.

    2016-01-01

    measurements without using a numerical simulation as common reference. Combined velocity-space tomographies from FIDA and CTS measurements confirm that sawtooth crashes reduce the fast-ion phase-space densities in the plasma center and affect ions with pitches close to one more strongly than those with pitches......We demonstrate the combination of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy (FIDA) and collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements to determine a common best estimate of the fastion velocity distribution function by velocity-space tomography. We further demonstrate a benchmark of FIDA tomography and CTS...

  7. Development of sequence and regular band lasers for use as local oscillators in Thomson scattering alpha particle diagnostics (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. A.; Hutchinson, D. P.; Vander Sluis, K. L.; Staats, P. A.

    1985-05-01

    Heterodyne detection will be used to measure the scattered signal from a 100-MW pulsed CO2 laser Thomson scattered from energetic alpha particles. This measurement requires local oscillators displaced from the pump line by 6 to 21 GHz. We are developing cw sequence and regular band N2O and CO2 lasers which provide many lines in the required frequency range. The sequence lines are obtained by using a small in-cavity hot cell. Operating characteristics will be discussed for a variety of experimental arrangements.

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This corrective action investigation plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 262 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): Underground Storage Tank (25-02-06), Septic Systems A and B (25-04-06), Septic System (25-04-07), Leachfield (25-05-03), Leachfield (25-05-05), Leachfield (25-05-06), Radioactive Leachfield (25-05-08), Leachfield (25-05-12), and Dry Well (25-51-01). Situated in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), sites addressed by CAU 262 are located at the Reactor-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Test Cell C; and Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facilities. The R-MAD, Test Cell C, and E-MAD facilities supported nuclear rocket reactor and engine testing as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. The activities associated with the testing program were conducted between 1958 and 1973. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for the site include oil/diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and tritium. The scope of the corrective action field investigation at the CAU will include the inspection of portions of the collection systems, sampling the contents of collection system features in situ of leachfield logging materials, surface soil sampling, collection of samples of soil underlying the base of inlet and outfall ends of septic tanks and outfall ends of diversion structures and distribution boxes, collection of soil samples from biased or a combination of

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision No. 1 (9/2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2000-07-20

    This corrective action investigation plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 262 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): Underground Storage Tank (25-02-06), Septic Systems A and B (25-04-06), Septic System (25-04-07), Leachfield (25-05-03), Leachfield (25-05-05), Leachfield (25-05-06), Radioactive Leachfield (25-05-08), Leachfield (25-05-12), and Dry Well (25-51-01). Situated in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), sites addressed by CAU 262 are located at the Reactor-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Test Cell C; and Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facilities. The R-MAD, Test Cell C, and E-MAD facilities supported nuclear rocket reactor and engine testing as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. The activities associated with the testing program were conducted between 1958 and 1973. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for the site include oil/diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and tritium. The scope of the corrective action field investigation at the CAU will include the inspection of portions of the collection systems, sampling the contents of collection system features in situ of leachfield logging materials, surface soil sampling, collection of samples of soil underlying the base of inlet and outfall ends of septic tanks and outfall ends of diversion structures and distribution boxes, collection of soil samples from biased or a combination of

  10. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  11. Measurement of electron density of the plasma in the Tokamak TCABR, through Thomson scattering diagnostic; Medida da densidade eletronica do plasma no Tokamak TCABR, atraves do diagnostico Espalhamento Thomson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeronimo, Leonardo Cunha

    2013-07-01

    Over the last few years is remarkable, so increasingly evident the need for a new source of energy for mankind. One promising option is through nuclear fusion, where the plasma produced in the reactor can be converted into electrical energy. Therefore, knowing the characteristics of this plasma is very important to control it and understand it so desirable. One of the diagnostic options is called Thomson scattering . This is considered the most reliable method for the determination of important plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density, and may also help in the study and explanation of various internal mechanisms. The great advantage lies in the tact that they consist of a direct measurement and nonperturbative. But it is a diagnosis whose installation and execution is admittedly complex, limiting it only a few laboratories in the fíeld of fusion for the world. Among the main difficulties, wc can highlight the fact that the scattered signal is very small, thus requiring a large increase of the incident power. Moreover, the external physical conditions can cause mechanical vibrations that eliminate or minimize them as much as possible, is a great challenge, considering the optical micrometrically very sensitive and needs involved in the system. This work describes the entire process of installation and operation of Thomson scattering diagnostic in tokamak TCABR and through this diagnosis, we work on results of electron temperature, to finally be able to calculate the electron density of the plasma. (author)

  12. Micromachined Joule-Thomson coolers for cooling low-temperature detectors and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Brake, Marcel; Lerou, P. P. P. M.; Burger, J. F.; Holland, H. J.; Derking, J. H.; Rogalla, H.

    2017-11-01

    The performance of electronic devices can often be improved by lowering the operating temperature resulting in lower noise and larger speed. Also, new phenomena can be applied at low temperatures, as for instance superconductivity. In order to fully exploit lowtemperature electronic devices, the cryogenic system (cooler plus interface) should be `invisible' to the user. It should be small, low-cost, low-interference, and above all very reliable (long-life). The realization of cryogenic systems fulfilling these requirements is the topic of research of the Cooling and Instrumentation group at the University of Twente. A MEMS-based cold stage was designed and prototypes were realized and tested. The cooler operates on basis of the Joule-Thomson effect. Here, a high-pressure gas expands adiabatically over a flow restriction and thus cools and liquefies. Heat from the environment (e.g., an optical detector) can be absorbed in the evaporation of the liquid. The evaporated working fluid returns to the low-pressure side of the system via a counter-flow heat exchanger. In passing this heat exchanger, it takes up heat from the incoming high-pressure gas that thus is precooled on its way to the restriction. The cold stage consists of a stack of three glass wafers. In the top wafer, a high-pressure channel is etched that ends in a flow restriction with a height of typically 300 nm. An evaporator volume crosses the center wafer into the bottom wafer. This bottom wafer contains the lowpressure channel thus forming a counter-flow heat exchanger. A design aiming at a net cooling power of 10 mW at 96 K and operating with nitrogen as the working fluid was optimized based on the minimization of entropy production. The optimum cold finger measures 28 mm x 2.2 mm x 0.8 mm operating with a nitrogen flow of 1 mg/s at a high pressure of 80 bar and a low pressure of 6 bar. The design and fabrication of the coolers will be discussed along with experimental results.

  13. Calculation of the nonlinear relativistic Thomson scattering fields and Its application to electron distribution function diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasp, J.; Pastor, I.; Álvarez-Estrada, R. F.; Castejón, F.

    2015-02-01

    Analytical results obtained recently of the ab-initio classical incoherent Thomson Scattering (TS) spectrum from a single-electron (Alvarez-Estrada et al 2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 062302) have been numerically implemented in a paralelized code to efficiently compute the TS emission from a given electron distribution function, irrespective of its characteristics and/or the intensity of the incoming radiation. These analytical results display certain differences, when compared with other authors, in the general case of incoming linearly and circularly polarized radiation and electrons with arbitrary initial directions. We regard such discrepancies and the ubiquitous interest in TS as motivations for this work. Here, we implement some analytical advances (like generalized Bessel functions for incoming linearly polarized radiation) in TS. The bulk of this work reports on the efficient computation of TS spectra (based upon our analytical approach), for an electron population having an essentially arbitrary distribution function and for both incoming linearly and circularly polarized radiation. A detailed comparison between the present approach and a previous Monte Carlo one (Pastor et al 2011 Nuclear Fusion 51 043011), dealing with the ab-initio computation of TS spectra, is reported. Both approaches are shown to fully agree with each other. As key computational improvements, the analytical technique yields a × 30 to × 100 gain in computation time and is a very flexible tool to compute the scattered spectrum and eventually the scattered electromagnetic fields in the time domain. The latter are computed explicitly here for the first time, as far as we know. Scaling laws for the power integrated over frequency versus initial kinetic energy are studied for the case of isotropic and monoenergetic electron distribution functions and their potential application as diagnostic tools for high-energy populations is briefly discussed. Finally, we discuss the application of these

  14. Dr John Thomson (1847-1909). Pioneer surgeon, military surgeon and a founder of St John Ambulance in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J; Wales, M

    Surgeon John Thomson (1847-1909), a Scot who made his life's work in Queensland, was a pioneer surgeon, radiologist and bacteriologist, and one of the founders of the St John Ambulance movement in Australia and the Railway Ambulance Corps. He was variously President of the British Medical Association (Queensland Branch), the Medical Board of Queensland, the Medico-Ethical Association, and the Intercolonial Medical Congress, which was held in Brisbane in 1899. A pioneer military surgeon in this country, he was the foundation Principal Medical Officer (as Surgeon-Major) of the Queensland Ambulance Corps within the Queensland Defence Force. His advocacy for a university north of Sydney was one of the factors which led to the foundation of the University of Queensland, a body which honoured him by the establishment of the John Thomson Lectureship, which for half a century was its most prestigious public oration. The life and times of this singular doctor exemplify one small class of pre-Federation medical pioneers whose professional outreach established a number of voluntary organisations which have blossomed in Australian society to the present day.

  15. Improved cross-calibration of Thomson scattering and electron cyclotron emission with ECH on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookman, M. W., E-mail: brookmanmw@fusion.gat.com [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Austin, M. E.; McLean, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94500 (United States); Carlstrom, T. N.; Hyatt, A. W.; Lohr, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92122 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Thomson scattering produces n{sub e} profiles from measurement of scattered laser beam intensity. Rayleigh scattering provides a first calibration of the relation n{sub e} ∝ I{sub TS}, which depends on many factors (e.g., laser alignment and power, optics, and measurement systems). On DIII-D, the n{sub e} calibration is adjusted against an absolute n{sub e} from the density-driven cutoff of the 48 channel 2nd harmonic X-mode electron cyclotron emission system. This method has been used to calibrate Thomson n{sub e} from the edge to near the core (r/a > 0.15). Application of core electron cyclotron heating improves the quality of cutoff and depth of its penetration into the core, and also changes underlying MHD activity, minimizing crashes which confound calibration. Less fueling is needed as “ECH pump-out” generates a plasma ready to take up gas. On removal of gyrotron power, cutoff penetrates into the core as channels fall successively and smoothly into cutoff.

  16. Analyse numérique des dynamiques d'obstruction dans les refroidisseurs Joule-Thomson micro-usinés

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, H. S.; Vanapalli, S.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; ter Brake, H. J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Micromachined Joule–Thomson (JT) coolers are of interest for cooling small electronic devices. The long-term performance of JT microcoolers is limited by the clogging phenomenon caused by the deposition of water molecules present as impurity in the working fluid. This work investigates the clogging

  17. Design and testing of a magnetic shield for the Thomson scattering photomultiplier tubes in the stray fields of the ERASMUS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desoppere, E.; Van Oost, G.

    1983-01-01

    A multiple coaxial shield system has been designed for the photomultiplier tubes of the ERASMUS tokamak Thomson scattering diagnostic. A stray field of 75 x 10 -4 T was reduced to 0.01 x 10 -4 T for a field parallel to the tube axis, and to 0.03 x 10 -4 T for a perpendicular field

  18. Correction of the spectral calibration of the Joint European Torus core light detecting and ranging Thomson scattering diagnostic using ray tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawke, J.; Scannell, R.; Maslov, M.; Migozzi, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    This work isolated the cause of the observed discrepancy between the electron temperature (T-e) measurements before and after the JET Core LIDAR Thomson Scattering (TS) diagnostic was upgraded. In the upgrade process, stray light filters positioned just before the detectors were removed from the

  19. Comparison of multialkali and GaAs photocathode detectors for Joint European Torus edge light detection and ranging Thomson scattering profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempenaars, M.; Nielsen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Gowers, C.; Beurskens, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak has two light detection and ranging (LIDAR) Thomson scattering systems, one for the core and one dedicated to the edge T-e and n(e) profiles. The LIDAR scheme is unique to JET and is envisaged for use on ITER. The system's spatial resolution is defined by

  20. A review of the genus Potemnemus Thomson, 1864 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) with description of a new species from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Henrik; Kvamme, Torstein

    2015-11-13

    All preserved type specimens and type series of the genus Potemnemus Thomson, 1864 from museum collections have been examined. The presented taxonomic study is based on examination of morphological characters as well as studies of the genitalia. The genitalia are described for the first time. The type of P. scabrosus Olivier, 1790 is lost, and the original drawing has been designated as a lectotype. The monospecific genus Parapotemnemus Breuning, 1971 nov. syn. is considered to be a junior synonym of Potemnemus Thomson, 1864 based on similarities in both external and male genitalia characters. Potemnemus wheatcrofti (Breuning, 1971) nov. comb. thus becomes a new combination. The holotype of P. wheatcrofti nov. comb. is lost, and a paratype ♂ has been designated as a neotype. Potemnemus nylanderi nov. sp. is described from the eastern parts of Papua New Guinea. The following new synonyms within the genus Potemnemus have been introduced: P. hispidus Gressitt, 1952 nov. syn. is a junior synonym of P. sepicanus Kriesche, 1923, P. detzneri Kriesche, 1923 nov. syn. is a junior synonym of P. trimaculatus Lea, 1918, and P. loriai Breuning, 1956 nov. syn. and P. triturberculatus Breuning, 1942 nov. syn. are both junior synonyms of P. scabrosus (Olivier, 1790). As a result of the present study the following species have been resurrected to species level: Potemnemus trimaculatus Lea, 1918 sp. res., P. wolfi Berchmans, 1925 sp. res., and P. thomsoni Lansberge, 1880 sp. res. The genus Periaptodes Pascoe, 1866 gen. res. has been resurrected as a valid genus based on differences in both external and male genitalia characters, and re-descriptions of the genera Potemnemus and Periaptodes are presented. Consequently, the following species have been transferred back to Periaptodes from Potemnemus: Periaptodes frater (Van de Poll, 1887), P. lictor Pascoe, 1866, P. olivieri (Thomson, 1864), P. potemnemoides Kriesche, 1936. P. testator Pascoe, 1866, P. paratestator Breuning, 1980. P

  1. The use of ultraviolet Thomson scattering as a versatile diagnostic for detailed measurements of a collisional laser produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Mark David [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-01-08

    Collective Thomson scattering from ion-acoustic waves at 266nm is used to obtain spatially resolved, two-dimensional electron density, sound speed, and radial drift profiles of a collisional laser plasma. An ultraviolet diagnostic wavelength minimizes the complicating effects of inverse bremsstrahlung and refractive turning in the coronal region of interest, where the electron densities approach nc/10. Laser plasmas of this type are important because they model some of the aspects of the plasmas found in high-gain laser-fusion pellets irradiated by long pulse widths where the laser light is absorbed mostly in the corona. The experimental results and LASNEX simulations agree within a percent standard deviation of 40% for the electron density and 50% for the sound speed and radial drift velocity. Thus it is shown that the hydrodynamics equations with classical coefficients and the numerical approximations in LASNEX are valid models of laser-heated, highly collisional plasmas. The versatility of Thomson scattering is expanded upon by extending existing theory with a Fokker-Planck based model to include plasmas that are characterized by (0 ≤ kiaλii ≤ ∞) and ZTe/Ti, where kia is the ion- acoustic wave number, λii is the ion-ion mean free path, Z is the ionization state of the plasma, and Te. Ti are the electron and ion temperatures in electron volts respectively. The model is valid for plasmas in which the electrons are approximately collisionless, (kiaλei, kiaλee ≥ 1), and quasineutrality holds, (α ≥1), where α = 1/kλDE and λDe is the electron Debye length. This newly developed model predicts the lineshape of the ion-acoustic Thomson spectra and when fit to experimental data provides a direct measurement of the relative thermal flow velocity between the electrons and ions.

  2. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Pattonella intermutans (Thomson (Diptera: Sarcophagidae em diferentes dietas Post-embryonary development of Pattonella intermutans (Thomson, 1869 in different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio S. Loureiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste estudo foi de avaliar o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Pattonella intermutans (Thomson, 1869 em dietas artificiais preparadas com agar-agar. Dieta D1: leite em pó integral + fermento biológico; Dieta D2: leite em pó integral + fermento biológico + caseína; Dieta D3: leite em pó integral + ovo cru; Dieta D4: carne bovina moída (dieta controle. A carne bovina moída foi a dieta mais eficiente (peso larval de 195,63 mg e viabilidade de neolarva a adulto de 86,5%, quando comparada com as dietas artificiais. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos para o grupo experimental: Dieta D3: 180,15 mg e 63,5%; Dieta D2: 141,07 mg e 61% e na Dieta D1: 147,98 mg e 51,5%.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the post-embryonary development of Pattonella intermutans (Thomson, 1969 in artificial diets composed of agar-agar. Diet D1: whole dried milk + dried brewer's yeast; Diet D2: whole dried milk + dried brewer's yeast+ casein; Diet D3: whole dried milk + whole egg; Diet D4: bovine meal (control diet. The bovine meat was the best diet (larval weight 195.63mg and viability from larvae to adult 86,5%, when compared to all other artificial diets. The following performances were obtained for experimental groups: diet D3: 180.15 mg and 63.5%; diet D2: 141.07 mg and 61% and diet D1: 147.98 mg e 51.5%.

  3. Characterization and simulation of fate and transport of selected volatile organic compounds in the vicinities of the Hadnot Point Industrial Area and landfill: Chapter A Supplement 6 in Analyses and historical reconstruction of groundwater flow, contaminant fate and transport, and distribution of drinking water within the service areas of the Hadnot Point and Holcomb Boulevard Water Treatment Plants and vicinities, U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. Elliott; Suárez-Soto, René J.; Anderson, Barbara A.; Maslia, Morris L.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement of Chapter A (Supplement 6) describes the reconstruction (i.e. simulation) of historical concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and benzene3 in production wells supplying water to the Hadnot Base (USMCB) Camp Lejeune, North Carolina (Figure S6.1). A fate and transport model (i.e., MT3DMS [Zheng and Wang 1999]) was used to simulate contaminant migration from source locations through the groundwater system and to estimate mean contaminant concentrations in water withdrawn from water-supply wells in the vicinity of the Hadnot Point Industrial Area (HPIA) and the Hadnot Point landfill (HPLF) area.4 The reconstructed contaminant concentrations were subsequently input into a flow-weighted, materials mass balance (mixing) model (Masters 1998) to estimate monthly mean concentrations of the contaminant in finished water 5 at the HPWTP (Maslia et al. 2013). The calibrated fate and transport models described herein were based on and used groundwater velocities derived from groundwater-flow models that are described in Suárez-Soto et al. (2013). Information data pertinent to historical operations of water-supply wells are described in Sautner et al. (2013) and Telci et al. (2013).

  4. Analytical solution for Joule-Thomson cooling during CO2 geo-sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, S.A.; Gluyas, J.G.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2010-05-21

    Mathematical tools are needed to screen out sites where Joule-Thomson cooling is a prohibitive factor for CO{sub 2} geo-sequestration and to design approaches to mitigate the effect. In this paper, a simple analytical solution is developed by invoking steady-state flow and constant thermophysical properties. The analytical solution allows fast evaluation of spatiotemporal temperature fields, resulting from constant-rate CO{sub 2} injection. The applicability of the analytical solution is demonstrated by comparison with non-isothermal simulation results from the reservoir simulator TOUGH2. Analysis confirms that for an injection rate of 3 kg s{sup -1} (0.1 MT yr{sup -1}) into moderately warm (>40 C) and permeable formations (>10{sup -14} m{sup 2} (10 mD)), JTC is unlikely to be a problem for initial reservoir pressures as low as 2 MPa (290 psi).

  5. Interaction of relativistic electrons with an intense laser pulse: High-order harmonic generation based on Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Szabolcs [ELI-ALPS, ELI-HU Non-Profit Ltd., Dugonics tér 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Szeged, Tisza L. krt. 84-86, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Varró, Sándor [ELI-ALPS, ELI-HU Non-Profit Ltd., Dugonics tér 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Wigner Research Center for Physics, SZFI, PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Czirják, Attila [ELI-ALPS, ELI-HU Non-Profit Ltd., Dugonics tér 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Szeged, Tisza L. krt. 84-86, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2016-02-15

    We investigate nonlinear Thomson scattering as a source of high-order harmonic radiation with the potential to enable attosecond light pulse generation. We present a new analytic solution of the electron’s relativistic equations of motion in the case of a short laser pulse with a sine-squared envelope. Based on the single electron emission, we compute and analyze the radiated amplitude and phase spectrum for a realistic electron bunch, with special attention to the correct initial values. These results show that the radiation spectrum of an electron bunch in head-on collision with a sufficiently strong laser pulse of sine-squared envelope has a smooth frequency dependence to allow for the synthesis of attosecond light pulses.

  6. Interaction of relativistic electrons with an intense laser pulse: High-order harmonic generation based on Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, Szabolcs; Varró, Sándor; Czirják, Attila

    2016-01-01

    We investigate nonlinear Thomson scattering as a source of high-order harmonic radiation with the potential to enable attosecond light pulse generation. We present a new analytic solution of the electron’s relativistic equations of motion in the case of a short laser pulse with a sine-squared envelope. Based on the single electron emission, we compute and analyze the radiated amplitude and phase spectrum for a realistic electron bunch, with special attention to the correct initial values. These results show that the radiation spectrum of an electron bunch in head-on collision with a sufficiently strong laser pulse of sine-squared envelope has a smooth frequency dependence to allow for the synthesis of attosecond light pulses.

  7. p300-mediated acetylation of the Rothmund-Thomson-syndrome gene product RECQL4 regulates its subcellular localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietschy, Tobias; Shevelev, Igor; Pena Diaz, Javier

    2009-01-01

    RECQL4 belongs to the conserved RecQ family of DNA helicases, members of which play important roles in the maintenance of genome stability in all organisms that have been examined. Although genetic alterations in the RECQL4 gene are reported to be associated with three autosomal recessive disorders...... (Rothmund-Thomson, RAPADILINO and Baller-Gerold syndromes), the molecular role of RECQL4 still remains poorly understood. Here, we show that RECQL4 specifically interacts with the histone acetyltransferase p300 (also known as p300 HAT), both in vivo and in vitro, and that p300 acetylates one or more...... of the lysine residues at positions 376, 380, 382, 385 and 386 of RECQL4. Furthermore, we report that these five lysine residues lie within a short motif of 30 amino acids that is essential for the nuclear localization of RECQL4. Remarkably, the acetylation of RECQL4 by p300 in vivo leads to a significant shift...

  8. Using X-ray Thomson Scattering to Characterize Highly Compressed, Near-Degenerate Plasmas at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeppner, Tilo; Kraus, D.; Neumayer, P.; Bachmann, B.; Divol, L.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Fletcher, L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Falcone, R. W.; MacDonald, M. J.; Saunders, A.; Witte, B.; Redmer, R.; Chapman, D.; Baggott, R.; Gericke, D. O.; Yi, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    We are developing x-ray Thomson scattering for implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility to characterize plasma conditions in plastic and beryllium capsules near stagnation, reaching more than 20x compression and electron densities of 1025 cm-3, corresponding to a Fermi energy of 170 eV. Using a zinc He- α x-ray source at 9 keV, experiments at a large scattering angle of 120° measure non-collective scattering spectra with high sensitivity to K-shell ionization, and find higher charge states than predicted by widely used ionization models. Reducing the scattering angle to 30° probes the collective scattering regime with sensitivity to collisions and conductivity. We will discuss recent results and future plans. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Peltier's and Thomson's coefficients of thermoelectric phenomena in the observable formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, Javier [Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra y Termodinamica, Universitat de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    Four transport coefficients characterize the thermoelectric properties of materials. Three of them are widely measured and studied. But the number of references on the Peltier coefficient are very limited. This unequal result is a consequence of the Onsager reciprocal relation (ORR). A review on the preciseness and accuracy of Peltier coefficient measurements has been developed in this paper. Thus we can appreciate a low level in the experimental confirmation for the ORR. In order to describe the thermoelectric processes in an advantageous way, the observable formulation has been used. This is characterized by the electric potential measured at the probe terminals and for the heat flux which the conductor laterally dissipates. The energy balance provides the basic relationships among the observables and the Peltier and Thomson coefficients. A new way for measuring the Peltier coefficient has been suggested.

  10. Energy-angle correlation correction algorithm for monochromatic computed tomography based on Thomson scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhijun; Du, Yingchao; Huang, Wenhui; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2017-12-01

    The necessity for compact and relatively low cost x-ray sources with monochromaticity, continuous tunability of x-ray energy, high spatial coherence, straightforward polarization control, and high brightness has led to the rapid development of Thomson scattering x-ray sources. To meet the requirement of in-situ monochromatic computed tomography (CT) for large-scale and/or high-attenuation materials based on this type of x-ray source, there is an increasing demand for effective algorithms to correct the energy-angle correlation. In this paper, we take advantage of the parametrization of the x-ray attenuation coefficient to resolve this problem. The linear attenuation coefficient of a material can be decomposed into a linear combination of the energy-dependent photoelectric and Compton cross-sections in the keV energy regime without K-edge discontinuities, and the line integrals of the decomposition coefficients of the above two parts can be determined by performing two spectrally different measurements. After that, the line integral of the linear attenuation coefficient of an imaging object at a certain interested energy can be derived through the above parametrization formula, and monochromatic CT can be reconstructed at this energy using traditional reconstruction methods, e.g., filtered back projection or algebraic reconstruction technique. Not only can monochromatic CT be realized, but also the distributions of the effective atomic number and electron density of the imaging object can be retrieved at the expense of dual-energy CT scan. Simulation results validate our proposal and will be shown in this paper. Our results will further expand the scope of application for Thomson scattering x-ray sources.

  11. Ultrasonographic median nerve cross-section areas measured by 8-point 'inching test' for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: a correlation of nerve conduction study severity and duration of clinical symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shu-Fang; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Huang, Chi-Ren; Chuang, Yao-Chung; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Chang, Chiung-Chih; Chang, Wen-Neng

    2011-01-01

    Incremental palmar stimulation of the median nerve sensory conduction at the wrist, the 'inching test', provides an assessment with reference to segments proximal and distal to the entrapment. This study used high-resolution ultrasonography (US) to measure the median nerve's cross-section areas (CSAs) like the 'inching test' and to correlate with the nerve conduction study (NCS) severity and duration of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Two hundred and twelve (212) 'CTS-hands' from 135 CTS patients and 50 asymptomatic hands ('A-hands') from 25 control individuals were enrolled. The median nerve CSAs were measured at the 8-point marked as i4, i3, i2, i1, w, o1, o2, and 03 in inching test. The NCS severities were classified into six groups based on motor and sensory responses (i.e., negative, minimal, mild, moderate, severe, and extreme). Results of US studies were compared in terms of NCS severity and duration of clinical CTS symptoms. There was significantly larger CSA of the NCS negative group of 'CTS-hands' than of 'A-hands'. The cut-off values of the CSAs of the NCS negative CTS group were 12.5 mm 2 , 11.5 mm 2 and 10.1 mm 2 at the inlet, wrist crease, and outlet, respectively. Of the 212 'CTS-hands', 32 were NCS negative while 40 had minimal, 43 mild, 85 moderate, 10 severe, and two extreme NCS severities. The CSAs of 'CTS-hands' positively correlated with different NCS severities and with the duration of CTS symptoms. By duration of clinical symptoms, 12 of the 212 'CTS-hands' were in the 1 month group; 82 in >1 month and ≤12 months group, and 118 in >12 months group. In 'inching test', segments i4-i3 and i3-i2 were the most common 'positive-site'. The corresponding CSAs measured at i4 and i3, but not at i2, were significantly larger than those measured at points that were not 'positive-site'. Using the 8-point measurement of the median

  12. Creating high-resolution bare-earth digital elevation models (DEMs) from stereo imagery in an area of densely vegetated deciduous forest using combinations of procedures designed for lidar point cloud filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jessica D.; Warner, Timothy A.; Chirico, Peter G.; Bergstresser, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    For areas of the world that do not have access to lidar, fine-scale digital elevation models (DEMs) can be photogrammetrically created using globally available high-spatial resolution stereo satellite imagery. The resultant DEM is best termed a digital surface model (DSM) because it includes heights of surface features. In densely vegetated conditions, this inclusion can limit its usefulness in applications requiring a bare-earth DEM. This study explores the use of techniques designed for filtering lidar point clouds to mitigate the elevation artifacts caused by above ground features, within the context of a case study of Prince William Forest Park, Virginia, USA. The influences of land cover and leaf-on vs. leaf-off conditions are investigated, and the accuracy of the raw photogrammetric DSM extracted from leaf-on imagery was between that of a lidar bare-earth DEM and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM. Although the filtered leaf-on photogrammetric DEM retains some artifacts of the vegetation canopy and may not be useful for some applications, filtering procedures significantly improved the accuracy of the modeled terrain. The accuracy of the DSM extracted in leaf-off conditions was comparable in most areas to the lidar bare-earth DEM and filtering procedures resulted in accuracy comparable of that to the lidar DEM.

  13. Hawaii's "7 by 7" for school health education: a PowerPoint presentation on integrating the national health education standards with priority content areas for today's school health education in grades kindergarten through 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Beth

    2006-04-01

    School-based health education can help young people develop the knowledge, skills, motivation, and support they need to choose health-enhancing behaviors and resist engaging in behaviors that put them at risk for health and social problems and school failure. The health of school-age youth is significantly associated with their school achievement. However, in the midst of today's increased emphasis on school accountability in the areas of reading, writing, and mathematics, subject areas such as health education tend to receive less prominence in the school curriculum. Recalling their own lackluster school experiences related to health topics, decision makers may not realize that today's skills-based school health curriculum involves a highly interactive and engaging approach to promoting good health and preventing the most serious health problems among youth. Health education is one important component of a coordinated school health program that includes health education, physical education, school health services, nutrition services, school counseling and psychological services, a healthy school environment, school promotion for faculty and staff, and involvement of family and community members. The purpose of this PowerPoint presentation--Healthy Keiki, Healthy Hawaii: Hawaii's "7 by 7" for School Health Education--is to educate health and education decision makers, teachers, parents, and community members on how Hawaii has integrated seven health education standards with seven priority health content areas to create an effective approach to school health education in grades kindergarten through 12. The goal of Hawaii's "7 by 7" curriculum focus is to ensure that all of Hawaii's keiki (children) have well-planned opportunities at school to become fit, healthy, and ready to learn.

  14. Image processing methods for noise reduction in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormido-Canto, S., E-mail: sebas@dia.uned.es [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Farias, G. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Vega, J.; Pastor, I. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe an approach in order to reduce or mitigate the stray-light on the images and show the exceptional results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the parameters to take account in the proposed process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a simplified exampled in order to explain the proposed process. - Abstract: The Thomsom Scattering diagnostic of the TJ-II stellarator provides temperature and density profiles. The CCD camera acquires images corrupted with noise that, in some cases, can produce unreliable profiles. The main source of noise is the so-called stray-light. In this paper we describe an approach that allows mitigation of the effects that stray-light has on the images: extraction regions with connected-components. In addition, the robustness and effectiveness of the noise reduction technique is validated in two ways: (1) supervised classification and (2) comparison of electron temperature profiles.

  15. Correction of the spectral calibration of the Joint European Torus core light detecting and ranging Thomson scattering diagnostic using ray tracing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawke, J. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Scannell, R.; Maslov, M. [EURATOM-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Migozzi, J. B. [JBM Optique, 4 Rue du Calvaire Bâtiment 11, 92210 Saint Cloud (France); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-10-15

    This work isolated the cause of the observed discrepancy between the electron temperature (T{sub e}) measurements before and after the JET Core LIDAR Thomson Scattering (TS) diagnostic was upgraded. In the upgrade process, stray light filters positioned just before the detectors were removed from the system. Modelling showed that the shift imposed on the stray light filters transmission functions due to the variations in the incidence angles of the collected photons impacted plasma measurements. To correct for this identified source of error, correction factors were developed using ray tracing models for the calibration and operational states of the diagnostic. The application of these correction factors resulted in an increase in the observed T{sub e}, resulting in the partial if not complete removal of the observed discrepancy in the measured T{sub e} between the JET core LIDAR TS diagnostic, High Resolution Thomson Scattering, and the Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostics.

  16. Design and calibration of a two-channel low-noise heterodyne receiver for use in a CO2 laser Thomson scattering alpha particle diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. A.; Richards, R. K.; Hutchinson, D. P.

    1988-03-01

    A dual channel low noise heterodyne receiver has been constructed as part of a development effort to build a carbon dioxide laser based Thomson scattering alpha particle diagnostic for a burning plasma experiment. The receiver employs two wide bandwidth (greater than 1 GHz) HgCdTe photovoltaic mixers followed by low noise IF amplifiers. A noise equivalent power of less than 3.0 times 10 to the 20th power WHz has been demonstrated. Design details and calibration methods are described.

  17. Area under the curve predictions of dalbavancin, a new lipoglycopeptide agent, using the end of intravenous infusion concentration data point by regression analyses such as linear, log-linear and power models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamidipati, Ravi Kanth; Syed, Muzeeb; Mullangi, Ramesh; Srinivas, Nuggehally

    2018-02-01

    1. Dalbavancin, a lipoglycopeptide, is approved for treating gram-positive bacterial infections. Area under plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC inf ) of dalbavancin is a key parameter and AUC inf /MIC ratio is a critical pharmacodynamic marker. 2. Using end of intravenous infusion concentration (i.e. C max ) C max versus AUC inf relationship for dalbavancin was established by regression analyses (i.e. linear, log-log, log-linear and power models) using 21 pairs of subject data. 3. The predictions of the AUC inf were performed using published C max data by application of regression equations. The quotient of observed/predicted values rendered fold difference. The mean absolute error (MAE)/root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (r) were used in the assessment. 4. MAE and RMSE values for the various models were comparable. The C max versus AUC inf exhibited excellent correlation (r > 0.9488). The internal data evaluation showed narrow confinement (0.84-1.14-fold difference) with a RMSE regression models, a single time point strategy of using C max (i.e. end of 30-min infusion) is amenable as a prospective tool for predicting AUC inf of dalbavancin in patients.

  18. Pioneering studies of IQ by G.H. Thomson and J.F. Duff--an example of established knowledge subsequently 'hidden in plain sight'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-11-01

    Perhaps the earliest authoritative measurement of a social class gradient in IQ, with a stratification of occupations among the parents of children with different IQs, is seen in two fascinating papers published in 1923 and 1929 in the British Journal of Psychology. The authors were GH Thomson and JF Duff (both of whom were later knighted) and the papers' main findings were confirmed by later researchers. Results of an intelligence test administered to 13419 children aged 11-12 were analyzed according to parent's occupation. The average children's IQ at extremes of social class among their parents included clergymen-121, teachers-116 and bankers and managers-112 at the upper end; while at the lower end there were 'cripples and invalids'-94, cattlemen-93, hawkers and chimneysweeps-91, and the 'insane, criminal'-88. More than 100 specific categories of parental occupations were then combined into 13 social classes, with their children's average IQ as follows: Professional-112; Managers-110; Higher Commercial-109; Army, Navy, Police, Postmen-106; Shopkeeping-105; Engineers [ie. apprenticed craftsmen, such as mining engineers]-103; Foremen-103; Building trades-102; Metal workers, shipbuilders-101; Miscellaneous industrial workers-101; Miners and quarrymen-98; Agriculture-98; Labourers-96. A follow-up study compared an 'intelligent' group (IQ 136 plus) with a matched IQ 95-105 'control' group. IQ testing at age 11-12 was predictive of teacher's reports of higher levels of intelligence and health at age 16; and better performance in official examinations. The occupations of fathers, grandfathers and uncles were consistent with occupation being indicative of 'an inherited quality' (i.e. IQ) and there was regression from parents to grandparents and uncles among the 'intelligent' but not among controls. Other findings included a wider variance in intelligence among boys than girls, and descriptions of the predictive value of IQ in estimating future education, examinations

  19. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    performance of point positioning for kinematic applications, the precise point positioning attracted a lot of attention and opened a new alternative door to kinematic positioning. In this report different tests have been done to evaluate the ability and accuracy of the software TriP in the kinematic...... and static case by using internal consistency (residuals, RMS, repeatability etc.), known coordinates, ground truth and double-differenced solutions. The kinematic GPS positioning accuracy using four different software systems has been investigated and tested by comparing the degree of agreement between...... the airborne lidar system misalignment angle by automating the matching of lidar data with ground truth. Kinematic GPS positioning has been widely used, but the available commercial software systems are normally only suitable for the short or medium range kinematic baseline. However, in polar areas, airborne...

  20. Study of Stark broadening of Li I 460 and 497 nm spectral lines with independent plasma diagnostics by Thomson scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierżȩga, Krzysztof; Piȩta, Tomasz; Zawadzki, Witold; Stambulchik, Evgeny; Gavrilović-Božović, Marijana; Jovićević, Sonja; Pokrzywka, Bartłomiej

    2018-02-01

    We present results of experimental and theoretical studies of the Stark broadening of the Li I 460 nm spectral line with forbidden components and of the isolated 497 nm line. Plasma was induced by Nd:YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm with pulse duration ∼4.5 ns. Laser-induced plasma was generated in front of the alumina pellet, with some content of Li2CO3, placed in a vacuum chamber filled with argon under reduced pressure. Plasma diagnostics was performed using the laser Thomson scattering technique, free from assumptions about the plasma equilibrium state and its composition and so independently of plasma emission spectra. Spatially resolved spectra with Li lines were obtained from the measured, laterally integrated ones applying the inverse Abel transform. The Stark profiles were calculated by computer simulation method assuming a plasma in the local thermodynamic equilibrium. Calculations were performed for experimentally-inferred electron densities and temperatures, from 1.422 × 1023 to 3.55 × 1022 m‑3 and from 1.96 eV to 1.04 eV, respectively. Our studies show very good agreement between experimental Stark profiles and those computer simulated.

  1. Making sense of absolute measurement: James Clerk Maxwell, William Thomson, Fleeming Jenkin, and the invention of the dimensional formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel Jon

    2017-05-01

    During the 1860s, the Committee on Electrical Standards convened by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) attempted to articulate, refine, and realize a system of absolute electrical measurement. I describe how this context led to the invention of the dimensional formula by James Clerk Maxwell and subsequently shaped its interpretation, in particular through the attempts of William Thomson and Fleeming Jenkin to make absolute electrical measurement intelligible to telegraph engineers. I identify unit conversion as the canonical purpose for dimensional formulae during the remainder of the nineteenth century and go on to explain how an operational interpretation was developed by the French physicist Gabriel Lippmann. The focus on the dimensional formula reveals how various conceptual, theoretical, and material aspects of absolute electrical measurement were taken up or resisted in experimental physics, telegraphic engineering, and electrical practice more broadly, which leads to the conclusion that the integration of electrical theory and telegraphic practice was far harder to achieve and maintain than historians have previously thought. This ultimately left a confusing legacy of dimensional concepts and practices in physics.

  2. Performance analysis of a miniature Joule-Thomson cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Rashmin; Atrey, Milind

    2015-12-01

    Cryogenic temperatures are obtained with Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocoolers in an easier way as compared to other cooling techniques. Miniature J-T cryocoolers are often employed for cooling of infrared sensors, cryoprobes, biological samples, etc. A typical miniature J-T cryocooler consists of a storage reservoir/compressor providing the high pressure gas, a finned tube recuperative heat exchanger, an expansion valve/orifice, and the cold end. The recuperative heat exchanger is indispensable for attaining cryogenic temperatures. The geometrical parameters and the operating conditions of the heat exchanger drastically affect the cryocooler performance in terms of cool down time and cooling effect. In the literature, the numerical models for the finned recuperative heat exchanger have neglected the distributed J-T effect. The distributed J-T effect accounts for the changes in enthalpy of the fluid due to changes of pressure in addition to those due to changes of temperature. The objective of this work is to explore the distributed J-T effect and study the performance of a miniature J-T cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect. A one dimensional transient model is employed for the numerical analysis of the cryocooler. Cases with different operating conditions are worked out with argon and nitrogen as working fluids.

  3. Spectrum response and analysis of 77 GHz band collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for bulk and fast ions in LHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2014-01-01

    A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic was developed and used to measure the bulk and fast ions originating from 180 keV neutral beams in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Electromagnetic waves from a gyrotron at 77 GHz with 1 MW power output function as both the probe and electron......, a stray radiation component was observed in the CTS spectrum whereas it was negligibly small at low density. The CTS spectrum was measured and analysed after the in situ beam alignment using a beam scan. Qualitatively, the CTS spectrogram shows consistent response to ion temperatures of 1–2 ke......V for electron densities of (1–2) × 1019 m−3 and electron temperatures of 2–4 keV. The measured CTS spectrum shows an asymmetric shape at the foot of the bulk-ion region during the injection of 180 keV fast ions. This shape is explained by the fast-ion distribution in the velocity space (v‖, v⊥) based on Monte...

  4. Experimental evaluation of an adaptive Joule-Thomson cooling system including silicon-microfabricated heat exchanger and microvalve components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weibin; Park, Jong M; White, Michael J; Nellis, Gregory F; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2011-03-01

    This article reports the evaluation of a Joule-Thomson (JT) cooling system that combines two custom micromachined components-a Si/glass-stack recuperative heat exchanger and a piezoelectrically actuated expansion microvalve. With the microvalve controlling the flow rate, this system can modulate cooling to accommodate varying refrigeration loads. The perforated plate Si/glass heat exchanger is fabricated with a stack of alternating silicon plates and Pyrex glass spacers. The microvalve utilizes a lead zirconate titanate actuator to push a Si micromachined valve seat against a glass plate, thus modulating the flow passing through the gap between the valve seat and the glass plate. The fabricated heat exchanger has a footprint of 1 × 1 cm(2) and a length of 35 mm. The size of the micromachined piezoelectrically actuated valve is about 1 × 1 × 1 cm(3). In JT cooling tests, the temperature of the system was successfully controlled by adjusting the input voltage of the microvalve. When the valve was fully opened (at an input voltage of -30 V), the system cooled down to a temperature as low as 254.5 K at 430 kPa pressure difference between inlet and outlet at steady state and 234 K at 710 kPa in a transient state. The system provided cooling powers of 75 mW at 255 K and 150 mW at 258 K. Parasitic heat loads at 255 K are estimated at approximately 700 mW.

  5. Design calculations for a xenon plasma x-ray shield to protect the NIF optical Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, G F; Ross, J S; Datte, P; Moody, J; Divol, L; Jones, O; Landen, O

    2016-11-01

    An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause "blanking" (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components. The soft x-ray fluence at the surface of the OTS blast shield, 60 cm from the hohlraum, is estimated to be ∼8 J cm -2 . This is significantly above the expected threshold for the onset of "blanking" effects. A novel xenon plasma x-ray shield is proposed to protect the blast shield from x-rays and mitigate "blanking." Estimates suggest that an areal density of 10 19 cm -2 Xe atoms will be sufficient to absorb 99.5% of the soft x-ray flux. Two potential designs for this shield are presented.

  6. Calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer and Fujifilm imaging plates for energetic protons, deuterons, and alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Charles; Canfield, Michael; Graeper, Gavin; Lombardo, Andrew; Stillman, Collin; Fiksel, Gennady; Stoeckl, Christian; Sinenian, Nareg

    2010-11-01

    A Thomson parabola ion spectrometer (TPIS) has been designed and built to study energetic ions accelerated from the rear surface of targets irradiated by ultra-intense laser light from the Multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The device uses a permanent magnet and a pair of electrostatic deflector plates to produce parallel magnetic and electric fields, which cause ions of a given charge-to-mass ratio to be deflected onto parabolic curves on the detector plane. The position of the ion along the parabola can be used to determine its energy. Fujifilm imaging plates (IP) are placed in the rear of the device and are used to detect the incident ions. The energy dispersion of the spectrometer has been calibrated using monoenergetic ion beams from the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV pelletron accelerator. The IP sensitivity has been measured for protons and deuterons with energies between 0.6 MeV and 3.4 MeV, and for alpha particles with energies between 1.5 MeV and 5.1 MeV.

  7. Acquisition and correlation of cryogenic nitrogen mass flow data through a multiple orifice Joule-Thomson device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papell, S. Stephen; Saiyed, Naseem H.; Nyland, Ted W.

    1990-05-01

    Liquid nitrogen mass flow rate, pressure drop, and temperature drop data were obtained for a series of multiple orifice Joule-Thomson devices, known as Visco Jets, over a wide range of flow resistance. The test rig used to acquire the data was designed to minimize heat transfer so that fluid expansion through the Visco Jets would be isenthalpic. The data include a range of fluid inlet pressures from 30 to 60 psia, fluid inlet temperatures from 118 to 164 R, outlet pressures from 2.8 to 55.8 psia, outlet temperatures from 117 to 162 R and flow rate from 0.04 to 4.0 lbm/hr of nitrogen. A flow rate equation supplied by the manufacturer was found to accurately predict single-phase (noncavitating) liquid nitrogen flow through the Visco Jets. For cavitating flow, the manufacturer's equation was found to be inaccurate. Greatly improved results were achieved with a modified version of the single-phase equation. The modification consists of a multiplication factor to the manufacturer's equation equal to one minus the downstream quality on an isenthalpic expansion of the fluid across the Visco Jet. For a range of flow resistances represented by Visco Jet Lohm ratings between 17,600 and 80,000, 100 percent of the single-phase data and 85 percent of the two-phase data fall within + or - 10 percent of predicted values.

  8. The point on.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this last article, we find the point of view about the world petroleum activity, the reserves and the recent discoveries, the deep offshore, the technological developments in petroleum upstream. The petroleum situation in China is treated. The trends of world refining are described. The recent technological developments in the petroleum downstream are detailed. The prices of crude oil and the refining margins are the subject of a chapter. The investments of hydrocarbons area are given, the world trade and the lng projects, the gas availability in Western Europe have their place. The trends of European automobile industry and the fuels distribution are also discussed. (N.C.)

  9. High Pressure Behavior of Hydrocarbons. Joule-Thomson Expansion of Gas Condensates Comportement des hydrocarbures à haute pression. Détente de Joule-Thomson de gaz à condensats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortekaas W. G.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents calculations of Joule-Thomson inversion effects in high-pressure-high-temperature gas condensates. Isenthalpic expansions were modeled for several gas condensate mixtures reported in literature using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong and the Peng-Robinson equations of state. The calculations confirmed qualitatively the heating of gas condensates at expansion. Although reservoir temperatures are in the region where cooling occurs, i. e. , inside the inversion curve, it was shown that reservoir pressures lie outside this region, and that the temperature will increase until the inversion curve is reached. The calculated temperature increases are not very large. Although exact values depend on fluid composition, reservoir conditions, and pressure drop, typical calculated temperature increases are in the range of 10-30°C for reservoir pressures of 1000 bar. A sensitivity study showed that both reservoir pressure and fluid composition greatly affect the temperature increase. With increasing pressures and increasing amounts of heavy constituents present in gas condensate mixtures, the maximum possible temperature effect will also increase. Unfortunately, due to lack of experimental information, the reliability of the calculated results could not be verified. Cet article présente des calculs de l'effet d'inversion de Joule-Thomson pour des gaz à condensats à haute température et haute pression. La détente isenthalpique a été modélisée pour plusieurs compositions de gaz à condensats trouvées dans la littérature, en utilisant les équations d'état de Soave-Redlich-Kwong et de Peng-Robinson. Ces calculs confirment qualitativement le réchauffement des gaz à condensat lors de la détente. Bien que les températures de gisement se trouvent dans la région où un refroidissement s'observe, c'est-à-dire à l'intérieur de la courbe d'inversion, on a montré que les pressions de gisement correspondent à l'extérieur de cette r

  10. Address Points - Allegheny County Address Points 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset contains Address Points in Allegheny County. The Address Points were created by GDR for the Allegheny County CAD project, October 2008. Data is updated...

  11. 18 December 2012 -Portuguese President of FCT M. Seabra visiting the Computing Centre with IT Department Head F. Hemmer, ATLAS experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti and A. Henriques Correia, in the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and CMS experimental area with Deputy Spokesperson J. Varela, signing an administrative agreement with Director-General R. Heuer; LIP President J. M. Gago and Delegate to CERN Council G. Barreia present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Samuel Morier-Genoud

    2012-01-01

    18 December 2012 -Portuguese President of FCT M. Seabra visiting the Computing Centre with IT Department Head F. Hemmer, ATLAS experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti and A. Henriques Correia, in the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and CMS experimental area with Deputy Spokesperson J. Varela, signing an administrative agreement with Director-General R. Heuer; LIP President J. M. Gago and Delegate to CERN Council G. Barreia present.

  12. Enhanced Thomson TSN 506 Electronic Camera Performance Through New Image Converter Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, E.; Imhoff, C.

    1989-02-01

    The general characteristics of an electronic camera used in the analysis of high speed photonic phenomena and consequently those of an automatic image acquisition and processing system built around these cameras can be divided into two categories : - The first covers the characteristics specific to the image converter tube used, such as the size and spectral response of the photocathode, its spatial and temporal resolutions, dynamic geometric distorsion, cut-off ratio, etc. - The second are those related to the performance of the electronic control circuits : . sweep ramp linearity, . triggering delay and jitter, . sweep times, . transients that occur while the tube's internal voltages are established during aperture control, etc. The major criteria for evaluating a tube with respect to dynamic operation, which by itself is of interest to the user, will be presented during a brief review of theory. The effect on the quality of the image obtained in terms of the duration and number of Nyquist points in the time analysis window, the resulting Bandwith, spatial resolution and cross-talk will also be shown. These criteria can also be used to determine the improvements in the performance of the TSN 506 camera and the NORMA system obtained by using RTC P 510 and ITT F 4157 image converter tubes. We shall conclude with a brief review of tubes currently being developed, their proven and expected characteristics and their impact on the development of electronic cameras and automatic photon measuring systems.

  13. Experimental evaluation of an adaptive Joule–Thomson cooling system including silicon-microfabricated heat exchanger and microvalve components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weibin; Park, Jong M.; White, Michael J.; Nellis, Gregory F.; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the evaluation of a Joule–Thomson (JT) cooling system that combines two custom micromachined components—a Si/glass-stack recuperative heat exchanger and a piezoelectrically actuated expansion microvalve. With the microvalve controlling the flow rate, this system can modulate cooling to accommodate varying refrigeration loads. The perforated plate Si/glass heat exchanger is fabricated with a stack of alternating silicon plates and Pyrex glass spacers. The microvalve utilizes a lead zirconate titanate actuator to push a Si micromachined valve seat against a glass plate, thus modulating the flow passing through the gap between the valve seat and the glass plate. The fabricated heat exchanger has a footprint of 1×1 cm2 and a length of 35 mm. The size of the micromachined piezoelectrically actuated valve is about 1×1×1 cm3. In JT cooling tests, the temperature of the system was successfully controlled by adjusting the input voltage of the microvalve. When the valve was fully opened (at an input voltage of −30 V), the system cooled down to a temperature as low as 254.5 K at 430 kPa pressure difference between inlet and outlet at steady state and 234 K at 710 kPa in a transient state. The system provided cooling powers of 75 mW at 255 K and 150 mW at 258 K. Parasitic heat loads at 255 K are estimated at approximately 700 mW. PMID:21552354

  14. Clasificador de Imágenes del Diagnóstico Thomson Scattering del TJ II Basado en Template Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A. Vega Sánchez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La automatización del análisis de las señales generadas en un ambiente de fusión nuclear constituye una meta importante. El presente trabajo se encuadra en el contexto del desarrollo de clasificadores automáticos para las señales generadas en el Diagnóstico Thomson Scattering del TJ II, siendo este un ambiente de fusión específico. Dos etapas fundamentales son consideradas en el diseño del clasificador: el procesamiento de las señales y extracción de sus características, por un lado, y la clasificación, por otro. La primera es implementada, en el trabajo, recurriendo a las transformadas wavelet mientras que la segunda es implementada a través de la comparación entre las características de las señales disponibles y las de un conjunto de señales previamente seleccionadas como prototipos (template matching, operación esta que es efectuada utilizando a técnicas de trayectoria de búsqueda óptimas basadas en programación dinámica. En el mismo se muestra que la metodología empleada permite la clasificación de las señales en cuestión y que con un entrenamiento adecuado se puede extraer un buen rendimiento al clasificador desarrollado.

  15. Ophthalmic manifestations in Rothmund–Thomson syndrome: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J T Chinmayee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old male patient presented to us with diminution of vision in both eyes with watering and photophobia for the past 8 years. General physical examination showed short stature and poikiloderma. Ocular findings include photophobia with reflex tearing, dry eye, cicatricial ectropion, symblepharon approaching pupillary area of cornea, and multiple superficial punctuate erosions on the cornea. Both eyelids showed scanty meibomian glands on infrared meibography. The rest of the anterior and posterior segment was normal. The patient was treated with topical lubricants which reduced photophobia and corneal erosions. He then underwent symblepharon release with buccal mucosal grafting, which improved ectropion. Patient improved symptomatically with reduction of photophobia and improvement in vision as well.

  16. Reduction of the Thomson scattering cross-section in a strong circularly polarized light field in plasma with the change of its spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkin, Vladlen V.; Romanovsky, Michael Y.

    1992-06-01

    It is shown that in a strong circularly polarized laser field, classical electron motion around the ions can occur. The non-relativistic scattering by these electrons in plasma has a certain (Thomson) cross-section only in the limit of a very strong field (it is practically the case of relativistic motion of electrons). In a circularly polarized field with an amplitude on the order of the inneratomic one, the cross section of this process is less. In the spectrum that the scattering of this field gives in plasma, there are non-ion satellites along with the basic frequency.

  17. Measurements of the fast-ion distribution function at ASDEX upgrade by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) using active and passive views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) can provide measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. On ASDEX Upgrade, the measured spectra include an additional signal which previously has hampered data interpretation. A new set-up using two......, the measured spectra agree quantitatively with the synthetic spectra in periods with and without NBI heating. For the discharges investigated, the central velocity distribution of neutral beam ions can be described by classical slowing down. These results will have a major impact on ITER physics exploration...

  18. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    OpenAIRE

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spe...

  19. Tipping point leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2003-04-01

    When William Bratton was appointed police commissioner of New York City in 1994, turf wars over jurisdiction and funding were rife and crime was out of control. Yet in less than two years, and without an increase in his budget, Bratton turned New York into the safest large city in the nation. And the NYPD was only the latest of five law-enforcement agencies Bratton had turned around. In each case, he succeeded in record time despite limited resources, a demotivated staff, opposition from powerful vested interests, and an organization wedded to the status quo. Bratton's turnarounds demonstrate what the authors call tipping point leadership. The theory of tipping points hinges on the insight that in any organization, fundamental changes can occur quickly when the beliefs and energies of a critical mass of people create an epidemic movement toward an idea. Bratton begins by overcoming the cognitive hurdles that block organizations from recognizing the need for change. He does this by putting managers face-to-face with operational problems. Next, he manages around limitations on funds, staff, or equipment by concentrating resources on the areas that are most in need of change and that have the biggest payoffs. He meanwhile solves the motivation problem by singling out key influencers--people with disproportionate power due to their connections or persuasive abilities. Finally, he closes off resistance from powerful opponents. Not every CEO has the personality to be a Bill Bratton, but his successes are due to much more than his personality. He relies on a remarkably consistent method that any manager looking to turn around an organization can use to overcome the forces of inertia and reach the tipping point.

  20. Occurrence of Oncideres dejeanii Thomson (Cerambycidae in Pyrus pyrifolia (Rosaceae, in Minas Gerais, Brazil Ocorrência de Oncideres dejeanii Thomson (Cerambycidae em Pyrus pyrifolia (Rosaceae, em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The twig girdler beetles are known for damaging many tree species. These beetles girdle branches and use them to lay their eggs and complete the offspring development. The objective of this work was to describe the occurrence of a case of O. dejeanii girdling Pyrus pyrifolia (pear tree branches. Three girdled branches of P. pyrifolia were collected and on two of these were captured a female of this twig-girdler beetle on each. The diameter and average length of the branches were 3.47±0.15 cm and 3.31±0.17 m, respectively. The lower third of the girdled branch has presented 52% of the posture incisions. A female was observed performing two postures along the branch, which took 10 and 13 minutes. O. dejeanii uses P. pyrifolia as alternative host, with potential to become pest and reduce output.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.62.153

    Os besouros serradores são conhecidos por causarem danos em várias espécies arbóreas. Estes besouros
    roletam galhos e os utilizam para ovipositar e completar o desenvolvimento de sua prole. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a ocorrência de um caso de O. dejeanii Thomson, 1868 (Coleoptera:  Cerambycidae em Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm F. Nakai. (Rosaceae (pereira, visando caracterizar suas injúrias  e verificar a possibilidade de desenvolvimento neste vegetal. A pereira se encontrava em um pomar, no  município de Viçosa, MG. Foram recolhidos três galhos roletados de uma pereira, sendo que em dois destes foi coletada uma fêmea em cada. O diâmetro e  comprimento médio dos galhos foram de 3,47±0,15 cm e 3,31±0,17 m, respectivamente. O terço inferior do galho roletado apresentou 52% das incisões de posturas. Foi observada uma fêmea efetuando duas posturas ao longo do galho e registrado o tempo de 10 min e 13 min, respectivamente. O. dejeanii utiliza P.
    pyrifolia como hospedeiro alternativo, apresentando potencial para se tornar praga e reduzir a produção.

    doi: 10

  1. Referential Zero Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Potrč

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most important controversy in which ordinary language philosophy was involved is that of definite descriptions, presenting referential act as a community-involving communication-intention endeavor, thereby opposing the direct acquaintance-based and logical proper names inspired reference aimed at securing truth conditions of referential expression. The problem of reference is that of obtaining access to the matters in the world. This access may be forthcoming through the senses, or through descriptions. A review of how the problem of reference is handled shows though that one main practice is to indulge in relations of acquaintance supporting logical proper names, demonstratives, indexicals and causal or historical chains. This testifies that the problem of reference involves the zero point, and with it phenomenology of intentionality. Communication-intention is but one dimension of rich phenomenology that constitutes an agent’s experiential space, his experiential world. Zero point is another constitutive aspect of phenomenology involved in the referential relation. Realizing that the problem of reference is phenomenology based opens a new perspective upon the contribution of analytical philosophy in this area, reconciling it with continental approach, and demonstrating variations of the impossibility related to the real. Chromatic illumination from the cognitive background empowers the referential act, in the best tradition of ordinary language philosophy.

  2. Ten Canoes and the Ethnographic Photographs of Donald Thomson: ‘Animate Thought’ and ‘the Light of the World’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Rutherford

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the genesis of the film Ten Canoes in the photographs taken by anthropologist Donald Thomson, in Arnhem Land, in the 1930s.  Thomson’s images profoundly informed the look and content of the film, and the paper traces this genealogy in order to identify a ‘cultural imaginary’ at work in the film. I argue that a close study of Thomson’s original photographs reveals an approach to photography and to culture that dramatically exceeds the boundaries of the detached anthropological/scientific gaze. Thomson’s vision is a highly tactile one. His images are as much an encounter with the light of the world as they are a document of a time, an environment and a culture; his lens is as much an organ of touch as an instrument of observation. In a remarkable example of what Tim Ingold has called ‘animate thought’, Thomson uses the materiality of photography to make manifest a life-world in which reeds, water and sky are as animate as human figures. Not easily accessible to established criteria for analysing ethnographic images, such as questions of self-reflexivity, Thomson’s polycentric images profoundly challenge the humanist assumptions of many contemporary approaches to reading images. This insight raises new questions about both ethnographic photography and the relationship between the photographs and Ten Canoes.

  3. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  4. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A. [High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  5. 13 February 2012 - World Economic Forum Founder and Executive Chairman K. Schwab and Chairperson and Co-Founder Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship H. Schwab (Mrs)in the ATLAS experimental area at LHC Point 1 with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni; signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    13 February 2012 - World Economic Forum Founder and Executive Chairman K. Schwab and Chairperson and Co-Founder Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship H. Schwab (Mrs)in the ATLAS experimental area at LHC Point 1 with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni; signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

  6. 18 January 2011 - Ing. Vittorio Malacalza, ASG Superconductors S.p.A, Italy in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Deputy Department Head L. Rossi, in the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental area with Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    18 January 2011 - Ing. Vittorio Malacalza, ASG Superconductors S.p.A, Italy in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Deputy Department Head L. Rossi, in the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental area with Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

  7. 25 January 2012 - Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador R. Jansons, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Latvia to the United Nations Office at Geneva, signing the guest book with CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi.

    CERN Document Server

    Estelle Spirig

    2012-01-01

    25 January 2012 - Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador R. Jansons, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Latvia to the United Nations Office at Geneva, signing the guest book with CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi.

  8. 14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

  9. 9th January 2012 - Indonesian Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador Triansyah Djani to to the United Nations, WTO and other International Organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Adviser E. Tsesmelis, visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS underground experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela.

    CERN Document Server

    Estelle Spirig

    2012-01-01

    9th January 2012 - Indonesian Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador Triansyah Djani to to the United Nations, WTO and other International Organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Adviser E. Tsesmelis, visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS underground experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela.

  10. 14 November 2013 - Director of Indian Institute of Technology Indore P. Mathur with members of the Indian community working at CERN; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 2, the ALICE experimental area and SM18 with ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare P. Giubellino and Technology Department, Accelerator Beam Transfer Group Leader V. Mertens

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    14 November 2013 - Director of Indian Institute of Technology Indore P. Mathur with members of the Indian community working at CERN; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 2, the ALICE experimental area and SM18 with ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare P. Giubellino and Technology Department, Accelerator Beam Transfer Group Leader V. Mertens

  11. 10 February 2012 - Permanent Representative of the Republic of India to the Conference on Disarmament, United Nations Office at Geneva Ambassador Mehta signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser R. Voss;in the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and ALICE underground experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson Y. Schutz.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    10 February 2012 - Permanent Representative of the Republic of India to the Conference on Disarmament, United Nations Office at Geneva Ambassador Mehta signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser R. Voss;in the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and ALICE underground experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson Y. Schutz.

  12. 27 February 2012- Thai Minister of Science and Technology P. Suraswadi with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis and CMS Collaboration Former Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck signing the guest book in the 6th floor conference room, building 60 and visiting CMS underground experimental area at LHC Point 5.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    27 February 2012- Thai Minister of Science and Technology P. Suraswadi with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis and CMS Collaboration Former Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck signing the guest book in the 6th floor conference room, building 60 and visiting CMS underground experimental area at LHC Point 5.

  13. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy.

  14. Area-averaged evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous land surface: aggregation of multi-point EC flux measurements with a high-resolution land-cover map and footprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feinan; Wang, Weizhen; Wang, Jiemin; Xu, Ziwei; Qi, Yuan; Wu, Yueru

    2017-08-01

    The determination of area-averaged evapotranspiration (ET) at the satellite pixel scale/model grid scale over a heterogeneous land surface plays a significant role in developing and improving the parameterization schemes of the remote sensing based ET estimation models and general hydro-meteorological models. The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) flux matrix provided a unique opportunity to build an aggregation scheme for area-averaged fluxes. On the basis of the HiWATER flux matrix dataset and high-resolution land-cover map, this study focused on estimating the area-averaged ET over a heterogeneous landscape with footprint analysis and multivariate regression. The procedure is as follows. Firstly, quality control and uncertainty estimation for the data of the flux matrix, including 17 eddy-covariance (EC) sites and four groups of large-aperture scintillometers (LASs), were carefully done. Secondly, the representativeness of each EC site was quantitatively evaluated; footprint analysis was also performed for each LAS path. Thirdly, based on the high-resolution land-cover map derived from aircraft remote sensing, a flux aggregation method was established combining footprint analysis and multiple-linear regression. Then, the area-averaged sensible heat fluxes obtained from the EC flux matrix were validated by the LAS measurements. Finally, the area-averaged ET of the kernel experimental area of HiWATER was estimated. Compared with the formerly used and rather simple approaches, such as the arithmetic average and area-weighted methods, the present scheme is not only with a much better database, but also has a solid grounding in physics and mathematics in the integration of area-averaged fluxes over a heterogeneous surface. Results from this study, both instantaneous and daily ET at the satellite pixel scale, can be used for the validation of relevant remote sensing models and land surface process models. Furthermore, this work will be

  15. James Webb Space Telescope Core 2 Test - Cryogenic Thermal Balance Test of the Observatorys Core Area Thermal Control Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Paul; Parrish, Keith; Thomson, Shaun; Marsh, James; Comber, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, will be the largest astronomical telescope ever sent into space. To observe the very first light of the early universe, JWST requires a large deployed 6.5-meter primary mirror cryogenically cooled to less than 50 Kelvin. Three scientific instruments are further cooled via a large radiator system to less than 40 Kelvin. A fourth scientific instrument is cooled to less than 7 Kelvin using a combination pulse-tube Joule-Thomson mechanical cooler. Passive cryogenic cooling enables the large scale of the telescope which must be highly folded for launch on an Ariane 5 launch vehicle and deployed once on orbit during its journey to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. Passive cooling of the observatory is enabled by the deployment of a large tennis court sized five layer Sunshield combined with the use of a network of high efficiency radiators. A high purity aluminum heat strap system connects the three instrument's detector systems to the radiator systems to dissipate less than a single watt of parasitic and instrument dissipated heat. JWST's large scale features, while enabling passive cooling, also prevent the typical flight configuration fully-deployed thermal balance test that is the keystone of most space missions' thermal verification plans. This paper describes the JWST Core 2 Test, which is a cryogenic thermal balance test of a full size, high fidelity engineering model of the Observatory's 'Core' area thermal control hardware. The 'Core' area is the key mechanical and cryogenic interface area between all Observatory elements. The 'Core' area thermal control hardware allows for temperature transition of 300K to approximately 50 K by attenuating heat from the room temperature IEC (instrument electronics) and the Spacecraft Bus. Since the flight hardware is not available for test, the Core 2 test uses high fidelity and flight-like reproductions.

  16. Cui bono? / Kaivo Thomson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thomson, Kaivo, 1956-

    2014-01-01

    Meie õpilased ei oska teadmisi väljaspool klassi- ja eksamiruumi alati rakendada. Kas haridusreform suudab haridussüsteemis vajalikke muudatusi esile kutsuda? Inimese kognitiivsest stiilist lähtuvast õpetamisest

  17. Five points on columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S Rockland

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract “Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five points, in no way comprehensive or canonical, but which may nevertheless serve as a prompt and aid for further discussions and reevaluation. These are: that anatomical columns are not solid structures, that they are part of locally interdigitating systems, that any delimited column also participates in a widely distributed network, that columns are not an obligatory cortical feature, and that columns (as “modules” occur widely in the brain in non-cortical structures. I focus on the larger scale macrocolumns, mainly from an anatomical perspective. My position is that cortical organization is inherently dynamic and likely to incorporate multiple processing styles. One can speculate that the distributed mappings within areas like piriform cortex may resemble at least one mode of neocortical processing strategy.

  18. Point 1 Updates

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J.

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Not only has Civil Engineering finished the construction of the USA15 technical cavern, but the excavation of the main UX15 cavern has resumed below the machine tunnel, after a brief halt to allow the construction of the UJ-caverns for the power converters of the LHC machine. The excavation work should end in August 2002. The UX15 hand-over to ATLAS is expected in April 2003. On the surface civil engineering is starting to complete the last two surface buildings (SDX1 and SH1), once the services (cooling pipes, ventilation ducts and the largest item, the lift modules and its lift of course) in the shaft PX15 have been completed. But the civil engineering is not all. A lot more is under way. The site installation of the steel structures in the caverns is to begin in Autumn, along with all the cooling pipes, airconditi...

  19. The End of Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jo

    2018-01-01

    Have teachers become too dependent on points? This article explores educators' dependency on their points systems, and the ways that points can distract teachers from really analyzing students' capabilities and achievements. Feldman argues that using a more subjective grading system can help illuminate crucial information about students and what…

  20. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  1. Characteristics of ion beam and anode plasma in open-quotes Point Pinch Diodeclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, K.; Yatsui, K.; Tazima, T.

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostics and evaluation have been carried out on an ion beam and anode plasma in open-quotes Point Pinch Diode.close quotes Mass spectra of ion beam measured by Thomson-parabola spectrometer have shown that the main component are (1) proton and H 2 + , (2) highly ionized carbon and oxygen ions, and (3) singly ionized C, O and molecules such as CO 2 + , OH + , OH 2 + . X-ray and particle pinhole images have shown the size of the electron beam on the plasma to be less than ∼0.5 mm in diameter, in which fine structures are found with size less than 0.05 mm. A K α satelite line of Al V is observed with crystal spectrograph, which indicates the existence of Al 4+ in the plasma

  2. Upgrade of the automatic analysis system in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic: New image recognition classifier and fault condition detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makili, L.; Vega, J.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Pastor, I.; Pereira, A.; Farias, G.; Portas, A.; Perez-Risco, D.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M.C.; Busch, P.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic image classification system based on support vector machines (SVM) has been in operation for years in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic. It recognizes five different types of images: CCD camera background, measurement of stray light without plasma or in a collapsed discharge, image during ECH phase, image during NBI phase and image after reaching the cut off density during ECH heating. Each kind of image implies the execution of different application software. Due to the fact that the recognition system is based on a learning system and major modifications have been carried out in both the diagnostic (optics) and TJ-II plasmas (injected power), the classifier model is no longer valid. A new SVM model has been developed with the current conditions. Also, specific error conditions in the data acquisition process can automatically be detected and managed now. The recovering process has been automated, thereby avoiding the loss of data in ensuing discharges.

  3. Performance comparison of single-stage mixed-refrigerant Joule–Thomson cycle and reverse Brayton cycle for cooling 80 to 120 K temperature-distributed heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. C.; Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Thermodynamic performance comparison of single-stage mixed-refrigerant Joule–Thomson cycle (MJTR) and pure refrigerant reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) for cooling 80 to 120 K temperature-distributed heat loads was conducted in this paper. Nitrogen under various liquefaction pressures was employed as the heat load. The research was conducted under nonideal conditions by exergy analysis methods. Exergy efficiency and volumetric cooling capacity are two main evaluation parameters. Exergy loss distribution in each process of refrigeration cycle was also investigated. The exergy efficiency and volumetric cooling capacity of MJTR were obviously superior to RBC in 90 to 120 K temperature zone, but still inferior to RBC at 80 K. The performance degradation of MJTR was caused by two main reasons: The high fraction of neon resulted in large entropy generation and exergy loss in throttling process. Larger duty and WLMTD lead to larger exergy losses in recuperator.

  4. Ultrashort x-ray pulse generation by nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistic electron with an intense circularly polarized laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistic electron with an intense laser pulse is calculated numerically. The results show that an ultrashort x-ray pulse can be generated by an electron with an initial energy of 5 MeV propagating across a circularly polarized laser pulse with a duration of 8 femtosecond and an intensity of about 1.1×10^{21}  W/cm^{2}, when the detection direction is perpendicular to the propagation directions of both the electron and the laser beam. The optimal values of the carrier-envelop phase and the intensity of the laser pulse for the generation of a single ultrashort x-ray pulse are obtained and verified by our calculations of the radiation characteristics.

  5. Metaharmonic Lattice Point Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi

    2011-01-01

    Metaharmonic Lattice Point Theory covers interrelated methods and tools of spherically oriented geomathematics and periodically reflected analytic number theory. The book establishes multi-dimensional Euler and Poisson summation formulas corresponding to elliptic operators for the adaptive determination and calculation of formulas and identities of weighted lattice point numbers, in particular the non-uniform distribution of lattice points. The author explains how to obtain multi-dimensional generalizations of the Euler summation formula by interpreting classical Bernoulli polynomials as Green

  6. Columbia River ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bird nesting sites in the Columbia River area. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  7. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure bas...

  8. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  9. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  10. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  11. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  12. Wolf Point Substation, Roosevelt County, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the United States Department of Energy, is proposing to construct the 115-kV Wolf Point Substation near Wolf Point in Roosevelt County, Montana (Figure 1). As part of the construction project, Western's existing Wolf Point Substation would be taken out of service. The existing 115-kV Wolf Point Substation is located approximately 3 miles west of Wolf Point, Montana (Figure 2). The substation was constructed in 1949. The existing Wolf Point Substation serves as a Switching Station'' for the 115-kV transmission in the region. The need for substation improvements is based on operational and reliability issues. For this environmental assessment (EA), the environmental review of the proposed project took into account the removal of the old Wolf Point Substation, rerouting of the five Western lines and four lines from the Cooperatives and Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, and the new road into the proposed substation. Reference to the new proposed Wolf Point Substation in the EA includes these facilities as well as the old substation site. The environmental review looked at the impacts to all resource areas in the Wolf Point area. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Wolf Point Substation, Roosevelt County, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the United States Department of Energy, is proposing to construct the 115-kV Wolf Point Substation near Wolf Point in Roosevelt County, Montana (Figure 1). As part of the construction project, Western's existing Wolf Point Substation would be taken out of service. The existing 115-kV Wolf Point Substation is located approximately 3 miles west of Wolf Point, Montana (Figure 2). The substation was constructed in 1949. The existing Wolf Point Substation serves as a ''Switching Station'' for the 115-kV transmission in the region. The need for substation improvements is based on operational and reliability issues. For this environmental assessment (EA), the environmental review of the proposed project took into account the removal of the old Wolf Point Substation, rerouting of the five Western lines and four lines from the Cooperatives and Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, and the new road into the proposed substation. Reference to the new proposed Wolf Point Substation in the EA includes these facilities as well as the old substation site. The environmental review looked at the impacts to all resource areas in the Wolf Point area. 7 refs., 6 figs

  14. Do acupuncture points exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi; Liu Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang Yuying; He Wei; Ding Guanghong

    2009-01-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  15. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  16. Point/Counterpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungar, David; Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Point Argument: "Dynamic Languages (in Reactive Environments) Unleash Creativity," by David Ungar. For the sake of creativity, the profession needs to concentrate more on inventing new and better dynamic languages and environments and less on improving static languages. Counterpoint Argument...

  17. Bedrock Outcrop Points Compilation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A compilation of bedrock outcrops as points and/or polygons from 1:62,500 and 1:24,000 geologic mapping by the Vermont Geological Survey, the United States...

  18. Triple Point Topological Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Topologically protected fermionic quasiparticles appear in metals, where band degeneracies occur at the Fermi level, dictated by the band structure topology. While in some metals these quasiparticles are direct analogues of elementary fermionic particles of the relativistic quantum field theory, other metals can have symmetries that give rise to quasiparticles, fundamentally different from those known in high-energy physics. Here, we report on a new type of topological quasiparticles—triple point fermions—realized in metals with symmorphic crystal structure, which host crossings of three bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level protected by point group symmetries. We find two topologically different types of triple point fermions, both distinct from any other topological quasiparticles reported to date. We provide examples of existing materials that host triple point fermions of both types and discuss a variety of physical phenomena associated with these quasiparticles, such as the occurrence of topological surface Fermi arcs, transport anomalies, and topological Lifshitz transitions.

  19. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  20. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  1. Arctic climate tipping points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  2. Unconventional Quantum Critical Points

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cenke

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the theory of unconventional quantum critical points that are beyond the Landau's paradigm. Three types of unconventional quantum critical points will be discussed: (1). The transition between topological order and semiclassical spin ordered phase; (2). The transition between topological order and valence bond solid phase; (3). The direct second order transition between different competing orders. We focus on the field theory and universality class of these unconventio...

  3. Leverage points for sustainability transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abson, David J; Fischer, Joern; Leventon, Julia; Newig, Jens; Schomerus, Thomas; Vilsmaier, Ulli; von Wehrden, Henrik; Abernethy, Paivi; Ives, Christopher D; Jager, Nicolas W; Lang, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Despite substantial focus on sustainability issues in both science and politics, humanity remains on largely unsustainable development trajectories. Partly, this is due to the failure of sustainability science to engage with the root causes of unsustainability. Drawing on ideas by Donella Meadows, we argue that many sustainability interventions target highly tangible, but essentially weak, leverage points (i.e. using interventions that are easy, but have limited potential for transformational change). Thus, there is an urgent need to focus on less obvious but potentially far more powerful areas of intervention. We propose a research agenda inspired by systems thinking that focuses on transformational 'sustainability interventions', centred on three realms of leverage: reconnecting people to nature, restructuring institutions and rethinking how knowledge is created and used in pursuit of sustainability. The notion of leverage points has the potential to act as a boundary object for genuinely transformational sustainability science.

  4. Tolerancias y resistencias: el aborto desde la perspectiva de las parteras tradicionales de un área rural de México Tolerance and resistance: abortion from the point of view of traditional midwives in a rural area of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Blanco-Muñoz

    1999-08-01

    formou-se um grupo focal com a participação de 16 parteiras. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma atitude de não aceitação do aborto, induzido ou espontâneo. As mulheres que abortam são chamadas de "porcas", "imundas" ou "cadelas" e as parteiras mostram-se titubeantes em atendê-las. No entanto, é comum a prática da "regulação da menstruação" entre as mulheres da comunidade, ou seja, utilizam substâncias que induzem a menstruação quando a mesma está atrasada. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento de significados populares em torno do aborto é imprescindível para a construção de estratégias que reforcem os vínculos entre serviços institucionais de saúde e as parteiras tradicionais e para melhorar a qualidade da assistência às mulheres.OBJECTIVE: An evaluation of the perception, resources and practices regarding abortion of traditional midwives in a rural area in the municipality of Yecapixtla, state of Morelos, located in the central region of Mexico. METHODS: A qualitative methodology consisting of a detailed interview, focal groups and participating observation, was used. The subjects investigated were socio-cultural aspects, reproduction, sexuality and health related to abortion. Nine midwives were interviewed and a focal group was formed in which 16 midwives participated. RESULTS: The results demonstrated a profound rejection of abortion whether inducted or spontaneous. The former was considered a major sin and the latter a serious failure of a woman´s reproductive function. Women who abort are called "pigs", "hogs" or "bitches" and the midwives are reluctant to attend them. However, a common practice among the women in the community is to "regulate the menstruation", that is, to use substances that provoke menstruation when this is delayed. This specific practice is not considered abortive by these women. CONCLUSION: Local popular beliefs about abortion are indispensible for the construction of effective strategies, which when provided by the institutional

  5. Cloud Point Depressants

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Wax formation and deposition in subsea crude oil piepline is most important problem in cold environments faced by petroleum industry. Significant research is been going on at industrial as well as academic levels to develop additives which are able to break the wax crystal structure or at least weakens it. Addition of cloud point depressants has been found to be an effective way of dealing with waxes. The main focus of this project is chemical control of wax gel formation by using cloud point...

  6. Application of virtual machine technology to real-time mapping of Thomson scattering data to flux coordinates for the LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, Masahiko, E-mail: emoto.masahiko@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki city, 509-5292 Japan (Japan); Yoshida, Masanobu; Suzuki, Chihiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Ida, Katsumi; Nagayama, Yoshio; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Kawahata, Kazuo; Narihara, Kazumichi; Tokuzawa, Tokihiko; Yamada, Ichihiro [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki city, 509-5292 Japan (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have developed a mapping system of the electron temperature profile to the flux coordinates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To increases the performance, multiple virtual machines are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The virtual machine technology is flexible when increasing the number of computers. - Abstract: This paper presents a system called 'TSMAP' that maps electron temperature profiles to flux coordinates for the Large Helical Device (LHD). Considering the flux surface is isothermal, TSMAP searches an equilibrium database for the LHD equilibrium that fits the electron temperature profile. The equilibrium database is built through many VMEC computations of the helical equilibria. Because the number of equilibria is large, the most important technical issue for realizing the TSMAP system is computational performance. Therefore, we use multiple personal computers to enhance performance when building the database for TSMAP. We use virtual machines on multiple Linux computers to run the TSMAP program. Virtual machine technology is flexible, allowing the number of computers to be easily increased. This paper discusses how the use of virtual machine technology enhances the performance of TSMAP calculations when multiple CPU cores are used.

  7. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · CHANDIPURA VIRUS · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · VIRUSES · PROPERTIES OF VIRUSES · CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES · VIRUS FAMILIES · VIRUS FAMILIES – contd · General Classification · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  8. ACS Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes. The reason for this is that the ACS calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS images of the omega Cen standard field with all nine broadband ACS/WFC filters. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS zero points by comparison with excellent ground-based photometry, and should reduce their uncertainties to less than 0.01 magnitudes. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager. Finally, three of the filters will be repeated from my Cycle 12 observations, allowing for a measurement of any change in sensitivity.

  9. Building Temperature Set Point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meincke, Carol L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Christopher A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This white paper provides information and recommendations for an actionable and enforceable corporate policy statement on temperature set points for office and related spaces at Sandia and presents a strategy that balances the need to achieve the energy goals with optimizing employee comfort and productivity.

  10. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  11. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Receptor-mediated endocytosis · Slide 4 · Publications – Direct therapeutic approaches · Importance of ECM recognition · Publications – ECM interactions · Slide 8 · L. donovani, when attached to the macrophage surface, behaves like any other microbe which are killed ...

  12. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  13. Holographic Three point Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Ara

    . In the spirit of understanding this problem better, the thesis discusses the divergences appearing in the calculation of structure constants involving two giant and one point-like gravitons in the string theories on AdS_5 x S^5 and AdS_4 x S^7/Z_k backgrounds. Coherent state approach for the tree-level...

  14. New Novae snack point

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  15. Hillclimbing saddle point inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana, Kiyoharu; Sakai, Katsuta

    2018-03-01

    Recently a new inflationary scenario was proposed in [1] which can be applicable to an inflaton having multiple vacua. In this letter, we consider a more general situation where the inflaton potential has a (UV) saddle point around the Planck scale. This class of models can be regarded as a natural generalization of the hillclimbing Higgs inflation [2].

  16. Point kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpland, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    A normalized form of the point kinetics equations, a prompt jump approximation, and the Nordheim-Fuchs model are used to model nuclear systems. Reactivity feedback mechanisms considered include volumetric expansion, thermal neutron temperature effect, Doppler effect and void formation. A sample problem of an excursion occurring in a plutonium solution accidentally formed in a glovebox is presented

  17. A brief statistical analysis of stomatology papers published in international journals by researchers from the mainland of China--based on Thomson Reuters' journal citation reports for 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Pan, Yun-Tao; Hong, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    This paper has briefly analyzed the publication status of Chinese stomatology papers in 2009 with statistics from Journal Citation Reports provided by Thomson Scientific. Only those papers with the first author coming from the mainland of China were included for calculations. We have found a significant increase in the number of SCIE-indexed papers, most of which were published by six dental institutions in China. Among all Chinese medical institutions, West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University is the first dental institution to enter the top-20 list with the most publications, and it also ranks the 9th in the number of outstanding articles. West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University and the Forth Military Medical University are the only two dental institutions in China which have published SCIE-indexed papers over a hundred. The former has published the most SCIE-indexed stomatology papers, while the latter has the highest average impact factor. As the laboratories and funds in China have close connections with various dental hospitals, the pratice of translational medicine in dentistry is fast and fluent.

  18. Measurement of high-dynamic range x-ray Thomson scattering spectra for the characterization of nano-plasmas at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, M. J., E-mail: macdonm@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Gorkhover, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Technische Universität, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Bachmann, B.; Hau-Riege, S. P.; Pardini, T.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bucher, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Argonne National Lab, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Carron, S. [California Lutheran University, Thousand Oaks, California 91360 (United States); Coffee, R. N.; Fletcher, L. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Göde, S.; Krzywinski, J.; O’Grady, C. P.; Osipov, T.; Swiggers, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Drake, R. P. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Ferguson, K. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Kraus, D. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); and others

    2016-11-15

    Atomic clusters can serve as ideal model systems for exploring ultrafast (∼100 fs) laser-driven ionization dynamics of dense matter on the nanometer scale. Resonant absorption of optical laser pulses enables heating to temperatures on the order of 1 keV at near solid density conditions. To date, direct probing of transient states of such nano-plasmas was limited to coherent x-ray imaging. Here we present the first measurement of spectrally resolved incoherent x-ray scattering from clusters, enabling measurements of transient temperature, densities, and ionization. Single shot x-ray Thomson scattering signals were recorded at 120 Hz using a crystal spectrometer in combination with a single-photon counting and energy-dispersive pnCCD. A precise pump laser collimation scheme enabled recording near background-free scattering spectra from Ar clusters with an unprecedented dynamic range of more than 3 orders of magnitude. Such measurements are important for understanding collective effects in laser-matter interactions on femtosecond time scales, opening new routes for the development of schemes for their ultrafast control.

  19. Ion temperature measurements of H-, D- and He-plasmas in the TCA tokamak by collective Thomson scattering of D2O laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behn, R.; Dicken, D.; Hackmann, J.; Salito, S.A.; Siegrist, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Development of collective Thomson scattering as a method to measure the ion temperature of a tokamak plasma has been successful and encouraging results have been obtained during experiments on TCA in H-, D- and He-plasmas. Using a laser source in the far-infrared spectral region allows scattering angles close to 90 o , which results in excellent spatial resolution. The system installed on the TCA tokamak comprises an optically pumped D 2 O laser emitting 0.5 J in a 1.4 μs pulse on its Raman transition at 385μm. A heterodyne receiver with a Schottky barrier diode mixer has been chosen to detect the scattered radiation and analyze its spectral distribution in 12 channels of 80 MHz. Recent improvements of the mixer and 1st IF-amplifier yielded a system NEP of 2.2·10 -19 W/Hz. As a consequence we have obtained results which allow for the first time to evaluate the ion temperature T i in a single laser shot. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Comparative chemical and molecular variability of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson forma genuina (ylang-ylang) in the Western Indian Ocean Islands: implication for valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Céline; Mahy, Grégory; Bizoux, Jean-Philippe; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; du Jardin, Patrick; Brostaux, Yves; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2012-07-01

    Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson forma genuina (Annonaceae) is a tropical tree, grown for the production of ylang-ylang essential oil, which is extracted from its fresh and mature flowers. Despite its economic and social importance, very little information is available on its variability and the possible factors causing it. Therefore, the relationship between the genetic structure, revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and the essential oil chemical composition, determined by GC/MS analysis, of ylang-ylang grown in semi-managed systems in three Indian Ocean islands (Grande Comore, Mayotte, and Madagascar) was investigated. Our results revealed a low genetic variation within plantations and contrasted situations between islands. Variations of the chemical composition could be observed within plantations and between islands. The genetic differentiation pattern did not match the observed pattern of chemical variability. Hence, the chemical variation could not be attributed to a genetic control. As Grande Comore, Madagascar, and Mayotte present different environmental and agronomic conditions, it can be concluded that the influence of these conditions on the ylang-ylang essential oil composition is consistent with the patterns observed. Finally, several strategies were proposed to valorize the chemical composition variations. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.