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Sample records for played 5-a-side football

  1. Characterization of the intensity of effort of blind athletes from the Brazilian Football 5-A-Side national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Pereira Souza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Football 5-a-side is a sport played by blind athletes that takes part in the Paralympic Games since 2004. The Brazilian national team is currently considered the best team in the world in this sport. Objective: To analyze the variations of intensity of effort (average per position and group average made by blind athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side national team during six matches simulations. Methods: The sample on this research is the intentional type, made with eight blind male players,  ages ranging from 21 to 30 years old (23.8 ± 3.3, all of them part of the Brazilian Football 5-a-side National team, which played in the 2012 Paralympics Games in England. In was evaluated the VO2máx and the heart rate during six simulations of official matches. Results: The intensity of effort of the blind athletes of the Brazilian Football 5-a-side National Team is intermittent and remains 52.5 % of the total time of a match (50 minutes with an intensity of effort between the zone 2 (between threshold ventilation and respiratory compensation point and the zone 3 (above the respiratory compensation point averaging 89.8 % of the HR max. Conclusion: The intensity of effort is greater than the Football of 11 and, that in the Futsal players.

  2. Would You Let Your Child Play Football? Attitudes Toward Football Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur each year in the United States, and many are related to football. This has generated much discussion in the media on the perceived safety of the sport. In the current study, researchers asked 230 individuals various questions about attitudes toward safety in football. Approximately 92.6% of participants indicated they would allow their child to play football; these participants were more likely to be female (χ(2) = 5.23, p > .05), were slightly younger (t= -2.52, p football, and future studies are needed to clarify factors that inform this opinion.

  3. A Topic Model Approach to Representing and Classifying Football Plays

    KAUST Repository

    Varadarajan, Jagannadan

    2013-09-09

    We address the problem of modeling and classifying American Football offense teams’ plays in video, a challenging example of group activity analysis. Automatic play classification will allow coaches to infer patterns and tendencies of opponents more ef- ficiently, resulting in better strategy planning in a game. We define a football play as a unique combination of player trajectories. To this end, we develop a framework that uses player trajectories as inputs to MedLDA, a supervised topic model. The joint maximiza- tion of both likelihood and inter-class margins of MedLDA in learning the topics allows us to learn semantically meaningful play type templates, as well as, classify different play types with 70% average accuracy. Furthermore, this method is extended to analyze individual player roles in classifying each play type. We validate our method on a large dataset comprising 271 play clips from real-world football games, which will be made publicly available for future comparisons.

  4. Factors associated with playing football after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fältström, A; Hägglund, M; Kvist, J

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated whether player-related factors (demographic, personality, or psychological factors) or the characteristics of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury were associated with the return to playing football in females after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). We also compared current knee function, knee related quality of life and readiness to return to sport between females who returned to football and those who had not returned. Females who sustained a primary ACL rupture while playing football and underwent ACLR 6-36 months ago were eligible. Of the 460 contacted, 274 (60%) completed a battery of questionnaires, and 182 were included a median of 18 months (IQR 13) after ACLR. Of these, 94 (52%) returned to football and were currently playing, and 88 (48%) had not returned. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two factors associated with returning to football: short time between injury and ACLR (0-3 months, OR 5.6; 3-12 months OR 4.7 vs reference group > 12 months) and high motivation. Current players showed higher ratings for current knee function, knee-related quality of life, and psychological readiness to return to sport (P football after ACLR. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. "All boys and men can play football"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, D M; Krustrup, Peter; Hornstrup, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that exercise-based rehabilitation improves physical capacity and quality of life in cancer survivors. However, recruitment and persistence of male cancer patients in rehabilitation and physical activity are low and novel health promotion strategies are warranted. The pur......Evidence is accumulating that exercise-based rehabilitation improves physical capacity and quality of life in cancer survivors. However, recruitment and persistence of male cancer patients in rehabilitation and physical activity are low and novel health promotion strategies are warranted....... The two data sets were analyzed using framework analysis. The analysis produced 11 subthemes that were structured into three overarching themes: (a) motivational drivers; (b) united in sport; and (c) confirmation of own capacity. The findings indicated that participants regarded football as a welcome...... of masculine ideals, may be a potent and unique strategy for increasing recruitment and adherence to physical activity in prostate cancer patients....

  6. Automatic recognition of offensive team formation in american football plays

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2013-06-01

    Compared to security surveillance and military applications, where automated action analysis is prevalent, the sports domain is extremely under-served. Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. American football is the most popular sport in the United States, however most game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takes many man hours per week. These two statistics are also the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67% accuracy in classifying the offensive team\\'s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Knee and ankle injuries from playing football

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G.

    2010-01-01

    Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.) [de

  8. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  9. Association Between Playing American Football in the National Football League and Long-term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Gandhavadi, Maheer; Jena, Anupam B

    2018-02-27

    Studies of the longevity of professional American football players have demonstrated lower mortality relative to the general population but they may have been susceptible to selection bias. To examine the association between career participation in professional American football and mortality risk in retirement. Retrospective cohort study involving 3812 retired US National Football League (NFL) players who debuted in the NFL between 1982 and 1992, including regular NFL players (n = 2933) and NFL "replacement players" (n = 879) who were temporarily hired to play during a 3-game league-wide player strike in 1987. Follow-up ended on December 31, 2016. NFL participation as a career player or as a replacement player. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality by December 31, 2016. Cox proportional hazards models were estimated to compare the observed number of years from age 22 years until death (or censoring), adjusted for birth year, body mass index, height, and position played. Information on player death and cause of death was ascertained from a search of the National Death Index and web-based sources. Of the 3812 men included in this study (mean [SD] age at first NFL activity, 23.4 [1.5] years), there were 2933 career NFL players (median NFL tenure, 5 seasons [interquartile range {IQR}, 2-8]; median follow-up, 30 years [IQR, 27-33]) and 879 replacement players (median NFL tenure, 1 season [IQR, 1-1]; median follow-up, 31 years [IQR, 30-33]). At the end of follow-up, 144 NFL players (4.9%) and 37 replacement players (4.2%) were deceased (adjusted absolute risk difference, 1.0% [95% CI, -0.7% to 2.7%]; P = .25). The adjusted mortality hazard ratio for NFL players relative to replacements was 1.38 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.99; P = .09). Among career NFL players, the most common causes of death were cardiometabolic disease (n = 51; 35.4%), transportation injuries (n = 20; 13.9%), unintentional injuries (n = 15; 10.4%), and neoplasms (n = 15

  10. Managed Play: The Media’s Impact on Play in the Australian Football League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Samuel Keith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available No industry has influenced the transformation of the Australian Football League (AFL into a professional, commercial business more than the media. Today, the AFL players are paid more than ever and are used as marketing tools to promote and sell the game, often to new fans in new markets of Australia - namely New South Wales and Queensland - who haven’t traditionally played Australian Football, preferring the rugby codes instead. But perhaps the biggest change in the AFL is that the play element is now used as function of business. Put simply, winning leads to more money. As such, the play element is now manipulated more than ever. The game has more coaches implementing more tactics, strategies, game plans and set plays than ever before. These changes can be linked back to the media’s influence on the game. This paper utilises the combined observations and theories of Johan Huizinga and Pierre Bourdieu to create a theoretical lens through which we can understand the media’s growing influence in sport and its impact on play’s transformation. The theory will then be expounded through an extensive analysis of the media’s influence in the AFL, particularly its play element. This analysis will be supported with insights and views from AFL fans, members, commentators and theorists.

  11. Association of Playing High School Football With Cognition and Mental Health Later in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sameer K; Hasegawa, Raiden B; Rabinowitz, Amanda R; Whyte, John; Roan, Carol L; Tabatabaei, Andrew; Baiocchi, Michael; Karlawish, Jason H; Master, Christina L; Small, Dylan S

    2017-08-01

    American football is the largest participation sport in US high schools and is a leading cause of concussion among adolescents. Little is known about the long-term cognitive and mental health consequences of exposure to football-related head trauma at the high school level. To estimate the association of playing high school football with cognitive impairment and depression at 65 years of age. A representative sample of male high school students who graduated from high school in Wisconsin in 1957 was studied. In this cohort study using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, football players were matched between March 1 and July 1, 2017, with controls along several baseline covariates such as adolescent IQ, family background, and educational level. For robustness, 3 versions of the control condition were considered: all controls, those who played a noncollision sport, and those who did not play any sport. Athletic participation in high school football. A composite cognition measure of verbal fluency and memory and attention constructed from results of cognitive assessments administered at 65 years of age. A modified Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale score was used to measure depression. Secondary outcomes include results of individual cognitive tests, anger, anxiety, hostility, and heavy use of alcohol. Among the 3904 men (mean [SD] age, 64.4 [0.8] years at time of primary outcome measurement) in the study, after matching and model-based covariate adjustment, compared with each control condition, there was no statistically significant harmful association of playing football with a reduced composite cognition score (-0.04 reduction in cognition vs all controls; 97.5% CI, -0.14 to 0.05) or an increased modified Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale depression score (-1.75 reduction vs all controls; 97.5% CI, -3.24 to -0.26). After adjustment for multiple testing, playing football did not have a significant adverse association with

  12. Concussion Incidence and Recurrence in Professional Australian Football Match-Play: A 14-Year Analysis

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    Nathan Gibbs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Concussion incidence rates in professional Australian football may be underreported due to the injury classification definition. A myriad of factors contribute to concussion risk; however, there is limited long-term surveillance in Australian football. This study analysed concussion in one Australian football team over an extended period. Method. Match-play concussion injuries in one team (n=116 participants were diagnosed and treated by the team physician over 14 years. Analysis of factors related to concussion including matches played, time of day and season, and return to play provided an insight into occurrence and recurrence rates. Results. 140 concussions were recorded (17.6 per 1000 player match hours. A strong relationship was evident between matches played and concussion incidence (r=0.70 and match conditions did not negatively affect the concussion rate. Whether an athlete returned to play in the same match or suffered a loss-of-consciousness concussion (p=0.84, their ensuing rate of concussion was not affected. Conclusion. Concussion in professional Australian football was related to the number of matches played. Further, neither previous incidence nor loss of consciousness affected future concussion risk. This study provides ecologically valid evidence of the concussion incidence rate in professional Australian football and has implications for the management of athletes sustaining concussion injuries.

  13. Examining Play Counts and Measurements of Injury Incidence in Youth Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Yeargin, Susan W; Djoko, Aristarque; Dalton, Sara L; Baker, Melissa M; Dompier, Thomas P

    2017-10-01

      Whereas researchers have provided estimates for the number of head impacts sustained within a youth football season, less is known about the number of plays across which such impact exposure occurs.   To estimate the number of plays in which youth football players participated during the 2013 season and to estimate injury incidence through play-based injury rates.   Descriptive epidemiology study.   Youth football.   Youth football players (N = 2098; age range, 5-15 years) from 105 teams in 12 recreational leagues across 6 states.   We calculated the average number of athlete-plays per season and per game using independent-samples t tests to compare age groups (5-10 years old versus 11-15 years old) and squad sizes (football players participated in 333.9 ± 178.5 plays per season and 43.9 ± 24.0 plays per game. Age groups (5- to 10-year-olds versus 11- to 15-year-olds) did not differ in the average number of plays per season (335.8 versus 332.3, respectively; t 2086.4 = 0.45, P = .65) or per game (44.1 versus 43.7, respectively; t 2092.3 = 0.38, P = .71). However, players from smaller teams participated in more plays per season (373.7 versus 308.0; t 1611.4 = 8.15, P football squad sizes may help reduce head-impact exposure for individual players. The AE-based injury rates yielded effect estimates similar to those of play-based injury rates.

  14. Big men playing football: Money, politics and foul play in the African game

    OpenAIRE

    Pannenborg, A.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    While the skills of players can be observed on pitches throughout Africa, the actions of those who run the game's administrative side are less visible. Based on anthropological fieldwork in Ghana and Cameroon, this study's main characters are rich and powerful men who take up positions within clubs and football associations. Through their involvement in football, these African "Big Men" convert symbolic, social and economic capital. In other words, they transform the game's popularity into st...

  15. Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Everett J; Hein, Misty J; Gersic, Christine M

    2016-10-01

    There is current disagreement in the scientific literature about the relationship between playing football and suicide risk, particularly among professional players in the National Football League (NFL). While some research indicates players are at high risk of football-related concussions, which may lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy and suicide, other research finds such a connection to be speculative and unsupported by methodologically sound research. To compare the suicide mortality of a cohort of NFL players to what would be expected in the general population of the United States. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A cohort of 3439 NFL players with at least 5 credited playing seasons between 1959 and 1988 was assembled for statistical analysis. The vital status for this cohort was updated through 2013. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), the ratio of observed deaths to expected deaths, and 95% CIs were computed for the cohort; 95% CIs that excluded unity were considered statistically significant. For internal comparison purposes, standardized rate ratios were calculated to compare mortality results between players stratified into speed and nonspeed position types. Suicide among this cohort of professional football players was significantly less than would be expected in comparison with the United States population (SMR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24-0.82). There were no significant differences in suicide mortality between speed and nonspeed position players. There is no indication of elevated suicide risk in this cohort of professional football players with 5 or more credited seasons of play. Because of the unique nature of this cohort, these study results may not be applicable to professional football players who played fewer than 5 years or to college or high school players. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. The Influence of Physical Qualities on Activity Profiles of Female Australian Football Match-Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J; Johnston, Rich D; Cole, Michael H; Naughton, Geraldine; Dawson, Brian

    2017-10-16

    The rapid transition of female Australian football players from amateur to semi-elite competitions has the potential for athletes to be underprepared for match-play. To gain an understanding the match demands of female football, the aims of this study were three-fold: (1) to highlight the physical qualities that discriminate selected and non-selected female Australian Football players, (2) to investigate activity profiles of female Australian Football players, and (3) to gain an understanding of the influence of physical qualities on running performance in female Australian Football match-play. Twenty-two female Australian football (AF) state academy players (mean ± SD age, 23.2 ± 4.5 years) and 27 non-selected players (mean ± SD age, 23.4 ± 4.9 years) participated in this study. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1), countermovement jump and 30m sprint tests were completed prior to the competitive season. During 14 matches, players wore global positioning system (GPS) units to describe the running demands of female AF match-play. Selected players were faster over 30 metres (ES=0.57; p=0.04) and covered greater distances on the Yo-Yo IR1 test (ES=1.09; pfemale AF players were faster and had greater intermittent running ability than players not selected to a State academy program. An emphasis should be placed on the development of physical fitness in this playing group to ensure optimal preparation for the national competition.

  17. Relationship between goal orientation and perceived motivational climate in football players of different playing positions

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    Özkan ÇEKİÇ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the characteristics of goal orientation and perceived motivational climate change according to the playing positions of amateur footballers. Material and Methods: Four hundred and sixty amateur male football players participated in the study (age, 21.72±4.63 years; football experience, 9.24±4.18 years. Footballers were named as the defence (n=199, midfield (n=187 and forward (n=74 according to their playing position. The scores of perceived motivational climate and goal orientation were determined by the Turkish versions of ‘The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire’ and ‘The Perceived Motivation Climate Questionnaire’, which were adopted by Toros (2002. Results: Pearson correlation analyses showed that football experience had no effect on task orientation, ego orientation, mastery climate, and performance climate. ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests showed that task orientation and mastery climate scores were higher in defence players than midfield players (p=0.003 vs. p<0.001. Ego orientation and performance climate scores of the midfield and defence players differed in favour of the midfield players (p<0.001 vs. p<0.001. Although there were no statistically significant differences in terms of the scores of task orientation and ego orientation among forward, defence, and midfield players, performance climate scores were higher in forward players than midfield players (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, players who have higher task orientation and mastery climate scores can play as defence players, and other players who have higher ego orientation and performance climate scores can play as midfield players. With the need for more extensive studies to determine the goal orientation and motivational climate scores of forward players, scores that are obtained from questionnaires should be evaluated with physical and physiological tests.

  18. The Epidemiology of Injuries in Football at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Cushman, Daniel; Blauwet, Cheri A; Emery, Carolyn; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Willick, Stuart E

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology of injury in Paralympic football has received little attention. A study of all sports at the London 2012 Paralympic Games identified football 5-a-side as the sport with the highest injury rate, meriting further detailed analysis, which may facilitate the development of strategies to prevent injuries. To examine the injury rates and risk factors associated with injury in Paralympic football. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of injuries to football 5-a-side and football 7-a-side athletes. London 2012 Paralympic Games. Participants included 70 football 5-a-side athletes and 96 football 7-a-side athletes. Athletes from all but one country chose to participate in this study. The Paralympic Injury and Illness Surveillance System was used to track injuries during the Games, with data entered by medical staff. Injury incidence rate (IR) and injury incidence proportion (IP). The overall IR for football 5-a-side was 22.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.1-33.8) with an IP of 31.4 injuries per 100 athletes (95% CI, 20.9-43.6). In 5-a-side competition, 62.5% of injuries were associated with foul play. The overall IR for football 7-a-side was 10.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days (95% CI, 5.4-15.5), with an IP of 14.6 injuries per 100 athletes (95% CI, 7.5-21.6). The most commonly injured body region in both sports was the lower extremity. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine IR and risk factors associated with injury in Paralympic football. Future studies are needed to determine mechanisms of injury and independent risk factors for injury, thus informing prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ELITE JUNIOR AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALLERS DURING MATCH-PLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Veale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian Football (AF is Australia's major football code. Despite research in other football codes, to date, no data has been published on the physiological responses of AF players during match play. Fifteen athletes (17.28 ± 0.76 yrs participated in four pre-season matches, sanctioned by Australian Football League (AFL Victoria, investigating Heart Rate (HR, Blood Lactate (BLa, Core Temperature (Tcore, and Hydration status. Match HR was measured continuously using HR monitors. BLa was measured via finger prick lancet at the end of each quarter of play. Tcore was measured by use of ingestible temperature sensor and measured wirelessly at the end of each quarter of play. Hydration status was measured using refractometry, measuring urine specific gravity, and body weight pre and post-match. Environmental conditions were measured continuously during matches. Results of HR responses showed a high exertion of players in the 85-95% maximum HR range. Elevated mean BLa levels, compared to rest, were observed in all players over the duration of the matches (p = 0.007. Mean Tcore rose 0.68 °C between start and end of matches. Mean USG increased between 0.008 g/ml (p = 0.001 with mean body weight decreasing 1.88 kg (p = 0.001. This study illustrates physiological responses in junior AF players playing in the heat as well as providing physiological data for consideration by AF coaching staff when developing specific training programs. Continued research should consider physiological measurements under varying environments, and at all playing levels of AF, to ascertain full physiological responses during AF matches.

  20. An analysis of playing activity of 19-21-years-old footballers in the leading teams of Europe

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    Nikolaenko V.V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Competition activity of footballers of 19-21-years-old age in the professional commands of Europe on football is considered. Data for research serves the normatively-legal documents of football Federations of leading European championships (request folias and protocols of matches. It was attached the construction of the statistical grouping that in dynamic allow to analyze playing activity of footballers of 19-21-years-old age at the stage of preparation to the higher achievements. It is appraised the influence of the competition loading on the organism of sportsmen of this age. It is defined that participating of 19-21-years athletes in team of professional commands-leaders of UEFA rating. The necessity of research of psychophysiological and morphological characteristics of sportsmen of different playing lines in football, their usage in control and selection in professional teams were defined.

  1. Position specific player load during match-play in a professional football club.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baptista

    Full Text Available There is a rapid growing body of knowledge regarding physical aspects of a football match due to studies using computer-assisted motion analysis. The present study used time-motion analysis and triaxial-accelerometers to obtain new insights about differences in physical profiles of elite football players across playing-positions. Player performance data in 23 official home matches from a professional football club, during two seasons were collected for analysis. Eighteen players from five different playing positions (central backs: n = 3; full-backs: n = 5; central midfielders: n = 6; wide midfielders: n = 3; and central forwards: n = 4, performing a total of 138 observations. A novel finding was that central backs and central midfielders had significantly lower work-rate in sprints, decelerations and accelerations than full-backs, wide midfielders and central forwards (p90° than central backs. The most common distance covered in high-intensity runs (≥19.8 km·h-1 for central backs, central midfielders, wide midfielders and central forwards was 1-5 m, but for full-backs was 6-10 m. This may help coaches in developing individualized training programs to meet the demands of each position in match-play.

  2. The metabolic power and energetic demands of elite Gaelic football match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Collins, Kieran; Doran, Dominic

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic power has not yet been investigated within elite Gaelic football. The aim of the current investigation was to compare the metabolic power demands between positional groups and examine the temporal profile of elite Gaelic football match play. Global positional satellite system (GPS) data were collected from 50 elite Gaelic football players from 4 inter-county teams during 35 elite competitive matches over a three season period. A total of 351 complete match samples were obtained for final analysis. Players were categorized based on positional groups; full-back, half-back, midfield, half-forward and full-forward. Instantaneous raw velocity data was obtained from the GPS and exported to a customized spreadsheet which provided estimations of both speed based, derived metabolic power and energy expenditure variables (total distance, high speed distance, average metabolic power, high power distance and total energy expenditure). Match mean distance was 9222±1588 m, reflective of an average metabolic power of 9.5-12.5 W·kg-1, with an average energy expenditure of 58-70 Kj·kg-1 depending on position. There were significant differences between positional groups for both speed-based and metabolic power indices. Midfielders covered more total and high-speed distance, as well as greater average and overall energy expenditure compared to other positions (Ppower distance, as well as average metabolic power throughout the match (Ppower and traditional running based variables. The middle three positions (midfield, half-back and half-forward) possess greater activity profiles when compared to other positional groups. The reduction in metabolic power and traditional running based variables are comparable across match play. The current study demonstrates that metabolic power may contribute to our understanding of Gaelic football match-play.

  3. Concussion Symptoms and Return to Play Time in Youth, High School, and College American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Wasserman, Erin B; Covassin, Tracey; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    To our knowledge, little research has examined concussion across the youth/adolescent spectrum and even less has examined concussion-related outcomes (ie, symptoms and return to play). To examine and compare sport-related concussion outcomes (symptoms and return to play) in youth, high school, and collegiate football athletes. Athletic trainers attended each practice and game during the 2012 to 2014 seasons and reported injuries. For this descriptive, epidemiological study, data were collected from youth, high school, and collegiate football teams, and the analysis of the data was conducted between July 2015 and September 2015. The Youth Football Surveillance System included more than 3000 youth football athletes aged 5 to 14 years from 118 teams, providing 310 team seasons (ie, 1 team providing 1 season of data). The National Athletic Treatment, Injury, and Outcomes Network Program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 184 team seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 34 college football programs, providing 71 team seasons. We calculated the mean number of symptoms, prevalence of each symptom, and the proportion of patients with concussions that had long return-to-play time (ie, required participation restriction of at least 30 days). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences among competition levels in the mean number of reported symptoms. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of return to play at less than 24 hours and at least 30 days. Overall, 1429 sports-related concussions were reported among youth, high school, and college-level football athletes with a mean (SD) of 5.48 (3.06) symptoms. Across all levels, 15.3% resulted return to play at least 30 days after the concussion and 3.1% resulted in return to play less than 24 hours after the concussion. Compared with youth, a higher number of concussion symptoms were reported in high school athletes (β = 1.39; 95

  4. Return to play criteria after hamstring muscle injury in professional football: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambaldi, Mattia; Beasley, Ian; Rushton, Alison

    2017-08-01

    Hamstring muscle injury (HMI) is the most common injury in professional football and has a high re-injury rate. Despite this, there are no validated criteria to support return to play (RTP) decisions. To use the Delphi method to reach expert consensus on RTP criteria after HMI in professional football. All professional football clubs in England (n=92) were invited to participate in a 3-round Delphi study. Round 1 requested a list of criteria used for RTP decisions after HMI. Responses were independently collated by 2 researchers under univocal definitions of RTP criteria. In round 2 participants rated their agreement for each RTP criterion on a 1-5 Likert Scale. In round 3 participants re-rated the criteria that had reached consensus in round 2. Descriptive statistics and Kendall's coefficient of concordance enabled interpretation of consensus. Participation rate was limited at 21.7% (n=20), while retention rate was high throughout the 3 rounds (90.0%, 85.0%, 90.0%). Round 1 identified 108 entries with varying definitions that were collated into a list of 14 RTP criteria. Rounds 2 and 3 identified 13 and 12 criteria reaching consensus, respectively. Five domains of RTP assessment were identified: functional performance, strength, flexibility, pain and player's confidence. The highest-rated criteria were in the functional performance domain, with particular importance given to sprint ability. This study defined a list of consensually agreed RTP criteria for HMI in professional football. Further work is now required to determine the validity of the identified criteria. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Asserting the Right to Play. Women’s Football in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brus, Anne Birgitte; Trangbæk, Else

    2004-01-01

    In 1970 the Danish Football club Boldklubben Femina (BK Femina) became unofficial world champions. The success of BK Femina women's football team was not a coincidence and should be placed in the context of a ten-year struggle to have football accepted as a sport for women in Denmark. This essay...... examines three consecutive periods in Danish women's football: the establishment of women's football in Denmark before 1970; the time of women's admission to the Danish Football Association (DBU) in 1970–72; and finally, the development of women's football in the DBU from 1972 to 2002....

  6. Sports Injuries in Brazilian Blind Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, MPME; Morato, MP; Bilzon, JLJ; Duarte, E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes...

  7. Comparison of injury incidences between football teams playing in different climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard JW

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John W Orchard,1 Markus Waldén,2 Martin Hägglund,3 Jessica J Orchard,1 Ian Chivers,4 Hugh Seward,5 Jan Ekstrand21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Native Seeds, Cheltenham, VIC, Australia; 5Australian Football League Medical Officers Association, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Australian Football League (AFL teams in northern (warmer areas generally have higher rates of injury than those in southern (cooler areas. Conversely, in soccer (football in Europe, teams in northern (cooler areas have higher rates of injury than those in southern (warmer areas, with an exception being knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, which are more common in the southern (warmer parts of Europe. This study examined relative injury incidence in the AFL comparing 9,477 injuries over 229,827 player-weeks from 1999–2012. There was a slightly higher injury incidence for teams from warmer parts of Australia (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.10 with quadriceps strains (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.58, knee cartilage injuries (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16–1.74, and ankle sprains (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00–1.37 all being more likely in warmer region teams. Achilles injuries followed a reverse pattern, tending to be more common in cooler region teams (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47–1.03. In conclusion, common findings from the AFL and European soccer are that ankle sprains and ACL injuries are generally more likely in teams playing in warmer climate zones, whereas Achilles tendinopathy may be more likely in teams playing in cooler zones. These injuries may have climate or surface risk factors (possibly related to types and structure of grass and shoe-surface traction that are

  8. Comparison of injury incidences between football teams playing in different climatic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John W; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Orchard, Jessica J; Chivers, Ian; Seward, Hugh; Ekstrand, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Australian Football League (AFL) teams in northern (warmer) areas generally have higher rates of injury than those in southern (cooler) areas. Conversely, in soccer (football) in Europe, teams in northern (cooler) areas have higher rates of injury than those in southern (warmer) areas, with an exception being knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, which are more common in the southern (warmer) parts of Europe. This study examined relative injury incidence in the AFL comparing 9,477 injuries over 229,827 player-weeks from 1999–2012. There was a slightly higher injury incidence for teams from warmer parts of Australia (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.10) with quadriceps strains (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.58), knee cartilage injuries (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16–1.74), and ankle sprains (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00–1.37) all being more likely in warmer region teams. Achilles injuries followed a reverse pattern, tending to be more common in cooler region teams (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47–1.03). In conclusion, common findings from the AFL and European soccer are that ankle sprains and ACL injuries are generally more likely in teams playing in warmer climate zones, whereas Achilles tendinopathy may be more likely in teams playing in cooler zones. These injuries may have climate or surface risk factors (possibly related to types and structure of grass and shoe-surface traction) that are universal across different football codes. PMID:24379731

  9. Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: Comparing Age- and Weight-Based Levels of Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Mireille E; Urban, Jillian E; Miller, Logan E; Jones, Derek A; Espeland, Mark A; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Maldjian, Joseph A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 5,000,000 athletes play organized football in the United States, and youth athletes constitute the largest proportion with ∼3,500,000 participants. Investigations of head impact exposure (HIE) in youth football have been limited in size and duration. The objective of this study was to evaluate HIE of athletes participating in three age- and weight-based levels of play within a single youth football organization over four seasons. Head impact data were collected using the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System. Mixed effects linear models were fitted, and Wald tests were used to assess differences in head accelerations and number of impacts among levels and session type (competitions vs. practices). The three levels studied were levels A (n = 39, age = 10.8 ± 0.7 years, weight = 97.5 ± 11.8 lb), B (n = 48, age = 11.9 ± 0.5 years, weight = 106.1 ± 13.8 lb), and C (n = 32, age = 13.0 ± 0.5 years, weight = 126.5 ± 18.6 lb). A total of 40,538 head impacts were measured. The median/95th percentile linear head acceleration for levels A, B, and C was 19.8/49.4g, 20.6/51.0g, and 22.0/57.9g, respectively. Level C had significantly greater mean linear acceleration than both levels A (p = 0.005) and B (p = 0.02). There were a significantly greater number of impacts per player in a competition than in a practice session for all levels (A, p = 0.0005, B, p = 0.0019, and C, p football and are an important step in making evidence-based decisions to reduce HIE.

  10. Femoroacetabular Impingement in Professional Football Players: Return to Play and Predictors of Career Length After Hip Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, Travis J; Bhatia, Sanjeev; McNamara, Shannen C; Briggs, Karen K; Philippon, Marc J

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have shown hip arthroscopy to be a highly effective treatment for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in a wide range of athletes; however, the rate of return to play and length of career after hip arthroscopy in professional football players are unknown. To determine how many athletes returned to professional football and the number of seasons they played after surgery. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fifty-one professional football players (60 hips) underwent hip arthroscopy for FAI between 2000 and 2014 by a single surgeon. Return to play was defined as competing in a preseason or regular season professional football game after surgery. Data were retrospectively obtained for each player from NFL.com , ESPN.com , individual team websites, and/or CFL.ca . We found that 87% (52/60) of the arthroscopic procedures allowed professional football players to return to play in a preseason or regular season game. Athletes who returned played an average of 38 games during 3.2 seasons after arthroscopy, with an average total career length of 7.4 seasons. Ninety-two percent (48/52) of players who returned had a minimum total career length of 3 years. When participants were analyzed by position, linemen were less likely to return after hip arthroscopy compared with other players (odds ratio 5.6; 95% CI, 1.1-35; P = .04). All quarterbacks and tight ends returned to play after surgery. No significant difference in return to play rate was found between athletes who underwent microfracture and those who did not (25% vs 38%, P = .698). Hip arthroscopy for treatment of FAI and associated pathologic abnormalities in professional football players resulted in a high rate of return to play. The study's findings demonstrate that 87% of the arthroscopic procedures allowed professional football players to return to play, linemen were less likely to return compared with other positions, and the presence of microfracture did not significantly affect the return

  11. Reference values for the creatine kinase response to professional Australian football match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Luke A G; Rennie, Michael J; Watsford, Mark L; Gibbs, Nathan J; Green, James; Spurrs, Robert W

    2018-08-01

    Due to the importance of monitoring markers of muscle damage in high-level sport from a medical and athlete recovery perspective, this study aimed to determine the upper limits of normal (ULN) for post-match plasma creatine kinase (CK) in professional Australian footballers. Raw CK values were considered, along with intra-individual deviations from the season-mean. Case series. CK was collected between 36-48h following professional Australian football match-play. A total of 1565 samples from 62 players were assessed over three consecutive seasons. The ULN were determined for raw scores and as a percentage of each player's season-mean response. The ULN for raw CK, as determined by the 97.5th, 95th and 90th percentiles were 1715 (90%CI: 1605-1890), 1380 (90%CI: 1325-1475) and 1110 (90%CI: 1050-1170) UL -1 respectively. The ULN intra-individual response (97.5th percentile) was defined as a player's score being greater than 94% (90%CI: 84-102%) above their season-mean. Professional Australian football elicits a profound effect on the CK response. The values provide a reference tool for athletes competing at this level of competition. The novel method of representing the CK response as a percentage difference from an individuals' season-mean enables a superior comparative ability between CK responses and reduces the high CK responder bias that occurs when using raw scores alone. The data will assist medical and conditioning staff in excluding medical emergencies and also aid in individualising the prescription of training loads and recovery to optimise athlete performance and minimise further muscle damage. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The acute effect of match play on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility in elite youth football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, M; Thorborg, K; Pizzari, T

    2017-01-01

    . Competitive football match play has a significant acute and transient effect on isometric hamstring strength and associated pain levels during resisted knee flexion in male international youth players. Range of motion measures appear to remain relatively unaffected by match play. Isometric hamstring strength......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of competitive football match play on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility. Fifteen male international youth football players were included. Hamstring strength and associated pain ratings, ankle dorsiflexion, hip extension, knee extension...... and flexion range of motion were evaluated immediately post-match and at intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h post-match. Strength significantly reduced post-match (P

  13. Analysis of playing activity of footballers 19-21-years-old age in the leading commands of Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaenko V.V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Competition activity of footballers is considered 19-21-years-old age in the professional commands of Europe. For research it was served as information normatively-legal documents of Federations of football of leading European championships (request letters and protocols of matches. In research it was necessary to be attached to the construction of the statistical groupings, that allowed to analyse in a dynamics playing activity of footballers on the stage of training to higher achievements. Influence of the competition loadings is appraised on the organism of sportsmen. Participating of sportsmen of this age is set in compositions of professional commands - leaders of rating of UEFA. It is set that the basic failing in preparation of the Ukrainian young footballers is surplus pursuit after a result and accent on physical preparation. It gives advantage above other commands which work above the technique of game (Holland, Germany, Spain in youth football. However, when players from youth football pass to the grown man, results sharply fall and felt substantial blanks in individual technical preparedness.

  14. Sport activities differentiating match-play improvement in elite youth footballers - a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllich, Arne; Kovar, Peter; Zart, Sebastian; Reimann, Ansgar

    2017-02-01

    This study examined contributions of different types of sport activities to the development of elite youth soccer performance. Match-play performance of 44 German male players was assessed by expert coaches twice, 24 months apart (age 11.1-13.1 years), based on videotaped 5v5 matches. Player pairs were matched by identical age and initial performance at t 1 . Each player was assigned to a group of either "Strong" or "Weak Responders" based on a higher or lower subsequent performance improvement at t 2 within each pair (mean Δperformance 29% vs. 7%). A questionnaire recorded current and earlier amounts of organised practice/training and non-organised sporting play, in soccer and other sports, respectively. Group comparison revealed that "Strong Responders" accumulated more non-organised soccer play and organised practice/training in other sports, but not more organised soccer practice/training. Subsequent multivariate analyses (multiple linear regression analyses (MLR)) highlighted that higher resultant match-play performance at t 2 was accounted for R 2 adj  = 0.65 by performance at t 1 , together with more non-organised soccer play and organised engagement in other sports, respectively, and greater current, but less earlier volume of organised soccer. The findings suggest that variable early sporting experience facilitates subsequent soccer performance development in German elite youth footballers.

  15. Match-play demands of elite youth Gaelic football using global positioning system tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Brian; Akubat, Ibrahim; Lyons, Mark; Collins, D Kieran

    2015-04-01

    Global positioning systems (GPS) technology has made athlete-tracking a convenient and accepted technique to specify movement patterns and physical demands in sport. The purpose of this study was to examine positional demands of elite youth Gaelic football match-play using portable GPS technology to examine movement patterns and heart rates across match periods. Fifty-six elite youth male Gaelic footballers (age, 15 ± 0.66 years) fitted with portable 4-Hz GPS units were observed during 6 competitive matches (60 minutes). Data provided from the GPS unit included total distance, high-intensity (≥17·km·h(-1)) distance, sprint (≥22 km·h(-1)) distance, and total number of sprints. Heart rate was monitored continuously throughout the games. Players covered a mean distance of 5732 ± 1047 m, and the mean intensity of match-play was 85% of the peak heart rate. There was a significant (p = 0.028) drop in the total distance covered in the second half (2783 ± 599 m) compared with the first half (2948 ± 580 m). In particular, there is a noticeable drop in the distance covered in the third quarter of the game (after half-time), which has implications for re-warming up at the end of the half-time interval. There was a highly significant (p < .001) difference in the distance traveled across the 5 positional groups with midfielders covering the greatest total distance (6740 ± 384 m). The significant differences found with respect to positional groups support the implementation of individual, position-specific strength and conditioning programs.

  16. Emerging data on the incidence of concussion in football practice at all levels of amateur play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    There has been increasing concern, particularly in the US, about potential long-term neurological deterioration syndromes seen in the US football players. Recurrent concussions are a potential area of concern. The authors of this paper have used data bases from three levels of amateur US football to identify the rate and risk of concussion injury in both football games and practice at the youth, high school, and college levels. This information is very important initial data around concussion rates at these levels.

  17. Childhood football play and practice in relation to self-regulation and national team selection; a study of Norwegian elite youth players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikstad, Martin K; Høigaard, Rune; Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Haugen, Tommy

    2018-03-09

    Childhood sport participation is argued to be important to understand differences in self-regulation and performance level in adolescence. This study sought to investigate if football-specific activities in childhood (6-12 years of age) is related to self-regulatory skills and national under 14- and 15-team selection in Norwegian elite youth football. Data of practice histories and self-regulatory skills of 515 youth football players selected at Norwegian regional level were collected and further analysed using multilevel analyses. The results revealed that high self-regulated players were more likely to be selected for national initiatives, and increased their involvement in peer-led football practice and adult-led football practice during childhood, compared to players with lower levels of self-regulation. While national level players reported higher levels of peer-led football play in childhood, the interaction effect suggest that the regional level players increased their involvement in peer-led play during childhood compared to national level players. In conclusion, the findings indicate that childhood sport participation may contribute to later differences in self-regulation, and highlights the importance of childhood engagement in football-specific play and practice in the development of Norwegian youth football players.

  18. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H.; Gorelik, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)

  19. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H. [Victoria House Medical Imaging, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Gorelik, Alexandra [Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Epicentre, Parkville (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)

  20. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Gorelik, Alexandra; Rotstein, Andrew H

    2017-03-01

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions.

  1. The Influence of Playing Experience and Position on Injury Risk in NCAA Division I College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunn, Robert; Fullagar, Hugh H K; Williams, Sean; Halseth, Travis J; Sampson, John A; Murray, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    American football is widely played by college student-athletes throughout the United States; however, the associated injury risk is greater than in other team sports. Numerous factors likely contribute to this risk, yet research identifying these risk factors is limited. The present study sought to explore the relationship between playing experience and position on injury risk in NCAA Division I college football players. Seventy-six male college student-athletes in the football program of an American NCAA Division I university participated. Injuries were recorded over 2 consecutive seasons. Players were characterized based on college year (freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior) and playing position. The effect of playing experience and position on injury incidence rates was analyzed using a generalized linear mixed-effects model, with a Poisson distribution, log-linear link function, and offset for hours of training exposure or number of in-game plays (for training and game injuries, respectively). The overall rates of non-time-loss and time-loss game-related injuries were 2.1 (90% CI: 1.8-2.5) and 0.6 (90% CI: 0.4-0.8) per 1000 plays, respectively. The overall rates of non-time-loss and time-loss training-related injuries were 26.0 (90% CI: 22.6-29.9) and 7.1 (90% CI: 5.9-8.5) per 1000 h, respectively. During training, seniors and running backs displayed the greatest risk. During games, sophomores, juniors, and wide receivers were at greatest risk. Being aware of the elevated injury risk experienced by certain player groups may help coaches make considered decisions related to training design and player selection.

  2. Influence of birth month to play in the Spanish professional football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Reverter-Masía

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Children born later in the year of competition have lower chances of promotion due to their low degree of physical, mental and emotional maturity. This phenomenon is known as Relative Age Effect or RAE. The objective of this study is to determine if the date of birth (month of birth is a factor in the configuration of the professional teams of Spanish football. As for the methodology, we determined the months of birth of the players of the first and second division of Spanish football. A total of 42 professional teams were analyzed. The data were arranged in semesters and quarters. The results show that there is a strong tendency for the selection of professional players born in the first quarters of the year compared to those born in the later ones. In conclusion, in Spain there is a predominance of professional football players depending on the month of birth

  3. Impact of playing American professional football on long-term brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Newberg, Andrew; Thatcher, Robert; Jin, Yi; Wu, Joseph; Keator, David; Willeumier, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The authors recruited 100 active and former National Football League players, representing 27 teams and all positions. Players underwent a clinical history, brain SPECT imaging, qEEG, and multiple neuropsychological measures, including MicroCog. Relative to a healthy-comparison group, players showed global decreased perfusion, especially in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, and cerebellar regions. Quantitative EEG findings were consistent, showing elevated slow waves in the frontal and temporal regions. Significant decreases from normal values were found in most neuropsychological tests. This is the first large-scale brain-imaging study to demonstrate significant differences consistent with a chronic brain trauma pattern in professional football players.

  4. Concussion Assessment in California Community College Football: Athletic Trainers' Strides toward a Safer Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Nancy Resendes

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method study was to compare current practices of athletic trainers in the management of concussion in football at California Community Colleges (CCC) with the concussion management guidelines set forth by the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA). The study also set out to gain understanding of why some athletic…

  5. Hydration: special issues for playing football in warm and hot environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirreffs, S M

    2010-10-01

    The high metabolic rates and body temperatures sustained by football players during training and matches causes sweating--particularly when in warm or hot environments. There is limited published data on the effects of this sweat loss on football performance. The limited information available, together with knowledge of the effects of sweat loss in other sports with skill components as well as endurance and sprint components, suggests that the effects of sweating will be similar as in these other activities. Therefore, the generalization that, on average, a body mass reduction equivalent to 2% should be the acceptable limit of sweat losses seems reasonable. This magnitude and more, of sweat loss is a common occurrence for some players. Sodium is the main electrolyte lost in sweat but there is large variability in sodium losses between players. However, the extent of sodium losses in some players may be such that its replacement is warranted for these players. Although football is a team sport, the great individual variability in sweat and electrolyte losses of players in the same training session or match dictates that individual monitoring to determine individual water and electrolyte requirements should be an essential part of a player's nutrition strategy. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03–1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69–1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43–0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions. PMID:26642320

  7. Exploring the effects of playing formations on tactical behaviour and external workload during football small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Jorge; Travassos, Bruno; Gonçalves, Bruno; Mourão, Paulo; Viana, João L; Sampaio, Jaime

    2018-01-04

    This study aimed to identify the effects of playing formations on tactical behaviour and external workload during football small-sided games. Twenty-three semi-professional footballers integrated three different playing formations in a 7-a-side small-sided game, according to their specific player positions: team 4:3:0 (4 defenders, 3 midfielders); team 4:1:2 (4 defenders, 1 midfielder, 2 forwards); and team 0:4:3 (4 midfielders, 3 forwards). Based on players' movement trajectories, the following individual and collective tactical variables were calculated: total distance covered and distance covered while walking, jogging, running and sprinting, distance from each player to both own and opponent's team centroid (Dist CG and Dist OPP CG, respectively), individual area, team length, team width and surface area. Approximate entropy (ApEn) was computed to identify the regularity of each variable. The team 4:3:0 promoted players' space exploration with moderate physical efforts. The team 4:1:2 promoted compactness and regularity of the team with increase in the physical efforts. The team 0:4:3 promoted team balance and adaptability on space coverage with increase in physical efforts. Concluding, different playing formations support different game dynamics, and variations on external load were directly linked with the variations on tactical behaviour. The analysis tactical behaviour through quantification of variability of patterns of play and quantification of distance covered at different velocities were the most useful information for the analysis of the effects of practice task manipulations. Therefore, in a practical sense, strength and conditioning coaches should plan and monitor these tasks in interaction with the head coaches.

  8. A Functional Return-to-Play Progression After Exertional Heat Stroke in a High School Football Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Tanner, Patrick; Irani, Sarah; Mularoni, P Patrick

    2018-03-01

      To present a functional return-to-play (RTP) progression after exertional heat stroke (EHS) in a 17-year-old high school football defensive end (height = 185 cm, mass = 145.5 kg).   The patient had no pertinent medical history but moved to a warm climate several days before the EHS occurred. After completing an off-season conditioning test (14- × 110-yd [12.6- × 99.0-m] sprints) on a warm afternoon (temperature = approximately 34°C [93°F], relative humidity = 53%), the patient collapsed. An athletic trainer (AT) was called to the field, where he found the patient conscious but exhibiting central nervous system dysfunction. Emergency medical services were summoned and immediately transported the patient to the hospital.   Exertional heat stroke, heat exhaustion, exertional sickling, rhabdomyolysis, and cardiac arrhythmia.   The patient was immediately transported to a hospital, where his oral temperature was 39.6°C (103.3°F). He was transferred to a children's hospital and treated for rhabdomyolysis, transaminitis, and renal failure. He was hospitalized for 11 days. After a physician's clearance once the laboratory results normalized, an RTP progression was completed. The protocol began with light activity and progressed over 3 weeks to full football practice. During activity, an AT monitored the patient's gastrointestinal temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, fluid consumption, and sweat losses.   Documentation of RTP guidelines for young athletes is lacking. We used a protocol intended for the football setting to ensure the athlete was heat tolerant, had adequate physical fitness, and could safely RTP. Despite his EHS, he recovered fully, with no lasting effects, and successfully returned to compete in the final 5 games of the season.   Using a gradual RTP progression and close monitoring, a high school defensive end successfully returned to football practice and games after EHS. This case demonstrates the feasibility of

  9. Field Robotics in Sports: Automatic Generation of guidance Lines for Automatic Grass Cutting, Striping and Pitch Marking of Football Playing Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Green

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Progress is constantly being made and new applications are constantly coming out in the area of field robotics. In this paper, a promising application of field robotics in football playing fields is introduced. An algorithmic approach for generating the way points required for the guidance of a GPS-based field robotic through a football playing field to automatically carry out periodical tasks such as cutting the grass field, pitch and line marking illustrations and lawn striping is represented. The manual operation of these tasks requires very skilful personnel able to work for long hours with very high concentration for the football yard to be compatible with standards of Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA. In the other side, a GPS-based guided vehicle or robot with three implements; grass mower, lawn stripping roller and track marking illustrator is capable of working 24 h a day, in most weather and in harsh soil conditions without loss of quality. The proposed approach for the automatic operation of football playing fields requires no or very limited human intervention and therefore it saves numerous working hours and free a worker to focus on other tasks. An economic feasibility study showed that the proposed method is economically superimposing the current manual practices.

  10. A field-based community assessment of intoxication levels across college football weekends: does it matter who's playing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Howell, Steve; Bopp, Trevor; Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Elizabeth; Piazza-Gardner, Anna; Payne-Purvis, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    While alcohol consumption has been consistently linked to college football games in the United States, this literature lacks (a) field-based event-level analyses; (b) assessments of the context of drinking, such as days leading to an event, that occurs in conjunction with a contest; (c) investigations of non-student drinking; and (d) objective assessments of opponent rating. Therefore, the present study: (1) examines the extent to which breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) among restaurant and bar district patrons differ for low- and high-profile games and (2) explores the relationship between an objective rating of a team's opponent and BrAC levels. Data were collected throughout the fall 2011 football season via six anonymous field studies in a bar district within a southeastern college community. During low-profile game weekends, respondents recorded significantly lower BrAC levels than those during high-profile game weekends. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between opponent rating and BrAC levels, such that mean BrAC readings were highest prior to the game featuring the highest rated opponent. Overall, participants exhibited significantly higher BrACs when a higher-rated opponent was playing that weekend. When resources (money, manpower) are limited, community-based prevention and enforcement efforts should occur during the weekends surrounding higher-profile games.

  11. Return to Play After Shoulder Instability Surgery in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Intercollegiate Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, R Judd; Daruwalla, Jimmy H; Gamradt, Seth C; McCarty, Eric C; Dragoo, Jason L; Hancock, Robert E; Guy, Jeffrey A; Cotsonis, George A; Xerogeanes, John W; Tuman, Jeffrey M; Tibone, James E; Javernick, Matthew A; Yochem, Eric M; Boden, Stephanie A; Pilato, Alexis; Miley, Jennifer H; Greis, Patrick E

    2017-08-01

    Recent attention has focused on the optimal surgical treatment for recurrent shoulder instability in young athletes. Collision athletes are at a higher risk for recurrent instability after surgery. To evaluate variables affecting return-to-play (RTP) rates in Division I intercollegiate football athletes after shoulder instability surgery. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Invitations to participate were made to select sports medicine programs that care for athletes in Division I football conferences (Pac-12 Conference, Southeastern Conference [SEC], Atlantic Coast Conference [ACC]). After gaining institutional review board approval, 7 programs qualified and participated. Data on direction of instability, type of surgery, time to resume participation, and quality and level of play before and after surgery were collected. There were 168 of 177 procedures that were arthroscopic surgery, with a mean 3.3-year follow-up. Overall, 85.4% of players who underwent arthroscopic surgery without concomitant procedures returned to play. Moreover, 15.6% of athletes who returned to play sustained subsequent shoulder injuries, and 10.3% sustained recurrent instability, resulting in reduction/revision surgery. No differences were noted in RTP rates in athletes who underwent anterior labral repair (82.4%), posterior labral repair (92.9%), combined anterior-posterior repair (84.8%; P = .2945), or open repair (88.9%; P = .9362). Also, 93.3% of starters, 95.4% of utilized players, and 75.7% of rarely used players returned to play. The percentage of games played before the injury was 49.9% and rose to 71.5% after surgery ( P surgery. Scholarship status significantly correlated with RTP after surgery ( P = .0003). The majority of surgical interventions were isolated arthroscopic stabilization procedures, with no statistically significant difference in RTP rates when concomitant arthroscopic procedures or open stabilization procedures were performed. Athletes who returned to play often

  12. Complete avulsion of the adductor longus in a semi-professional football player: Rapid return to play with nonoperative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince W Lands

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adductor longus has become recognized as one of the more commonly injured muscles in the medial compartment. Acute complete rupture injuries occurring at the proximal aspect of the muscle are less common. Limited data exist regarding management of the injuries in athletes required for return to play and functioning. The current data favors operative management; however, nonoperative treatment may be a viable option. Nonoperative management of avulsion injuries of the proximal adductor longus tendon may prove equal results to surgical repair in return to play and functioning. A semi-professional football player sustained a left groin injury while participating in the play. Due to continued pain, swelling, and suspicion of injury, a magnetic resonance imaging was performed diagnosing a complete tear of proximal adductor longus tendon. Physical examination, strength, and range of motion were recorded until the patient was able to function normally without strength deficit, the range of motion loss, and the return of speed. The player was treated nonoperatively and was eventually allowed to return to play. The time of return to play was 6 weeks. Strength deficit was not appreciated or loss of motion and player was able to return to baseline function. Nonoperative management of complete avulsion injuries of the proximal adductor longus tendon result in faster return to play than operative management even if significant retraction is present.

  13. Assessing the effect of football play on knee articular cartilage using delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenbo; Lambach, Becky; Jia, Guang; Flanigan, David; Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Wei, Lai; Rogers, Alan; Payne, Jason; Siston, Robert A; Knopp, Michael V

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of cartilage lesions is much higher in football athletes than in the general population. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) has been shown to quantify regional variations of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentrations which is an indicator of early cartilage degeneration. The goal of this study is to determine whether dGEMRIC can be used to assess the influence in cartilage GAG concentration due to college level football play. Thirteen collegiate football players with one to four years of collegiate football play experience were recruited and both knee joints were scanned using a dedicated 8-channel phased array knee coil on a 3T MRI system. The contrast concentrations within cartilage were calculated based on the T 1 values from dGEMRIC scans. No substantial differences were found in the contrast concentrations between the pre- and post-season across all the cartilage compartments. One year collegiate football players presented an average contrast concentration at the pre-season of 0.116±0.011mM and post-season of 0.116±0.011mM. In players with multiple years of football play, contrast uptake was elevated to 0.141±0.012mM at the pre-season and 0.139±0.012mM at the post-season. The pre-season 0.023±0.016mM and post-season 0.025±0.016mM increase in contrast concentration within the group with multiple years of experience presented with a >20% increase in contrast uptake. This may indicate the gradual, cumulative damage of football play to the articular cartilage over years, even though the effect may not be noticeable after a season of play. Playing collegiate football for a longer period of time may lead to cartilage microstructural alterations, which may be linked to early knee cartilage degeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sports injuries in Brazilian blind footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (psports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Footballs versus Barbies: Childhood Play Activities as Predictors of Sport Participation by Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiliano, Traci A.; Popp, Kathryn E.; Knight, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the extent to which women's childhood play activities predicted future sport participation. College athletes and nonathletes completed a survey on childhood play and adult sports experiences. Playing with masculine toys and games, playing in predominantly male or mixed groups, and being a tomboy characterized women who later became…

  16. Return to Play and Decreased Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Football League Defensive Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Connor R; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2017-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur commonly in football. Recent work has reported ACL reconstruction (ACLR) as one of several orthopaedic procedures with unfavorable outcomes for professional athletes. The performance impact to defensive players after surgery has not been quantified. To quantify the effect of ACLR on the performance of defensive players by comparing them to a cohort of matched controls as well as to measure the effect of ACLR on athletes' career length in the National Football League (NFL). Case-control and cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Thirty-eight NFL defensive players with a history of ACLR from 2006 to 2012 were identified. For each injured player, a matched control player was identified. Demographic and performance statistics were collected from the online NFL player database. Players who returned after ACLR (n = 23) were compared with players who did not return (n = 15) using t tests and chi-squared analyses. Similarly, players who returned after ACLR (n = 23) were compared with their matched controls with t tests and chi-squared analyses. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was utilized to test for significant differences between performance before and after the season of the injury for the players in the ACLR group who returned (n = 23) and for their matched controls. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to test for differences in the rate of retirement between the groups. For all analyses, P values <.05 were considered significant. Approximately 74% (28/38) of athletes who underwent ACLR returned to play at least 1 NFL game, and 61% (23/38) successfully returned to play at least half a season (ie, 8 games). Athletes in the ACLR group who returned retired from the NFL significantly sooner and more often after surgery than their matched controls. In the seasons leading up to their injury, athletes who successfully returned to play started a greater percentage of their games (81%) and made more solo tackles per

  17. Caffeine supplementation does not affect match activities and fatigue resistance during match play in young football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, Svein Arne; Krustrup, Peter; Bendiksen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effect of caffeine supplementation on match activities and development of fatigue during a football match. In a randomised, double-blind cross-over design, two experimental football games separated by 7 days were organised between the junior teams of two professional footba...

  18. Being Able to Play: Experiences of Social Inclusion and Exclusion Within a Football Team of People Seeking Asylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Dukic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Australian policy makers and funding organisations have relied heavily on sport as a vehicle for achieving the goals of social cohesion and social inclusion. The generally accepted premise that sport includes individuals in larger social contexts, and in doing so creates positive social outcomes, remains largely untested and uncontested. This article considers the ways in which playing in an asylum seeker football team, located in Melbourne, Australia, facilitates both inclusive and exclusive experiences for its participants. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork, life histories, and policy analysis, this article identifies the often-ignored importance of a sporting habitus and physical capital in individuals’ experiences of playing. The success or failure of the asylum seeker team to foster social inclusion is somewhat tenuous as the logic of competition can create conditions counter to those that would be recognised as inclusive. Further, such programmes are faced with sustainability problems, as they are heavily reliant on individuals within the organisation and community to “make things happen”. However, we suggest that for many men, the asylum seeker team provides an important site for the development and appreciation of ‘poly-cultural’ capital that contributes to forms of resilience and the achievement of other indicators of social inclusion.

  19. The Football

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    edge iff they are centres of adjacent faces of the cube, .... 'proof' for the preceding lemma does not work always: .... wants to play football with a solid with sharp edges and ... This will be needed later in part ... no two of these arcs meeting each other except at the ... vertex in any other component by travelling along edges.

  20. The World Football League Plays Ethnopolis United. The Problems of Asymmetry and Interoperability in Future War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDowall, Greg

    1998-01-01

    .... The high-tech American game generated considerable spectator and media interest, but the expensive new equipment and facilities needed to play it restricted the growth of the sport among the local populations...

  1. Effects of a lighter, smaller football on Acute match injuries in adolescent female football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K.; Thorborg, Kristian; Andersen, Lars L.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The high injury incidence during match-play in female adolescent football is a major concern. In football, males and females play matches with the same football size. No studies have investigated the effect of football size on injury incidence in female adolescent football. Thus......, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of introducing a lighter, smaller football on the injury pattern in female adolescent football. METHODS We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial including 26 football teams representing 346 adolescent female football players (age...... 15-18 years). The teams were randomized to a new lighter, smaller football (INT, N.=12 teams) or a traditional FIFA size 5 football (CON, N.=14 teams) during a full match-season. Acute time-loss injuries and football-exposure during match-play were reported weekly by text-message questions...

  2. Women’s football migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    What is intriguing about women’s football as a cultural phenomenon is that unlike men’s football the finances and media interest for the game are sparse. Nevertheless we have found that migration of female football players is growing steadily and women’s football is becoming global in nature....... The question is then what drives this globalization process? According to our study of women’s football migration into Scandinavia, one of the centers of women’s football, transnational networks play a crucial role in mobilizing global migratory moves. Using the concept of friends-of-friends networks from Bale...

  3. Knee and ankle injuries from playing football; Knie- und Sprunggelenkverletzungen beim Fussballspiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.) [German] Fussball ist die weltweit am meisten verbreitete Sportart. Der Zuwachs an Fussballspieler(innen) in den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten wird jedoch hauptsaechlich auf das verstaerkte Interesse an weiblichen Spielern zurueckgefuehrt. Das Fussballspiel gilt grundsaetzlich, insbesondere wenn man geringfuegige Verletzungen, die keine therapeutischen Massnahmen notwendig machen, sondern lediglich eine kurzfristige Trainings- oder Spielpause bedingen, als eine relativ sichere Sportart. Auf Grund der Vielzahl an SpielerInnen kommt es allerdings doch zu einer betraechtlichen Anzahl durchaus sehr schwerer Verletzungen. Diese Tatsache stellt ein Problem fuer Spieler und Team dar und mag moeglicherweise auch fuer das soziooekonomische System problematisch werden. Von Verletzungen sind v. a. auf Grund der Natur des Spieles die unteren Extremitaeten betroffen. Zur Durchfuehrung einer suffizienten radiologischen Diagnostik sind Kenntnisse der moeglichen Verletzungsmechanismen und eine Anamneseerhebung von nicht zu unterschaetzendem Wert. Um jedoch derartige Laesionen zu vermeiden bzw. gering zu halten, wurde ueber die Jahre

  4. At return to play following hamstring injury the majority of professional football players have residual isokinetic deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Johannes L.; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; Muxart, Patrice; Jacobsen, Philipp; Whiteley, Rod

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal criteria for return to sport after an acute hamstring injury. Less than 10% isokinetic strength deficit is generally recommended but this has never been documented in professional football players after rehabilitation. Our aim was to evaluate

  5. Recurrent stingers in an adolescent American football player: dilemmas of return to play. A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremski, Jason L; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Herman, Daniel C

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a 16-year-old football linebacker with a history of recurrent stingers. Initial physical examination was normal as were cervical spine radiographs. MRI of the cervical spine revealed relative stenosis. Electrodiagnostic testing revealed chronic bilateral neurogenic changes of the superior trunk of the brachial plexus. A Kerr Collar was obtained to minimize head acceleration and force transmission through the neck. While there are return-to-play guidelines for recurrent stingers, there are inconsistencies with those recommendations. Our case highlights the challenges in contact sport athletes with recurrent stingers.

  6. Being a football kid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2016-01-01

    Media and mediatization must be seen as a prerequisite for children’s play today. Children’s fan cultures cover a wide range of topics; yet, football is a field with specific explanatory power due to its structural and cultural specificities. In this chapter, football is seen as a specific play...... practice, carried out both physically and through engagements with a diverse range of traditional and new media. The chapter draws on empirical fieldwork among Danish children aged 8 to 13, describing football kids as active users of media, active play practitioners, and active performers of identity...... projects in relation to friends and family. For these children, football as a mediatized play practice is their point of departure, forming the grounds of their everyday practices....

  7. Travelling with football teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ultimately on the performance of the teams on the playing field and not so much ... However, travelling with a football team presents the team physician .... physician to determine the nutritional ..... diarrhoea in elite athletes: an audit of one team.

  8. Ran domized controlled clinical tria l on the efficacy of team play football on schizophrenic patients: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Vinci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The physical activity is an important aspect of good health for everyone; it is even more important for psychiatric patients who usually live an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of football practice on the self-reported health quality of life (SRHQL and Wellbeing in schizophrenic subjects. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Psychosocial Rehabilitation Program performed by Daily Center Mazzacurati, Department of Mental Health Roma/D , for psychotic subjects that included weekly football activities for a period of 9 months. The results show that the model proved effective in the experimental group (SG as regards the psychopathological dimensions, which are significantly improved (Median(IQR: 31(16 versus 53(18; p=0.001; in particular the negative symptomatology has been reduced, and this result is hardly achieved with the drug therapy (17(7 versus 25(15; p=0.003. This study increases the awareness of following this ap proach and improving the extension and the confirmation of the results achieved.

  9. Children's rights in football: Welfare and work

    OpenAIRE

    Brackenridge, CH

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines issues of labour and play in children's football. It asks whether global capitalism and the growth of girls' and women's football might lead to greater sexual victimization among female players.

  10. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of starters and non-starters and playing positions in elite Australian Rules Football: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W B; Newton, R U; Doyle, T L A; Chapman, D; Cormack, S; Stewart, G; Dawson, B

    2005-09-01

    A purpose of this study was to determine if pre-season anthropometric and physiological measures were significantly different for the players from one Australian Football League (AFL) club selected to play in the first game of the season compared to the players not selected. Another purpose was to compare fitness test results for defenders, forwards and mid-fielders in the same AFL club. Thirty-four players were tested for isolated quadriceps and hamstrings strength, leg extensor muscle strength and power, upper body strength, sprinting speed, vertical jump (VJ), endurance, skinfolds and hamstring flexibility. The starters who were selected to play the first game were a significantly older and more experienced playing group, and were significantly better (p starters. Although there were trends for the superiority of the starters, the differences in lower and upper body strength, VJ and predicted VO2max were non-significant. The forwards generally produced the worst fitness scores of the playing positions with the midfielders having significantly lower skinfolds and the defenders possessing better hamstring strength and VJ compared to the forwards. It was concluded that some fitness qualities can differentiate between starters and non-starters, at least in one AFL club. Comparisons of playing positions and the development of fitness norms for AFL players require further research.

  11. The Football

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL ! ARTICLE. The Football. 1. From Euclid to Soccer it is ... ARRao. A football is a 3-dimensional convex polyhedron with each face a regular pentagon or a regular hexagon and with at least one hexagonal face. This article is in two parts. In this first part, we will prove that a football exists and is unique and in the.

  12. Effects of Career Duration, Concussion History, and Playing Position on White Matter Microstructure and Functional Neural Recruitment in Former College and Professional Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael D; Varangis, Eleanna M L; Champagne, Allen A; Giovanello, Kelly S; Shi, Feng; Kerr, Zachary Y; Smith, J Keith; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2018-03-01

    Purpose To better understand the relationship between exposure to concussive and subconcussive head impacts, white matter integrity, and functional task-related neural activity in former U.S. football athletes. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 61 cognitively unimpaired former collegiate and professional football players (age range, 52-65 years) provided informed consent to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants were stratified across three crossed factors: career duration, concussion history, and primary playing position. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) percent signal change (PSC) were measured with diffusion-weighted and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Analyses of variance of FA and BOLD PSC were used to determine main or interaction effects of the three factors. Results A significant interaction between career duration and concussion history was observed; former college players with more than three concussions had lower FA in a broadly distributed area of white matter compared with those with zero to one concussion (t29 = 2.774; adjusted P = .037), and the opposite was observed for former professional players (t29 = 3.883; adjusted P = .001). A separate interaction between concussion history and position was observed: Nonspeed players with more than three concussions had lower FA in frontal white matter compared with those with zero to one concussion (t25 = 3.861; adjusted P = .002). Analysis of working memory-task BOLD PSC revealed a similar interaction between concussion history and position (all adjusted P history on white matter structure and neural recruitment. The differences in brain structure and function were observed in the absence of clinical impairment, which suggested that multimodal imaging may provide early markers of onset of traumatic neurodegenerative disease. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  13. Football: Action on the Gridiron

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…

  14. An analysis of the management of youth football development programmes established in the Gauteng province

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M. Phil. (Sport Management) Youth football development has developed into an important, integral part of professional football world-wide. Countries such as Spain, Brazil and the Netherlands have proven that an investment in youth football development has resulted in them becoming the world’s best football playing countries as ranked by International Football Association (FIFA). The investment in youth football development by these countries has resulted in sustained football success. The ...

  15. In Denmark, Football Fitness is the new girl in the FA school of football – but who is she?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    2018-01-01

    The Danish Football Association (DFA) has launched a football-based activity for health called Football Fitness. It is targeting adults playing in voluntary organised, non-profit and municipally subsidised football clubs, and is hugely popular among women. But what is the concept? Dr. Søren Benni...

  16. Physiological responses and physical performance during football in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nybo, Lars; Grantham, Justin

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play.......To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play....

  17. Dangerous Activities within an Invisible Playground: A Study of Emergent Male Football Play and Teachers' Perspectives of Outdoor Free Play in the Early Years of Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Pam

    2007-01-01

    This research was carried out during a study which focused upon the rough and tumble play of children in the early years department of a suburban primary school in northern England. The child sample's playtime activities were ethnographically observed over a period of 18 calendar months, during which time interviews were also carried out with the…

  18. Epidemiology of neurodegeneration in American-style professional football players

    OpenAIRE

    Lehman, Everett J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the history of head injuries in relation to American-style football play, summarize recent research that has linked football head injuries to neurodegeneration, and provide a discussion of the next steps for refining the examination of neurodegeneration in football players. For most of the history of football, the focus of media reports and scientific studies on football-related head injuries was on the acute or short-term effects of serious, traumatic...

  19. MRI findings and return to play in football: a prospective analysis of 255 hamstring injuries in the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; Lee, Justin C; Healy, Jeremiah C

    2016-06-01

    The present study evaluated whether the MRI parameters of hamstring injuries in male professional football players correlate with time to return to play (RTP). 46 elite European football teams were followed prospectively for hamstring injuries between 2007 and 2014. Club medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss after hamstring injury. MRI parameters were evaluated by two independent radiologists and correlated with the RTP data. A total of 255 grade 1 and 2 injuries were evaluated in this study. RTP was longer for grade 2 than grade 1 injuries (24±13, 95% CI 21 to 26 days vs 18±15, 95% CI 16 to 20 days; mean difference: 6, 95% CI 2 to 9 days, p=0.004, d=0.39). 84% of injuries affected the biceps femoris (BF) muscle, whereas 12% and 4% affected the semimembranosus (SM) and semitendinosus (ST), respectively. No difference in lay-off time was found for injuries to the three different muscles (BF 20±15 days, SM 18±11 days, ST 23±14 days; p=0.83). The recurrence rate was higher for BF injuries than for SM and ST injuries combined (18% vs 2%, p=0.009). The size of the oedema weakly correlated with time to RTP (r(2)=6-12%). No correlation was found between location of injury and time to RTP. The majority of the intramuscular injuries affected the MT junction (56% in grade 1 and 2 injuries), but no difference in lay-off time was found between the different types of injuries. The radiological grade and size of the oedema correlate with time to RTP for both, grade 1 and 2 injuries. No correlations were found between time to RTP and the location and type of injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. The collapsed football pla yer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 265 ... FIFA Medical Officer and Honorary Part-time Lecturer, Wits Centre for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Johannesburg .... Management of a collapsed player does not.

  1. Football Hooliganism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Testa, A.; Hughson, J.; Moore, K.; Spaaij, R.; Maguire, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hooliganism has been among the most popular topics in football studies for decades. To some observers, the issue is well and truly over-researched (Moorhouse, 2000) and has ‘unreasonably biased research into football, so that issues such as the administration of the game and its

  2. [Football, television and emergency services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, O; Sánchez, M; Borrás, A; Millá, J

    2000-04-15

    To know the influence of televised football on the use of emergency department (ED). We assessed the number, demographic characteristics and acuity of patients attended during the broadcast of football matches played by FC Barcelona during Champions' League (n = 12), and they were compared with days without televised football (n = 12). Televised football was associated with a decrease in visits to ED (-18%; p = 0.002). Such a decrease was observed for all ED units, but only for traumatology unit reached statistical significance (-28%; p = 0.006). Decay of ED visits were mainly due to a decrease of low-acuity consults (-30%; p = 0.04). There is a significant decrease on ED use associated with televised football.

  3. Football and gender 'policing'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on boys who gained popularity and status at school through their investment in football, not only .... My view of race is that race is a social and cultural construction rather than a scientific term which ..... Martin's (2011) research on young boys and girls at play at an elementary school in London ..... Bloemfontein: SUN MEDIA.

  4. Non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament injury in an English Premier League football player with return to play in less than 8 weeks: applying common sense in the absence of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; Monte-Colombo, Mathew; Mitchell, Adam; Haddad, Fares

    2015-01-01

    This case report illustrates and discusses the non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in an English Premier League football player, his return to play within 8 weeks and problem-free follow-up at 18 months post injury. When non-operative verses surgical ACL reconstruction is considered there are many fundamental gaps in our knowledge and currently, at elite level, there are no cases in cutting sports within the literature to guide these decisions. When the norm is for all professional footballers to be recommended surgery, it will be very challenging when circumstances and patient autonomy dictate a conservative approach, where prognosis, end points and risk are unclear and assumed to be high. This case challenges current dogma and provides a starting point for much needed debate about best practice, treatment options, research direction and not just at the elite level of sport. PMID:25917066

  5. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  6. Imaging of American football injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population.

  7. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G.; Unsell, Bryan J.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  8. Women, Football and History: International Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jean; Hess, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Special edition of the International Journal of the History of Sport The papers in this collection, however, have their focus on developments related to women and football that occur outside the locus of established scholarship. In particular, the studies concentrate on the geographic locations of New Zealand, Australia and the USA, and, unique for such a collection, the papers cover four major football codes. The investigations are also not limited to women playing football, but female sp...

  9. Brain damage in former association football players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortland, O.; Tysvaer, A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball. (orig.)

  10. Football injury: a literature review *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  11. Football business: how markets are breaking the beautiful game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Tsjalle

    2014-01-01

    In Football business Tsjalle van der Burg shows how the economics of football have developed and been corrupted. In a series of engaging stories he uncovers the mysteries of football finance. Van der Burg explains why if the 2013 English Premiership champions, Manchester United, had played their

  12. Sports-specific concerns in the young athlete: football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, J D

    1999-10-01

    There are over 1.5 million males playing American football at all levels in the United States. American football is the most common participant sport among high-school-aged males. Owing to its high rate of injury per exposure hour, American football injuries are commonly treated in the emergency department during the autumn sports season. This article will review the history, epidemiology, and specific injury patterns seen in American football, with a focus on head and shoulder injuries.

  13. American childhood football as a possible risk factor for cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Jared R; Golomb, Meredith R

    2011-12-01

    Three adolescent football players who had ischemic stroke associated with football practice and play are described. The literature on stroke associated with childhood sports and football in particular is reviewed, and the multiple mechanisms by which football can contribute to ischemic stroke are discussed.

  14. Football injuries: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  15. Mobilities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungruhe, Christian

    2017-01-01

    So far, academic contributions have widely framed football in Africa as a means for migration from a western point of view. At a time, they presented particular and one-dimensional understandings of transnational links in the realm of football migration between Africa and Europe. Macro......-level perspective there is still an analytical gap between the ambitions and experiences of migrating players and economic power relations at play on the one hand and the socio-cultural embedding of the transnational connections in football migration on the other. In order to understand why and how football...... mobilities are indeed linked to ‘the transnational’ in migration there is a need to localize the phenomenon and investigate how local understandings of migration and mobility are lived and expressed in a transnational sport like football. By taking data from fieldwork among West African football migrants...

  16. Football Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Timothy

    2006-05-01

    This talk discusses a series of one-minute physics lectures given to the ˜ 8 x 10^4 fans that attend the University of Nebraska home football games. The lecture topics range from gyroscopic motion to ionizing collisions between linebackers and I-backs. The problem of simultaneous edification and amusement of the fan in the stands is considered. Several physics tips for the Vols will be proffered.

  17. Football in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter Mindegaard

    2007-01-01

    A brief story of Danish football has been attempted, describing new patterns of time and location. The examples that have been chosen aim to show that football, as body culture, must be understood in connection with societal changes. Yet what do we learn by analysing these tendencies? Football...... of European sports culture. Such writing reduces football to a different concept: "soccer", that is, a hierarchical and competitive sport. This soccer paradigm does not recognise the diversity and pluralism of football as it exists today and as it has always existed. Football is a multiplicity...... of configurations, including not just elite and professional soccer, but also a game of the people, "grassroots football"....

  18. Walking football as sustainable exercise for older adults - A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Peter; Dias, Irundika; Holland, Carol; Campbell, Niyah; Nagar, Iaysha; Connolly, Luke; Krustrup, Peter; Hubball, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The health benefits of playing football and the importance of exercise and social contact for healthy ageing are well established, but few older adults in the UK take enough exercise. Football is popular, flexible in format and draws players into engrossing, effortful and social exercise, but the physical demands of play at full speed may make it unsustainable for some older adults. Restricted to walking pace, will play still be engaging? Will health benefits be retained? Will physical demands remain manageable? This pilot study aims to investigate: (1) the experience of older adults playing walking football every week, is it sustainable and rewarding, (2) the intensity and locomotor pattern of walking football, (3) the scale and nature of walking football health benefits and (4) possible cognitive benefits of playing walking football through measures of processing speed, selective and divided attention and updating and inhibition components of executive function.
 'Walking football' and 'waiting list' groups were compared before and after 12 weeks of one-hour per week football. Walking football was found to be engaging, sustainable for older adults and moderately intensive; however, selective health and cognitive benefits were not found from this brief intervention. Highlights Walking football is a lower impact but authentic form of football that enables older players to extend their active participation. Walking football is enjoyable and moderately demanding and may be a sustainable form of exercise for older adults. Health and cognitive benefits to playing walking football were not found.

  19. Time-Loss and Non–Time-Loss Injuries in Youth Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Dompier, Thomas P; Powell, John W; Barron, Mary J; Moore, Marguerite T

    2007-01-01

    Context: Estimates suggest that more than 5.5 million youths play football annually, and 28% of youth football players (age range = 5 to 14 years) are injured each year, resulting in more than 187 000 emergency room visits.

  20. Football Fitness - a new version of football?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne

    2014-01-01

    organised as small-sided games is highly beneficial for enhancing overall fitness. In addition, studies indicate that team sports such as football may have an advantage over individual sports when it comes to personal development and the development of social capital. The aim of this paper is to explore...... a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF), with a specific focus on organisational issues. In doing so, we would like to contribute to the discussion of how to organise sports as a means for promoting health within sporting organisations. The theoretical framework...... in a Danish context. Key words: Football Fitness, Health, Sports clubs, Sports Organisations, Path dependency...

  1. Le futsal: un autre monde du football?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gaubert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although far behind association football, futsal is the second most played variant of football in the world. Both sports have comparable global expansion strategies; but with different roots and outcomes. Futsal, which originated in South America, has experienced a more limited geographic expansion. Its recent integration into the FIFA is progressively changing its geographic presence. Consequently, futsal has become an increasingly global sport.

  2. Exploring the Relationship between Violent Behavior and Participation in Football during Adolescence: Findings From a Sample of Sibling Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association between playing high school football and involvement in violent behaviors in sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed that youth who played high school football self-reported more violence than those youth who did not play football.…

  3. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  4. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  5. Effects of a lighter, smaller football on acute match injuries in adolescent female football: a pilot cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette K; Thorborg, Kristian; Andersen, Lars L; Møller, Merete; Christensen, Karl B; Clausen, Mikkel B; Hölmich, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Andersen, Thomas B; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The high injury incidence during match-play in female adolescent football is a major concern. In football, males and females play matches with the same football size. No studies have investigated the effect of football size on injury incidence in female adolescent football. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of introducing a lighter, smaller football on the injury pattern in female adolescent football. We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial including 26 football teams representing 346 adolescent female football players (age 15-18 years). The teams were randomized to a new lighter, smaller football (INT, N.=12 teams) or a traditional FIFA size 5 football (CON, N.=14 teams) during a full match-season. Acute time-loss injuries and football-exposure during match-play were reported weekly by text-message questions and verified subsequently by telephone interview. In total, 46 acute time-loss injuries were registered (5 severe injuries), yielding an incidence rate of 15.2 injuries per 1000 hours of match-play (95% CI: 8.5-27.2) in INT and 18.6 injuries per 1000 hours of match-play (95% CI: 14.0-24.8) in CON. The estimated 22% greater injury incidence rate risk (IRR: 1.22 [95% CI: 0.64-2.35]) in the CON group was not significant. With an IRR of 1.22, a future RCT main study would need to observe 793 acute time-loss injuries during match-play, in order to have a power of 80%. A large-scaled RCT is required to definitively test for beneficial or harmful effects of a lighter, smaller football in adolescent female football.

  6. Football - Feminisation - Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    The researcher reviewed relevant primary and secondary literature relating to women’s football, female football consumption and identity dynamics in a European perspective. Between March and August 2013, 31 semi-structured interviews with Danish women aged between 24 and 60 years were conducted following......Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where......, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing upon various...

  7. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2014-01-01

    levels (Schein, 2004) in which each player and his actions can be considered an artefact - a concrete symbol in motion embedded in espoused values and basic assumptions. Therefore, the actions of each dialect are strongly connected to the underlying understanding of football. By document and video......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...

  8. MRI to determine the chronological age of Ghanaian footballers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of fusion of the distal radius on magentic resonance imaging (MRI) and comparing it with the Fédération Internationale de Football. Association (FIFA) MRI grading. Methods. MRI scans of the left wrists of 86 players aspiring to play for the national U17 football team were recruited for the study during a. 'justify your inclusion ...

  9. Athletes’ Selected Micro-Activities on Turf Fields: Utilizing Extant Videography for Quantification of Events During Soccer, American Football, and Field Hockey Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been recently raised about the potential exposures of athletes to chemicals when playing on synthetic turf fields. Previous research has shown that micro-activities (i.e., hand-to mouth and skin-to-surface contacts) are important factors in people’s exposures to che...

  10. Return to play after hamstring injuries in football (soccer) : A worldwide Delphi procedure regarding definition, medical criteria and decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Horst, Nick; Backx, F. J.G.; Goedhart, Edwin A.; Huisstede, Bionka M.A.

    2017-01-01

    There are three major questions about return to play (RTP) after hamstring injuries: How should RTP be defined? Which medical criteria should support the RTP decision? And who should make the RTP decision? The study aimed to provide a clear RTP definition and medical criteria for RTP and to clarify

  11. Football Fitness - a new version of football?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Wikman, Johan Michael; Ottesen, Laila Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second...... by the Danish Football Association (FA) and managed by the voluntary clubs, is one example in a Danish context. Data indicate that FF is beneficial to the clubs involved in a number of ways. Among other things, it attracts new user groups and improves the club environment, including social activities...

  12. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2017-01-01

    This essay aims to describe how actions in the football field relate to the different national teams’ and countries’ cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Inspired by Edgar Schein’s framework of culture, the Brazilian...... and Italian national team football cultures were examined. The basis of the analysis was both document and video analysis. The documents were mostly research studies and popular books on the national football cultures, while the video analysis included all matches including Italy and Brazil from the World Cup...... in 2010 and 2014. The cultural analysis showed some coherence between the national football cultures and the national teams, which suggested a national dialect with the language of the game. Each national dialect seemed to be based on different basic assumptions and to some extent specific symbolic...

  13. Expertise and decision-making in American football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matt; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F(2,48) = 10.4, p Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases. PMID:26217294

  14. Expertise and Decision-making in American Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, & Football Official made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls (F (2, 48 = 10.4, p < .001, with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases.

  15. Expertise and decision-making in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matt; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F (2,48) = 10.4, p Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases.

  16. Football, alcohol and gambling: an unholy trinity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carwyn Jones

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that football plays a questionable role in promoting two potentially problematic activities, namely drinking alcohol and gambling. Gambling and alcohol companies sponsor clubs and competitions and also pay to advertise their products at the stadia and during television coverage. Consequently millions of fans, including children, are exposed to the marketing of these restricted products. The latter are exposed despite regulations that prohibit such advertising and promotion in other contexts. The promotion of these activities to children and to adults increases levels of consumption which in turn increases the number of problem drinkers and gamblers in society. High-profile footballers play a further role in normalising drinking and gambling. They are role models whose actions influence others. Their excessive drinking and gambling activities provide poor examples for football fans, young and old.

  17. Return to play after hamstring injuries in football (soccer): a worldwide Delphi procedure regarding definition, medical criteria and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; Backx, Fjg; Goedhart, Edwin A; Huisstede, Bionka Ma

    2017-11-01

    There are three major questions about return to play (RTP) after hamstring injuries: How should RTP be defined? Which medical criteria should support the RTP decision? And who should make the RTP decision? The study aimed to provide a clear RTP definition and medical criteria for RTP and to clarify RTP consultation and responsibilities after hamstring injury. The study used the Delphi procedure. The results of a systematic review were used as a starting point for the Delphi procedure. Fifty-eight experts in the field of hamstring injury management selected by 28 FIFA Medical Centres of Excellence worldwide participated. Each Delphi round consisted of a questionnaire, an analysis and an anonymised feedback report. After four Delphi rounds, with more than 83% response for each round, consensus was achieved that RTP should be defined as 'the moment a player has received criteria-based medical clearance and is mentally ready for full availability for match selection and/or full training'. The experts reached consensus on the following criteria to support the RTP decision: medical staff clearance, absence of pain on palpation, absence of pain during strength and flexibility testing, absence of pain during/after functional testing, similar hamstring flexibility, performance on field testing, and psychological readiness. It was also agreed that RTP decisions should be based on shared decision-making, primarily via consultation with the athlete, sports physician, physiotherapist, fitness trainer and team coach. The consensus regarding aspects of RTP should provide clarity and facilitate the assessment of when RTP is appropriate after hamstring injury, so as to avoid or reduce the risk of injury recurrence because of a premature RTP. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Recognizing team formation in american football

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2014-01-01

    Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. Despite being the most popular sport in the United States, most American football game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takesmanyman hours per week. These two statistics are the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this chapter, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67%accuracy in classifying the offensive team’s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison.

  19. Knee injuries in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    swimming and basketball.1 In 2001 it was reported to have injury rates of 1 000 times ... knee injury in football are the age of the player, a previous injury and the ligamentous .... football is possible, although the success rates may vary from ...

  20. The Anthropology of Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological interest in football has been on the rise since the beginning of the century, which can be attested to by the rising number of studies, papers, collective publications and scientific conferences on the topic. Seeing as anthropology is no longer the study of the culturally bizarre and exotic, it is clear that the first anthropological studies of football as a cultural phenomenon are linked to those environments in which football figures as an important cultural trait, which is the reason why this sub discipline thrived in Europe or in places where football was treated as an esoteric phenomenon and where there as a longer tradition of anthropological study of native cultures. From the first analogies between the game of football and its rules with rituals of so called primitive cultures, the anthropological study of football developed into a relatively encompassing approach which includes interest in all the actors who establish the game as a public, cultural good – players, experts, supporters, journalists, organizers etc. – as well as its various cultural manifestations, in the form of a tool for the construction of identity and cultural symbol, a leisure activity with ties to economy, to a specific apotheosis of the concepts of globalization and commodification of culture. Anthropological studies of football are present in Serbia as well, and their subject matter corresponds to the role and position held by football, as a cultural artefact, in Serbian society and other countries in the region.

  1. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...

  2. Sport injuries in Donegal Gaelic footballers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Gohary, Y

    2012-01-31

    We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.

  3. Tackling in Youth Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. It's not football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, G

    1998-01-01

    Today I am as happy as I could ever be. I have created a lot out of very little, I have worked full time, played full time, got full-time friends, full-time independence, had full-time love and am lucky enough to be with my new full-time love who helps me a great deal both physically and mentally. It is definitely no fun coughing until your chest is sore in the morning, afternoon and evening. Having wringing night-sweats from cepacia. Wanting to sleep more than Mr Sleep from Sleepland. Taking tablets the size of which sunk the Belgrano. Finding time for physiotherapy, eating the right meals, playing on my Playstation. Depression has got through on previous occasions, but not for long, and it has never resulted in anything more than a 'wake up and smell the coffee' call from myself. Having CF is no ball game (otherwise it would be called football or something!), but I have had a lot of fun and will continue to do so for however long. Two years, five years, 20 years--who's to say, not me. We could all have the same left, I just hope that everyone has as much fun.

  5. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.

  6. BCS or Just BS: How College Football Could Crown the Wrong National Champion? Just Do the Math--Correctly!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, C.E. Wynn; Hornyak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 college football season is here, but there has been a continuing controversy swirling over how the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) selects its national champion. College football uses a multi-criterion decision matrix (MCDM) evaluation technique to determine which two teams will play for the national championship. We analyzed the BCS…

  7. Music as Narrative in American College Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, John Michael

    2016-01-01

    American college football features an enormous amount of music woven into the fabric of the event, with selections accompanying approximately two-thirds of a game's plays. Musical selections are controlled by a number of forces, including audio and video technicians, university marketing departments, financial sponsors, and wind bands. These blend…

  8. Tactical models of competitive activity in football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Костюкевич

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methodological approaches to the analysis of competitive activity of high qualification football teams are examined. Four tactical models of play of high qualification football teams: «A», «B», «C», «D», are identified on the basis of the developed method of competitive activity control, an integrated assessment of technical and tactical activity, and classification of interactions between players. Each of the models is characterized by the main components of competitive activity: positional attacks, high-speed attacks, pressing; passing the ball; modes of coordinative complexity of technical and tactical actions performance; specific indicators of the integral assessment of tactical activity.

  9. CAUSES OF INJURIES AT THREE LEVELS IN COMPETITIVE FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinku Kumar Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with comparison of causes of injuries among three groups of competitive footballers. Accordingly three groups of footballers were targeted. International, National and State groups footballers aged between 14 to 30 years. The data was collected with the help of questionnaires prepared by Cromwell, F.J. Walsh Gromley for Elite Gaelic footballers (2000 and it was modified by the investigator and utilized. In this study total 300 hundred players were targeted ; of which 100 footballers of each group. Total 318 injuries out of 300 hundred footballers were found out over the one year period; 125 injuries out of 84 footballers were found in international group footballers. 108 injuries out of 82 footballers were found in national group and 85 injuries out of 78 footballers were found in State group. The mean (SDs age of International group to State group footballers were 21.25 (7.08, 23.33 (7.78 and 19.91 (6.29 in years respectively. Their weight were 58.35 (18.45, 58.23 (19.01, and 53.99 (17.33 kg. respectively, their height were 167.33 (55.33, 166.09 (55.10 and 164.87 (54.66 cm. respectively, their training were 4.61 (1.47, 4.31 (1.43, and 4.10 (1.33 days in a week respectively, their training durations were 2.74 (.58, 2.34 (.78, and 1.99 (.66 hours respectively, their warm-up were 28.53 (9.33, 36.05 (11.05 and 22.8 (7.8 minutes respectively, and competition was 8.67 (2.81, 8.68 (2.78, and 6.58 (2.11 in one year respectively. The results revealed that only significant difference of occurrence of injuries was found (F=3.65, P <.05 in foul play. International group footballers were found to have got more occurrences of injuries as compared to the state group footballers. The study suggest that their was no fair play at high level competition. However, no significant difference of occurrence of injuries were observed among three groups of competitive footballers with respect to causes like collision, running, contact with ball

  10. Club football in Denmark - a game between state policy and the DFA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Storm, Rasmus K.; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2018-01-01

    Football in Denmark stands as a very popular game engaging men and women of all ages. Most of them are playing under the wings of the Danish Football Association (DFA). This paper provides a description and understanding of the organisation of football, with a specific focus on the DFA. We ask; how...... is club based football organised in Denmark and how does it reflect state policy? Our study is grounded in an analysis of 21 documents selected due to their importance to the organisation of football. Moreover, an online questionnaire survey was sent to the chairpersons of 1247 grassroots football clubs...... (N:475). To deeper understand the development of and organisations involved in Danish football we include the understanding of society formed by four basic social orders viewed upon as ideal types; civil society, market, state and associations (Pestoff). Our findings show that the organisation...

  11. Professional football players at risk for non-acute groin injuries during the first half of the season: A prospective cohort study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Veenstra, Ersot; Goedegebuure, Simon; Frings-Dresen, Monique; Kuijer, Paul

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence, diagnostics, treatment, anatomical region and return to play of non-acute groin injuries among professional footballers in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Medical staff members of all Dutch professional football clubs, recording

  12. Women’s Football: Still in the Hands of Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schulz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the experiences of a group of women footballers growing up in England. It specifically looks at their similarities and differences in relation to how they entered the world of football and whether gender relations continue to impact on both their access to and opportunities in sport. The discussion draws on information from nine semi structured interviews with women of varying ages and mixed abilities who have grown up and played football in England. The interview data highlights the prevalence of early male influence within the game and what effect the school education system has on young girls. What emerges from the interviews is that male figures tend to be the most influential in encouraging girls to play football. Developments seem to be being made at primary school level as girls’ access to football is improving. However, whatever strides are gained becomes lost as soon as the girls commence secondary school, due to the absence of football from the curriculum. As the girls reach adulthood the traditional feminine values are more highly sort after, so ‘tomboyish’ behaviours are considered unsuitable and unnatural. There are entrenched cultural attitudes towards the women’s game, which are proving hard to break down. These along with the physical barriers make women’s involvement in sport very difficult, even more so with football.

  13. The Dilemma: Career Transition of African American Male Football Players at Division I Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcutt, Kellen Jamil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and understand perceptions of African American male football athletes at Division I institutions that also played professional football, regarding their collegiate experiences and transition from athletics to post-playing careers. The study examined issues of race and social…

  14. Reflections on the 1862 football match in Port Elizabeth | Hill | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oldest recorded football match in South Africa was played in Port Elizabeth on 24 May 1862. This article explores the available evidence for this match before moving on to a more general discussion of three broader contexts in which the match was played. These contexts are contemporary football developments in ...

  15. Football emergency medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may be called upon to intervene medically when a football player succumbs to a severe ... including safety and security services, emergency and primary health care medical ..... of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines 2005.

  16. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 400 million men and women. In addition to the wide range of sport-specific technical and tactical skills needed, several physical components have been shown to be necessary to perform at a high level. The present PhD thesis is based...... on four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... systematic differences between the playing positions can be detected. Lately, field tests have become more frequently used in football than the laboratory tests used in Study I. Study II therefore aims to assess the validity of one of them, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Along...

  17. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisley Susan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8% of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29 and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8% were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8% by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3% with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction.

  18. Nutrition and Gaelic football: review, recommendations, and future considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Kevin J

    2015-02-01

    Gaelic football is the second most popular team sport in Ireland in terms of participation. However, very little research exists on the nutritional considerations for elite male Gaelic footballers. Gaelic football is an intermittent type field game played by two teams of fifteen players. Although amateurs, elite players may train and compete 4-5 times per week and may play for several teams. Research suggests that elite footballers are similar anthropometrically and in fitness to professional soccer players. Work-rate analysis shows that footballers experience longer durations of high-intensity (HI) activity (5-7s) and shorter rest durations than soccer players. Recent data suggests that half-forward/backs perform a greater amount of HI work during games than players in other positions. Fatigue is apparent between the first and second halves and the first and fourth quarters. The limited amount of nutritional studies conducted implies that footballers may be deficient in energy intake and may be at the lower end of recommended carbohydrate intakes to support training. A wide variety of sweat rates have been measured during training, demonstrating the importance of individual hydration strategies. Ergogenic aids such as creatine and caffeine may prove beneficial to performance, although data are extrapolated from other sports. Due to the lack of research in Gaelic football, further population specific studies are required. Future areas of research on the impact of nutrition on Gaelic football performance are examined. In particular, the creation of a test protocol mimicking the activity patterns and intensity of a Gaelic football game is warranted.

  19. Epidemiology of neurodegeneration in American-style professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Everett J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the history of head injuries in relation to American-style football play, summarize recent research that has linked football head injuries to neurodegeneration, and provide a discussion of the next steps for refining the examination of neurodegeneration in football players. For most of the history of football, the focus of media reports and scientific studies on football-related head injuries was on the acute or short-term effects of serious, traumatic head injuries. Beginning about 10 years ago, a growing concern developed among neurologists and researchers about the long-term effects that playing professional football has on the neurologic health of the players. Autopsy-based studies identified a pathologically distinct neurodegenerative disorder, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, among athletes who were known to have experienced concussive and subconcussive blows to the head during their playing careers. Football players have been well represented in these autopsy findings. A mortality study of a large cohort of retired professional football players found a significantly increased risk of death from neurodegeneration. Further analysis found that non-line players were at higher risk than line players, possibly because of an increased risk of concussion. Although the results of the studies reviewed do not establish a cause effect relationship between football-related head injury and neurodegenerative disorders, a growing body of research supports the hypothesis that professional football players are at an increased risk of neurodegeneration. Significant progress has been made in the last few years on detecting and defining the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. However, less progress has been made on other factors related to the progression of those diseases in football players. This review identifies three areas for further research: (a) quantification of exposure - a consensus is needed on the use of clinically

  20. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN ENGLISH FOOTBALL: HISTORY AND PRESENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad ROŞCA

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive research is to present what kind of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities English football clubs are implementing. The paper was designed by approaching the examples of the twenty clubs playing in the 2010-2011 season of the Premier League. A key finding is that football clubs are not only interested in the sporting outcome on the field, but they are also aware of their social status. An implication of this research would be to encourage academics to...

  1. Female football players don't have balls

    OpenAIRE

    Lippe, Gerd von der

    2008-01-01

    Original in Norwegian. Translation by Ine Gundersveen. First published in Samtiden, 4/2007. Original in Norwegian. Translation by Ine Gundersveen. First published in Samtiden, 4/2007. You need balls to play football. So it is obvious that being a girl just won't do as far as the guys are concerned, says Gerd von der Lippe in a devastating critique of the state of affairs in the reporting and support of women's football in Norway.

  2. F-MARC: promoting the prevention and management of sudden cardiac arrest in football

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Efraim Benjamin; Dvorak, J; Schmied, C; Meyer, T

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the most common cause of unnatural death in football. To prevent and urgently manage sudden cardiac arrest on the football field-of-play, F-MARC (FIFA Medical and Research Centre) has been fully committed to a programme of research, education, standardisation and practical implementation. This strategy has detected football players at medical risk during mandatory precompetition medical assessments. Additionally, FIFA has (1) sponsored internationally accepted guidelin...

  3. Risk Factors for Injuries in Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhiu, Bekim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Zahiti, Bedri; Shalaj, Ismet; Sllamniku, Sabit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to the occurrence of injuries in football players. The study included 216 football players from 12 teams in the elite football league. Football-related injury data were collected prospectively during the 2012/2013 competitive season. At baseline the following information was collected for the players: anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subcutaneous skinfolds), playing experience, injury history, physical fitness performance test (agility run), peak oxygen uptake. The incidence, type and severity of injuries and training and game exposure times were prospectively documented for each player. Most of the players (n = 155, 71.7%) sustained the injures during the study period. The overall injury incidence during the regular season was 6.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval, 4.31-9.67). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that playing experience (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.32-0.61, p football for more than 1 month, with knee injuries (25.42%) being the most severe type. The risk factors that increase injury rates in football players were previous injury, higher age and years of playing. Future research should include adequate rehabilitation program to reduce the risk of injuries.

  4. Football Fitness, a new concept in football clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Laila; Bennike, Søren

    2013-01-01

    are received and adapted in the Danish sports organizations and associations. The Danish Football Association has launched a new concept called "Football Fitness" with a focus on the health dimension of football, both of physiological, psychological and social nature, rather than a focus on the competition...... opportunity to access the knowledge of how the concept “football fitness” is organized, implemented and adapted in the participating clubs. This knowledge will be of great importance in relation to welfare policy, where the project can contribute with knowledge of possible changes to the Danish voluntary...... methods for the gathering and analysis of data. Key words: Football Fitness, Health promotion, Implementation, Sports clubs, Sports Organizations....

  5. What’s in a game? A systems approach to enhancing performance analysis in football

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Performance analysis (PA) in football is considered to be an integral component of understanding the requirements for optimal performance. Despite vast amounts of research in this area key gaps remain, including what comprises PA in football, and methods to minimise research-practitioner gaps. The aim of this study was to develop a model of the football match system in order to better describe and understand the components of football performance. Such a model could inform the design of new PA methods. Method Eight elite level football Subject Method Experts (SME’s) participated in two workshops to develop a systems model of the football match system. The model was developed using a first-of-its-kind application of Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) in football. CWA has been used in many other non-sporting domains to analyse and understand complex systems. Result Using CWA, a model of the football match ‘system’ was developed. The model enabled identification of several PA measures not currently utilised, including communication between team members, adaptability of teams, playing at the appropriate tempo, as well as attacking and defending related measures. Conclusion The results indicate that football is characteristic of a complex sociotechnical system, and revealed potential new and unique PA measures regarded as important by SME’s, yet not currently measured. Importantly, these results have identified a gap between the current PA research and the information that is meaningful to football coaches and practitioners. PMID:28212392

  6. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    The researcher reviewed relevant primary and secondary literature relating to women’s football, female football consumption and identity dynamics in a European perspective. Between March and August 2013, 31 semi-structured interviews with Danish women aged between 24 and 60 years were conducted following......Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where......, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing upon various...

  7. Epidemiology of injuries in elite football

    OpenAIRE

    Waldén, Markus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the injury characteristics in elite football, and risk factors for injury with special emphasis on anterior cruciate ligament injury. All five papers followed a prospective design using a standardised methodology. Individual training and match exposure was recorded for all players participating as well as all injuries resulting in time loss. Severe injury was defined as absence from play longer than 4 weeks. In Paper I, all 14 teams in the Swedish men’s...

  8. Estimating Contact Exposure in Football Using the Head Impact Exposure Estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Littleton, Ashley C; Cox, Leah M; DeFreese, J D; Varangis, Eleanna; Lynall, Robert C; Schmidt, Julianne D; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2015-07-15

    Over the past decade, there has been significant debate regarding the effect of cumulative subconcussive head impacts on short and long-term neurological impairment. This debate remains unresolved, because valid epidemiological estimates of athletes' total contact exposure are lacking. We present a measure to estimate the total hours of contact exposure in football over the majority of an athlete's lifespan. Through a structured oral interview, former football players provided information related to primary position played and participation in games and practice contacts during the pre-season, regular season, and post-season of each year of their high school, college, and professional football careers. Spring football for college was also included. We calculated contact exposure estimates for 64 former football players (n = 32 college football only, n = 32 professional and college football). The head impact exposure estimate (HIEE) discriminated between individuals who stopped after college football, and individuals who played professional football (p < 0.001). The HIEE measure was independent of concussion history (p = 0.82). Estimating total hours of contact exposure may allow for the detection of differences between individuals with variation in subconcussive impacts, regardless of concussion history. This measure is valuable for the surveillance of subconcussive impacts and their associated potential negative effects.

  9. Relationship of collegiate football experience and concussion with hippocampal volume and cognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Meier, Timothy B; Kuplicki, Rayus; Savitz, Jonathan; Mukai, Ikuko; Cavanagh, LaMont; Allen, Thomas; Teague, T Kent; Nerio, Christopher; Polanski, David; Bellgowan, Patrick S F

    2014-05-14

    Concussion and subconcussive impacts have been associated with short-term disrupted cognitive performance in collegiate athletes, but there are limited data on their long-term neuroanatomic and cognitive consequences. To assess the relationships of concussion history and years of football experience with hippocampal volume and cognitive performance in collegiate football athletes. Cross-sectional study conducted between June 2011 and August 2013 at a US psychiatric research institute specializing in neuroimaging among collegiate football players with a history of clinician-diagnosed concussion (n = 25), collegiate football players without a history of concussion (n = 25), and non-football-playing, age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (n = 25). History of clinician-diagnosed concussion and years of football experience. High-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify brain volumes. Baseline scores on a computerized concussion-related cognitive battery were used for cognitive assessment in athletes. Players with and without a history of concussion had smaller hippocampal volumes relative to healthy control participants (with concussion: t48 = 7.58; P history of concussion had smaller hippocampal volumes than players without concussion (t48 = 3.15; P football played (t46 = -3.62; P history on 5 cognitive measures but did show an inverse correlation between years of playing football and reaction time (ρ42 = -0.43; 95% CI, -0.46 to -0.40; P = .005). Among a group of collegiate football athletes, there was a significant inverse relationship of concussion and years of football played with hippocampal volume. Years of football experience also correlated with slower reaction time. Further research is needed to determine the temporal relationships of these findings.

  10. Finger Injuries in Football and Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Kate E; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-02-01

    Football and rugby athletes are at increased risk of finger injuries given the full-contact nature of these sports. Some players may return to play early with protective taping, splinting, and casting. Others require a longer rehabilitation period and prolonged time away from the field. The treating hand surgeon must weigh the benefits of early return to play for the current season and future playing career against the risks of reinjury and long-term morbidity, including post-traumatic arthritis and decreased range of motion and strength. Each player must be comprehensively assessed and managed with an individualized treatment plan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Heritage Fallacy: Race, Loyalty, and the First Grambling-Southern Football Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    On Armistice Day 1932, the Southern University Bushmen football team left Baton Rouge and traveled to Monroe, Louisiana to play the Tigers of Louisiana Negro Normal and Industrial Institute for the first time. Normal was far younger than Southern. It was a two-year junior college in the northeast cotton town of Grambling, and its football team was…

  12. A History of Black Professional Football Players from 1900-1946.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanfora, Jerry A.

    The history of Black professional football is obscure, although it is known that in the early years Black and White athletes played together on basis of ability. Several Black Americans were members of early professional football teams; however, in the late 1920s, they seemed to disappear from team rosters. Each of the eighteen Black professional…

  13. Changing the Culture: Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  14. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other sports,[1,2] and youth football players are no exception to this. ... at risk of sports injury because of high levels of exposure at a time of major physiological change.[4] The ..... As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and.

  15. Determination and Comparison of Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Football Players in the U10-17 Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göksu, Omercan; Yüksek, Selami

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine some motoric characteristics of children football players in the 10-17 age group and to compare them according to their playing positions. The study was carried out with voluntary participation of a total of 190 licensed athletes in Turkey Football Federation "U" category playing in Çeliktepe,…

  16. High School Football and Late-Life Risk of Neurodegenerative Syndromes, 1956-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Pieter H H; Mandrekar, Jay; Mielke, Michelle M; Ahlskog, J Eric; Boeve, Bradley F; Josephs, Keith; Savica, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether athletes who played American varsity high school football between 1956 and 1970 have an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases later in life. We identified all male varsity football players between 1956 and 1970 in the public high schools of Rochester, Minnesota, and non-football-playing male varsity swimmers, wrestlers, and basketball players. Using the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we ascertained the incidence of late-life neurodegenerative diseases: dementia, parkinsonism, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We also recorded medical record-documented head trauma during high school years. We identified 296 varsity football players and 190 athletes engaging in other sports. Football players had an increased risk of medically documented head trauma, especially if they played football for more than 1 year. Compared with nonfootball athletes, football players did not have an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease overall or of the individual conditions of dementia, parkinsonism, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this community-based study, varsity high school football players from 1956 to 1970 did not have an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases compared with athletes engaged in other varsity sports. This was from an era when there was a generally nihilistic view of concussion dangers, less protective equipment, and no prohibition of spearing (head-first tackling). However, the size and strength of players from previous eras may not be comparable with that of current high school athletes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  18. Recreational football in Belgrade: Masculinity of middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žikić Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of masculinity in 40 to 50 year old men is examined on the example of playing recreational football at the Belgrade indoor soccer fields from the second half of the first decade of this century onwards. Playing football is seen as a particular form of male body use in organizing individual leisure time and its symbolical use in establishing notions of masculinity. The theoretical concept of hegemonic masculinity is problematized and it is shown that it does not reflect the empirically determined state in our surroundings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177018

  19. The problem of distressed personality in a group of female footballers representing a club in the women’s first football league in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the keys to identifying health problems from the holistic perspective is the knowledge of Type D personality (distressed personality. Diagnosing this personality disorder among female football players may help sports psychologists, coaches, parents/caregivers, and all those engaged in training new sports entrants develop guidelines on how to resolve the problem. Methods. The study involved female footballers representing a Polish Ekstraliga football club, AZS-PSW Biała Podlaska, and was conducted with the use of the Polish adaptation of the DS14 scale. Results. In a group of 21 footballers, 7 (33.3% were diagnosed with Type D personality. Besides, a negative correlation was noted between the level of satisfaction with playing football and one of the dimensions of Type D personality - negative emotionality. Conclusions. The results of the study may be applicable in formulating practical recommendations while preparing mental training programmes.

  20. F-MARC: promoting the prevention and management of sudden cardiac arrest in football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Efraim Benjamin; Dvorak, J; Schmied, C; Meyer, T

    2015-05-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the most common cause of unnatural death in football. To prevent and urgently manage sudden cardiac arrest on the football field-of-play, F-MARC (FIFA Medical and Research Centre) has been fully committed to a programme of research, education, standardisation and practical implementation. This strategy has detected football players at medical risk during mandatory precompetition medical assessments. Additionally, FIFA has (1) sponsored internationally accepted guidelines for the interpretation of an athlete's ECG, (2) developed field-of-play-specific protocols for the recognition, response, resuscitation and removal of a football player having sudden cardiac arrest and (3) introduced and distributed the FIFA medical emergency bag which has already resulted in the successful resuscitation of a football player who had a sudden cardiac arrest on the field-of-play. Recently FIFA, in association with the Institute of Sports and Preventive Medicine in Saarbrücken, Germany, established a worldwide Sudden Death Registry with a view to documenting fatal events on the football field-of-play. These activities by F-MARC are testimony to FIFA's continued commitment to minimising sudden cardiac arrest while playing football. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Football in England of first half 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Dohnal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    (English) This disetation describes progress of football as a sport in the first half of the 20th century, including his position in society during both World Wars Keywords: football competition, number of fans and their culture, football in World Wars, women football, football clubs, organisation of football, football and the media

  2. The Football of Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schang Fabien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An analogy is made between two rather different domains, namely: logic, and football (or soccer. Starting from a comparative table between the two activities, an alternative explanation of logic is given in terms of players, ball, goal, and the like. Our main thesis is that, just as the task of logic is preserving truth from premises to the conclusion, footballers strive to keep the ball as far as possible until the opposite goal. Assuming this analogy may help think about logic in the same way as in dialogical logic, but it should also present truth-values in an alternative sense of speech-acts occurring in a dialogue. The relativity of truth-values is focused by this way, thereby leading to an additional way of logical pluralism.

  3. "It All Ended in an Unsporting Way": Serbian Football and the Disintegration of Yugoslavia, 1989-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Part of a wider examination into football during the collapse of Eastern European Communism between 1989 and 1991, this article studies the interplay between Serbian football and politics during the period of Yugoslavia's demise. Research utilizing interviews with individuals directly involved in the Serbian game, in conjunction with contemporary Yugoslav media sources, indicates that football played an important proactive role in the revival of Serbian nationalism. At the same time the Yugos...

  4. The football laboratory: policing football supporters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Mastrogiannakis, D.; Dorville, C.

    2012-01-01

    An advanced security assemblage is now at the permanent disposal of authorities in their quest to pre-empt and manage risk at football matches. This chapter proposes the ‘football stadia-as-laboratories’ metaphor as an analytical lens through which to examine the security and risk management

  5. High School Football and Risk of Neurodegeneration: A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Rodolfo; Parisi, Joseph E.; Wold, Lester E.; Josephs, Keith A.; Ahlskog, J. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess whether high school football played between 1946 and 1956, when headgear was less protective than today, was associated with development of neurodegenerative diseases later in life. Methods All male students who played football from 1946 to 1956 in the high schools of Rochester, Minnesota, plus a non–football-playing referent group of male students in the band, glee club, or choir were identified. Using the records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we reviewed (from October 31, 2010, to March 30, 2011) all available medical records to assess later development of dementia, Parkinson disease (PD), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We also compared the frequency of dementia, PD, or ALS with incidence data from the general population of Olmsted County, Minnesota. Results We found no increased risk of dementia, PD, or ALS among the 438 football players compared with the 140 non–football-playing male classmates. Parkinson disease and ALS were slightly less frequent in the football group, whereas dementia was slightly more frequent, but not significantly so. When we compared these results with the expected incidence rates in the general population, only PD was significantly increased; however, this was true for both groups, with a larger risk ratio in the non–football group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that high school students who played American football from 1946 to 1956 did not have an increased risk of later developing dementia, PD, or ALS compared with non–football-playing high school males, despite poorer equipment and less regard for concussions compared with today and no rules prohibiting head-first tackling (spearing). PMID:22469346

  6. High-school football and late-life risk of neurodegenerative syndromes, 1956–1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Pieter HH; Mandrekar, Jay; Mielke, Michelle M; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Boeve, Bradley F; Josephs, Keith; Savica, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Repeated head trauma has been associated with risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Few studies have evaluated the long-term risk of neurodegenerative diseases in collision sports like football. OBJECTIVE To assess whether athletes who played American varsity high-school football between 1956 and 1970 have an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases later in life. PATIENTS AND METHODS We identified all male varsity football players between 1956 and 1970 in the public high schools of Rochester, Minnesota, compared to non-football-playing male varsity swimmers, wrestlers or basketball players. Using the records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we ascertained the incidence of late-life neurodegenerative diseases: dementia, parkinsonism, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We also recorded medical record-documented head trauma during high school years. RESULTS We identified 296 varsity football players and 190 athletes engaging in other sports. Football players had an increased risk of medically documented head trauma, especially if they played football for more than one year. Compared to non-football athletes, football players did not have an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease overall, nor the individual conditions of dementia, parkinsonism, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. CONCLUSION In this community based study, varsity high school football players from 1956 to 1970 did not have an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases compared with athletes engaged in other varsity sports. This was from an era where there was a generally nihilistic view of concussion dangers, less protective equipment and without prohibition of spearing (head-first tackling). However, size and strength of players from prior eras may not be comparable to current high-school athletes. PMID:27979411

  7. Free kick goals in football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Nørgaard; Rasmussen, John

    2018-01-01

    We develop and use an advanced numerical model to investigate the window of opportunity of free kicks in association football. The planar multibody forward dynamics model comprises a two segment leg model with joint actuations, a football, a wall and the turf. Contact mechanics is defined to model...

  8. A History of College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    The history of football is traced as it evolved from the English game of rugby. The game as it is known today was conceived only after a long series of changes. Three prominent reasons for the change were: to make football more interesting to the spectator; to balance the competition between offense and defense; and to modify the dangerous…

  9. Video-analysis of player's kinematics in running out of boundaries in association football fields

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzotti, A.; Costabile, G.; Annino, G.; Amodeo, G.; Odenwald, S.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of injury following a player's impact with objects in sport facilities is a growing problem, as shown by serious accidents that happen when players have head impacts with obstacles and barriers installed around the play area. At present, no experimental data are available about the kinematics of football (soccer) players during a running-out of playing areas scenario. Experimental tests on a sample of 14 skilled football players, aged between 17 and 19 years, were conducted to invest...

  10. The colour of a football outfit affects visibility and team success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Rikkert, Joris; Haes, Vincent De; Barsingerhorn, Annemiek D; Theelen, Thomas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a video set-up (study 1) and a retrospective study on professional football clubs' performances dependent on their outfit colours (study 2). The studies were conducted with 18 human volunteers aged 15-18 years (study 1) and league results from 10 professional European football teams over 17 years (1995-2013) (study 2). We analysed the number of correct assessments of the positions of virtual football players with different outfit colours (study 1) and analysed the relationship between match results and outfits' colours (study 2). Study 1 showed that the position of players wearing white outfits was better assessed in 5.2% of the trials compared to players wearing green outfits (P = 0.007). Study 2 showed that Manchester City conceded less goals against in away games in highly visible kits (r = 0.62; P = 0.024), while Newcastle United conceded less goals and won more points while playing in kits associated with low visibility (r = 0.63; P = 0.007; r = 0.50; P = 0.040, respectively). We conclude that the colour of football outfits affects evaluations of football players' positions on the field, with white tricots resulting in the best location assessment. The outfit colour may indirectly influence football match results, warranting more attention to the home and away shirts by team managers and football scientists.

  11. Football Cheerings on the Content of Music and Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Ozan ÇAKIR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Music as a fact which surrounds human being in all fields of life has been used as a tool for healing, communication, entertainment and also used in production wi th focusing function, in warfare with encouraging function and in sports with motivating function. (Colombe, 2006:34; Aydoğan, 2001:23. Shortly it can be claimed that music that is always in previous of movement is in relation with sports which is compose d by moving. The cheerings in sports culture are initially considered as very easy and si mple. However it can be claimed that they provide a deep and complex structure on behalf of the social events of their era. Cheerings as a part of intangible sports legacy provide the contiunity of tradition and incentive of creativity as an oral traditional form. The emotions are coming around and the memories are remembered through stimulating by music. Football always keep the attention alive therefore it gets a place in the society as a tool which entertains masses and unifies them through the same goal. The industralised structure of football is accepted as a tool of social engineering with the help of media which provides the power to create and change the agendum. In this meaning it is mentioned that football indicates the life styles, be liefs and values. In our study we will search the cheerings of spectators on the content of their relations with social conditions since 20th century in which modern football has been initially played in organised forms. In this context it is purposed to contribute into sociological analysis of modern football throughout the social meanings of football matches in different eras and socio - economic conditions and the relations between societies and football. There will be performed a theoretical research based on literature search.

  12. The Athletic Shoe in Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A.; Coughlin, Michael J.; Anderson, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Conclusion: Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces. PMID:28151702

  13. The Athletic Shoe in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A; Coughlin, Michael J; Anderson, Robert B

    Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Clinical review. Level 5. The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces.

  14. COMPARING THE COMPETITIVENESS BETWEEN BRAZILIAN AND EUROPEAN FOOTBALL (SOCCER (G-5 – INTERPRETATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Vicente di Gioia F. Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available World sport has been seen as a growing industry, generating revenues of roughly US$ 1 trillion a year. Playing a major role in this industry, football (soccer is accountable for an annual turnover of approximately US$ 250 billion – Brazil’s share being approximately 1% of that amount. The growing marketing and globalization of football has brought up new topics such as: the risks associated with competitiveness; the need for professional management; creating corporate teams; sports strategies and marketing; accounting; accountability.This paper aims at: i understanding the risks associated with the competitiveness of football leagues; ii comparing the competitive balance in the five largest European football markets (Germany, Spain, France, England and Italy in relation with Brazilian football and; iii interpreting these results in view of the literature concerning sports administration.

  15. Lifetime prevalence of injuries in incoming division I collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Nikolas; Haynes, William; Pedroza, Angela; Kaeding, Christopher; Borchers, James

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the lifetime prevalence of past injuries in incoming first year football players in a Division 1 college football team. Pre-participation questionnaires from 605 first-year football players over 20 years (1996-2015) were examined to determine the prevalence of concussions, stingers, fractures, and musculoskeletal surgeries sustained before playing at the collegiate level. Players were grouped by position: wide receiver and defensive back (WR/DB), offensive and defensive linemen (OL/DL), all other positions (OP), and unknown (UKN). Prevalence of injuries by year and position was compared using Pearson's χ 2 Test (p football injuries are on the rise. Under reporting is a significant concern as players may fear disqualification or that they are evaluated by the coaching staff based on their medical history. More research is needed to confirm lifetime injury prevalence and evaluate differences over time among football players.

  16. Modifying Flag Football for Gender Equitable Engagement in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Flag or touch football is a popular activity unit in American secondary physical education curricula. However, unlike other sports its stigmatization as a masculine-typed activity and frequent inequitable distribution of game play opportunities at the skill positions (e.g., receiver, quarterback) results in the marginalization of female…

  17. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  18. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  19. Predictive value of prior injury on career in professional American football is affected by player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Lyman, Stephen; Chehab, Eric L; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F

    2009-04-01

    The National Football League holds an annual combine where individual teams evaluate college football players The abstract goes here and covers two columns. likely to be drafted for physical skills, review players' medical history and imaging studies, and perform a physical examination. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of specific diagnoses and surgical procedures on the likelihood of playing and length of career in the league by position. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A database for all players reviewed at the annual National Football League Combine by the medical staff of 1 National Football League team from 1987 to 2000 was created, including each player's orthopaedic rating, diagnoses, surgical procedures, number of games played, and number of seasons played in the National Football League. Athletes were grouped by position as follows: offensive backfield, offensive receiver, offensive line, quarterback, tight end, defensive line, defensive secondary, linebacker, and kicker. The percentage of athletes who played in the National Football League was calculated by position for each specific diagnosis and surgery. The effect of injury on the likelihood of playing in the league varied by position. Anterior cruciate ligament injury significantly lowered the likelihood of playing in the league for defensive linemen (P = .03) and linebackers (P = .04). Meniscal injury significantly reduced the probability of playing (P history of spondylolysis had a significant effect for running backs (P = .01). Miscellaneous injuries (eg. acromioclavicular joint, knee medial collateral ligament, carpal fractures) had isolated position-specific effects. The significant injuries and diagnoses appear congruent with the position-specific demands placed on the athletes. This information is useful to physicians and athletic trainers caring for college football athletes as well as those assessing these athletes at the National Football League Combine.

  20. Football and Film: Comrade President – Center-Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is the first in the planned series of texts on football in films and TV programmes in Yugoslavia (Serbia and Croatia. The film Comrade President – Center-Forward (1960, directed by Žorž Skrigin, labelled as the genre of “film humoresque”, presents a ramifying and intertwined story about a small provincial town. The narrative is structured around a celebration of the agricultural cooperative and an important football match played by the local team. Through these two narrative lines the film speaks about the invention of traditions, modernization and industrialization, clothes, arts, popular music, and the elements of romantic comedy and the events surrounding the football match present the media through which the messages are conveyed about the phenomena in a small Serbian town and wider, in the society of the 1950s.

  1. Socials Interests in Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Fustes Ross

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The football is the most universal phenomenon, in evidence of it, the IFFA, the governing organization for this sport, has more countries than UNO and unit to Vatican, are considered among the most powerful organizations in the World and the more social members brings together. Its most negative part is the player’s professionalism, them received fabulous payments by her clubs; this clubs considered them like a goods from to transfer –buy –sell. These foot ball players signed the most lucrative contract; they forget the social spirit of this sport activity and at her community or nation.

  2. TALENT IDENTIFICATION IN FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Rakojević

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is incerasing emphasis on clubs to detect players and nurture and guide them throught the talent identification proces. More over, different factors may contribute to performance prediction at different ages. Thus any such model would need to be agespecific (Reilly et al, 2000. The aim of this paper was to determine essential principles of proces talent identification and determine antropometric, physiological and psychological profile and football-specifc skills that could be used for talent identification in players aged 10-12 years.

  3. The Report and Analysis of the First U21 European Deaf Football Championship Men, Wroclaw, Poland 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Adam Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The First U21 European Deaf Football Championship Men was played in August 2016 in Wroclaw, Poland. No studies have documented or analysed sporting events for deaf players at the elite level. The aim of the study was to bring deaf football closer to the reader and analyse selected offensive actions recorded during the U21 Championship.

  4. High School Football Players' Knowledge and Attitudes About Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brit L; Gittelman, Michael A; Mann, Jessica K; Cyriac, RoseAnn L; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2016-05-01

    To assess high school (HS) football players' knowledge of concussions and to determine whether increased knowledge is correlated with better attitudes toward reporting concussion symptoms and abstaining from play. Two survey tools were used to assess athletes' knowledge and attitudes about concussions. Surveys collected information about demographics, knowledge about concussions, and attitudes about playing sports after a concussion. All athletes present completed one of the 2 surveys. A knowledge and attitude score for each survey was calculated. Frequencies and mean values were used to characterize the population; regression analysis, analysis of variance, and t tests were used to look for associations. A football camp for HS athletes in the Cincinnati area. Male HS football players from competitive football programs in the Cincinnati area. None. Scores on knowledge and attitude sections; responses to individual questions. One hundred twenty (100%) athletes were enrolled although not every athlete responded to every question. Thirty (25%) reported history of a concussion; 82 (70%) reported receiving prior concussion education. More than 75% correctly recognized all concussion symptoms that were asked, except "feeling in a fog" [n = 63 (53%)]. One hundred nine (92%) recognized a risk of serious injury if they return to play too quickly. Sixty-four (54%) athletes would report symptoms of a concussion to their coach; 62 (53%) would continue to play with a headache from an injury. There was no association between knowledge score and attitude score (P = 0.08). Despite having knowledge about the symptoms and danger of concussions, many HS football athletes in our sample did not have a positive attitude toward reporting symptoms or abstaining from play after a concussion. Physicians should be aware that young athletes may not report concussion symptoms.

  5. Community-based recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...

  6. Perspectives in football medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldén, M; Hägglund, M; Bengtsson, H; Ekstrand, J

    2018-04-12

    The high injury rate among men's professional football players is well-known. Therefore, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) launched an injury study already in 2001. This study, the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study (ECIS), currently includes data from a total of 51 clubs from 18 European countries with more than 14,000 registered injuries. With the 21 st  World Cup (WC) in Russia just around the corner, we have from our study identified a higher match injury rate and a higher proportion of severe injuries in the European Championships compared to the preceding club competitive seasons. Moreover, we have also recently showed that the muscle injury rate is higher when players are given a recovery window of five days or less between two matches. Considering the congested match schedule of the upcoming WC, it is therefore likely that injuries and fatigue once again will be a topic of discussion this summer.

  7. Awareness among Indian professional football players about injury prevention strategies: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rohit; Rajasekar, Sannasi; Abraham, Allan; Samuel, Asir John

    2018-03-01

    To determine the awareness and application of the injury prevention strategies by professional Indian football players through Standard Questionnaire Based Survey. Descriptive Epidemiological Study. Professional football clubs in India. Among 150 professional footballers playing in India, 109 football players participated.. The online questionnaire was made in the Google drive application. An online URL (www.tinyurl.com/futbolscptrc) was made in Google accounts by Google drive. 150 professional footballers playing in India were identified and invited to participate in this descriptive epidemiological online survey. All duly filled questionnaire responses were automatically reached in the Google drive inbox. Descriptive analysis was used for the data analysis. Questionnaires were distributed to 150 professional players at nine Indian League clubs. 109 players responded, which represents a response rate of 73%. The player age and number of years as a professional footballers were 25 (4) years (range 18-38 years) and 6 (4) years (range 1-16 years) respectively. The players were from one Premier (9), two Division One (6 and 16), and two Division Two (9 and 15) teams. Most of the professional Indian football players are aware about the injury prevention strategies. However, the application of these strategies is consistently followed by Premier division players.

  8. Comparative analysis of indexes of physical preparedness of footballers of professional commands of different level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalenko V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with results of the research of physical preparedness of professional teams of footballers of different level. The pedagogical testing program of the physical skills level includes control exercised recommended by the scientific-methodical committee of Ukrainian Federation of Football. The article presents indices of physical preparedness of footballers of different playing roles of the top league teams of Ukrainian championship and first league of Ukrainian team championship. Differences of physical preparedness structure of goalkeepers, defenders, halfbacks and forwards are revealed.

  9. Exertional Heat Stroke and American Football: What the Team Physician Needs to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jillian E; Belval, Luke N; Casa, Douglas J; O'Connor, Francis G

    Football is recognized as a leading contributor to sports injury secondary to the contact collision nature of the endeavor. While direct deaths from head and spine injury remain a significant contributor to the number of catastrophic injuries, indirect deaths (systemic failure) predominate. Exertional heat stroke has emerged as one of the leading indirect causes of death in high school and collegiate football. This review details for the team physician the unique challenge of exercising in the heat to the football player, and the prevention, diagnosis, management, and return-to-play issues pertinent to exertional heat illnesses.

  10. Vitamin D profile in National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina M; Bost, Jeffrey W; Amos, Austin; Winkelman, Robert; Yates, Anthony P; Duca, Mark A; Norwig, John A

    2015-05-01

    By maintaining phosphate and calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is critical for bone health and possibly physical performance. Hence, vitamin D is important to athletes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D levels in relation to fractures and performance in athletes, and no published study has included a multiracial sample of professional American football players. To assess vitamin D levels, including the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, in professional American football players and to evaluate the association of vitamin D levels with race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position, which may be a marker for athletic performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Serum vitamin D levels of 80 professional football players from a single team in the National Football League were obtained during the 2011 off-season (mean age, 26.5±3.7 years; black, n=67 [84%]). These levels were used to compare injury reports from the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. Statistical analyses were performed to test if vitamin D levels were related to race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position. Mean vitamin D level was 27.4±11.7 ng/mL, with significantly lower levels for black players (25.6±11.3 ng/mL) versus white players (37.4±8.6 ng/mL; F 1,78=13.00, P=.001). All athletes who were vitamin D deficient were black. When controlling for number of professional years played, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in players with at least 1 bone fracture when compared with no fractures. Players who were released during the preseason because of either injury or poor performance had significantly lower vitamin D levels than did players who played in the regular season. Black professional football players have a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency than do white players. Furthermore, professional football players with higher vitamin D levels were more likely to obtain a contract position in the National Football League

  11. Football performance and its determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Macháček, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on enumeration of the essential psychosocial determinants affecting performance of the footballers. These determinants are divided into three sections. Personality of athlete as a key factor influencing his performance is discussed in the chapter one. Social and cultural environment are the subjects of the second chapter. Specifics and partial aspects of sports environments are presented in the third chapter. Definition of performance in football and the possibility of its...

  12. Football-related injuries among 6- to 17-year-olds treated in US emergency departments, 1990-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Adam D; Nelson, Nicolas G; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn; McKenzie, Lara B

    2011-03-01

    Football is one of the most popular youth sports in the United States despite the high rate of injuries. Previously published studies have investigated football-related injuries that occurred in organized play but have excluded those that occurred during unorganized play. Through use of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database, cases of football-related injuries were identified for analysis. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates. An estimated 5 252 721 children and adolescents 6 to 17 years old were treated in US emergency departments for football-related injuries. The annual number of cases increased by 26.5% over the 18-year study period. The 12- to 17-year-old age group accounted for 77.8% of all injuries and had nearly twice the odds of sustaining a concussion. The findings suggest the need for increased prevention efforts to lower the risk of football-related injury in children and adolescents.

  13. A comparison of Gaelic football injuries in males and females in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowley, J

    2011-10-01

    The Ladies Gaelic Football Association has a playing population of 150,000 of which 33% are adults. A number of studies have been published on rates of injury among male athletes but none on female athletes in Gaelic football. A retrospective review of insurance claims, submitted under the Gaelic Athletic Association Player Insurance Injury Scheme. 405 injuries were recorded, 248 [107 (70%) male, 141 (58%) female] to the lower limb, 91 [33 (21%) male, 58 (23%) female] to the upper limb. The majority of lower limb injuries [56 (52%) male, 56 (40%) female] were to muscle. Almost a third of upper limb injuries were fractures [10 (30.3%) male, 33 (57%) female]. injuries\\/1000 hours playing was 8.25 for men and 2.4 for women. The injury rate in ladies Gaelic football was found to be significantly lower than in men\\'s Gaelic football. Lower limb injuries accounted for the majority of injuries in both sports.

  14. Thirty Percent of Female Footballers Terminate Their Careers Due to Injury - A Retrospective Study Among Former Polish Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Jurga, Paulina; Piontek, Tomasz; Jakubowska, Honorata; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2017-09-27

    Female football is becoming an increasingly popular women's team sports discipline around the world. The Women's Football Committee in Polish Football Association (WFC_PFA) has developed a long-term strategic plan to popularize the discipline across the country and enhance girls' participation. On one hand, it is postulated to increase the number of female footballers, and on the other hand it is crucial to decrease the number of girls quitting football prematurely. To find the reasons for sports career termination among female football players. cross-sectional with retrospective information about reasons of career termination. On-line questionnaire was filled out by on-line access. Ninety-three former female footballers. factors leading to career termination. Participants completed the on-line questionnaire. The analysis was performed referring to two groups: "injury group" - in which the injury was the main reason for quitting football, and "other group" - in which the female player stopped playing football due to all other factors. Thirty percent of former Polish female football players terminated their career due to a long-term treatment for an injury. Over 27 percent (27.7%) females had ended their careers because they were not able to reconcile sports with work/studying. Over 10 percent (10.8%) of former football players reported that becoming a wife and/or mother was the reason for career termination. Losing motivation and interest in sport was reported by 9.2%(n=6) of present study participants who decided to terminate the career due to non-injury reasons. The results clearly show that more effort is needed to support female football players, especially after an injury, so that they do not quit the sport voluntarily.

  15. 'Thoroughly Good Football': Teachers and the Origins of Elementary School Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Colm

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of elementary school soccer (football), addressing topics such as: the role of public schools in organized soccer, soccer in elementary schools, the first schoolboy soccer association, South London Schools' Football Association, the London Schools' Football Association, and the English Schools' Football Association. (CMK)

  16. Tournaments, oriented graphs and football sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirzada S.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Consider the result of a soccer league competition where n teams play each other exactly once. A team gets three points for each win and one point for each draw. The total score obtained by each team vi is called the f-score of vi and is denoted by fi. The sequences of all f-scores [fi]i=1n$\\left[ {{\\rm{f}}_{\\rm{i}} } \\right]_{{\\rm{i}} = 1}^{\\rm{n}} $ arranged in non-decreasing order is called the f-score sequence of the competition. We raise the following problem: Which sequences of non-negative integers in non-decreasing order is a football sequence, that is the outcome of a soccer league competition. We model such a competition by an oriented graph with teams represented by vertices in which the teams play each other once, with an arc from team u to team v if and only if u defeats v. We obtain some necessary conditions for football sequences and some characterizations under restrictions.

  17. Talent Identification and Development in Male Football: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Hugo; Anguera, M Teresa; Pereira, Antonino; Araújo, Duarte

    2018-04-01

    Expertise has been extensively studied in several sports over recent years. The specificities of how excellence is achieved in Association Football, a sport practiced worldwide, are being repeatedly investigated by many researchers through a variety of approaches and scientific disciplines. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise the most significant literature addressing talent identification and development in football. We identified the most frequently researched topics and characterised their methodologies. A systematic review of Web of Science™ Core Collection and Scopus databases was performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. The following keywords were used: "football" and "soccer". Each word was associated with the terms "talent", "expert*", "elite", "elite athlete", "identification", "career transition" or "career progression". The selection was for the original articles in English containing relevant data about talent development/identification on male footballers. The search returned 2944 records. After screening against set criteria, a total of 70 manuscripts were fully reviewed. The quality of the evidence reviewed was generally excellent. The most common topics of analysis were (1) task constraints: (a) specificity and volume of practice; (2) performers' constraints: (a) psychological factors; (b) technical and tactical skills; (c) anthropometric and physiological factors; (3) environmental constraints: (a) relative age effect; (b) socio-cultural influences; and (4) multidimensional analysis. Results indicate that the most successful players present technical, tactical, anthropometric, physiological and psychological advantages that change non-linearly with age, maturational status and playing positions. These findings should be carefully considered by those involved in the identification and development of football players. This review highlights the need for coaches

  18. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Brian C.; Belkin, Nicole S.; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P.; Potter, Hollis G.; Warren, Russell F.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. Purpose: To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and ...

  19. On play and playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  20. Psychological skills of provincial netball players in different playing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ... rugby union and American football players in different playing positions have been reported. These differences are believed to be the result of the specific demands of ...

  1. Locomotor activity of professional football referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Manilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the structure of the motor activity of foreign (European football referees qualifications and Ukrainian arbitrators (Premier League, the first, second league. The objectives of the study was to determine the amount and direction of the motor activity of soccer referees. Also perform a comparative analysis of the motor activity of football referees of different qualifications in Europe and Ukraine. Material : The study involved 38 referees - soccer referees first, second, of the Premier League with the different regions of Ukraine, as well as foreign arbitrators FIFA. Results : It was found that in the period of the motor activity of the arbitrator was walking - 13.0% of the total distance when moving, running at a moderate pace - 67.4%, accelerating - 16.7%, jumps - 2.9%. Average per match referee overcomes distance 8970.2 m: foreign arbitrators - 12,030.0 m., Arbitrators Premier League - 9292.5 m., 1 league - 7530.0 m., 2 leagues - 7028.3 m. Ukrainian Premier League referees are inferior to move moderate jogging foreign arbitrators FIFA respectively - 6,425.0 m (69.1% and 9615.3 m (79.9%. Conclusions : The results of the research showed that the magnitude of motor activity during football matches in professional arbitrators may be different. It depends on their physical fitness Championship (competition, the league, the level of the teams playing, the nature of the intensity of the match. The arbitrator must remain near the gaming moments to control them and prevent possible confrontation.

  2. Low back pain in female elite football and handball players compared with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunås, Paula; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among female elite football and handball players to a matched non-professional active control group. The participants were requested to answer a questionnaire based on standardized Nordic questionnaires for musculoskeletal symptoms to assess the prevalence of LBP. Included participants were elite female football (n = 277) and handball players (n = 190), and a randomly selected control group from the Norwegian population (n = 167). Fifty-seven percentage of the football players, 59 % of the handball players and 60 % of the control group had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no significant group differences in the prevalence of LBP ever (p = 0.62), the previous year (p = 0.85) or the previous 7 days (p = 0.63). For both sports, there was a significant increase in prevalence of LBP from the resting period to the competitive periods of the season (p ≤ 0.001). Seventy percent of the goalkeepers in both football and handball had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no difference in LBP among female elite football and handball players compared with the control group. However, female elite athletes in football and handball reported a high prevalence of LBP compared to previous studies. The variations in LBP and playing positions indicate that specific field positions, in football and handball, is a risk factor for developing LBP.

  3. Training habits and injuries of masters' level football players: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham-West, R; Button, C; Milburn, P D; Mündermann, A; Sole, G; Schneiders, A G; Sullivan, S J

    2009-05-01

    To profile training habits and injuries in football players participating in a national Masters tournament. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used to survey male football players attending the 2008 New Zealand Masters Games. Information regarding player demographics, football injuries, football related training, and risk factors for injury were collected. 199 Players were recruited, with a median age of 44 yrs (range 35-73) and a median football playing history of 15 yrs (range 0-66). Irrespective of age, 112 (84%) players included a warm-up and 104 (78%) included a stretching regime in their regular training programme. In the 12 months prior to the tournament, 128 football related injuries were reported by 93 players (64 injuries/100 players or 46 injured players/100 players). The most frequently injured region was the lower limb; specifically the lower leg (n=23), ankle (n=18), hamstring (n=17), knee (n=15), and Achilles tendon (n=15). This study provides a preliminary insight into the training habits and injury profiles of Masters football players. Despite all players including some form of injury prevention strategy in their training, a significant number of players experienced an injury in the 12 months prior to the tournament.

  4. Big Social Data Analytics in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebjerg, Nicolai H.; Hedegaard, Niklas; Kuum, Gerda

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the predictive power of bigsocial data in regards to football fans’ off-line and on-linebehaviours. We address the research question of to what extentcan big social data from Facebook predict the numberof spectators and TV ratings in the case of Danish NationalFootball...... data, Football fans, Spectators, TV rating...

  5. Frequency of head-impact-related outcomes by position in NCAA division I collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Kiernan, Patrick T; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Montenigro, Philip H; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and "dings" (pfootball season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion.

  6. Frequency of Head-Impact–Related Outcomes by Position in NCAA Division I Collegiate Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Patrick T.; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Montenigro, Philip H.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and “dings” (pfootball season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion. PMID:25155288

  7. Kicking the Football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  8. Age of first exposure to American football and long-term neuropsychiatric and cognitive outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, M L; Kasimis, A B; Stamm, J M; Chua, A S; Baugh, C M; Daneshvar, D H; Robbins, C A; Mariani, M; Hayden, J; Conneely, S; Au, R; Torres, A; McClean, M D; McKee, A C; Cantu, R C; Mez, J; Nowinski, C J; Martin, B M; Chaisson, C E; Tripodis, Y; Stern, R A

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that age of first exposure (AFE) to football before age 12 may have long-term clinical implications; however, this relationship has only been examined in small samples of former professional football players. We examined the association between AFE to football and behavior, mood and cognition in a large cohort of former amateur and professional football players. The sample included 214 former football players without other contact sport history. Participants completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT), and self-reported measures of executive function and behavioral regulation (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Metacognition Index (MI), Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI)), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) and apathy (Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES)). Outcomes were continuous and dichotomized as clinically impaired. AFE was dichotomized into football before age 12 corresponded with >2 × increased odds for clinically impaired scores on all measures but BTACT: (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): BRI, 2.16,1.19–3.91; MI, 2.10,1.17–3.76; CES-D, 3.08,1.65–5.76; AES, 2.39,1.32–4.32). Younger AFE predicted increased odds for clinical impairment on the AES (OR, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.76–0.97) and CES-D (OR, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.74–0.97). There was no interaction between AFE and highest level of play. Younger AFE to football, before age 12 in particular, was associated with increased odds for impairment in self-reported neuropsychiatric and executive function in 214 former American football players. Longitudinal studies will inform youth football policy and safety decisions. PMID:28926003

  9. Age of first exposure to American football and long-term neuropsychiatric and cognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, M L; Kasimis, A B; Stamm, J M; Chua, A S; Baugh, C M; Daneshvar, D H; Robbins, C A; Mariani, M; Hayden, J; Conneely, S; Au, R; Torres, A; McClean, M D; McKee, A C; Cantu, R C; Mez, J; Nowinski, C J; Martin, B M; Chaisson, C E; Tripodis, Y; Stern, R A

    2017-09-19

    Previous research suggests that age of first exposure (AFE) to football before age 12 may have long-term clinical implications; however, this relationship has only been examined in small samples of former professional football players. We examined the association between AFE to football and behavior, mood and cognition in a large cohort of former amateur and professional football players. The sample included 214 former football players without other contact sport history. Participants completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT), and self-reported measures of executive function and behavioral regulation (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Metacognition Index (MI), Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI)), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) and apathy (Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES)). Outcomes were continuous and dichotomized as clinically impaired. AFE was dichotomized into football before age 12 corresponded with >2 × increased odds for clinically impaired scores on all measures but BTACT: (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): BRI, 2.16,1.19-3.91; MI, 2.10,1.17-3.76; CES-D, 3.08,1.65-5.76; AES, 2.39,1.32-4.32). Younger AFE predicted increased odds for clinical impairment on the AES (OR, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.76-0.97) and CES-D (OR, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.74-0.97). There was no interaction between AFE and highest level of play. Younger AFE to football, before age 12 in particular, was associated with increased odds for impairment in self-reported neuropsychiatric and executive function in 214 former American football players. Longitudinal studies will inform youth football policy and safety decisions.

  10. Tackle mechanisms and match characteristics in women's elite football tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscholl, P; O'Riordan, D; Fuller, C W; Dvorak, J; Junge, A

    2007-08-01

    Several tools have been used for assessing risk situations and for gathering tackle information from international football matches for men but not for women. To analyse activities in women's football and to identify the characteristics and risk potentials of tackles. Retrospective video analysis. Video recordings of 24 representative matches from six women's top-level tournaments were analysed for tackle parameters and their risk potential. 3531 tackles were recorded. Tackles in which the tackling player came from the side and stayed on her feet accounted for nearly half of all challenges for the ball in which body contact occurred. 2.7% of all tackles were classified as risk situations, with sliding-in tackles from behind and the side having the highest risk potential. Match referees sanctioned sliding-in tackles more often than other tackles (20% v 17%, respectively). Tackle parameters did not change in the duration of a match; however, there was an increase in the number of injury risk situations and foul plays towards the end of each half. Match properties provide valuable information for a better understanding of injury situations in football. Staying on feet and jumping vertically tackle actions leading to injury were sanctioned significantly more times by the referee than those not leading to injury (pgame are not adequate or match referees in women's football are not able to distinguish between sliding-in tackles leading to and those not leading to injury.

  11. Women's football: Player characteristics and demands of the game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Martínez-Lagunas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of scientific investigations on women's football specific to the topics of player characteristics and demands of the game has considerably increased in recent years due to the increased popularity of the women's game worldwide, although they are not yet as numerous as in the case of men's football. To date, only two scientific publications have attempted to review the main findings of studies published in this area. However, one of them was published about 20 years ago, when women's football was still in its infancy and there were only a few studies to report on. The other review was more recent. Nonetheless, its main focus was on the game and training demands of senior elite female players. Thus, information on female footballers of lower competitive levels and younger age groups was not included. Consequently, an updated review is needed in this area. The present article therefore aims to provide an overview of a series of studies that have been published so far on the specific characteristics of female football players and the demands of match-play. Mean values reported in the literature for age (12–27 years, body height (155–174 cm, body mass (48–72 kg, percent body fat (13%–29%, maximal oxygen uptake (45.1–55.5 mL/kg/min, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (780–1379 m, maximum heart rate (189–202 bpm, 30 m sprint times (4.34–4.96 s, and counter-movement jump or vertical jump (28–50 cm vary mostly according to the players' competitive level and positional role. There are also some special considerations that coaches and other practitioners should be aware of when working with female athletes such as the menstrual cycle, potential pregnancy and lactation, common injury risks (particularly knee and head injuries and health concerns (e.g., female athlete triad, iron deficiency, and anemia that may affect players' football performance, health or return to play. Reported mean values for total distance

  12. The Effect of Subcritical Bone Loss and Exposure on Recurrent Instability After Arthroscopic Bankart Repair in Intercollegiate American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Jonathan F; Owens, Brett D; Cameron, Kenneth L; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Masini, Brendan D; Peck, Karen Y; Svoboda, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    There is no consensus on the optimal method of stabilization (arthroscopic or open) in collision athletes with anterior shoulder instability. To examine the effect of "subcritical" bone loss and football-specific exposure on the rate of recurrent shoulder instability after arthroscopic stabilization in an intercollegiate American football population. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty intercollegiate football players underwent primary arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability and returned to football for at least a single season. Preoperatively, 32 patients experienced recurrent subluxations, and 18 patients experienced a single or recurrent dislocation. Shoulders with glenoid bone loss >20%, an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion, an off-track lesion, and concomitant rotator cuff repair were excluded from the study. The primary outcome of interest was the ability to return to football without subsequent instability. Patients were followed for time to a subsequent instability event after return to play using days of exposure to football and total follow-up time after arthroscopic stabilization. Fifty consecutive patients returned to American football for a mean 1.5 seasons (range, 1-3) after arthroscopic stabilization. Three of 50 (6%; 95% CI, 1.3%-16.5%) patients experienced recurrent instability. There were no subsequent instability events after a mean 3.2 years of military service. All shoulders with glenoid bone loss >13.5% (n = 3) that underwent arthroscopic stabilization experienced recurrent instability upon returning to sport, while none of the shoulders with football ( X 2 = 15.80, P 13.5% glenoid bone loss had an incidence rate of 5.31 cases of recurrent instability per 1000 athlete-exposures of football. In 72,000 athlete-exposures to football with football players with <13.5% glenoid bone loss provides reliable outcomes and low recurrence rates.

  13. Cooperative Marketing alliances for New Products Commercialization as an entrepreneurial strategy; an Analytical-Comparative Study of Football Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salimi, Mehdi; Zarea, Hadi; Khajeheian, Datis

    2012-01-01

    Marketing of new products as important part of the commercialization process, plays a critical role in success of developer companies. Most of new products fail, and in sequence cause the company not to reach the financial and marketing aims. The paper concentrates on cooperative marketing...... alliances as a successful approach to commercialization of new products, by study the Iranian football premier league as a context for cooperative marketing alliances among football clubs and business enterprises. Popularity of football clubs has mentioned as a business platform, for commercialization...... usage from their equities, and help the business enterprise to joy from popularity of football club to exploit the market potential. Study results that cooperative marketing may offer an entrepreneurial approach to new product commercialization, and will promote the marketing abilities of football clubs....

  14. Beyond Crowd Judgments: Data-driven Estimation of Market Value in Association Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Oliver; Simons, Alexander; Weinmann, Markus

    2017-01-01

    concern. Market values can be understood as estimates of transfer fees—that is, prices that could be paid for a player on the football market—so they play an important role in transfer negotiations. These values have traditionally been estimated by football experts, but crowdsourcing has emerged......Association football is a popular sport, but it is also a big business. From a managerial perspective, the most important decisions that team managers make concern player transfers, so issues related to player valuation, especially the determination of transfer fees and market values, are of major......’ market values using multilevel regression analysis. The regression results suggest that data-driven estimates of market value can overcome several of the crowd's practical limitations while producing comparably accurate numbers. Our results have important implications for football managers and scouts...

  15. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. PMID:25878072

  16. Quantifying movement demands of AFL football using GPS tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisbey, Ben; Montgomery, Paul G; Pyne, David B; Rattray, Ben

    2010-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) monitoring of movement patterns is widespread in elite football including the Australian Football League (AFL). However documented analysis of this activity is lacking. We quantified the movement patterns of AFL football and differences between nomadic (midfield), forward and defender playing positions, and determined whether the physical demands have increased over a four season period. Selected premiership games were monitored during the 2005 (n=80 game files), 2006 (n=244), 2007 (n=632) and 2008 (n=793) AFL seasons. Players were fitted with a shoulder harness containing a GPS unit. GPS data were downloaded after games and the following measures extracted: total distance (km), time in various speed zones, maximum speed, number of surges, accelerations, longest continuous efforts and a derived exertion index representing playing intensity. In 2008 nomadic players covered per game 3.4% more total distance (km), had 4.8% less playing time (min), a 17% higher exertion index (per min), and 23% more time running >18kmh(-1) than forwards and defenders (all p<0.05). Physical demands were substantially higher in the 2008 season compared with 2005: an 8.4% increase in mean speed, a 14% increase in intensity (exertion index) and a 9.0% decrease in playing time (all p<0.05). Nomadic players in AFL work substantially harder than forwards and defenders in covering more ground and at higher running intensities. Increases in the physical demands of AFL football were evident between 2005 and 2008. The increasing speed of the game has implications for game authorities, players and coaching staff.

  17. Positional Match Running Performance in Elite Gaelic Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Collins, Kieran D; Doran, Dominic A

    2016-08-01

    Malone, S, Solan, B, Collins, KD, and Doran, DA. Positional match running performance in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2292-2298, 2016-There is currently limited information available on match running performance in Gaelic football. The objective of the current study was to report on the match running profile of elite male Gaelic football and assess positional running performance. In this observational study, 50 elite male Gaelic football players wore 4-Hz global positioning systems units (VX Sports) across 30 competitive games with a total of 215 full game data sets collected. Activity was classed according to total distance, high-speed distance (≥17 km·h), sprint distance (≥22 km·h), mean velocity (km·h), peak velocity (km·h), and number of accelerations. The average match distance was 8,160 ± 1,482 m, reflective of a relative distance of 116 ± 21 m·min, with 1,731 ± 659 m covered at high speed, which is reflective of a relative high-speed distance of 25 ± 9 m·min. The observed sprint distance was 445 ± 169 m distributed across 44 sprint actions. The peak velocity was 30.3 ± 1.8 km·h with a mean velocity of 6.5 ± 1.2 km·h. Players completed 184 ± 40 accelerations, which represent 2.6 ± 0.5 accelerations per minute. There were significant differences between positional groups for both total running distance, high-speed running distance, and sprint distance, with midfielders covering more total and high-speed running distance, compared with other positions (p football match play.

  18. Physical qualities and activity profiles of sub-elite and recreational Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Josh G; Gabbett, Tim J; Townshend, Andrew D; Dawson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between physical qualities and match activity profiles of recreational Australian football players. Prospective cohort study. Forty players from three recreational Australian football teams (Division One, Two and Three) underwent a battery of fitness tests (vertical jump, 10 and 40 m sprint, 6 m × 30 m repeated sprint test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level Two and 2-km time trial). The activity profiles of competitive match-play were quantified using 10-Hz Global Positioning System units. Division One players possessed greater maximum velocity, Yo-Yo level Two and 2-km time trial performances than Division Two and Three players. In addition, Division One players covered greater relative distance, and relative distances at moderate- and high-intensities during match-play than Division Two and Three players. Division Two players had better 2-km time trial performances than Division Three players. Positive associations (P football players competing at a higher level exhibit greater physical qualities and match-play activity profiles than lesser-skilled recreational players. Acceleration and maximum velocity, 2-km time trial and Yo-Yo level Two performances discriminate between players of different playing levels, and are related to physical match performance in recreational Australian football. The development of these qualities is likely to contribute to improved match performance in recreational Australian football players. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stadium Relocation in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Lillo, Gonzalo Leal

    The aim of this paper is to conceptually illustrate the tension between commercialisation and club authenticity, which is a potential consequence of stadium relocation. There is a commercial pressure for relocating a football club to new and more modern facilities, but also a pressure from...

  20. The Football Team Composition Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantuso, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Most professional European football clubs are well-structured businesses. Therefore, the financial performance of investments in players becomes crucial. In this paper, after the problem is discussed and formalized, an optimization model with the objective of maximizing the expected value...

  1. The Long-Term Game: An Analysis of the Life Expectancy of National Football League Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Koning

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Football League (NFL has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other football related injuries have brought the sport under increased scrutiny. By comparing mortality rates of the general population to mortality rates of players using publically available data from the 1970 and 1994 NFL seasons, we test whether participation in football is significantly harmful to the longevity of the players. We conclude that, in total, players in the NFL have lower mortality rates than the general population. However, there is evidence that line players have higher mortality rates than other players and that those who played more games have higher mortality rates than those who played fewer games.

  2. Established – outsider relations in youth football tournaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa; Agergaard, Sine; Maguire, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This article examines Scandinavian constructions and readings of potential football migrants from the African continent by providing an investigation of the dynamics and narratives surrounding African football teams’ participation in three youth football tournaments. Drawing on Elias and Scotson’...

  3. A systematic review of the technology-based assessment of visual perception and exploration behaviour in association football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuckian, Thomas B; Cole, Michael H; Pepping, Gert-Jan

    2018-04-01

    To visually perceive opportunities for action, athletes rely on the movements of their eyes, head and body to explore their surrounding environment. To date, the specific types of technology and their efficacy for assessing the exploration behaviours of association footballers have not been systematically reviewed. This review aimed to synthesise the visual perception and exploration behaviours of footballers according to the task constraints, action requirements of the experimental task, and level of expertise of the athlete, in the context of the technology used to quantify the visual perception and exploration behaviours of footballers. A systematic search for papers that included keywords related to football, technology, and visual perception was conducted. All 38 included articles utilised eye-movement registration technology to quantify visual perception and exploration behaviour. The experimental domain appears to influence the visual perception behaviour of footballers, however no studies investigated exploration behaviours of footballers in open-play situations. Studies rarely utilised representative stimulus presentation or action requirements. To fully understand the visual perception requirements of athletes, it is recommended that future research seek to validate alternate technologies that are capable of investigating the eye, head and body movements associated with the exploration behaviours of footballers during representative open-play situations.

  4. Exploring athletic identity in elite-level English youth football: a cross-sectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom O; Nesti, Mark; Richardson, David; Midgley, Adrian W; Eubank, Martin; Littlewood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first empirical investigation that has explored levels of athletic identity in elite-level English professional football. The importance of understanding athletes' psychological well-being within professional sport has been well documented. This is especially important within the professional football industry, given the high attrition rate (Anderson, G., & Miller, R. M. (2011). The academy system in English professional football: Business value or following the herd? University of Liverpool, Management School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.liv.ac.uk/managementschool/research/working%20papers/wp201143.pdf ) and distinct occupational practices (Roderick, M. (2006). The work of professional football. A labour of love? London: Routledge). A total of 168 elite youth footballers from the English professional football leagues completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Multilevel modelling was used to examine the effect of playing level, living arrangements and year of apprentice on the total AIMS score and its subscales (i.e., social identity, exclusivity and negative affectivity). Football club explained 30% of the variance in exclusivity among players (P = .022). Mean social identity was significantly higher for those players in the first year of their apprenticeship compared to the second year (P = .025). All other effects were not statistically significant (P > .05). The novel and unique findings have practical implications in the design and implementation of career support strategies with respect to social identity. This may facilitate the maintenance of motivation over a 2-year apprenticeship and positively impact on performance levels within the professional football environment.

  5. Talented High School Football Players’ Perception of Talent Identification Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazjwar Matin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Talent identification (TID is a major part of top-level football. Even so, most studies of talented players are skewed towards exploring the work of coaches who are already dealing with pre-defined “talented performers” and not a broader range of players, such as high school students in sport specialisation programs (SSP and elite sport specialisation programs (ESSP. In this study, we explore which skills high school players find most important, how they assess their own skills compared to their schoolmates and which skills their school and club coaches find most important, comparing: girls and boys, an SSP and an ESSP school and players playing top-level versus low-level football. Included in this study were 111 high school football players (81 boys and 30 girls representing one SSP and one ESSP. The results showed that the players ranked mental and tactical skills as most important compared to the school and club coach who ranked, respectively, technical and physical, and tactical and technical skills as most important. Girls considered both tactical and physical skills significantly (<0.01 more important than boys. Players from SSP considered mental skills as significantly more important, while the ESSP players considered the tactical skills as significantly more important. Furthermore, the top-level players considered technical and mental skills as significantly more important. These results could indicate that gender, school type and playing level could affect the players’ perception of the most important skills in TID.

  6. Position of women's football in the Czech Republic (Based on the example of women's football in the Pardubice Region)

    OpenAIRE

    Merklová, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Title: Position of women's football in the Czech Republic (Based on the example of women's football in the Pardubice Region) Objectives: The aim of the thesis is to describe the position of Czech women's football, map women's football in the Pardubice Region and find out female football players' opinions on women's football in the Czech Republic. Methods: An empirical research method is used in this thesis. The research was implemented by a paper-based questionnaire survey. The questionnaire ...

  7. Distance matters in away games: Evidence from the German football league

    OpenAIRE

    Oberhofer, Harald; Philippovich, Tassilo; Winner, Hannes

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the role of distance in professional team sports, taking the example of football (soccer). We argue that a team’s performance in terms of scored and conceded goals decreases with the distance to the foreign playing venue. To test this hypothesis empirically, we investigate 6,389 away games from the German Football Premier League (’Erste Deutsche Bundesliga’) between the playing seasons 1986-87 and 2006-07. We find that distance increases a guest team’s propensity to conced...

  8. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  9. THE ECONOMICS OF “BIG FIVE” EUROPEAN FOOTBALL LEAGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor DIMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available European football is a business with more and more attractive numbers for investors, shareholders or partners all over the planet. It has significantly changed especially over the last 20 years, following an intense procedure of acquisitions and marketing, a process that has brought important sums of money in this industry. This paper presents the overview of the “big five” European football leagues (England, Germany, Spain, Italy, France. The study is primarily focused on economics, but is also considering various social or cultural aspects (media, social media followers. The case-study on the five major leagues corroborates the theoretical underpinning. The paper investigates also the roots of financial regulation divergence in Europe and underlines the main issues regarding the UEFA financial fair-play rules.

  10. Concussion management in US college football: progress and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the frequency and severity of concussions from sport is an important issue in public health currently addressed by a multifaceted approach. Given the large number of participants and the comparatively high risk of injury, American football is an important sport to consider when examining concussion management practices. Focusing on American football at the collegiate level, this manuscript describes current research regarding concussion epidemiology, policy, implementation of clinical diagnosis, management and return-to-play standards and athlete concussion education. Although American collegiate sports leagues have put forth concussion-related policies in recent years, the implementation of these policies and related effects on athlete concussion education, clinical management of concussion and ultimately athlete health outcomes are not well understood. Additional research is needed. PMID:27064258

  11. Association football and the representation of homosexuality by the print media: a case study of Anton Hysén.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    In March 2011, Anton Hysén (a semiprofessional footballer currently playing in the Swedish fourth division) became only the second association football (soccer) player of any professional disposition to publicly declare his homosexuality while still playing the game. This article provides a textual analysis of the print media's reaction to Hysén coming out and examines whether, in 2011, they portray more inclusive notions toward homosexuality than they did in 1990 when British footballer Justin Fashanu came out. The results advance inclusive masculinity theory as a number of print media sources (mostly British) interview Hysén in the weeks immediately after he came out and publish articles that challenge homophobia. Highlighting a change since 1990, a significant number of articles stress the need for the key stakeholders in football (players, fans, clubs, agents, the authorities, and the media) to accept gay players.

  12. History of football club Sokol Slapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chroust, Luboš

    2013-01-01

    DIPLOMOVÁ PRÁCE Historie fotbalového klubu Sokol Slapy The history of football club Sokol Slapy Vedoucí práce: PaedDr. Ladislav Pokorný Autor: Bc. Luboš Chroust Title: The history of football club Sokol Slapy Anotation: This diploma thesis deals with the history of soccer club Slap, its operation and last, but not least it's successes in the field. Key words: history, Slapy, football, club

  13. Effects of expertise on football betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaal Yasser

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football (soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football, and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson, controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%. Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

  14. Effects of expertise on football betting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Billieux, Joël; Bizzini, Lucio; Monney, Grégoire; Fresard, Emmanuelle; Thorens, Gabriel; Bondolfi, Guido; El-Guebaly, Nady; Zullino, Daniele; Khan, Riaz

    2012-05-11

    Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of "illusion of control." The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson), controlling for age and gender. The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%). Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the "illusion of control." Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

  15. Automatic recognition of offensive team formation in american football plays

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati; Ghanem, Bernard; Ahuja, Shaunak; Muthuswamy, Karthik; Ahuja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Compared to security surveillance and military applications, where automated action analysis is prevalent, the sports domain is extremely under-served. Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important

  16. Cervical spine injuries in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2009-01-01

    American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of

  17. CONCUSSION OCCURRENCE AND KNOWLEDGE IN ITALIAN FOOTBALL (SOCCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Broglio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate concussion history, knowledge, injury identification, and management strategies among athletes, coaches, and medical staff in Italian club level football (soccer clubs. Surveys (N=727 were distributed among Italian football clubs. Athletes' surveys were designed to evaluate athlete knowledge of concussive signs and symptoms and injury reporting. Coaches' surveys explored the understanding of concussive signs and symptoms and management practices. Medical staff surveys explored the standard of care regarding concussions. A total of 342 surveys were returned, for a 47% response rate. Descriptive analyses indicated 10% of athletes sustaining a concussion in the past year and 62% of these injuries were not reported, primarily due to the athletes not thinking the injury was serious enough. Coaches consistently identified non-concussion related symptoms (98.7%, but were unable to identify symptoms associated with concussion (38.9%. Most understood that loss of consciousness is not the sole indicator of injury (82.6%. Medical staff reported a heavy reliance on the clinical exam (92% and athlete symptom reports (92% to make the concussion diagnosis and return to play decision, with little use of neurocognitive (16.7% or balance (0.0% testing. Italian football athletes appear to report concussions at a rate similar to American football players, with a slightly higher rate of unreported injuries. Most of these athletes were aware they were concussed, but did not feel the injury was serious enough to report. Although coaches served as the primary person to whom concussions were reported, the majority of coaches were unable to accurately identify concussion related symptoms. With little use for neurocognitive and postural control assessments, the medical personnel may be missing injuries or returning athletes to play too soon. Collectively, these findings suggest that athletes, coaches, and medical personnel would

  18. Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Players of American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mez, Jesse; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Kiernan, Patrick T; Abdolmohammadi, Bobak; Alvarez, Victor E; Huber, Bertrand R; Alosco, Michael L; Solomon, Todd M; Nowinski, Christopher J; McHale, Lisa; Cormier, Kerry A; Kubilus, Caroline A; Martin, Brett M; Murphy, Lauren; Baugh, Christine M; Montenigro, Phillip H; Chaisson, Christine E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Kowall, Neil W; Weuve, Jennifer; McClean, Michael D; Cantu, Robert C; Goldstein, Lee E; Katz, Douglas I; Stern, Robert A; Stein, Thor D; McKee, Ann C

    2017-07-25

    Players of American football may be at increased risk of long-term neurological conditions, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To determine the neuropathological and clinical features of deceased football players with CTE. Case series of 202 football players whose brains were donated for research. Neuropathological evaluations and retrospective telephone clinical assessments (including head trauma history) with informants were performed blinded. Online questionnaires ascertained athletic and military history. Participation in American football at any level of play. Neuropathological diagnoses of neurodegenerative diseases, including CTE, based on defined diagnostic criteria; CTE neuropathological severity (stages I to IV or dichotomized into mild [stages I and II] and severe [stages III and IV]); informant-reported athletic history and, for players who died in 2014 or later, clinical presentation, including behavior, mood, and cognitive symptoms and dementia. Among 202 deceased former football players (median age at death, 66 years [interquartile range, 47-76 years]), CTE was neuropathologically diagnosed in 177 players (87%; median age at death, 67 years [interquartile range, 52-77 years]; mean years of football participation, 15.1 [SD, 5.2]), including 0 of 2 pre-high school, 3 of 14 high school (21%), 48 of 53 college (91%), 9 of 14 semiprofessional (64%), 7 of 8 Canadian Football League (88%), and 110 of 111 National Football League (99%) players. Neuropathological severity of CTE was distributed across the highest level of play, with all 3 former high school players having mild pathology and the majority of former college (27 [56%]), semiprofessional (5 [56%]), and professional (101 [86%]) players having severe pathology. Among 27 participants with mild CTE pathology, 26 (96%) had behavioral or mood symptoms or both, 23 (85%) had cognitive symptoms, and 9 (33%) had signs of dementia. Among 84 participants with severe CTE pathology, 75 (89

  19. Sport or school? Dreams and dilemmas for young football talents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan

    2008-01-01

      Introduction The national football and sports elite unions in Denmark urge young football talents to complete upper secondary education while they are building football careers. The football culture has a magnetic attraction on young football players. Yet, attempting a professional career...... in football involves great mental and physical strains that profoundly affect the future lives of the young talents. Aims The study aimed to examine young (aged 15-19) male football players´ subjective experience and biographic memories of life as a football talent. An emphasis was placed on daily life...... experiences, especially the difficulties of submitting to the demands of both football training and education. Methods The study was a qualitative inquiry into the young football players´ subjective experiences of balancing football and education. The study used focus group interviews with 6-8 players from 4...

  20. Brachial neuropraxia in Canadian Atlantic University sport football players: what is the incidence of "stingers"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Rebecca M E; McVeigh, Sonja A; Thompson, Kara

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the incidence of brachial neuropraxia (stingers) among varsity football players during the 2010 season; (2) to determine if associations exist between sustaining a stinger and previous history of stingers, years played, equipment, age, body mass index (BMI), and conditioning; and (3) to provide descriptive statistics regarding stingers and position played, symptoms, activity during injury, mechanism of tackling, and reporting of stingers. Retrospective. Canadian Atlantic University Sport football league. Two hundred forty-four players. Two written questionnaires. Number of players experiencing stingers that occurred during the 2010 season. The incidence was 26% (64 of 244). A multivariate analysis revealed that previous history of a stinger (P football and are underreported to medical staff. Education of players at increased risk is needed.

  1. Recreational football practice attenuates postprandial lipaemia in normal and overweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Darren J; Bangsbo, Jens; Nassis, George P

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of playing football on postprandial lipaemia in normal and overweight individuals. METHODS: Fifteen (7 normal weight, age = 32.3 ± 6.0 years, BMI = 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and 8 overweight, age = 33.3 ± 5.5 years, BMI = 29.2 ± 3.2 kg/m2......, mean ± SD) recreational football players were recruited. On the evening of day 1, participants played a 60-min 9-a-side football match (FOOT) or rested (control; CON) in a randomised counterbalanced cross-over design. Activity profile, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. The next...

  2. Science of rugby league football: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the science of rugby league football at all levels of competition (i.e. junior, amateur, semi-professional, professional), with special reference to all discipline-specific scientific research performed in rugby league (i.e. physiological, psychological, injury epidemiology, strength and conditioning, performance analysis). Rugby league football is played at junior and senior levels in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs). The game is played over two 30 - 40 min halves (depending on the standard of competition) separated by a 10 min rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities and injury rates of rugby league players. More recently, studies have investigated the physiological demands of competition. Interestingly, the physiological capacities of players, the incidence of injury and the physiological demands of competition all increase as the playing standard is increased. Mean blood lactate concentrations of 5.2, 7.2 and 9.1 mmol . l(-1) have been reported during competition for amateur, semi-professional and professional rugby league players respectively. Mean heart rates of 152 beats . min(-1) (78% of maximal heart rate), 166 beats . min(-1) (84% of maximal heart rate) and 172 beats . min(-1) (93% of maximal heart rate) have been recorded for amateur, semi-professional and junior elite rugby league players respectively. Skill-based conditioning games have been used to develop the skill and fitness of rugby league players, with mean heart rate and blood lactate responses during these activities almost identical to those obtained during competition. In addition, recent studies have shown that most training injuries are sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involve no skill component (i.e. running without the ball), whereas the incidence of injuries while participating in skill-based conditioning

  3. Does Game Participation Impact Cognition and Symptoms in Elite Football Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazik, Martin; Naidu, Dhiren; Manning, David E; Brooks, Brian L

    2016-09-01

    To measure neurocognitive functioning in college and professional football players after game participation. Retrospective, cross-sectional cohort design. Ninety-four male university and professional football players. All participants completed Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) testing at baseline, and either at postconcussion (group 1) or postgame (group 2) participation. Results from the 5 ImPACT composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, Reaction Time and Impulse Control) and Total Symptom Score. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated a significant main effect for time (improvements) in 3 of 5 domains for the postconcussion group, but no improvements in the postgame group. The postconcussion group presented with significantly improved results on 4 of 5 ImPACT domains compared with the postgame group at the follow-up time interval. Participation in a football game with potential cumulative head contacts did not yield increased symptoms or cognitive impairment. However, the absence of improvement in cognitive functioning in noninjured football players, which was found in those players who were returned to play after an injury, may suggest that there is a measureable impact as a result of playing football.

  4. Associations between BMI Change and Cardiometabolic Risk in Retired Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Defreese, J D; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2018-04-01

    Elevated rates of cardiometabolic diseases have been observed in former American football players. The current study sought to determine whether change in body mass index (ΔBMI) after retirement influences the prevalence of CHD, diabetes, or high blood pressure (HBP) in former professional football players. Retired professional football players (n = 3729) were sent a survey with questions regarding health status, playing history, and demographic information. Self-reported BMI at the time of retirement was subtracted from current self-reported BMI to calculate ΔBMI. Prevalence of CHD, diabetes, and HBP were determined by asking participants if they had ever been diagnosed by a health care professional. Binomial regression with a Poisson residual and robust variance estimation was used to compute crude prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each outcome. Adjusted PR values were calculated by adjusting for BMI at the time of retirement, age, years of football experience, race, exercise habits, alcohol use, steroid history, smoking history, and playing position. Complete data were available for 2062 respondents. Prevalence of CHD increased 25%-31% for each five-point increase in ΔBMI after retirement (crude PR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.03-1.52, P = 0.026; adjusted PR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.11-1.55, P = 0.001). Diabetes prevalence increased 69%-88% for each five-point ΔBMI increase (crude = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.45-2.44, P football players.

  5. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  6. Physical Attributes and NFL Combine Performance Tests Between Italian National League and American Football Players: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Caumo, Andrea; Roveda, Eliana; Montaruli, Angela; La Torre, Antonio; Battaglini, Claudio L; Carandente, Franca

    2016-10-01

    Vitale, JA, Caumo, A, Roveda, E, Montaruli, A, La Torre, A, Battaglini, CL, and Carandente, F. Physical attributes and NFL Combine performance tests between Italian National League and American football players: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2802-2808, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine anthropometric measurements and the results of a battery of performance tests administered during the National Football League (NFL) Combine between American football players who were declared eligible to participate in the NFL Combine and football players of a top Italian team (Rhinos Milan). Participants (N = 50) were categorized by position into 1 of 3 groups based on playing position: skill players (SP) included wide receivers, cornerbacks, free safeties, strong safeties, and running backs; big skill players (BSP) consisted of fullbacks, linebackers, tight ends, and defensive ends; lineman (LM) included centers, offensive guards, offensive tackles, and defensive tackles. A 1-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test was used for comparisons between Italian players by playing position. Ninety-five percent CIs were used for comparisons between American and Italian football for the NFL Combine performance tests. Significant differences for all the variables between the 3 playing categories were observed among the Italian players; LM had higher anthropometric and body composition values than SP (p football players presented significantly higher anthropometric values and test performance scores when compared with Italian players. Administrators of professional football teams in Italy need to improve the player's physical attributes, so the gap that currently exists between American and Italian players can be reduced, which could significantly improve the quality of American football in Italy.

  7. Association Between History of Multiple Concussions and Health Outcomes Among Former College Football Players: 15-Year Follow-up From the NCAA Concussion Study (1999-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Thomas, Leah C; Simon, Janet E; McCrea, Michael; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has examined associations between concussion history and adverse health outcomes among former professional football players. Less is known about the potential effects of concussion among former college football players without additional exposure at the professional level. To examine the association between concussion and adverse health outcomes in a cohort of former college football players without exposure to professional football, 15 years after their playing careers ended. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A sample of 204 former collegiate football players (23.4% of eligible athletes with available contact information)-all of whom played at least 1 season of football from 1999 to 2001 in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and had no professional football exposure-completed a general health survey that assessed lifetime concussion history and included the following: the Veterans RAND 36 Item Health Survey, containing a physical composite score (PCS) and mental composite score (MCS); the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire; and the 4-item CAGE alcohol dependence questionnaire (for "cutting down, annoyance by criticism, guilty feeling, and eye-openers"). Multivariable binomial regression models estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% CIs while controlling for demographics and playing history covariates through forward selection model building. Most participants reported a concussion history (84.3%). Overall, 22.1% and 39.2% of participants reported a PCS and an MCS history of multiple concussions and adverse health outcomes were found among former collegiate football players without professional football exposure but were limited to those reporting ≥3 prior concussions. Because only 23.4% of eligible athletes responded to the survey, the possibility of ascertainment bias exists, and our findings should thus be interpreted with some caution. Continued examination within nonprofessional

  8. Complex networks untangle competitive advantage in Australian football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Calum; Small, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We construct player-based complex network models of Australian football teams for the 2014 Australian Football League season; modelling the passes between players as weighted, directed edges. We show that analysis of these measures can give an insight into the underlying structure and strategy of Australian football teams, quantitatively distinguishing different playing styles. The relationships observed between network properties and match outcomes suggest that successful teams exhibit well-connected passing networks with the passes distributed between all 22 players as evenly as possible. Linear regression models of team scores and match margins show significant improvements in R2 and Bayesian information criterion when network measures are added to models that use conventional measures, demonstrating that network analysis measures contain useful, extra information. Several measures, particularly the mean betweenness centrality, are shown to be useful in predicting the outcomes of future matches, suggesting they measure some aspect of the intrinsic strength of teams. In addition, several local centrality measures are shown to be useful in analysing individual players' differing contributions to the team's structure.

  9. Reliability of concussion history in former professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2012-03-01

    The reliability of athletes to recall and self-report a concussion history has never been quantified. This study examined the reliability of the self-report concussion history measure and explored determinants of recall in the number of self-reported concussions in a group of retired professional football players. In 2001, a short questionnaire was administered to a cohort of former professional football players to ascertain the number of self-reported concussions they sustained during their professional playing careers. In 2010, the same instrument was readministered to a subset (n = 899) of the original cohort to assess reliability. Overall reliability was moderate (weighted Cohen κ = 0.48). The majority (62.1%) reported the same number of concussions in both administrations (2001 and 2010); 31.4% reported more concussions in the second administration. Compared with the "same number reported" group, the "greater number reported" group had more deficits in the second administration in their Short Form 36 physical health (composite score combining physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health) and mental health (e.g., composite score combining vitality, social functioning, role emotional) scales. The self-reported concussion history had moderate reliability in former professional football players, on the basis of two administrations of the same instrument, 9 yr apart. However, changes in health status may be differentially associated with recall of concussions.

  10. Identity, football and Croatian national team members from the diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komar Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author briefly presents his fieldwork results, with an emphasis on studying the relationship between football and the construction of children’s, grandson’s and great-grandson’s national identities in first-generation Croatian migrants. Specifically, the research focuses on Croatian national football team members from the diaspora who rather choose to play for their “imagined homeland” than the national team of their country of birth. If we agree that one of sport’s functions is, among other things, to act as a mechanism of national solidarity - promoting the sense of identity and unity - football proves to be an ideal field for studying the symbolic dimensions of ethnicity, discursive shaping of identity and practices trough which athletic (and national loyalty is manifested. Through the coding of interview transcripts, organizing data into categories and analyzing conducted interviews, the author examines the dynamic relationship between expressing national identity and personal choices of the individual as to which national team he should join.

  11. English loans in Swahili newspaper football language | Dzahene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been inferred that to some extent some football terminologies tend to be cross-linguistic, stemming from the fact that many languages borrow football vocabulary from English. Thus within the field of football, the influence of English is significant. Football in Tanzania dates back to the 1920s and is becoming more and ...

  12. Football Injuries during a South African University Sport Tournament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of injuries in amateur football players during a University Sport South Africa Football tournament and the factors associated with these injuries. A prospective study design to describe football injuries during the University Sport South Africa Football Championships was ...

  13. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...

  14. Impact of Increased Football Field Width on Player High-Speed Collision Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacob R; Khalsa, Siri S; Smith, Brandon W; Park, Paul

    2017-07-01

    High-acceleration head impact is a known risk for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) based on studies using helmet accelerometry. In football, offensive and defensive players are at higher risk of mTBI due to increased speed of play. Other collision sport studies suggest that increased playing surface size may contribute to reductions in high-speed collisions. We hypothesized that wider football fields lead to a decreased rate of high-speed collisions. Computer football game simulation was developed using MATLAB. Four wide receivers were matched against 7 defensive players. Each offensive player was randomized to one of 5 typical routes on each play. The ball was thrown 3 seconds into play; ball flight time was 2 seconds. Defensive players were delayed 0.5 second before reacting to ball release. A high-speed collision was defined as the receiver converging with a defensive player within 0.5 second of catching the ball. The simulation counted high-speed collisions for 1 team/season (65 plays/game for 16 games/season = 1040 plays/season) averaged during 10 seasons, and was validated against existing data using standard field width (53.3 yards). Field width was increased in 1-yard intervals up to 58.3 yards. Using standard field width, 188 ± 4 high-speed collisions were seen per team per season (18% of plays). When field width increased by 3 yards, high-speed collision rate decreased to 135 ± 3 per team per season (28% decrease; P football field width can lead to substantial decline in high-speed collisions, with potential for reducing instances of mTBI in football players. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive Support in Teaching Football Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques. Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20-21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively,…

  16. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln Football: A Metaphorical, Symbolic and Ritualistic Community Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Satterfield

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the social dynamics surrounding the University of Nebraska-Lincoln football program on the community at large. The following research questions helped guide the research study: 1. What are the sociological effects of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln football on the community? and 2. How is commitment displayed to University of Nebraska football by members of the community? Six focus group interviews were conducted, each with five to seven participants. Through phenomenological analysis, it became clear that the sociological nature of University of Nebraska-Lincoln football is steeped in tradition, and the ritualistic nature that surrounds this phenomenon extends well into communities. This study illuminates three themes that emerged through data collection and analysis: 1. Harvest, 2. United we stand, and 3. Farm values. The Harvest theme represents the similarities of the agricultural lifestyle to a football season and how the entire year is dedicated towards performance. United we stand emerged as a visual, social and emotional sense of pride for the state of Nebraska residents towards the University and Nebraska and its football team. The connection between the university and the state begins early in life and grows as the years pass to become a social symbol of pride and togetherness as small towns shut down to gather and watch football games. Farm values emerged as the final theme and represented the importance of the farming value structure on the many small communities and towns in the state of Nebraska. For many small towns, a great sense of pride was generated when a local athlete was able to play for the University of Nebraska. This pride served as a means of legitimacy and hope in many struggling families that create Nebraska's farming communities. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110134

  17. Association between recurrent concussion and late-life cognitive impairment in retired professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; Bailes, Julian; McCrea, Michael; Cantu, Robert C; Randolph, Christopher; Jordan, Barry D

    2005-10-01

    Cerebral concussion is common in collision sports such as football, yet the chronic neurological effects of recurrent concussion are not well understood. The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between previous head injury and the likelihood of developing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease in a unique group of retired professional football players with previous head injury exposure. A general health questionnaire was completed by 2552 retired professional football players with an average age of 53.8 (+/-13.4) years and an average professional football playing career of 6.6 (+/- 3.6) years. A second questionnaire focusing on memory and issues related to MCI was then completed by a subset of 758 retired professional football players (> or = 50 yr of age). Results on MCI were then cross-tabulated with results from the original health questionnaire for this subset of older retirees. Of the former players, 61% sustained at least one concussion during their professional football career, and 24% sustained three or more concussions. Statistical analysis of the data identified an association between recurrent concussion and clinically diagnosed MCI (chi = 7.82, df = 2, P = 0.02) and self-reported significant memory impairments (chi = 19.75, df = 2, P = 0.001). Retired players with three or more reported concussions had a fivefold prevalence of MCI diagnosis and a threefold prevalence of reported significant memory problems compared with retirees without a history of concussion. Although there was not an association between recurrent concussion and Alzheimer's disease, we observed an earlier onset of Alzheimer's disease in the retirees than in the general American male population. Our findings suggest that the onset of dementia-related syndromes may be initiated by repetitive cerebral concussions in professional football players.

  18. Suitability of FIFA's "The 11" Training Programme for Young Football Players - Impact on Physical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, Andrew E; Tunstall, Helen; Kuzmic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence regarding the use of injury prevention programmes for preadolescents participating in sport. "The 11 "injury prevention programme was developed by FIFA's medical research centre (F-MARC) to help reduce the risk of injury in football players aged 14 years and over. The aim of this study was to determine the suitability and effectiveness of "The 11 "for younger football players. Twenty-four [12 experimental (EXP), 12 control (CON)] young football players (age 10.4 ± 1.4 yr) participated. The EXP group followed "The 11 "training programme 5 days per week, for 6 weeks, completing all but one of the 10 exercises. Prior to, and after the intervention, both EXP and CON groups performed a battery of football-specific physical tests. Changes in performance scores within each group were compared using independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05). Feedback was also gathered on the young players' perceptions of "The 11". No injuries occurred during the study in either group. Compliance to the intervention was 72%. Measures of leg power (3 step jump and counter-movement jump) increased significantly (3.4 and 6.0% respectively, p football players, for both physical development and potential injury prevention purposes, as well as to promote fair play. To further engage young football players in such a programme, some modification to "The 11 "should be considered. Key pointsChildren who participate in recreational and competitive sports, especially football, are susceptible to injury.There is a need for the design and assessment of injury prevention programmes for children.The 11 "improves essential physical performance characteristics and has the potential to reduce the risk of injury.It may be prudent to implement a 'child-friendly' version of "The 11", to enhance long-term programme adherence and to ensure progressive physical development of players.

  19. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a healthpromoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised...... controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications...... in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence...

  20. Caught between passion for the game and the need for education: a study of elite-level female football players in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt-Hansen, Marianne; Ottesen, Laila

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on the passion of Danish elite-level female football players for the game and the challenges they face. How do they manage to combine the tough demands of a football life with the need for education? A quantitative survey (2010) was sent out to female players in the Danish 3F...... by Victor Pestoff, we may be operating with a different form of elite in women’s football in Denmark. Future focal points for clubs and the Danish Football Association are to continue supporting the players’ passion for the game and Team Denmark’s focus on ‘the whole human being’ in athletes....... Ligaen and Danish national team players. The findings indicate challenges faced by players in pursuing their passion, as they struggle to combine everyday life, education and work with a football career, either as amateurs or on a playing contract. In the light of the Scandinavian sport model inspired...

  1. Concussion occurrence and knowledge in italian football (soccer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglio, Steven P; Vagnozzi, Roberto; Sabin, Matthew; Signoretti, Stefano; Tavazzi, Barbara; Lazzarino, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate concussion history, knowledge, injury identification, and management strategies among athletes, coaches, and medical staff in Italian club level football (soccer) clubs. Surveys (N=727) were distributed among Italian football clubs. Athletes' surveys were designed to evaluate athlete knowledge of concussive signs and symptoms and injury reporting. Coaches' surveys explored the understanding of concussive signs and symptoms and management practices. Medical staff surveys explored the standard of care regarding concussions. A total of 342 surveys were returned, for a 47% response rate. Descriptive analyses indicated 10% of athletes sustaining a concussion in the past year and 62% of these injuries were not reported, primarily due to the athletes not thinking the injury was serious enough. Coaches consistently identified non-concussion related symptoms (98.7%), but were unable to identify symptoms associated with concussion (38.9%). Most understood that loss of consciousness is not the sole indicator of injury (82.6%). Medical staff reported a heavy reliance on the clinical exam (92%) and athlete symptom reports (92%) to make the concussion diagnosis and return to play decision, with little use of neurocognitive (16.7%) or balance (0.0%) testing. Italian football athletes appear to report concussions at a rate similar to American football players, with a slightly higher rate of unreported injuries. Most of these athletes were aware they were concussed, but did not feel the injury was serious enough to report. Although coaches served as the primary person to whom concussions were reported, the majority of coaches were unable to accurately identify concussion related symptoms. With little use for neurocognitive and postural control assessments, the medical personnel may be missing injuries or returning athletes to play too soon. Collectively, these findings suggest that athletes, coaches, and medical personnel would benefit

  2. Australian Football League concussion guidelines: what do community players think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta E; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Newton, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing concussion in sport is a global challenge. To assess community-level adult male Australian Football players’ views on following the Australian Football League's (AFL) concussion guidelines. Methods 3 focus groups, each comprising 6 players from 1 regional league, were conducted until saturation of issues raised. Discussions followed a semistructured script and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 coders independently. Results Identified advantages of the guidelines included highlighting the seriousness of concussion; changing the culture around playing with concussion and shifting return-to-play decision responsibility from players to others. Disadvantages included players being removed from play unnecessarily; removal of players’ rights to decide if they are fit to play and players changing their behaviours to avoid being removed from play. Identified facilitators to guideline use included local league enforcement; broad information dissemination and impartial medically trained staff to assess concussion. Identified barriers to guideline use included players’ desire to play at all costs; external pressure that encouraged players to return to play prematurely; and inconvenience and cost. Conclusions Players generally understand that the AFL concussion guidelines protect their long-term welfare. However, their desire to play at all costs and help their team win is a common barrier to reporting concussion and adhering to guidelines. Leagues should take a lead role by mandating and enforcing the use of the guidelines and educating coaches, game day medical providers and players. The return-to-play component of the guidelines is complex and needs further consideration in the context of community sport. PMID:28890801

  3. Ten Do It Better, Do They?: An Empirical Analysis of an Old Football Myth

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Caliendo; Dubravko Radic

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the expulsion of a player influences the out-come of a football match. Common sense implies a negative impact for the affected team. However, an old football myth suggests that such an expulsion might also be beneficial since it increases the team spirit as well as the efforts of the affected team. We make use of a unique dataset containing all games played in a World Cup Championship between 1930 and 2002 and follow a twofold econometric strategy: We start wi...

  4. Osgood Schlatter’s disease - A burst in young football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Domingues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Football is the most popular sport in the world. Like any contact sport it is susceptible to various kinds of injuries. It is referred the link between methodology of training and the prevention of overuse injuries in youth as it relates to maladaptive sport programs. There is an increasing awareness to growth related conditions and the relation of musculoskeletal development and the onset of youth related conditions. This article examines one specific injury sustained by children and adolescents who play football, Osgood Schlatter disease, and the main mechanisms whereby such injury occur. The aethology is complex and the risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.

  5. Symptoms of common mental disorders and related stressors in Danish professional football and handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Özgür; Aoki, Haruhito; Haagensen, Rasmus; Jensen, Claus; Johnson, Urban; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was twofold, namely (i) to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among current and retired professional football and handball players and (ii) to explore the relationship of psychosocial stressors with the outcome measures under study. A total of 1155 players were enrolled in an observational study based on a cross-sectional design. Questionnaires based on validated scales were set up and distributed among current and retired professional football and handball players by the Danish football and handball players' union. In professional football, the highest prevalence (4 weeks) of symptoms of CMDs was 18% and 19% for anxiety/depression among current and retired players, respectively. In professional handball, the highest prevalence (4 weeks) of symptoms of CMDs was 26% and 16% for anxiety/depression among current and retired players, respectively. For both the current and retired professional football and handball players, a higher number of severe injuries and recent adverse life events (LE) were related to the presence of symptoms of CMD. Players exposed to severe injuries and/or recent adverse LE were 20-50% times more likely to report symptoms of CMD. The results suggest that it is possible to recognize the population of professional athletes that are more likely to develop symptoms of CMD. This could create the opportunity to intervene preventively on athletes that suffered from severe injury and/or recent adverse LE that could lead to a faster and safer recovery and psychological readiness to return to play.

  6. A pilot study of the attitudes of Australian Rules footballers towards protective headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C F; McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P; Zazryn, T

    2003-12-01

    Despite a relatively high risk of injury to participants of Australian Rules football, very few players report wearing protective equipment. The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a pilot survey of the attitudes of community-level Australian Rules football players towards protective headgear and the risk of head injury. Seventy players from four purposefully chosen clubs in metropolitan Melbourne completed a self-report questionnaire at the end of the 2000-playing season. Almost all players (91.4%) reported they did not wear protective headgear during the 2000 season. Non-headgear users said that headgear was too uncomfortable (47.4%) and they didn't like it (42.1%). However, 80.0% of non-users said they would wear it if it prevented injury. The major motivation for wearing headgear was to prevent injury. Players considered rugby, boxing and driving a car, to be associated with a higher-risk of head injury than Australian Rules football. As a group, the players perceived the risk of head injury in Australian Rules football to be low to moderate when compared to other sports and activities. This partially explains why so few players wore protective headgear. Repeat surveys on a larger sample should be conducted to further understand the attitudes towards protective headgear and perceptions of risk in community-level Australian football players.

  7. Football: a catalyst for insecurity? Analysis of this social phenomenon and its incidence in security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Briceño Rodriguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From the time of its origins, football has been directly linked with the theme of security from different angles, inherently, reciprocal and even complementary. Nevertheless, due to its popularity, and its capacity to appeal to large audiences, its role has been misinterpreted in today´s societies. One can ask whether football plays as a catalyst to the increase of insecurity and violence. Having evidenced the vulnerabilities and sensibilities that surround this particular nexus, the following essay aims to analyze its similarities and externalities. For this, it is necessary to study the main prevarications of security and later on, compare it with the personal insights of professional football players that belong to the top European leagues (more specifically the Spanish, German, Italian and Portugal leagues. These operate as an open market for the export of national footballers, which brings a variety of benefits for both the athlete and our country as it enables Colombia to have a more relevant position in this sport´s agenda as a Soft Power. Also, it is important to take in consideration the time and money invested by footballers to contribute for the betterment of their communities.

  8. The implementation of Football Fitness is highly influenced by interorganizational implementation behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila

    2015-01-01

    . As the voluntary based sport is heavily state funded, the non-governmental sports organizations representing the voluntary sports clubs e.g. in a political manner, feel they have to position the role of sport to legitimize their existence. In this quest the connection of sport and health plays a huge role. The way......The voluntary based sports system is challenged by societal changes. Firstly the latest years have shown a transformation in the sport activity pattern, whereas still more are involved with sport in a self-organized or commercial form and secondly the state’s overall financial ability is reduced...... in which the role of sports for enhancing health has progressed from a passive and symbolic approach to one that is more explicit, ambitious and organized, is fairly new. In Denmark the Football Association has launched a concept called Football Fitness, which is a football based concept for health...

  9. Technology of perfection to technical tactical preparedness of skilled footballers in microcycles of competition period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko E.Y.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology of perfection to technical tactical to preparedness of skilled footballers in the microcycles of preparation of competition process is considered. It is shown that for development of this technology key positions of general theory of preparation of sportsmen are used in Olympic and professional sport and technical tactical actions of players taking into account the internal and external parameters of the physical loading. Information of training process of footballers of youth composition of command «Metallurgist» (Zaporozhia is utillized in research. It is analysed and generalized information of complex scientific group. The program of perfection of technical and tactical preparedness is developed. It is set that the use of this program will allow to optimize individual, group and command technical tactical preparedness of skilled footballers on the basis of account of parameters of playing actions and factors, детерминирующих a physical capacity.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TECHNICAL IDICATORS AND TACTICAL UTILITY OF THEIR APPLICATION IN FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peko Vujović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to ascertain the manifested differences in the inner structure of the game and to establish and notify the tendencies of football game development movement by a comparative analysis, according to the manifested differences that examined according to the technical and tactics characteristics. The specimen is representative, thus the research includes the most successful national teams (semi-final and final on XVI, XVII and XVIII World Football Championship. The analysis includes offensive playing, movements of certain players during the game, the way in which the ball is passed, the goalkeeper’s performance... This research has once again proved the presence of permanent further tendencies of movement of the contemporary top-level football.

  11. Football refereeing: Identifying innovative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MohammadKazemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.

  12. The economics interests In Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Fustes-Ross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The football is the most popular sport in the Word and the economics interests have been fundamentals in his increase and expansion; this idea is confirmed by the numerous competitions for even sexes with categories from National Championships to regional events, continentals, intercontinental, Olympic Games and World Cup from majors, the most important event where showed the most expensive and important merchandise: the players. All this sport mechanism is capitalized by the owners clubs, business trade associations and greats corporations in the host cities, the nations participating also those without participation but with many fans. Each and every one are customers, is a chance for increase the sales.

  13. LAW OF SPORT AND ATHLETE FOOTBALL PROFESSIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy Michael

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prosperity of athlete football professional or employees is the right of every employees. The responsibility of the organization of professional football clubs to occupational with their health and safety. Organization of professional football clubs have full responsibility in this regard. With normative legal research. The result obtained there is no correlation between positive of law in Unity State Republic of Indonesia and the statuten made by FIFA. Organization of professional football clubs have not been absolutly run in Law of Republic of Indonesia No. 13 of 2003, Article 87 on labour in which every company must implement a health and safety of management system integrated working with the health management system. As a suggestion, require the rule of law which is in sync with the regulations made by FIFA, PSSI respected to the regulations in Indonesia related to sports that do not event of contradiction before publish the statuten of the organization so that no event of resignation athlete professional football in the future, they shall take into account the contennt of their contract, the public take an active role in infraction notice made by PSSI or other organizations professional football clubs on the regulation of professional football athlete contract that have been made, and the researchers of science of law are examining the country’s sovereignty and the sovereignty of FIFA.

  14. Success of nonoperative management of adductor longus tendon ruptures in National Football League athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Theodore F; Bushnell, Brandon D; Godfrey, Jenna; Boublik, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Acute complete ruptures of the proximal adductor longus tendon are rare but challenging injuries to treat. The limited literature supports operative treatment, but data from management of chronic groin pain in athletes indicate that anatomical attachment of the tendon to the pubis may not be required for high-level function. Nonoperative management of complete adductor rupture can provide equal results to surgical repair in terms of return to play in the National Football League. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Using the National Football League Injury Surveillance System, adductor tendon ruptures documented by magnetic resonance imaging were identified in 19 National Football League players from 1992 to 2004. The team physician for each respective player completed a survey with information about history, physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging findings, treatment, and outcomes. Statistics were analyzed with a Student unpaired t test. Fourteen players were treated nonoperatively, and 5 players were treated with surgical repair using suture anchors. In both groups, all players eventually returned to play in the National Football League. Mean time for return to play was 6.1 +/- 3.1 weeks (range, 3-12 weeks) for the nonoperative group and 12.0 +/- 2.5 weeks (range, 10-16 weeks) for the operative group (P = .001). One player in the operative group suffered the complication of a draining wound and heterotopic ossification. Players represented a variety of positions, and 12 of 19 (63%) had experienced prior symptoms or events. Nonoperative treatment of proximal adductor tendon rupture results in a statistically significantly faster return to play than does operative treatment in athletes competing in the National Football League and avoids the risks associated with surgery while providing an equal likelihood of return to play at the professional level.

  15. The Epidemiology of Overuse Conditions in Youth Football and High School Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kevin; Simon, Janet E; Grooms, Dustin R; Starkey, Chad; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-10-01

      High-intensity sport training at the youth level has led to increased concern for overuse conditions. Few researchers have examined overuse conditions in youth sports.   To examine the rates, risks, and distributions of overuse conditions between youth and high school football players.   Descriptive epidemiologic study.   Youth and high school football teams.   The Youth Football Safety Study (YFSS) investigated youth football athletes from age 5 to 14 years. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) focused on high school football athletes 14 to 18 years old. The YFSS data consisted of 210 team-seasons, and the NATION data consisted of 138 team-seasons.   Athletic trainers collected football injury and exposure data during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Injury rates, risks, and distributions were calculated, with injury rate ratios, risk ratios, and injury proportion ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing youth and high school football players.   The YFSS reported 1488 injuries, of which 53 (3.6%) were overuse conditions. The NATION reported 12 013 injuries, of which 339 (2.8%) were overuse conditions. The overuse condition rate did not differ between high school and youth football (3.93 versus 3.72/10 000 athlete-exposures; injury rate ratio = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.79, 1.41). However, the 1-season risk of overuse condition was higher in high school than in youth football players (2.66% versus 1.05%; risk ratio = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.84, 3.47). Compared with high school football players, youth football players had greater proportions of overuse conditions that were nontime loss (ie, football players. However, differences existed between the 2 levels of competition. Although additional research on the incidence of overuse conditions across all youth and high school sports is needed, these findings may highlight the need for programming that is specific to competition level.

  16. Identification of Factors Determining Market Value of the Most Valuable Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Majewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The problem of identifying the most important determinants of the market value of football players is quite well described in the literature. There are many works that try to identify these factors. Some of them are focused on variables to make a set complete and others are on models and methods. The aim of this article is to present the variables influencing the valuation and to build an econometric model valuing footballers playing on the forward position, taking into consideration the assumptions of the econometric modelling. Such an approach indicates managers as other sources for obtaining information. Methodology: Econometric models were used to verify the hypothesis formulated in this research. The database was created on the basis of variables presented on the website www.transfermarkt. de that presents the values of the most valuable football players in the world playing on the forward position. The Gretl program was used in the research. Findings: The literature review showed that there are many independent variables having an impact on the value of the player. There are also many different models used to valuate footballers’ performance rights. The results of estimation of models in the research indicated that such factors as Canadian classification points adjusted the market value of the team and dummy variables describing “goodwill” (only for the best players had an impact on the market value of footballers’ performance rights. Limitations/implications: Information about different factors having an impact on football players’ market value could support the investment decision process of football managers. Originality/value: The results were part of a study concerning economics of sport, particularly processes of management of football clubs and valuation of intangible assets.

  17. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-03-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  18. The first prospective injury audit of League of Ireland footballers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Nigel; Jones, Ashley; Francis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Football has the highest sports participation (10.6%) in Ireland ahead of its Gaelic counterpart (3.9%). Research into injury incidence and patterns in Irish football is non-existent. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective injury audit of League of Ireland (semiprofessional) footballers during the 2014 season (8 months, 28 games). Methods A total of 140 semiprofessional League of Ireland footballers were prospectively followed between March and November 2014. Data were collected in accordance with the international consensus on football injury epidemiology. Results The injury rate was 9.2/1000 hour exposure to football (95% CI 6.2 to 12.9, pLeague of Ireland football is similar to that of European professional football, although the incidence of injury is higher. The incidence of injury is in line with that of Dutch amateur football. PMID:29071112

  19. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michuda Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.

  20. Networks and centroid metrics for understanding football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gonçalo Dias

    games. However, it seems that the centroid metric, supported only by the position of players in the field ...... the strategy adopted by the coach (Gama et al., 2014). ... centroid distance as measures of team's tactical performance in youth football.

  1. Pursuit and Evasion Strategies in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, James

    1995-01-01

    Explores strategies in the situation of a runner trying to evade a tackler on a football field. Enables the student to test intuitive strategies in a familiar situation using simple graphical and numerical methods or direct experimentation. (JRH)

  2. Recreational football as a health promoting activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per; Nybo, L

    2010-01-01

    The present review addresses the physiological demands during recreational football training and the effects on central health variables that influence the risk of life-style diseases of young and middle-aged men. Recent studies have established that recreational football, carried out as small......-sided games can be characterized as having a high aerobic component with mean heart rates of 80-85% of maximum heart rate, which is similar to values observed for elite football players. In addition, the training includes multiple high-speed runs, sprints, turns, jumps and tackles, which provide a high impact...... on muscles and bones. Recreational football training in untrained men results in marked improvements in maximum aerobic power, blood pressure, muscle capillarization and intermittent exercise performance, and those effects are similar to interval training and more pronounced than moderate...

  3. Recognizing team formation in american football

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati; Ghanem, Bernard; Nasef Saadalla, Mohamed Magdy Mohamed; Ahuja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. Despite being the most popular sport in the United States, most American football game analysis is still done manually. Line

  4. Management Of The Critically Injured Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Feld, Francis

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation and treatment of a football player who has sustained life-threatening injuries is a rare but significant challenge for the sports medicine team. Early recognition and intervention in these injuries is crucial. Helmets and shoulder pads complicate management of these patients. In this article, I present a rapid and simple assessment method used by paramedics for trauma patients. Treatment focuses on when football equipment should be removed and how the equipment complicates Advanced...

  5. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas; Rafael Araújo Sousa Farias; Leonardo Flach

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS), Palmeiras (SP) and Vasco (RJ), were not efficie...

  6. The creation of football slash fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Waysdorf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although sports fandom and fan fiction are often thought of as different worlds, in the contemporary media environment, this is not the case. Sport is a popular source text for fan fiction, and high-level European football, one of the world's most watched sports, has long had an online fan fiction presence. In a study of the LiveJournal community Footballslash over the 2011–12 European football season, I investigate what makes football a suitable source text for fan fiction, especially slash fan fiction; what fan fiction authors are doing with football; and what this suggests about how football and fan fiction are used in the present day. I present a new understanding of football as a media text to be transformed as well as provide an in-depth look into how this type of real person slash is developed and thought of by its practitioners. In doing so, I show what happens when fandoms and fan practices converge in the 21st century.

  7. Superior Labrum Anterior-Posterior Tears in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Caitlin C; Lynch, T Sean; Gibbs, Daniel B; Ghodasra, Jason H; Sahota, Shawn; Franke, Kristina; Mack, Christina D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2017-01-01

    Shoulder disorders are common in football players, with up to 50% of National Football League (NFL) recruits reporting a history of shoulder injuries. Superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears are an entity with well-described detrimental effects on return to play in overhead-throwing athletes but with minimal data in contact athletes. To identify the incidence, predisposing factors, and effect of SLAP tears in NFL athletes and prospects as well as the treatment patterns of NFL team physicians. Descriptive epidemiology study. This study was a comprehensive analysis of SLAP tears in elite football players using a dual approach: (1) SLAP injuries recorded in the NFL Injury Surveillance System from 2000 to 2014 were evaluated by player position, type of play, days/games lost, and surgical intervention; (2) NFL Scouting Combine athletes from 2003 to 2011 with prior SLAP repair were evaluated for draft success, and drafted athletes were compared with matched controls for career length and performance scores. SLAP tears represented a small portion (3.1%) of shoulder injuries in NFL athletes from 2000 to 2014, occurring most commonly in offensive linemen (28%). Surgically treated SLAP tears (42%) resulted in more days missed than did nonoperatively managed tears (140.2 vs 21.5 days; P football players, it is clear that these injuries have the potential to cause significant detriment to an athlete's career.

  8. Parent Knowledge and Perceptions of Concussion Related to Youth Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Brian; Lewandowski, Lawrence; Potts, Heather; Potter, Kyle; Chin, Lawrence S

    2018-03-04

    Introduction There is increased concern about concussion in youth athletes, yet there is little research on parent knowledge of concussion. Purpose  The purpose of the current study was to investigate attitudes to and knowledge of concussion among parents of youth football players. Methods We surveyed 180 parents/guardians of youth football players, ages 5-12, regarding their knowledge and beliefs concerning concussion. Results We found that the vast majority of respondents (86%) had confidence in their ability to recognize concussions. Yet, a significant number also held misconceptions about concussions, such as 'too much sleep' (48%) or 'eating certain foods' (26%) make concussion symptoms worse. Most (82%) had not heard of the Zurich guidelines, and less than half (44%) were aware that sustained mental activity could worsen symptoms. Parents were concerned about their child sustaining a concussion, but a substantial minority also reported 'serious concern' about their children losing playing time or their position.  Discussion Results are somewhat positive in terms of parents' general knowledge of concussions; yet, response variability and misconceptions point to a continued need for concussion education for parents. Medical professionals can play an important role in informing families about concussion symptoms, management, and recovery.

  9. Normative Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Values for Female, Healthy, Elite Handball and Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, May A; Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik; Moltubakk, Marie M; Krosshaug, Tron

    2018-05-23

    Risberg, MA, Steffen, K, Nilstad, A, Myklebust, G, Kristianslund, E, Moltubakk, MM, and Krosshaug, T. Normative quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength values for female, healthy, elite handball and football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study presents normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion muscle strength tests in 350 elite, female, handball (n = 150) and football (n = 200) players. Isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests at 60°·sec were recorded bilaterally using a dynamometer. Peak torque (in Newton meter [N·m]), body mass normalized peak torque (N·m·kg), and hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) for dominant and nondominant legs were recorded. The female elite players were 20.9 ± 4.0 years, started playing at the elite level at the age of 18.2 ± 2.7 years, with a mean of 9.7 ± 2.2 hours of weekly in-season training. Handball players demonstrated greater quadriceps muscle strength compared with football players (11.0%) (p handball players only (p = 0.012).The H:Q ratio was significantly lower for handball players (0.58) compared with football players (0.60) (p handball and football players can be used to set rehabilitation goals for muscle strength after injury and enable comparison with uninjured legs. Significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength was found for handball players compared with football players, also when normalized to body mass.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  10. Physical Characteristics and Performance of Japanese Top-Level American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Daichi; Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2017-09-01

    Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455-2461, 2017-This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance.

  11. A radioactive football world cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2014-01-01

    The organization of the 2014 football world cup by Brazil is an opportunity to recall how the level of natural radioactivity can change from a country to another. Brazil is with Iran and India one of the 3 countries where the level of natural radioactivity is the highest. In Brazil the average value for natural radioactivity is about 10 mSv/year but you can find spots on the Brazilian 'planalto' where natural radioactivity ranges from 10 to a few tens of mSv/year. The mean value of natural radioactivity at the world scale is about 2.5 mSv/year. The value of 10 mSv/year is the radiation threshold that may trigger the evacuation of the local population in case of a nuclear accident in France. These various figures show that radiation dose limits are very low and should not be considered as representative of actual health hazards. (A.C.)

  12. Frequency of Self-Reported Concussion Amongst Professional and Semi-Professional Footballers in Ireland During the 2014 Season: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Nicola; Lawless, Martin; Kelly, Seamus; Buggy, Conor

    2018-01-08

    This paper examines the occupational risk of concussion amongst professional and semi-professional footballers in Ireland during the 2014 League of Ireland season. As part of a broader nationally representative study examining occupational safety and health (OSH) awareness amongst professional footballers, this empirical quantitative study, utilising a convenience sample is the first and largest investigation of the frequency of, and attitudes towards, concussion and concussion reporting amongst Irish senior professional and semi-professional footballers. A census survey using an anonymous questionnaire was provided to available League of Ireland clubs between March and May 2015. Permission to access players was provided by the Professional Footballers Association of Ireland. This convenience sample was determined by club availability in relation to match fixtures. Participation by the footballers was voluntary. At the time, there were 250 professional and semi-professional players within the League available to participate. A total of 149 footballers participated in the study. Sixty percent of the participants were employed on a semi-professional basis and the majority of all participants were aged between 18 and 30. 15.7% of the participants reported having received a concussion in the 2014 season with semi-professional players having a noticeably higher (though not significant) reporting rate. Analysis indicated that there was a significant association between playing position and concussion reporting with defenders having the greater odds of reporting a concussion than other playing positions. Professional and semi-professional footballers have a relatively equal risk of receiving a concussion. This research is the first major investigation of the self-reported frequency of, and attitudes towards, concussion amongst Irish senior professional and semi-professional footballers. The results have important implications for coaches, clinicians, parents, players and

  13. Big Men playing football : money, politics and foul play in the African game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannenborg, A.

    2012-01-01

    While the skills of players can be observed on pitches throughout Africa, the actions of those who run the game's administrative side are less visible. Based on anthropological fieldwork in Ghana and Cameroon, this study's main characters are rich and powerful men who take up positions within clubs

  14. “The Early Specialised Bird Catches the Worm!” – A Specialised Sampling Model in the Development of Football Talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieghartsleitner, Roland; Zuber, Claudia; Zibung, Marc; Conzelmann, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Characteristics of learning activities in early sport participation play a key role in the development of the sporting talent. Therefore, pathways of specialisation or diversification/sampling are as well debated as the implementation of practice- or play-oriented activities. The related issues are currently perceived as a two-dimensional construct of domain specificity and performance orientation. In this context, it has been shown that early specialisation, with experiences in practice and play, has led to Swiss junior national team football players reaching higher success levels as adults. This study aimed to examine whether a similar approach improves chances of even being selected for junior national teams from a broader sample. Hence, 294 youth players answered retrospective questionnaires on their early sport participation when entering the Swiss football talent development programme. Using the person-oriented Linking of Clusters after removal of a Residue (LICUR) method, volumes of in-club practice, free play and activities besides football until 12 years of age were analysed along with age at initial club participation. According to the results, clusters of Football enthusiasts (p = 0.01) with the most free play and above average in-club practice and Club players (p = 0.02) with the most in-club practice and average free play had a greater chance of reaching junior national team level. Thus, high levels of domain-specific activities seem to increase the chances of junior national team participation. Furthermore, the most successful constellation (Football enthusiasts) may illustrate the relevance of domain-specific diversity, induced by several types of practice and play. In line with previous studies, specialising in football and sampling different experiences within this specific domain seems to be the most promising pathway. Therefore, we argue that the optimal model for the development of football talents is a specialised sampling model. PMID:29515500

  15. FREE Policy Brief No. 3 - Women's Football and Female Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Sonntag, Albrecht; Ranc, David

    2015-01-01

    Football Research in an Enlarged Europe (FREE). This is the third of three policy briefs based on findings from the FREE project. It summarises results from the project's research stream on the feminisation of football....

  16. Medical considerations in the female football pla yer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is a sport mainly comprised of walking and jogging, with intermittent bouts .... injury and concussion occur 2 - 3 times more often in ... mechanisms, risk factors and management. Br J. Sports ... injuries in female youth football – a cluster.

  17. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...

  18. Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play, as defined by biologists and psychologists, is probably heterogeneous. On the other hand, playfulness may be a unitary motivational state. Playful play as opposed to activities that merge into aggression is characterized by positive mood, intrinsic motivation, occurring in a protected context and easily disrupted by stress. Playful play is a good measure of positive welfare. It can occupy a substantial part of the waking-life of a young mammal or bird. Numerous functions for play have been proposed and they are by no means mutually exclusive, but some evidence indicates that those individual animals that play most are most likely to survive and reproduce. The link of playful play to creativity and hence to innovation in humans is strong. Considerable evidence suggests that coming up with new ideas requires a different mindset from usefully implementing a new idea.

  19. MRI detection of soleus muscle injuries in professional football players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzotta, G.; Querques, G.; Pecorelli, A.; Nani, R.; Sironi, S. [Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, University Milano-Bicocca, Department of Radiology, Bergamo (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of soleus muscle injuries in symptomatic professional football players stratified according to both the Munich consensus statement and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC), and to investigate the association between specific MRI features and the ''return to play'' (RTP). Professional football players with an episode of acute posterior calf pain and impaired function, subsequent to sports activity, underwent ultrasound followed by MRI examination reviewed by two different radiologists with more than 10 years of experience in the musculoskeletal system. MRI features and RTP outcome were evaluated for all types of injuries. During a 36-month period, a total of 20 professional football players were evaluated. According to the Munich consensus, 11 were type 3A, 8 were type 3B, and 1 was type 4, whereas according to the BAMIC, 11 lesions were considered grade 1, 4 grade 2, 4 grade 3, and 1 grade 4. RTP data were available for all patients (mean 3.3 ± 1.6 weeks). Both the Munich consensus and the BAMIC correlated with RTP (Spearman correlation = 0.982 and p < 0.0001 and 0.886 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Extension of edema was an independent prognostic factor for RTP in two different models of multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.044 model A; p = 0.031 model B). The Munich consensus and BAMIC grading systems are useful tools for defining the patient's prognosis and proper rehabilitation time after injury. The MRI feature that we should carefully look for is the extension of edema, as it seems to significantly affect the RTP. (orig.)

  20. MRI detection of soleus muscle injuries in professional football players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzotta, G.; Querques, G.; Pecorelli, A.; Nani, R.; Sironi, S.

    2017-01-01

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of soleus muscle injuries in symptomatic professional football players stratified according to both the Munich consensus statement and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC), and to investigate the association between specific MRI features and the ''return to play'' (RTP). Professional football players with an episode of acute posterior calf pain and impaired function, subsequent to sports activity, underwent ultrasound followed by MRI examination reviewed by two different radiologists with more than 10 years of experience in the musculoskeletal system. MRI features and RTP outcome were evaluated for all types of injuries. During a 36-month period, a total of 20 professional football players were evaluated. According to the Munich consensus, 11 were type 3A, 8 were type 3B, and 1 was type 4, whereas according to the BAMIC, 11 lesions were considered grade 1, 4 grade 2, 4 grade 3, and 1 grade 4. RTP data were available for all patients (mean 3.3 ± 1.6 weeks). Both the Munich consensus and the BAMIC correlated with RTP (Spearman correlation = 0.982 and p < 0.0001 and 0.886 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Extension of edema was an independent prognostic factor for RTP in two different models of multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.044 model A; p = 0.031 model B). The Munich consensus and BAMIC grading systems are useful tools for defining the patient's prognosis and proper rehabilitation time after injury. The MRI feature that we should carefully look for is the extension of edema, as it seems to significantly affect the RTP. (orig.)

  1. MRI detection of soleus muscle injuries in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotta, G; Querques, G; Pecorelli, A; Nani, R; Sironi, S

    2017-11-01

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of soleus muscle injuries in symptomatic professional football players stratified according to both the Munich consensus statement and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC), and to investigate the association between specific MRI features and the "return to play" (RTP). Professional football players with an episode of acute posterior calf pain and impaired function, subsequent to sports activity, underwent ultrasound followed by MRI examination reviewed by two different radiologists with more than 10 years of experience in the musculoskeletal system. MRI features and RTP outcome were evaluated for all types of injuries. During a 36-month period, a total of 20 professional football players were evaluated. According to the Munich consensus, 11 were type 3A, 8 were type 3B, and 1 was type 4, whereas according to the BAMIC, 11 lesions were considered grade 1, 4 grade 2, 4 grade 3, and 1 grade 4. RTP data were available for all patients (mean 3.3 ± 1.6 weeks). Both the Munich consensus and the BAMIC correlated with RTP (Spearman correlation = 0.982 and p < 0.0001 and 0.886 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Extension of edema was an independent prognostic factor for RTP in two different models of multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.044 model A; p = 0.031 model B). The Munich consensus and BAMIC grading systems are useful tools for defining the patient's prognosis and proper rehabilitation time after injury. The MRI feature that we should carefully look for is the extension of edema, as it seems to significantly affect the RTP.

  2. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Michuda Y.P.; Ridha F.

    2012-01-01

    Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA), and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a con...

  3. Football Manager: Mutual Shaping between Game, Sport, and Community

    OpenAIRE

    Hocquet , Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Football Manager is one of the most popular sports management video games. For twenty years now, it has been a best seller in all the countries of the world where football is culturally important. Its purpose is to simulate a manager's career with an emphasis on data analysis and number crunching, especially the football match scenario and the football players' quantified characteristics. The claimed realism of the game is therefore based, among other things, on the re...

  4. The battle for centre stage: Women's football in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2010-01-01

    From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girl....... Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....

  5. Tackling causes and costs of ED presentation for American football injuries: a population-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Blair J; Haring, R Sterling; Asemota, Anthony O; Scott, John W; Canner, Joseph K; Nejim, Besma J; George, Benjamin P; Alsulaim, Hatim; Kirsch, Thomas D; Schneider, Eric B

    2016-07-01

    American tackle football is the most popular high-energy impact sport in the United States, with approximately 9 million participants competing annually. Previous epidemiologic studies of football-related injuries have generally focused on specific geographic areas or pediatric age groups. Our study sought to examine patient characteristics and outcomes, including hospital charges, among athletes presenting for emergency department (ED) treatment of football-related injury across all age groups in a large nationally representative data set. Patients presenting for ED treatment of injuries sustained playing American tackle football (identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code E007.0) from 2010 to 2011 were studied in the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Patient-specific injuries were identified using the primary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code and categorized by type and anatomical region. Standard descriptive methods examined patient demographics, diagnosis categories, and ED and inpatient outcomes and charges. During the study period 397363 football players presented for ED treatment, 95.8% of whom were male. Sprains/strains (25.6%), limb fractures (20.7%), and head injuries (including traumatic brain injury; 17.5%) represented the most presenting injuries. Overall, 97.9% of patients underwent routine ED discharge with 1.1% admitted directly and fewer than 11 patients in the 2-year study period dying prior to discharge. The proportion of admitted patients who required surgical interventions was 15.7%, of which 89.9% were orthopedic, 4.7% neurologic, and 2.6% abdominal. Among individuals admitted to inpatient care, mean hospital length of stay was 2.4days (95% confidence interval, 2.2-2.6) and 95.6% underwent routine discharge home. The mean total charge for all patients was $1941 (95% confidence interval, $1890-$1992) with substantial

  6. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  7. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  8. A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester

    1999-01-01

    Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)

  9. The role of football in the Yugoslav crisis. “Nationalisation” of the football fandom in the former Yugoslavia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Đorđević

    2016-01-01

    The strong connection between everyday politics and football fandom represents a distinctive characteristic of a football culture in contemporary Serbia. This paper focuses on the issues related to strong political influence of “nationalised” political space in the former Yugoslavia that caused specific politicisation of football supporters in the country. I argue that political capital of the football fans derives from the specific social and political environment that characterised the proc...

  10. Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  11. Effect of Concussion on Performance of National Football League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Nicole; Hayward, Rodney A; Kutcher, Jeffrey S; Burke, James F

    2017-09-01

    Lingering neurologic injury after concussion may expose athletes to increased risk if return to play is premature. The authors explored whether on-field performance after concussion is a marker of lingering neurologic injury. Retrospective cohort study on 1882 skill-position players who played in the National Football League (NFL) during 2007-2010. Players with concussion based on the weekly injury report were compared with players with other head and neck injuries (controls) on measures of on-field performance using Football Outsiders' calculation of defense-adjusted yards above replacement (DYAR), a measure of a player's contribution controlling for game context. Changes in performance, relative to a player's baseline level of performance, were estimated before and after injury using fixed-effects models. The study included 140 concussed players and 57 controls. Players with concussion performed no better or worse than their baseline on return to play. However, a decline in DYAR relative to their prior performance was noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report. Concussed players performed slightly better than controls in situations where they returned to play the same week as appearing on the injury report. On return, concussed NFL players performed at their baseline level of performance, suggesting that players have recovered from concussion. Decline in performance noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report may suggest that concussion diagnosis was delayed or that concussion can be a multihit phenomenon. Athletic performance may be a novel tool for assessing concussion injury and recovery.

  12. Community-level football injury epidemiology: traumatic injuries treated at Swedish emergency medical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Schyllander, Jan; Stark Ekman, Diana; Ekman, Robert; Dahlström, Örjan; Hägglund, Martin; Kristenson, Karolina; Jacobsson, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    Despite the popularity of the sport, few studies have investigated community-level football injury patterns. This study examines football injuries treated at emergency medical facilities using data from three Swedish counties. An open-cohort design was used based on residents aged 0-59 years in three Swedish counties (pop. 645 520). Data were collected from emergency medical facilities in the study counties between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2010. Injury frequencies and proportions for age groups stratified by sex were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and displayed per diagnostic group and body location. Each year, more than 1/200 person aged 0-59 years sustained at least one injury during football play that required emergency medical care. The highest injury incidence was observed among adolescent boys [2009 injuries per 100 000 population years (95% CI 1914-2108)] and adolescent girls [1413 injuries per 100 000 population years (95% CI 1333-1498)]. For female adolescents and adults, knee joint/ligament injury was the outstanding injury type (20% in ages 13-17 years and 34% in ages 18-29 years). For children aged 7-12 years, more than half of the treated injuries involved the upper extremity; fractures constituted about one-third of these injuries. One of every 200 residents aged 0-59 years in typical Swedish counties each year sustained a traumatic football injury that required treatment in emergency healthcare. Further research on community-level patterns of overuse syndromes sustained by participation in football play is warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of a cervical spine diagnosis on the careers of National Football League athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Lynch, T Sean; Gibbs, Daniel B; Chow, Ian; LaBelle, Mark W; Patel, Alpesh A; Savage, Jason W; Nuber, Gordon W; Hsu, Wellington K

    2014-05-20

    Cohort study. To determine the effect of cervical spine pathology on athletes entering the National Football League. The association of symptomatic cervical spine pathology with American football athletes has been described; however, it is unknown how preexisting cervical spine pathology affects career performance of a National Football League player. The medical evaluations and imaging reports of American football athletes from 2003 to 2011 during the combine were evaluated. Athletes with a cervical spine diagnosis were matched to controls and career statistics were compiled. Of a total of 2965 evaluated athletes, 143 players met the inclusion criteria. Athletes who attended the National Football League combine without a cervical spine diagnosis were more likely to be drafted than those with a diagnosis (P = 0.001). Players with a cervical spine diagnosis had a decreased total games played (P = 0.01). There was no difference in the number of games started (P = 0.08) or performance score (P = 0.38). In 10 athletes with a sagittal canal diameter of less than 10 mm, there was no difference in years, games played, games started, or performance score (P > 0.24). No neurological injury occurred during their careers. In 7 players who were drafted with a history of cervical spine surgery (4 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, 2 foraminotomy, and 1 suboccipital craniectomy with a C1 laminectomy), there was no difference in career longevity or performance when compared with matched controls. This study suggests that athletes with preexisting cervical spine pathology were less likely to be drafted than controls. Players with preexisting cervical spine pathology demonstrated a shorter career than those without; however, statistically based performance and numbers of games started were not different. Players with cervical spinal stenosis and those with a history of previous surgery demonstrated no difference in performance-based outcomes and no reports of neurological

  14. Prevalence and variance of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D; Flanigan, David C; Norwig, John; Jost, Patrick; Bradley, James

    2005-08-01

    Shoulder injuries are the fourth most common musculoskeletal injury encountered in American football players. There is little information in the literature on the role of playing position in the type of shoulder injuries seen. There is a high prevalence of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate American football players, with type of injury varying by playing position. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 3. A total of 336 elite collegiate American football players were invited to the National Football League Combine for physical testing and medical evaluation. Current and historical data were evaluated for the purpose of this study, and all players underwent radiographic examinations, including plain radiographs and/or magnetic resonance imaging when necessary. All shoulder pathological conditions and shoulder surgical procedures were recorded. Players were categorized by position for the analysis of position-specific trends. Of the players, 50% had a history of shoulder injuries, with a total of 226 shoulder injuries (1.3 injuries per player injured); 56 players (34%) had a total of 73 surgeries. The most common injuries were acromioclavicular separation (41%), anterior instability (20%), rotator cuff injury (12%), clavicle fracture (4%), and posterior instability (4%). The most common surgeries performed were anterior instability reconstruction (48%), Mumford/Weaver-Dunn surgery (15%), posterior instability surgery (10%), and rotator cuff surgery (10%). Shoulder injuries were more common in quarterbacks and defensive backs. Surgery was more common in linebackers or linemen. A history of anterior instability was more common in defensive players, with surgery required 76% of the time. Linemen had more rotator cuff injuries and posterior instability than players in other positions. Shoulder injuries are common injuries in elite collegiate football players, with one-third undergoing surgical procedures. There are definitive trends in the types of injuries

  15. Football fever: self-affirmation model for goal distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Janke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of football games, as well as matches of most other popular team sports, depends on a combination of the skills of players and coaches and a number of external factors which, due to their complex nature, are presumably best viewed as random. Such parameters include the unpredictabilities of playing the ball, the players' shape of the day or environmental conditions such as the weather and the behavior of the audience. Under such circumstances, it appears worthwhile to analyze football score data with the toolbox of mathematical statistics in order to separate deterministic from stochastic effects and see what impact the cooperative and social nature of the "agents" of the system has on the resulting stochastic observables. Considering the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams, it turns out that especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. On the contrary, some more specific probability densities such as those discussed in the context of extreme-value statistics or the so-called negative binomial distribution fit these data rather well. There seemed to be no good argument to date, however, why the simplest Poissonian model fails and, instead, the latter distributions should be observed. To fill this gap, we introduced a number of microscopic models for the scoring behavior, resulting in a Bernoulli random process with a simple component of self-affirmation. These models allow us to represent the observed probability distributions surprisingly well, and the phenomenological distributions used earlier can be understood as special cases within this framework. We analyzed historical football score data from many leagues in Europe as well as from international tournaments, including data from all past tournaments of the "FIFA World Cup" series, and found the proposed models to be applicable in

  16. Football helmet drop tests on different fields using an instrumented Hybrid III head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, David C; Withnall, Chris; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    An instrumented Hybrid III head was placed in a Schutt ION 4D football helmet and dropped on different turfs to study field types and temperature on head responses. The head was dropped 0.91 and 1.83 m giving impacts of 4.2 and 6.0 m/s on nine different football fields (natural, Astroplay, Fieldturf, or Gameday turfs) at turf temperatures of -2.7 to 23.9 °C. Six repeat tests were conducted for each surface at 0.3 m (1') intervals. The Hybrid III was instrumented with triaxial accelerometers to determine head responses for the different playing surfaces. For the 0.91-m drops, peak head acceleration varied from 63.3 to 117.1 g and HIC(15) from 195 to 478 with the different playing surfaces. The lowest response was with Astroplay, followed by the engineered natural turf. Gameday and Fieldturf involved higher responses. The differences between surfaces decreased in the 1.83 m tests. The cold weather testing involved higher accelerations, HIC(15) and delta V for each surface. The helmet drop test used in this study provides a simple and convenient means of evaluating the compliance and energy absorption of football playing surfaces. The type and temperature of the playing surface influence head responses.

  17. An analysis of decision making strategies of Kocaeli region football referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi Sabit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in a football competition, which is one of the most interesting sports encounters today, the state of the decision-making strategies of referees, who play an important role in terms of final scores, is investigated. In line with this aim, efforts have been made to determine the decision-making strategies of Kocaeli football referees. Whether the decision-making strategies determined have changed according to variables such as gender, age, marital status, educational status, economic income, work done outside of refereeing, professional experience and refereeing years. For this purpose, “Decision Strategies Scale and Personal Information Form” developed by Bacanlı and Kuzgun [1], have been applied to a total of 117 football referees, 11 female and 106 male active football referees in Kocaeli. The results obtained from the scale applications were evaluated in the SPSS 21.00 statistical package program. As a result of the analyzes made; Subscales of decision-making strategies of referees are not significant in terms of gender, marital status, education, work experience, work done outside refereering, refereeing years; while it is not meaningful in terms of unstable, logical and dependent decision making sub-scales when compared to the economic level, it has been seen that only internal tepic decision making increases significantly when economic level is lower.

  18. The Genesis of Romanian Football. Social Factors and Processes behind the Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER, László

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with those social and economic factors that contributed to the genesis of Romanian soccer at the turn of the previous century. The author argues that football was imported from abroad via peregrination and schools, but certain social processes, such as urbanization, capitalization and the appearance of massive working classes, are the reasons why this beautiful game became socially embedded in the local environments. The different circumstances in Banat and Transylvania and in the old Romanian Kingdom marked the social history and trajectory “travelled” by the ball. While in the western part of the country, football arrived in a fertile ground because of the already existing bourgeois sport associations and the rapidly emerging local working classes, the role of foreign companies and expats in implementing football was more significant in the southern regions. This difference in the genesis of the game produced two distinct styles of playing football. These two styles clearly reflect the historical and social background specific to the different regions.

  19. Recurrent concussion and risk of depression in retired professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; Bailes, Julian; McCrea, Michael; Harding, Herndon P; Matthews, Amy; Mihalik, Johna Register; Cantu, Robert C

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between prior head injury and the likelihood of being diagnosed with clinical depression among retired professional football players with prior head injury exposure. A general health questionnaire, including information about prior injuries, the SF-36 (Short Form 36), and other markers for depression, was completed by 2552 retired professional football players with an average age of 53.8 (+/-13.4) yr and an average professional football-playing career of 6.6 (+/-3.6) yr. A second questionnaire focusing on mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-related issues was completed by a subset of 758 retired professional football players (50 yr and older). Two hundred sixty-nine (11.1%) of all respondents reported having prior or current diagnosis of clinical depression. There was an association between recurrent concussion and diagnosis of lifetime depression (chi2=71.21, df=2, Pdiabetes. Our findings suggest a possible link between recurrent sport-related concussion and increased risk of clinical depression. The findings emphasize the importance of understanding potential neurological consequences of recurrent concussion.

  20. Injuries during football tournaments in 45,000 children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstrup, Line Agger; Koopmann, Kristian Ugelvig; Nygaard, Uffe Harboe; Nygaard, Rie Harboe; Agger, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Four percent of the world's population, or 265 million people, play football, and many players are injured every year. The present study investigated more than 1800 injuries in over 45,000 youth players participating in three consecutive international football tournaments in Denmark in 2012-2014. The aim was to investigate the injury types and locations in children and adolescent football players and the differences between genders and age groups (11-15 and 16-19 years of age). An overall injury rate of 15.3 per 1000 player hours was found. The most common injury location was lower extremities (66.7%), and the most common injury type was contusion (24.4%). Girls had a relative risk of injury of 1.5 compared with boys, p football tournament. These findings are of great value for organizations and healthcare professionals planning similar events and for planning injury prevention strategies, which would be of special interest in the youngest female players in general.

  1. ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF SHOTS IN FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radoman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The area of technical-tactical activities is very interesting and unexplored, especially because the game from year to year changes faster. The aim of this research is to perform analysis of different forms of shots in football (in the official statistics and their association with outcomes of football matches at the World Cup 2006. in Germany (FIFA World Cup Germany 2006.. The sample consists of observations of 64 games played at the World Cup 2006. in Germany. Sample characteristics are elements of games that are leading the official statistics, which is promoted for all FIFA competitions that take place under its auspices, including the World Championships. Of five elements for analysis was selected four. Based on the analysis set forth can be concluded that the team winning the game stands out significantly in all analyzed characteristics in relation to the game the team with a score draw or a defeat where the difference is less. All teams that have achieved the victory had offensive tactics or were technically dominant in relation to the opponent.

  2. CERN Club Football wins 40 year old tradition cup

    CERN Multimedia

    Dave Underhill

    2016-01-01

    Already two weeks since the CERN football team, representing the Dave Underhill XI in the annual match with the Geneva Scottish Football Club, made a late, late rally to win the Jean Pierre Fillettaz Trophy. They started well with some good passing movements, but the Scots were also playing well and began to take control towards the end of the first half. Then, following a series of poor finishing and good goalkeeping by the CERN keeper, they finally found the back of the net, and the lads in white trooped off for well-earned oranges and water, just 1-0 down at half time. The second half was again evenly matched, but while we were not making the goal chances the Scots were squandering theirs. THEN with just 10 minutes to go a sudden resurgence of energy and aggression, the CERNites made the chances which counted, and in the space 5 minutes turned the score around and were happy to hear the final whistle and celebrate a famous 2-1 victory. Victory and commiserations were celebrated in the "Club Ho...

  3. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  4. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  5. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts........ In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  6. Online news media reporting of football-related fatalities in Australia: A matter of life and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; Bekker, Sheree; Finch, Caroline F

    2018-03-01

    While deaths in sports settings are rare, they do occur. To develop an understanding of the sports and people most at risk, and to identify opportunities for prevention, routine and systematic data detailing the occurrence of these fatalities is required. There is currently no routine reporting of data of this nature in Australia. As there is often strong community interest in these incidents, the media offers an opportunity for surveillance. However before this can occur, understanding of the terminology used by the media is required. The aim of this study was to identify the terminology most frequently used in online Australian news media coverage of football-related deaths. Retrospective review of online news media. Three databases were searched for online news media reports of people who died while participating in football (all football codes) in Australia. A descriptive analysis of terminology was undertaken to identify the common language applied. Thirty-four football-related fatalities in Australia were identified between 2010-2016, via 149 separate articles. The most frequent terms identified in the media items were: Family; Club; Rugby; Football; Player; League; Died; Game; Death; Life; Loved; Hospital; Match; Young; Community; Playing; Friends; Sport; Heart; AFL [Australian Football League]. This study identified terminology used in reporting football-related fatalities in Australia, identifying common reference to terms relating to 'death' as metaphors and the frequent celebration of 'life.' The findings suggest that a reliance on researcher-generated terminology will be insufficient to reflect media discourse in prospective monitoring of sports deaths for surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Play Practices and Play Moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  8. A season of football injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit.

  9. Common Injuries in Professional Football Quarterbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Jacob M; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Bedi, Asheesh

    2018-03-01

    Professional football quarterbacks are at particular risk for upper extremity injuries due to the physical demands of their position coupled with the inherent risks associated with professional football. This review sought to evaluate current clinical literature to better characterize the injury profile unique to this athletic population. Shoulder injuries are the most prevented upper extremity injury among professional football quarterbacks. The quarterback position is disproportionately impacted by shoulder injuries when compared to professional athletes at other positions. Moreover, contrary to other professional throwing athletes, the majority of upper extremity injuries in the professional quarterback result from direct contact as opposed to the throwing motion. The injury profile among professional quarterbacks is unique compared to other positions and other overhead professional throwing athletes. Overall, a paucity of high quality clinical evidence exists to support the management of injuries in this elite population.

  10. Rating behavior of football fans by Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Szczygielski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to present the opinion of Internet users for football fans and their behavior. The research method was used diagnostic survey research in the form of a survey computer. 102 people were tested mostly in the age of 21-25 years. The research can draw the following conclusions: (1 Football stadiums should be better secured and protected by the relevant departments, (2 The colors and club merchandise is not a reliable indicator of fan devotion of his team, (3 These are the fans, the fans are cheering for is a sacred thing, (4 All acts of devastation to property and vandalism in football stadiums should be severely punished.

  11. Symptoms and risk factors of depression during and after the football career of elite female players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Birgit; Dvořák, Jiří; Junge, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The mental health of elite athletes has received increasing attention in recent years, but no study has evaluated the career–time prevalence of depression, and very few have analysed risk factors of mental health problems during or after the career. Methods 157 (response rate 64.1%) female players who played in the German First League answered an anonymous online survey on details of their football career, stressful and helpful conditions, depression and need of psychotherapeutic support during and after the football career. Results The career–time prevalence of depression symptoms was 32.3%. Significant differences in the average depression score were observed for playing positions (F=2.75; pfootball. Furthermore, it seems very important to educate coaches, physicians, physiotherapists and club managers to recognise and prevent mental health problems of their players. PMID:27900184

  12. ‘And she flies! Beautiful’: the dislocating geography of football sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Trail

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The overarching interest of this paper is in articulating the affective conditions of football’s play. It undertakes this through a consideration of the sonorous dimension of football, mapping its sounds across a framework borrowed from recent writings on sound-art and sonic geography. Specifically it considers a continuum articulated by Will Scrimshaw (in relation to sound art exploring spatial notions, between sounds-of-place and sound-as-a-place. It then places sounds produced in football-play across this continuum, to see whether football’s sonic practices can be more finely articulated through doing so, and might in turn shed light on its affective conditions.

  13. "Mended or ended?" Football injuries and the British and American medical press, 1870-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R J

    2001-01-01

    'Playing Hurt/Playing Tough', a dominant ideology in today's football (soccer, rugby, American 'gridiron'), is by no means new. Many books, monographs, and articles have examined the historical development of these games, but the attention given to them in the medical press during the late 1800s/early 1900s has been overlooked. The Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, and other turn-of-the-century medical publications regularly included accounts and descriptions of injuries and deaths. More telling were the many editorials in which physicians in both Britain and the United States expressed enthusiasm while also lamenting the games' physical and morale effects upon players, asking whether 'football' should be mended or ended.

  14. First aid on field management in youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutsch, Werner; Voss, Andreas; Gerling, Stephan; Grechenig, Stephan; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Sufficient first aid equipment is essential to treat injuries on football fields. Deficits in first aid on field are still present in youth football. Injury pattern in youth football over one season and first aid equipment in youth football were analyzed, retrospectively. PRICE and ABC procedure served as basic principles in emergency management to assess the need for first aid equipment on field. Considering financial limits and adapted on youth football injuries, sufficient first aid equipment for youth football was configured. 84% of 73 participating youth football teams had their own first aid kit, but the majority of them were insufficiently equipped. Team coaches were in 60% of all youth teams responsible for using first aid equipment. The injury evaluation presented 922 injuries to 1,778 youth players over one season. Frequently presented types of injury were contusions and sprains of the lower extremity. Based on the analyzed injury data in youth football, first aid equipment with 90 € is sufficient for 100% of all occurred youth football injuries. Current first aid equipment in youth football is insufficient. Scientific-based first aid equipment with 90 € is adequate to serve all injuries. Football coaches need education in first aid management.

  15. Playing Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashian, Kathleen Ryniker

    1993-01-01

    Describes a yearlong project at 12 Catholic middle schools in the Diocese of Arlington, Virginia, to incorporate the plays of William Shakespeare into the curriculum. Teachers attended university lectures and directed students in performances of the plays. Concludes that Shakespeare can be understood and enjoyed by middle school students. (BCY)

  16. Effects of Video-Based Visual Training on Decision-Making and Reactive Agility in Adolescent Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Nimmerichter; Nikolaus J. R. Weber; Klaus Wirth; Andreas Haller

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the trainability of decision-making and reactive agility via video-based visual training in young athletes. Thirty-four members of a national football academy (age: 14.4 ± 0.1 years) were randomly assigned to a training (VIS; n = 18) or a control group (CON; n = 16). In addition to the football training, the VIS completed a video-based visual training twice a week over a period of six weeks during the competition phase. Using the temporal occlusion technique, the playe...

  17. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  18. The impacts of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some European footbal leagues

    OpenAIRE

    HALICIOGLU, Ferda

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. – 1. Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports. – 2. Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports. – 3. Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence . – 4. Some concluding remarks.

  19. The impact of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some european football leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2006-01-01

    Introduction - 1 Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports - 2 Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports - 3 Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence - 4. Concluding remarks

  20. FOOTBALL PLAYERS’ LEGS BIOMECHANICS DURING THE GAME AND THE REQUIREMENTS FOR FOOTBALL SHOES

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Ionescu Luca; Cristina Secan

    2013-01-01

    Football players, during the game, find themselves in both static and dynamic positions. Movement may be accomplished through walking, marching, running and jumping. While walking, the step may be simple, if referred to a single leg or double when talking about both legs. The simple steps have different phases for the bare-foot, the impact phase, supported foot and oscillating shank-bone and propulsion. Football shoes for walking make contact with the support surface through cleats. The back...

  1. Correlating cumulative sub-concussive head impacts in football with player performance - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Steven; Goforth, Mike W; Dietter, Dave; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Duma, Stefanan M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cumulative sub-concussive head impacts on football player performance. The helmets of three Virginia Tech football players were instrumented with a six accelerometer sensor capable of measuring head acceleration. Helmets were instrumented for every game during the 2006 and 2007 football seasons. Each time the head was impacted during a game, the sensor recorded the impact and wirelessly transmitted the data to a sideline computer. Furthermore, the coaching staff at Virginia Tech reviewed post-game film and evaluated each player's performance based on strict criteria. Players were awarded positive points for good plays and negative points for bad plays. Their performance scores were then normalized to a per play basis. Correlations of player performance with cumulative peak linear acceleration and cumulative head injury criterion (HIC) were evaluated. No consistent head acceleration-based measure showed a strong correlation with significance. In addition, relationship trends varied on a position basis. There are many factors other than head impacts that can affect a player's performance and more research is needed to further quantify such effects.

  2. Quantification of Competitive Game Demands of NCAA Division I College Football Players Using Global Positioning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Goulet, Grant C; McLellan, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the competitive physiological movement demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college football players using portable global positioning system (GPS) technology during games and to examine positional groups within offensive and defensive teams, to determine if a player's physiological requirements during games are influenced by playing position. Thirty-three NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision football players were monitored using GPS receivers with integrated accelerometers (GPSports) during 12 regular season games throughout the 2014 season. Individual data sets (n = 295) from players were divided into offensive and defensive teams and subsequent position groups. Movement profile characteristics, including total, low-intensity, moderate-intensity, high-intensity, and sprint running distances (m), sprint counts, and acceleration and deceleration efforts, were assessed during games. A one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni statistical analysis were used to determine differences in movement profiles between each position group within offensive and defensive teams. For both offensive and defensive teams, significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences exist between positional groups for game physical performance requirements. The results of the present study identified that wide receivers and defensive backs completed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater total distance, high-intensity running, sprint distance, and high-intensity acceleration and deceleration efforts than their respective offensive and defensive positional groups. Data from the present study provide novel quantification of position-specific physical demands of college football games and support the use of position-specific training in the preparation of NCAA Division I college football players for competition.

  3. Incidence, Epidemiology and Etiology of Injuries, in a Spanish Amateur Football Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Esteban-Zubero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Playing football, both at the amateur and professional level, associates an increased risk of injury. A documented report on injury location, type and incidence, in correlation with sports intensity, professionalism level and age, would be of support for implementing preventing measures and appropriate training programs, to reduce the incidence of football related injury. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the incidence, type and location of injuries during one season, in an amateur football club and design strategies and preventive measures. Patients and Methods: A population of 308 players were studied, aged between 5 and 29 years old (20 subjects over-19, 38 under-19, 38 under-16, 57 under-14, 57 under-12, 44 under-10 and 54 under-8 years old, respectively distributed over 20 teams. In total, 339 cases of injury occurred. Results: The population injured the most was the under-19 group and the most prevalent type of injuries was muscular (40.7% and ligament (16.5%. The most common location was the lower limbs (78.6% and, specifically, the thigh (39.8%. Physical load periods (September and February were highlighted as the months of highest incidence and the average number of visits per injury was 1.34. A statistically significant relationship between hours of training and injuries was noted. Conclusions: In the literature, there are similar publications, who studied these variables, separately. This work provides us with a certain amount of descriptive results, which may serve as a model for future research projects, performing interventions by coaches and medical services of football clubs, to reduce the injuries incidence, especially in the months of greatest physical load and, therefore, improve the performance. Football is a safe sport to practice, at any age, because injuries, regularly, are not serious and it is highly recommended, given the amount of health benefits obtained.

  4. Suicide in professional American football players in the past 95 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webner, David; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-01-01

    To examine publicly-available information on all identified cases of suicide in active or former American professional football players between 1920 and the spring of 2015. Retrospective cohort study. Professional American Football in the US. A cohort of 26 702 athletes who had died, retired or were currently playing in the NFL from nfl.com since 1920 was identified. Internet queries identifying 26 professional football players who completed suicide. Obituaries and news reports were reviewed. The primary outcome measures included mortality, demographic characteristics and life circumstances in professional American football players completing suicide. From 1920-2015, the median age of the 26 men who completed suicide was 39.5 years (range = 23-85). The median number of years after retirement was 6.5 (range = 0-63). Most of the deaths since 1920 have occurred in the past 15 years (58.7%) and a large percentage have occurred since 2009 (42.3%). Most of the men suffered from multiple life stressors prior to their deaths, such as retirement from sport, loss of steady income, divorce, failed business ventures, estrangement from family members and medical, psychiatric and/or substance abuse problems. A disproportionate number of completed suicides in current and former professional football players have occurred since 2009 (42.3%). It is well established in the literature that the causes of depression and suicidality are diverse, often multifactorial and treatable. Providing at-risk retired athletes with mental health treatment will likely reduce their suffering and improve their quality-of-life.

  5. The relationships of eccentric strength and power with dynamic balance in male footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booysen, Marc Jon; Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Watson, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral balance is critical to kicking accuracy in football. In order to design interventions to improve dynamic balance, knowledge of the relationships between dynamic balance and specific neuromuscular factors such as eccentric strength and power is essential. Therefore, the aim was to determine the relationships of eccentric strength and power with dynamic balance in male footballers. The Y-balance test, eccentric isokinetic strength testing (knee extensors and flexors) and the countermovement jump were assessed in fifty male footballers (university (n = 27, mean age = 20.7 ± 1.84 years) and professional (n = 23, mean age = 23.0 ± 3.08 years). Spearman Rank Order correlations were used to determine the relationships of eccentric strength and power with dynamic balance. Multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, mass, stature, playing experience and competitive level was performed on significant relationships. Normalised reach score in the Y-balance test using the non-dominant leg for stance correlated with (1) eccentric strength of the non-dominant leg knee extensors in the university group (r = 0.50, P = 0.008) and (2) countermovement jump height in the university (r = 0.40, P = 0.04) and professional (r = 0.56, P = 0.006) football groups, respectively. No relationships were observed between eccentric strength (knee flexors) and normalised reach scores. Despite the addition of potential confounders, the relationship of power and dynamic balance was significant (r = 0.52, P power correlates moderately with dynamic balance on the non-dominant leg in male footballers.

  6. "White shoes to a football match!": Female experiences of football's golden age in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Pope

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although many British historians claim that English football in the post–World War II period was substantially the passion of working-class men, oral history accounts also reveal a largely hidden history of active female sports fans, women who keenly followed football. These female fans often faced opposition from fellow supporters and from other women. In many ways, academic research on sports fandom has worked to omit serious discussion of the role of women. Taken from a wider project aimed at making more visible the historical experiences of female spectators in sport in Britain, this paper draws on interviews with 16 older female fans of the Leicester City football club based in the East Midlands in England. It explores their experiences in the so-called golden age of the game with regard to the football stadium, styles of female support, and relationships with and perceptions of football players. Via oral history research, the paper offers a wider context for understanding the sporting experiences of female fans. But it also analyzes and explicates the meaning of sport in the lives of female fans during a period when football players were paradoxically glamorous and unobtainable local figures, but also, in some contexts, still accessible, ordinary members of local communities.

  7. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  8. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in a rugby football player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victor; Ma, Richard; Li, Xinning; Steele, John; Allen, Answorth A

    2013-05-01

    Costal cartilage fracture of the rib cage, or costochondral, is a rare sporting injury. For contact athletes, the instability of the rib cage may lead to potential serious complications, similar to rib fractures or thorax disruption. Most authors recommend initial conservative treatment with surgery reserved for only recalcitrant cases. We report a case of an amateur American male rugby football player who sustained a costal cartilage fracture and disruption involving the anterior left fifth and sixth rib costal cartilages. The case highlights the difficulty in establishing the diagnosis based on clinical examination and standard radiographs alone. Computed tomography was used to assist in diagnosing this destabilizing injury to the rib cage. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in athletes are rarely reported in the literature and can have serious implications for the athlete's ability to return to play if the rib cage is destabilized.

  9. High-magnitude head impact exposure in youth football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolettano, Eamon T.; Gellner, Ryan A.; Rowson, Steven

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Even in the absence of a clinically diagnosed concussion, research suggests that neurocognitive changes may develop in football players as a result of frequent head impacts that occur during football games and practices. The objectives of this study were to determine the specific situations in which high-magnitude impacts (accelerations exceeding 40g) occur in youth football games and practices and to assess how representative practice activities are of games with regard to high-magnitude head impact exposure. METHODS A total of 45 players (mean age 10.7 ± 1.1 years) on 2 youth teams (Juniors [mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years; mean body mass 38.9 ± 9.9 kg] and Seniors [mean age 11.9 ± 0.6 years; mean body mass 51.4 ± 11.8 kg]) wore helmets instrumented with accelerometer arrays to record head impact accelerations for all practices and games. Video recordings from practices and games were used to verify all high-magnitude head impacts, identify specific impact characteristics, and determine the amount of time spent in each activity. RESULTS A total of 7590 impacts were recorded, of which 571 resulted in high-magnitude head impact accelerations exceeding 40g (8%). Impacts were characterized based on the position played by the team member who received the impact, the part of the field where the impact occurred, whether the impact occurred during a game or practice play, and the cause of the impact. High-magnitude impacts occurred most frequently in the open field in both games (59.4%) and practices (67.5%). “Back” position players experienced a greater proportion of high-magnitude head impacts than players at other positions. The 2 teams in this study structured their practice sessions similarly with respect to time spent in each drill, but impact rates differed for each drill between the teams. CONCLUSIONS High-magnitude head impact exposure in games and practice drills was quantified and used as the basis for comparison of exposure in the 2 settings. In

  10. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints

  11. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…

  12. Winners and Losers of Danish Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    This paper deals with European and Danish soccer and its commercialization focusing on the Danish male first tier clubs. Based on the systems theoretical argument that sport serves as a mirror system in (late-) modern society, the Danish football clubs are measured against a simple matrix of main...

  13. ENGLISH LOANS IN SWAHILI NEWSPAPER FOOTBALL LANGUAGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Josephine Dzahene-Quarshie

    This paper seeks to investigate the strategies for expansion of Swahili ... also addresses the question of standardization of borrowed football registers. ..... The verb kudili 'to deal' as in to handle (the ball) well or pass (the ball) well, which is not.

  14. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  15. Creating a winning team: lessons from football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sherri Lee

    2005-01-01

    There are tasks best done on an individual basis when caring for a neonate, but the ultimate outcome for infants and their families results from a team effort. Incorporating ten strategies drawn from football can help the NICU manager create and foster effective teamwork.

  16. The Profile of the Romanian Football Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Stelescu

    2013-01-01

    It is an exercise that every professional can use to see what the value of the manager is, "whether or not you're a manager," and the professional football coach without borders, boundaries of countries or cultures-in which we were born and professional culture in which we live and we want to live now and in the future.

  17. The Metamorphosis of a Football Stadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Have, Pieter J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the planning, renovation and enlargement, and funding of a new University of Utah football stadium that would also be used in the 2002 Winter Olympics. Contractor selection, solutions to construction challenges, and the steps taken to minimize risk and guarantee success of the projects are discussed, including the fact that the stadium is…

  18. THE PROFILE OF THE ROMANIAN FOOTBALL MANAGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN STELESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is an exercise that every professional can use to see what the value of the manager is, "whether or not you're a manager," and the professional football coach without borders, boundaries of countries or cultures-in which we were born and professional culture in which we live and we want to live now and in the future.

  19. Coed Football: Hazards, Implications, and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Harold B.

    1986-01-01

    Football, it is argued, is too dangerous for most girls and for many boys. Data on male-female differences in size, speed, and strength are reviewed. A preparticipation screening program with equal requirements for both sexes is proposed. (Author/MT)

  20. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, António Manuel Gonçalves; Serra, Pedro M; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T

    2017-01-01

    Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pfootball officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of eye examinations, visual

  1. Presence of metabolic syndrome in football linemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Jackie L; Calland, Doug; Hanks, Fiona; Johnston, Bruce; Pester, Benjamin; Sweeney, Robert; Thorne, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of symptoms associated with abdominal obesity that demonstrates a high risk for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. To evaluate football linemen in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I, II, and III schools for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria as well as to document other related biomarkers. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Three university locations on the first full day of football camp in early morning. Of 76 football linemen, 70 were able to provide blood samples. Height, mass, blood pressure, upper-body skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at various stations. Two small venous samples of blood were collected and analyzed in a hospital laboratory for fasting insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and glycosylated hemoglobin. The last station was a verbal family history for cardiovascular disease and diabetes; also, athletes filled out a nutrition attitudes questionnaire. Of the 70 athletes, 34 were identified as having metabolic syndrome according to measures of blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. The mean total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for the group was 4.95, with 32 participants displaying values higher than 5.0. Twelve volunteers had total cholesterol levels greater than 200 mmol/L, 15 had high levels of C-reactive protein, and 9 had slightly elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Although athletes might be assumed to be protected from risks of cardiovascular disease, we found a high incidence of metabolic syndrome and other associated adverse biomarkers for heart disease in collegiate football linemen. Early screening, awareness, and intervention may have favorable effects on the overall health outcomes of football linemen.

  2. The effect of repetitive subconcussive collisions on brain integrity in collegiate football players over a single football season: A multi-modal neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobounov, Semyon M; Walter, Alexa; Breiter, Hans C; Zhu, David C; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Bream, Tim; Seidenberg, Peter; Mao, Xianglun; Johnson, Brian; Talavage, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    The cumulative effect of repetitive subconcussive collisions on the structural and functional integrity of the brain remains largely unknown. Athletes in collision sports, like football, experience a large number of impacts across a single season of play. The majority of these impacts, however, are generally overlooked, and their long-term consequences remain poorly understood. This study sought to examine the effects of repetitive collisions across a single competitive season in NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision athletes using advanced neuroimaging approaches. Players were evaluated before and after the season using multiple MRI sequences, including T 1 -weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin labeling (ASL), resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). While no significant differences were found between pre- and post-season for DTI metrics or cortical volumes, seed-based analysis of rs-fMRI revealed significant ( p  Football Bowl Subdivision, even in the absence of clinical symptoms or a diagnosis of concussion. Whether these changes reflect compensatory adaptation to cumulative head impacts or more lasting alteration of brain integrity remains to be further explored.

  3. Prevalence and Impact of Glenoid Augmentation in American Football Athletes Participating in the National Football League Scouting Combine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M.; Gillespie, Robert J.; Salata, Michael J.; Voos, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bony augmentation of the anterior glenoid is used in athletes with recurrent shoulder instability and bone loss; however, the prevalence and impact of repair in elite American football athletes are unknown. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and impact of glenoid augmentation in athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine from 2012 to 2015. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 1311 athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for history of either Bristow or Latarjet surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Athlete demographics, surgical history, imaging, and physical examination results were recorded using the NFL Combine database. Prospective participation data with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and status after the athletes’ first season in the NFL were gathered using publicly available databases. Results: Surgical repair was performed on 10 shoulders in 10 athletes (0.76%), with the highest prevalence in defensive backs (30%; n = 3). Deficits in shoulder motion were exhibited in 70% (n = 7) of athletes, while 40% (n = 4) had evidence of mild glenohumeral arthritis and 80% demonstrated imaging findings consistent with a prior instability episode (8 labral tears, 2 Hill-Sachs lesions). Prospectively, 40% (n = 4) of athletes were drafted into the NFL. In the first season after the combine, athletes with a history of glenoid augmentation were not found to be at significant risk for diminished participation with regard to games played or started when compared with athletes with no history of glenoid augmentation or athletes undergoing isolated shoulder soft tissue repair. After the conclusion of the first NFL season, 60% (n = 6 athletes) were on an active NFL roster. Conclusion: Despite being drafted at a lower rate than their peers, there were no significant limitations in NFL participation for athletes with a history of glenoid

  4. Prevalence and Impact of Glenoid Augmentation in American Football Athletes Participating in the National Football League Scouting Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Gillespie, Robert J; Salata, Michael J; Voos, James E

    2017-08-01

    Bony augmentation of the anterior glenoid is used in athletes with recurrent shoulder instability and bone loss; however, the prevalence and impact of repair in elite American football athletes are unknown. To evaluate the prevalence and impact of glenoid augmentation in athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine from 2012 to 2015. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 1311 athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for history of either Bristow or Latarjet surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Athlete demographics, surgical history, imaging, and physical examination results were recorded using the NFL Combine database. Prospective participation data with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and status after the athletes' first season in the NFL were gathered using publicly available databases. Surgical repair was performed on 10 shoulders in 10 athletes (0.76%), with the highest prevalence in defensive backs (30%; n = 3). Deficits in shoulder motion were exhibited in 70% (n = 7) of athletes, while 40% (n = 4) had evidence of mild glenohumeral arthritis and 80% demonstrated imaging findings consistent with a prior instability episode (8 labral tears, 2 Hill-Sachs lesions). Prospectively, 40% (n = 4) of athletes were drafted into the NFL. In the first season after the combine, athletes with a history of glenoid augmentation were not found to be at significant risk for diminished participation with regard to games played or started when compared with athletes with no history of glenoid augmentation or athletes undergoing isolated shoulder soft tissue repair. After the conclusion of the first NFL season, 60% (n = 6 athletes) were on an active NFL roster. Despite being drafted at a lower rate than their peers, there were no significant limitations in NFL participation for athletes with a history of glenoid augmentation when compared with athletes without a history of shoulder

  5. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed am...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  6. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring...

  7. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  8. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  9. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  10. Playing Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    The acceptance of animation technologies is increasing. Video games, such as Sony PlayStation (SONY, 2002), have become part of the culture for young people from kindergarten through undergraduate school. Animation technologies have been implemented into educational systems in the form of animated pedagogical agents (Johnson, 2000). The research…

  11. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activitie...

  12. Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  13. Comparison of Indiana High School Football Injury Rates by Inclusion of the USA Football "Heads Up Football" Player Safety Coach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Dalton, Sara L; Roos, Karen G; Djoko, Aristarque; Phelps, Jennifer; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-05-01

    In Indiana, high school football coaches are required to complete a coaching education course with material related to concussion awareness, equipment fitting, heat emergency preparedness, and proper technique. Some high schools have also opted to implement a player safety coach (PSC). The PSC, an integral component of USA Football's Heads Up Football (HUF) program, is a coach whose primary responsibility is to ensure that other coaches are implementing proper tackling and blocking techniques alongside other components of the HUF program. To compare injury rates in Indiana high school football teams by their usage of a PSC or online coaching education only. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2015 high school football season. Players were drawn from 6 teams in Indiana. The PSC group, which used the PSC component, was comprised of 204 players from 3 teams. The "education only" group (EDU), which utilized coaching education only, was composed of 186 players from 3 teams. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 25,938 athlete-exposures (AEs), a total of 149 injuries were reported, of which 54 (36.2%) and 95 (63.8%) originated from the PSC and EDU groups, respectively. The practice injury rate was lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (2.99 vs 4.83/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95). The game injury rate was also lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (11.37 vs 26.37/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). When restricted to concussions only, the rate was lower in the PSC group (0.09 vs 0.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), although only 1 concussion was reported in the PSC group. No differences were found in game concussion rates (0.60 vs 4.39/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-1.11). Findings support the PSC as an effective method of injury mitigation in high school football. Future research

  14. Return to football and long-term clinical outcomes after thumb ulnar collateral ligament suture anchor repair in collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Hadeed, Michael M; Lyons, Matthew L; Gluck, Joshua S; Diduch, David R; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate return to play after complete thumb ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury treated with suture anchor repair for both skill position and non-skill position collegiate football athletes and report minimum 2-year clinical outcomes in this population. For this retrospective study, inclusion criteria were complete rupture of the thumb UCL and suture anchor repair in a collegiate football athlete performed by a single surgeon who used an identical technique for all patients. Data collection included chart review, determination of return to play, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) outcomes. A total of 18 collegiate football athletes were identified, all of whom were evaluated for follow-up by telephone, e-mail, or regular mail at an average 6-year follow-up. Nine were skill position players; the remaining 9 played in nonskill positions. All players returned to at least the same level of play. The average QuickDASH score for the entire cohort was 1 out of 100; QuickDASH work score, 0 out of 100; and sport score, 1 out of 100. Average time to surgery for skill position players was 12 days compared with 43 for non-skill position players. Average return to play for skill position players was 7 weeks postoperatively compared with 4 weeks for non-skill position players. There was no difference in average QuickDASH overall scores or subgroup scores between cohorts. Collegiate football athletes treated for thumb UCL injuries with suture anchor repair had quick return to play, reliable return to the same level of activity, and excellent long-term clinical outcomes. Skill position players had surgery sooner after injury and returned to play later than non-skill position players, with no differences in final level of play or clinical outcomes. Management of thumb UCL injuries in collegiate football athletes can be safely and effectively tailored according to the demands of the player's football position. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014

  15. The Language in British and Slovene Football Anthems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Križan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Football is probably the world’s most popular game, with a huge number of fans. There are numerous ways in which football fans express dedication to their club and the feelings they have for their team, for example, wearing certain colours, waving banners and flags, and singing. Football anthems are nothing new for football fans, and many clubs have a long-established tradition of them. In this paper, I will address and compare the language in some popular British and Slovene football anthems, and attempt to explain its contribution to the creation of fan identity, to the fans’ sense of belonging, unity, and motivation. The linguistic analysis identities the linguistic resources used in football anthems to express attitudes, form bonds and create identities.

  16. Research on the achievement motivation levels of the amateur football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın İlimdar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the achievement motivation levels of the amateur football players based upon the importance of motivation on the athletes’ successes. The research group comprises 243 voluntary amateur football players who actively participated in the competitions during 2016-2017 season in Elazig. In the study, “Sports-Specific Achievement Motivation Scale” that was developed by Willis (1982 and adapted to Turkish by Tiryaki and Godelek (1997 was used. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 22 programme. The margin of error was accepted as p<0.05. The cronbach alpha value was found as ,78. Consequently; when the subscales of achievement motivation of the amateur soccer players participating in the study were analyzed with some variables, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between those aged 22-24 years and those aged 25-27 years in approach success. In the team playing year variable, the statistical significance was found between the ones who have 1 year football history in the team and those who are 5 years or more in the approach success. It was observed the approach to achievement motivation increased as the experience of playing for a team increased. As for the year of working with a trainer variable, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between those who had 1 year past with coach and those who had 2 years past with the motivation to avoid failure.

  17. Cardiovascular pre-participation screening does not distress professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, E E; Bjørnstad, T H; Andersen, T E; Ekeberg, Ø

    2012-06-01

    It has been debated whether cardiovascular screening of athletes creates negative psychological reactions in those being screened. Neither the athletes' level of distress towards, nor their opinion about screening has actually been examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the level of distress among Norwegian elite male football players and their experiences of screening. After screening, players completed a 10-item scale assessing their experience on a Likert scale. Their level of distress was measured with the intrusion sub-scale of Impact of Event Scale (IES) (7 items) on a six-point scale (grade 0-5). A sum score of ≥19 indicates a clinical stress problem. Twenty-five out of 28 teams, 441 of 591 players (75%, mean age 26 [18-39] years) consented to participate. Sixty-four percent felt more confident when playing football and 88% were satisfied having completed the screening. The majority (77%) felt a need for the screening and 84% would strongly recommend it to others. Sixteen percent were afraid that the screening result might have consequences for their own health, and 13% were afraid of losing their license to play football. Less than 3% experienced distress (IES ≥ 19). The majority of the players were satisfied having completed the screening, felt more confident and would recommend it to other players. Only a marginal proportion of the players were distressed by the screening, but were at least as likely to recommend it.

  18. Effect of altitude on physiological performance: a statistical analysis using results of international football games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Patrick E

    2007-12-22

    To assess the effect of altitude on match results and physiological performance of a large and diverse population of professional athletes. Statistical analysis of international football (soccer) scores and results. FIFA extensive database of 1460 football matches in 10 countries spanning over 100 years. Altitude had a significant (Pnegative impact on physiological performance as revealed through the overall underperformance of low altitude teams when playing against high altitude teams in South America. High altitude teams score more and concede fewer goals with increasing altitude difference. Each additional 1000 m of altitude difference increases the goal difference by about half of a goal. The probability of the home team winning for two teams from the same altitude is 0.537, whereas this rises to 0.825 for a home team with an altitude difference of 3695 m (such as Bolivia v Brazil) and falls to 0.213 when the altitude difference is -3695 m (such as Brazil v Bolivia). Altitude provides a significant advantage for high altitude teams when playing international football games at both low and high altitudes. Lowland teams are unable to acclimatise to high altitude, reducing physiological performance. As physiological performance does not protect against the effect of altitude, better predictors of individual susceptibility to altitude illness would facilitate team selection.

  19. Brand Management Model in Sport Industry of Iran: Professional Football League Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe Javani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine brand management model in Iran's professional Football League (2011-2012 with emphasis on brand image. The study was descriptive-survey one. A sample of Iranian professional football league fans (N=911 responded 4 items questionnaire. A structural equation model (SEM test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables. The analyses of data showed three dimensions of brand image influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. According to Results, brand image play a pivotal role between Iranian fans brand loyalty. Create an attractive and desirable brand image in the fans mind increases brand loyalty. And due to, revenue and profits increase through ticket sales and products of club and also attract more sponsors

  20. Football and Romanian Masculinity. How it is constructed by the Sport Media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter László

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is focusing on hegemonic masculinity represented and expressed by the professional footballers. Based on the empirical study using text analysis of leading articles published in central Romanian sport newspapers I draw the ideal-typical picture of the normative model of Romanian hegemonic masculinity in which the domestic coaches play a determinant role. Their personal-individual and collective-professional features like determination, steadiness, honesty, pride, mutual respect, knowledge, tenaciousness, sense of vocation, solidarity, spirit of fighting are the corner points of the constructed Romanian manhood, or hegemonic masculinity during social change. The manliness is traced along the inner characteristic of the coaches but in strong contradiction with the foreign trainers. In this respect I can state that football is connected not only with masculinity but in some respect also with the national characteristics embodied by the Romanian coaches especially those working home.

  1. High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, Pfootball athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

  2. Comparison of selected variables of gaming performance in football

    OpenAIRE

    Parachin, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Title: Comparison of selected variables of gaming performance in football Objectives: Analysis of selected variables of gaming performance in the matches of professional Czech football teams in the Champions League and UEFA Europa League in 2013. During the observation to register set variables, then evaluate obtained results and compare them. Methods: The use of observational analysis and comparison of selected variables of gaming performance in competitive matches of professional football. ...

  3. An analytical framework for a political economy of football

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Wyn

    2007-01-01

    A political economy of football has become more essential as the game has been colonized by elements of the business class. There is a tension between its profit maximizing understanding of football and a more community oriented, democratic vision that seeks to pursue government policy goals. The insights of economics and politics are both necessary to understand the political economy of football, but they should not be hybridized. Economics allows us to understand the distinctive characteris...

  4. Expertise and decision-making in American football

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Adam J.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matt; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) ...

  5. The club development of american football in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Dundáček, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Title: The club development of american football in the Czech Republic In the first part of this thesis American football is introduced, explaining basic game principles and describing the game so that the reader can imagine what the sport is all about. The second part then focuses on examining the emergence of particular American football clubs in the Czech Republic. The whole period is divided into several stages, with a strong focus on finding a common denominator of individual events. The...

  6. Developing Youth Football Academies in Greece: Managing Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Trikalis; Zisis Papanikolaou; Sofia Trikali

    2014-01-01

    Present study firstly investigated the goals and objectives of youth football academies in Greece, according to the different sector that they operate (public, private, voluntary) and secondly created proposals for future youth football academies development. Research was conducted in Greece, at the period of 2010-2011. Fourteen youth football academies participated in this study and divided into three categories (five academies in commercial sector, four academies in public sector, and five ...

  7. Playing facilitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...... workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our...... experience was rather characterized by conflictual negotiations with the students. Data from our observations and from interviews with group representatives show that the students took a discontinuous learning path, characterised by a false start, failure, and a thorough reconsideration of their work...

  8. OPINIONS OF YOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS ABOUT THE COACH, TEAM-MATES AND FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Osmani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this research the authors used a questionnaire of 8 questions of closed type, and 2 questions of open type. The basic aim of the research is to understand what young football players feel about their coach, team-mates and football as a sports game. Methods: The research involved 54 male football players who have active trainings in football clubs FC “2 korrik” in Prishtina. They are at the age between 14 and 16 and have active training experience of 2 years at least. After explaining the point of the research to the respondents, the inquiry that was of an anonymous type began. Answers to the questions in the questionnaire are presented basic statistic indexes: central and dominant value. Opinions of the respondents are represented through frequencies by chi-square test. Results: The results of the answers are represented in 2 tables and for better exposition they are presented in 8 graphics. The received answers indicate that it is the positive feeling that prevails among the football players with regard to their coach, team-mates and the football game. Particularly interesting answers are given to the two questions of open type. Discussion: On the base of the obtained answers, the results of this research show that the inquired football players have a positive opinion about the coach – his regularity, professional work and proper treatment of the players. Their opinion is positive towards their team-mates as well (coming on time for training, collaboration and friendship. In addition, the football players have a positive attitude towards football – desire for training, contests and expectation for a high success. References: Creswell JW (2009. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method Approaches. Sage. Miller TI, Miller KM (2000. Ankete za gra¬đa¬ne: Kako anketirati građane, kako se služiti anketama i što one znače. ICMA, Wash¬ing¬ton. Murphy-Black T (2000. Questionnaire. The Research Process

  9. An index predictive of cognitive outcome in retired professional American Football players with a history of sports concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mathew J; Woo, Ellen; Birath, J Brandon; Siders, Craig A; Kelly, Daniel F; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Romero, Elizabeth; Kernan, Claudia; Cantu, Robert C; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Various concussion characteristics and personal factors are associated with cognitive recovery in athletes. We developed an index based on concussion frequency, severity, and timeframe, as well as cognitive reserve (CR), and we assessed its predictive power regarding cognitive ability in retired professional football players. Data from 40 retired professional American football players were used in the current study. On average, participants had been retired from football for 20 years. Current neuropsychological performances, indicators of CR, concussion history, and play data were used to create an index for predicting cognitive outcome. The sample displayed a range of concussions, concussion severities, seasons played, CR, and cognitive ability. Many of the participants demonstrated cognitive deficits. The index strongly predicted global cognitive ability (R(2) = .31). The index also predicted the number of areas of neuropsychological deficit, which varied as a function of the deficit classification system used (Heaton: R(2) = .15; Wechsler: R(2) = .28). The current study demonstrated that a unique combination of CR, sports concussion, and game-related data can predict cognitive outcomes in participants who had been retired from professional American football for an average of 20 years. Such indices may prove to be useful for clinical decision making and research.

  10. RELATION BETWEEN MOTORIC ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC MOTORIC ABILITIES WITH FOOTBALL PLAYERS FROM 14 TO 16 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabit Veseli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Football is one of the most famous games that man has invented. It is a complex of collective organization and individual ingenuity. No doubt, top results in sport require a serious base of scientific researches and skills. Certainly, modern top results that have been achieved can be analyzed scientifically. It is exactly the scientific approach that is to establish the characteristics of basic importance to provide success in football. It is in favor of top football game to regularly conduct researches, which, as elements of special interest, would cover the basic motoric and specific motoric abilities with football players.The subject of the research is the motoric and specific motoric abilities with young football players aged from 14 to 16. The goal of the research is to establish how the explosive power influences the dribbling skills. The sample of respondents in the research consists of 39 school children at the age of 14 to 16, who play at FC ”Gjilani” and have attended the club for at least two years. They underwent three tests for assessing the explosive power: 1. Standing long jump; 2. 20-meter running and 3. Sargent test. Along with it, two tests for assessing the specific motorics: 1. Dribbling 20 metres with start from the place and 2. Dribbling 20 metres - fly start. The data obtained from the applied five tests is worked out with basic statistic parameters. The relation between motoric and specific motoric abilities is determined through linear regressive analyzes in manifest space. The results suggest that there is a positive and significant relation between the applied motoric and specific motoric abilities. This confirms the close relation between the explosive power and specific motorics of football players expressed through dribbling. Similar results are obtained in the researches of the following authors: Christou et all., 2006, Kraemer et al., 1998, and Young et al., 2001.

  11. The role of football in the Yugoslav crisis. “Nationalisation” of the football fandom in the former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Đorđević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The strong connection between everyday politics and football fandom represents a distinctive characteristic of a football culture in contemporary Serbia. This paper focuses on the issues related to strong political influence of “nationalised” political space in the former Yugoslavia that caused specific politicisation of football supporters in the country. I argue that political capital of the football fans derives from the specific social and political environment that characterised the process of disintegration of the former Yugoslavia. The aim of this article is to emphasize the connection between growing nationalisation of politics and specific events that took place on football stadiums during the late 1980s and the early 1990s in the SFRY. Through the analysis of the particular events from that period, this article aims to analyse the causes that led to transformation of the subculture of the football fans to political agents par excellence.

  12. Playing Against China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Xue, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical...... football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing...

  13. Concussion Characteristics in High School Football by Helmet Age/Recondition Status, Manufacturer, and Model: 2008-2009 Through 2012-2013 Academic Years in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn

    2016-06-01

    Football helmets used by high school athletes in the United States should meet the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment performance standards. Despite differences in interior padding and exterior shells, all football helmets should provide comparable protection against concussions. Yet, debate continues on whether differences in the rates or severity of concussions exist based on helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, or model. To investigate whether high school football concussion characteristics varied by helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, and model. Descriptive epidemiological study. High school football concussion and helmet data were collected from academic years 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 as part of the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. The certified athletic trainers of participating schools submitted athlete-exposure (AE) and injury information weekly. Participating schools reported 2900 football concussions during 3,528,790 AEs for an overall rate of 8.2 concussions per 10,000 AEs. Concussion rates significantly increased from 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 overall (P = .006) as well as in competition (P = .027) and practice (P = .023). Characteristics of concussed football players (ie, mean number of symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play) were similar among players wearing new helmets when compared with reconditioned helmets. Fewer players wearing an old/not reconditioned helmet had concussion symptoms resolve within 1 day compared with players wearing a new helmet. Despite differences in the manufacturers and models of helmets worn by all high school football players compared with players who sustained a concussion, the mean number of concussion symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play were similar for concussions sustained by football players wearing the most common helmet

  14. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  15. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in University Rugby Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Nirengi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity improves various metabolic disturbances. The effect of physical activity on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been defined, particularly in athletes who are able to consume a diet to increase body mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of NAFLD and associated factors of NAFLD among male university rugby football players [n = 69, 37 forwards (FW and 32 backs (BK], relative to age-matched controls (CON; n = 29. For FW players exercise consists of physical contact play, such as ruck, mall, scrum, and tackle. For BK players exercise consists of sprints and endurance running. Liver function tests and bioimpedance analysis to assess body composition were performed. Subjects consuming ≤ 20 g/day of ethanol and exhibiting an aspartate transaminase (AST level ≥ 33 U/L, and/or alanine transaminase (ALT level ≥ 43 U/L, were considered to have NAFLD. The PNPLA3 and MTP genotypes were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The body mass index, body fat mass, and lean body mass were significantly higher in the FW group than in the BK and CON groups (P < 0.05. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, AST, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly higher in the FW group than in the CON group (P < 0.05. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly higher in the FW group than in the BK group and CON group (18.9, 8.6, and 0.0%, respectively, whereas there were non-significant between-group differences in the frequency of the PNPLA3 and MTP genotypes. These findings indicate that rugby football players, especially those in the FW position, are at higher risk of developing NAFLD, which emphasizes the role of diet and exercise in the development of NAFLD.

  16. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  17. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  18. Applying graphs and complex networks to football metric interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza-Ardiles, E; Martín-González, J M; Zuniga, M D; Sánchez-Flores, J; de Saa, Y; García-Manso, J M

    2018-02-01

    This work presents a methodology for analysing the interactions between players in a football team, from the point of view of graph theory and complex networks. We model the complex network of passing interactions between players of a same team in 32 official matches of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional (Spain), using a passing/reception graph. This methodology allows us to understand the play structure of the team, by analysing the offensive phases of game-play. We utilise two different strategies for characterising the contribution of the players to the team: the clustering coefficient, and centrality metrics (closeness and betweenness). We show the application of this methodology by analyzing the performance of a professional Spanish team according to these metrics and the distribution of passing/reception in the field. Keeping in mind the dynamic nature of collective sports, in the future we will incorporate metrics which allows us to analyse the performance of the team also according to the circumstances of game-play and to different contextual variables such as, the utilisation of the field space, the time, and the ball, according to specific tactical situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of weather on football attendances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, J A

    1984-01-01

    On the premise that weather should have an effect on spectator attendance at sports events in outdoor settings (a topic which has received surprisingly little formalized study), the author examined the record of home attendances for three football teams in Scotland. In general, it was found that the greater the rainfall on the day of the match the lower the attendance. Dividing spectators into different groups, it was further found that an additional hour of sunshine was associated 162 more adults attending Aberdeen matches, while high temperatures appeared to increase juvenile attendance (by 57 for ever 1 deg. C. rise in temperature). Weather disruption of football games is attended by a number of costs, both direct and indirect. Quantifying the impact of weather can shed substantial light on the problem of scheduling for the season. For example, since certain periods are, on average, wetter than others, rescheduling to drier periods might encourage greater attendance.

  20. 'Bataille's boys': postmodernity, Fascists and football fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T

    2000-09-01

    In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity.

  1. Football versus football: effect of topic on /r/ realization in American and English sports fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jessica; Walker, Abby

    2013-12-01

    Can the topic of a conversation, when heavily associated with a particular dialect region, influence how a speaker realizes a linguistic variable? We interviewed fans of English Premier League soccer at a pub in Columbus, Ohio. Nine speakers of British English and eleven speakers of American English were interviewed about their favorite American football and English soccer teams. We present evidence that the soccer fans in this speech community produce variants more consistent with Standard American English when talking about American football than English soccer. Specifically, speakers were overall more /r/-ful (F3 values were lower in rhotic environments) when talking about their favorite American football team. Numeric trends in the data also suggest that exposure to both American and British English, being a fan of both sports, and task may mediate these effects.

  2. Injuries in Rugby Union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J E; Gibson, T

    In a prospective study of 185 players attached to 10 British rugby clubs, 151 injuries were recorded among 98 of them (53%) during a single season. Forwards sustained significantly more injuries than backs. The standard of rugby, players' body weights, degree of fitness, and presence of joint hypermobility did not affect the risk of injury. The leg was the most common site of injury. Head and neck injuries were significantly more common when play was static and on wet pitches. Scrummaging accounted for no neck injuries. Almost half the injuries occurred during the last quarter of games. Foul play might have caused as many as 47 (31%) of all reported injuries. Complete eradication of deliberately dangerous play would considerably reduce the high incidence of injuries in this sport.

  3. Posterior sternoclavicular dislocation: an American football injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, L B; Klareskov, B

    1996-01-01

    Posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint is uncommon, accounting for less than 0.1% of all dislocations. Since 1824 a little more than 100 cases have been reported, and the majority in the past 20 years. A review of published reports suggests that this injury is seen particularly in co...... in connection with American football. A typical case is described. The importance of this injury is that there is often a delay in diagnosis with potentially serious complications....

  4. Pediatric cervical spondylolysis and American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Timothy B; Patel, Amit M; Lee, Michael J; Chapman, Jens R

    2014-06-01

    Cervical spondylolysis (CS) is a rare condition and is even more uncommon in pediatric patients. It is characterized by a disruption of the articular mass at the junction of the superior and inferior facet joints and often is diagnosed incidentally. The C6 level is most commonly involved, and the cause of CS remains unknown. There are no recommendations in the literature regarding activity modification in patients with CS and no discussion as to risks of participation in American football or other contact sports. To report a case of C6 bilateral cervical spondylolysis with bicuspid spinous process and to discuss radiographic/clinical findings and issues related to participation in contact sports and minimizing the risk of spinal cord injury. Case report with 6 months clinical/radiographic follow-up Radiographic description, clinical findings, and current review of the literature. A pediatric patient presented with a bilateral C6 cervical spondylolysis and bicuspid spinous process after an American football-related minor cervical spine trauma. Findings on radiographs indicated that the spondylolysis appeared to be chronic in nature, without evidence of instability. The patient and his family were educated on ways to decrease the risk of spinal cord injury with contact sports, after which the patient was allowed to participate fully in sports without restrictions or adverse events. Pediatric cervical spondylolysis is a rare condition, the cause of which remains debated. Although there is theoretical risk, more than 1.5 million youth participate in American football annually, and there have been no reported cases of significant spinal cord injury in patients with CS from football or other contact sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology of Knee Sprains in Youth, High School, and Collegiate American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Daniel R; Onate, James A; Schussler, Eric; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-05-01

      Variations in knee-sprain incidence among competition levels are unclear but may help inform prevention strategies in American football players.   To describe the epidemiology of knee sprains in youth, high school, and collegiate football players.   Descriptive epidemiology study.   Injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data were collected from 3 injury-surveillance programs at the youth, high school, and collegiate competition levels.   Data from 310 youth, 184 high school, and 71 collegiate football team-seasons were collected during the 2012 through 2014 seasons.   Knee-sprain rates and risks were calculated for each competition level. Injury rate ratios (IRRs) and risk ratios (RRs) compared knee-sprain rates by competition level. Injury proportion ratios (IPRs) compared differences in surgery needs, recurrence, injury mechanism, and injury activity by competition level.   Knee-sprain rates in youth, high school, and collegiate football were 0.16/1000 AEs, 0.25/1000 AEs, and 0.69/1000 AEs, respectively. Knee-sprain rates increased as the competition level increased (high school versus youth: IRR = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12, 2.30; collegiate versus high school: IRR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.38, 3.96). Knee-sprain risk was highest in collegiate (4.3%), followed by high school (2.0%) and youth (0.5%) athletes. Knee-sprain risk increased as the competition level increased (high school versus youth: RR = 3.73; 95% CI = 2.60, 5.34; collegiate versus high school: RR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.83, 2.51). Collegiate football had the lowest proportion of knee sprains that were noncontact injuries (collegiate versus youth: IPR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.95; collegiate versus high school: IPR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.44, 0.79) and the lowest proportion that occurred while being tackled (collegiate versus youth: IPR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; collegiate versus high school: IPR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.98).   Knee-sprain incidence was highest in collegiate football

  6. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS, Palmeiras (SP and Vasco (RJ, were not efficient in any period under analysis. Others, such as Guarani (SP and Guaratinguetá (SP, were efficient in all of years under consideration. With the Tobit regression model, we were able to determine that winning titles and the elite status of a given club are decisive factors in achieving efficiency. Included among the strategies that allow for greater efficiency in Brazilian clubs are the better utilization of stadiums and club assets, maximization of the financial worth of player popularity, and joining these with titles and a place in the A Series. Finally, the results of this study contribute to the strategic development of the football business, highlighting the positive effects that efficiency yields for clubs, thus supporting the growing body of research on sports management in Brazilian academia.

  7. Resting ECG findings in elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Philipp; Ditzel, Roman; Ditzel, Heribert; Urhausen, Axel; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ECG abnormalities in a large sample of elite football players. Data from 566 elite male football players (57 of them of African origin) above 16 years of age were screened retrospectively (age: 20.9 ± 5.3 years; BMI: 22.9 ± 1.7 kg · m(-2), training history: 13.8 ± 4.7 years). The resting ECGs were analysed and classified according to the most current ECG categorisation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (2010) and a classification of Pelliccia et al. (2000) in order to assess the impact of the new ESC-approach. According to the classification of Pelliccia, 52.5% showed mildly abnormal ECG patterns and 12% were classified as distinctly abnormal ECG patterns. According to the classification of the ESC, 33.7% showed 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Short-QT interval was the most frequent ECG pattern in this group (41.9%), followed by a shortened PR-interval (19.9%). When assessed with a QTc cut-off-point of 340 ms (instead of 360 ms), only 22.2% would have had 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Resting ECG changes amongst elite football players are common. Adjustment of the ESC criteria by adapting proposed time limits for the ECG (e.g. QTc, PR) should further reduce the rate of false-positive results.

  8. Optimizing Preseason Training Loads in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Crow, Justin; Ong, Kok-Leong; Blanch, Peter; Morris, Meg E; Dascombe, Ben J; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate whether preseason training plans for Australian football can be computer generated using current training-load guidelines to optimize injury-risk reduction and performance improvement. A constrained optimization problem was defined for daily total and sprint distance, using the preseason schedule of an elite Australian football team as a template. Maximizing total training volume and maximizing Banister-model-projected performance were both considered optimization objectives. Cumulative workload and acute:chronic workload-ratio constraints were placed on training programs to reflect current guidelines on relative and absolute training loads for injury-risk reduction. Optimization software was then used to generate preseason training plans. The optimization framework was able to generate training plans that satisfied relative and absolute workload constraints. Increasing the off-season chronic training loads enabled the optimization algorithm to prescribe higher amounts of "safe" training and attain higher projected performance levels. Simulations showed that using a Banister-model objective led to plans that included a taper in training load prior to competition to minimize fatigue and maximize projected performance. In contrast, when the objective was to maximize total training volume, more frequent training was prescribed to accumulate as much load as possible. Feasible training plans that maximize projected performance and satisfy injury-risk constraints can be automatically generated by an optimization problem for Australian football. The optimization methods allow for individualized training-plan design and the ability to adapt to changing training objectives and different training-load metrics.

  9. THE QUOTA RULE (AGE RESTRICTION IN THE THIRD LEAGUE IN TERMS OF ACTORS (DRAMATIS PERSONAE IN FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Kerem Zelyurt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 it was seen that the “quota rule” (age restriction which was put into practice in 2009 for the 3. League football teams in order to enable young players to have a better chance in squads and bring these players to the national teams have been changed because of not getting the desired results. In the study, the effects of 2009 quota rule which was established as a legal obligation to the football teams were examined in the extent of players, coaches, and the club managers (dramatis personae. The study was designed as “Semi-structured in-depth interview” (Qualitative Method method. According to “Theoretical Sampling Method” the sample of the study was formed through 6 players, 4 club managers and 5 coaches all of which are active in the third football league. The interviews recorded in February 2017 and May 2017, which vary from 6 minutes to 29 minutes in length according to the samples, were converted into text and categorized under 4 themes in findings section. The themes are: 1. being dropped out of squad 2. Problems relating the squads and the quality of the football 3.The problem of player training in the third league for the national team and transfer mobility to upper leagues 4. The fall in wages, the problem of becoming unemployed and being obliged to play in the amateur football league. As it can be concluded from the themes which frame the narrations by the samples including different experiences considering their status and roles in terms of quota rule practice; some outcomes during the period in which the rule had been practiced (particularly due to the version before the change were witnessed such as the deterioration in the quality of football, technical problems relating squads, the problem of vertical and horizontal professional mobility of the players and the fall in wages. In the last instance; it can be concluded that it is necessary to analyze legal sanctions relating a multivariate and intricate field such

  10. A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sean; Hume, Patria A; Kara, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    Football codes (rugby union, soccer, American football) train and play matches on natural and artificial turfs. A review of injuries on different turfs was needed to inform practitioners and sporting bodies on turf-related injury mechanisms and risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this review was to compare the incidence, nature and mechanisms of injuries sustained on newer generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. Electronic databases were searched using the keywords 'artificial turf', 'natural turf', 'grass' and 'inj*'. Delimitation of 120 articles sourced to those addressing injuries in football codes and those using third and fourth generation artificial turfs or natural turfs resulted in 11 experimental papers. These 11 papers provided 20 cohorts that could be assessed using magnitude-based inferences for injury incidence rate ratio calculations pertaining to differences between surfaces. Analysis showed that 16 of the 20 cohorts showed trivial effects for overall incidence rate ratios between surfaces. There was increased risk of ankle injury playing on artificial turf in eight cohorts, with incidence rate ratios from 0.7 to 5.2. Evidence concerning risk of knee injuries on the two surfaces was inconsistent, with incidence rate ratios from 0.4 to 2.8. Two cohorts showed beneficial inferences over the 90% likelihood value for effects of artificial surface on muscle injuries for soccer players; however, there were also two harmful, four unclear and five trivial inferences across the three football codes. Inferences relating to injury severity were inconsistent, with the exception that artificial turf was very likely to have harmful effects for minor injuries in rugby union training and severe injuries in young female soccer players. No clear differences between surfaces were evident in relation to training versus match injuries. Potential mechanisms for differing injury patterns on artificial turf compared with natural turf include increased peak torque and

  11. Profile of Physical Fitness of Young Football Players at SDN Cibeusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subashini Periasamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-related physical fitness components are important in hypokinetic disease prevention and good sports performance. The aim of this research is to evaluate the physical fitness profile of the SDN Cibeusi young football players based on Fitnessgram. Methods: This study was participated by 20 subjects ranging from 10 to 12 years old boys who played for the school football team in SDN Cibeusi. This descriptive study was conducted in the school field in the month of November 2012. Physical fitness components that were tested are aerobic capacity,V02 max using the one-mile run test, muscle endurance by performing push-up and curl-up test, flexibility using the flexometer and body composition by measuring the body mass index and fat fold measurement. The mean and standard deviation of the results were tabulated. Results: Aerobic capacity and percentage of body fat showed 100% of them scored in the category of healthy fitness zone. For body mass index, 55% scored in healthy fitness zone, 25% ni-some risk, and 10% each for ni-high risk and very lean. For push-up test and curl-up test, 80% and 65% scored in the healthy fitness zone while the remaining 20% and 35% respectively scored in the not healthy fitness zone. For flexibility, 75% of them scored in healthy fitness zone and 25% scored in not healthy fitness zone. Conclusions: The physical fitness level in these young football players is mostly in healthy fitness zone.

  12. Mechanisms of injury for concussions in university football, ice hockey, and soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J Scott; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Correa, José A

    2014-05-01

    To examine the mechanisms of injury for concussions in university football, ice hockey, and soccer. Prospective cohort design. McGill University Sport Medicine Clinic. Male and female athletes participating in varsity football, ice hockey, and soccer. Athletes were followed prospectively over a 10-year period to determine the mechanisms of injury for concussions and whether contact with certain areas of the body or individual variables predisposed to longer recovery from concussions. For soccer, data were collected on whether concussions occurred while attempting to head the ball. There were 226 concussions in 170 athletes over the study period. The side/temporal area of the head or helmet was the most common area to be struck resulting in concussion in all 3 sports. Contact from another player's head or helmet was the most probable mechanism in football and soccer. In hockey, concussion impacts were more likely to occur from contact with another body part or object rather than another head/helmet. Differences in mechanisms of injuries were found between males and females in soccer and ice hockey. Athletes with multiple concussions took longer to return to play with each subsequent concussion. Half of the concussions in soccer were related to attempting to head the soccer ball. The side of the head or helmet was the most common area to be struck resulting in concussion in all 3 sports. In ice hockey and soccer, there are differences in the mechanisms of injury for males and females within the same sport.

  13. The colour of a football outfit affects visibility and team success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Rikkert, J.; Haes, V.D.; Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Theelen, T.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a

  14. A Modified T-Test for Football Referees to Test Agility, Quickness and Sprint Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniroglu, S.; Subak, E.

    2018-01-01

    The football referees perform many actions as jogging, running, sprinting, side steps and backward steps during a football match. Further, the football referees change match activities every 5-6 seconds. Many tests are being conducted to determine the physical levels and competences of football referees like 50 m running, 200 m running, 12 minutes…

  15. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  16. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  17. Exclusionary violence and bullying in the playground: Football and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It focuses on these boys who became popularly known as the 'footballing boys', and the kinds of exclusionary violence and bullying they utilise to dominate the playground space and 'police' gender 'transgression'. It explores how some of the 'footballing boys' construct and 'police' gender in the playground through ...

  18. Having the Blues : Money Laundering in Professional Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelen, Hans; Nelen, Hans; Siegel, Dina

    2017-01-01

    The central theme of this contribution is money laundering in professional football. First, it is clarified why the professional football sector is so appealing to persons and organisations for laundering their criminally acquired assets. Then it is examined how these risks have materialised in

  19. Playoffs & Payoffs: The College Football-Coaching Carousel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer Lee

    2015-01-01

    The circulation of head football coaches is a well-established practice, and with it, salary costs are significantly outpacing other spending as institutions compete in the pursuit of prestige. This movement of college football coaches is known in the popular press as the "coaching carousel." The carousel is a fitting metaphor for a…

  20. Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Football Coach through Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…

  1. Football match spectator sound exposure and effect on hearing: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a one-group pretest–post-test design of football spectators attending a premier soccer league match at a designated FIFA 2010 training stadium in Gauteng, South Africa. Individual spectator noise exposure for the duration of the football match and post-match changes in hearing thresholds were measured with ...

  2. Does Ramadan affect the risk of injury in professional football?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L.; Smiley, Faten; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Chalabi, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether fasting during Ramadan influences injury incidence in professional Muslim and non-Muslim footballers. Prospective cohort study. Professional First Division League of Qatar. About 527 male football players (462 Muslim and 65 non-Muslim) from 7 league clubs (first year of data

  3. Movement symmetry and asymmetry of goal shots in female football ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the phenomenon of symmetrical skills in goal shot technique in female football players, of nine video recorded matches. The recording was taken during the 2nd Under 19 female football World Cup in 2004 and the 6th European female Championships of female seniors in 2005. The study comprised ...

  4. Changes in Creatine Kinase and Hormones over the Course of an American Football Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J D; Kreutzer, A; Mata, J D; Nystrom, M G; Jagim, A R; Jones, M T; Oliver, J M

    2017-04-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in creatine kinase and hormones over the course of an entire season of American football. A secondary purpose was to determine differences between starters and non-starters. Fasting blood samples were obtained from nineteen National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (n = 19; 20 ± 1 years) football athletes over the course of a season beginning prior to the start of summer off-season conditioning (T1), before (T2) and after pre-season (T3) football camp, with remaining samples taken throughout the competitive season (T4-T8). A magnitude-based inference approach was used to define outcomes. Testosterone was higher in starters prior to the start of the season (T1, Effect Size [ES] = 0.8) and during pre-conference (T4; ES = 0.7). Post-Camp (T3) testosterone was lower in all players, though greater in starters (starters, 0.0%/0.3%/99.7%; non-starters, 0.2%/2.9%/96.9%). An increase cortisol relative to baseline (T1) was observed in starters early in season (T4, ES = 0.7; T5, ES = 0.5). Creatine kinase was elevated at all time-points in all athletes, with starters having higher circulating levels throughout season. These data demonstrate that changes in hormonal markers may be experienced over a season of football and differ by playing status. Differences between starters and non-starters may be indicative of greater damage and stress experienced by starters, which may result from a greater number of repetitions.

  5. Interchange rotation factors and player characteristics influence physical and technical performance in professional Australian Rules football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Patrick A; Kempton, Thomas; Ryan, Samuel; Hocking, Joel; Coutts, Aaron J

    2018-03-01

    To examine the effects of match-related and individual player characteristics on activity profile and technical performance during rotations in professional Australian football. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system data and player rating scores were collected from 33 professional Australian football players during 15 Australian football League matches. Player rating scores were time aligned with their relative total and high-speed running (HSR) distance (>20kmh -1 ) for each on ground rotation. Individual players' maximal aerobic running speed (MAS) was determined from a two-kilometre trial. A multilevel linear mixed model was used to examine the influence of rotations on physical activity profiles and skill execution during match play. Rotation duration and accumulated distance resulted in a trivial-to-moderate reduction in relative total and HSR distances as well as relative rating points. The number of disposals in a rotation had a small positive effect on relative total and HSR distances and a large positive effect on relative rating points. MAS was associated with a moderate-to-large increase in relative total distance, but had a large negative effect on relative rating points. Previous rotation time, stoppages and the number of rotations in the quarter had a trivial-to-small negative effect on relative total and HSR distances. A greater speed (mmin -1 ) was associated with a trivial increase in rating points during a rotation, while there was a trivial decrease in relative total distance as rating points increased. The complex relationship between factors that influence activity profile and technical performance during rotations in Australian football needs to be considered when interpreting match performance. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Match-to-match variation in physical activity and technical skill measures in professional Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Thomas; Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the match-to-match variability in physical activity and technical performance measures in Australian Football, and examine the influence of playing position, time of season, and different seasons on these measures of variability. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system, accelerometer and technical performance measures (total kicks, handballs, possessions and Champion Data rank) were collected from 33 players competing in the Australian Football League over 31 matches during 2011-2012 (N=511 observations). The global positioning system data were categorised into total distance, mean speed (mmin(-1)), high-speed running (>14.4 kmh(-1)), very high-speed running (>19.9 kmh(-1)), and sprint (>23.0 kmh(-1)) distance while player load was collected from the accelerometer. The data were log transformed to provide coefficient of variation and the between subject standard deviation (expressed as percentages). Match-to-match variability was increased for higher speed activities (high-speed running, very high-speed running, sprint distance, coefficient of variation %: 13.3-28.6%) compared to global measures (speed, total distance, player load, coefficient of variation %: 5.3-9.2%). The between-match variability was relativity stable for all measures between and within AFL seasons, with only few differences between positions. Higher speed activities (high-speed running, very high-speed running, sprint distance), but excluding mean speed, total distance and player load, were all higher in the final third phase of the season compared to the start of the season. While global measures of physical performance are relatively stable, higher-speed activities and technical measures exhibit a large degree of between-match variability in Australian Football. However, these measures remain relatively stable between positions, and within and between Australian Football League seasons. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  7. Should School Boards Discontinue Support for High School Football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lewis H; Canty, Greg; Halstead, Mark; Lantos, John D

    2017-01-01

    A pediatrician is asked by her local school board to help them decide whether to discontinue their high school football program. She reviews the available evidence on the risks of football and finds it hopelessly contradictory. Some scholars claim that football is clearly more dangerous than other sports. Others suggest that the risks of football are comparable to other sports, such as lacrosse, ice hockey, or soccer. She finds very little data on the long-term sequelae of concussions. She sees claims that good coaching and a school culture that prioritizes the health of athletes over winning can reduce morbidity from sports injuries. In this paper, 3 experts also review the evidence about sports risks and discuss what is known and not known about the science and the ethics of high school football. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Female fans of men's football - a case study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Lenneis, Verena; Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Football is an invention by men for men, and today, the majority of players and fans are men. There is an abundance of literature on football and fandom; however, gender is mostly not an issue in these publications. Research about female football supporters and fans is very limited. This is also...... true for Denmark, the country, which is the focus of this article. Based on gender and socialization theories, this contribution addresses women and their (lack of) interest in men's football. The main questions refer to the numbers of female supporters and their patterns of football consumption...... to a 'man's world' and what are their roles in this 'male environment'? The statements of interviewees revealed that female fans have to cope with a measure of sexism, but that they can adopt the men's perspectives in order to be accepted as 'authentic fans'. Other women reacted on men's domination...

  9. Comparison of anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in different levels of Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsborough, Johann C; Greenway, Kate G; Opar, David A; Livingstone, Steuart G; Cordy, Justin T; Bird, Stephen R; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in elite junior, sub-elite senior, and elite senior Australian Football (AF) players. Nineteen experienced elite senior (≥4 years Australian Football League [AFL] experience), 27 inexperienced elite senior (free soft tissue mass [FFSTM], fat mass, and bone mineral content) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, upper-body strength (bench press and bench pull), and lower-body power (countermovement jump [CMJ] and squat jump with 20 kg). A 1-way analysis of variance assessed differences between the playing levels in these measures, whereas relationships between anthropometry and performance were assessed with Pearson's correlation. The elite senior and sub-elite senior players were older and heavier than the elite junior players (p ≤ 0.05). Both elite playing groups had greater total FFSTM than both the sub-elite and junior elite players; however, there were only appendicular FFSTM differences between the junior elite and elite senior players (p squat performance measures (r = 0.33-0.55). Australian Football players' FFSTM are different between playing levels, which are likely because of training and partly explain the observed differences in performance between playing levels highlighting the importance of optimizing FFSTM in young players.

  10. Traumatic Brain and Spinal Cord Fatalities Among High School and College Football Players - United States, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Kristen L; Yau, Rebecca K; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Marshall, Stephen W; Thomas, Leah C; Wolf, Susanne; Cantu, Robert C; Mueller, Frederick O; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2017-01-06

    An estimated 1.1 million high school and 75,000 college athletes participate in tackle football annually in the United States. Football is a collision sport; traumatic injuries are frequent (1,2), and can be fatal (3). This report updates the incidence and characteristics of deaths caused by traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury (4) in high school and college football and presents illustrative case descriptions. Information was analyzed from the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research (NCCSIR). During 2005-2014, a total of 28 deaths (2.8 deaths per year) from traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries occurred among high school (24 deaths) and college football players (four deaths) combined. Most deaths occurred during competitions and resulted from tackling or being tackled. All four of the college deaths and 14 (58%) of the 24 high school deaths occurred during the last 5 years (2010-2014) of the 10-year study period. These findings support the need for continued surveillance and safety efforts (particularly during competition) to ensure proper tackling techniques, emergency planning for severe injuries, availability of medical care onsite during competitions, and assessment that it is safe to return to play following a concussion.

  11. The Power of the Past: The Use of Organizational Memory in the Building of Football Club’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lopes Granja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The memory is an important strategic asset and has been used gradually and indirectly in football clubs. For these roles, it plays and the present and future potential of the memory usage in football clubs is that the aim of this study is to identify how organizational memory can be used in building the identity of football clubs. As theoretical references were presented the organizational memory concepts, organizational identity, tradition of invention and nostalgia to understand how marketing departments of football clubs can use memory. They present also the consideration of the post-modern marketing and the retro marketing, which are the theories on marketing that essentially use memory. The methodology was qualitative exploratory with literature and in-depth interviews with consumers of the four largest fan clubs in the state of São Paulo. To analyze the data was used the technique of content analysis. The results presented in this study show the link between organizational memory and organizational identity, assisting in the targeting of marketing activities that are supported in aspects of the past to meet adequately the concerns of its consumers and serving to identify what the past and how the past should be commended.

  12. Determinants of Demand for Televised Live Football: Features of the German National Football Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Rott, Armin

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes all 216 broadcasts of the German national football team from January 1993 to June 2008 to identify which factors ensure the success of televised sport broadcasts. The results reveal that demand depends mostly on the type of match and its importance in a tournament context. Vie...... rights agencies, advertisers, and media planners in determining the value of a particular broadcast....

  13. ACCURACY IN FOOTBALL: SCORING A GOAL AS THE ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE OF FOOTBALL GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milenković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study included 60 young football players aged 10 and 11 years with the aim to examine the influence of motor skills on a specific accuracy in football. The following tests for assessment of motoric abilities were used: Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test, figure „8“ with bending; Flexibility: forward bend-standing upper-body rotation-touch, the splits, side-stepping with a baton; Balance: standing on one leg along the balance bench, standing on one leg with eyes closed, flamingo test. Tests for specific accuracy in football included: elevational accuracy by foot - vertical target, elevational accuracy by foot - horizontal target, linear accuracy by foot - vertical target, the hits of ball by foot on the wall after it rebounces from the surface, elevational accuracy by head - vertical target and elevational accuracy by head - horizontal target. Results obtained by processing the data applying canonical correlation and regression analysis indicated the indisputable influence of motor abilities of young football players on the majority of specific accuracy tests.

  14. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  15. VIth World Congress on Science and Football, Book of Abstracts, January 16-20, 2007, Antalya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Uniting Edson Arantes do Nascimento's (Pele's "the beautiful game" with David Beckham's "bending the ball" (talented players apply the laws of physics to the ball is the major motivation of the 6th.World Congress on Science and Football. From Chinese tsu chu to today's modern football games, science was and will be an important part of this excellent sport (http://www7.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0606/feature1/index.html.The congress encourages all scientific aspects of football including soccer (1848 including Australian rules (1866, Rugby (1845, American football (1876, Gaelic football (1884 and Canadian football (1882. Issues such as Biomechanics, Nutrition, Psychology, Academies, Talent identification, Medical aspects, Injuries, Special Population, Coaching, Physiology, Testing, Referee, Fair play, Hooliganism, Management, Economics and Skill learning will be discussed during this congress.Research is as significant as the coach, team and player in competition. Any player can aspire to become a superstar. Encouraging all participants and steak holders will take them to new places where no one has ever dreamt of. Are we close to these dreams? The answer to this question depends on what and how much we sacrifice for science and education. From science and education information should flow into the field. The decisive elements of the game are the referees, trainers, players and supporters. Their approach creates the "climate". They can end or start a war. Football is the sport that leads. It's no miracle but it promotes passion and love. If you are committed, you may even change the world. Football encompasses millions of players, coaches, scientists, administrators, physical education teachers, politicians and inevitably parents of young players. This "simple" game that requires a ball and a goal is not only the game of heroes but also of those who bear a childish enthusiasm that makes dreams come true. Skills include heading, tapping, passing

  16. An Investigation of Scholar-Baller and Non Scholar-Baller Division I Football Student-Athletes' Academic, Athletic, Intrinsic Motivation and Athletic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Janet M.

    2009-01-01

    As less than 3% of student-athletes go on to play sport professionally, it is important that they are prepared for careers outside of athletics (Susanj & Stewart, 2005). Many football student-athletes have low grade point averages and graduation rates. Universities incorporate academic motivational programs to help combat low academic performance.…

  17. Cultural Differences, Assimilation and Behavior: Player Nationality and Penalties in Football

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, Giacomo; Schokkaert, Jeroen; Swinnen, Johan F. M.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of a different cultural background on individual behavior, focusing on violence on the football field of southern European and nothern European football players in the English Premier League. We find that southern European football players collect on average more football penalties than their nothern European colleagues. We also find that the initially higher number of football penalties incurred by southern European players converges towards the local average, the longe...

  18. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short...... (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...

  19. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Orntoft, Christina; Blackwell, Jamie; Zar, Abdossaleh; Helge, Eva Wulff; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P football training for UT, lean body mass increased by 1.4 ± 0.5 kg and the number of left leg falls decreased by 29% (P footballers have an impressive musculoskeletal health profile compared with untrained controls, but short-term football training seems to reduce the risk of falls and increase bone formation.

  20. AUDIT OF INJURIES IN A PREMIERSHIP FOOTBALL SQUAD OVER A FIVE-YEAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Chougle

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Football is currently the most popular sport in the world. The competitive nature of the sport makes it prone to injuries with the estimated frequency being 10 to 35 per 1000 playing hours (Dvorak and Junge, 2000. The aim of this study was to identify the injury patterns and rehabilitation periods with specific injuries in a premiership football club. Player injuries were retrospectively analysed from a local database (Microsoft Access 2000 at the Blackburn Rovers Football Club, UK from December 1998 to March 2004. The club physiotherapist and physician recorded details of all injuries sustained during both training and matches during that period. Clear distinctions were made between acute and overuse injuries and rehabilitation times for each injury were noted (Arnason et al., 2004. Data was analysed using SPSS (Chicago, Illinois, USA. Differences between the groups were assessed using the independent samples t-test. P values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. There were 483 injuries in 91 players. Of these 133 injuries occurred as a result of overuse and 350 as a result of direct trauma. 440 injuries were treated conservatively while 43 were treated operatively. Table 1 shows the range and number of injuries, which occurred during this period along with the average rehabilitation time for each injury. Injuries grouped as "Other" in table 1 accounted for less than 1% of all injuries and could not always be directly attributed to football even though this appeared to be the precipitating factor in all cases. There was no statistical difference between rehabilitation times for acute injuries (18 days, standard deviation 30 as compared to overuse injuries (20 days, standard deviation 39 (p = 0.640. The mean rehabilitation time however for injuries treated conservatively (15 days , standard deviation 24 as compared to injuries treated surgically (61 days, standard deviation 67 was found to be statistically significant (p = 0

  1. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Manuel Gonçalves Baptista

    Full Text Available Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R and assistant referees (AR participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9% and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4% were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62% of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR and level (international/national of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of p<0.01, PVVS scores did not differ between R and AR (p = 0.88, or between national- and international-level officials (p = 0.66. Similarly, QoV scores did not differ between R and AR in frequency (p = 0.50, severity (p = 0.71 or bothersomeness (p = 0.81 of symptoms, or between international-level vs national-level officials for frequency (p = 0.03 or bothersomeness (p = 0.07 of symptoms. However, international-level officials reported less severe symptoms than their national-level counterparts (p<0.01. Overall, 18.3% of officials had either never had an eye examination or if they had, it was more than 3 years previously. Regarding refractive correction, 4.2% had undergone refractive surgery and

  2. More Than the Win: The Relation between Appetitive Competition Motivation, Socialization, and Gender Role Orientation in Women's Football

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Siefert, Sabrina; Weierstall, Roland

    2017-01-01

    The ability to produce peak performance plays a decisive role in the success of athletes in competitive contest situations. Levels of appetitive competition motivation (ACM), i.e., the desire to defeat an opponent independent of secondary reinforcing factors, were assessed in professional female football/soccer players in the premier and regional leagues, using club level as the measurement of sport success. Furthermore, the influence of social environments predominantly encouraging masculine...

  3. Change in indicators of physical development of young footballers with different strength of the nervous system according to the excitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiy Polevoy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The topicality of the research problem is connected with the search for new ways to improve the educational and training process of young footballers that would strengthen or improve the physical development of the athletes involved and enhance the result of competition and gaming activities. The purpose of this article is to get and synthesize data, which were obtained in the course of the study, namely the change in indicators of physical development of football players aged 11-12 who have different typological peculiarities of nervous system properties. The leading approaches to the study of this problem are pedagogical experiment, theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature and methods of mathematical statistics. The research resulted in the change in the indicators of physical development of children at the age of 11-12 years old playing football due to the methodology of differentiated development of 11- and 12-year-old footballers’ coordination abilities with different typological peculiarities of nervous system properties. The article can be useful for updating the content of professional training of football coaches and be used in the educational and training process of football players of different ages and fitness level.

  4. Superficial Vein Thrombophlebitis in a Football Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Kevin T; Smoot, M Kyle

    2016-03-01

    A 22-year-old professional football player presented to a preparticipation physical examination with a 2-week history of left leg discomfort extending from the groin to the knee over the previous 2 weeks. He was found to have superficial vein thrombophlebitis (SVT) of the left great saphenous vein extending from the knee to within approximately 1.6 cm of the saphenofemoral junction. There is paucity in the literature regarding the management of SVT, particularly in actively training athletes. This case addresses the considerations of anticoagulation management for SVT as well as the unique challenge of managing anticoagulation therapy in an athlete that is actively training.

  5. How the Iranian Football Coaches and Players Know About Doping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football players and 136 coaches) were studied. A specially made questionnaire was applied. In this study, football teams of different provinces of the country were selected by randomized clustered sampling and questionnaires were distributed among coaches and players. Results: Knowledge of football coaches and players in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects of anabolic steroids was poor or moderate in 45.3%, 88.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Football players and coaches have poor knowledge about doping in Iran. Moreover, they believe in some inappropriate myths without any scientific or rational basis.It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches in Iran. PMID:26448840

  6. Croatian fan scene: Football in television beer commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biti Ozren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper attention is given to the mutual synergy between sports, commercials and alcohol. Therefore, we approach the research topic specified in the title with regards to the cultural history of football and beer, the functioning of the commercial industry within consumer culture and the structural practices of consuming football and beer trough which, at specific places and in special occasions, masculinity is performed. This research relies primarily on discourse analysis of football-beer commercials. For the purpose of enriching the insights gained by this method, a semi-structured interview was conducted with a market expert specialized in branding and an autoethnographic approach is present. The central part of the study is based on a corpus of advertisements that were broadcast on national television programs in the last ten years and that have emerged as part of a market designed advertising campaigns for major breweries during the World and European football championships. For the most of them, the common denominator is putting football fans in the forefront, whether in stadiums, bars, town squares or at home. Also, in most cases, they exclusively present male protagonists during their leisure time, united by their passion for football and beer, as well as their desire for relaxed socialization and fun. Apart from gender, the national context is essential, since these commercials usually visually, audibly and textually refer to the national football team of Croatia.

  7. The Financial Performance of the Greek Football Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Dimitropoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial performance of the football clubs participating within the first division of the Greek football league for a period of 14 years (1993-2006 and to propose specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs. We perform financial analysis of key accounting ratios extracted from the football club’s annual financial statements in order to explain the particular causes of the recent financial crisis which characterizes the Greek professional football league. The analysis of the clubs’ annual financial statements revealed that the Greek football clubs are highly leveraged, have intense liquidity and profitability problems and face an increased danger of financial distress, despite the increased amounts that football clubs invested during 2005. The above mentioned crisis can be attributed to aggregate financial mismanagement and political inefficiencies during the last fifteen years. The paper proposes specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs and the overall competitiveness of the Greek football league.

  8. The accounting and tax legislation of the Greek football clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANAGIOTIS E. DIMITROPOULOS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 1979 was a cornerstone for the football in Greece, since it practically meant the transformation of the sport’s organization from amateurism to professionalism, establishing new rules and conditions to the management of football clubs. The increased popularity of this sport and the evolutions that took place in Europe and worldwide, forced the Greek government to establish a legislative framework for the successful management of football clubs. These interventions lead to changes in many aspects of football management such as organizational and financial. The new legal environment of football management, required the organization of this sport into a more stable and professional base, following the financial standards of other corporations operating within the Greek state. By these means the government wanted to create a fair economic framework under which the football clubs would operate with common organizational, financial and tax administration rules. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of the new «capital form» establishment of the football clubs (Societe Anonyme, the main financial frame under which the new establishment has to operate and the tax obligations that originate from the aforementioned legal form.

  9. Finacial Expertise, Authority and Power in the European Football 'Industry'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertbert F. Moorhouse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provoke discussion about two issues. Firstly, how do economic ideas, concepts, theories, principles and information enter into the discourse of the owners and controllers of Europe’s most popular sport – football – and into political discussion about the game? It stresses the role management consultants have created for themselves in the new football 'industry'. Secondly, as a specific example of the general concern, the paper considers the role of the Deloitte company in European football. Its publications – especially the Annual Reviews of Football Finance – have been very influential and the company has acted as consultants for UEFA on many of the key issues in contemporary football. The paper critically assesses the approach Deloitte has adopted to the commercialisation of football, and explores difficulties in the way it has analysed some of the key issues in European football. It suggests that some countervailing forces need to be created to limit the authority and influence Deloitte currently exercise.

  10. Long-range correlations in an online betting exchange for a football tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Stephen J.; Richmond, Peter; Hutzler, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    We analyze the changes in the market odds of football matches in an online betting exchange, Betfair.com. We identify the statistical differences between the returns that occur when the game play is under way, which we argue are driven by match events, and the returns that occur during half-time, which we ascribe to a trader-driven noise. Furthermore, using detrended fluctuation analysis we identify anti-persistence (Hurst exponent H0.5) in the volatilities, which we attribute to the trader-driven noise. The time series of trading volume are found to be short-memory processes.

  11. Severe cervical spinal cord injuries related to rugby union and league football in New South Wales, 1984-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, T R; Lawson, J S; Wilson, S F; Engel, S; Rutkowski, S B; Aisbett, C W

    1998-04-20

    To determine the frequency and circumstances of serious cervical cord injuries associated with rugby union and league football in New South Wales. Retrospective review of patients with rugby football-related cervical spinal cord injuries. The two central spinal units in NSW, from January 1984 to July 1996. Admission to spinal units; injury resulting in permanent tetraplegia. During the review period, 115 rugby football players (56 union and 59 league) were admitted to the spinal units because of cervical spinal cord injuries. 49 patients had resultant permanent neurological deficits (complete tetraplegia [quadriplegia])--26 associated with rugby union and 23 with rugby league. Two patients died of injury sequelae within two weeks of admission. There was no significant change in the rate of football-related admissions to spinal units for either code. There was a small decline in the number (from 15 in 1984 to 1987 to 7 in 1992 to 1996) and incidence (from 1.2 to 0.5 per 10,000 participants) of patients with tetraplegia associated with rugby union. When this decline was tested as a trend over the years, it was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.06). No significant trend was found in the tetraplegia data associated with rugby league. Cervical spinal cord injuries leading to complete tetraplegia were most commonly associated with scrum-like plays in union and with tackles in league. Serious cervical spinal injuries associated with both codes of rugby continue to occur in NSW. Rugby football in its various forms is still an inherently dangerous game.

  12. Risk of Injury in Basketball, Football, and Soccer Players, Ages 15 Years and Older, 2003–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth A.; Westerman, Beverly J.; Hunting, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: A major challenge in the field of sports injury epidemiology is identifying the appropriate denominators for injury rates. Objective: To characterize risk of injury from participation in basketball, football, and soccer in the United States, using hours of participation as the measure of exposure, and to compare these rates with those derived using population estimates in the denominator. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: United States, 2003–2007. Participants: People ages 15 years and older who experienced an emergency department–treated injury while playing basketball, football, or soccer. Main Outcome Measure(s): Rates of emergency department–treated injuries resulting from participation in basketball, football, or soccer. Injury rates were calculated for people ages 15 and older for the years 2003–2007 using the U.S. population and hours of participation as the denominators. The risk of injury associated with each of these sports was compared for all participants and by sex. Results: From 2003 through 2007, annual injury rates per 1000 U.S. population were as follows: 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30, 1.67) in basketball, 0.93 (95% CI = 0.82, 1.04) in football, and 0.43 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.53) in soccer. When the denominator was hours of participation, the injury rate in football (5.08 [95% CI = 4.46, 5.69]/10 000 hours) was almost twice as high as that for basketball (2.69 [95% CI = 2.35, 3.02]/10 000 hours) and soccer (2.69 [95% CI = 2.07, 3.30]/10 000 hours). Conclusions: Depending on the choice of denominator, interpretation of the risk of an emergency department–treated injury in basketball, football, or soccer varies greatly. Using the U.S. population as the denominator produced rates that were highest in basketball and lowest in soccer. However, using hours of participation as a more accurate measure of exposure demonstrated that football had a higher rate of injury than basketball or soccer for both males and

  13. Risk of injury in basketball, football, and soccer players, ages 15 years and older, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth A; Westerman, Beverly J; Hunting, Katherine L

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in the field of sports injury epidemiology is identifying the appropriate denominators for injury rates. To characterize risk of injury from participation in basketball, football, and soccer in the United States, using hours of participation as the measure of exposure, and to compare these rates with those derived using population estimates in the denominator. Descriptive epidemiology study. United States, 2003-2007. People ages 15 years and older who experienced an emergency department-treated injury while playing basketball, football, or soccer. Rates of emergency department-treated injuries resulting from participation in basketball, football, or soccer. Injury rates were calculated for people ages 15 and older for the years 2003-2007 using the U.S. population and hours of participation as the denominators. The risk of injury associated with each of these sports was compared for all participants and by sex. From 2003 through 2007, annual injury rates per 1000 U.S. population were as follows: 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30, 1.67) in basketball, 0.93 (95% CI = 0.82, 1.04) in football, and 0.43 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.53) in soccer. When the denominator was hours of participation, the injury rate in football (5.08 [95% CI = 4.46, 5.69]/10 000 hours) was almost twice as high as that for basketball (2.69 [95% CI = 2.35, 3.02]/10 000 hours) and soccer (2.69 [95% CI = 2.07, 3.30]/10 000 hours). Depending on the choice of denominator, interpretation of the risk of an emergency department-treated injury in basketball, football, or soccer varies greatly. Using the U.S. population as the denominator produced rates that were highest in basketball and lowest in soccer. However, using hours of participation as a more accurate measure of exposure demonstrated that football had a higher rate of injury than basketball or soccer for both males and females.

  14. Application of four different football match analysis systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten B; Mujika, Inigo; Hewitt, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Using a video-based time-motion analysis system, a semi-automatic multiple-camera system, and two commercially available GPS systems (GPS-1; 5 Hz and GPS-2; 1 Hz), we compared activity pattern and fatigue development in the same football match. Twenty football players competing in the Spanish...... a football game and can be used to study game-induced fatigue. Rather large between-system differences were present in the determination of the absolute distances covered, meaning that any comparisons of results between different match analysis systems should be done with caution....

  15. A Test to Express Diagnostic Cohesion of Football Team

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra O. Savinkina

    2017-01-01

    We proposed to assess the cohesion of a football team by its subject-goal and subject-value unity according to the A.V. Petrovsky theory. Goal unity was measured by the degree of compliance of the priority targets for various players in the team. Values were estimated by the coincidence of the ideas about a perfect football player. On the basis of the provisional diagnosis of the six teams, we had made the lists of goals and values. The tests were piloted on 35 football teams. The results all...

  16. Effects of recreational football on women's fitness and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2018-01-01

    The review describes the fitness and health effects of recreational football in women aged 18-65 years. The review documents that 2 × 1 h of recreational football training for 12-16 weeks causes marked improvements in maximal oxygen uptake (5-15%) and myocardial function in women. Moreover, mean......-intensity interval training (HIIT), endurance training and strength training, thereby providing optimal stimuli for cardiovascular, metabolic and musculoskeletal fitness. Recreational football, therefore, seems to be an effective tool for prevention and treatment of lifestyle diseases in young and middle-aged women...

  17. An ecological dynamics rationale to explain home advantage in professional football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, José; Dias, Gonçalo; Couceiro, Micael; Passos, Pedro; Davids, Keith; Ribeiro, João

    2016-03-01

    Despite clear findings, research on home advantage in team sports lacks a comprehensive theoretical rationale for understanding why this phenomenon is so compelling. The aim of this study was to provide an explanatory theoretical rationale in ecological dynamics for the influence of home advantage observed in research on professional football. We recorded 30 competitive matches and analyzed 13958 passes, from one highly successful team in the Portuguese Premier League, during season 2010/2011. Performance data were analyzed using the Match Analysis Software—Amisco® (version 3.3.7.25), allowing us to characterize team activity profiles. Results were interpreted from an ecological dynamics perspective, explaining how task and environmental constraints of a competitive football setting required performers to continuously co-adapt to teammate behaviors. Despite slight differences in percentage of ball possession when playing home or away, the number of passes achieved by the team, while in possession of the ball, was quite different between home or away venues. When playing at home, the number of passes performed by the team was considerably higher than when playing away. The explanation proposed in this study for a home advantage effect can be understood from studying interpersonal coordination tendencies of team sports players as agents in a complex adaptive system.

  18. Analysis and assessment of the influence coaches’ formative profile has on young footballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Irazusta Adarraga,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and assess the formative profile of football coaches, based on Nicholls’ Goal Theory (1984, Bandura’s Self-efficiency Theory (1986 and Deci and Ryan’s Self Determination Theory (1985. We selected three coaches from the lower categories of Real Sociedad S.A.D. and 4 players (aged 15 to 19 from each of their teams. We selected the players depending on the time they participated in the competition, to represent the footballers that play almost every minute, the ones that play around 75% of the minutes and the ones who play the smallest amount of minutes (more or less 50%. At the end of the season, these players filled in the questionnaire of Perceived Formative Climate, which involves four different variables (Motivational Climate, Trust in the players, Communication and Decisional style. The results we obtained show that there are significant differences (pd».05 in the perception of players with regard to the formative climate of their coaches. Specifically, we found these differences in four of the seven dimensions composing the formative climate (Individual Mastery Climate, Emotional Communication, Decisional Style and Reactive Communication. These results emphasize how important are coach’s criteria and the way he/she communicates with players regarding the formative quality and sports experience. Moreover, these conclusions also suggest that it is necessary to tackle it from a multidimensional perspective to be able to analyze it in depth and within the context

  19. Site recycling: From Brownfield to football field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Haas, W.L. [HDR Engineering Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The Carolina Panther`s new home, Carolinas Stadium, will be impressive. It will include a 75,000-seat stadium, about 2,000 parking spaces, and a practice facility equipped with three full-sized football fields, all located on 30 acres bordering the central business district of Charlotte, NC. Fans of the NFL expansion team may never know that, until recently, 13 of those 30 acres were a former state Superfund site contaminated by a commercial scrapyard that had operated from the early 1930s to 1983. The salvage of nonferrous metals from lead-acid batteries, copper from transformers and other electrical equipment, and ferrous metal scrap from junk automobiles at the Smith Metal and Iron (SMI) site had left a complex contamination legacy. The soil contained lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lesser amounts of semivolatiles (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs), and volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site had remained dormant, like many former industrial sites that have come be called {open_quotes}brownfields,{close_quotes} for nearly a decade when in 1993, Charlotte was selected as the future home of the Carolina Panthers, a National Football League expansion team. The city was able to attract the team in part by offering to redevelop the site, a prime location adjacent to the downtown area. An eight-month-long site remediation effort by HDR Engineering Inc. was completed March 31, on schedule for a June 1996 unveiling of the team`s new facility.

  20. The effects of resistance training prioritization in NCAA Division I Football summer training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Martin, Gerard J; Szivak, Tunde K; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Hooper, David R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2014-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is an integral part of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football performance programs. In the sport of football, there are several components that a strength and conditioning coach must be aware of. These include body mass, size, strength, power, speed, conditioning, and injury prevention, among others. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the RT component of a performance program could be prioritized for specific results using a nonlinear training model, grouping athletes by eligibility year. The NCAA Division I football student athletes were placed into 3 separate groups based on the playing year. All subjects participated in a 10-week, 4 days·week-1 off-season summer resistance training program. The training of group 1 (n = 20, age: 18.95 ± 0.76 years, height: 186.63 ± 7.21 cm, body mass: 97.66 ± 18.17 kg, playing year: 1.05 ± 0.22 years) prioritized hypertrophy-based RT to gain body mass. The training of group 2 (n = 20, age: 20.05 ± 1.05 years, height: 189.42 ± 5.49 cm, body mass: 106.99 ± 13.53 kg, and playing year: 2.35 ± 0.75 years) prioritized strength-based RT to gain strength. The training of group 3 (n = 20, age: 21.05 ± 1.10 years, height: 186.56 ± 6.73 cm, body mass: 109.8 ± 19.96 kg, playing year: 4.4 ± 0.50 years) prioritized power-based RT to gain power. Performance tests were evaluated during the first weeks of March (Spring) and August (Fall). The test measures included body mass (kilograms), 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (kilograms), 1RM back squat (kilograms), 1RM power clean (kilograms), and countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ) height (centimeters). The primary findings of this investigation were as follows: group 1 saw significant increases in bench press maximum, back squat maximum, and power clean maximum (p ≤ 0.05). Group 2 saw significant increases in bench press maximum, back squat maximum, and power clean maximum (p ≤ 0.05). Group 3 saw a significant

  1. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-04-01

    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological Responses and Physical Performance during Football in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Magni; Nybo, Lars; Grantham, Justin; Racinais, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play. Methods Two experimental games were completed in temperate (∼21°C; CON) and hot ambient conditions (∼43°C; HOT). Physical performance was assessed by match analysis in 17 male elite players during the games and a repeated sprint test was conducted after the two game trials. Core and muscle temperature were measured and blood samples were obtained, before and after the games. Results Muscle and core temperatures were ∼1°C higher (P14 km⋅h−1) by 26% in HOT compared to CON), but peak sprint speed was 4% higher (P24 km⋅h−1) between CON and HOT. In HOT, success rates for passes and crosses were 8 and 9% higher (Pheat (r = 0.85 and r = 0.53, respectively; Pheat, but these changes were not directly related to the absolute or relative changes in core or muscle temperature. However, peak sprinting speed and execution of successful passes and crosses were improved in the HOT condition. PMID:22723963

  3. IMPACT OF SHOTS ON FINAL SCORE OF A FOOTBALL MATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radoman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The research has been done on a sample of 64 played games on the World championship FIFA, World Cup Germany 2006 and 128 results of the games divided in three integrals according to the score (win, defeat and unresolved score . The analysis is done according to the total number of shots during the game. Considering the results that are got and their interpretations, we could conclude that the results of data analysis in which is used the multi-method of MANOVA analysis and discriminative analysis, has shown that there are significant difference in frequency of the games result (win, defeat or unresolved score in shots element during the game. Even thou the noticed difference in frequency are not equally expressed, the results that are got have insinuated that there are significant differences in followed elements of the football game. Implemented analysis (royev test i T-test have confirmed that in every analyzed elements of the shot there are statistically significant differences in the result of the game (win, defeat, unresolved score and that the differences in shot’s elements are consequence different selection of the tactics and techniques also the ability of their realization in the stage of at tack and defense.

  4. The Anatomy of American Football: Evidence from 7 Years of NFL Game Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pelechrinis

    Full Text Available How much does a fumble affect the probability of winning an American football game? How balanced should your offense be in order to increase the probability of winning by 10%? These are questions for which the coaching staff of National Football League teams have a clear qualitative answer. Turnovers are costly; turn the ball over several times and you will certainly lose. Nevertheless, what does "several" mean? How "certain" is certainly? In this study, we collected play-by-play data from the past 7 NFL seasons, i.e., 2009-2015, and we build a descriptive model for the probability of winning a game. Despite the fact that our model incorporates simple box score statistics, such as total offensive yards, number of turnovers etc., its overall cross-validation accuracy is 84%. Furthermore, we combine this descriptive model with a statistical bootstrap module to build FPM (short for Football Prediction Matchup for predicting future match-ups. The contribution of FPM is pertinent to its simplicity and transparency, which however does not sacrifice the system's performance. In particular, our evaluations indicate that our prediction engine performs on par with the current state-of-the-art systems (e.g., ESPN's FPI and Microsoft's Cortana. The latter are typically proprietary but based on their components described publicly they are significantly more complicated than FPM. Moreover, their proprietary nature does not allow for a head-to-head comparison in terms of the core elements of the systems but it should be evident that the features incorporated in FPM are able to capture a large percentage of the observed variance in NFL games.

  5. Perception, Action, and Cognition of Football Referees in Extreme Temperatures: Impact on Decision Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Gaoua

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Different professional domains require high levels of physical performance alongside fast and accurate decision-making. Construction workers, police officers, firefighters, elite sports men and women, the military and emergency medical professionals are often exposed to hostile environments with limited options for behavioral coping strategies. In this (mini review we use football refereeing as an example to discuss the combined effect of intense physical activity and extreme temperatures on decision-making and suggest an explicative model. In professional football competitions can be played in temperatures ranging from -5°C in Norway to 30°C in Spain for example. Despite these conditions, the referee’s responsibility is to consistently apply the laws fairly and uniformly, and to ensure the rules are followed without waning or adversely influencing the competitiveness of the play. However, strenuous exercise in extreme environments imposes increased physiological and psychological stress that can affect decision-making. Therefore, the physical exertion required to follow the game and the thermal strain from the extreme temperatures may hinder the ability of referees to make fast and accurate decisions. Here, we review literature on the physical and cognitive requirements of football refereeing and how extreme temperatures may affect referees’ decisions. Research suggests that both hot and cold environments have a negative impact on decision-making but data specific to decision-making is still lacking. A theoretical model of decision-making under the constraint of intense physical activity and thermal stress is suggested. Future naturalistic studies are needed to validate this model and provide clear recommendations for mitigating strategies.

  6. Perception, Action, and Cognition of Football Referees in Extreme Temperatures: Impact on Decision Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaoua, Nadia; de Oliveira, Rita F; Hunter, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Different professional domains require high levels of physical performance alongside fast and accurate decision-making. Construction workers, police officers, firefighters, elite sports men and women, the military and emergency medical professionals are often exposed to hostile environments with limited options for behavioral coping strategies. In this (mini) review we use football refereeing as an example to discuss the combined effect of intense physical activity and extreme temperatures on decision-making and suggest an explicative model. In professional football competitions can be played in temperatures ranging from -5°C in Norway to 30°C in Spain for example. Despite these conditions, the referee's responsibility is to consistently apply the laws fairly and uniformly, and to ensure the rules are followed without waning or adversely influencing the competitiveness of the play. However, strenuous exercise in extreme environments imposes increased physiological and psychological stress that can affect decision-making. Therefore, the physical exertion required to follow the game and the thermal strain from the extreme temperatures may hinder the ability of referees to make fast and accurate decisions. Here, we review literature on the physical and cognitive requirements of football refereeing and how extreme temperatures may affect referees' decisions. Research suggests that both hot and cold environments have a negative impact on decision-making but data specific to decision-making is still lacking. A theoretical model of decision-making under the constraint of intense physical activity and thermal stress is suggested. Future naturalistic studies are needed to validate this model and provide clear recommendations for mitigating strategies.

  7. Effect of shoulder stabilization on career length in national football league athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Gill, Corey S; Lyman, Stephen; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F

    2011-04-01

    Shoulder instability and surgical stabilization are common in college football athletes. The effect of shoulder stabilization during college on the length of an athlete's career in the National Football League (NFL) has not been well examined. Athletes with a history of shoulder stabilization before the NFL combine have a shorter career than do matched controls. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A database containing the injury history and career NFL statistics of athletes from 1987 to 2000 was used to match athletes with a history of shoulder stabilization and no other surgery or significant injury to controls without a history of any previous surgery or significant injury. Athletes were matched by position, year drafted, round drafted, and additional minor injury history. Forty-two athletes with a history of shoulder stabilization were identified and matched with controls. A history of shoulder stabilization significantly reduced the length of career in terms of years (5.2 ± 3.9 vs 6.9 ± 3.6 years; P = .01) and games played (56 ± 53 vs 77 ± 50, P = .03) as compared with controls. By position, linemen and linebackers (20 athletes) with a history of shoulder stabilization had a significantly shorter career in years (4.7 ± 3.8 vs 6.7 ± 3.4 years; P = .049) and games played (51 ± 58 vs 81 ± 48; P = .046) than did controls. Among the other positions (22 athletes), the difference was not statistically significant in this small cohort. A history of shoulder stabilization shortens the expected career of a professional football player, particularly for linemen and linebackers. Further research is warranted to better understand how these injuries and surgeries affect an athlete's career and what can be done to improve the long-term outcome after treatment.

  8. Hamstring muscle strains in professional football players: a 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marcus C C W; Zarins, Bertram; Powell, John W; Kenyon, Charles D

    2011-04-01

    Investigations into hamstring strain injuries at the elite level exist in sports such as Australian Rules football, rugby, and soccer, but no large-scale study exists on the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Injury rates will vary between different player positions, times in the season, and across different playing situations. Descriptive epidemiology study. Between 1989 and 1998, injury data were prospectively collected by athletic trainers for every NFL team and recorded in the NFL's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected included team, date of injury, activity the player was engaged in at the time of injury, injury severity, position played, mechanism of injury, and history of previous injury. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). An athlete-exposure was defined as 1 athlete participating in either 1 practice or 1 game. Over the 10-year study period 1716 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.77 per 1000 A-E. More than half (51.3%) of hamstring strains occurred during the 7-week preseason. The preseason practice IR was significantly elevated compared with the regular-season practice IR (0.82/1000 A-E and 0.18/1000 A-E, respectively). The most commonly injured positions were the defensive secondary, accounting for 23.1% of the injuries; the wide receivers, accounting for 20.8%; and special teams, constituting 13.0% of the injuries in the study. Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in football, with the majority of injuries occurring during the short preseason. In particular, the speed position players, such as the wide receivers and defensive secondary, as well as players on the special teams units, are at elevated risk for injury. These positions and situations with a higher risk of injury provide foci for preventative interventions.

  9. Perception, Action, and Cognition of Football Referees in Extreme Temperatures: Impact on Decision Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaoua, Nadia; de Oliveira, Rita F.; Hunter, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Different professional domains require high levels of physical performance alongside fast and accurate decision-making. Construction workers, police officers, firefighters, elite sports men and women, the military and emergency medical professionals are often exposed to hostile environments with limited options for behavioral coping strategies. In this (mini) review we use football refereeing as an example to discuss the combined effect of intense physical activity and extreme temperatures on decision-making and suggest an explicative model. In professional football competitions can be played in temperatures ranging from -5°C in Norway to 30°C in Spain for example. Despite these conditions, the referee’s responsibility is to consistently apply the laws fairly and uniformly, and to ensure the rules are followed without waning or adversely influencing the competitiveness of the play. However, strenuous exercise in extreme environments imposes increased physiological and psychological stress that can affect decision-making. Therefore, the physical exertion required to follow the game and the thermal strain from the extreme temperatures may hinder the ability of referees to make fast and accurate decisions. Here, we review literature on the physical and cognitive requirements of football refereeing and how extreme temperatures may affect referees’ decisions. Research suggests that both hot and cold environments have a negative impact on decision-making but data specific to decision-making is still lacking. A theoretical model of decision-making under the constraint of intense physical activity and thermal stress is suggested. Future naturalistic studies are needed to validate this model and provide clear recommendations for mitigating strategies. PMID:28912742

  10. Prevalence and Impact of Hip Arthroscopic Surgery on Future Participation in Elite American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Sheehan, Joe; Nho, Shane J; Voos, James E; Salata, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Intra-articular injuries to the hip in elite athletes represent a source of significant pain and disability. Hip arthroscopic surgery has become the gold standard for the treatment of disorders involving the hip joint. To examine the incidence of and abnormalities treated with hip arthroscopic surgery as well as the impact on future participation in American football athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Athlete demographics, imaging findings, and physical examination results were gathered using the NFL Combine database. Information on prospective participation in the NFL with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and current status was gathered using publicly available databases and compared against all other athletes participating in the combine. Fourteen athletes (15 hips) had a history of arthroscopic hip surgery. Acetabular labral tears were treated in 93% (14 hips), with femoroacetabular impingement decompression performed in 33% (5 hips). Compared with athletes who had no history of hip arthroscopic surgery, those undergoing arthroscopic surgery did not possess a lower likelihood of being drafted (66% vs 71%, respectively; P = .78) or of being on an active roster (52% vs 43%, respectively; P = .44) after their first season in the NFL. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the number of regular-season games played (10.9 ± 4.8 with arthroscopic surgery vs 11.0 ± 5.1 without; P = .96) or started (7.0 ± 3.6 with arthroscopic surgery vs 7.1 ± 5.3 without; P = .98). American football athletes invited to the NFL Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery were not at risk for diminished participation when compared with all other athletes during their first season in the NFL.

  11. Impact locations and concussion outcomes in high school football player-to-player collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Collins, Christy L; Mihalik, Jason P; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Comstock, R Dawn

    2014-09-01

    Little research has examined concussion outcomes in terms of impact location (ie, the area on the head in which the impact occurred). This study describes the epidemiology of concussions resulting from player-to-player collision in high school football by impact location. National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study data (2008/2009-2012/2013) were analyzed to calculate rates and describe circumstances of football concussion (eg, symptomology, symptom resolution time, return to play) resulting from player-to-player collisions by impact location (ie, front-, back-, side-, and top-of-the-head). Most concussions resulting from player-to-player collisions occurred from front-of-the-head (44.7%) and side-of-the-head (22.3%) impacts. Number of symptoms reported, prevalence of reported symptoms, symptom resolution time, and length of time to return to play were not associated with impact location. However, a larger proportion of football players sustaining concussions from top-of-the-head impacts experienced loss of consciousness (8.0%) than those sustaining concussions from impacts to other areas of the head (3.5%) (injury proportion ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.2; P = .008). Players had their head down at the time of impact in a higher proportion of concussions caused by top-of-the-head impacts (86.4%) than concussions from impacts to other areas of the head (24.0%) (injury proportion ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval 3.2-4.0; P impact location. Recommended strategies for reducing the proportion of top-of-the-head impacts include improved education regarding tackling with proper "head-up" technique. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Variability of aerobic abilities of football players during competition season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are differences in VO2max during one season in a team of semi-professional football players. This study will also determine the differences between groups, in relation to their position in the team, as well as in relation between the first team and the reserves. This study was conducted on a male football team, between 16 and 28 years of age and with no health problems, competing in a third-tier league. The technique employed is testing and the instrument is the Shuttle Run test that estimated their aerobic capacity. The testing was conducted indirectly during field tests at the beginning of the preparatory period, at the beginning of the competing period and at the end of the season. After a statistical analysis, it can be concluded that there are significant differences between the initial testing, control testing, and final testing. The initial testing was done at the beginning of the preparatory period and the results of the test ranged from 41.50 to 58.10 ml/kg/min. Then after six weeks, which was also right before the start of the competitive part of the season, the control testing was conducted and the results ranged from 46.90 to 62.30 ml/kg/min. Finally, at the end of the season, after all league matches had been played, the final testing was carried out and the results were obtained ranging from 43.80 to 62.00 ml/kg/min. All the testing was conducted on a sample of 31 players, where no relation was discovered between the status of the players at any of the three time points. However, there were some statistically significant differences from the aspect of the players' position but that is due to the goalkeepers being statistically different from the rest of the team. The cause of the differences in the obtained results are differences in intensity, volume and type of training depending on the stage of the season, as well as the specificity of training for the various positions in

  13. Characteristics of sprint performance in college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechue, William F; Mayhew, Jerry L; Piper, Fontaine C

    2010-05-01

    To investigate sprinting strategy, acceleration and velocity patterns were determined in college football players (n = 61) during performance of a 9.1-, 36.6-, and 54.9-m sprints. Acceleration and velocity were determined at 9.1-m intervals during each sprint. Lower-body strength and power were evaluated by 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) squat, power clean, jerk, vertical jump, standing long jump, and standing triple jump. Sprint times averaged 1.78 +/- 0.11 seconds (9.1 m), 5.18 +/- 0.35 seconds (36.6 m), and 7.40 +/- 0.53 seconds. Acceleration peaked at 9.1 m (2.96 +/- 0.44 m x s(-2)), was held constant at 18.3 m (3.55 +/- 0.0.94 m x s(-2)), and was negative at 27.4 m (-1.02 +/- 0.72 m x s(-2)). Velocity peaked at 18.3 m (8.38 +/- 0.65 m x s(-2)) and decreased slightly, but significantly at 27.4 m (7.55 +/- 0.66 m x s(-2)), associated with the negative acceleration. Measures of lower-body strength were significantly related to acceleration, velocity, and sprint performance only when corrected for body mass. Lower-body strength/BM and power correlated highest with 36.6-m time (rs = -0.55 to -0.80) and with acceleration (strength r = 0.67-0.49; power r = 0.73-0.81) and velocity (strength r = 0.68-0.53; power r = 0.74-0.82) at 9.1 m. Sprint times and strength per body mass were significantly lower in lineman compared with linebackers-tight ends and backs. The acceleration and velocity patterns were the same for each position group, and differences in sprint time were determined by the magnitude of acceleration and velocity at 9.1 and 18.3 m. Sprint performance in football players is determined by a rapid increase in acceleration (through 18.3 m) and a high velocity maintained throughout the sprint and is independent of position played. The best sprint performances (independent of sprint distance) appear to be related to the highest initial acceleration (through 18.3 m) and highest attained and maintained velocity. Strength relative to body mass and power appears to

  14. Walking football as sustainable exercise for older adults - A pilot investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Peter; Dias, Irundika; Holland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    and divided attention and updating and inhibition components of executive function.
 'Walking football' and 'waiting list' groups were compared before and after 12 weeks of one-hour per week football. Walking football was found to be engaging, sustainable for older adults and moderately intensive; however......, selective health and cognitive benefits were not found from this brief intervention. Highlights Walking football is a lower impact but authentic form of football that enables older players to extend their active participation. Walking football is enjoyable and moderately demanding and may be a sustainable...

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL ABILITY AND TECHNICAL PREPARATION FOR THE GROWTH OF YOUNG FOOTBALLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Raičković

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical preparation of young footballers significantly difers from that of adult footballers. Young footballers,while growing and maturing,go through sensitive phases,namely periods, when it is the most convenient to influence on the development of certain characteristics and abilities. Physical abilities include motor and functional abilities. Motor abilities are:strength, speed, endurance, elacticity and coordination. Functional abilities include aerobic and anaerobic organism capacity. Football technique is the basic instrument of organising the football game. Technique has individual character. Technical preparation mainly covers training and improvement of basic football game techniques, namely, moving with and without ball and bringing technique to perfection

  16. The multiple meanings associated with the football tailgating ritual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Kerstetter; Mary Stansfield; Phileshia Dombroski; So Young Bae; Lindsay Usher; Matthew McKinney

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the meanings that individuals associate with the football tailgating experience. Data were collected via photo-elicitation and follow-up interviews with 30 adults.

  17. body injury rates in adolescent female football players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All football injuries requiring medical attention (including stiffness, strains, contusions and sprains) and/or the removal from a session, leading to training restriction, were .... This was a descriptive pilot study based on the results of the high-.

  18. Dynamic and Implications of Football Fans' Club and Fans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    As spectator in football game for example, human beings are known to fragment into fans groups. ..... since respondents identified performance as the main motivating factor in their selection of supporting teams ... directional. They are supports ...

  19. Refereeing and the perspectives of a career in football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Petracovschi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the profile of the referee from the Football County Association from the Timis county. With the help of the sociological investigation, a questionnaire with 32 items was applied on a group of 63 referees (57 male and 6 female. It has been noticed that the majority of referees have practiced football up to a certain level and failing to make a sportive career in football has determined the choice of a career in refereeing. In conclusion, refereeing is an option for a future career that can be practiced at the highest level (1st League of UEFA referee until the age of 45. After reaching this age, these people can become observers (for the Romanian Football Federation or UEFA.

  20. Observational methodology in football: Development of an instrument to study the offensive game in football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sarmento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper introduces a new approach to the analysis of offensive game in football. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to create an instrument for collecting information for the analysis of offensive action and interactions game. The observation instrument that was used to accomplish the main objective of this work consists of a combination of format fields (FC and systems of categories (SC. This methodology is a particular strategy of the scientific method that has as an objective to analyse the perceptible behaviour that occurs in habitual contexts, allowing them to be formally recorded and quantified and using an ad hoc instrument in order to obtain a behaviour systematic registration that, since they have been transformed in quantitative data with the necessary reliability and validity determined level, will allow analysis of the relations between these behaviours. The codifications undertaken to date in various games of football have shown that it serves the purposes for which it was developed, allowing more research into the offensive game methods in football.

  1. Football fans and food: a case study of a football club in the English premier league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Robin; Watkins, Francine

    2010-05-01

    Although there is growing awareness of the impact of diet on health, little attention has been given to the food available in our sports stadia. We used a football club (Citygrene FC) - Citygrene is a fictional name - in the English Premier League as a case study to examine the attitudes of male and female football supporters to the food and drink available at their home stadium (Citygrene Stadium). The research design used five focus groups of male and female fans. The discourse was audiotaped, transcribed, coded and analysed for themes. A football stadium in the English Premier League, England. The participants were season ticket holders drawn from two stands at Citygrene Stadium. The research showed a high level of dissatisfaction with the food and drink supplied. There were key differences in the views of the male and female participants in the focus groups, with the women more concerned about wider issues such as the lack of healthy food. Both men and women were aware of their role as consumers and felt that there was an opportunity for Citygrene to improve their catering profits, if they provided a better selection of food and drink and an improved service. The study shows that there is a demand for healthier food options (and a wider choice of food and drink in general), which may provide an economic opportunity for stadium and catering managers. In addition, a stadium may be considered a potential 'healthy setting', which can serve as a supportive environment for healthier food choices.

  2. E xamining Oragnizational Commitment of the Football Players in the Amatuer Level ; An Example of the Province Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül A. AKTÜRK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is a psychological condition which is ‘‘describing the relationship between employee and organizations’’ and ‘‘providing to maintain the employee’s decision to stay in the organization’’. It is stated that an important factor in organizational c ommitment effort of the people for general purpose and in terms of for feeling itself as part of a group. Organizational commitment is thought to be important since sport has become as a sector which increasing day by day among the people of the place and importance and people in the sport trend to a common goal through organizational commitment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect on the level of organizational commitment , level of organizational commitment and individual differences the ath letes who play as active in amateur level within the boundaries of province Bolu. Research was desingned in the relational screening model and data were collected using survey. In this study was used three - dimensional organizational comm itment scale (A ffe ctive Commitment,Continuance Commitment, Normative Commitment to determine organizational commitment what was developed by Allen - Meyer and adopted to Turkish by Wasti (2000. Research consist of 144 athletes who play active football in the amatur leagues 2013 - 2014 season in the province Bolu and who paticipated to the research voluntarily. In addition population and study sample is the same. Average age of the athletes is 21,78 and averaga football age is 9,26. As a result of the statistical analysis, no significant differences were found in terms of organiza itonal commitment dimensionals, th e level of satisfaction from clup facilities, the level of satisfaction supporting fro m team - mates and the level of dialog with clup managment (p>0.05. Hovewer significant differences were found the dimensions of the affective and normative commitment dialog level differences with sporty responsibles p<0

  3. Ossification of the Interosseous Membrane of the Leg in a Football Player: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Postacchini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report a case of ossification of the interosseous membrane (OIM of the leg in a football player who had no history of severe local traumas. A review of the literature of the OIM of the leg in athletes was also carried out. Case Report. A 38-year-old Caucasian male patient complained of pain on lateral aspect of the leg when playing football. Pain progressively worsened until he had to stop the sporting activity. Radiographs, and then CT and MRI, showed OIM in the middle third of the left leg. MRI showed inflammation of tibia periosteum and bone adjacent to the ossification, which was then excised. Two months after surgery the patient returned to play football. Conclusion. A thorough analysis of the literature revealed three types of OIM of the leg in athletes. Type I usually occurs after a syndesmosis ankle sprain, Type II appears to result from a tibia fracture, and Type III, of which only one fully recorded case has been published, is probably caused, as in our patient, by repetitive minor traumas to the leg. Awareness of the existence of Type III OIM can avoid erroneous diagnoses leading to useless investigations and treatments.

  4. Football and reputation management: the role of online communication platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Paulo Jorge Castro Faria; Ruão, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Football clubs, as any type of organization, have a reputation to be managed. More than a sport, football is a business activity that generates high revenues, attracts considerable investments and extreme media exposure. Therefore, reputation management might be considered a key function, when it comes to shape the perceptions of a club’s constituents. As Fombrun (1996) noted, reputations are partly a reflection of the organization’s identity and also their efforts to develop a favorable imag...

  5. Head Impact Exposure and Neurologic Function of Youth Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Thayne A; Dorman, Jason C; Thompson, Paul A; Valentine, Verle D; Bergeron, Michael F

    2015-08-01

    Football players are subjected to repetitive impacts that may lead to brain injury and neurologic dysfunction. Knowledge about head impact exposure (HIE) and consequent neurologic function among youth football players is limited. This study aimed to measure and characterize HIE of youth football players throughout one season and explore associations between HIE and changes in selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Twenty-two youth football players (11-13 yr) wore helmets outfitted with a head impact telemetry (HIT) system to quantify head impact frequency, magnitude, duration, and location. Impact data were collected for each practice (27) and game (9) in a single season. Selected clinical measures of balance, oculomotor performance, reaction time, and self-reported symptoms were assessed before and after the season. The median individual head impacts per practice, per game, and throughout the entire season were 9, 12, and 252, respectively. Approximately 50% of all head impacts (6183) had a linear acceleration between 10g and 20g, but nearly 2% were greater than 80g. Overall, the head impact frequency distributions in this study population were similar in magnitude and location as in high school and collegiate football, but total impact frequency was lower. Individual changes in neurologic function were not associated with cumulative HIE. This study provides a novel examination of HIE and associations with short-term neurologic function in youth football and notably contributes to the limited HIE data currently available for this population. Whereas youth football players can experience remarkably similar head impact forces as high school players, cumulative subconcussive HIE throughout one youth football season may not be detrimental to short-term clinical measures of neurologic function.

  6. Nutritional Habits & Knowledge in the Division I Collegiate Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Athlete’s nutritional habits and knowledge can directly affect their performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional habits and knowledge of the Division I collegiate football player. Methods: The participants of this study are male Division I college football players at Utah State University. The athletes included 45 players ranging from 18-26 and include freshman through seniors. Results: Over eighty six percent of the athletes were unaware that a ...

  7. The effect of football matches on crime patterns in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Struse, Simon Planells; Montolio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Given the actual debate, in many European countries, about the need for public administrations to raise their revenues through taxing the crime externalities generated by some private leisure activities, this article analyzes the effect of football matches on crime focusing both on property crimes and interpersonal violent crimes. Our aim is to determine up to what extent a private leisure activity, such as football matches, induces negative crime externalities to the whole society. Using dat...

  8. Ethical Code Effectiveness in Football Clubs: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Constandt, Bram; De Waegeneer, Els; Willem, Annick

    2017-01-01

    As football (soccer) clubs are facing different ethical challenges, many clubs are turning to ethical codes to counteract unethical behaviour. However, both in- and outside the sport field, uncertainty remains about the effectiveness of these ethical codes. For the first time, a longitudinal study design was adopted to evaluate code effectiveness. Specifically, a sample of non-professional football clubs formed the subject of our inquiry. Ethical code effectiveness was...

  9. Finacial Expertise, Authority and Power in the European Football 'Industry'

    OpenAIRE

    Hertbert F. Moorhouse

    2007-01-01

    The paper aims to provoke discussion about two issues. Firstly, how do economic ideas, concepts, theories, principles and information enter into the discourse of the owners and controllers of Europe’s most popular sport – football – and into political discussion about the game? It stresses the role management consultants have created for themselves in the new football 'industry'. Secondly, as a specific example of the general concern, the paper considers the role of the Deloitte company in Eu...

  10. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eAlesi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Football may be a physical and sport activities able to improve motor and cognitive growth in children. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times.Forty-six children with chronological age of ~9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=24 attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n=22 was composed of sedentary children.Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a natural and enjoyable tool to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  11. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  12. Football Coaches' Practical Sense of Talent. A Qualitative Study of Talent Identification in Danish National Youth Team Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    This study explores the practical sense of talent among top-level football coaches in Denmark, and aims to identify specific structures of the coaches' expert knowledge related to talent identification. The theoretical foundation of the study is Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework......, in particular the concept of practical sense. The data compile from eight biographical, in-depth interviews with Danish national youth team football coaches. The interviews are analyzed through a process of coding and recoding. Thematic cross-case analyses as well as purposeful selected single-case analyses......' classificatory schemes. Conclusively, the study supports the theory that talent identification in top-level football is strongly connected to the coach's practical sense of the game and taste for football talents. Furthermore, the study points at the importance of being aware of the person "behind" the coach...

  13. Effect of specific exercise-based football injury prevention programmes on the overall injury rate in football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Krommes, Kasper Kühn; Esteve, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of FIFA injury prevention programmes in football (FIFA 11 and FIFA 11+). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials comparing the FIFA injury prevention programmes with a control (no or sham...... intervention) among football players. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via Ebsco, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 2004 to 14 March 2016. Results 6 cluster-randomised controlled trials had assessed the effect of FIFA injury prevention...... programmes compared with controls on the overall football injury incidence in recreational/subelite football. These studies included 2 specific exercise-based injury prevention programmes: FIFA 11 (2 studies) and FIFA 11+ (4 studies). The primary analysis showed a reduction in the overall injury risk ratio...

  14. Using network metrics to investigate football team players' connections: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Manuel Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was propose a set of network methods to measure the specific properties of football teams. These metrics were organized on "meso" and "micro" analysis levels. Five official matches of the same team on the First Portuguese Football League were analyzed. An overall of 577 offensive plays were analyzed from the five matches. From the adjacency matrices developed per each offensive play it were computed the scaled connectivity, the clustering coefficient and the centroid significance and centroid conformity. Results showed that the highest values of scaled connectivity were found in lateral defenders and central and midfielder players and the lowest values were found in the striker and goalkeeper. The highest values of clustering coefficient were generally found in midfielders and forwards. In addition, the centroid results showed that lateral and central defenders tend to be the centroid players in the attacking process. In sum, this study showed that network metrics can be a powerful tool to help coaches to understanding the specific team's properties, thus supporting decision-making and improving sports training based on match analysis.

  15. Alcohol Marketing during the UEFA EURO 2016 Football Tournament: A Frequency Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Richard I; Critchlow, Nathan; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean; Brown, Katherine

    2017-06-29

    This study examined the frequency and nature of alcohol marketing references in broadcasts of the 2016 UEFA (Union of European Football Associations) European Championships football tournament in the United Kingdom (UK). Eighteen matches from across the tournament were recorded in full as broadcast in the UK, including all four matches featuring the English national team and all seven featuring the French national team. All visual and verbal references to alcohol marketing were recorded using a tool with high inter-rater reliability. A total of 2213 alcohol marketing references were recorded, an average of 122.94 per broadcast and 0.65 per broadcast minute (0.52 per minute in-play and 0.80 per minute out-of-play). Almost all references were visual (97.5%), with 77.9% occurring around the pitch border. Almost all (90.6%) were indirect references to alcohol brands (e.g., references to well-known slogans), compared to only 9.4% direct references to brands (e.g., brand names). The frequency of references to alcohol marketing was high. Although the overall proportion of direct brand references was low, the high proportion of indirect references demonstrates that alcohol producers were able to circumvent the French national law governing alcohol marketing (the Loi Évin) using indirect "alibi marketing". To ensure the spirit of the Loi Évin regulations are achieved, stricter enforcement may be required to limit exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly for young people.

  16. Observations of youth football training: How do coaches structure training sessions for player development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Donna; Larkin, Paul; Williams, A Mark

    2018-01-01

    We used systematic observation tools to explore the structure (i.e., activity and inactivity) and sequencing (i.e., the types of activities used) of football coaching sessions in Australia following the implementation of a new National Curriculum. Youth soccer coaches (n = 34), coaching within the Skill Acquisition (U11-U13 n = 19) and Game Training (U14-U17 n = 15) phases of the Football Federation Australia National Curriculum participated. Participants were filmed during a regular coaching session, with systematic observation of the session undertaken to provide a detailed analysis of the practice activities and coach behaviours. Findings indicated a session comprised of Playing Form activities (40.9%), Training Form activities (22.3%), inactivity (31%), and transitions between activities (5.8%). Coaches prescribed more Training Form activities (e.g., individual (5.4%) and drills (15.1%)) early in the session and progressed to Playing Form activities (i.e., small-sided games (15.3%) then larger games (24.8%)) later in the session. Most inactivity reflected the players listening to the coach - either in a team huddle (9.9%) or frozen on the spot during an activity (16.5%). In addition, coaches generally spent over 3 min communicating to players prior to explaining and introducing an activity regardless of when in the session the activity was scheduled.

  17. The second leg home advantage: evidence from European football cup competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Lionel; Page, Katie

    2007-12-01

    The home advantage is a widely acknowledged sporting phenomenon, especially in association football. Here, we examine the second leg home advantage, an effect that is discussed in the public domain but which has received very little scientific attention. The second leg home advantage effect occurs when on average teams are more likely to win a two-stage knock-out competition when they play at home in the second leg. That is, both teams have a home advantage but this advantage is significantly greater for the team that plays at home second. Examining data from three different European Cup football competitions spanning 51 years, we show that the second leg home advantage is a real phenomenon. The second leg home team has more than a 50% probability to qualify for the next round in the competition even after controlling for extra time and team ability as possible alternative explanations. The second leg home advantage appears, however, to have decreased significantly over the past decade. Possible reasons for its existence and subsequent decline are presented.

  18. Relationship between “self-efficiency“ competence levels and constant sportive self-respect levels of football players (Sample of Istanbul European Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Pekel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Super amateur cluster is examination of the relationship between “self-efficiency” and competence levels and constant sportive self-respect levels of football players. Methods: Population of the study consists of 80 super amateur cluster football clubs operating in European Side of İstanbul Province, and sample of the study consists of (n=310 volunteer football players playing football in 21 sports clubs determined with simple random method. Questionnaire method was applied as data collection tool. The participants were applied personal information form, Self Efficiency Competence Scale which was developed by Sherer and colleagues in 1982 and adapted to Turkish by Gözüm and Aksayan in 1999 and Constant Sportive Self-Respect Scale which was developed by Vealey in 1986 and of which validity and reliability studies were conducted by Yıldırım in 2013. The obtained data was recorded with the package program named "IBM SPSS 22". Correlation analysis and regression analysis were applied as statistical procedure. Results: It was seen that “self-efficiency” and - competence levels of amateur football players were in a good level and constant sportive self-respect levels were high. It was detected that there is a high-level positive relationship between constant sportive self-respect level and “self-efficiency” and -competence level, and that “self-efficiency” and - competence level predicted constant sportive self-respect level. Conclusion: It may be considered that sufficient performance of the football players results from self-completion, motivation, belief in themselves and desire to act for success by using their skills.

  19. Football goal distributions and extremal statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhough, J.; Birch, P. C.; Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.

    2002-12-01

    We analyse the distributions of the number of goals scored by home teams, away teams, and the total scored in the match, in domestic football games from 169 countries between 1999 and 2001. The probability density functions (PDFs) of goals scored are too heavy-tailed to be fitted over their entire ranges by Poisson or negative binomial distributions which would be expected for uncorrelated processes. Log-normal distributions cannot include zero scores and here we find that the PDFs are consistent with those arising from extremal statistics. In addition, we show that it is sufficient to model English top division and FA Cup matches in the seasons of 1970/71-2000/01 on Poisson or negative binomial distributions, as reported in analyses of earlier seasons, and that these are not consistent with extremal statistics.

  20. Cartilage Repair in Football (Soccer) Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, J.E.J.; de Windt, Th.S.; Brittberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of focal articular cartilage lesions among athletes is higher than in the general population. Treatment goals differ considerably between the professional and recreational athlete. High financial stakes and the short duration of a professional career influence the treatment selection for the professional athlete, while such parameters weigh differently in recreational sports. This article describes our investigation of the relation between sports and a high prevalence of focal cartilage lesions. In addition, we provide a critical review of the best available evidence for cartilage surgery and treatment selection, evaluate specific patient profiles for professional and recreational athletes, and propose a treatment algorithm for the treatment of focal cartilage lesions in football (soccer) players. PMID:26069606