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Sample records for playback apparatus playback

  1. Acceleration Recorder and Playback Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods and apparatus relating to an accelerometer electrical signal recorder and playback module. The recorder module may be manufactured in lightweight configuration and includes analog memory components to store data. Signal conditioning circuitry is incorporated into the module so that signals may be connected directly from the accelerometer to the recorder module. A battery pack may be included for powering both the module and the accelerometer. Timing circuitry is included to control the time duration within which data is recorded or played back so as to avoid overloading the analog memory components. Multiple accelerometer signal recordings may be taken simultaneously without analog to digital circuits, multiplexing circuitry or software to compensate for the effects of multiplexing the signals.

  2. Video Playback Modifications for a DSpace Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Gilbertson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modifications to an institutional repository system using the open source DSpace software to support playback of digital videos embedded within item pages. The changes were made in response to the formation and quick startup of an event capture group within the library that was charged with creating and editing video recordings of library events and speakers. This paper specifically discusses the selection of video formats, changes to the visual theme of the repository to allow embedded playback and captioning support, and modifications and bug fixes to the file downloading subsystem to enable skip-ahead playback of videos via byte-range requests. This paper also describes workflows for transcoding videos in the required formats, creating captions, and depositing videos into the repository.

  3. Simulated birdwatchers' playback affects the behavior of two tropical birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J Berton C; Haskell, David G

    2013-01-01

    Although recreational birdwatchers may benefit conservation by generating interest in birds, they may also have negative effects. One such potentially negative impact is the widespread use of recorded vocalizations, or "playback," to attract birds of interest, including range-restricted and threatened species. Although playback has been widely used to test hypotheses about the evolution of behavior, no peer-reviewed study has examined the impacts of playback in a birdwatching context on avian behavior. We studied the effects of simulated birdwatchers' playback on the vocal behavior of Plain-tailed Wrens Thryothorus euophrys and Rufous Antpittas Grallaria rufula in Ecuador. Study species' vocal behavior was monitored for an hour after playing either a single bout of five minutes of song or a control treatment of background noise. We also studied the effects of daily five minute playback on five groups of wrens over 20 days. In single bout experiments, antpittas made more vocalizations of all types, except for trills, after playback compared to controls. Wrens sang more duets after playback, but did not produce more contact calls. In repeated playback experiments, wren responses were strong at first, but hardly detectable by day 12. During the study, one study group built a nest, apparently unperturbed, near a playback site. The playback-induced habituation and changes in vocal behavior we observed suggest that scientists should consider birdwatching activity when selecting research sites so that results are not biased by birdwatchers' playback. Increased vocalizations after playback could be interpreted as a negative effect of playback if birds expend energy, become stressed, or divert time from other activities. In contrast, the habituation we documented suggests that frequent, regular birdwatchers' playback may have minor effects on wren behavior.

  4. Simulated birdwatchers' playback affects the behavior of two tropical birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Berton C Harris

    Full Text Available Although recreational birdwatchers may benefit conservation by generating interest in birds, they may also have negative effects. One such potentially negative impact is the widespread use of recorded vocalizations, or "playback," to attract birds of interest, including range-restricted and threatened species. Although playback has been widely used to test hypotheses about the evolution of behavior, no peer-reviewed study has examined the impacts of playback in a birdwatching context on avian behavior. We studied the effects of simulated birdwatchers' playback on the vocal behavior of Plain-tailed Wrens Thryothorus euophrys and Rufous Antpittas Grallaria rufula in Ecuador. Study species' vocal behavior was monitored for an hour after playing either a single bout of five minutes of song or a control treatment of background noise. We also studied the effects of daily five minute playback on five groups of wrens over 20 days. In single bout experiments, antpittas made more vocalizations of all types, except for trills, after playback compared to controls. Wrens sang more duets after playback, but did not produce more contact calls. In repeated playback experiments, wren responses were strong at first, but hardly detectable by day 12. During the study, one study group built a nest, apparently unperturbed, near a playback site. The playback-induced habituation and changes in vocal behavior we observed suggest that scientists should consider birdwatching activity when selecting research sites so that results are not biased by birdwatchers' playback. Increased vocalizations after playback could be interpreted as a negative effect of playback if birds expend energy, become stressed, or divert time from other activities. In contrast, the habituation we documented suggests that frequent, regular birdwatchers' playback may have minor effects on wren behavior.

  5. Tagging and Playback Studies to Toothed Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    using two lasers collimated at a separation of 10 cm (Webster et al. 2010). Finally, we tested low-amplitude playbacks of a high- frequency chirp that...Journal of Animal Ecology 77:936– 947 Webster T, Dawson S, Slooten E. 2010. A simple laser photogrammetry technique for measuring Hector’s... dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) in the field Marine Mammal Science, 26(2): 296–308 (April 2010) DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00326.x 7 8

  6. The Intelligent Video Playback System Based on RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zeng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of electronic information technology, traditional interpretation pattern in exhibition building and museum is developing towards digitization, information, intelligence, automation and multi functionality. A novel intelligent video playback system, which can be widely used in tourism and exhibition, is provided in this paper. The video playing system consists of radio frequency identification (RFID module and video playback module. The novel system integrates advanced RFID technology, embedded control technology, and video playing technology. The RFID module identifies visitors, and selects the language and other information. The main chip of the RFID module card reader is MF RC522 which is working in frequency bands of 13.56 MHz, and the microcontroller of the module is Atmega8. C programming language was used to program microcontroller in order to realize the function of automatically reading. The video playback module realizes the function of playing video files and controlling RFID module. On the hardware design of the video playback module, the S3C2440 chip with ARM920T core was selected as the main control chip. The video playback module was developed by WinCE developing platform. Related drivers and application software were developed to control card reader, select language and to play the video file. The intelligent video playback system has several advantages such as: good real-time property, high portability and easy in maintenance. The system has its application prospect in exhibition and tourism.

  7. Operation of autotracking system in various video playback modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soshnikov, V. G.; Fridlyand, G. V.; Fridlyand, L. V.

    1984-08-01

    Video tape recorders using oblique line scanning heads have the capability of accelerating or slowing down the playback relative to the nominal speed. The video signal quality is determined to a considerable extent by the operation of the autotracking system. The basis of the ATS is the circuitry which matches the trajectory of the magnetic playback head on the tape surface with the recorded line at the nominal playback speed. This so-called nominal playback matching circuit must incorporate additional devices to speed up or slow down the playback. The development of a video tape recorder with the autotracking system (ATS) is discussed. Block diagrams of the system and its components are supplemented with traces of the various control voltages and circuit responses, as well as a drawing of the trajectories of the magnetic head for various special effect modes. A piezoelectric transducer is used to shift the head relative to the record track to produce stop-field, stop-frame or other special effects. It is indicated that such VTR ATS circuits are capable of slowing or accelerating the playback by a factor of 5 to 10 times the nominal speed.

  8. Refugee Performance: Aesthetic Representation and Accountability in Playback Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Rea

    2008-01-01

    This essay seeks to unpack some of the issues concerning representation when performing refugee stories using playback theatre. It questions the reductive influence of narrative structure and, using the framework of "artist as ethnographer," it argues that strong aesthetic production is required to overcome the dampening effect of empathy when…

  9. Application of Flight Simulator Record/Playback Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    complex visual flying task in ASPT under one of three instructional conditions which differed in their use of an automated record/playback feature. The...Advanced Instructional Features and Methods in ASPT . The work unit supports project 1123, Flying Training Development; task 112302, Ivstructional...cloverleaf maneuver flown in the present study. Appwffaa. The study was conducted on the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) located at the Flying

  10. Can video playback provide social information for foraging blue tits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Liisa; Rowland, Hannah M; Mappes, Johanna; Thorogood, Rose

    2017-01-01

    Video playback is becoming a common method for manipulating social stimuli in experiments. Parid tits are one of the most commonly studied groups of wild birds. However, it is not yet clear if tits respond to video playback or how their behavioural responses should be measured. Behaviours may also differ depending on what they observe demonstrators encountering. Here we present blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) videos of demonstrators discovering palatable or aversive prey (injected with bitter-tasting Bitrex) from coloured feeding cups. First we quantify variation in demonstrators' responses to the prey items: aversive prey provoked high rates of beak wiping and head shaking. We then show that focal blue tits respond differently to the presence of a demonstrator on a video screen, depending on whether demonstrators discover palatable or aversive prey. Focal birds faced the video screen more during aversive prey presentations, and made more head turns. Regardless of prey type, focal birds also hopped more frequently during the presence of a demonstrator (compared to a control video of a different coloured feeding cup in an empty cage). Finally, we tested if demonstrators' behaviour affected focal birds' food preferences by giving individuals a choice to forage from the same cup as a demonstrator, or from the cup in the control video. We found that only half of the individuals made their choice in accordance to social information in the videos, i.e., their foraging choices were not different from random. Individuals that chose in accordance with a demonstrator, however, made their choice faster than individuals that chose an alternative cup. Together, our results suggest that video playback can provide social cues to blue tits, but individuals vary greatly in how they use this information in their foraging decisions.

  11. Can video playback provide social information for foraging blue tits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Hämäläinen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Video playback is becoming a common method for manipulating social stimuli in experiments. Parid tits are one of the most commonly studied groups of wild birds. However, it is not yet clear if tits respond to video playback or how their behavioural responses should be measured. Behaviours may also differ depending on what they observe demonstrators encountering. Here we present blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus videos of demonstrators discovering palatable or aversive prey (injected with bitter-tasting Bitrex from coloured feeding cups. First we quantify variation in demonstrators’ responses to the prey items: aversive prey provoked high rates of beak wiping and head shaking. We then show that focal blue tits respond differently to the presence of a demonstrator on a video screen, depending on whether demonstrators discover palatable or aversive prey. Focal birds faced the video screen more during aversive prey presentations, and made more head turns. Regardless of prey type, focal birds also hopped more frequently during the presence of a demonstrator (compared to a control video of a different coloured feeding cup in an empty cage. Finally, we tested if demonstrators’ behaviour affected focal birds’ food preferences by giving individuals a choice to forage from the same cup as a demonstrator, or from the cup in the control video. We found that only half of the individuals made their choice in accordance to social information in the videos, i.e., their foraging choices were not different from random. Individuals that chose in accordance with a demonstrator, however, made their choice faster than individuals that chose an alternative cup. Together, our results suggest that video playback can provide social cues to blue tits, but individuals vary greatly in how they use this information in their foraging decisions.

  12. Music behind Scores: Case Study of Learning Improvisation with "Playback Orchestra" Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, P.; Ruokonen, I.; Ruismäki, H.

    2015-01-01

    For music students in the early stages of learning, the music may seem to be hidden behind the scores. To support home practising, Juntunen has created the "Playback Orchestra" method with which the students can practise with the support of the notation program playback of the full orchestra. The results of testing the method with…

  13. Post Mortem System - Playback of the RHIC Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Laster, J S; D'Ottavio, T; Marusic, A; Skelly, J F

    2001-01-01

    A Post Mortem System was developed for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory to provide a playback of the collider state at the time of a beam abort, quench, or other failure event. Post Mortem data is used to provide diagnostics about the failure and to improve future stores. This data is read from hardware buffers and is written directly to the main file system by Accelerator Device Objects in the front-end computers. The Post Mortem System has facilitated analysis of loss monitor and power supply data, such as beam loss during magnet quenches, dump kicker misfires and power supply malfunctions. System details and recent operating experience will be discussed.

  14. Size-dependent physiological responses of shore crabs to single and repeated playback of ship noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wale, Matthew A; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N

    2013-04-23

    Anthropogenic noise has fundamentally changed the acoustics of terrestrial and aquatic environments, and there is growing empirical evidence that even a single noise exposure can affect behaviour in a variety of vertebrate organisms. Here, we use controlled experiments to investigate how the physiology of a marine invertebrate, the shore crab (Carcinus maenas), is affected by both single and repeated exposure to ship-noise playback. Crabs experiencing ship-noise playback consumed more oxygen, indicating a higher metabolic rate and potentially greater stress, than those exposed to ambient-noise playback. The response to single ship-noise playback was size-dependent, with heavier crabs showing a stronger response than lighter individuals. Repeated exposure to ambient-noise playback led to increased oxygen consumption (probably due to handling stress), whereas repeated exposure to ship-noise playback produced no change in physiological response; explanations include the possibility that crabs exhibited a maximal response on first exposure to ship-noise playback, or that they habituated or become tolerant to it. These results highlight that invertebrates, like vertebrates, may also be susceptible to the detrimental impacts of anthropogenic noise and demonstrate the tractability for more detailed investigations into the effects of this pervasive global pollutant.

  15. Path Planning Optimization for Teaching and Playback Welding Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehai Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Path planning for the industrial robot plays an important role in the intelligent control of robot. Tradition strategies, including model-based methods and human taught based methods, find it is difficult to control manipulator intelligently and optically. Thus, it is hard to ensure the better performance and lower energy consumption even if the same welding task was executed repeatedly. A path planning optimization method was proposed to add learning ability to teaching and playback welding robot. The optimization was divided into the welding points sequence improvement and trajectory improvement, which was done both on-line and off-line. Points sequence optimization was modeled as TSP and was continuously improved by genetic algorithm based strategy, while the trajectory between two welding points was on-line improved by an try-and-error strategy where the robot try different trajectory from time to time so as to search a better plan. Simulation results verified that this control strategy reduced the time and energy cost as compared with the man-made fix-order sequence. Our method prevents the robot from the computation-intensive model-based control, and offers a convenient way for self-improvement on the basis of human teaching.

  16. You talkin' to me? Interactive playback is a powerful yet underused tool in animal communication research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L

    2015-07-01

    Over the years, playback experiments have helped further our understanding of the wonderful world of animal communication. They have provided fundamental insights into animal behaviour and the function of communicative signals in numerous taxa. As important as these experiments are, however, there is strong evidence to suggest that the information conveyed in a signal may only have value when presented interactively. By their very nature, signalling exchanges are interactive and therefore, an interactive playback design is a powerful tool for examining the function of such exchanges. While researchers working on frog and songbird vocal interactions have long championed interactive playback, it remains surprisingly underused across other taxa. The interactive playback approach is not limited to studies of acoustic signalling, but can be applied to other sensory modalities, including visual, chemical and electrical communication. Here, I discuss interactive playback as a potent yet underused technique in the field of animal behaviour. I present a concise review of studies that have used interactive playback thus far, describe how it can be applied, and discuss its limitations and challenges. My hope is that this review will result in more scientists applying this innovative technique to their own study subjects, as a means of furthering our understanding of the function of signalling interactions in animal communication systems.

  17. Playback Station #2 for Cal Net and 5-day-recorder tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jerry P.

    1978-01-01

    A second system (Playback Station #2) has been set up to play back Cal Net 1" tapes and 5-day-recorder 1/2" tapes. As with the first playback system (Playback Station #1) the tapes are played back on a Bell and Howell VR3700B tape deck and the records are written out on a 16-channel direct-writing Siemens "0scillomink." Separate reproduce heads, tape guides, and tape tension sensor rollers are required for playing back 111 tapes and 1/2" tapes, but changing these tape deck components is a simple task that requires only a few minutes. The discriminators, patch panels, selector switches, filters, time code translators, and signal conditioning circuits for the time code translators and for the tape-speed-compensation signal are all mounted in an equipment rack that stands beside the playback tape deck. Changing playback speeds (15/16 ips or 3 3/4 ips) or changing from Cal Net tapes to 5-day-recorder tapes requires only flipping a few switches and/or changing a few patch cables on the patch panel (in addition to changing the reproduce heads, etc., to change from 1" tape to 1/2" tape). For the Cal Net tapes, the system provides for playback of 9 data channels (680 Hz thru 3060 Hz plus 400 Hz) and 3 time signals (IRIG-E, IRIG-C, and WWVB) at both 15/16 ips (x1 speed) and 3 3/4 ips (x4 speed). Available modes of compensation (using either a 4688 Hz reference or a 3125 Hz reference) are subtractive, capstan, capstan plus subtractive, or no compensation.

  18. Low cost audiovisual playback and recording triggered by radio frequency identification using Raspberry Pi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Ádám Z; Akçay, Çağlar; Weiss, Talia; Haussmann, Mark F; Moore, Ignacio T; Bonier, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Playbacks of visual or audio stimuli to wild animals is a widely used experimental tool in behavioral ecology. In many cases, however, playback experiments are constrained by observer limitations such as the time observers can be present, or the accuracy of observation. These problems are particularly apparent when playbacks are triggered by specific events, such as performing a specific behavior, or are targeted to specific individuals. We developed a low-cost automated playback/recording system, using two field-deployable devices: radio-frequency identification (RFID) readers and Raspberry Pi micro-computers. This system detects a specific passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag attached to an individual, and subsequently plays back the stimuli, or records audio or visual information. To demonstrate the utility of this system and to test one of its possible applications, we tagged female and male tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from two box-nesting populations with PIT tags and carried out playbacks of nestling begging calls every time focal females entered the nestbox over a six-hour period. We show that the RFID-Raspberry Pi system presents a versatile, low-cost, field-deployable system that can be adapted for many audio and visual playback purposes. In addition, the set-up does not require programming knowledge, and it easily customized to many other applications, depending on the research questions. Here, we discuss the possible applications and limitations of the system. The low cost and the small learning curve of the RFID-Raspberry Pi system provides a powerful new tool to field biologists.

  19. Low cost audiovisual playback and recording triggered by radio frequency identification using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Z. Lendvai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Playbacks of visual or audio stimuli to wild animals is a widely used experimental tool in behavioral ecology. In many cases, however, playback experiments are constrained by observer limitations such as the time observers can be present, or the accuracy of observation. These problems are particularly apparent when playbacks are triggered by specific events, such as performing a specific behavior, or are targeted to specific individuals. We developed a low-cost automated playback/recording system, using two field-deployable devices: radio-frequency identification (RFID readers and Raspberry Pi micro-computers. This system detects a specific passive integrated transponder (PIT tag attached to an individual, and subsequently plays back the stimuli, or records audio or visual information. To demonstrate the utility of this system and to test one of its possible applications, we tagged female and male tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor from two box-nesting populations with PIT tags and carried out playbacks of nestling begging calls every time focal females entered the nestbox over a six-hour period. We show that the RFID-Raspberry Pi system presents a versatile, low-cost, field-deployable system that can be adapted for many audio and visual playback purposes. In addition, the set-up does not require programming knowledge, and it easily customized to many other applications, depending on the research questions. Here, we discuss the possible applications and limitations of the system. The low cost and the small learning curve of the RFID-Raspberry Pi system provides a powerful new tool to field biologists.

  20. The influence of motion quality on responses towards video playback stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ware

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual motion, a critical cue in communication, can be manipulated and studied using video playback methods. A primary concern for the video playback researcher is the degree to which objects presented on video appear natural to the non-human subject. Here we argue that the quality of motion cues on video, as determined by the video's image presentation rate (IPR, are of particular importance in determining a subject's social response behaviour. We present an experiment testing the effect of variations in IPR on pigeon (Columbia livia response behaviour towards video images of courting opposite sex partners. Male and female pigeons were presented with three video playback stimuli, each containing a different social partner. Each stimulus was then modified to appear at one of three IPRs: 15, 30 or 60 progressive (p frames per second. The results showed that courtship behaviour became significantly longer in duration as IPR increased. This finding implies that the IPR significantly affects the perceived quality of motion cues impacting social behaviour. In males we found that the duration of courtship also depended on the social partner viewed and that this effect interacted with the effects of IPR on behaviour. Specifically, the effect of social partner reached statistical significance only when the stimuli were displayed at 60 p, demonstrating the potential for erroneous results when insufficient IPRs are used. In addition to demonstrating the importance of IPR in video playback experiments, these findings help to highlight and describe the role of visual motion processing in communication behaviour.

  1. Inclusive Democracy: A Consideration of Playback Theatre with Refugee and Asylum Seekers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Rea

    2007-01-01

    Community-based performance often facilitates participation through story-based processes and in this way could be seen as enacting a form of inclusive democracy. This paper examines a playback theater performance with a refugee and asylum seeker audience and questions whether inclusive, democratic participation can be fostered. It presents a…

  2. Lion, ungulate, and visitor reactions to playbacks of lion roars at Zoo Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Angela S; Allard, Stephanie M; Kelling, Nicholas J; Sandhaus, Estelle A; Maple, Terry L

    2012-01-01

    Felids in captivity are often inactive and elusive in zoos, leading to a frustrating visitor experience. Eight roars were recorded from an adult male lion and played back over speakers as auditory enrichment to benefit the lions while simultaneously enhancing the zoo visitor experience. In addition, ungulates in an adjacent exhibit were observed to ensure that the novel location and increased frequency of roars did not lead to a stress or fear response. The male lion in this study roared more in the playback phase than in the baseline phases while not increasing any behaviors that would indicate compromised welfare. In addition, zoo visitors remained at the lion exhibit longer during playback. The nearby ungulates never exhibited any reactions stronger than orienting to playbacks, identical to their reactions to live roars. Therefore, naturalistic playbacks of lion roars are a potential form of auditory enrichment that leads to more instances of live lion roars and enhances the visitor experience without increasing the stress levels of nearby ungulates or the lion themselves, who might interpret the roar as that of an intruder.

  3. Behavioral Change as a Result of Videotaped Playback: An Examination of Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Don; Ripple, Richard E.

    The literature on the behavior effects of videotaped playback reveals that little theoretical formulation has been offered to explain the positive results which have been reported. Two theoretical models are considered in regard to these results. The first, a reinforcement model, suggests that some behaviors are reinforced positively and some…

  4. Effects of personality on territory defence in communication networks: a playback experiment with radio-tagged great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy, Mathieu; Sprau, Philipp; de Goede, Piet; Naguib, Marc

    2010-12-07

    Individuals often differ consistently in behaviour across time and contexts, and such consistent behavioural differences are commonly described as personality. Personality can play a central role in social behaviour both in dyadic interactions and in social networks. We investigated whether explorative behaviour, as proxy of personality of territorial male great tits (Parus major), predicts their own and their neighbours' territorial responses towards simulated intruders. Several weeks prior to playback, subjects were taken from the wild to test their exploratory behaviour in a standard context in the laboratory. Exploratory behaviour provides a proxy of personality along a slow-fast explorer continuum. Upon release, males were radio-tracked and subsequently exposed to interactive playback simulating a more or a less aggressive territorial intruder (by either overlapping or alternating broadcast songs with the subjects' songs). At the same time, we radio-tracked a neighbour of the playback subject. Male vocal responses during playback and spatial movements after playback varied according to male explorative behaviour and playback treatment. Males with lower exploration scores approached the loudspeaker less, and sang more songs, shorter songs and songs with slower element rates than did males with higher exploration scores. Moreover, neighbour responses were related to the explorative behaviour of the subject receiving the playback but not to their own explorative behaviour. Our overall findings reveal for the first time how personality traits affect resource defence within a communication network providing new insights on the cause of variation in resource defence behaviour.

  5. Approach for earth observation satellite real-time and playback data transmission scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    The scheduling of earth observation satel ites (EOSs) data transmission is a complex combinatorial optimization prob-lem. Current researches mainly deal with this problem on the assumption that the data transmission mode is fixed, either play-back or real-time transmission. Considering the characteristic of the problem, a multi-satel ite real-time and playback data trans-mission scheduling model is established and a novel algorithm based on quantum discrete particle swarm optimization (QDPSO) is proposed. Furthermore, we design the longest compatible trans-mission chain mutation operator to enhance the performance of the algorithm. Final y, some experiments are implemented to vali-date correctness and practicability of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Boscolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.A técnica de play-back é muito útil para a detecção de aves, mas este método geralmente não é padronizado. Sua eficiência em atestar a ocorrência de cinco espécies de aves da Mata Atlântica (Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Batará Batara cinerea, Tangará Chiroxiphia caudata, Olho-de-fogo Pyriglena leucoptera e Surucuá-de-barriga-vermelha Trogon surrucura foi analisada de acordo com o horário do dia, estação do ano e abundância das espécies na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande (São Paulo, Brasil e em treze fragmentos florestais de uma paisagem adjacente

  7. Behavioral Responses of Naive Cuvier’s Beaked Whales in the Ligurian Sea to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Behavioral Responses of Naïve Cuvier’s Beaked Whales in...Award Number: N000141210418 LONG-TERM GOALS The principle goal of this project was to study responses of Cuvier’s beaked whales (Ziphius...cavirostris) to MFA sonar signals. Secondary goals included conducting a killer whale playback that has not been preceded by a sonar playback (as in Tyack

  8. Effect of recording/playback technique and experimental method on assessments of noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Emine; Persson-Waye, Kerstin; Møller, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated possible effects of recording/playback technique and experimental method on assessments of annoyance, loudness and unpleasantness. A possible effect of exposure duration was also studied. Sounds were recorded with two different techniques: monophonic and binaural (dummy......-head technique). In addition, they were reproduced with three different techniques: monophonic recordings presented through a loudspeaker system, binaural recordings presented through closed (circum-aural) and completely open (free-of-the-ear headphones. The study adopted three psychometric methods...... of experiments and interpretation of results. The results also show that long-term annoyance and unpleasantness are poorly predicted by short-duration methods....

  9. Evaluation of a mixed-order planar and periphonic Ambisonics playback implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käsbach, Johannes; Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel; Buchholz, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Planar (2D) and periphonic (3D) higher-order Ambisonics (HOA) playback systems are widely used in multi-channel audio applications. For a given Ambisonics order, 2D systems require far less loudspeakers and provide a larger spatial resolution but cannot naturally reproduce elevated sound sources...... can be significantly increased by adding 2D components and thereby approaching 2D system’s performance. Simultaneously, frequency spectrum properties of horizontal sound sources were restored and did not show a low pass filtering effect as it is present in 3D HOA systems....

  10. Bias in little owl population estimates using playback techniques during surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuberogoitia, I.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the efficiency of playback methods to survey little owl (Athene noctua populations we carried out two studies: (1 we recorded the replies of radio–tagged little owls to calls in a small area; (2 we recorded call broadcasts to estimate the effectiveness of the method to detect the presence of little owl. In the first study, we detected an average of 8.12 owls in the 30′ survey period, a number that is close to the real population; we also detected significant little owl movements from the initial location (before the playback to the next locations during the survey period. However, we only detected an average of 2.25 and 5.37 little owls in the first 5′ and 10′, respectively, of the survey time. In the second study, we detected 137 little owl territories in 105 positive sample units. The occupation rate was 0.35, the estimated occupancy was 0.393, and the probability of detection was 0.439. The estimated cumulative probability of detection suggests that a minimum of four sampling times would be needed in an extensive survey to detect 95% of the areas occupied by little owls.

  11. The roles of vocal and visual interactions in social learning zebra finches: A video playback experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, Lauren M; Healy, Susan D

    2016-12-30

    The transmission of information from an experienced demonstrator to a naïve observer often depends on characteristics of the demonstrator, such as familiarity, success or dominance status. Whether or not the demonstrator pays attention to and/or interacts with the observer may also affect social information acquisition or use by the observer. Here we used a video-demonstrator paradigm first to test whether video demonstrators have the same effect as using live demonstrators in zebra finches, and second, to test the importance of visual and vocal interactions between the demonstrator and observer on social information use by the observer. We found that female zebra finches copied novel food choices of male demonstrators they saw via live-streaming video while they did not consistently copy from the demonstrators when they were seen in playbacks of the same videos. Although naive observers copied in the absence of vocalizations by the demonstrator, as they copied from playback of videos with the sound off, females did not copy where there was a mis-match between the visual information provided by the video and vocal information from a live male that was out of sight. Taken together these results suggest that video demonstration is a useful methodology for testing social information transfer, at least in a foraging context, but more importantly, that social information use varies according to the vocal interactions, or lack thereof, between the observer and the demonstrator.

  12. The importance of recording and playback technique for assessment of annoyance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Emine; Persson Waye, Kerstin; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    and response to sounds, several methods have been adopted both with regard to recording techniques (monophonic or binaural recordings), playback techniques (through headphones or loudspeakers) and subjective evaluation techniques. The present study was carried out to investigate if there is a difference...... in perception related to annoyance, loudness and unpleasantness between monophonic recordings played back through a loudspeaker and binaural recordings played back via headphones and to evaluate whether a possible difference depends on temporal and frequency characteristics as well as spatial characteristics...... of the sound. The experiment also investigates various psychometric methods for achieving responses from subjects, and different durations of the exposure were used. Fifty-four young students participated and three types of stimuli were used in the experiments: road traffic sound, everyday “restaurant” sounds...

  13. Assessment of annoyance, loudness and unpleasantness with different recording and playback techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Emine; Persson Waye, Kerstin; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    of perception and response to sounds, several methods have been adopted both with regard to recording techniques (monophonic or binaural recordings), playback techniques (through headphones or loudspeakers) and subjective evaluation techniques. The present study was carried out to investigate...... if there is a difference in perception related to annoyance, loudness and unpleasantness between monophonic recordings played back through a loudspeaker and binaural recordings played back via headphones and to evaluate whether a possible difference depends on temporal and frequency characteristics as well as spatial...... characteristics of the sound. The experiment also investigates various psychometric methods for achieving responses from subjects, and different durations of the exposure were used. Fifty-four young students participated and three types of stimuli were used in the experiments: road traffic sound, everyday...

  14. Digital signal processor for silicon audio playback devices; Silicon audio saisei kikiyo digital signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital audio signal processor (DSP) TC9446F series has been developed silicon audio playback devices with a memory medium of, e.g., flash memory, DVD players, and AV devices, e.g., TV sets. It corresponds to AAC (advanced audio coding) (2ch) and MP3 (MPEG1 Layer3), as the audio compressing techniques being used for transmitting music through an internet. It also corresponds to compressed types, e.g., Dolby Digital, DTS (digital theater system) and MPEG2 audio, being adopted for, e.g., DVDs. It can carry a built-in audio signal processing program, e.g., Dolby ProLogic, equalizer, sound field controlling, and 3D sound. TC9446XB has been lined up anew. It adopts an FBGA (fine pitch ball grid array) package for portable audio devices. (translated by NEDO)

  15. A low complexity, low spur digital IF conversion circuit for high-fidelity GNSS signal playback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Ying, Rendong

    2016-01-01

    A low complexity high efficiency and low spur digital intermediate frequency (IF) conversion circuit is discussed in the paper. This circuit is key element in high-fidelity GNSS signal playback instrument. We analyze the spur performance of a finite state machine (FSM) based numerically controlled oscillators (NCO), by optimization of the control algorithm, a FSM based NCO with 3 quantization stage can achieves 65dB SFDR in the range of the seventh harmonic. Compare with traditional lookup table based NCO design with the same Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) performance, the logic resource require to implemented the NCO is reduced to 1/3. The proposed design method can be extended to the IF conversion system with good SFDR in the range of higher harmonic components by increasing the quantization stage.

  16. Does age matter in song bird vocal interactions? Results from interactive playback experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer Sarah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The song of oscines provides an extensively studied model of age-dependent behaviour changes. Male and female receivers might use song characteristics to obtain information about the age of a signaller, which is often related to its quality. Whereas most of the age-dependent song changes have been studied in solo singing, the role of age in vocal interactions is less well understood. We addressed this issue in a playback study with common nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos. Previous studies showed that male nightingales had smaller repertoires in their first year than older males and males adjusted their repertoire towards the most common songs in the breeding population. We now compared vocal interaction patterns in a playback study in 12 one year old and 12 older nightingales (cross-sectional approach. Five of these males were tested both in their first and second breeding season (longitudinal approach. Song duration and latency to respond did not differ between males of different ages in either approach. In the cross-sectional approach, one year old nightingales matched song types twice as often as did older birds. Similarly, in the longitudinal approach all except one bird reduced the number of song type matches in their second season. Individuals tended to overlap songs at higher rates in their second breeding season than in their first. The higher levels of song type matches in the first year and song overlapping by birds in their second year suggest that these are communicative strategies to establish relationships with competing males and/or choosy females.

  17. Comparing responses of four ungulate species to playbacks of baboon alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Dawn M; Bergman, Thore J; Cheney, Dorothy L; Nicholson, James R; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that a wide range of animals can recognize and respond appropriately to calls produced by other species. Social learning has been implicated as a possible mechanism by which heterospecific call recognition might develop. To examine whether familiarity and/or shared vulnerability with the calling species might influence the ability of sympatric species to distinguish heterospecific alarm calls, we tested whether four ungulate species (impala: Aepyceros melampus; tsessebe: Damaliscus lunatus; zebra: Equus burchelli; wildebeest: Connochaetes taurinus) could distinguish baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) alarm calls from other loud baboon calls produced during intra-specific aggressive interactions ('contest' calls). Overall, subjects' responses were stronger following playback of alarm calls than contest calls. Of the species tested, impala showed the strongest responses and the greatest difference in composite response scores, suggesting they were best able to differentiate call types. Compared with the other ungulate species, impala are the most frequent associates of baboons. Moreover, like baboons, they are susceptible to both lion and leopard attacks, whereas leopards rarely take the larger ungulates. Although it seems possible that high rates of association and/or shared vulnerability may influence impala's greater ability to distinguish among baboon call types, our results point to a stronger influence of familiarity. Ours is the first study to compare such abilities among several community members with variable natural histories, and we discuss future experiments that would more systematically examine development of these skills in young ungulates.

  18. Characterization of modems and error correcting protocols using a scintillation playback system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, William S.; Mahon, Rita; Ferraro, Mike S.; Murphy, James L.; Moore, Christopher I.

    2016-03-01

    The performance of free space optical (FSO) communication systems is strongly affected by optical scintillation. Scintillation fades can cause errors when the power on a detector falls below its noise floor, while surges can overload a detector. The very long time scale of scintillation compared to a typical bit in an FSO link means that error-correcting protocols designed for fiber optic links are inappropriate for FSO links. Comparing the performance effects of different components, such as photodetectors, or protocols, such as forward error correction, in the field is difficult because conditions are constantly changing. On the other hand, laboratory-based turbulence simulators, often using hot plates and fans, do not really simulate the effects of long-range propagation through the atmosphere. We have investigated a different approach. Scintillation has been measured during field tests using FSO terminals by sending a continuous wave beam through the atmosphere. A high dynamic range photodetector was digitized at a 10 KHz rate and files of the intensity variations were saved. Many hours of scintillation data under different environmental conditions and at different sites have been combined into a library of data. A fiber-optic based scintillation playback system was then used in the laboratory to test modems and protocols with the recorded files. This allowed comparisons using the same atmospheric conditions allowing optimization of such parameters as detector dynamic range. It also allowed comparison and optimization of different error correcting protocols.

  19. Playback Theatre as a tool to enhance communication in medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Ramiro; Steele, Kenya; Lin, Amy; Loe, Claire; Gauna, Leslie; Jafar-Nejad, Paymaan

    2013-01-01

    Playback Theatre (PT) is an improvisational form of theatre in which a group of actors “play back” real life stories told by audience members. In PT, a conductor elicits moments, feelings and stories from audience members, and conducts mini-interviews with those who volunteer a moment of their lives to be re-enacted or “played” for the audience. A musician plays music according to the theme of each story, and 4-5 actors listen to the interview and perform the story that has just been told. PT has been used in a large number of settings as a tool to share stories in an artistic manner. Despite its similarities to psychodrama, PT does not claim to be a form of therapy. We offered two PT performances to first year medical students at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, to bring the students a safe and fun environment, conducive to sharing feelings and moments related to being a medical student. Through the moments and stories shared by students, we conclude that there is an enormous need in this population for opportunities to communicate the many emotions associated with medical school and with healthcare-related personal experiences, such as anxiety, pride, or anger. PT proved a powerful tool to help students communicate. PMID:24369762

  20. Perception of male caller identity in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus: acoustic analysis and playback experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available The ability to signal individual identity using vocal signals and distinguish between conspecifics based on vocal cues is important in several mammal species. Furthermore, it can be important for receivers to differentiate between callers in reproductive contexts. In this study, we used acoustic analyses to determine whether male koala bellows are individually distinctive and to investigate the relative importance of different acoustic features for coding individuality. We then used a habituation-discrimination paradigm to investigate whether koalas discriminate between the bellow vocalisations of different male callers. Our results show that male koala bellows are highly individualized, and indicate that cues related to vocal tract filtering contribute the most to vocal identity. In addition, we found that male and female koalas habituated to the bellows of a specific male showed a significant dishabituation when they were presented with bellows from a novel male. The significant reduction in behavioural response to a final rehabituation playback shows this was not a chance rebound in response levels. Our findings indicate that male koala bellows are highly individually distinctive and that the identity of male callers is functionally relevant to male and female koalas during the breeding season. We go on to discuss the biological relevance of signalling identity in this species' sexual communication and the potential practical implications of our findings for acoustic monitoring of male population levels.

  1. Perception of male caller identity in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): acoustic analysis and playback experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Ellis, William A H; McKinnon, Allan J; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-01-01

    The ability to signal individual identity using vocal signals and distinguish between conspecifics based on vocal cues is important in several mammal species. Furthermore, it can be important for receivers to differentiate between callers in reproductive contexts. In this study, we used acoustic analyses to determine whether male koala bellows are individually distinctive and to investigate the relative importance of different acoustic features for coding individuality. We then used a habituation-discrimination paradigm to investigate whether koalas discriminate between the bellow vocalisations of different male callers. Our results show that male koala bellows are highly individualized, and indicate that cues related to vocal tract filtering contribute the most to vocal identity. In addition, we found that male and female koalas habituated to the bellows of a specific male showed a significant dishabituation when they were presented with bellows from a novel male. The significant reduction in behavioural response to a final rehabituation playback shows this was not a chance rebound in response levels. Our findings indicate that male koala bellows are highly individually distinctive and that the identity of male callers is functionally relevant to male and female koalas during the breeding season. We go on to discuss the biological relevance of signalling identity in this species' sexual communication and the potential practical implications of our findings for acoustic monitoring of male population levels.

  2. Playback Theatre as a tool to enhance communication in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Ramiro; Steele, Kenya; Lin, Amy; Loe, Claire; Gauna, Leslie; Jafar-Nejad, Paymaan

    2013-12-23

    Playback Theatre (PT) is an improvisational form of theatre in which a group of actors "play back" real life stories told by audience members. In PT, a conductor elicits moments, feelings and stories from audience members, and conducts mini-interviews with those who volunteer a moment of their lives to be re-enacted or "played" for the audience. A musician plays music according to the theme of each story, and 4-5 actors listen to the interview and perform the story that has just been told. PT has been used in a large number of settings as a tool to share stories in an artistic manner. Despite its similarities to psychodrama, PT does not claim to be a form of therapy. We offered two PT performances to first year medical students at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, to bring the students a safe and fun environment, conducive to sharing feelings and moments related to being a medical student. Through the moments and stories shared by students, we conclude that there is an enormous need in this population for opportunities to communicate the many emotions associated with medical school and with healthcare-related personal experiences, such as anxiety, pride, or anger. PT proved a powerful tool to help students communicate.

  3. Playback Theatre as a tool to enhance communication in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Salas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Playback Theatre (PT is an improvisational form of theatre in which a group of actors “play back” real life stories told by audience members. In PT, a conductor elicits moments, feelings and stories from audience members, and conducts mini-interviews with those who volunteer a moment of their lives to be re-enacted or “played” for the audience. A musician plays music according to the theme of each story, and 4-5 actors listen to the interview and perform the story that has just been told. PT has been used in a large number of settings as a tool to share stories in an artistic manner. Despite its similarities to psychodrama, PT does not claim to be a form of therapy.We offered two PT performances to first year medical students at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, to bring the students a safe and fun environment, conducive to sharing feelings and moments related to being a medical student. Through the moments and stories shared by students, we conclude that there is an enormous need in this population for opportunities to communicate the many emotions associated with medical school and with healthcare-related personal experiences, such as anxiety, pride, or anger. PT proved a powerful tool to help students communicate.

  4. Ultrasonic communication in rats: effects of morphine and naloxone on vocal and behavioral responses to playback of 50-kHz vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, Markus; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2009-12-01

    Rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations and it was hypothesized that these vocalizations have an important role in intra-specific communication. Recently, we demonstrated that playback of 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations can induce social approach, indicating that 50-kHz calls can serve to (re)establish or to maintain social contact. It is known that endogenous opioids are implicated in the regulation of social behavior, particularly in rough and tumble play. Here, we tested whether administration of opioid ligands can affect social approach in response to playback of 50-kHz calls in juvenile and adult rats. Rats were either treated with 1mg/kg naloxone, 1mg/kg morphine, or with saline vehicle. Administration of opioid ligands affected social approach at both ages. Specifically, in juvenile and adult rats, social approach displayed in response to playback of 50-kHz calls was reduced in case of naloxone treatment, but enhanced with morphine. Furthermore, juvenile rats treated with saline or morphine emitted a substantial amount of ultrasonic vocalizations in response to the playback of 50-kHz calls. Such ultrasonic calling was not seen in naloxone treated rats. Importantly, these drug-dependent differences were stimulus-specific, i.e. seen only in response to playback of 50-kHz calls and not in response to playback of background noise. The present finding that opioid ligands can affect social approach and ultrasonic vocalizations induced by playback of 50-kHz calls, indicates that an important feature of social interaction in rats, namely ultrasonic communication, is at least partially regulated by endogenous opioids.

  5. Vocal production and playback of altered song do not affect ZENK expression in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Sean P; Lockyer, Ashley C; Yousef, Tareq; Mennill, Daniel J; Phillmore, Leslie S

    2016-02-01

    The two-note fee bee song of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) is sung at many different absolute frequencies, but the relative frequencies between the start and end of the fee note (the glissando) and between the fee and the bee notes (the inter-note ratio) are preserved regardless of absolute frequency. If these relative frequencies are experimentally manipulated, birds exhibit reduced behavioural responses to playback of altered songs both in field studies and laboratory studies. Interestingly, males appear to be sensitive to alterations in the glissando, while females appear to be sensitive to alterations in both the glissando and the inter-note ratio. In this study, we sought to determine whether the behaviour of male and female chickadees corresponds to differences in zenk protein immunoreactivity (ZENK-ir) in auditory perceptual regions following playback of fee bee songs with typical and altered pitch ratios. Overall, there was a small but significant sex difference in ZENK-ir (females>males), but altering relative frequencies did not reduce ZENK-ir compared to typical song. Birds did vocalize less in response to playback of songs that lacked an inter-note interval, but amount of singing fee bee song, chick-a-dee calls, or gargles was not correlated with ZENK-ir in perceptual regions (caudomedial nidopallium, NCM and caudomedial mesopallium, CMM) or in HVC, which is part of the song system. Our results confirm that ZENK-ir in NCM and CMM is not involved in fine-grain perceptual discrimination, however it did not support the idea that increased vocalizing increases ZENK-ir in HVC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl (Guttera edouardi) based on visual and sound playback surveys in the Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johann H.van Niekerk

    2015-01-01

    Background:General y speaking, playbacks were often ineffective to determine the group sizes of birds since mainly males from leks responded. This limitation has not been tested properly for flocking birds such as Crested Guineafowl (Guttera edouardi) with the view to use it as a counting method. The aims of the study reported in this paper were (1) to describe the cal s of Crested Guineafowl in a social context;(2) to interpret cal s in an evolutionary context;and (3) to demonstrate that playbacks can be used to locate and count Crested Guineafowl in smal isolated forests. Methods:The vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl was observed during a survey conducted in the Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) from November 2010 to June 2012. Transect line observations and sound playback methods were used. Results:The behavioral context and structure of cal s were described. The eight cal s described for Crested Guineafowl were produced mainly to unite flock members in the dense understory, where visibility was poor, and to repel intruders. When not disturbed, Crested Guineafowl were quiet and only made soft contact calls. Conclusions:The high rate of call back and the fact that flocks invariably approach the source of the call en masse, shows that field researchers are able to assess the population size of Crested Guineafowl with sound playbacks along a transect. The value of playbacks as a conservation tool is assessed.

  7. Duet function in the yellow-naped amazon, Amazona auropalliata: evidence from playbacks of duets and solos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Christine R; Wright, Timothy F

    2012-01-01

    The question of why animals participate in duets is an intriguing one, as many such displays appear to be more costly to produce than individual signals. Mated pairs of yellow-naped amazons, Amazona auropalliata, give duets on their nesting territories. We investigated the function of those duets with a playback experiment. We tested two hypotheses for the function of those duets: the joint territory defense hypothesis and the mate-guarding hypothesis, by presenting territorial pairs with three types of playback treatments: duets, male solos, and female solos. The joint territory defense hypothesis suggests that individuals engage in duets because they appear more threatening than solos and are thus more effective for the establishment, maintenance and/or defense of territories. It predicts that pairs will be coordinated in their response (pair members approach speakers and vocalize together) and will either respond more strongly (more calls and/or more movement) to duet treatments than to solo treatments, or respond equally to all treatments. Alternatively, the mate-guarding hypothesis suggests that individuals participate in duets because they allow them to acoustically guard their mate, and predicts uncoordinated responses by pairs, with weak responses to duet treatments and stronger responses by individuals to solos produced by the same sex. Yellow-naped amazon pairs responded to all treatments in an equivalently aggressive and coordinated manner by rapidly approaching speakers and vocalizing more. These responses generally support the joint territory defense hypothesis and further suggest that all intruders are viewed as a threat by resident pairs.

  8. High Fidelity Audio Playback Attack Forensics Algorithm and Aimulation%高保真录音回放攻击取证算法与仿真验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹慧

    2015-01-01

    针对语音认证系统中高保真录音回放攻击问题,开展了录音回放攻击取证的研究,论述了基于信道模式噪声和回放语音MFCC特征参数提取的取证算法;通过labview软件编程进行仿真验证,提取了疑似回放攻击语音和原始语音信道噪声差值频谱图和疑似回放语音MFCC特征值,结果表明通过提取回放语音中信道模式噪声和MFCC特征参数并设计滤波器去噪能够识别原始语音和高保真录音的差异,为语音司法鉴定和语音认证系统的设计提供了理论依据。%ABSTRACT:Aiming at the playback attack in the speech certification system,In the study of the playback attack forensics,Model is presented based on the channel noise and playback voice MFCC feature parameter extraction of forensics algorithm ,Through the labview software programming for simulation,Extract the suspected playback attack speech and original speech channel noise difference spectrum and suspected playback speech MFCC fea⁃ture values,Results show that by extracting playback speech mode noise in channel and MFCC feature parame⁃ters and design filter denoising to identify original speech differences and high-fidelity recording ,For voice judi⁃cial authentication and voice provides theory basis for the design of the authentication system.

  9. Inferring playback rate and rate resets of P2P video streaming transmissions by piecewise line envelope approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-xi; CHEN Chang-jia

    2009-01-01

    Conventionally, P2P video is regarded as CBR traffic. However, our measurements have shown that the rate reset cannot be neglected in a practical IPTV system because each rate reset often leads to performance degradation. Thus, addressing the problem of inferring playback rate and rate reset in a P2P video system is significant. In this article, an algorithm termed piecewise linear envelope approximation (PLEA) is proposed, in which a follow-up time is introduced to smooth rate fluctuations in a small time scale and to adapt rate jumps in a large time scale automatically. With the PLEA algorithm, discontinuity introduced by blind segmentations adopted by current methods is avoided. Furthermore, unlike existing algorithms in which both segmentation and combinations are performed in multiple runs, only a single computation path is involved in the PLEA algorithm. This makes PLEA algorithm amenable to implementation of low complexity by either software or hardware. Both theoretical analysis and experiment based on measured data show that the PLEA outperforms existing algorithms based on segmentation.

  10. Deco-video: video editing and viewing browser enables to playback movie contents reproduced by using scene scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    The authors developed a prototype video viewing browser. Our video viewer has a function to playback movies on the WWW according to the playing scenario. This scenario makes new scenes from original movies. Our video browser features this scene scenario where you can arrange movie's video clips, insert transition effects, apply colored backgrounds, or add captions and titles. The video movie contents on the WWW are copyrighted. The browser cannot alter web's movie contents owing to its copyright like that a conventional video editing software adds effects to the original. The editing software produces reproductions, but our browser doesn't. The browser adds effects according to the scenario and only shows us a new scene. The scene scenario is written in an XML-like script. The video browser has a function to give effect according to operations of the scenario. In addition, our video viewing browser can provide us with an interactive video art. For example, suppose that a small stream runs down among the rocks. On the browser, if you chose an icon which shows maple leafs and drop it into the stream, a maple leaf starts floating down along the stream.

  11. An efficient HW and SW design of H.264 video compression, storage and playback on FPGA devices for handheld thermal imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Omer; Ozsarac, Ismail; Kamisli, Fatih

    2017-05-01

    Video recording is an essential property of new generation military imaging systems. Playback of the stored video on the same device is also desirable as it provides several operational benefits to end users. Two very important constraints for many military imaging systems, especially for hand-held devices and thermal weapon sights, are power consumption and size. To meet these constraints, it is essential to perform most of the processing applied to the video signal, such as preprocessing, compression, storing, decoding, playback and other system functions on a single programmable chip, such as FPGA, DSP, GPU or ASIC. In this work, H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) compatible video compression, storage, decoding and playback blocks are efficiently designed and implemented on FPGA platforms using FPGA fabric and Altera NIOS II soft processor. Many subblocks that are used in video encoding are also used during video decoding in order to save FPGA resources and power. Computationally complex blocks are designed using FPGA fabric, while blocks such as SD card write/read, H.264 syntax decoding and CAVLC decoding are done using NIOS processor to benefit from software flexibility. In addition, to keep power consumption low, the system was designed to require limited external memory access. The design was tested using 640x480 25 fps thermal camera on CYCLONE V FPGA, which is the ALTERA's lowest power FPGA family, and consumes lower than 40% of CYCLONE V 5CEFA7 FPGA resources on average.

  12. Nasal temperature drop in response to a playback of conspecific fights in chimpanzees: A thermo-imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Fumihiro; Hirata, Satoshi; Deschner, Tobias; Behringer, Verena; Call, Josep

    2016-03-01

    Emotion is one of the central topics in animal studies and is likely to attract attention substantially in the coming years. Recent studies have developed a thermo-imaging technique to measure the facial skin temperature in the studies of emotion in humans and macaques. Here we established the procedures and techniques needed to apply the same technique to great apes. We conducted two experiments respectively in the two established research facilities in Germany and Japan. Total twelve chimpanzees were tested in three conditions in which they were presented respectively with the playback sounds (Exp. 1) or the videos (Exp. 2) of fighting conspecifics, control sounds/videos (allospecific display call: Exp. 1; resting conspecifics: Exp. 2), and no sound/image. Behavioral, hormonal (salivary cortisol) and heart-rate responses were simultaneously recorded. The nasal temperature of chimpanzees linearly dropped up to 1.5 °C in 2 min, and recovered to the baseline in 2 min, in the experimental but not control conditions. We found the related changes in excitement behavior and heart-rate variability, but not in salivary cortisol, indicating that overall responses were involved with the activities of sympathetic nervous system but not with the measureable activities of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The influence of general activity (walking, eating) was not negligible but controllable in experiments. We propose several techniques to control those confounding factors. Overall, thermo-imaging is a promising technique that should be added to the traditional physiological and behavioral measures in primatology and comparative psychology.

  13. Vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl(Guttera edouardi) based on visual and sound playback surveys in the Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve,Kwa Zulu-Natal province,South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johann H.van Niekerk

    2015-01-01

    Background:Generally speaking,playbacks were often ineffective to determine the group sizes of birds since mainly males from leks responded.This limitation has not been tested properly for flocking birds such as Crested Guineafowl(Guttera edouardi) with the view to use it as a counting method.The aims of the study reported in this paper were(1) to describe the cal s of Crested Guineafowl in a social context;(2) to interpret cal s in an evolutionary context;and(3) to demonstrate that playbacks can be used to locate and count Crested Guineafowl in smal isolated forests.Methods:The vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl was observed during a survey conducted in the Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve(Kwa Zulu-Natal,South Africa) from November 2010 to June 2012.Transect line observations and sound playback methods were used.Results:The behavioral context and structure of cal s were described.The eight cal s described for Crested Guineafowl were produced mainly to unite flock members in the dense understory,where visibility was poor,and to repel intruders.When not disturbed,Crested Guineafowl were quiet and only made soft contact calls.Conclusions:The high rate of call back and the fact that flocks invariably approach the source of the call en masse,shows that field researchers are able to assess the population size of Crested Guineafowl with sound playbacks along a transect.The value of playbacks as a conservation tool is assessed.

  14. Realization of Teaching and Playback of Mechanical Arm with PLC%巧用PLC实现机械手运动的示教与再现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建刚

    2011-01-01

    The teaching and playback functions of mechanical arm are realized on the basis of Siemens S7-200 programmable logic controller.The sensor data of all the mechanical arm motions and data of correspondent air cylinder motions are calculated by means of the stationarity of mechanical arm motion.Data table is established and reconstruction establishment is made on it through teaching.The new data table is stored at PLC internal memory to complete teaching.The program playbacks the predicted motion trail according to the new data table motion.The experiment results show that the designed program is concise and easy to be renewed.%提出一种基于西门子S7-200可编程控制器实现机械手运动的示教与再现功能的设计方法。利用机械手运动的固定性,计算出机械手所有动作的传感器数据及对应的气缸动作数据,建立数据表,并通过示教对数据表进行重组建立。新数据表存储于PLC内存中,完成示教;程序根据新数据表动作,再现预定的运动轨迹。试验结果表明,该设计程序简洁、更新方便。

  15. Review on Playback Detection Methods in Speaker Authentication System%说话人认证录音回放检测方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺前华; 潘伟锵; 胡永健; 朱铮宇; 李艳雄; 奉小慧

    2015-01-01

    基于生物特征的身份认证已得到学术界及企业的高度重视,指纹、人脸识别应用已非常普遍,但对于非现场身份认证,语音相对其他生物特征,具有用户接受程度高、拾音设备简单、随时随地可用、数据量小、计算复杂度低等优势,因此基于声纹的身份认证系统应用越来越广泛。另一方面,由于录音回放攻击简单易行,不需要任何专业知识,且随着廉价、高质量的录音/播放装置的日益增多,回放录音与原始音的相似度越来越高,已成为声纹认证系统最主要的攻击手段之一,因此如何识别录音回放等攻击成为说话人认证系统必须面对的问题。本文对录音回放检测方法进入了全面的介绍,通过对各种方法的分析,表明其研究尚处于起步阶段,但需求日益旺盛。%Biometric authentication system has been widely used today,including fingerprint and face rec-ognition systems.As for non-spot user authentication,compared with other biometric traits,speech has some advantages,such as high acceptability,low demand on equipments,flexible access anywhere and anytime,low computation complexity and suitability for remote authentication,which promotes the ap-plications of speech-based authentication system.However,playback becomes a general risk because of its easy carring out without any training,and the availability of cheap-high quality audio recorder and speaker.This paper gives a through review to the methods for playback detection.It shows that the re-search is at the start point,but the demands are increasing.

  16. Multi-message Voice Record and Playback System Based on MOU%单片机的多段语音组合录放系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温洪昌; 黄应强; 傅贵兴

    2011-01-01

    A kind of multi-message voice record and playback system is designed based on MCUSTC89C52RC and voice chip ISD1730, The paper introduces the process realization, including voice circuits design, multi-message voice recording, locating, editing and cornbi nation outputting. Also, a temperature measuring instrument with voice output function is produced. Experiments indicate that this in strument is easier to operate and use.%介绍一种基于单片机STC89C52RC、语音芯片ISD1730组成的多段语音录放系统设计方案。描述了语音电路设计、语音分段录入、语音段定位、语音段剪辑、多段语音组合输出等的实现方法;并制作了一个具有语音输出功能的温度测量仪。实验表明,具有语音输出功能的温度测量仪器更便于操作和使用。

  17. Teach and Playback Programming Development of Industrial Robot Based on PMAC%基于PMAC的工业机器人示教再现程序的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨进; 李鸿基; 梁殿胜

    2013-01-01

    针对目前工业机器人编程系统存在的扩展性、可编程性不高及对环境感知能力较弱的问题,基于IPC+ PMAC的开放性结构,完成了符合6自由度机器人工作要求的示教再现的编程的研究与开发,并详细介绍示教编程中的程序流程及具体实现途径,用C#进行了程序设计.%Aiming at the present industry robot programming system had some problems,such as the lower expansibility and programmability,as well as the weaker environment perception ability,the research and development of teach and playback programming required by operation of a six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) robot was completed based on the IPC + PMAC open structure.The programming procedure and practical implement method of the teaching programming are described in detail,and the programming design is also performed with C#.

  18. EXIF 在嵌入式系统文件回放功能中的应用%The Application of EXIF into the Playback Function of Embedded System Files

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋; 张洪涛

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the method about how to use QT to read thumbnails embedded in EXIF in the file playback function of handheld devices (such as mobile phones).After testing,the method can ef-fectively improve the speed about image displayed when the file plays back,and can be better used in em-bedded devices with limited resources and more peripheral store files.%介绍了在手持类嵌入式设备中(比如手机)文件回放功能中如何应用 QT 去读取 EXIF 中缩略图的方法。经过测试,可以有效提升文件回放时图片的显示速度,该方法适运用于资源有限、外设存储文件较多的嵌入式设备中。

  19. Calculation of playback signals from MFM images using transfer functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellekoop, S.J.L.; Abelmann, Leon; Porthun, S.; Lodder, J.C.; Miles, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy has proven to be a suitable tool for analysis of high-density magnetic recording materials. Comparison of the MFM image of a written signal with the actual read-back signal of the recording system can give valuable insight in the recording properties of both heads and media

  20. Playback interference of glassy-winged sharp shooter communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal communication is vital to reproduction, particularly for securing a mate. Insects commonly communicate by exchanging vibrational signals that are transmitted through host plants. The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, a pl...

  1. Multi-Resolution Playback of Network Trace Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    goals, but by utilizing out-of- band control channels , TCPopera becomes limited by the complexity of control channel connections as the scale...All non-essential processes were terminated. 3. WIFI was disabled. 4. All programs were run from the command line vice from an Interactive Development

  2. Selection of network coding nodes for minimal playback delay in streaming overlays

    CERN Document Server

    Cleju, Nicolae; Frossard, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    availability in media streaming applications. However, it may also increase delay and computational complexity if it is not implemented efficiently. We address here the effective placement of nodes that implement randomized network coding in overlay networks, so that the goodput is kept high while the delay for decoding stays small in streaming applications. We first estimate the decoding delay at each client, which depends on the innovative rate in the network. This estimation permits to identify the nodes that have to perform coding for a reduced decoding delay. We then propose two iterative algorithms for selecting the nodes that should perform network coding. The first algorithm relies on the knowledge of the full network statistics. The second algorithm uses only local network statistics at each node. Simulation results show that large performance gains can be achieved with the selection of only a few network coding nodes. Moreover, the second algorithm performs very closely to the central estimation str...

  3. Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Hoek, L.; Gransier, R.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2013-01-01

    Pile driving is presently the most common method used to attach wind turbines to the sea bed. To assess the impact of pile driving sounds on harbor porpoises, it is important to know at what distance these sounds can be detected. Using a psychophysical technique, a male porpoise’s hearing thresholds

  4. Spectrum Savings from High Performance Recording and Playback Onboard the Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    spectrum, increased safety of flight, more efficient use of range resources, and reduced cost of test. Existing IRIG 106 Chapter 10–compliant recorder...the RCC IRIG 106 Chapter 10. Chapter 10 defines many characteristics of the recorder, including how data are stored. Based on this standard, flight...the format of the data in the packet, such as PCM. These data types are enumerated in Table 10-7 of the IRIG 106-07 document. This format contains

  5. Behavioral Responses by Icelandic White-Beaked Dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) to Playback Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marianne; Atem, Ana; Miller, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    warn of using sounds to determine hearing thresholds of wild marine mammals since their auditory sensitivity is so acute they could possibly react to distortions of the test signal and not to the intended frequency. These results clearly show, like those of earlier studies, that sounds can induce...... a response and a change in the natural behavior of a marine mammal—in this case, wild white-beaked dolphins....

  6. Predator sound playbacks reveal strong avoidance responses in a fight strategist baleen whale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curé, C.; Doksæter Sivle, L.; Visser, F.; Wensveen, P.J.; Isojunno, S.; Harris, C.M.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.; Millewr, P.J.O.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-predator strategies are often defined as ‘flight’ or ‘fight’, based upon prey anatomical adaptations for size, morphology and weapons, as well as observed behaviours in the presence of predators. The humpback whale Megaptera nova eangliae is considered a ‘fight’ specialist based upon anatomy an

  7. Two Neural Measures Differ between Urban and Rural Song Sparrows after Conspecific Song Playback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra B. Sewall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a critical form of environmental change that can affect the physiology and behavior of wild animals and, notably, birds. One behavioral difference between birds living in urban and rural habitats is that urban males show elevated boldness or territorial aggression in response to simulated social challenge. This pattern has been described in several populations of song sparrow, Melospiza melodia. Such behavioral differences must be underpinned by differences in the brain, yet little work has explored how urbanization and neural function may be interrelated. We explored the relationship between urbanization and neural activation within a network of brain regions, collectively called the social behavior network, which contributes to the regulation of territorial aggression. Specifically, we captured free-living, territorial male song sparrows by playing them conspecific songs for 6–11 min, and then collected their brains. We estimated recent neural activation, as indicated by the immediate early gene FOS, and measured levels of a neuropeptide, arginine vasotocin (AVT, which is involved in the regulation of social behavior. Based on previous studies we expected urban males, which are generally more territorially aggressive, to have lower FOS expression in a node of the social behavior network implicated in regulating territoriality, the lateral septum (LS. Additionally, we expected urban males to have lower AVT expression in a brain region involved in the regulation of sociality, the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm. We found that, compared to rural males, urban male song sparrows did have lower FOS expression in the LS. This pattern suggests that lower neural activation in the LS could contribute to behavioral adjustments to urbanization in male song sparrows. Additionally, counter to our predictions, urban male song sparrows had higher AVT-like immunoreactivity in the BSTm. Future work building upon these findings is needed to determine the causal role of such neural differences across rural and urban habitats. Understanding the mechanisms impacted by urbanization will inform our understanding of the reversibility and consequences of this form of habitat change.

  8. Predator sound playbacks reveal strong avoidance responses in a fight strategist baleen whale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curé, C.; Doksæter Sivle, L.; Visser, F.; Wensveen, P.J.; Isojunno, S.; Harris, C.M.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.; Millewr, P.J.O.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-predator strategies are often defined as ‘flight’ or ‘fight’, based upon prey anatomical adaptations for size, morphology and weapons, as well as observed behaviours in the presence of predators. The humpback whale Megaptera nova eangliae is considered a ‘fight’ specialist based upon anatomy an

  9. Baseline Behavior of Pilot Whales and their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Conservación, Información y Estudio sobre Cetáceos). This field site is unique in that the year-round resident population of pilot whales (de Stephanis...resolution of the 2D location of animals, and more reliable estimates of speed-over-ground as well as orientation changes. We plan to include a time

  10. Baseline Behavior of Pilot Whales and their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Baseline Behavior of Pilot Whales and their Responses to...N000141210417 LONG-TERM GOALS This project investigated the social ecology and baseline behavior of long-finned pilot whales as part of a broad...noise sources compared to beaked whales . However, studies have been hindered by high inherent variability in acoustic and diving behavior and a lack

  11. Mixed-order Ambisonics recording and playback for improving horizontal directionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel; Marschall, Marton; Käsbach, Johannes;

    2011-01-01

    Planar (2D) and periphonic (3D) higher-order Ambisonics (HOA) systems are widely used to reproduce spatial properties of acoustic scenarios. Mixed-order Ambisonics (MOA) systems combine the benet of higher order 2D systems, i.e. a high spatial resolution over a larger usable frequency bandwidth...

  12. Behavioral responses by Icelandic White-Beaked Dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) to playback sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marianne H.; Atem, Ana; Miller, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    ) circling the array, (2) turning around and approaching the camera, (3)underwater tail slapping, (4)emitting bubbles, (5)turning their belly towards the set-up, (6) emitting pulse-bursts towards the loudspeaker, (7) an increase in swim speed, (8) a change in swim direction, and (9) jumping. A total of 157...

  13. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and Their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Social ecology and group cohesion in pilot whales and their...N000141410410 LONG-TERM GOALS This project investigates the social ecology and cohesion of long-finned pilot whales as part of a broad multi...rules on individual and collective foraging success, to understand the ecological importance of different collective foraging strategies. At the

  14. Behavioral Responses of Nave Cuvier’s Beaked Whales in the Ligurian Sea to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    unimpeded during all experimental phases. Figure 1. Map of Mediterranean Sea with expanded inset of the Ligurian Sea study area . Black spot indicates...from the home port of Savona. However, when these areas were searched, no visual or acoustic detections of Ziphius were made. Sightings reported by...twelve animals were successfully photo-documented: five adult females, three immature, two juveniles , one adult male and one subadult male. Of these

  15. Playback and Feedback: Revelations of an "Encoding, Decoding" Analysis of Popular Songs Used to Teach English in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, Christian Z.; Wei, Huang

    2014-01-01

    In 2009 Rupke and Blank noted that the Chinese students in their study sang American songs that the researchers had never heard. This perceived dissonance could have a multitude of causes, but the authors of this article turned their attention to the curriculum used for teaching English in China to further understand the popularity and persistence…

  16. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and their...or competitors, the size, composition and cohesion of the natal group as well as the dive activity of group members likely plays an important role in...context, by simultaeously tagging multiple individuals within the same group to study social coordination and group cohesion and how these social dynamics

  17. Responses to playback of different subspecies songs in the Reed Bunting (Emberiza s. schoeniclus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pilastro, A.

    2000-01-01

    Populations of Reed Buntings Emberiza schoeniclus in the western Palearctic are classified in two major subspecies groups according to morphology: northern migratory schoeniclus and Mediterranean resident intermedia. Songs of the two groups differ mainly in complexity and syllable structure, with...

  18. Using video playback to study the effect of an audience on male mating behavior in the Sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowicz, A M; Plath, M; Schlupp, I

    2010-09-01

    Sexual conflict in poeciliid fishes is well-documented, particularly male sexual harassment and its effects on females. For instance, male attempts to force copulations influence female feeding, energy allocation, and preference for shoaling partners. However, there has been little research conducted to determine how the social environment shapes the occurrence and intensity of sexual harassment. In this study we ask whether an audience male influences the sexual behaviors of a focal male, the correlated feeding time reduction of female Poecilia latipinna, and if the size of the audience male (larger or smaller than the focal male) influences these behaviors. We presented a video of a male, either smaller or larger than the focal male, or an empty tank (control) to a female interacting with a male or female partner and measured feeding times and sexual behaviors. We found that male sexual behaviors increased in the presence of an audience male, especially if the audience male was larger than the focal male. Females fed more in the presence of a partner female than in the presence of a male, which was independent of the audience (i.e., video treatment). Focal female aggression towards the partner female increased with the size of the audience male. The present study shows that an audience male has multiple interacting influences on both male and female behavior.

  19. Anterior lateral line nerve encoding to tones and play-back vocalisations in free-swimming oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Craig A; Mensinger, Allen F

    2014-05-01

    In the underwater environment, sound propagates both as a pressure wave and as particle motion, with particle motion dominating close to the source. At the receptor level, the fish ear and the neuromast hair cells act as displacement detectors, and both are potentially stimulated by the particle motion component of sound. The encoding of the anterior lateral line nerve to acoustic stimuli in freely behaving oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was examined. Nerve sensitivity and directional responses were determined using spike rate and vector strength analysis, a measure of phase-locking of spike times to the stimulus waveform. All units showed greatest sensitivity to 100 Hz stimulus. While sensitivity was independent of stimuli orientation, the neuron's ability to phase-lock was correlated with stimuli origin. Two different types of units were classified, type 1 (tonic), and type 2 (phasic). The type 1 fibres were further classified into two sub-types based on their frequency response (type 1-1 and type 1-2), which was hypothesised to be related to canal (type 1-1) and superficial (type 1-2) neuromast innervation. Lateral line units also exhibited sensitivity and phase locking to boatwhistle vocalisations, with greatest spike rates exhibited at the onset of the call. These results provide direct evidence that oyster toadfish can use their lateral line to detect behaviourally relevant acoustic stimuli, which could provide a sensory pathway to aid in sound source localisation.

  20. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  1. Prehensile apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.M.

    1993-10-12

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  2. 三维特技镜头的制作——"真实"的轻松再现%Production of 3D Visual Special Effect - A "Real" Playback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鲁男

    2010-01-01

    随着计算机速度的不断提高,计算机图形学(Computer Graphics)技术的不断进步,写实的三维特技效果在电影中所占有的比率也越来也大,制作要求也越来越高.本文重点介绍了实现该技术所需的三维技术原理并结合实际工作中的案例详细介绍了该技术的实现方法,并对三维动力学特效(3D DynamicSpcialEffects)环节进行具体描述,以说明在三维特技制作过程中场景复原环节的重要作用.

  3. 精神分裂症患者发病情景摄像回放式认知治疗效果评价%Treatment effectiveness evaluation of morbidity scene photography play-back cognitive therapy for schizophrenics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常国胜; 李丽

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨精神分裂症患者发病情景摄像回放式认知治疗临床效果,为临床干预提供依据. 方法 将102例精神分裂症患者随机分为实验组与对照组各51例,在治疗过程中实验组脱落12例,对照组脱落7例.两组患者均接受常规抗精神病药物治疗与一般支持性心理治疗;实验组在此基础上对患者入院初期至缓解期(入院2周内)的典型发病状况进行录像,于第3周起对患者进行发病情景录像回放辅助认知治疗.观察8周.于治疗前及治疗6周、8周末采用简明精神病量表评定临床疗效. 结果 治疗后两组简明精神病量表总分及各因子分均较治疗前显著下降(P<0.05或0.01);同期两组间比较,治疗前两组简明精神病量表总分及各因子分均无显著性差异(P>0.05),治疗后实验组均显著低于对照组(P<0.05或0.01). 结论 发病情景摄像回放式认知治疗能显著提高患者识别症状的能力、改善自知力,提高治疗依从性,显著提高临床疗效.

  4. An automatic excavator-joystick-operating mechanism based upon movements' teaching and playback%动作示教再现的挖掘机手柄自动操作机构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勇; 袁燕萍; 叶鹏飞; 王勇刚

    2009-01-01

    根据液压挖掘机调试需求,提出一种基于动作示教再现的挖掘机手柄自动操纵机构的设计方案,介绍液压挖掘机机械手柄的工作原理,阐述示教再现的实现方式与控制系统结构.设计了一种结构简单的、能够满足示教动作自由度要求的机械结构,并针对这种机构的控制,提出一种模糊反馈控制方法.

  5. Multi-Channel High-Speed Data Sampling and Playback Module Based on VIM%基于VIM接口的多路高速数据采集回放模块

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锴; 高梅国

    2004-01-01

    介绍了一种基于VIM接口的多路高速数据采集回放模块.FPCA的采用,使得数据采集、数据回放功能具有很强的灵活性和通用性,满足了不同应用的需要.通过VIM接口,解决了与DSP间的高速数据传输问题,使得DSP的性能得以充分发挥.

  6. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  7. Pore roller filtration apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter from a medium, comp...

  8. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  9. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  10. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  11. 76 FR 56735 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... interactions; (2) foraging; (3) orientation; and (4) predator detection. Interference with producing or... sources (of varying similarity to chirps), including: Vessel noise, drilling and machinery playback, low... sonar playback, drill ships, and non-pulse playbacks. These studies generally indicate no (or...

  12. NMR logging apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  13. Light shielding apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Richard Dean; Thom, Robert Anthony

    2017-10-10

    A light shielding apparatus for blocking light from reaching an electronic device, the light shielding apparatus including left and right support assemblies, a cross member, and an opaque shroud. The support assemblies each include primary support structure, a mounting element for removably connecting the apparatus to the electronic device, and a support member depending from the primary support structure for retaining the apparatus in an upright orientation. The cross member couples the left and right support assemblies together and spaces them apart according to the size and shape of the electronic device. The shroud may be removably and adjustably connectable to the left and right support assemblies and configured to take a cylindrical dome shape so as to form a central space covered from above. The opaque shroud prevents light from entering the central space and contacting sensitive elements of the electronic device.

  14. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  15. NMR logging apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  16. Spin coating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  17. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  18. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  19. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  20. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  1. communication method and apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a non-lingual communication method and apparatus, wherein a physical or physiological signal consciously created by a first subject (1) is detected and converted into a transmitted output signal presented to a second subject (7) in order to communicate information...

  2. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  3. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan

    2012-02-01

    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  4. Archimedes Force on Casimir Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We address a problem of Casimir apparatus in dense medium and weak gravitational field. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, with proper account for contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general expression for the corresponding force in metric with cylindrical symmetry. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  5. The yeast Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-04-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that has been extensively studied in the model eukaryote, yeast. Its morphology varies among yeast species; the Golgi exists as a system of dispersed cisternae in the case of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas the Golgi cisternae in Pichia pastoris and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are organized into stacks. In spite of the different organization, the mechanism of trafficking through the Golgi apparatus is believed to be similar, involving cisternal maturation, in which the resident Golgi proteins are transported backwards while secretory cargo proteins can stay in the cisternae. Questions remain regarding the organization of the yeast Golgi, the regulatory mechanisms that underlie cisternal maturation of the Golgi and transport machinery of cargo proteins through this organelle. Studies using different yeast species have provided hints to these mechanisms.

  6. The radon EDM apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

  7. Heat exchange apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  8. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  9. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  10. Solder dross removal apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An automatic dross removal apparatus (10) is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath (22) in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade (14) is positioned adjacent the solder bath (22) which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit (34) causes a motor (32) to rotate the wiper arm (14) one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller (44) as a component approaches the solder bath (22).

  11. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  12. Neutron detection apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Borek, III, Theodore T.

    2017-08-15

    An apparatus for neutron detection is provided. The apparatus comprises a sensor medium in electrical contact with an electrode arrangement conformed to collect radiation-generated charge from the sensor medium. The sensor medium comprises a borazine and/or a borazine-based polymer.

  13. Heat Treating Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Saro, Robert; Bateman, Willis

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  14. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  15. Spine immobilization apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  16. Archimedes force on Casimir apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V.; Shevrin, E.

    2016-11-01

    The talk addresses a problem of Casimir apparatus in weak gravitational field, surrounded by a dense medium. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, taking into account proper contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general ex pression for the corresponding force in terms of the effective action. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  17. Archimedes force on Casimir apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The talk addresses a problem of Casimir apparatus in weak gravitational field, surrounded by a dense medium. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, taking into account proper contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general ex pression for the corresponding force in terms of the effective action. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  18. Specifications for gas treatment apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A surface reaction analysis apparatus was installed as an experimental end-station for the study of surface chemistry at the JAERI soft x-ray beamline in the SPring-8. The surface reaction analysis apparatus is devoted to the study of reaction mechanisms on solid surfaces with incident gas molecules. It is necessary to supply reagent gases to the apparatus. Chlorine and metal organic molecules will be used in the apparatus as well as oxygen molecules. Since the chlorine is corrosive and virulent, the metal organic molecules are flammable, the satiety treatments and the removal of virulence from the exhaust gas are needed. This gas supply and exhaust system is mainly composed of a cylinder cabinet, a gas mixer, a virulence removal cell and an urgent virulence removal apparatus. The former three devices are considered to take a countermeasure against virulent gas leak. The detail specifications concerning the gas supply and exhaust system are described in this report. (author)

  19. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  20. Automated Desalting Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

    2010-01-01

    Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a

  1. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  2. Apparatus for photon excited catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffren, M. M. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

  3. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  4. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  5. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  6. Apparatus Development In Maros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aras Solong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to identify and describe 1 Development of Administrative through education and training training promotion transfer and rotation and the application of demotion system non-title under Law No. 43 of 1999 on the development of career civil servants based merit system and work performance and Government Regulation No. 101 of 2000 on Education and Training Training for Civil Servants. 2 Revealing differences in work motivation based on the intensity of the education or training training using Herzbergs Two Factor Theory of extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factors motivator that influence employees motivation Maros regency government in carrying out its duties and functions as members civil in public service. This study uses a quantitative approach to date collection techniques through a questionnaire Questionnaire. Informant are civil servants who occupied echelon II III. And IV while the analysis of the date used quantitative analysis to uncover the implementation of personnel development and employees motivation difference Maros region based on the intensity of the education or training training to get job satisfaction in the public service. The results of this study will reveal that 1 Development of Apparatus for improving the knowledge ability professionalism competence skills can work as a reformer change attitude eager to work motivated to do the work get satisfaction in work and getting justice in employment. 2 The difference in work motivation Maros local government employees affected by extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factor motivator is the variable gain high salary H occupies the first ranking while serving the community satisfaction variables M occupy the last ranking. That is that the satisfaction of serving the people affected by the high salaries earned by the employees to do the job.

  7. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Robert L [Wayland, MA

    2012-04-03

    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

  8. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J.G.

    1981-05-19

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  9. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  10. Magnetic separation apparatus and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, Arjan; Scholtens, Tycho M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Apparatuses and methods for separating, immobilizing, and quantifying biological substances from within a fluid medium. Biological substances are observed by employing a vessel (6) having a chamber therein, the vessel comprising a transparent collection wall (5). A high internal gradient magnetic ca

  11. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  12. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Carpenter, P. T.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Escallier, J.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hurt, J. L.; Hydomako, R.; Isaac, C. A.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Marone, A.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Parker, B.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seddon, D.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  13. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  14. Portable Pallet-Weighing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    Portable apparatus intended for standard four-trunnion pallets readily adaptable to any large payload or other loads where shifting of cargo is to be avoided. Device lifts trunnion of pallet short distance above its resting place. Weight at trunnion applied to load cell. Similar units placed at all four trunnions.

  15. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method and an apparatus for separating dry matter from liquid, comprising providing an enclosed separation environment capable of being pressure regulated, and in said enclosed separation environment contacting at least one filter with a suspension accumulating dr...

  16. Feature Referenced Error Correction Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feature referenced error correction apparatus utilizing the multiple images of the interstage level image format to compensate for positional...images and by the generation of an error correction signal in response to the sub-frame registration errors. (Author)

  17. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  18. Material transport method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Ramsey, Roswitha S.

    2000-01-01

    An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

  19. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  20. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  1. Apparatus for assembly of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Lavin, Judith Maria; Resnick, Paul J.

    2017-09-12

    An apparatus including a carrier substrate configured to move a microelectronic device. The apparatus further includes a rotatable body configured to receive the microelectronic device. Additionally, the apparatus includes a second substrate configured to receive the microelectronic device from the rotatable body.

  2. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and the...

  3. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  4. In-situ sputtering apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mark R.; Poole, Henry J.; Custer, III, Arthur W.; Hershcovitch, Ady

    2015-06-09

    A sputtering apparatus that includes at least a target presented as an inner surface of a confinement structure, the inner surface of the confinement structure is preferably an internal wall of a circular tube. A cathode is disposed adjacent the internal wall of the circular tube. The cathode preferably provides a hollow core, within which a magnetron is disposed. Preferably, an actuator is attached to the magnetron, wherein a position of the magnetron within the hollow core is altered upon activation of the actuator. Additionally, a carriage supporting the cathode and communicating with the target is preferably provided, and a cable bundle interacting with the cathode and linked to a cable bundle take up mechanism provided power and coolant to the cathode, magnetron, actuator and an anode of the sputtering apparatus.

  5. APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION AND SUBLIMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.

    1958-10-01

    An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

  6. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  7. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2015-11-06

    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  8. Microwave sterilization method and apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Vasilenko; Minuhin, V. V.; Podorozhnyak, A. A.; Trubaev, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    Experience of industrially developed countries in utilization of microwave radiation has been analyzed. Apparatus for realization of microwave method of sterilization has been designed. A number of experiments for the estimation of bactericidal, sporacidal, and virusidal properties of microwave radiation action has been carried out in 3 to 13 cm wavelength band. B. Lycheniform shtumm G., B. Subtilis ATTC 6633, E. Coli ATTC 25922 and bacterial virus FX 174 were used as test microbes. Effect of...

  9. Thermoplastic welding apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsen, Marc R.; Negley, Mark A.; Geren, William Preston; Miller, Robert James

    2017-03-07

    A thermoplastic welding apparatus includes a thermoplastic welding tool, at least one tooling surface in the thermoplastic welding tool, a magnetic induction coil in the thermoplastic welding tool and generally encircling the at least one tooling surface and at least one smart susceptor in the thermoplastic welding tool at the at least one tooling surface. The magnetic induction coil is adapted to generate a magnetic flux field oriented generally parallel to a plane of the at least one smart susceptor.

  10. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  11. Rotor balancing apparatus and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

  12. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2013-08-08

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  13. Alternative Models of Service, Centralized Machine Operations. Phase II Report. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Management Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was conducted to determine if the centralization of playback machine operations for the national free library program would be feasible, economical, and desirable. An alternative model of playback machine services was constructed and compared with existing network operations considering both cost and service. The alternative model was…

  14. Do male birds intercept and use rival courtship calls to adjust paternity protection behaviours?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; McGregor, Peter Kenneth; Peake, Thomas More;

    2005-01-01

    with the behaviour of males who received a control playback, territorial song. After playback of courtship display calls male rock sparrows increased the frequency of courtship displays directed towards their mate, as predicted, but not mate guarding. These results illustrate the interplay of reproductive...

  15. 78 FR 23908 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... review by selecting ``Records Open for Public Comment'' from the Features box on the Applications and... suction cup tagging, acoustic playbacks, passive acoustics, biopsy sampling, photo- identification, and... would be targeted for tagging and active acoustic playbacks, a maximum of 50 individuals of each...

  16. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...... contributions to the theory of cluster stopping in matter as well as for practical applications requiring ultra-shallow implantation and modification of surfaces on the nanoscale. Metal clusters from the magnetron cluster source are of interest for the production of optical sensors to detect specific biological...

  17. Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This apparatus, developed at EL, determines material properties related to piloted ignition of a vertically oriented sample under constant and uniform...

  18. Master-slave micromanipulator apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Alan K.; Kozlowski, David M.; Charles, Steven T.; Spalding, James A.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be positioned in a remote location by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  19. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  20. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  1. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  2. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  3. Stream it to me! Why is it challenging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    We describe design and deployment infrastructure considerations for streamed delivery of multimedia. The system addresses constraints introduced by variations in broadband network capacity, a rich variety of playback devices, and content protection objectives. Streamed distribution, playback processing, and conditions for resource consumption are described. The constraints and design implications of streamed distribution and downloaded distribution of media are described and compared. Server resources, client resources, and broadband connectivity considerations are described, with the objective of supporting computer platforms and low-cost consumer electronics. For playback of multimedia content we describe the use cases for full and partial media views, and the digital rights considerations for authorized access from multiple playback devices. We describe client device and server state interactions to support the resumed playback use case. For time-based conditions and limitations for streamed media, we describe design considerations for calculating resource availability, rights grants, and the customer experience for media interaction as authorization windows reach their conclusion.

  4. Apparatus Named After Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2014-09-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  5. On an Actual Apparatus for Conceptual Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Organizes a reading of the conceptual change literature that brings into view a collection of design specifications for a conceptual change apparatus. Analyzes one such apparatus in the particulars of a science education demonstration program produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Private Universe Project. (Contains 114 references.) (Author/WRM)

  6. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  7. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  8. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  9. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  10. Apparatuses to support photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2017-08-22

    Methods and apparatuses to support photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. A saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. A grounding washer has a first portion to couple to a support; and a second portion coupled to the first portion to provide a ground path to a PV module. A PV system has a saddle bracket; a PV module over the saddle bracket; and a grounding washer coupled to the saddle bracket and the PV module. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets.

  11. APPARATUS FOR LIQUID PHASE EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, T.R.; Lehman, H.R.; Rubin, B.

    1958-09-16

    operation is described. It comprises a tubular colunm having upper and lower enlarged terminal portions, and a constricted central section containing fluid dispersal packing. Pulsing means are coupled to the upper portion of the column. The inlet for the less dense phase is located above the inlet for the denser phase and both are positioned so that liquids enter the constricted packingfilled central section. The apparatos also includes an interfacing level control, and means fer sensing the level of the interface actuate apparatus for controlling the rate of flow of input or discharge. The outlet for the less dense phase is located in the upper packing free portion of the colunm and that of the denser phase in the lower portion.

  12. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1987-01-06

    An apparatus is described for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item, the apparatus comprising: a. a base; b. a first support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the first support member having a sufficiently small circumference that the tube can be slid over the first support member; c. a spherical element, the spherical element being connected to the second end of the first support member. The spherical element has a sufficiently small circumference at its equator that the tube can be slid over the spherical element, the spherical element having at its equator a larger circumference than the first support member; d. a second support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the second support member being spaced apart form the first support member; e. a positioning element connected to and moveable relative to the second support member; and f. an indicator connected to the positioning element and being moveable thereby to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element, the contact ball contacting the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item, the rotatable needle being operatively connected to and responsive to the position of the contact ball.

  13. Ad Hoc Selection of Voice over Internet Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Mitchell G. (Inventor); Bullock, John T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a communication system technique involving ad hoc selection of at least two audio streams is provided. Each of the at least two audio streams is a packetized version of an audio source. A data connection exists between a server and a client where a transport protocol actively propagates the at least two audio streams from the server to the client. Furthermore, software instructions executable on the client indicate a presence of the at least two audio streams, allow selection of at least one of the at least two audio streams, and direct the selected at least one of the at least two audio streams for audio playback.

  14. Apparatus for Sampling Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus denoted a swab device has been developed as a convenient means of acquiring samples of contaminants from surfaces and suspending the samples in liquids. (Thereafter, the liquids can be dispensed, in controlled volumes, into scientific instruments for analysis of the contaminants.) The swab device is designed so as not to introduce additional contamination and to facilitate, simplify, and systematize the dispensing of controlled volumes of liquid into analytical instruments. The swab device is a single apparatus into which are combined all the equipment and materials needed for sampling surface contamination. The swab device contains disposable components stacked together on a nondisposable dispensing head. One of the disposable components is a supply cartridge holding a sufficient volume of liquid for one complete set of samples. (The liquid could be clean water or another suitable solvent, depending on the application.) This supply of liquid is sealed by Luer valves. At the beginning of a sampling process, the user tears open a sealed bag containing the supply cartridge. A tip on the nondisposable dispensing head is engaged with a Luer valve on one end of the supply cartridge and rotated, locking the supply cartridge on the dispensing head and opening the valve. The swab tip includes a fabric swab that is wiped across the surface of interest to acquire a sample. A sealed bag containing a disposable dispensing tip is then opened, and the swab tip is pushed into the dispensing tip until seated. The dispensing head contains a piston that passes through a spring-loaded lip seal. The air volume displaced by this piston forces the liquid out of the supply cartridge, over the swab, and into the dispensing tip. The piston is manually cycled to enforce oscillation of the air volume and thereby to cause water to flow to wash contaminants from the swab and cause the resulting liquid suspension of contaminants to flow into the dispensing tip. After several cycles

  15. Manufacture of ultrasonic thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Toshihiro; Yanagihara, Takao; Katoh, Chiaki; Hamada, Shozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The demonstration test for evaluating reliability of the acid recovery evaporator at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been carried out at JAERI. For the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of heat transfer tubes in the acid recovery evaporator and short tubes used in corrosion test, we have developed ultra sonic thickness measuring apparatus using immersion method with high resolution. This apparatus can measure and record tube thickness automatically with a personal computer. The results obtained by this apparatus are coincident with the results obtained by a destructive method using an optical microscope. (author)

  16. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciante, John R.; Donaldson, William R.; Roides, Richard G.

    2011-10-25

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  17. Personal cooling apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siman-Tov, Moshe (Knoxville, TN); Crabtree, Jerry Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A portable lightweight cooling apparatus for cooling a human body is disclosed, having a channeled sheet which absorbs sweat and/or evaporative liquid, a layer of highly conductive fibers adjacent the channeled sheet; and, an air-moving device for moving air through the channeled sheet, wherein the layer of fibers redistributes heat uniformly across the object being cooled, while the air moving within the channeled sheet evaporates sweat and/or other evaporative liquid, absorbs evaporated moisture and the uniformly distributed heat generated by the human body, and discharges them into the environment. Also disclosed is a method for removing heat generated by the human body, comprising the steps of providing a garment to be placed in thermal communication with the body; placing a layer of highly conductive fibers within the garment adjacent the body for uniformly distributing the heat generated by the body; attaching an air-moving device in communication with the garment for forcing air into the garment; removably positioning an exchangeable heat sink in communication with the air-moving device for cooling the air prior to the air entering the garment; and, equipping the garment with a channeled sheet in communication with the air-moving device so that air can be directed into the channeled sheet and adjacent the layer of fibers to expell heat and moisture from the body by the air being directed out of the channeled sheet and into the environment. The cooling system may be configured to operate in both sealed and unsealed garments.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  19. Apparatus, System, And Method For Roadway Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-06-02

    An apparatus, system, and method for monitoring traffic and roadway water conditions. Traffic flow and roadway flooding is monitored concurrently through a wireless sensor network. The apparatus and system comprises ultrasound rangefinders monitoring traffic flow, flood water conditions, or both. Routing information may be calculated from the traffic conditions, such that routes are calculated to avoid roadways that are impassable or are slow due to traffic conditions.

  20. Apparatus and methods for detecting chemical permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation.

  1. Materials processing apparatus development for fluoride glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Sue; Workman, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Fluoride glasses have great potential for optical fiber communications due to the high transmittance when no microcrystallites occur during drawing operations. This work has developed apparatus to test the occurrence of microcrystallites during recrystallization in reduced gravity on the KC-135. The apparatus allows fluoride glass fiber, such as ZBLAN, to be melted and recrystallized during both the low and high g portions the parabolic flight.

  2. 29 CFR 1910.219 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1910.219 Section... Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements. (1) This section covers all types and... apparatus located in basements. All mechanical power transmission apparatus located in basements,...

  3. Improvements to the APEX apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    A number of technical issues led us to rework extensively the APEX apparatus in summer 1994. During the earlier runs, a significant fraction of the 432 silicon detector elements showed degraded resolution such that they had to be excluded from the final analysis in software. The effect of this is to reduce the efficiency of APEX and possibly also to introduce holes in the acceptance which, for some perhaps exotic scenarios, might reduce the acceptance to an unacceptably low level. Also, the energy thresholds below which it is not possible to generate timing information from the silicon detectors, were high enough that the low-energy acceptance of APEX was compromised to a significant extent. The origins of these difficulties were in part due to degraded performance of the silicon detectors themselves, problems with the silicon cooling systems and electronics problems. Both silicon arrays were disassembled and sub-standard detectors replaced, all detectors were also cleaned with the result that all detectors now performed at the specified values of leakage current. The silicon cooling systems were disassembled and rebuilt with the result that many small leaks were fixed. Defective electronics channels were repaired or replaced. The rotating target wheel was also improved with the installation of new bearings and a computer-controlled rotation and readout system. The rebuilt wheel can now run at speeds up to 900 rpm for weeks on end without breakdown. The target wheel and associated beam sweeping now work extremely well so that low-melting-point targets such as Pb and In can be used in quite intense beams without melting.

  4. Design of neutral particle incident heating apparatus for large scale helical apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Osamu; Oka, Yoshihide; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Asano, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Tsutomu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Fusion Science, construction of the large scale helical apparatus has been progressed favorably, and constructions of the heating apparatus as well as of electron resonance apparatus were begun in their orders under predetermined manner since 1994 fiscal year. And, on 1995 fiscal year, construction of neutral particle incident heating apparatus, leading heat apparatus, was begun under 3 years planning. The plasma heating study system adopted the study results developed in this institute through the large scale hydrogen negative ion source and also adopted thereafter development on nuclear fusion study by modifying the original specification set at the beginning of the research plan before 7 years. As a result, system design was changed from initial 125 KeV to 180 KeV in the beam energy and to execute 15 MW incidence using two sets beam lines, to begin its manufacturing. Here is described on its new design with reason of its modifications. (G.K.)

  5. Development of a spatial filtering apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicolle

    This thesis contains a discussion of the theoretical background for Fourier spatial filtering and a description of the design and construction of a portable in-class spatial filtering apparatus. A portable, in-class spatial filtering demonstration apparatus was designed and built. This apparatus uses liquid crystal display (LCD) panels from two projectors as the object and filter masks. The blue LCD panel from the first projector serves as the object mask, and the red panel from the second projector serves as the filter mask. The panels were extracted from their projectors and mounted onto aluminum blocks which are held in place by optical component mounts. Images are written to the LCD panels via custom open source software developed for this apparatus which writes independent monochromatic images to the video signal. The software has two monochromatic image windows, basic image manipulation tools, and two video feed input display windows. Two complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors are positioned to record the reconstructed image of the object mask and the diffraction pattern created by the object mask. The object and filter mask can be digitally changed and the effects on the filtered image and diffraction pattern can be observed in real-time. The entire apparatus is assembled onto a rolling cart which allows it to be easily taken into classrooms.

  6. A Study on Test Technology to Diagnose the Power Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Kang, Y. S.; Jeon, Y. K.; Lee, W. Y.; Kang, D. S.; Kyu, H. S.; Sun, J. H.; Jo, K. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J. S.; Mun, Y. T.; Lee, K. H.; Jung, E. H.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Water Resources Corporation (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    In this study, we have educated KOWACO(Korea Water Resources Corporation) specialists about the insulation diagnostic technology and trained them the insulation diagnostic test and estimation method of power apparatus. The main results of this study are as follows; A. Education of basic high-voltage engineering. B. Research of insulation characteristic and deterioration mechanism in power apparatus C. Discussion on high-voltage test standard specifications. D. Study on insulation deterioration diagnostics in power apparatus. E. Field testing of insulation diagnosis in power apparatus. F. Engineering of insulation diagnostic testing apparatus to diagnose power apparatus. KOWACO specialists are able to diagnose insulation diagnostic test of power apparatus through this study. As they have instruments to diagnose power apparatus, they can do the test and estimation of the power apparatus insulation diagnosis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  7. An inexpensive apparatus for toxicity screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Pinto, R.W.; Santelli, J. [Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An inexpensive apparatus was fabricated to monitor and record changes in the motility patterns of small aquatic invertebrates, such as Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, during acute toxicity tests. Within hours of exposure to a range toxicant concentrations the motility patterns change in a way that predicts the EC50. The work to date suggests there is a correlation between the EC50 following a 60 hour exposure, and motility data collected within the first 40 minutes of the test. The apparatus may be useful to speed range finding tests and for shortening the duration of acute toxicity tests of an effluent or receiving water. The apparatus may also be used to quantify erratic swimming in surviving organisms when a test is terminated.

  8. Apparatus for the compact cooling of modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-07

    An apparatus for the compact cooling of modules. The apparatus includes a clip, a first cover plate coupled to a first side of the clip, a second cover plate coupled to a second side of the clip opposite to the first side of the clip, a first frame thermally coupled to the first cover plate, and a second frame thermally coupled to the second cover plate. Each of the first frame and the second frame may include a plurality of channels for passing coolant through the first frame and the second frame, respectively. Additionally, the apparatus may further include a filler for directing coolant through the plurality of channels, and for blocking coolant from flowing along the first side of the clip and the second side of the clip.

  9. Apparatus for processing electromagnetic radiation and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatewood, George D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Measuring apparatus including a ruled member having alternate transparent and opaque zones. An optical coupler connecting the ruled member with electromagnetic radiation-conversion apparatus. The conversion apparatus may include a photomultiplier and a discriminator. Radiation impinging on the ruled member will, in part, be converted to electrical pulses which correspond to the intensity of the radiation. A method of processing electromagnetic radiation includes providing a member having alternating dark and light zones, establishing movement of the member through the beam of electromagnetic radiation with the dark zones interrupting passage of radiation through the rule, providing an optical coupler to connect a portion of the radiation with a conversion station where the radiation portion is converted into an electrical pulse which is related to the intensity of the radiation received at the conversion station. The electrical pulses may be counted and the digitized signals stored or permanently recorded to produce positional information.

  10. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1977-07-19

    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed. 9 claims, 22 figures.

  11. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Robert S.

    2007-02-20

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  12. Environmental testing of escape breathing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengel, J W

    1982-05-03

    A new generation of 60-minute self-contained breathing apparatus was being introduced into the underground coal mining industry for use as respiratory protection during fires and mine disasters. Little field experience existed from which to predict the survivability of this new life-support equipment. A series of environmental tests was proposed consisting of exposure to heat, cold, shock, and vibration. Treated and untreated apparatus were evaluated and compared by use on human subjects and a mechanical breathing simulator. Results are reported. After field data have been collected, information may be able to be correlated with environmental testing and used as a predictor of survivability.

  13. Method and apparatus for detecting explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David Steven [Santa Fe, NM

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus is provided for detecting explosives by thermal imaging. The explosive material is subjected to a high energy wave which can be either a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave which will initiate a chemical reaction in the explosive material which chemical reaction will produce heat. The heat is then sensed by a thermal imaging device which will provide a signal to a computing device which will alert a user of the apparatus to the possibility of an explosive device being present.

  14. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  15. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  16. Apparatus for combinatorial screening of electrochemical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells , and a device , external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

    2009-12-15

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source (2) is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array (1) are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells (1) that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load (2) for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells (1), and a device (3), external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

  17. System, Apparatus, and Method for Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Sr., Anthony D. (Inventor); Kohli, Rajiv (Inventor); Burns, Susan H. (Inventor); Damico, Stephen J. (Inventor); Gruber, David J. (Inventor); Hickey, Christopher J. (Inventor); Lee, David E. (Inventor); Robinson, Travis M. (Inventor); Smith, Jason T. (Inventor); Spehar, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for removal of orbital debris are provided. In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a spacecraft control unit configured to guide and navigate the apparatus to a target. The apparatus also includes a dynamic object characterization unit configured to characterize movement, and a capture feature, of the target. The apparatus further includes a capture and release unit configured to capture a target and deorbit or release the target. The collection of these apparatuses is then employed as multiple, independent and individually operated vehicles launched from a single launch vehicle for the purpose of disposing of multiple debris objects.

  18. Experimental validation of waveform relaxation technique for power system controller testing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Panda; K A Salunkhe; A M Kulkarni

    2015-02-01

    A Waveform Relaxation (WR) based iterative real-time playback scheme for controller testing was recently proposed in the literature along with proof-ofconcept simulations. This scheme can be a low-cost alternative to Hardware-in-Loop simulation, as it does not require a real-time simulator. To demonstrate practical feasibility of the WR scheme, this paper presents results of experiments with real-time implementation of controllers, iteratively interacting with simulated models of power apparatus via storage and real-time play-back. Two systems are considered: a HVDC controller tested with a detailed model of the converters, and a TCSC based damping controller tested with a low frequency model of a power system. The results are validated with those obtained using simulated models of the controllers. We also present results of an experiment in which the tested HVDC controller is used to control the scaled real-life HVDC apparatus, for which a simulated model was used during controller testing. Convergence and a good match between simulated and real-time implementation are obtained for the HVDC system. The experiments on the TCSC damping controller drawn our attention to a potential convergence problem which may arise due to iteration-dependent round-off noise.

  19. Method and apparatus for calibrating spectrophotometers

    OpenAIRE

    Schreutelkamp, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of calibrating spectrophotometers by placing one or more filters in the light path of the spectrophotometer and measuring the amount of radiation by means of a detector. The present invention furthermore relates to an apparatus to be used with such a method.

  20. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  1. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the inventi

  2. Electroless plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Anton

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles by electroless techniques. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with each other for a time sufficient for such to occur.

  3. Apparatus for performing oil field laser operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2017-01-03

    A system, apparatus and methods for delivering high power laser energy to perform laser operations in oil fields and to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. A laser downhole assembly for the delivery of high power laser energy to surfaces and areas in a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics and a fluid path.

  4. Method and apparatus for synthesizing filamentary structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Height, Murray J [Somerville, MA; Howard, Jack B [Winchester, MA; Vandersande, John B [Newbury, MA

    2008-02-26

    Method and apparatus for producing filamentary structures. The structures include single-walled nanotubes. The method includes combusting hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen to establish a non-sooting flame and providing an unsupported catalyst to synthesize the filamentary structure in a post-flame region of the flame. Residence time is selected to favor filamentary structure growth.

  5. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the

  6. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into

  7. The Compartmental Organization of the Golgi Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Relations between structure and function of the Golgi apparatus are emerging from recent laboratory work on this cellular organelle which modifies proteins, sorts them, and packages them for delivery. The structure's three specialized compartments are explained through discussions of the glycosylation pathway, density-gradient experiments,…

  8. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, D.; Thullen, P.; Wollan, J.

    1980-09-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  9. Apparatus and method of navigating an instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, N.H.; Den Heeten, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus to be used with navigating an instrument in a vascular tree of a patient, comprises a patient's examination table, a C-arm, mounted to which is an X-ray source and an image recorder for registering first X-ray images of the patient, obtained by the use of the X-ray source, and a process

  10. Apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K; Sessions, Henry T; Xiao, Xin

    2013-06-25

    The apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes is provided using dual columns, each column having an opposite hydrogen isotopic effect such that when a hydrogen isotope mixture feedstock is cycled between the two respective columns, two different hydrogen isotopes are separated from the feedstock.

  11. Process and apparatus for producing coated particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ommen, J.R.; Ellis, N.; Yurteri, C.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process and apparatus for preparing coated particles, in particular a process for preparing particles that are coated with small particles using electrospraying. The coated particles produced according to the present invention find use for instance as catalysts or as

  12. SELECTIVE EXTRACTION OF ISOLATED MITOTIC APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, Thomas; Baxandall, Jane

    1971-01-01

    Mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs has been treated with meralluride sodium under conditions otherwise resembling those of its isolation. The treatment causes a selective morphological disappearance of microtubules while extracting a major protein fraction, probably consisting of two closely related proteins, which constitutes about 10% of mitotic apparatus protein. Extraction of other cell particulates under similar conditions yields much less of this protein. The extracted protein closely resembles outer doublet microtubule protein from sea urchin sperm tail in properties considered typical of microtubule proteins: precipitation by calcium ion and vinblastine, electrophoretic mobility in both acid and basic polyacrylamide gels, sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight, and, according to a preliminary determination, amino acid composition. An antiserum against a preparation of sperm tail outer doublet microtubules cross-reacts with the extract from mitotic apparatus. On the basis of these findings it appears that microtubule protein is selectively extracted from isolated mitotic apparatus by treatment with meralluride, and is a typical microtubule protein. PMID:5543404

  13. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  14. ABOUT THE BASICS OF HUMAN THINKING APPARATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Mikhailovich AMIRBEGOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of our research is the integrity of the thinking apparatus of humans with its extremes, one of which is known to us as cause-effect materiality, denoted by the term ―brain‖, and the other extreme is unknown but is supposed as an immaterial cause of the motion needed to ―revitalize‖ the material extreme in response to revitalizing effects, reacting with changes the order and direction of which are realized by light streams (oscillation spectrum in the range of light waves and sounds of different tones (oscillation spectrum in the range of sound waves. But for realization of light streams and sound streams into images and words is needed not only information streams regulator (dominant factor, changing their vectors in the integrity of the human thinking apparatus, but also verifier of oscillations is needed which requires philosophical comprehension.While modeling the thinking apparatus of humans by dialectical method of reasoning, we had to abandon the conventional opinions about reality, matter, motion, and take on trust the opinions which have not been confirmed but are logically essential – a divine spark of Aristotle and permanent impacts taking the material world out of a cold death…, what led to the solution of the problem: as a result was found the second, immaterial extreme of the integrity of human thinking apparatus and the dominant factor focusing the flow of information in the CNS and having the significance of the status of the monarch. Actually, the proposed model of human thinking apparatus, which has no analogue, presents the novelty of the worldview which answers the question: what is thinking, why and how, and what is realized by us, our mortal body and immortal soul identifying our ―I‖.

  15. An extraordinary tabletop speed of light apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegna, Guido

    2017-09-01

    A compact, low-cost, pre-aligned apparatus of the modulation type is described. The apparatus allows accurate determination of the speed of light in free propagation with an accuracy on the order of one part in 104. Due to the 433.92 MHz radio frequency (rf) modulation of its laser diode, determination of the speed of light is possible within a sub-meter measuring base and in small volumes (some cm3) of transparent solids or liquids. No oscilloscope is necessary, while the required function generators, power supplies, and optical components are incorporated into the design of the apparatus and its receiver can slide along the optical bench while maintaining alignment with the laser beam. Measurement of the velocity factor of coaxial cables is also easily performed. The apparatus detects the phase difference between the rf modulation of the laser diode by further modulating the rf signal with an audio frequency signal; the phase difference between these signals is then observed as the loudness of the audio signal. In this way, the positions at which the minima of the audio signal are found determine where the rf signals are completely out of phase. This phase detection method yields a much increased sensitivity with respect to the display of coincidence of two signals of questionable arrival time and somewhat distorted shape on an oscilloscope. The displaying technique is also particularly suitable for large audiences as well as in unattended exhibits in museums and science centers. In addition, the apparatus can be set up in less than one minute.

  16. [Design of the Rolling Type Nasal Feeding Perfusion Apparatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dong; Yang, Yonghuan; Hu, Huiqin; Luo, Hongjun; Feng, Yunhao; Hao, Xiali

    2015-09-01

    At present, the existing problem in nasal feeding perfusion apparatus is laborious and instability. Designing the rolling type perfusion apparatus by using a roller pump, the problem is solved. Compared with the traditional perfusion apparatus, the advantage lies in liquid carrying only need once and simulating human swallowing process. Through testing and verification, the apparatus can be used in nasal feeding perfusion for elderly or patients.

  17. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors--II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In my previous article on apparatus named after physicists and physics teachers, I discussed five relatively common pieces of apparatus from the 1875-1910 era. Now I will go back to the 18th and early-19th centuries to discuss eponymous apparatus that we are still using in lecture demonstrations. [For Part I, see EJ912907.

  18. 21 CFR 870.5050 - Patient care suction apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient care suction apparatus. 870.5050 Section 870.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A patient care suction apparatus is a device used with an...

  19. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully automated or semi-automated device used to make appropriate dilutions of a blood...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.307 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1926.307 Section....307 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements. (1) This section covers all... mechanical power transmission apparatus located in basements, towers, and rooms used exclusively for...

  2. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  3. Apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-08-25

    An apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitory can have a Lagrangian inertial measurement unit. The Lagrangian inertial measurement unit can have a processor, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and/or a wireless transmitter. The processor can have an integrated direction cosine matrix. The accelerometer can be configured to measure linear accelerations of a vehicle and/or can communicate measured linear acceleration to the processor. The gyroscope can be configured to measure rotational accelerations of the vehicle and/or can communicate measured rotational acceleration to the processor. The processor can be configured to calculate estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The wireless transmitter can be configured to wirelessly transmit estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The apparatus, system, and method can be integrated with a wireless sensor network.

  4. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura Katrina (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion.RTM., over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  5. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  6. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  7. PRIMA: An apparatus for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipala, V., E-mail: valeria.sipala@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Pallotta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Stancampiano, C. [INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Scaringella, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Talamonti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Tesi, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    In this paper a proton Computed Radiography (pCR) apparatus for medical applications, realized by PRIMA (PRoton IMAging) Italian Collaboration, is described. The system is oriented to acquire tomography images and meets clinical demands for the use of protons in radiotherapy treatments. The approach proposed here is based on 'single proton tracking' method with Most Likely Path (MLP) reconstruction of the single particle. A pCR prototype, with a field of view of about 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} and an acquisition time of the order of 10 s (10 kHz, 10{sup 5} events), has been developed and tested with a 62 MeV proton beam at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS). The apparatus architecture will be described and first proton radiographies will be shown.

  8. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  9. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion(Registered Trademark), over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  10. Filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

  11. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thullen, P.; Weldon, D.; Wollan, J.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The apparatus will be used to make measurements on conductors which must operate in fields up to 7.0 T and rates of field change up to 15 T/s. The magnet for this facility is wound of uninsulated, 15 strand Rutherford cable in which the strand is a 0.812 mm diameter, fully mixed matrix, Cu plus CuNi, multifilament NbTi conductor. The coil is wound in a bath cooled configuration with an overall current density of 7.8 kA/cm/sup 2/. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  12. Method and apparatus for electrospark deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Roger N.; Park, Walter R.; Munley, John T.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus for controlling electrospark deposition (ESD) comprises using electrical variable waveforms from the ESD process as a feedback parameter. The method comprises measuring a plurality of peak amplitudes from a series of electrical energy pulses delivered to an electrode tip. The maximum peak value from among the plurality of peak amplitudes correlates to the contact force between the electrode tip and a workpiece. The method further comprises comparing the maximum peak value to a set point to determine an offset and optimizing the contact force according to the value of the offset. The apparatus comprises an electrode tip connected to an electrical energy wave generator and an electrical signal sensor, which connects to a high-speed data acquisition card. An actuator provides relative motion between the electrode tip and a workpiece by receiving a feedback drive signal from a processor that is operably connected to the actuator and the high-speed data acquisition card.

  13. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  14. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  15. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  16. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2016-04-19

    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  17. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  18. Method and apparatus for continuous electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jack S.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting continuous separation of substances by electrophoresis are disclosed. The process involves electrophoretic separation combined with couette flow in a thin volume defined by opposing surfaces. By alternating the polarity of the applied potential and producing reciprocating short rotations of at least one of the surfaces relative to the other, small increments of separation accumulate to cause substantial, useful segregation of electrophoretically separable components in a continuous flow system.

  19. Membrane Traffic Within the Golgi Apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Glick, Benjamin S; Nakano, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Newly synthesized secretory cargo molecules pass through the Golgi apparatus while resident Golgi proteins remain in the organelle. However, the pathways of membrane traffic within the Golgi are still uncertain. Most of the available data can be accommodated by the cisternal maturation model, which postulates that Golgi cisternae form de novo, carry the secretory cargoes forward, and ultimately disappear. The entry face of the Golgi receives material that has been exported from transitional E...

  20. The Prototype of GAMMA-400 Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Kheymits, M. D.; Runtso, M. F.; Suchkov, S. I.; Topchiev, N. P.; Yurkin, Yu. T.

    Scientific project GAMMA-400 (Gamma-Astronomy Multifunction Modules Apparatus) relates to the new generation of space observatories for investigation of cosmic γ-emission in the energy band from ∼20 MeV up to several TeV, electron/positron fluxes from ∼1 GeV up to ∼10 TeV and cosmic-ray nuclei fluxes with energies up to ∼1015 eV by means of GAMMA-400 gamma-telescope represents the core of the scientific complex. The investigation of gamma ray bursts in the energy band of 10 keV-15 MeV are possible too by means of KONUS-FG apparatus included in the complex. For γ-rays in the energy region from 10 to 100 GeV expected energy resolution changes from ∼3% to ∼1% and angular resolution from ∼0.1% to ∼ 0.01% respectively, γ/protons rejection factor is ∼5·105. The GAMMA-400 satellite will be launched at the beginning of the next decade on the high apogee orbit with following initial parameters: apogee altitude ∼300000 km, perigee altitude ∼500 km, rotation period ∼7 days, inclination to the equator plane 51.4°. The active functioning interval will be 7-10 years. The scientific complex will have next main technical parameters: total weight ∼4100 kg, power consumption ∼2000 W, information quote 100 GByte/day. During the project development, the prototype of apparatus was created for working-off of the main apparatus construction units in laboratory conditions. The main distinctive features of the prototype are presented.

  1. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  2. Twin-image elimination apparatus and method

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The twin-image elimination apparatus of the present invention comprises (a) a scanning light source for emitting a scanning light beam; (b) an interference device which converts the scanning light beam from the scanning light source into a spherical wave and a plane wave having temporal frequencies different from each other and combines the spherical and plane waves together; (c) a scanner for scanning an object with the combined light beam from the interference device; (d) a photodetector fo...

  3. Ca(2+) signalling in the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Paola; Lissandron, Valentina; Capitanio, Paola; Pozzan, Tullio

    2011-08-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays a central role in lipid and protein post-translational modification and sorting. Morphologically the organelle is heterogeneous and it is possible to distinguish stacks of flat cysternae (cis- and medial Golgi), tubular-reticular networks and vesicles (trans-Golgi). These morphological differences parallel a distinct functionality with a selective distribution and complementary roles of the enzymes found in the different compartments. The Golgi apparatus has been also shown to be involved in Ca(2+) signalling: it is indeed endowed with Ca(2+) pumps, Ca(2+) release channels and Ca(2+) binding proteins and is thought to participate in determining the spatio-temporal complexity of the Ca(2+) signal within the cell, though this role is still poorly understood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the organelle is heterogeneous in terms of Ca(2+) handling and selective reduction of Ca(2+) concentration, both in vitro and in a genetic human disease, within one of its sub-compartment results in alterations of protein trafficking within the secretory pathway and of the entire Golgi morphology. In this paper we review the available information on the Ca(2+) toolkit within the Golgi, its heterogeneous distribution in the organelle sub-compartments and discuss the implications of these characteristics for the physiopathology of the Golgi apparatus.

  4. Polarization Imaging Apparatus with Auto-Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set, a first variable phase retarder (VPR) with its optical axis aligned 22.5 deg, a second variable phase retarder with its optical axis aligned 45 deg, a linear polarizer, a imaging sensor for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller and a computer. Two variable phase retarders were controlled independently by a computer through a controller unit which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of the first and second variable phase retarders. A auto-calibration procedure was incorporated into the polarization imaging apparatus to correct the misalignment of first and second VPRs, as well as the half-wave voltage of the VPRs. A set of four intensity images, I(sub 0), I(sub 1), I(sub 2) and I(sub 3) of the sample were captured by imaging sensor when the phase retardations of VPRs were set at (0,0), (pi,0), (pi,pi) and (pi/2,pi), respectively. Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S(sub 0), S(sub 1), S(sub 2) and S(sub 3) were calculated using the four intensity images.

  5. A new diode laser acupuncture therapy apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwei; Huang, Zhen; Li, Dongyu; Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2006-06-01

    Since the first laser-needles acupuncture apparatus was introduced in therapy, this kind of apparatus has been well used in laser biomedicine as its non-invasive, pain- free, non-bacterium, and safetool. The laser acupuncture apparatus in this paper is based on single-chip microcomputer and associated by semiconductor laser technology. The function like traditional moxibustion including reinforcing and reducing is implemented by applying chaos method to control the duty cycle of moxibustion signal, and the traditional lifting and thrusting of acupuncture is implemented by changing power output of the diode laser. The radiator element of diode laser is made and the drive circuit is designed. And chaos mathematic model is used to produce deterministic class stochastic signal to avoid the body adaptability. This function covers the shortages of continuous irradiation or that of simple disciplinary stimulate signal, which is controlled by some simple electronic circuit and become easily adjusted by human body. The realization of reinforcing and reducing of moxibustion is technological innovation in traditional acupuncture coming true in engineering.

  6. Apparatus and techniques for measuring bedload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, David Wellington

    1964-01-01

    The need for accurate determinations of the total sediment discharge of particles of bedload size has prompted this investigation of available and possible measuring apparatus and procedures. The accuracy of measurements of sediment discharge made with trap-type samplers is affected by the variability of sampler efficiency, by the oscillatory variation of bedload discharge, and by sampler placement. Equations that were developed for determining total discharge from measured bedioad discharge and measured suspended-sediment discharge are simplest if the bedload apparatus measures only the true bedload. Early bedload samplers are generally unsatisfactory. Recently developed or suggested apparatus include various improved samplers of the pressure-difference type, a pumping sampler, a magnetic sampler, acoustical instruments that measure the magnitude of the sound of particle collisions, an ultrasonic bedload sampler designed to measure and integrate electronically the concentration and velocity, and a tiltmeter designed to measure the total sediment discharge from the ground tilt that results from the passage of flow. All the pressure-difference samplers are improvements over early samplers, but none are void of the inherent shortcomings of trap-type apparatus; probably the Sphinx (Dutch) and VUV (Hungarian) samplers are the most satisfactory. The acoustical instruments are capable of measuring only the relative discharge. The ultrasonic sampler and the tiltmeter are not adequate without further development. Some new possible apparatus and means for measuring or aiding in measuring bedload discharge are small pit samplers, ultrasonic sounders, pressure transducers, and photography. A small pit sampler for measuring bedload discharge was designed to provide self-placement and portability ; however, its practicability and efficiency are undetermined. Exploratory films show that by using slowmotion photography the discharge of particles larger than about pea size can be

  7. Territory Characteristics of Cassin's Sparrows in Northwestern Oklahoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Els, Paul; Cooper, Brett S.; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Guthery, Fred S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined Cassin's sparrow (Aimophila cassinii) territory characteristics in shrub-grassland in northwestern Oklahoma during the 2008 breeding season. We estimated Cassin's sparrow territory area using territory mapping and song playback. Additionally, we determined vegetation cover, and aspect wi

  8. Male blue monkeys alarm call in response to danger experienced by others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papworth, Sarah; Böse, Anne-Sophie; Barker, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    Male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) of Budongo Forest, Uganda, produce two acoustically distinct alarm calls: hacks to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and pyows to leopards (Panthera pardus) and a range of other disturbances. In playback experiments, males responded...

  9. [Development of a long-term dynamic ECG monitoring system (Holter system)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, H; Zeng, X; Hu, Z; Wang, H; Lin, J; Tan, S

    1998-12-01

    The development of a Holter system is introduced here with the emphasis on some key problems such as low power consumption hardware design, high efficient real-time algorithm, high speed reliable playback interface and full function interactive software.

  10. SETI data controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosline, R. M.

    1988-02-01

    Three data controllers developed for the SETI project are described. Two are used primarily for recording and playback of SETI data from the Radio Science Surveillance System (RSSS). The third is used as a SETI station controller for DSS 13.

  11. Cottonwood Forest rare landbird inventory 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective is to test for presence or absence of the avian species of interest by using digital playbacks and targeted listening to test for detection. If some...

  12. The 2014 Population Status and Response of Bachman’s Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis) and Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) to Habitat Management Practices on Carolina Sandhills NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal involves the assessment of Bachman's Sparrow and Northern Bobwhite Quail to habitat treatments at Carolina Sandhills NWR using targeted playback surveys....

  13. Proposal - Population Status and Response of Bachman’s Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis) and Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) to Habitat Management Practices on Carolina Sandhills NWRe

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal involves the assessment of Bachman's Sparrow and Northern Bobwhite Quail to habitat treatments at Carolina Sandhills NWR using targeted playback surveys....

  14. Inspection apparatus and replaceable door for a vacuum chamber of such an inspection apparatus and a method for operating an inspection apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.; Hoogenboom, J.P.; Zonnevylle, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    An inspection apparatus is provided comprising in combination at least an optical microscope and an ion- or electron microscope equipped with a source for emitting a primary beam of radiation to a sample in a sample holder. The apparatus may comprise a detector for detection of secondary radiation b

  15. Experimental apparatus to test air trap valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos De Lucca, Y. de F.; de Aquino, G. A.; Filho, J. G. D.

    2010-08-01

    It is known that the presence of trapped air within water distribution pipes can lead to irregular operation or even damage to the distribution systems and their components. The presence of trapped air may occur while the pipes are being filled with water, or while the pumping systems are in operation. The formation of large air pockets can produce the water hammer phenomenon, the instability and the loss of pressure in the water distribution networks. As a result, it can overload the pumps, increase the consumption of electricity, and damage the pumping system. In order to avoid its formation, all of the trapped air should be removed through "air trap valves". In Brazil, manufacturers frequently have unreliable sizing charts, which cause malfunctioning of the "air trap valves". The result of these malfunctions causes accidents of substantial damage. The construction of a test facility will provide a foundation of technical information that will be used to help make decisions when designing a system of pipelines where "air trap valves" are used. To achieve this, all of the valve characteristics (geometric, mechanic, hydraulic and dynamic) should be determined. This paper aims to describe and analyze the experimental apparatus and test procedure to be used to test "air trap valves". The experimental apparatus and test facility will be located at the University of Campinas, Brazil at the College of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics laboratory. The experimental apparatus will be comprised of various components (pumps, steel pipes, butterfly valves to control the discharge, flow meter and reservoirs) and instrumentation (pressure transducers, anemometer and proximity sensor). It should be emphasized that all theoretical and experimental procedures should be defined while taking into consideration flow parameters and fluid properties that influence the tests.

  16. Experimental apparatus to test air trap valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos De Lucca, Y de F [CTH-DAEE-USP/FAAP/UNICAMP (Brazil); Aquino, G A de [SABESP/UNICAMP (Brazil); Filho, J G D, E-mail: yvone.lucca@gmail.co [Water Resources Department, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein, 951, Cidade Universitaria-Barao Geraldo-Campinas, S.P., 13083-852 (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    It is known that the presence of trapped air within water distribution pipes can lead to irregular operation or even damage to the distribution systems and their components. The presence of trapped air may occur while the pipes are being filled with water, or while the pumping systems are in operation. The formation of large air pockets can produce the water hammer phenomenon, the instability and the loss of pressure in the water distribution networks. As a result, it can overload the pumps, increase the consumption of electricity, and damage the pumping system. In order to avoid its formation, all of the trapped air should be removed through 'air trap valves'. In Brazil, manufacturers frequently have unreliable sizing charts, which cause malfunctioning of the 'air trap valves'. The result of these malfunctions causes accidents of substantial damage. The construction of a test facility will provide a foundation of technical information that will be used to help make decisions when designing a system of pipelines where 'air trap valves' are used. To achieve this, all of the valve characteristics (geometric, mechanic, hydraulic and dynamic) should be determined. This paper aims to describe and analyze the experimental apparatus and test procedure to be used to test 'air trap valves'. The experimental apparatus and test facility will be located at the University of Campinas, Brazil at the College of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics laboratory. The experimental apparatus will be comprised of various components (pumps, steel pipes, butterfly valves to control the discharge, flow meter and reservoirs) and instrumentation (pressure transducers, anemometer and proximity sensor). It should be emphasized that all theoretical and experimental procedures should be defined while taking into consideration flow parameters and fluid properties that influence the tests.

  17. STEGANOGRAPHY USAGE TO CONTROL MULTIMEDIA STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Koziel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a proposal of new application for steganography is presented. It is possible to use steganographic techniques to control multimedia stream playback. Special control markers can be included in the sound signal and the player can detect markers and modify the playback parameters according to the hidden instructions. This solution allows for remembering user preferences within the audio track as well as allowing for preparation of various versions of the same content at the production level.

  18. Cryogenic Active Magnetic Regenerator Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tura, A.; Roszmann, J.; Dikeos, J.; Rowe, A.

    2006-04-01

    An AMR Test Apparatus (AMRTA) used in experiments near room-temperature required a number of modifications to allow for testing at cryogenic temperatures and with a 5 T magnetic field. The impacts of parasitic heat leaks, frictional heat generation, and eddy current heating in the AMRTA are analyzed. A low temperature gas circulation (LTGC) system to control the operating temperature was developed. The LTGC consists of a GM cryocooler coupled to a compressor and helium circuit which circulates fluid through a set of heat exchangers and flexible transfer lines connected to the AMRTA. Design features are discussed as is some initial test data.

  19. Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) Hardware Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Reed, Dave; Wang, Chung; Stuckey, Bob; Cox, Dave

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Provide insight into water delivery in microgravity and determine optimal germination paper wetting for subsequent seed germination in microgravity; (2) Observe the behavior of water exposed to a strong localized magnetic field in microgravity; and (3) Simulate the flow of fixative (using water) through the hardware. The Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) is a new piece of hardware slated to fly on the Space Shuttle in early 2001. MFA is designed to expose plant tissue to magnets in a microgravity environment, deliver water to the plant tissue, record photographic images of plant tissue, and deliver fixative to the plant tissue.

  20. Apparatus for cooling an electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Pepe; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shen, Xiaochun; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Salasoo, Lembit

    2013-07-16

    Provided is an apparatus, for example, for use with a rotating electric machine, that includes a housing. The housing can include a housing main portion and a housing end portion. The housing main portion can be configured to be disposed proximal to a body portion of a stator section of an electric machine. The housing main portion can define a main fluid channel that is configured to conduct fluid therethrough. The housing end portion can receive fluid from said main fluid channel and direct fluid into contact with a winding end portion of a conductive winding of the stator section.

  1. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.N.

    1958-04-22

    An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

  2. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2002-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  3. A mobile apparatus for solar collector testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a mobile apparatus for solar collector testing (MASCOT) is described. The MASCOT is a self-contained test unit costing about $10,000 whose only external requirement for operation is electrical power and which is capable of testing two water-cooled flat-plate solar collectors simultaneously. The MASCOT is small enough and light enough to be transported to any geographical site for outdoor tests at the location of collector usage. It has been used in both indoor solar simulator tests and outdoor tests.

  4. Fastening apparatus having shape memory alloy actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnis, Darin N. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A releasable fastening apparatus is presented. The device includes a connecting member and a housing. The housing supports a gripping mechanism that is adapted to engage the connecting member. A triggering member is movable within the housing between a first position in which it constrains the gripping mechanism in locked engagement with the connecting member, and a second position in which the gripping mechanism is disengaged from the connecting member. A shaped memory alloy actuator is employed for translating the triggering member from its first to its second position. The actuator is designed to expand longitudinally when transitioned from a martensitic to an austenitic state.

  5. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

  6. Apparatus for determining changes in limb volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Wu, V. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Measuring apparatus for determining changes in the volume of limbs or other boty extremities by determining the cross-sectional area of such limbs many comprise a transmitter including first and second transducers for positioning on the surface of the limb at a predetermined distance there between, and a receiver including a receiver crystal for positioning on the surface of the limb. The distance between the receiver crystal and the first and second transducers are represented by respective first and second chords of the cross-section of the limb and the predetermined distance between the first and second transducers is represented by a third chord of the limb cross section.

  7. Apparatus and Methods Using Highly Optically Dispersive Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    of two-beam interferometers , such as, e.g., a Michelson interferometer , a Twyman-Green interferometer , and others known in the art. An alternative...guiding fiber . 20 32. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the apparatus is a spectroscopic interferometer . 33. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the...Zhimin et a!. "Enhancing the spectral sensitivity of interferometers using slow-light media". Optics Letters, vol. 32, No. 8, Apr. 15, 2007, pp. 915

  8. Specific organization of Golgi apparatus in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vildanova, M S; Wang, W; Smirnova, E A

    2014-09-01

    Microtubules, actin filaments, and Golgi apparatus are connected both directly and indirectly, but it is manifested differently depending on the cell organization and specialization, and these connections are considered in many original studies and reviews. In this review we would like to discuss what underlies differences in the structural organization of the Golgi apparatus in animal and plant cells: specific features of the microtubule cytoskeleton organization, the use of different cytoskeleton components for Golgi apparatus movement and maintenance of its integrity, or specific features of synthetic and secretory processes. We suppose that a dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in higher plant cells cannot be explained only by specific features of the microtubule system organization and by the absence of centrosome as an active center of their organization because the Golgi apparatus is organized similarly in the cells of other organisms that possess the centrosome and centrosomal microtubules. One of the key factors determining the Golgi apparatus state in plant cells is the functional uniformity or functional specialization of stacks. The functional specialization does not suggest the joining of the stacks to form a ribbon; therefore, the disperse state of the Golgi apparatus needs to be supported, but it also can exist "by default". We believe that the dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in plants is supported, on one hand, by dynamic connections of the Golgi apparatus stacks with the actin filament system and, on the other hand, with the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites distributed throughout the endoplasmic reticulum.

  9. Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

  10. Method and apparatus for atomic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, Dilano K.; de Andres Rodriquez, Pedro L.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for three dimensional imaging of the atomic environment of disordered adsorbate atoms are disclosed. The method includes detecting and measuring the intensity of a diffuse low energy electron diffraction pattern formed by directing a beam of low energy electrons against the surface of a crystal. Data corresponding to reconstructed amplitudes of a wave form is generated by operating on the intensity data. The data corresponding to the reconstructed amplitudes is capable of being displayed as a three dimensional image of an adsorbate atom. The apparatus includes a source of a beam of low energy electrons and a detector for detecting the intensity distribution of a DLEED pattern formed at the detector when the beam of low energy electrons is directed onto the surface of a crystal. A device responsive to the intensity distribution generates a signal corresponding to the distribution which represents a reconstructed amplitude of a wave form and is capable of being converted into a three dimensional image of the atomic environment of an adsorbate atom on the crystal surface.

  11. Performances of a portable electrospinning apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Groszkowski, Lukasz; Ye, Hua

    2015-05-01

    To demonstrate that portable electrospinning devices can spin a wide range of polymers into submicron fibres and provide a mesh quality comparable to those produced with benchtop machines. We have designed a small, battery-operated electrospinning apparatus which enables control over the voltage and the flow rate of the polymer solution via a microcontroller. It can be used to electrospin a range of commonly used polymers including poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(p-dioxanone), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(ethylene oxide), poly(vinyl acohol) and poly(vinyl butyral). Moreover, electrospun meshes are produced with a quality comparable to a benchtop machine. We also show that the portable apparatus is able to electrospray beads and microparticles. Finally, we highlight the potential of the device for wound healing applications by demonstrating the possibility of electrospinning onto pig and human skins. Portable electrospinning devices are still at an early stage of development but they could soon become an attractive alternative to benchtop machines, in particular for uses that require mobility and a higher degree of flexibility, such as for wound healing applications.

  12. Experiments with Coler magnetic current apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, T.

    Experiments with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" (magnetic current apparatus) were conducted. The replica was built at the same institute at the Technical University of Berlin where the original was tested by Prof. Kloss in 1925. The details of the setup will be presented in this paper. The investigation of the Coler device was done with modern methods. The output was measured with a digital multi meter (DMM) and a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO). The results of the measurements will be presented. Did Coler convert vacuum fluctuations via magnetic, electric and acoustic resonance into electricity? There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field radiation energy. The magnetic moment of the electron is in part an energy exchange with the radiation field. The energy output of the Coler apparatus is measured. Furthermore the dynamics of the ferromagnetic magnets that Coler reported as the working principle of his device was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and the spectroscopy mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The magnetic and acoustic resonance was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The connection between ZPE and magnetism will be discussed as well as the perspective of using magnetic systems as a means to convert vacuum fluctuations into usable electricity.

  13. Apparatus for enhancing tissue repair in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for enhancing tissue repair in mammals, with the apparatus comprising: a sleeve for encircling a portion of a mammalian body part, said sleeve comprising an electrically conductive coil capable of generating an electromagnetic field when an electrical current is applied thereto, means for supporting the sleeve on the mammalian body part; and means for supplying the electrically conductive coil with a square wave time varying electrical current sufficient to create a time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss within the interior of the coil in order that when the sleeve is placed on a mammalian body part and the time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss is generated on the mammalian body part for an extended period of time, tissue regeneration within the mammalian body part is increased to a rate in excess of the normal tissue regeneration rate that would occur without application of the time varying electromagnetic force.

  14. A radial transmission line material measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, L.K.; Moyer, R.D.; Koontz, T.E.; Morris, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radial transmission line material measurement sample apparatus (sample holder, offset short standards, measurement software, and instrumentation) is described which has been proposed, analyzed, designed, constructed, and tested. The purpose of the apparatus is to obtain accurate surface impedance measurements of lossy, possibly anisotropic, samples at low and intermediate frequencies (vhf and low uhf). The samples typically take the form of sections of the material coatings on conducting objects. Such measurements thus provide the key input data for predictive numerical scattering codes. Prediction of the sample surface impedance from the coaxial input impedance measurement is carried out by two techniques. The first is an analytical model for the coaxial-to-radial transmission line junction. The second is an empirical determination of the bilinear transformation model of the junction by the measurement of three full standards. The standards take the form of three offset shorts (and an additional lossy Salisbury load), which have also been constructed. The accuracy achievable with the device appears to be near one percent.

  15. Method and apparatus for biological sequence comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, T.G.; Chang, W.I.

    1997-12-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for comparing biological sequences from a known source of sequences, with a subject (query) sequence. The apparatus takes as input a set of target similarity levels (such as evolutionary distances in units of PAM), and finds all fragments of known sequences that are similar to the subject sequence at each target similarity level, and are long enough to be statistically significant. The invention device filters out fragments from the known sequences that are too short, or have a lower average similarity to the subject sequence than is required by each target similarity level. The subject sequence is then compared only to the remaining known sequences to find the best matches. The filtering member divides the subject sequence into overlapping blocks, each block being sufficiently large to contain a minimum-length alignment from a known sequence. For each block, the filter member compares the block with every possible short fragment in the known sequences and determines a best match for each comparison. The determined set of short fragment best matches for the block provide an upper threshold on alignment values. Regions of a certain length from the known sequences that have a mean alignment value upper threshold greater than a target unit score are concatenated to form a union. The current block is compared to the union and provides an indication of best local alignment with the subject sequence. 5 figs.

  16. Data eye monitor method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Marcella, James A [Rochester, MN; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-01-31

    An apparatus and method for providing a data eye monitor. The data eye monitor apparatus utilizes an inverter/latch string circuit and a set of latches to save the data eye for providing an infinite persistent data eye. In operation, incoming read data signals are adjusted in the first stage individually and latched to provide the read data to the requesting unit. The data is also simultaneously fed into a balanced XOR tree to combine the transitions of all incoming read data signals into a single signal. This signal is passed along a delay chain and tapped at constant intervals. The tap points are fed into latches, capturing the transitions at a delay element interval resolution. Using XORs, differences between adjacent taps and therefore transitions are detected. The eye is defined by segments that show no transitions over a series of samples. The eye size and position can be used to readjust the delay of incoming signals and/or to control environment parameters like voltage, clock speed and temperature.

  17. A Simple, Inexpensive Acoustic Levitation Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappe, R. Scott; Barbosa, Cinthya

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic levitation uses a resonant ultrasonic standing wave to suspend small objects; it is used in a variety of research disciplines, particularly in the study of phase transitions and materials susceptible to contamination, or as a stabilization mechanism in microgravity environments. The levitation equipment used for such research is quite costly; we wanted to develop a simple, inexpensive system to demonstrate this visually striking example of standing waves. A search of the literature produced only one article relevant to creating such an apparatus, but the authors' approach uses a test tube, which limits the access to the standing wave. Our apparatus, shown in Fig. 1, can levitate multiple small (1-2 mm) pieces of expanded polystyrene (Styrofoam) using components readily available to most instructors of introductory physics. Acoustic levitation occurs in small, stable equilibrium locations where the weight of the object is balanced by the acoustic radiation force created by an ultrasonic standing wave; these locations are slightly below the pressure nodes. The levitation process also creates a horizontal restoring force. Since the pressure nodes are also velocity antinodes, this transverse stability may be analogous to the effect of an upward air stream supporting a ball.

  18. Laboratory apparatus to evaluate microalgae production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. S. Gris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of microalgae for energy purposes and CO2 biomitigation continues to present a number of challenges, including the optimization of culture conditions. The application of experimental designs for microalgae cultivation is difficult, since experiments involving such microorganisms generally last days or weeks. This work proposes a multipurpose laboratory apparatus for the optimization of microalgae experimental conditions that simultaneously enables the evaluation of variables such as temperature, irradiance, photoperiod and CO2 concentration in the aeration stream, as well as variables related to the concentration of culture media nutrients. A case study is also presented in which temperature, concentration of f/2 medium sodium nitrate and the effects of incident light intensity on Nannochloropsis oculata lipid content are evaluated. Experiments were carried out following central composite designs, in batch cultivation within an airlift photobioreactor apparatus. The best experimental result was obtained at 21 ºC, 119 mg/L NaNO3 and 137 µE.m-2.s-1, corresponding to 41.8% lipids and 211.9 mg.L-1 final lipid concentrations.

  19. Method for Surface Scanning in Medical Imaging and Related Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method and apparatus for surface scanning in medical imaging is provided. The surface scanning apparatus comprises an image source, a first optical fiber bundle comprising first optical fibers having proximal ends and distal ends, and a first optical coupler for coupling an image from the image...

  20. Apparatus as Milestones in the History of Comparative Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Putney, R. Thompson

    1994-01-01

    Significant apparatus developments from the history of comparative psychology are reviewed, including the contemporary trend toward computer use in research with nonhuman animals. It is argued that milestone apparatus served not only to open new lines of inquiry but also to shape or delimit the nature of the answers that were obtained.

  1. Apparatus for the production of methane from organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, H.

    1980-07-23

    CH/sub 4/ is manufactured by fermentation of organic wastes in an apparatus comprising a fermentation container and a post-fermentation container. Both containers are connected via a conduit, and the gas formed is collected in the upper part of the fermentation container. Additional features and components of the apparatus are illustrated.

  2. 49 CFR 234.227 - Train detection apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.227 Train detection apparatus. (a) Train detection apparatus shall be maintained to detect a train or railcar in any part of a train detection circuit,...

  3. Microchannel apparatus and methods of conducting catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Yang, Bin; Perry, Steven T.; Mazanec, Terry; Arora, Ravi; Daly, Francis P.; Long, Richard; Yuschak, Thomas D.; Neagle, Paul W.; Glass, Amanda

    2011-08-16

    Methods of oxidative dehydrogenation are described. Surprisingly, Pd and Au alloys of Pt have been discovered to be superior for oxidative dehydrogenation in microchannels. Methods of forming these catalysts via an electroless plating methodology are also described. An apparatus design that minimizes heat transfer to the apparatus' exterior is also described.

  4. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  5. Apparatus for the laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin

    2010-02-16

    An RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of carbon nanotubes. Such an apparatus, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently provides a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization.

  6. 21 CFR 862.2485 - Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use. 862.2485 Section 862.2485 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Instruments § 862.2485 Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use. (a) Identification. An...

  7. An Apparatus for Growth of Small Crystals From Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Mico M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for crystal growth that was designed to study growth kinetics of small crystals from solutions and to obtain crystals of various substances. Describes the use of the apparatus in laboratory practical experiments in the field of crystal growth physics within the course "Solid State Physics". (JRH)

  8. The Q_weak Experimental Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, T; Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T D; Averill, R; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bessuille, J; Birchall, J; Bonnell, E; Bowman, J; Brindza, P; Brown, D B; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cavness, B; Clark, G; Cornejo, J C; Dusa, S Covrig; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Dean, D C; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dow, K; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Echols, J R; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finelli, K D; Finn, J M; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hansknecht, J; Harrison, D J; Henderson, E; Hoskins, J R; Ihloff, E; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; Kelsey, J; Khan, N; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Kubera, A; Leacock, J; Leckey, J P; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; Liang, Y; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J W; McCreary, A; McDonald, M H; McHugh, M J; Medeiros, P; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Musson, J; Mesick, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman,; van Oers, W T H; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roberts, W R; Roche, J; Rose, P W; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Sobczynski, S; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Stokes, B; Storey, D W; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Urban, E; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Zhamkochyan, S; Zielinski, R B

    2014-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Q_weak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise ${\\vec{e}}$p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 microA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Moller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The ...

  9. Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...

  10. Pulse compression and prepulse suppression apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.; George, E.V.; Miller, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.

    1993-11-09

    A pulse compression and prepulse suppression apparatus (10) for time compressing the output of a laser (14). A pump pulse (46) is separated from a seed pulse (48) by a first polarized beam splitter (20) according to the orientation of a half wave plate (18). The seed pulse (48) is directed into an SBS oscillator (44) by two plane mirrors (22, 26) and a corner mirror (24), the corner mirror (24) being movable to adjust timing. The pump pulse (46) is directed into an SBS amplifier 34 wherein SBS occurs. The seed pulse (48), having been propagated from the SBS oscillator (44), is then directed through the SBS amplifier (34) wherein it sweeps the energy of the pump pulse (46) out of the SBS amplifier (34) and is simultaneously compressed, and the time compressed pump pulse (46) is emitted as a pulse output (52). A second polarized beam splitter (38) directs any undepleted pump pulse 58 away from the SBS oscillator (44).

  11. The quantum X-ray radiology apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Hilt, B; Prevot, G

    2000-01-01

    The paper entitled 'New Quantum Detection System for Very Low Dose X-ray Radiology', presented at the talk session, discusses the preliminary data obtained using a new quantum X-ray radiology system with a high-efficiency solid-state detector and highly sensitive electronics, making it possible to reduce significantly the dose administered to a patient in X-ray radiology examinations. The present paper focuses more on the technological aspects of the apparatus, such as the integration of the detector with the two Asics, and the computer system. Namely, it is shown how the computer system calibrates the detection system, acquires the data in real time, and controls the scan parameters and image filtering process.

  12. Structural health monitoring apparatus and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor (Inventor); Yu, Lingyu (Inventor); Bottai, Giola Santoni (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and methodology for structural health monitoring (SHM) in which smart devices interrogate structural components to predict failure, expedite needed repairs, and thus increase the useful life of those components. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are applied to or integrated with structural components and various data collected there from provide the ability to detect and locate cracking, corrosion, and disbanding through use of pitch-catch, pulse-echo, electro/mechanical impedance, and phased array technology. Stand alone hardware and an associated software program are provided that allow selection of multiple types of SHM investigations as well as multiple types of data analysis to perform a wholesome investigation of a structure.

  13. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2017-09-12

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil. A method includes contacting a pyrolysis oil with a deoxygenation catalyst in a first reactor at deoxygenation conditions to produce a first reactor effluent. The first reactor effluent has a first oxygen concentration and a first hydrogen concentration, based on hydrocarbons in the first reactor effluent, and the first reactor effluent includes an aromatic compound. The first reactor effluent is contacted with a dehydrogenation catalyst in a second reactor at conditions that deoxygenate the first reactor effluent while preserving the aromatic compound to produce a second reactor effluent. The second reactor effluent has a second oxygen concentration lower than the first oxygen concentration and a second hydrogen concentration that is equal to or lower than the first hydrogen concentration, where the second oxygen concentration and the second hydrogen concentration are based on the hydrocarbons in the second reactor effluent.

  14. Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero;

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...

  15. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  16. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  17. Self-healing cable apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver (Inventor); Esser, Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods are disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer having an initial damage resistance, and a reactive layer. When the cable is subjected to a localized damaging force, the reactive layer responds by creating a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healed region provides the cable with enhanced damage resistance as compared to the cable's initial damage resistance. Embodiments of the invention utilize conventional epoxies or foaming materials in the reactive layer that are released to form the self-healed region when the damaging force reaches the reactive layer.

  18. The patellar extensor apparatus of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwek, Jerry R. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Chung, Christine B. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Healthcare, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The patellar extensor apparatus is composed of the quadriceps muscles that converge to a central tendon that inserts on and invests the patella. It continues by the patellar tendon to act on the tibial tuberosity and thereby extends the leg at the knee. The structure can be thought of as a chain with pathology able to occur at each level. Pathological processes are generally caused by the great force experienced at each level both chronically and acutely. The forces are, however, greatly modified by the particular geometries present at each level. The various pathological processes and factors that modify them are reviewed at each level, beginning with the quadriceps musculature and ending at the terminal point of action, the tibial tuberosity. (orig.)

  19. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Hector; Bickford, Dennis

    2007-06-05

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  20. Method and apparatus for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, John William; Bonnell, Leo; Robinson, Earl T.

    2010-03-03

    A method and apparatus for reacting a hydrocarbon containing feed stream by steam methane reforming reactions to form a synthesis gas. The hydrocarbon containing feed is reacted within a reactor having stages in which the final stage from which a synthesis gas is discharged incorporates expensive high temperature materials such as oxide dispersed strengthened metals while upstream stages operate at a lower temperature allowing the use of more conventional high temperature alloys. Each of the reactor stages incorporate reactor elements having one or more separation zones to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing feed to support combustion of a fuel within adjacent combustion zones, thereby to generate heat to support the endothermic steam methane reforming reactions.

  1. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  2. Refrigerant recycling apparatus, method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, J.P.; Gordon, R.F.

    1993-07-13

    A refrigerant recycling apparatus for recovery and purification of refrigerant is described comprising: (a) an input conduit system for connecting a refrigerant source to the refrigerant recycling apparatus; (b) a first disposable filter capable of removing moisture and particulates from the refrigerant, said disposable filter being located such that the filter is easily accessible for service; (c) a primary heat exchanger configured so as to provide heat to the refrigerant thereby causing the refrigerant to be vaporized; (d) a secondary heat exchanger for further heating of the refrigerant to further assist in vaporization of the refrigerant; (e) an expansion valve located prior in line to said primary and secondary heat exchangers for controlling the flow of the refrigerant and reducing the pressure of the refrigerant, thereby allowing the refrigerant to expand to a predominantly gaseous state; (f) a separator for removing oil from the refrigerant; (g) a compressor pump having a vacuum producing inlet and a pressure producing outlet, the pump being a hermetically sealed, lubricated-for-life positive displacement pump; (h) a condenser for cooling the refrigerant; (i) a second disposable filter for removing moisture, acids, and other particulates from the refrigerant passing there through, said disposable filter being located in an area easily accessible for servicing; (j) an interconnecting conduit system for interconnecting the input conduit system, the first and second disposable filters, the heat exchangers, the compressor pump, the condenser, the expansion valve, and the refrigerant source; (k) a moisture indicator located after the second disposable filter, for measuring the degree of moisture present within the refrigerant after the refrigerant has flowed through the second disposable filter.

  3. Eddy current separation apparatus, separation module, separation method and method for adjusting an eddy current separation apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Bakker, M.C.M.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Rahman, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy current separation apparatus (1) for separating particles (20) from a particle stream (w), wherein the apparatus (1) comprises a separator drum (4) adapted to create a first particle fraction (21) and a second particle fraction (23), a feeding device (2) upstream of the separator drum (4) for s

  4. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  5. Portable pulse X-ray apparatus with gas insulation

    CERN Document Server

    Avilov, E A; Kanunov, I M

    2001-01-01

    There are presented the data on development,investigation and application of a pulse X-ray apparatus with gas insulation.There are described circuit and design solutions for a 90 kV apparatus to be used in medical X-ray diagnostics and 200 kV apparatus to be applied for the researches of high-speed processes.There are demonstrated the advantages of using gas under pressure as insulating medium.There are presented basic output characteristics of the devices.

  6. Method and apparatus for producing chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillie, P.W.; Ramras, D.M.

    1984-05-29

    A continuous method and apparatus are described for the efficient production of gaseous chlorine dioxide by the reaction between gaseous sulfur dioxide and an aqueous solution of a metallic chlorate. The chlorate solution and a highly concentrated sulfur dioxide gas are introduced into a packed columnar chamber at closely adjacent locations at the bottom of the chamber so as to flood the chamber and maximize both the contact area and contact time of the two reactants. Throughout the reaction the chamber is subjected to high vacuum imposed by an eductor which exhausts the chlorine dioxide gas and spent reactants. For use of the chlorine dioxide to produce potable water or treat foodstuffs, the chlorine dioxide and spent reactants are exhausted from the chamber separately by respective eductors substantially balanced with respect to each other to impose comparable vacuums upon the chamber. Because of the high efficency of the reaction, substantial heat is generated therefrom which is absorbed by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. The flow rate of the coolant and flow rate of the reactants into the chamber are porportional due to the dependency of the reactant flow rate on the coolant flow rate.

  7. Methods and apparatus for cooling electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Shawn Anthony; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent

    2014-12-02

    Methods and apparatus are provided for choosing an energy-efficient coolant temperature for electronics by considering the temperature dependence of the electronics' power dissipation. This dependence is explicitly considered in selecting the coolant temperature T.sub.0 that is sent to the equipment. To minimize power consumption P.sub.Total for the entire system, where P.sub.Total=P.sub.0+P.sub.Cool is the sum of the electronic equipment's power consumption P.sub.0 plus the cooling equipment's power consumption P.sub.Cool, P.sub.Total is obtained experimentally, by measuring P.sub.0 and P.sub.Cool, as a function of three parameters: coolant temperature T.sub.0; weather-related temperature T.sub.3 that affects the performance of free-cooling equipment; and computational state C of the electronic equipment, which affects the temperature dependence of its power consumption. This experiment provides, for each possible combination of T.sub.3 and C, the value T.sub.0* of T.sub.0 that minimizes P.sub.Total. During operation, for any combination of T.sub.3 and C that occurs, the corresponding optimal coolant temperature T.sub.0* is selected, and the cooling equipment is commanded to produce it.

  8. Method of and apparatus for modeling interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Kent G.

    2004-01-13

    A method and apparatus for modeling interactions can accurately model tribological and other properties and accommodate topological disruptions. Two portions of a problem space are represented, a first with a Lagrangian mesh and a second with an ALE mesh. The ALE and Lagrangian meshes are constructed so that each node on the surface of the Lagrangian mesh is in a known correspondence with adjacent nodes in the ALE mesh. The interaction can be predicted for a time interval. Material flow within the ALE mesh can accurately model complex interactions such as bifurcation. After prediction, nodes in the ALE mesh in correspondence with nodes on the surface of the Lagrangian mesh can be mapped so that they are once again adjacent to their corresponding Lagrangian mesh nodes. The ALE mesh can then be smoothed to reduce mesh distortion that might reduce the accuracy or efficiency of subsequent prediction steps. The process, from prediction through mapping and smoothing, can be repeated until a terminal condition is reached.

  9. Microwave Medical Treatment Apparatus and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); George, W. Rflfoul (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Methods, simulations, and apparatus are provided that may be utilized for medical treatments which are especially suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In a preferred embodiment, a plurality of separate microwave antennas are utilized to heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. By utilizing constructive and destructive interference of the microwave transmission, the energy can be deposited on the tissues to be necrosed while protecting other tissues such as the urethra. Saline injections to alter the conductivity of the tissues may also be used to further focus the energy deposits. A computer simulation is Provided that can be used to Predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of one or more catheters and the methods of applying microwave energy, a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  10. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  11. Sputtering process and apparatus for coating powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Kerns, John A.; Alford, Craig S.; McKernan, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

  12. Apparatuses in the manufacture of mineral wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, J.; Moisala, T.

    1991-01-08

    In a process for manufacturing mineral wool, at the discharge section of the tapping spout to the spinning machine, at least one oxy-fuel burner is disposed. The burner is located at a predetermined distance and in a predetermined direction so that the discharge section of the tapping spout and a first portion of the tapping jet departing from the spout are heated by the burner flame, and the impulse of the burner is of such a size that the configuration and position of the tapping jet will remain unaffected. Employment of the apparatus of the invention will prevent molten mineral material in the spout jet from solidifying and accumulating on the tapping spout. This minimizes cleaning of the tapping spout, and an even and uniform spout jet will be continually led down towards the spinning wheels in the spinning machine, which results in a more uniform and even production in the spinning operation and a higher yield in the spinning process. Furthermore, because of the even, continuous jet of molten material, wear on the spinning wheels will be reduced and the working life of the spinning machine will be lengthened. 2 figs.

  13. The centrosome-Golgi apparatus nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Rosa M

    2014-09-05

    A shared feature among all microtubule (MT)-dependent processes is the requirement for MTs to be organized in arrays of defined geometry. At a fundamental level, this is achieved by precisely controlling the timing and localization of the nucleation events that give rise to new MTs. To this end, MT nucleation is restricted to specific subcellular sites called MT-organizing centres. The primary MT-organizing centre in proliferating animal cells is the centrosome. However, the discovery of MT nucleation capacity of the Golgi apparatus (GA) has substantially changed our understanding of MT network organization in interphase cells. Interestingly, MT nucleation at the Golgi apparently relies on multiprotein complexes, similar to those present at the centrosome, that assemble at the cis-face of the organelle. In this process, AKAP450 plays a central role, acting as a scaffold to recruit other centrosomal proteins important for MT generation. MT arrays derived from either the centrosome or the GA differ in their geometry, probably reflecting their different, yet complementary, functions. Here, I review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MT nucleation at the GA and how Golgi- and centrosome-based MT arrays work in concert to ensure the formation of a pericentrosomal polarized continuous Golgi ribbon structure, a critical feature for cell polarity in mammalian cells. In addition, I comment on the important role of the Golgi-nucleated MTs in organizing specialized MT arrays that serve specific functions in terminally differentiated cells.

  14. The Golgi apparatus: insights from filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    Cargo passage through the Golgi, albeit an undoubtedly essential cellular function, is a mechanistically unresolved and much debated process. Although the main molecular players are conserved, diversification of the Golgi among different eukaryotic lineages is providing us with tools to resolve standing controversies. During the past decade the Golgi apparatus of model filamentous fungi, mainly Aspergillus nidulans, has been intensively studied. Here an overview of the most important findings in the field is provided. Golgi architecture and dynamics, as well as the novel cell biology tools that were developed in filamentous fungi in these studies, are addressed. An emphasis is placed on the central role the Golgi has as a crossroads in the endocytic and secretory-traffic pathways in hyphae. Finally the major advances that the A. nidulans Golgi biology has yielded so far regarding our understanding of key Golgi regulators, such as the Rab GTPases RabC(Rab6) and RabE(Rab11), the oligomeric transport protein particle, TRAPPII, and the Golgi guanine nucleotide exchange factors of Arf1, GeaA(GBF1/Gea1) and HypB(BIG/Sec7), are highlighted.

  15. Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

    2014-04-15

    An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

  16. Engine control apparatus for improved fuel economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganoung, D.P.

    1990-10-23

    This patent describes an apparatus for powering a vehicle. It comprises: a naturally-aspirated Otto cycle engine having a throttle valve device used to provide substantially all control of combustion air density for the engine, the Otto engine being of a type which in order to prevent misfire, requires intake air throttling over at least a major range of brake torque produced at a power output shaft of the engine and an intake mixture preparation system operative when the throttle valve device is at least effectively wide open to automatically use intake charge dilution to provide benefits of reducing brake specific fuel consumption of the engine and suppressing autoignition in the engine. The wide open throttle benefits being provided by the intake mixture preparation system over at least half of a range of operating speed of the engine output shaft required to satisfy all operating conditions of the vehicle, and a discrete-ratio gearbox which receives power from the engine power output shaft and which has a gearbox power output shaft that provides substantially all mechanical energy for powering the vehicle. All of the mechanical energy for powering the vehicle being transferred from the engine to propel the vehicle without a significant time delay, whereby the technological risk of a CVT is avoided.

  17. Apparatuses, Systems and Methods for Cleaning Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2013-02-14

    Embodiments of solar panel cleaning apparatuses, solar panel cleaning systems, and solar panel cleaning methods are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the disclosed solar panel cleaning apparatuses, systems and methods do may not require any water or other cleaning liquids in the whole cleaning process, which makes them prominent well suited in for water-deficit environments such as deserts. In one embodiment, the solar panel cleaning apparatus comprises one or more rotatable brushes each having a rotational axis and a drive configured to move each of the one or more rotatable brushes in a direction that is not perpendicular to the rotational axis. The solar panel cleaning apparatus is may be configured such that the angle of the rotational axis of at least one of the one or more rotatable brushes is adjustable relative to the direction of travel.

  18. Apparatus for handling micron size range particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Roy, N. L. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    An apparatus for handling, transporting, or size classifying comminuted material was described in detail. Electrostatic acceleration techniques for classifying particles as to size in the particle range from 0.1 to about 100 microns diameter were employed.

  19. Wave energy transmission apparatus for high-temperature environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Carlberg, Ingrid A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wave energy transmission apparatus has a conduit made from a refractory oxide. A transparent, refractory ceramic window is coupled to the conduit. Wave energy passing through the window enters the conduit.

  20. Optical trapping apparatus, methods and applications using photonic crystal resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Chen, Yih-Fan

    2015-06-16

    A plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses and a plurality optical trapping methods using the plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses include located and formed over a substrate a photonic waveguide that is coupled (i.e., either separately coupled or integrally coupled) with a photonic crystal resonator. In a particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a monocrystalline silicon (or other) photonic material absent any chemical functionalization. In another particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a silicon nitride material which when actuating the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus with a 1064 nanometer resonant photonic radiation wavelength (or other resonant photonic radiation wavelength in a range from about 700 to about 1200 nanometers) provides no appreciable heating of an aqueous sample fluid that is analyzed by the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus.

  1. Formation and maintenance of the Golgi apparatus in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays essential roles in intracellular trafficking, protein and lipid modification, and polysaccharide synthesis in eukaryotic cells. It is well known for its unique stacked structure, which is conserved among most eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms of biogenesis and maintenance of the structure, which are deeply related to ER-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport systems, have long been mysterious. Now having extremely powerful microscopic technologies developed for live-cell imaging, the plant Golgi apparatus provides an ideal system to resolve the question. The plant Golgi apparatus has unique features that are not conserved in other kingdoms, which will also give new insights into the Golgi functions in plant life. In this review, we will summarize the features of the plant Golgi apparatus and transport mechanisms around it, with a focus on recent advances in Golgi biogenesis by live imaging of plants cells.

  2. Improved apparatus for continuous culture of hydrogen-fixing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. F.; Litchfield, J. H.

    1970-01-01

    Improved apparatus permits the continuous culture of Hydrogenomonas eutropha. System incorporates three essential subsystems - /1/ environmentally isolated culture vessel, /2/ analytical system with appropriate sensors and readout devices, /3/ control system with feedback responses to each analytical measurement.

  3. Simple homemade apparatus for harvesting uncultured magnetotactic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lins Ulysses

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple apparatus for harvesting uncultured magnetotactic microorganisms is described. This apparatus consists of a glass container with two openings. A large opening on the topside is used to introduce the sediment and water. The sediment and water are previously stored in loosely capped bottles previously tested for the presence of magnetotactic bacteria. The apparatus is exposed to a properly aligned magnetic field of a homemade coil and the bacteria are removed through the capillary end of the second opening of the container. Harvested bacteria can then be used to ultrastrucutral studies using electron spectroscopic imaging. Large numbers of magnetotactic bacteria consisting of cocci and rod-shaped cells were efficiently collected from different environments. This apparatus is useful for microbiological studies on uncultured magnetotactic bacteria, especially in molecular approaches for phylogenetic investigations that give information on the natural diversity of microbial communities.

  4. Immunochemical studies of 22S protein from isolated mitotic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1969-05-01

    Evidence is presented that the "22S protein" of mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs is not microtubule protein. An antibody preparation active against 22S protein is described, and immunochemical studies of the distribution of 22S protein in various cellular fractions and among morphological features of mitotic apparatus are reported. The protein is ubiquitous in the metaphase egg fractions that were tested but is not found in sperm flagella. It is immunologically distinct from proposed microtubule protein isolated from mitotic apparatus by the method of Sakai, and from proposed microtubule protein obtained after extraction with mild acid. It exists in nontubule material of isolated mitotic apparatus but is not detectable in microtubules.

  5. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  6. Apparatus and Method for Communication over Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor); Greer, III, Lawrence C. (Inventor); Nappier, Jennifer M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for communicating over power lines. The apparatus includes a coupling modem that is situated between a power line and a device. The coupling modem is configured to demodulate a signal received from the power line into a sine signal and a cosine signal. The coupling modem is also configured to modulate a communicated bit stream received from the device into a transmitted signal in order to impose the transmitted signal onto the power line.

  7. Method and apparatus for vibrating a substrate during material formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jeffrey A [Richland, WA; Roger, Johnson N [Richland, WA; John, Munley T [Benton City, WA; Walter, Park R [Benton City, WA

    2008-10-21

    A method and apparatus for affecting the properties of a material include vibrating the material during its formation (i.e., "surface sifting"). The method includes the steps of providing a material formation device and applying a plurality of vibrations to the material during formation, which vibrations are oscillations having dissimilar, non-harmonic frequencies and at least two different directions. The apparatus includes a plurality of vibration sources that impart vibrations to the material.

  8. Superhydrophobic coated apparatus for liquid purification by evaporative condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T; McNeany, Steve R; Dinsmore, Thomas V; Hunter, Scott R; Ivanov, Ilia N

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a first vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The first vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus simplifying maintenance of the apparatus.

  9. Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY; Sugavanam, Krishnan [Mahopac, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Seebruck-Seeon, DE

    2012-01-24

    Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth dynamically changes the depth of prefetching so that the number of multiple streams as well as the hit rate of a single stream are optimized. The method and apparatus in one aspect monitor a plurality of load requests from a processing unit for data in a prefetch buffer, determine an access pattern associated with the plurality of load requests and adjust a prefetch depth according to the access pattern.

  10. Mitotic apparatus: the selective extraction of protein with mild acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1968-07-26

    The treatment of isolated mitotic apparatus with mild (pH 3) hydrochloric acid results in the extraction of less than 10 percent of its protein, accompanied by the selective morphological disappearance of the microtubules. The same extraction can be shown to dissolve outer doublet microtubules from sperm flagella. A protein with points of similarity to the flagellar microtubule protein is the major component of the extract from mitotic apparatus.

  11. Apparatus, System, and Method for Forward Osmosis in Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2013-01-03

    An apparatus, system, and method for desalinating water is presented. The invention relates to recovery of water from impaired water sources by using FO and seawater as draw solution (DS). The seawater becomes diluted over time and can be easily desalinated at very low pressures. Thus, a device consumes less energy when recovering water. The apparatus, system and method comprise an immersed forward osmosis cell.

  12. Microwave/Sonic Apparatus Measures Flow and Density in Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Byerly, Kent A.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the rate of flow and the mass density of a liquid or slurry includes a special section of pipe instrumented with microwave and sonic sensors, and a computer that processes digitized readings taken by the sensors. The apparatus was conceived specifically for monitoring a flow of oil-well-drilling mud, but the basic principles of its design and operation are also applicable to monitoring flows of other liquids and slurries.

  13. Apparatus for laser slowing and cooling of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-09

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This is the final report for our DURIP grant entitled "Apparatus for Laser Slowing and cooling of Molecules". We have... cooling of a new molecular species, TlF. We have also successfully acquired and assembled the parts for a custom laser system, which produces long...Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 09-10-2016 1-Sep-2012 31-Aug-2014 Final Report: Apparatus for laser slowing and cooling of molecules The views

  14. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  15. STUDY ON COMPUETD APPARATUS FOR EXTERNAL CARDIAC MASSAGE AND ITS CLINICAL APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mingshun; MENG Fanhang; ZHU Shouzeng

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To make and study computed apparatus for external cardiac massage and observe its clinieal effect. Method The apparatus was made and was applied. Result The apparatus was effective. Conclusion The apparatus was a effective equipment in treatment of patient with cardiac arrest.

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section 78... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked “SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS.”...

  17. Phase change thermal control materials, method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  18. Apparatus and method for enhancing tissue repair in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus is introduced for the use of enhancing tissue repair in mammals. The apparatus includes a sleeve; an electrically conductive coil; a sleeve support; an electrical circuit configured to supply the coil with a square wave time varying electrical current sufficient to create approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.5 gauss. When in use, the sleeve of the apparatus is placed on a mammalian body part and the time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.5 gauss is generated on the mammalian body for an extended period of time so that the tissue is encouraged to be regenerated in the mammalian body part at a rate in excess of the normal tissue regeneration rate relative to regeneration without application of the time varying electromagnetic force.

  19. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  20. Apparatus and process for passivating an SRF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Wallace, John P

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus and process for the production of a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided. The apparatus comprises a first chamber positioned within a second chamber, an RF generator and vacuum pumping systems. The process comprises placing the niobium cavity in a first chamber of the apparatus; thermally treating the cavity by high temperature in the first chamber while maintaining high vacuum in the first and second chambers; and applying a passivating thin film layer to a surface of the cavity in the presence of a gaseous mixture and an RF field. Further a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients produced by the method of the invention is provided.

  1. Apparatus comprising magnetically actuated valves and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thayne L.; Harper, Jason C.

    2016-07-12

    The present invention, in part, relates to an apparatus having a single-use, normally-closed fluidic valve that is initially maintained in the closed position by a valve element bonded to an adhesive coating. The valve is opened using a magnetic force. The valve element includes a magnetic material or metal. In some examples, the valve is opened by bringing a magnet in proximity to the valve element to provide a magnetic force that delaminates the valve element from the adhesive coating. In particular, the apparatus can be useful for on-chip amplification and/or detection of various targets, including biological targets and any amplifiable targets. Such apparatuses and methods are useful for in-field or real-time detection of targets, especially in limited resource settings.

  2. Apparatus and method for the electrolysis of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    2015-04-21

    An apparatus for the electrolytic splitting of water into hydrogen and/or oxygen, the apparatus comprising: (i) at least one lithographically-patternable substrate having a surface; (ii) a plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes embedded in said surface; (iii) at least one counter electrode in proximity to but not on said surface; (iv) means for collecting evolved hydrogen and/or oxygen gas; (v) electrical powering means for applying a voltage across said plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes and said at least one counter electrode; and (vi) a container for holding an aqueous electrolyte and housing said plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes and said at least one counter electrode. Electrolytic processes using the above electrolytic apparatus or functional mimics thereof are also described.

  3. High concentration of calcium ions in Golgi apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUESHAOBAI; M.ROBERTNICOUD; 等

    1994-01-01

    The interphase NIH3T3 cells were vitally fluorescentstained with calcium indicator fluo-3 and Glogi probe C6-NBD-ceramide,and then the single cells were examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy(LSCFM) for subcellular distributions of Ca2+ and the location of Golgi apparatus.In these cells,the intracellular Ca2+ were found to be highly concentrated in the Golgi apparatus.The changes of distribution of cytosolic high Ca2+ region and the Golgi apparatus coincided with the cell cycle phase.In calcium free medium,when the plasma membrane of the cells which had been loaded with fluo-3/AM were permeated by digitonin,the fluorescence of the Golgi region decreased far less than that of the cytosol.Our results indicated that the Glogi lumen retained significantly high concentration of free calcium.

  4. Recognition and tethering of transport vesicles at the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkos, Tomasz M; Lowe, Martin

    2017-02-23

    The Golgi apparatus occupies a central position within the secretory pathway where it is a hub for vesicle trafficking. Distinct classes of transport vesicles traffic diverse cargoes into and out of this organelle, as well as between the different Golgi subcompartments. A key feature of Golgi trafficking is the specific recognition of transport vesicles at the different regions of the Golgi apparatus, required for the correct cargo delivery. Specificity is ensured by coiled-coil golgins and multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs), which act together to capture vesicles and promote their subsequent fusion with the Golgi membrane. In this review we discuss our current understanding of how golgins and MTCs function together to mediate the specific recognition of vesicles at the Golgi apparatus.

  5. Growth of the Mammalian Golgi Apparatus during Interphase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Alex T-W; Harrison, Rene E

    2016-09-15

    During the cell cycle, genetic materials and organelles are duplicated to ensure that there is sufficient cellular content for daughter cells. While Golgi growth in interphase has been observed in lower eukaryotes, the elaborate ribbon structure of the mammalian Golgi apparatus has made it challenging to monitor. Here we demonstrate the growth of the mammalian Golgi apparatus in its protein content and volume during interphase. Through ultrastructural analyses, physical growth of the Golgi apparatus was revealed to occur by cisternal elongation of the individual Golgi stacks. By examining the timing and regulation of Golgi growth, we established that Golgi growth starts after passage through the cell growth checkpoint at late G1 phase and continues in a manner highly correlated with cell size growth. Finally, by identifying S6 kinase 1 as a major player in Golgi growth, we revealed the coordination between cell size and Golgi growth via activation of the protein synthesis machinery in early interphase.

  6. Crosstalk of small GTPases at the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschieri, Francesco; Farhan, Hesso

    2012-01-01

    Small GTPases regulate a wide range of homeostatic processes such as cytoskeletal dynamics, organelle homeostasis, cell migration and vesicle trafficking, as well as in pathologic conditions such as carcinogenesis and metastatic spreading. Therefore, it is important to understand the regulation of small GTPase signaling, but this is complicated by the fact that crosstalk exists between different GTPase families and that we have to understand how they signal in time and space. The Golgi apparatus represents a hub for several signaling molecules and its importance in this field is constantly increasing. In this review we will discuss small GTPases signaling at the Golgi apparatus. Then, we will highlight recent work that contributed to a better understanding of crosstalk between different small GTPase families, with a special emphasis on their crosstalk at the Golgi apparatus. Finally, we will give a brief overview of available methods and tools to investigate spatio-temporal small GTPase crosstalk.

  7. Self-contained cryogenic gas sampling apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, G.J.; Motes, B.G.; Bird, S.K.; Kotter, D.K.

    1996-03-26

    Apparatus for obtaining a whole gas sample, is composed of: a sample vessel having an inlet for receiving a gas sample; a controllable valve mounted for controllably opening and closing the inlet; a valve control coupled to the valve for opening and closing the valve at selected times; a portable power source connected for supplying operating power to the valve control; and a cryogenic coolant in thermal communication with the vessel for cooling the interior of the vessel to cryogenic temperatures. A method is described for obtaining an air sample using the apparatus described above, by: placing the apparatus at a location at which the sample is to be obtained; operating the valve control to open the valve at a selected time and close the valve at a selected subsequent time; and between the selected times maintaining the vessel at a cryogenic temperature by heat exchange with the coolant. 3 figs.

  8. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2013-12-31

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  9. Single photon imaging and timing array sensor apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Clayton

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating a three-dimension image of an object or target. The apparatus is comprised of a photon source for emitting a photon at a target. The emitted photons are received by a photon receiver for receiving the photon when reflected from the target. The photon receiver determines a reflection time of the photon and further determines an arrival position of the photon on the photon receiver. An analyzer is communicatively coupled to the photon receiver, wherein the analyzer generates a three-dimensional image of the object based upon the reflection time and the arrival position.

  10. From Perceptual Apparatus to Immersive Field of Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    , or orchestrators of emotions, many of these apparatuses were meant to be vehicles for regaining the consciousness of the body and the environment. Apparatuses that expand into space complete this particular genealogy – space itself becoming a mediating and conductive device capable of engendering these embedding...... situations, Sloterdijk remarks. Situated within the field of trans-disciplinary collaborations, the oeuvre of Werner Ruhnau comes to the fore as paradigmatic for illustrating these aspects. The joint projects with philosopher, artist and educator Hugo Kükelhaus, or artists such as Yves Klein and Adolf Luther...

  11. Structure of reproductive apparatus of Gracilarial Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Di; ZHU JianYi; HE Yang; CHENG XiaoJie; ZHANG WenYan; ZHANG XueCheng

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive apparatus of GracilarialGracilariopsis lemaneiformis collected from Qingdao city were studied with a light and a transmission electron microscope. The special superficial arrangement of spermatangium for this species was clearly observed, and the ultrastructure of spermatangial development revealed the similar cytodynamic pattern followed by all the Giracilariaceae members developed from spermatangial mother cells to spermatangium. The female reproductive apparatus before fertilization was also observed and trichogyne was found protruding above the cortex, contrary to the earlier reports. Tetrasporangium was formed by an outer cortical cell and the tetraspores became spherical and expended after being released.

  12. Method and automated apparatus for detecting coliform organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, W. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Method and automated apparatus are disclosed for determining the time of detection of metabolically produced hydrogen by coliform bacteria cultured in an electroanalytical cell from the time the cell is inoculated with the bacteria. The detection time data provides bacteria concentration values. The apparatus is sequenced and controlled by a digital computer to discharge a spent sample, clean and sterilize the culture cell, provide a bacteria nutrient into the cell, control the temperature of the nutrient, inoculate the nutrient with a bacteria sample, measures the electrical potential difference produced by the cell, and measures the time of detection from inoculation.

  13. Power control apparatus and methods for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Qiu, Li

    2016-03-22

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging apparatus and methods are described which allow the sharing of charge current between multiple vehicles connected to a single source of charging energy. In addition, this charge sharing can be performed in a grid-friendly manner by lowering current supplied to EVs when necessary in order to satisfy the needs of the grid, or building operator. The apparatus and methods can be integrated into charging stations or can be implemented with a middle-man approach in which a multiple EV charging box, which includes an EV emulator and multiple pilot signal generation circuits, is coupled to a single EV charge station.

  14. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  15. Physical design of positronium time of flight spectroscopy apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-Pan; ZHANG Zi-Liang; QIN Xiu-Bo; YU Run-Sheng; WANG Bao-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Positronium time of flight spectroscopy(Ps-TOF)is an effective technique for porous material research.It has advantages over other techniques for analyzing the porosity and pore tortuosity of materials.This paper describes a design for Ps-TOF apparatus based on the Beijing intense slow positron beam,supplying a new material characterization technique.In order to improve the time resolution and increase the count rate of the apparatus,the detector system is optimized.For 3 eV o-Ps,the time broadening is 7.66 ns and the count rate is 3 cps after correction.

  16. Apparatus and method for the characterization of respirable aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Douglas K.; Hodges, Bradley W.; Bush, Jesse D.; Mishima, Jofu

    2016-05-31

    An apparatus for the characterization of respirable aerosols, including: a burn chamber configured to selectively contain a sample that is selectively heated to generate an aerosol; a heating assembly disposed within the burn chamber adjacent to the sample; and a sampling segment coupled to the burn chamber and configured to collect the aerosol such that it may be analyzed. The apparatus also includes an optional sight window disposed in a wall of the burn chamber such that the sample may be viewed during heating. Optionally, the sample includes one of a Lanthanide, an Actinide, and a Transition metal.

  17. Apparatus for Precise Indium-Bump Bonding of Microchips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Larry; Mulder, Jerry; Alvarado, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus has been designed and built for use in precise positioning and pressing of a microchip onto a substrate (which could, optionally, be another microchip) for the purpose of indium-bump bonding. The apparatus (see figure) includes the following: A stereomicroscope, A stage for precise positioning of the microchip in rotation angle (theta) about the nominally vertical pressing axis and in translation along two nominally horizontal coordinate axes (x and y), and An actuator system that causes a bonding tip to press the microchip against the substrate with a precisely controlled force. In operation, the microscope and the stage are used to position the microchip under the bonding tip and to align the indium bumps on the chip and the substrate, then the actuator system is used to apply a prescribed bonding force for a prescribed time. The improved apparatus supplants a partly similar prior apparatus that operated with less precision and repeatability, producing inconsistent and unreliable bonds. Results of the use of the prior apparatus included broken microchips, uneven bonds, and bonds characterized, variously, by overcompression or undercompression. In that apparatus, the bonding force was generated and controlled by use of a micrometer head positioned over the center of a spring-loaded scale, and the force was applied to the microchip via the scale, which was equipped for digital readout of the force. The inconsistency of results was attributed to the following causes: It was not possible to control the bonding force with sufficient precision or repeatability. Particularly troublesome was the inability to control the force at levels less than the weight of 150 g. Excessive compliance in the spring-loaded scale, combined with deviations from parallelarity of the substrate and bonding-tip surfaces, gave rise to nonuniformity in the pressure applied to the microchip, thereby generating excessive stresses and deformations in the microchip. In the

  18. Apparatus to detect stable fractional charges on matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderspek, R.

    1980-04-01

    The construction of an apparatus designed to detect stable fractional charges on matter, if they exist, to the level of 10/sup -24/ per nucleon is reported and discussed. The charges on a stream of highly consistent droplets produced by the apparatus are determined by accurate measurement of the deflection of the droplets in falling through a static electric field. Maintenance of certain parameters of operation calculated to limit the random effects of electrical and aerodynamical disturbances on the droplets indicate a precision in the measurement of the charge on a droplet of 0.02e can be attained. 7 figures.

  19. The sampling apparatus of volatile organic compounds for wood composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENJun; ZHAOLin-bo; LIUYu

    2005-01-01

    Terpenes, aldehydes, ketones, benzene, and toluene are the important volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from wood composites. A sampling apparatus of VOCs for wood composites was designed and manufactured by Northeast Forestry University in China.The concentration of VOCs derived from wood based materials, such as flooring, panel wall, finishing, and furniture can be sampled in a small stainless steel chambers. A protocol is also developed in this study to sample and measure the new and representative specimens. Preliminary research showed that the properties of the equipment have good stability. The sort and the amount of different components can be detected from it. The apparatus is practicable.

  20. Method And Apparatus For Atomizing And Vaporizing Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Lal, Amit

    2014-09-18

    A method and apparatus for atomizing and vaporizing liquid is described. An apparatus having an ejector configured to eject one or more droplets of liquid may be inserted into a reservoir containing liquid. The ejector may have a vibrating device that vibrates the ejector and causes liquid to move from the reservoir up through the ejector and out through an orifice located on the top of the ejector. The one or more droplets of liquid ejected from the ejector may be heated and vaporized into the air.

  1. Mourning dove ( Zenaida macroura) wing-whistles may contain threat-related information for con- and hetero-specifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Seth W.

    2008-10-01

    Distinct acoustic whistles are associated with the wing-beats of many doves, and are especially noticeable when doves ascend from the ground when startled. I thus hypothesized that these sounds may be used by flock-mates as cues of potential danger. To test this hypothesis, I compared the responses of mourning doves ( Zenaida macroura), northern cardinals ( Cardinalis cardinalis), and house sparrows ( Passer domesticus) to audio playbacks of dove ‘startle wing-whistles’, cardinal alarm calls, dove ‘nonstartle wing-whistles’, and sparrow ‘social chatter’. Following playbacks of startle wing-whistles and alarm calls, conspecifics and heterospecifics startled and increased vigilance more than after playbacks of other sounds. Also, the latency to return to feeding was greater following playbacks of startle wing-whistles and alarm calls than following playbacks of other sounds. These results suggest that both conspecifics and heterospecifics may attend to dove wing-whistles in decisions related to antipredator behaviors. Whether the sounds of dove wing-whistles are intentionally produced signals warrants further testing.

  2. Bee threat elicits alarm call in African elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy E King

    Full Text Available Unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, African elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. The sound of disturbed African honeybees Apis meliffera scutellata causes African elephants Loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. In our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stings, compared to white noise control playbacks. Most importantly, elephants produced distinctive "rumble" vocalizations in response to bee sounds. These rumbles exhibited an upward shift in the second formant location, which implies active vocal tract modulation, compared to rumbles made in response to white noise playbacks. In a second experiment, audio playbacks of these rumbles produced in response to bees elicited increased headshaking, and further and faster retreat behavior in other elephants, compared to control rumble playbacks with lower second formant frequencies. These responses to the bee rumble stimuli occurred in the absence of any bees or bee sounds. This suggests that these elephant rumbles may function as referential signals, in which a formant frequency shift alerts nearby elephants about an external threat, in this case, the threat of bees.

  3. Extending a context model for microphone forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Qian, Kun; Dittmann, Jana

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we extend an existing context model for statistical pattern recognition based microphone forensics by: first, generating a generalized model for this process and second, using this general model to construct a complex new application scenario model for microphone forensic investigations on the detection of playback recordings (a.k.a. replays, re-recordings, double-recordings). Thereby, we build the theoretical basis for answering the question whether an audio recording was made to record a playback or natural sound. The results of our investigations on the research question of playback detection imply that it is possible with our approach on our evaluation set of six microphones. If the recorded sound is not modified prior to playback, we achieve in our tests 89.00% positive indications on the correct two microphones involved. If the sound is post-processed (here, by normalization) this figure decreases (in our normalization example to 36.00%, while another 50.67% of the tests still indicate two microphones, of which one has actually not been involved in the recording and playback recording process).

  4. Conspecific attraction in a grassland bird, the Baird's Sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlering, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Faaborg, J.

    2006-01-01

    Territorial songbirds generally use song to defend territories and attract mates, but conspecific song may also serve as a cue to attract other male songbirds to a breeding site. Although known to occur in some colonial and forest-associated species, only recently have investigators examined conspecific attraction in grassland species. We used a playback experiment to examine the possible role of conspecific attraction for males searching for potentially suitable breeding habitat in a grassland specialist, the Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii). Experimental playback plots and control plots with similar landscape and vegetation characteristics were established at two sites in North Dakota. Baird's Sparrows colonized three of six experimental plots and none of six control plots. Males on experimental plots established territories adjacent to the playback stations and were sometimes observed counter-singing with the playback of conspecific songs. Vegetation characteristics were similar on all study plots, and did not explain differences in bird density on our treatment plots. Although we found that playback of conspecific songs attracted male Baird's Sparrows to previously unoccupied, potentially suitable habitat, further experiments are needed to examine the importance of conspecific attraction relative to other cues that birds may use, such as vegetation features. The conservation and management implications of conspecific attraction are not completely understood, but the presence of conspecifics should be considered as a potential cue in habitat selection by all species of birds. ?? 2006 The Author(s).

  5. New testing plausibilities of the danish triaxial apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    The Danish triaxial apparatus can test soil specimens with isotropic stress states. Isotropic stress produces isotropic yielding - the shear zone is distributed equally across the whole volume of a specimen. This prevents localized fracture cracking) and bulging. As the soil specimen remain intact...

  6. Use of an apparatus for separating magnetic pieces of material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using of an apparatus for separating magnetic pieces of scrap-material of a first group from magnetic pieces of scrap- material of a second group, wherein a mixture of pieces of scrap-material from the first group and from the second group is collectively transported with a conveyor to a separating

  7. An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…

  8. Apparatus Measures Friction In Vacuum Or Pressurized Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan, Joseph R.

    1996-01-01

    Friction-testing apparatus in small test chamber contains special atmosphere, which could include vacuum or pressurized gas. Provides readings indicative of friction between pin specimen and plate specimen sliding under pin in reciprocating linear motion. Pin and plate specimens made of same or different material.

  9. Muscle strategies for leg extensions on a "Reformer" apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantergi, Débora; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Jinha, Azim; Brodt, Guilherme Auler; Herzog, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Considering the kinematics of leg extensions performed on a Reformer apparatus, one would expect high activation of hip and knee extensor muscle groups. However, because of the bi-articular nature of some lower limb muscles, and the possibility to vary the direction of force application on the Reformer bar, muscles can be coordinated theoretically in a variety of ways and still achieve the desired outcome. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the knee and hip moments during leg extensions performed on the Reformer apparatus and to estimate the forces in individual muscles crossing these joints using static optimization. Fifteen subjects performed leg extensions exercises on the Reformer apparatus using an individually chosen resistance. To our big surprise, we found that subjects performed the exercise using two conceptually different strategies (i) the first group used simultaneous hip and knee extension moments, (ii) while the second group used simultaneous hip flexion and knee extension moments to perform the exercise. These different strategies were achieved by changing the direction of the resultant force applied by the subject's feet on the Reformer bar. While leg extensions on the Reformer apparatus have been thought to strengthen the hip and knee extensors muscles, our results demonstrate that patients can perform the exercise in a different and unexpected way. In order to control the hip and knee moments and achieve the desired outcome of the exercise, the direction of force application on the Reformer bar must be controlled carefully.

  10. Process and apparatus for the conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  11. An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…

  12. Development and application of spectacles frame parameter measurement apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qing; Gary Ming Guo; Hu Hongzhi; Hu Jinquan

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the spectacles frame parameters has substantial effects on both the production and export of spectacles products. In fact, this measurement is the measurement of related three-dimensional trajectory.The working principles of the measurement apparatus developed based on capacitive grating technology are introduced in this paper. Capacitive grating technology is a precision length measurement method. Its advantages are small volume, low price, low production cost, and easy to obtain precise readings of the measured data. The measurement apparatus is composed of one industrial control computer, two microcontrollers and corresponding circuits. The system stability is guaranteed during the design of the circuit with the practical situation of its industry application taken into account. The software is divided into lower layer and upper layer. Each layer has different emphasis. The causes of system errors and the method of error elimination are also analyzed. The analysis of the data obtained from experiments and the operating results of prototype apparatus both indicate that the proposed measurement apparatus has achieved outstanding competitive technical level of same kind products in international market and thus has ideal implications for mass production.

  13. Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenchen, John Eric; Ruiz, Carlos Leon

    1998-01-01

    Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand.

  14. Real-time self-networking radiation detector apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Edward; Lemley, James; Tsang, Thomas Y.; Milian, Laurence W.

    2007-06-12

    The present invention is for a radiation detector apparatus for detecting radiation sources present in cargo shipments. The invention includes the features of integrating a bubble detector sensitive to neutrons and a GPS system into a miniaturized package that can wirelessly signal the presence of radioactive material in shipping containers. The bubble density would be read out if such indicated a harmful source.

  15. Apparatus for Teaching Physics: A Versatile Projectile Motion Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigo, Robert B.; Korda, Anthony

    1984-01-01

    Describes the design and use of a projectile motion apparatus to illustrate a variety of projective motion results typically discussed in an introductory course. They include independence of horizontal (constant speed) and vertical (constant acceleration) motions, parabolic path shape, and other types of motion. (JN)

  16. Electroluminescent apparatus having a structured luminescence conversion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus [Sunnyvale, CA

    2008-09-02

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains color-changing and non-color-changing regions arranged in a particular pattern.

  17. Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

    2013-07-02

    An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

  18. Coacervate droplets, proteinoid microspheres, and the genetic apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Differences between typical coacervate droplets and typical proteinoid microspheres are examined. It is pointed out that coacervate droplets are produced from polymers obtained from contemporary organisms. The microspheres considered are aggregates of proteinoid formed from monomeric amino acids under geologically relevant conditions. Aspects regarding the primordial sequence are discussed along with the origin of the genetic apparatus and the genetic code.

  19. Apparatus and method for motion tracking in brain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is apparatus and method for motion tracking of a subject in medical brain imaging. The method comprises providing a light projector and a first camera; projecting a first pattern sequence (S1) onto a surface region of the subject with the light projector, wherein the subject is positioned...

  20. Method and apparatus for imaging and documenting fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for imaging and documenting fingerprints. A fluorescent dye brought in intimate proximity with the lipid residues of a latent fingerprint is caused to fluoresce on exposure to light energy. The resulting fluorescing image may be recorded photographically.

  1. Fuel of the Bacterial Flagellar Type III Protein Export Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru; Kinoshita, Miki; Namba, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    The flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force (PMF) across the cytoplasmic membrane as the energy sources and transports flagellar component proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal growing end of the growing structure to construct the bacterial flagellum beyond the cellular membranes. The flagellar type III export apparatus coordinates flagellar protein export with assembly by ordered export of substrates to parallel with their order of the assembly. The export apparatus is composed of a PMF-driven transmembrane export gate complex and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex. Since the ATPase complex is dispensable for flagellar protein export, PMF is the primary fuel for protein unfolding and translocation. Interestingly, the export gate complex can also use sodium motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane in addition to PMF when the ATPase complex does not work properly. Here, we describe experimental protocols, which have allowed us to identify the export substrate class and the primary fuel of the flagellar type III protein export apparatus in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

  2. Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2004-05-01

    In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

  3. Multidimensional structured data visualization method and apparatus, text visualization method and apparatus, method and apparatus for visualizing and graphically navigating the world wide web, method and apparatus for visualizing hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, John S.; Dowson, Scott T.; Hart, Michelle L.; Hatley, Wes L.

    2008-05-13

    A method of displaying correlations among information objects comprises receiving a query against a database; obtaining a query result set; and generating a visualization representing the components of the result set, the visualization including one of a plane and line to represent a data field, nodes representing data values, and links showing correlations among fields and values. Other visualization methods and apparatus are disclosed.

  4. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  5. Processes And Apparatus For Inhibiting Membrane Bio-fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2012-12-20

    Certain embodiments are directed to a process and apparatus for cleaning and/or regeneration of permeable or semipermeable membranes comprising modulating pressure of a feed stream feeding the permeable or semipermeable membrane and providing intermittent pressure pulses for cleaning and/or regeneration of the permeable or semipermeable membrane.

  6. Process and apparatus for the conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into

  7. Molecular Pathway of Microtubule Organization at the Golgi Apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jingchao; de Heus, Cecilia; Liu, Qingyang; Bouchet, Benjamin P; Noordstra, Ivar; Jiang, Kai; Hua, Shasha; Martin, Maud; Yang, Chao; Grigoriev, Ilya; Katrukha, Eugene A; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Qi, Robert Z; Klumperman, Judith; Akhmanova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus controls the formation of non-centrosomal microtubule arrays important for Golgi organization, polarized transport, cell motility, and cell differentiation. Here, we show that CAMSAP2 stabilizes and attaches microtubule minus ends to the Golgi through a complex of AKAP450 and myo

  8. Apparatus for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC

    2008-04-15

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  9. Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2001-05-01

    In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

  10. A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate the Peltier Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougal, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the Peltier, or thermoelectric effect, which provides a way of cooling a system by coupling it thermally to the junction of two materials suitably chosen, shaped, and connected to a d.c. current. Describes an apparatus which simply and inexpensively demonstrates this effect. (MLH)

  11. Apparatus and processes for the mass production of photovotaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2002-07-23

    An apparatus and processes for large scale inline manufacturing of CdTe photovoltaic modules in which all steps, including rapid substrate heating, deposition of CdS, deposition of CdTe, CdCl.sub.2 treatment, and ohmic contact formation, are performed within a single vacuum boundary at modest vacuum pressures. A p+ ohmic contact region is formed by subliming a metal salt onto the CdTe layer. A back electrode is formed by way of a low cost spray process, and module scribing is performed by means of abrasive blasting or mechanical brushing through a mask. The vacuum process apparatus facilitates selective heating of substrates and films, exposure of substrates and films to vapor with minimal vapor leakage, deposition of thin films onto a substrate, and stripping thin films from a substrate. A substrate transport apparatus permits the movement of substrates into and out of vacuum during the thin film deposition processes, while preventing the collection of coatings on the substrate transport apparatus itself.

  12. Apparatus and processes for the mass production of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2007-05-22

    An apparatus and processes for large scale inline manufacturing of CdTe photovoltaic modules in which all steps, including rapid substrate heating, deposition of CdS, deposition of CdTe, CdCl.sub.2 treatment, and ohmic contact formation, are performed within a single vacuum boundary at modest vacuum pressures. A p+ ohmic contact region is formed by subliming a metal salt onto the CdTe layer. A back electrode is formed by way of a low cost spray process, and module scribing is performed by means of abrasive blasting or mechanical brushing through a mask. The vacuum process apparatus facilitates selective heating of substrates and films, exposure of substrates and films to vapor with minimal vapor leakage, deposition of thin films onto a substrate, and stripping thin films from a substrate. A substrate transport apparatus permits the movement of substrates into and out of vacuum during the thin film deposition processes, while preventing the collection of coatings on the substrate transport apparatus itself.

  13. Versatile apparatus for etching scanning tunneling microscope tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiering, J. O.; Ellis, F. M.

    1990-12-01

    We have developed an apparatus for easy and consistent etching of small tips suitable for use with a scanning tunneling microscope. Its unique features are free access to the etching region and a continuous supply of electrolyte for the production of many tips in succession.

  14. Development of Portable Uranium Enrichment Measurement Apparatus With CdZnTe Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A portable uranium enrichment measurement apparatus with CdZnTe detector manufactured by "eV Products" company was tested in this work. The apparatus consists of a co-planar grid detector based on

  15. High-frequency feed structure antenna apparatus and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarehraz, Mohammad (Inventor); Buckle, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Stefanakos, Elias (Inventor); Weller, Thomas (Inventor); Goswami, D. Yogi (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An antenna apparatus for the reception of, and or transmission of, electromagnetic energy, the apparatus including a non-radiating dielectric waveguide aperture coupled to at least one dielectric rod antenna, which is electromagnetically coupled to a transmission line element.

  16. Electric Birefringence: A Simple Apparatus for Determining Physical Parameters of Macromolecules and Colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimm, Harold H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a birefringence apparatus that can be assembled for less than $100 and can be used to measure both the dimensions and dipole moments of many macromolecules. Details are given of the construction and manipulation of the apparatus. (JN)

  17. A Modular Laser Apparatus for Polarimetry, Nephelometry, and Fluorimetry in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurzenski, Jessica; Darveau, Scott A.; Gindt, Yvonne; Mueller, Jessica; Vaverka, April; Barta, Cheri; Fitch, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    A novel apparatus that strengthens the connection between research and teaching laboratories and serves multiple purposes is described. A versatile laser apparatus suitable for the undergraduate teaching laboratory that may serve as polarimeter, nephelometer or fluorimeter is designed.

  18. Stationary Apparatus Would Apply Forces of Walking to Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauss, Jessica; Wood, John; Budinoff, Jason; Correia, Michael; Albrecht, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    A proposed apparatus would apply controlled cyclic forces to both feet for the purpose of preventing the loss of bone density in a human subject whose bones are not subjected daily to the mechanical loads of normal activity in normal Earth gravitation. The apparatus was conceived for use by astronauts on long missions in outer space; it could also be used by bedridden patients on Earth, including patients too weak to generate the necessary forces by their own efforts. The apparatus (see figure) would be a modified version of a bicycle-like exercise machine, called the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS), now aboard the International Space Station. Attached to each CEVIS pedal would be a computer-controlled stress/ vibration exciter connected to the heel portion of a special-purpose pedal. The user would wear custom shoes that would amount to standard bicycle shoes equipped with cleats for secure attachment of the balls of the feet to the special- purpose pedals. If possible, prior to use of the apparatus, the human subject would wear a portable network of recording accelerometers, while walking, jogging, and running. The information thus gathered would be fed to the computer, wherein it would be used to make the exciters apply forces and vibrations closely approximating the forces and vibrations experienced by that individual during normal exercise. It is anticipated that like the forces applied to bones during natural exercise, these artificial forces would stimulate the production of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells), as needed to prevent or retard loss of bone mass. In addition to helping to prevent deterioration of bones, the apparatus could be used in treating a person already suffering from osteoporosis. For this purpose, the magnitude of the applied forces could be reduced, if necessary, to a level at which weak hip and leg bones would still be stimulated to produce osteoblasts without exposing them to the full stresses of walking and

  19. The Effects of Using Scientific and Household Apparatus on the Results of a Primary School Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; Ridge, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the effects of using scientific apparatus versus household objects on the accuracy of primary school children in a simple titration exercise. Indicates no significant difference between the accuracy obtained using the two types of apparatus at the beginning, but improved performance for children using scientific apparatus by the end.…

  20. 21 CFR 880.6740 - Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. 880... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6740 Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus is a device used to aspirate, remove, or sample...

  1. 46 CFR 160.010-5 - Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. 160.010-5... Vessels § 160.010-5 Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. (a) Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy must have a plastic foam body with an external protective covering. The body may be reinforced...

  2. 46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section 96... Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit. (b) The self-contained...

  3. Traffic through the Golgi apparatus as studied by radioautography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G; Wild, G

    1991-02-01

    The ability to radiolabel biological molecules, in conjunction with radioautographic or cell fractionation techniques, has brought about a revolution in our knowledge of dynamic cellular processes. This has been particularly true since the 1940's, when isotopes such as 35S and 14C became available, since these isotopes could be incorporated into a great variety of biologically important compounds. The first dynamic evidence for Golgi apparatus involvement in biosynthesis came from light microscope radioautographic studies by Jennings and Florey in the 1950's, in which label was localized to the supranuclear Golgi region of goblet cells soon after injection of 35S-sulfate. When the low energy isotope tritium became available, and when radioautography could be extended to the electron microscope level, a great improvement in spatial resolution was achieved. Studies using 3H-amino acids revealed that proteins were synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, migrated to the Golgi apparatus, and thence to secretion granules, lysosomes, or the plasma membrane. The work of Neutra and Leblond in the 1960's using 3H-glucose provided dramatic evidence that the Golgi apparatus was involved in glycosylation. Work with 3H-mannose (a core sugar in N-linked side chains), showed that this sugar was incorporated into glycoproteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, providing the first radioautographic evidence that glycosylation of proteins did not occur solely in the Golgi apparatus. Studies with the tritiated precursors of fucose, galactose, and sialic acid, on the other hand, showed that these terminal sugars are mainly added in the Golgi apparatus. With its limited spatial resolution, radioautography cannot discriminate between label in adjacent Golgi saccules. Nonetheless, in some cell types, radioautographic evidence (along with cytochemical and cell fractionation data) has indicated that the Golgi is subcompartmentalized in terms of glycosylation, with galactose and

  4. Three-dimensional shape of the Golgi apparatus in different cell types: serial section scanning electron microscopy of the osmium-impregnated Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Daisuke; Kusumi, Satoshi; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2016-04-01

    Although many studies of the Golgi apparatus structure have been performed by light and electron microscopy, the full shape of the Golgi apparatus remained unclear due to the technical limitations of the previously applied microscopy techniques. In this study, we used serial section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the morphological study of the Golgi apparatus. This method is useful for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of cellular structures without requiring specialized instruments, unlike focused ion beam SEM (FIB-SEM) and serial block face SEM (SBF-SEM). Using the serial section SEM method developed by our laboratory, we investigate the 3D shape of the osmium-impregnated Golgi apparatus in rat epididymal cells, pancreatic acinar cells and gonadotropes. The combination of serial section SEM and a 3D reconstruction technique enabled us to elucidate the entire shape of the Golgi apparatus in these cells. The full shape of the Golgi apparatus in epididymal cells formed a basket-like structure with oval-shaped cisterns, while the Golgi apparatus in an acinar cell from the pancreas was composed of elongated ribbon-like structures that were connected to each other, making a coarse network. The overall image of the Golgi apparatus cisterns from a gonadotrope looked like a spherical cage. This study has clearly shown that entire 3D shape of the Golgi apparatus varies depending on the cell type and that the Golgi cisterns network appears as a single mass located in the large region of the cytoplasm.

  5. Centrifuge Techniques and Apparatus for Transport Experiments in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D. Mattson; Carl D. Paler; Robert W. Smith; Markus Flury

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes experimental approaches and apparatus that we have developed to study solute and colloid transport in porous media using Idaho National Laboratory's 2-m radius centrifuge. The ex-perimental techniques include water flux scaling with applied acceleration at the top of the column and sub-atmospheric pressure control at the column base, automation of data collection, and remote experimental con-trol over the internet. These apparatus include a constant displacement piston pump, a custom designed liquid fraction collector based on switching valve technology, and modified moisture monitoring equipment. Suc-cessful development of these experimental techniques and equipment is illustrated through application to transport of a conservative tracer through unsaturated sand column, with centrifugal acceleration up to 40 gs. Development of such experimental equipment that can withstand high accelerations enhances the centrifuge technique to conduct highly controlled unsaturated solute/colloid transport experiments and allows in-flight liquid sample collection of the effluent.

  6. Apparatus and method for mapping an area of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Torsten A. Cohen, Daniel L.; Feller, Samuel

    2009-12-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for mapping an area of interest using polar coordinates or Cartesian coordinates. The apparatus includes a range finder, an azimuth angle measuring device to provide a heading and an inclinometer to provide an angle of inclination of the range finder as it relates to primary reference points and points of interest. A computer is provided to receive signals from the range finder, inclinometer and azimuth angle measurer to record location data and calculate relative locations between one or more points of interest and one or more primary reference points. The method includes mapping of an area of interest to locate points of interest relative to one or more primary reference points and to store the information in the desired manner. The device may optionally also include an illuminator which can be utilized to paint the area of interest to indicate both points of interest and primary points of reference during and/or after data acquisition.

  7. Method of stabilizing a laser apparatus with wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A method of controlling beam quality and stability of a laser apparatus, the laser apparatus comprising, a diode laser (10) providing first radiation of at least a first wavelength, and a frequency conversion unit (12) configured to frequency-convert the first radiation from the diode laser......) into the first section (222), a second contact (221) for injecting a second current (I2) into the second section (223), and means for controlling a temperature of the diode laser; wherein the method comprises monitoring a first parameter indicative of the power content of a dominant lobe of the first radiation......; iteratively determining a combination of respective values of the first current, the second current and the temperature at which combination of respective values the monitored first parameter and a stability parameter indicative of a fluctuation over time of the monitored first parameter each fulfils...

  8. The SHIVA Project: Spaceflight Holography in a Virtual Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, Jim; Rogers, Jan; Witherow, William; Coimbra, Carlos; Rangel, Roger; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The poster summarizes theoretical and experimental concepts used in the development of the proposed NASA flight experiment SHIVA (Spaceflight Holography in a Virtual Apparatus). SHIVA exploits a unique holography-based, diagnostics tools to understand the behavior of small particles subjected to transient accelerations. Flight experiment protocols and apparatus will test model equations, characterize the acceleration environment and other microgravity phenomena. The primary objective of SHIVA is to enhance the current understanding of complex dynamics of small particles subjected to transient microgravity conditions. Existing theory did not fully describe the movement of particles in fluids in the microgravity environment. Results from recent ground-based experiments and comparison with the model recently developed by Rangel and Coimbra are presented.

  9. Processes, data structures, and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Thomson, Judi R.; Harvey, William J.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Whiting, Mark A.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Chappell, Alan R.; Butner, R. Scott

    2011-09-20

    Processes, data structures, and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  10. Collective communications apparatus and method for parallel systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knies, Allan D.; Keppel, David Pardo; Woo, Dong Hyuk; Fryman, Joshua B.

    2016-10-25

    A collective communication apparatus and method for parallel computing systems. For example, one embodiment of an apparatus comprises a plurality of processor elements (PEs); collective interconnect logic to dynamically form a virtual collective interconnect (VCI) between the PEs at runtime without global communication among all of the PEs, the VCI defining a logical topology between the PEs in which each PE is directly communicatively coupled to a only a subset of the remaining PEs; and execution logic to execute collective operations across the PEs, wherein one or more of the PEs receive first results from a first portion of the subset of the remaining PEs, perform a portion of the collective operations, and provide second results to a second portion of the subset of the remaining PEs.

  11. Method and apparatus of assessing down-hole drilling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Johnson, Monte L.; Bartholomew, David B.; Fox, Joe

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for use in assessing down-hole drilling conditions are disclosed. The apparatus includes a drill string, a plurality of sensors, a computing device, and a down-hole network. The sensors are distributed along the length of the drill string and are capable of sensing localized down-hole conditions while drilling. The computing device is coupled to at least one sensor of the plurality of sensors. The data is transmitted from the sensors to the computing device over the down-hole network. The computing device analyzes data output by the sensors and representative of the sensed localized conditions to assess the down-hole drilling conditions. The method includes sensing localized drilling conditions at a plurality of points distributed along the length of a drill string during drilling operations; transmitting data representative of the sensed localized conditions to a predetermined location; and analyzing the transmitted data to assess the down-hole drilling conditions.

  12. Fuel-flexible burner apparatus and method for fired heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, Darton J.; Isaacs, Rex K.; Jamaluddin, A. S. (Jamal); Benson, Charles E.; Pellizzari, Roberto O.; Little, Cody L.; Marty, Seth A.; Imel, K. Parker; Barnes, Jonathon E.; Parker, Chris S.

    2017-03-14

    A burner apparatus for a fired heating system and a method of burner operation. The burner provides stable operation when burning gas fuels having heating values ranging from low to high and accommodates sudden wide changes in the Wobbe value of the fuel delivered to the burner. The burner apparatus includes a plurality of exterior fuel ejectors and has an exterior notch which extends around the burner wall for receiving and combusting a portion of the gas fuel. At least a portion of the hot combustion product gas produced in the exterior notch is delivered through channels formed in the burner wall to the combustion area at the forward end of the burner. As the Wobbe value of the gas fuel decreases, one or more outer series of addition ejectors can be automatically activated as needed to maintain the amount of heat output desired.

  13. Implications of the Golgi apparatus in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migita, Toshiro; Inoue, Satoshi

    2012-11-01

    The classical view of the Golgi apparatus is of a small membranous organelle involved in protein transport and secretion. Recent descriptions of the molecular network connecting the Golgi to other organelles demonstrate the essential roles of the Golgi in cellular activities as a stress sensor, apoptosis trigger, lipid/protein modifier, mitotic checkpoint, and a mediator of malignant transformation. Thus, the Golgi function should have a fundamental impact on cancer cell survival. Prostate cancer is initially responsive to androgenic hormones; however, it almost invariably progresses to a castration-refractory or hormone-insensitive state. Nevertheless, androgen signaling remains active at this stage and is important as a therapeutic target. Certain Golgi-associated molecules have recently been demonstrated to be regulated by androgen action, and the Golgi is emerging as a new therapeutic target in prostate cancer. The key Golgi-associated molecules essential for prostate cancer development and the potential therapeutic options targeting the Golgi apparatus are discussed.

  14. Versatile apparatus for thermoelectric characterization of oxides at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrade, Matthias; Fjeld, Harald; Norby, Truls; Finstad, Terje G

    2014-10-01

    An apparatus for measuring the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity is presented and characterized. The device can be used in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 1050 °C and in all common atmospheres, including oxidizing, reducing, humid, and inert. The apparatus is suitable for samples with different geometries (disk-, bar-shaped), allowing a complete thermoelectric characterization (including thermal conductivity) on a single sample. The Seebeck coefficient α can be measured in both sample directions (in-plane and cross-plane) simultaneously. Electrical conductivity is measured via the van der Pauw method. Perovskite-type CaMnO3 and the misfit cobalt oxide (Ca2CoO3)q(CoO2) are studied to demonstrate the temperature range and to investigate the variation of the electrical properties as a function of the measurement atmosphere.

  15. Apparatus for metering the angle of inclination of construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaripov, M.F.; Kovshov, G.N.; Lavrov, B.V.

    1980-08-30

    A design is submitted for an apparatus to be used in metering the inclination angle of construction projects such as wells. This apparatus consists of a hinged universal joint, both internal and external frames, a pendulum with a ferromagnetic probe mounted on the internal frame, two sources for the formation of a controlled magnetic field, magnetic posts which are in-line with the frame axis, and a conversion-metering circuit. A two-phase current generator is mounted on the external frame and a ferromagnetic probe is placed at a 45-degree angle to the rotation axis for the internal frame, perpendicular to the vertical posts. Such a configuration serves to improve the metering accuracy by removing error and instability in the magnetic field source current.

  16. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  17. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2014-10-21

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  18. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-17

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  19. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  20. Pulse radiolysis apparatus for monitoring at 2000 Å

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.C.; Nilsson, G.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1969-01-01

    A pulse radiolysis apparatus with photometric monitoring has been built around an 11 MeV, 250 mA peak current, linac that delivers single 0.25 to 4 μsec pulses. The novel features of the apparatus include (1) a 450 W xenon lamp as the analyzing light source which in pulsed operation had a 25 times...... increased luminance; (2) a fast electronic switch that cut out the signal due to the Cerenkov radiation; (3) a secondary emission chamber that allowed the simultaneous measurement of the current and the direction of the pulsed electron beam; and (4) a system for remote controlled change of liquid samples...... stored in glass syringes. Reliable measurements of optical transmission could be made starting 0.2 μsec after the electron pulse at wavelengths down to 2000 Å on transient species having products of yield and absorptivity G×ε>500 mole (100 eV)-1.liter-1.cm-1...

  1. Method and apparatus for determining fat content of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas M.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Bryan, Jon R.; Dickey, Fred M.; Shagam, Richard N.; Gooris, Luc

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining characteristics of tissue is disclosed. The method comprises supplying optical energy to a tissue and detecting at a plurality of locations consequent energy scattered by the tissue. Analysis of the scattered energy as taught herein provides information concerning the properties of the tissue, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue. The apparatus comprises a light source adapted to deliver optical energy to a tissue. A plurality of detectors can be mounted at different positions relative to the source to detect energy scattered by the tissue. A signal processor as taught herein can determine characteristics of the tissue from the signals from the detectors and locations of the detectors, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue.

  2. Spray coating apparatus having a rotatable workpiece holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Katvala, V. W.; Porter, E. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A spray coating apparatus is provided for rotating a workpiece relative to a spray station to obtain a uniform coating of the workpiece. In a typical example, the workpiece comprises a ceramic tile which is to be coated with a ceramic coating and the tile is to be used as a reusable component of the thermal protection system for a space shuttle. The apparatus for rotating the workpiece includes a base support having a first rotatable stage for rotation in the horizontal plane and a second rotatable stage for rotation in a second plane inclined at an angle, such as 45 degrees, to the horizontal plane and the workpiece is supported on this second stage. Thus the workpiece is rotatable in both of two planes of rotation.

  3. Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywka, Robert J.

    2005-01-18

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  4. Material forming apparatus using a directed droplet stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E.; Viswanathan, Srinath; Blue, Craig A.; Wilgen, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for rapidly forming precision metallic and intermetallic alloy net shape parts directly from liquid metal droplets. A directed droplet deposition apparatus includes a crucible with an orifice for producing a jet of material, a jet destabilizer, a charging structure, a deflector system, and an impact zone. The systems and methods provide advantages in that fully dense, microstructurally controlled parts can be fabricated at moderate cost.

  5. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Wenqing

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  6. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Surface Air Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing (Inventor); Hu, Yongxiang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for remotely measuring surface air pressure. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention utilizes the steps of transmitting a signal having multiple frequencies into the atmosphere, measuring the transmitted/reflected signal to determine the relative received power level of each frequency and then determining the surface air pressure based upon the attenuation of the transmitted frequencies.

  7. Apparatus and method for velocity estimation in synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for flow estimation using synthetic aperture imaging. The method uses a Synthetic Transmit Aperture, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created after every pulse emission. In receive mode parallel beam forming is implemented. The beam formed RF data......). The update signals are used in the velocity estimation processor (8) to correlate the individual measurements to obtain the displacement between high-resolution images and thereby determine the velocity....

  8. Method and apparatus of measuring unburned carbon in fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C.

    1991-12-03

    A method and apparatus are shown to measure unburned carbon particles in the exhaust of a combustor. Photoacoustic absorption spectrometry is employed to measure the presence of the unburned carbon. Especially helpful in these measurements is a vertically elongated photoacoustic cell in which high flow velocities are maintained to prevent particles from settling. These measurements are useful in determining the efficiency of coal-fired combustors.

  9. Recent Progress in Electrical Insulation Techniques for HTS Power Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Naoki; Kojima, Hiroki; Hanai, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi

    This paper describes the electrical insulation techniques at cryogenic temperatures, i.e. Cryodielectrics, for HTS power apparatus, e.g. HTS power transmission cables, transformers, fault current limiters and SMES. Breakdown and partial discharge characteristics are discussed for different electrical insulation configurations of LN2, sub-cooled LN2, solid, vacuum and their composite insulation systems. Dynamic and static insulation performances with and without taking account of quench in HTS materials are also introduced.

  10. Apparatus for the production of boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin

    2014-06-17

    An apparatus for the large scale production of boron nitride nanotubes comprising; a pressure chamber containing; a continuously fed boron containing target; a source of thermal energy preferably a focused laser beam; a cooled condenser; a source of pressurized nitrogen gas; and a mechanism for extracting boron nitride nanotubes that are condensed on or in the area of the cooled condenser from the pressure chamber.

  11. Apparatus To Test Solvent Stress Crazing Of Polymer Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Gareth L.; Hoult, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus simple to make, operate, and maintain used to determine abilities of transparent polymeric seal materials to resist stress crazing when exposed to various cleaning solvents. Includes pulleys, cable, and weights to apply constant tension to specimen sheet immersed in test fluid in glass vessel. Provides visual observation of specimen at any time during test and ease of removal of fluid via drain port at bottom of glass vessel.

  12. System, Apparatus and Method Employing a Dual Head Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Donald B. (Inventor); Stysley, Paul R. (Inventor); Poulios, Demetrios (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system, apparatus and method employing a laser with a split-head, V-assembly gain material configuration. Additionally, the present invention is directed to techniques to better dissipate or remove unwanted energies in laser operations. The present invention is also directed to techniques for better collimated laser beams, with single spatial mode quality (TEM00), with improved efficiency, in extreme environments, such as in outer space.

  13. Rotary Apparatus Concentrates And Separates Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus concentrates and separates swimming micro-organisms of different species into concentric rings in fluid. Fluid containing high concentration of desired species removed by use of small scoop placed into fluid at radius of one of rings formed by that species. Micro-organisms concentrated into concentric rings by combined dynamic effects of upward and horizontal components of swimming, rotation of dish, gravitation, and viscosity.

  14. Method and apparatus for producing pyrolysis oil having improved stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance A.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Muller, Stefan

    2016-12-27

    Methods and apparatus to improve hot gas filtration to reduce the liquid fuel loss caused by prolonged residence time at high temperatures are described. The improvement can be obtained by reducing the residence time at elevated temperature by reducing the temperature of the pyrolysis vapor, by reducing the volume of the pyrolysis vapor at the elevated temperature, by increasing the volumetric flow rate at constant volume of the pyrolysis vapor, or by doing a combination of these.

  15. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  16. Method and apparatus for producing pyrolysis oil having improved stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance A.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Muller, Stefan

    2016-12-27

    Methods and apparatus to improve hot gas filtration to reduce the liquid fuel loss caused by prolonged residence time at high temperatures are described. The improvement can be obtained by reducing the residence time at elevated temperature by reducing the temperature of the pyrolysis vapor, by reducing the volume of the pyrolysis vapor at the elevated temperature, by increasing the volumetric flow rate at constant volume of the pyrolysis vapor, or by doing a combination of these.

  17. An automatic refolding apparatus for preparative-scale protein production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanye Feng

    Full Text Available Protein refolding is an important process to recover active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. Refolding by simple dilution, dialysis and on-column refolding methods are the most common techniques reported in the literature. However, the refolding process is time-consuming and laborious due to the variability of the behavior of each protein and requires a great deal of trial-and-error to achieve success. Hence, there is a need for automation to make the whole process as convenient as possible. In this study, we invented an automatic apparatus that integrated three refolding techniques: varying dilution, dialysis and on-column refolding. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this technology by varying the flow rates of the dilution buffer into the denatured protein and testing different refolding methods. We carried out different refolding methods on this apparatus: a combination of dilution and dialysis for human stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12 and thioredoxin fused-human artemin protein (Trx-ARTN; dilution refolding for thioredoxin fused-human insulin-like growth factor I protein (Trx-IGF1 and enhanced fluorescent protein (EGFP; and on-column refolding for bovine serum albumin (BSA. The protein refolding processes of these five proteins were preliminarily optimized using the slowly descending denaturants (or additives method. Using this strategy of decreasing denaturants concentration, the efficiency of protein refolding was found to produce higher quantities of native protein. The standard refolding apparatus configuration can support different operations for different applications; it is not limited to simple dilution, dialysis and on-column refolding techniques. Refolding by slowly decreasing denaturants concentration, followed by concentration or purification on-column, may be a useful strategy for rapid and efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies. An automatic refolding apparatus employing this

  18. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS FOR EXAMINATION OF MAGNETIC FLUID LUBRICATED THURST BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef SALWIŃSKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been development of the structure of thrust bearing with magnetic fluids . The essence of this type of bearing is to maintain a liquid lubricant in a very narrow gap with magnetic fluid by a magnetic field. Such systems can act as the bearing lubrication and sealing. This paper presents description of the experimental apparatus for examination magnetic fluid lubricated thrust bearing. Description of the construction and characteristics of the measuring possibilities ware presented.

  19. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  20. Method and apparatus for improved high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Andre

    2013-11-05

    A high power impulse magnetron sputtering apparatus and method using a vacuum chamber with a magnetron target and a substrate positioned in the vacuum chamber. A field coil being positioned between the magnetron target and substrate, and a pulsed power supply and/or a coil bias power supply connected to the field coil. The pulsed power supply connected to the field coil, and the pulsed power supply outputting power pulse widths of greater that 100 .mu.s.

  1. An apparatus for measuring the tensile strength of blood clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACFARLANE, R G; TOMLINSON, A H

    1961-05-01

    An apparatus is described which uses the principle of the ballistic pendulum to measure the tensile strength of blood clots formed in special cuvettes. The method appears to have a reproducibility which would allow a study to be made of the factors influencing clot strength. A brief survey of the findings with normal blood and with blood from cases of thrombosis and haemophilia shows significant differences between the mean values for each group.

  2. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  3. An apparatus for determining water vapour permeability of fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Saksena

    1955-04-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus for the determination of water vapour permeability (W.V.P. of fabrics is described. The fabric partitions a closed space into two compartments in which are circulated air streams having high and low water vapour pressure respectively, without any overall pressure or temperature difference. The transfer of moisture from the high to the low humidity side of the fabric is gravimetrically measured. Results of tests are given.

  4. Method and Apparatus for Determining Operational Parameters of Thermoelectric Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zybała, Rafał; Schmidt, Maksymilian; Kaszyca, Kamil; Ciupiński, Łukasz; Kruszewski, Mirosław J.; Pietrzak, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of this work was to construct and test an apparatus for characterization of high temperature thermoelectric modules to be used in thermoelectric generator (TEGs) applications. The idea of this apparatus is based on very precise measurements of heat fluxes passing through the thermoelectric (TE) module, at both its hot and cold sides. The electrical properties of the module, under different temperature and load conditions, were used to estimate efficiency of energy conversion based on electrical and thermal energy conservation analysis. The temperature of the cold side, T c, was stabilized by a precise circulating thermostat (≤0.1°C) in a temperature range from 5°C to 90°C. The amount of heat absorbed by a coolant flowing through the heat sink was measured by the calibrated and certified heat flow meter with an accuracy better than 1%. The temperature of the hot side, T h, was forced to assumed temperature ( T max = 450°C) by an electric heater with known power ( P h = 0-600 W) with ample thermal insulation. The electrical power was used in calculations. The TE module, heaters and cooling plate were placed in an adiabatic vacuum chamber. The load characteristics of the module were evaluated using an electronically controlled current source as a load. The apparatus may be used to determine the essential parameters of TE modules (open circuit voltage, U oc, short circuit current, I sc, internal electrical resistance, R int, thermal resistance, R th, power density, and efficiency, η, as a function of T c and T h ). Several commercially available TE modules based on Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 alloys were tested. The measurements confirmed that the constructed apparatus was highly accurate, stable and yielded reproducible results; therefore, it is a reliable tool for the development of thermoelectric generators.

  5. Method and Apparatus for Processing UDP Data Packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brandon M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method and apparatus for processing a plurality of data packets. A data packet is received. A determination is made as to whether a portion of the data packet follows a selected digital recorder standard protocol based on a header of the data packet. Raw data in the data packet is converted into human-readable information in response to a determination that the portion of the data packet follows the selected digital recorder standard protocol.

  6. Total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This was a retrospective case-control study on total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee, aimed to compare patella fractures with tendinous ruptures. METHODS: The sample included 190 patients and 198 total ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus. All patients were evaluated by the same examiner after a minimum one-year follow-up. RESULTS: Tendinous ruptures occurred most frequently in men, in younger patients, and had better clinical and functional outcomes when compared with patella fractures; however, the former presented higher levels of thigh atrophy. Patella fractures occurred most frequently in women and in older patients and caused most frequently caused residual pain, muscle weakness, and limitations in daily activities. Comminuted fractures were related to high-energy trauma, lower clinical and functional outcomes, and higher levels of residual pain and osteosynthesis failure. Early removal of osteosynthesis material was related to better outcomes. Regarding the tendinous ruptures, over half of the patients presented risk conditions for tendinous degeneration; a longer delay until surgery was related to lower Kujala scores. CONCLUSION: The surgical repair of bilateral ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus resulted in satisfactory clinical and functional outcomes, which were better for tendinous ruptures when compared with patella fractures. However, these lesions are associated with non-negligible levels of residual pain, muscle weakness, atrophy, and other complications.

  7. Light Emitting, Photovoltaic or Other Electronic Apparatus and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, William Johnstone (Inventor); Lowenthal, Mark D. (Inventor); Shotton, Neil O. (Inventor); Blanchard, Richard A. (Inventor); Lewandowski, Mark Allan (Inventor); Fuller, Kirk A. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald Odell (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electronic apparatus, such as a lighting device comprised of light emitting diodes (LEDs) or a power generating apparatus comprising photovoltaic diodes, which may be created through a printing process, using a semiconductor or other substrate particle ink or suspension and using a lens particle ink or suspension. An exemplary apparatus comprises a base; at least one first conductor; a plurality of diodes coupled to the at least one first conductor; at least one second conductor coupled to the plurality of diodes; and a plurality of lenses suspended in a polymer deposited or attached over the diodes. The lenses and the suspending polymer have different indices of refraction. In some embodiments, the lenses and diodes are substantially spherical, and have a ratio of mean diameters or lengths between about 10:1 and 2:1. The diodes may be LEDs or photovoltaic diodes, and in some embodiments, have a junction formed at least partially as a hemispherical shell or cap.

  8. An Original Testing Apparatus for Rapid Pull-Out Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprialdi, D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pull-out test is commonly used to investigate the pull-out behavior of geotextile reinforcement embedded in soil. It is also used by different authors to propose interface friction angles values. Unfortunately these works mainly deal with cyclic loadings with reference to seismic action, which are believed to be different to the load exposed to reinforced earthworks due to lateral impacts. Therefore an original rapid pull-out test apparatus is proposed in this study. This article assess the proposed test method in addressing the rapid pull-out response of a geotextile embedded in soil. The testing apparatus allows investigating shear velocities within the range of 0.1 to 1.2 m/s. This test method seems promising in addressing the response of soil-geotextile interfaces under dynamic loadings. Nevertheless, improvements concerning the testing apparatus are still required. The loading system could be modified to avoid oscillations and specific equipment should be added to increase the normal stress.

  9. Intracellular zinc distribution in mitochondria, ER and the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiping; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Slepchenko, Kira G; Stork, Christian; Li, Yang V

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+)) is required for numerous cellular functions. As such, the homeostasis and distribution of intracellular zinc can influence cellular metabolism and signaling. However, the exact distribution of free zinc within live cells remains elusive. Previously we showed the release of zinc from thapsigargin/IP3-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) storage in cortical neurons. In the present study, we investigated if other cellular organelles also contain free chelatable zinc and function as organelle storage for zinc. To identify free zinc within the organelles, live cells were co-stained with Zinpyr-1, a zinc fluorescent dye, and organelle-specific fluorescent dyes (MitoFluor Red 589: mitochondria; ER Tracker Red: endoplasmic reticulum; BODIPY TR ceramide: Golgi apparatus; Syto Red 64: nucleus). We examined organelles that represent potential storing sites for intracellular zinc. We showed that zinc fluorescence staining was co-localized with MitoFluor Red 589, ER Tracker Red, and BODIPY TR ceramide respectively, suggesting the presence of free zinc in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus. On the other hand, cytosol and nucleus had nearly no detectable zinc fluorescence. It is known that nucleus contains high amount of zinc binding proteins that have high zinc binding affinity. The absence of zinc fluorescence suggests that there is little free zinc in these two regions. It also indicates that the zinc fluorescence detected in mitochondria, ER and Golgi apparatus represents free chelatable zinc. Taken together, our results support that these organelles are potential zinc storing organelles during cellular zinc homeostasis.

  10. Evaluation of USP apparatus 3 for dissolution testing of immediate-release products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lawrence X; Wang, Jin T; Hussain, Ajaz S

    2002-01-01

    We sought to evaluate whether U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 3 can be used as an alternative to USP apparatus 2 for dissolution testing of immediate-release (IR) dosage forms. Highly soluble drugs, metoprolol and ranitidine, and poorly soluble drugs, acyclovir and furosemide, were chosen as model drugs. The dissolution profiles of both innovator and generic IR products were determined using USP apparatus 2 at 50 rpm and apparatus 3 at 5, 15, and 25 dips per minute (dpm). The dissolution profiles from USP apparatus 3 were compared to those from USP apparatus 2 using the f(2) similarity test. The dissolution profile from USP apparatus 3 generally depends on the agitation rate, with a faster agitation rate producing a faster dissolution rate. It was found that USP apparatus 3 at the extreme low end of the possible agitation range, such as 5 dpm, gave hydrodynamic conditions equivalent to USP apparatus 2 at 50 rpm. With appropriate agitation rate, USP apparatus 3 can produce similar dissolution profiles to USP apparatus 2 or distinguish dissolution characteristics for the IR products of metoprolol, ranitidine, and acyclovir. Incomplete dissolution was observed for the furosemide tablets using USP apparatus 3. Although it is primarily designed for the release testing of extended-release products, USP apparatus 3 may be used for the dissolution testing of IR products of highly soluble drugs, such as metoprolol and ranitidine, and some IR products of poorly soluble drugs, such as acyclovir. USP apparatus 3 offers the advantages of avoiding cone formation and mimicking the changes in physiochemical conditions and mechanical forces experienced by products in the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Vocal similarity and familiarity determine response to potential flockmates in orange-fronted conures (Psittacidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Adams, Danielle M.

    2011-01-01

    to discriminate others based on their vocalizations and associate knowledge with their vocal identity. Alternatively, this decision may be determined solely by the current interaction. In a playback experiment, we tested the ability of orange-fronted conures, Aratinga canicularis to discriminate between calls...... of familiar and unfamiliar females. Males were able to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar calls from different females. Furthermore, test birds seemed to associate experience from the previous interaction with the vocal characteristics of the familiar call, but this result was marginally...... nonsignificant. The success of the playback in imitating the test bird’s contact call in the current interaction proved important, as high similarity between playback and the test bird’s contact calls elicited a stronger response from it. The importance of call imitation during current interactions probably...

  12. Vocal similarity and familiarity determine response to potential flockmates in orange-fronted conures (Psittacidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Adams, Danielle M.

    2011-01-01

    to discriminate others based on their vocalizations and associate knowledge with their vocal identity. Alternatively, this decision may be determined solely by the current interaction. In a playback experiment, we tested the ability of orange-fronted conures, Aratinga canicularis to discriminate between calls...... of familiar and unfamiliar females. Males were able to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar calls from different females. Furthermore, test birds seemed to associate experience from the previous interaction with the vocal characteristics of the familiar call, but this result was marginally...... nonsignificant. The success of the playback in imitating the test bird’s contact call in the current interaction proved important, as high similarity between playback and the test bird’s contact calls elicited a stronger response from it. The importance of call imitation during current interactions probably...

  13. Revolving lantern display using holographic 3D images with 1/f fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Koji; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kunio

    2007-09-01

    The authors developed the revolving lantern using images of the holographic display. Our revolving lantern playbacks the virtual images which are floating in the air. These spatial images have unexpected motions and changes. The prototype imaging unit consists of the hologram, turn table and illumination system which can change the light with 1/f fluctuation so as to reconstruct various spatial images. In this paper, we describe the spatial imaging with a holographic technology and the reconstruction system which playbacks the rotating motion and various images. A hologram playbacks images. These reconstructions are generally static images. The rotating image like a revolving lantern can be produced when a hologram is spinning on the turn table. A hologram can record and reconstruct various images using the different illumination. When the illumination system changes the illumination light, a hologram reconstructs other images.

  14. Virtual revolving lantern: kaleidoscopic floating images by interactive tabletop hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaze, Yuko; Sakamoto, Kunio

    2006-10-01

    The authors developed the revolving lantern using images of the holographic display. Our revolving lantern playbacks the virtual 3D images which are floating in the air. These spatial images have motions and interactive changes. The prototype imaging unit consists of the hologram, turn table and illumination system which can change the color of light so as to reconstruct various spatial images. In this paper, we describe the spatial imaging with a holographic technology and the reconstruction system which playbacks the rotating motion and various 3D images. A hologram playbacks 3D images. These reconstructions are generally static images. The rotating image like a revolving lantern can be produced when a hologram is spinning on the turn table. A hologram can record and reconstruct various images using the different wavelength of laser beam and illumination. When the illumination system changes the color of illumination light, a hologram reconstructs other images.

  15. Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2013-12-19

    During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism.

  16. The Influence of Visual Cues on Sound Externalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvajal, Juan Camilo Gil; Santurette, Sébastien; Cubick, Jens;

    Background: The externalization of virtual sounds reproduced via binaural headphone-based auralization systems has been reported to be less robust when the listening environment differs from the room in which binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were recorded. It has been debated whether...... this is due to incongruent auditory cues between the recording and playback room during sound reproduction or to an expectation effect from the visual impression of the room. This study investigated the influence of a priori acoustic and visual knowledge of the playback room on sound externalization...... the more reverberant the listening environment was. While the visual impression of the playback room did not affect perceived distance, visual cues helped resolve localization ambiguities and improved compactness perception....

  17. [Morphofunctional state of hepatocytes nuclear apparatus in Mongolian herbils after the flight on space apparatus Foton-M3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiakshin, D A; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2010-01-01

    Morphofunctional state of hepatocytes nuclear apparatus was analyzed in the liver of Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus returned from 12-d space flight of Foton-M3 (SF) and their vivarium and ground synchronous controls. Volume, ploidy and number of hepatocyte nuclei, nucleolus dimensions and number as well as contacts with karyolemma were determined in the central, intermediate and peripheral areas of the liver classical lobe. Also, total number of mitoses and amitoses was determined in the liver parenchyma. The vivarium control animals displayed specifics of the nucleus apparatus structure that depended on intralobe topography. Based on the selected criteria, high functional activity was characteristic of cells in the intermediate area. According to the criteria, nuclear apparatus in the synchronous control tended to down the functional activity The adaptive adjustment of nuclei in SF seemed to have been initiated by changes in the hepatic blood flow: volumes of hepatocyte nuclei and nucleoli increased as did the number of nuclei in cell, whereas ploidy made a decrease, especially in the intermediate area. Under the SF conditions, particularly important compensatory mechanism for the liver function was intensification of amitosis and consequent increase of the population of dinuclear hepatocytes.

  18. Flow characterization on a thin film spinning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Alonso A.

    In industrial milling operations that use comminution and wet-comminution techniques, the reduction of the particle size is usually achieved through crushing the sample with a material harder than the product. These methods are convenient when the required median particle size is above 400 um. However, to obtain post-milling particle distributions with 85% sub-micron particles (in number) is both energy intensive, and time consuming. For conventional milling machines, to have the required output in several ton/hr of a product, having a large number of particles in the micron or sub-micron sizes at an affordable rate is cumbersome. Here, a wet-comminution machine that has shown to achieve the aforementioned milestones in the laboratory scale is studied. However, when the machine is scaled to industrial processes, it was recorded that some of the product variables are difficult to scale. In these studies, we attempt to understand the mechanisms by which this machine operates in order to achieve successful scaling. The apparatus operates completely on fluid mechanics principles, it consists of two concentric cylinders, the inner cylinder that has a smaller radius than the outer, rotates while the larger is held stationary. The inner cylinder is also shorter in length than outer, hollow in the inside and has transversal holes where the shaft attaches to the apparatus. The apparatus can operate in batch condition, where the liquid volume is much less than the volume of the apparatus, typically 0.V3T,0.42VT and 0.54V T. In addition, the apparatus can operate with throughflow, which the upper plate covering the apparatus is reduced in radius. Two component Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to obtain even-time averaged statistics of the azimuthal and axial velocities, in the gap and underneath the impeller. Also, Flow Visualization using Kalliroscopic particles was performed as means of observing large scale structures in the gap. Moreover, single plane Particle

  19. Sounds scary? Lack of habituation following the presentation of novel sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine A Biedenweg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals typically show less habituation to biologically meaningful sounds than to novel signals. We might therefore expect that acoustic deterrents should be based on natural sounds. METHODOLOGY: We investigated responses by western grey kangaroos (Macropus fulignosus towards playback of natural sounds (alarm foot stomps and Australian raven (Corvus coronoides calls and artificial sounds (faux snake hiss and bull whip crack. We then increased rate of presentation to examine whether animals would habituate. Finally, we varied frequency of playback to investigate optimal rates of delivery. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine behaviors clustered into five Principal Components. PC factors 1 and 2 (animals alert or looking, or hopping and moving out of area accounted for 36% of variance. PC factor 3 (eating cessation, taking flight, movement out of area accounted for 13% of variance. Factors 4 and 5 (relaxing, grooming and walking; 12 and 11% of variation, respectively discontinued upon playback. The whip crack was most evocative; eating was reduced from 75% of time spent prior to playback to 6% following playback (post alarm stomp: 32%, raven call: 49%, hiss: 75%. Additionally, 24% of individuals took flight and moved out of area (50 m radius in response to the whip crack (foot stomp: 0%, raven call: 8% and 4%, hiss: 6%. Increasing rate of presentation (12x/min ×2 min caused 71% of animals to move out of the area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The bull whip crack, an artificial sound, was as effective as the alarm stomp at eliciting aversive behaviors. Kangaroos did not fully habituate despite hearing the signal up to 20x/min. Highest rates of playback did not elicit the greatest responses, suggesting that 'more is not always better'. Ultimately, by utilizing both artificial and biological sounds, predictability may be masked or offset, so that habituation is delayed and more effective deterrents may be produced.

  20. SIMULATION OF PARTICLE DYNAMICS IN THE STERN-GERLACH APPARATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The model of the motion of particles in the SternGerlach apparatus in the classical and quantum mechanics was developed. The data simulation of particle trajectories and distribution of silver atoms on the surface of the plate in their deposition are discussed. It was found that for the experimentally observed distribution of two-dimensional shapes of the atoms must be assumed that the atoms are not involved in the precession motion in a magnetic field, while maintaining the direction of the magnetic moment, for example, parallel to the induction vector of the magnetic field during the time of motion in the apparatus. To obtain a realistic picture of the figure of the scattering of atoms used a classical model of movement and expression of forces compatible with the quantum picture of the motion of particles with spin ½. The magnetic field is simulated based on the original Stern-Gerlach data describing the distribution of the gradient of the induction components related to the splitting of the beam. Quantum model of particle motion is based on the Pauli equation in the boundary layer approximation. It is found that in this model, depending on the initial polarization of the particle, beam is split into either two or is deflected towards the magnet blade or in the opposite direction. It is shown that if the initial conditions for the task are reproducing the geometric dimensions and the magnetic field in the Stern-Gerlach apparatus, the figure of the scattering particles in the shape of the outline is similar to the experimentally observed shape

  1. High pressure/high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this instrumentation grant was to acquire a state-of-the-art, high pressure, high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus (HP/HT TGA) system for the study of the interactions between gases and carbonaceous solids for the purpose of solving problems related to coal utilization and applications of carbon materials. The instrument that we identified for this purpose was manufactured by DMT (Deutsche Montan Technologies)--Institute of Cokemaking and Coal Chemistry of Essen, Germany. Particular features of note include: Two reactors: a standard TGA reactor, capable of 1100 C at 100 bar; and a high temperature (HT) reactor, capable of operation at 1600 C and 100 bar; A steam generator capable of generating steam to 100 bar; Flow controllers and gas mixing system for up to three reaction gases, plus a separate circuit for steam, and another for purge gas; and An automated software system for data acquisition and control. The HP/TP DMT-TGA apparatus was purchased in 1996 and installed and commissioned during the summer of 1996. The apparatus was located in Room 128 of the Prince Engineering Building at Brown University. A hydrogen alarm and vent system were added for safety considerations. The system has been interfaced to an Ametek quadruple mass spectrometer (MA 100), pumped by a Varian V250 turbomolecular pump, as provided for in the original proposed. With this capability, a number of gas phase species of interest can be monitored in a near-simultaneous fashion. The MS can be used in a few different modes. During high pressure, steady-state gasification experiments, it is used to sample, measure, and monitor the reactant/product gases. It can also be used to monitor gas phase species during nonisothermal temperature programmed reaction (TPR) or temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments.

  2. [Analysis of the market and future trends of the instrumentation for ambulatory electrocardiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanini, M; Taddei, A; Marchesi, C

    1987-12-01

    An inquiry has been made among most manufacturers of ambulatory ECG instrumentation. Both playback and real time systems have been considered. The inquiry, based on a questionnaire, was mainly aimed at identifying possible standard technical solutions emerging from the analysis of various implementations, and at verifying whether techniques for performance evaluation are in common use. Main conclusions of this study include: playback systems are still in competition with real time systems; automatic analysis has not yet reached adequate accuracy; analysis of ST-T interval, while performed by most systems, is not evaluated because common standard of quality is lacking.

  3. On the use of binaural recordings for dynamic binaural reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Christensen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Binaural recordings are considered applicable only for static binaural reproduction. That is, playback of binaural recordings can only reproduce the sound field captured for the fixed position and orientation of the recording head. However, given some conditions it is possible to use binaural...... recordings for the reproduction of binaural signals that change according to the listener actions, i.e. dynamic binaural reproduction. Here we examine the conditions that allow for such dynamic recording/playback configuration and discuss advantages and disadvantages. Analysis and discussion focus on two...... case studies of reproduction of background sound in a car interior and of the rowing sound captured from elite athletes....

  4. Study on a New Type of Jet Pressurization Evaporation Expansion Apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Boyi; Zhang Mingxin; Yang Li

    2001-01-01

    The volume expansion of the stuff (e. g. tobacco stem) is of great importance to an increase in the product quality and a decrease in the production cost. This paper puts forward the basic configuration and the expansion mechanism of a new type of jet pressurization evaporation expansion apparatus. By the thermodynamic calculation of the apparatus, we give variations in steam pressure on various cross sections of the flow system for the apparatus,manufacture a sample machine, and finish run tests of the machine. The test results show that the apparatus may make the relative increase in fill value of tobacco stem higher than 75%, and may cause the steam consumption required in the expansion process of each kilogram stem to reduced about 40% compared with conventional expansion apparatus. Additionally, the configuration of the apparatus is simple and small, its cost of manufacture is very low, and both its operation and maintenance are extremely convenient.

  5. Apparatuses for making cathodes for high-temperature, rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Coffey, Gregory W.

    2016-09-13

    The approaches and apparatuses for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to better accommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.

  6. TREATMENT OF SHIN BONE FRACTURES USING EXTERNAL ROD APPARATUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Kupkenov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment results of 30 patients with diaphyseal fractures of shin bones are presented. All patients were treated by transosseus osteosynthesis tehnique with rod apparatus developed by author. Good outcome of treatment was received in 28 (93,3% patients, satisfactory - in 2 (6,7% in one - three years after operation. This method of treatment permits to perform a closed accurate reposition of bone fragments, to achieve the stable fixation for the whole period of treatment and to mobilize patients on second day after operation.

  7. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  8. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J.A.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes an apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment. It comprises: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

  9. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J.A.

    1990-12-31

    Disclosed is a process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: (1) Measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; (2) measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing said plant substance being passed through said environment with said counter; and (3) generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level. Also disclosed is the apparatus and system used to conduct the process.

  10. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: (1) Measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; (2) measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing said plant substance being passed through said environment with said counter; and (3) generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level. Also disclosed is the apparatus and system used to conduct the process.

  11. A battery-operated portable handheld electrospinning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Cong; Qin, Chong-Chong; Yu, Miao; Dong, Rui-Hua; Yan, Xu; Zhao, Hui; Han, Wen-Peng; Zhang, Hong-Di; Long, Yun-Ze

    2015-07-01

    Electrospinning (e-spinning) still has certain limitations in flexible practicability because its conventional setup is usually quite bulky and excessively dependent on a plug (electric supply). In this article, we report on a battery-operated e-spinning apparatus (BOEA) based on miniaturization and integration. The new device gets liberated from the conventional heavy power supply, achieves the tight integration of functional parts and can be operated by a single hand due to its small volume (10.5 × 5 × 3 cm3) and light weight (about 120 g). Different polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polycaprolactone (PCL), polystyrene (PS), poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) were electrospun into fibers successfully, which confirms the stable performance and good real-time control capability of the apparatus. These results demonstrate that the BOEA could be potentially applied in many fields, especially in biomedical fields such as skin damage, wound healing, rapid hemostasis, etc.Electrospinning (e-spinning) still has certain limitations in flexible practicability because its conventional setup is usually quite bulky and excessively dependent on a plug (electric supply). In this article, we report on a battery-operated e-spinning apparatus (BOEA) based on miniaturization and integration. The new device gets liberated from the conventional heavy power supply, achieves the tight integration of functional parts and can be operated by a single hand due to its small volume (10.5 × 5 × 3 cm3) and light weight (about 120 g). Different polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polycaprolactone (PCL), polystyrene (PS), poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) were electrospun into fibers successfully, which confirms the stable performance and good real-time control capability of the apparatus. These results demonstrate that the BOEA could be potentially applied in many fields, especially in biomedical fields such as skin

  12. Method And Apparatus For Evaluatin Of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Ilya M.; Kino, Gordon S.

    1996-11-12

    A technique for evaluation of high-T.sub.c superconducting films and single crystals is based on measurement of temperature dependence of differential optical reflectivity of high-T.sub.c materials. In the claimed method, specific parameters of the superconducting transition such as the critical temperature, anisotropy of the differential optical reflectivity response, and the part of the optical losses related to sample quality are measured. The apparatus for performing this technique includes pump and probe sources, cooling means for sweeping sample temperature across the critical temperature and polarization controller for controlling a state of polarization of a probe light beam.

  13. A suggestion based on the OPERA experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Bai (Hsiao-bai Ai, Ai

    2012-04-01

    To temporarily lay aside the debate about the neutrino being a bradyon or a tachyon, based on the existing apparatus and the existing technique in OPERA the best way to promote the OPERA experiment is to test the energy-velocity relation of muon neutrinos and their oscillating yields rather than only one energy point, although the energy-velocity relation is deduced for tachyons according to the inner product of a space-like momentum four-vector being a Lorentz invariant. The tendency of the curve, i.e. as a monotonic decreasing or increasing function of increasing energy, would determine whether muon neutrinos are tachyons or bradyons.

  14. Data acquisition system for a proton imaging apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Sipala, V; Bruzzi, M; Bucciolini, M; Candiano, G; Capineri, L; Cirrone, G A P; Civinini, C; Cuttone, G; Lo Presti, D; Marrazzo, L; Mazzaglia, E; Menichelli, D; Randazzo, N; Talamonti, C; Tesi, M; Valentini, S

    2009-01-01

    New developments in the proton-therapy field for cancer treatments, leaded Italian physics researchers to realize a proton imaging apparatus consisting of a silicon microstrip tracker to reconstruct the proton trajectories and a calorimeter to measure their residual energy. For clinical requirements, the detectors used and the data acquisition system should be able to sustain about 1 MHz proton rate. The tracker read-out, using an ASICs developed by the collaboration, acquires the signals detector and sends data in parallel to an FPGA. The YAG:Ce calorimeter generates also the global trigger. The data acquisition system and the results obtained in the calibration phase are presented and discussed.

  15. Apparatus and method for magnetically processing a specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A; Jaramillo, Roger A

    2013-09-03

    An apparatus for magnetically processing a specimen that couples high field strength magnetic fields with the magnetocaloric effect includes a high field strength magnet capable of generating a magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla and a magnetocaloric insert disposed within a bore of the high field strength magnet. A method for magnetically processing a specimen includes positioning a specimen adjacent to a magnetocaloric insert within a bore of a magnet and applying a high field strength magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla to the specimen and to the magnetocaloric insert. The temperature of the specimen changes during the application of the high field strength magnetic field due to the magnetocaloric effect.

  16. Method and apparatus for laser scribing glass sheet substrate coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgeson, Frank A.; Hanak, Joseph J.; Harju, Ricky S.; Helman, Norman L.; Hecht, Kenneth R.

    2003-05-06

    A method and apparatus (42) for laser scribing coatings on glass sheet substrates by conveying the substrate adjacent a laser source (83) that provides a pulsed laser beam (84) with a wavelength at a near-infrared fundamental frequency and having a frequency in the range of 50 to 100 kilohertz and a pulse duration in the range of 8 to 70 nanoseconds, and by reflecting the beam by an XYZ galvanometer controlled mirror system (90) toward an uncoated surface of the substrate for passage therethrough to the coating on the other surface to provide overlapping ablations through the coating and scribing at a speed of at least 1000 millimeters per second.

  17. Method and apparatus for laser scribing glass sheet substrate coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgeson, Frank A.; Hanak, Joseph J.; Harju, Ricky S.; Harju, Karen M.; Helman, Norman L.; Hecht, Kenneth R.

    2005-07-19

    A method and apparatus (42) for laser scribing coatings on glass sheet substrates by conveying the substrate adjacent a laser source (83) that provides a pulsed laser beam (84) with a wavelength at a near-infrared fundamental frequency and having a frequency in the range of 50 to 100 kilohertz and a pulse duration in the range of 8 to 70 nanoseconds, and by reflecting the beam by an XYZ galvanometer controlled mirror system (90) toward an uncoated surface of the substrate for passage therethrough to the coating on the other surface to provide overlapping ablations through the coating and scribing at a speed of at least 1000 millimeters per second.

  18. System for instrumenting and manipulating apparatuses in high voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2016-06-07

    A system for energizing, operating and manipulating apparatuses in high voltage systems. The system uses a dielectric gas such as SF.sub.6 as a driving power supply for a pneumatic motor which ultimately charges a battery or other energy storage device. The stored energy can then be used for instrumentation equipment, or to power any electrical equipment, in the high voltage deck. The accompanying method provides for the use of the SF6 system for operating an electrical device in a high-voltage environment.

  19. Method and apparatus for managing transactions with connected computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Phillips, Laurence R.; Spires, Shannon V.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus that make use of existing computer and communication resources and that reduce the errors and delays common to complex transactions such as international shipping. The present invention comprises an agent-based collaborative work environment that assists geographically distributed commercial and government users in the management of complex transactions such as the transshipment of goods across the U.S.-Mexico border. Software agents can mediate the creation, validation and secure sharing of shipment information and regulatory documentation over the Internet, using the World-Wide Web to interface with human users.

  20. Apparatus designed for very accurate measurement of the optical reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piombini, Hervé; Voarino, Philippe

    2007-12-20

    The described instrument is a new reflectometer designed to check the normal specular reflectance of 40,000 reflectors necessary for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ). This new reflectometer has a high accuracy over the 400-950 nm wavelength range and allows the delicate measurement of shaped parts. The measurements are relative and several reference mirrors, which are low loss dielectric mirrors [R(lambda)>99.9%], are used for the standardization. The apparatus gives an excellent repeatability (spectrophotometers, our facility and its components are described. The methodology of focusing and calibration are explained. The capabilities of our device are illustrated through some measurements realized on flat or shaped samples.

  1. Apparatus and method for magnetically processing a specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A; Jaramillo, Roger A

    2013-09-03

    An apparatus for magnetically processing a specimen that couples high field strength magnetic fields with the magnetocaloric effect includes a high field strength magnet capable of generating a magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla and a magnetocaloric insert disposed within a bore of the high field strength magnet. A method for magnetically processing a specimen includes positioning a specimen adjacent to a magnetocaloric insert within a bore of a magnet and applying a high field strength magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla to the specimen and to the magnetocaloric insert. The temperature of the specimen changes during the application of the high field strength magnetic field due to the magnetocaloric effect.

  2. The Vicarious Look, or, Andy Warhol's Apparatus Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Young, DR

    2015-01-01

    The so-called “apparatus theory” that developed in France, England and the US in the 1970s, moving beyond formalist and aesthetic approaches, produced an analysis of the structural conditions (technological, social and economic) of the cinema. The concept of voyeurism was central to those accounts: the “cinematic apparatus” aligns the spectator’s look with the “all-seeing” look of the camera (the famous “primary identification” theorized by Metz). In offering him a “vicarious look” onto a wor...

  3. Method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and reattachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, John P. (Inventor); Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan M. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for simultaneously detecting laminar separation and reattachment of a fluid stream such as an airstream from and to the upper surface of an airfoil by simultaneously sensing and comparing a plurality of output signals. Each signal represents the dynamic shear stress at one of an equal number of sensors spaced along a straight line on the surface of the airfoil that extends parallel to the airstream. The output signals are simultaneously compared to detect the sensors across which a reversal in phase of said output signal occurs, said detected sensors being in the region of laminar separation or reattachment.

  4. Rous-Whipple Award Lecture. Contributions to the physiology and pathology of the Golgi apparatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonatas, N K

    1994-01-01

    The importance of the Golgi apparatus in the transport, processing, and targeting of proteins destined for secretion, plasma membranes, and lysosomes has emerged from numerous studies. In this paper we review studies from our laboratory dealing with 1) the Golgi apparatus during mitosis and the role of microtubules in maintaining the structure of the organelle, 2) the endocytosis of antibodies, exogenous lectins, and toxins into the Golgi apparatus of several cells including neurons in vivo a...

  5. Golgijev aparat: Golgi apparatus: organization, function and diseases: zgradba, funkcija in bolezni:

    OpenAIRE

    Erdani-Kreft, Mateja; Višnjar, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a cellular organelIe found in most eukaryotic cells. In addition to its participation in protein and lipid glycosylation, the Golgi apparatus also sorts and directs vesicular transport. The number ofknown diseases related to the Golgi apparatus has significantly increased in last decade because of the developments in genetic analysis and discoveries which showed that glycan structures are not mere decorative elements of proteins and lipids but serve crucial cellular fun...

  6. An apparatus for measuring mechanical properties of microstructures in tensile mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Hao; MENG; Yonggang; SU; Caijun; WEN; Shizhu

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring mechanical properties of microstructures in tensile mode is described. The apparatus consists of 4 functional parts: piezoelectric actuator, capacitive displacement sensor, specimen gripping mechanism and optical microscope. The configurations and specifications of these parts are elucidated in detail.Specimens used for the tensile mechanical testing are fabricated with the photolithography process. By using this apparatus, the fatigue property of polysilicon films has been measured successfully.

  7. Mathematical Model of Thermo Hydraulic Processes in Venturi Apparatus with Rectangular Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvete B. Dimitrieska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The cleaning processes of polluted gases in high velocity gas streams based on water flushing, as well as the heat and mass transfer mechanisms in Venturi apparatus, are well known in engineering investigations. Flowing processes in Venturi apparatus with rectangular cross section are also not unknown process in scientific literature. The modeling of flow process in Venturi apparatus with rectangular cross section with real shape and dimensions are related in this paper. Thereby, special attention is paid to the reviewing of the flowing processes in gas-flow path, particularly in the confusor, the throat and the diffuser of the Venturi apparatus.

  8. Participation and Neutrality of State Civil Apparatus in Direct Regional Election: Surabaya City Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Wibowo Budi Santoso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In relation to the existence of State Civil Apparatus, at least there are two issues that must be observed in the implementation of Regional elections, namely the issues of participation and neutrality of State Civil Apparatus. The phenomenon that occurs during this time is the involvement of the State Civil Apparatus in attendance is still minimum (low. Moreover, it is believed that there are many Civil Apparatus State who is not neutral in the organization of Regional Elections. In this regard, this study aims to analyze the participation and neutrality of State Civil Apparatus. The method utilized in this study is qualitative. The result of the study shows that in general the participation of State Civil Apparatus in Surabaya is adequately good, but the neutrality of State Civil Apparatus has not implemented well enough. There are at least three (3 main factors influencing the participation of Civil State Apparatus, namely the factors of leadership exemplary, commitment to employees, and employee development. As for the neutrality of the State Civil Apparatus, among others, is influenced by the factors of the ambition of employee, primordialism, and working environment of employees.

  9. Testing of defects in Si semiconductor apparatus by using single-photon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhongliang, Pan, E-mail: panz@scnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunications Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ling, Chen [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunications Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangju, Chen [Department of Automation, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2013-07-15

    The failure analysis of semiconductor apparatus is very needed for ensuring product quality, which can find several types of defects in the semiconductor apparatus. A new testing method for the defects in Si semiconductor apparatus is presented in this paper, the method makes use of photon emissions to find out the failure positions or failure components by taking advantage of the infrared photo emission characteristics of semiconductor apparatus. These emitted photons carry the information of the apparatus structure. If there are defects in the apparatus, these photons can help in understanding the apparatus properties and detecting the defects. An algorithm for the generation of circuit input vectors are presented in this paper to enhance the strength of the emitted photons for the given components in the semiconductor apparatus. The multiple-valued logic, the static timing analysis and path sensitizations, are used in the algorithm. A lot of experimental results for the Si semiconductor apparatus show that many types of defects such as contact spiking and latchup failure etc., can be detected accurately by the method proposed in this paper.

  10. Characterisation of zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheuerle, Rebekah L; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F. A; Gerrard, Stephen E; Kendall, Richard A; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K. H

    2017-01-01

      Zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS), a novel platform for administering medicines to infants during breastfeeding, was characterised using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus...

  11. Evaluation of USP apparatus 3 for dissolution testing of immediate-release products

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lawrence X.; Wang, Jin T.; Hussain, Ajaz S.

    2002-01-01

    We sought to evaluate whether U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 3 can be used as an alternative to USP apparatus 2 for dissolution testing of immediate-release (IR) dosage forms. Highly soluble drugs, metoprolol and ranitidine, and poorly soluble drugs, acyclovir and furosemide, were chosen as model drugs. The dissolution profiles of both innovator and generic IR products were determined using USP apparatus 2 at 50 rpm and apparatus 3 at 5, 15, and 25 dips per minute (dpm). The dissolution pr...

  12. Preliminary Results from the Large Volume Torsion (LVT) Deformation Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, A. J.; Couvy, H.; Skemer, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present preliminary results from the Large Volume Torsion (LVT) apparatus, currently under development in the rock deformation lab at Washington University in St. Louis. The LVT is designed to deform disk-shaped samples (~4 mm in diameter) in torsion at lower-crustal to upper-mantle pressure and temperature conditions. Conceptually, the LVT complements and is similar in design to the Rotational Drickamer Apparatus (RDA) (Yamakazi & Karato, 2001), which deforms smaller samples at higher pressures. As part of our recent development efforts, benchmarking experiments were performed on Carrara marble. Samples were deformed in torsion at a strain rate of ~5 x 10-5 s-1 to moderate shear strains (γ ≤ 10) under lower crustal conditions (800°C, 2 GPa confining pressure). Microstructural observations from optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) show evidence for relict grain elongation and alignment; an increase in calcite twin density; and grain size reduction concurrent with recrystallized grain nucleation. Microstructural observations are comparable to data obtained from previous studies at lower pressure (e.g. Barnhoorn et al., 2004), confirming that the LVT provides reliable microstructural results.

  13. A combined matrix isolation spectroscopy and cryosolid positron moderation apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molek, Christopher D.; Michael Lindsay, C.; Fajardo, Mario E. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Ordnance Division, Energetic Materials Branch, AFRL/RWME, 2306 Perimeter Road, Eglin AFB, Florida 32542-5910 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    We describe the design, construction, and operation of a novel apparatus for investigating efficiency improvements in thin-film cryogenic solid positron moderators. We report results from solid neon, argon, krypton, and xenon positron moderators which illustrate the capabilities and limitations of our apparatus. We integrate a matrix isolation spectroscopy diagnostic within a reflection-geometry positron moderation system. We report the optical thickness, impurity content, and impurity trapping site structures within our moderators determined from infrared absorption spectra. We use a retarding potential analyzer to modulate the flow of slow positrons, and report positron currents vs. retarding potential for the different moderators. We identify vacuum ultraviolet emissions from irradiated Ne moderators as the source of spurious signals in our channel electron multiplier slow positron detection channel. Our design is also unusual in that it employs a sealed radioactive Na-22 positron source which can be translated relative to, and isolated from, the cryogenic moderator deposition substrate. This allows us to separate the influences on moderator efficiency of surface contamination by residual gases from those of accumulated radiation damage.

  14. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon

    2015-11-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365-476 mm in height for seat pans; 429-522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance.

  15. Research of the chemiluminescence detection apparatus for nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Yu; Ni, Xuxiang; Yan, Huimin

    2016-10-01

    The multifunctional nutrition analyzer, which integrates four detection functions, can make fast, accurate, quantitative analysis for a variety of nutrients. In this article we focus on researching the luminescence detection system. Compared with other means, luminescence detection needs no excitation light, and the detection sensitivity is improved due to the reduction of the background light. The apparatus consists of an displacement platform, a microporous plate, a combination of an aspheric lens and a plano-convex lens, an optical fiber and a photon counter connected with a computer. A theoretical light intensity formula is established as a reference and a comparison of the experimental data. In the experiment we applies ATP detection reagent as the experimental reagent, whose magnitudes of concentration are from 10-6 mol/L to 10-12 mol/L. The sensitivity of the apparatus could reach a magnitude of concentration of 0.1nmol/L, and it is estimated to be further improved by at least two magnitudes in theory with the system and the reagent optimized.

  16. Research of the fluorescence detection apparatus for nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Yan, Huimin; Ni, Xuxiang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Shibing

    2015-10-01

    The research of the multifunctional analyzer of Clinical Nutrition, which integrates the absorbance, luminescence, fluorescence and other optical detection methods, can overcome the functional limitations of a single technology on human nutrition analysis, and realize a rapid and accurate analysis of the nutrients. This article focuses on the design of fluorescence detection module that uses a photomultiplier tube(PMT) to detect weak fluorescence, and utilizes the single photon counting method to measure the fluorescence intensity, and then according to the relationship between the fluorescent marker and fluorescence intensity, the concentration of the analyte can be derived. Using fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC, the most widely used fluorescein currently)to mark antibodies in the experiment, therefore, according to the maximum absorption wavelength and the maximum emission wavelength of the fluorescein isothiocyanate, to select the appropriate filters to set up the optical path. In addition, the fluorescence detection apparatus proposed in this paper uses an aspherical lens with large numerical aperture, in order to improve the capacity of signal acquisition more effectively, and the selective adoption of flexible optical fiber can realize a compact opto-mechanical structure, which is also conducive to the miniaturization of the device. The experimental results show that this apparatus has a high sensitivity, can be used for the detection and analysis of human nutrition.

  17. Newly developed apparatus for calibration of quadrupole mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong; Yongjun, Cheng; Detian, Li; Wenjun, Sun; Lan, Zhao; Meiru, Guo; Yongjun, Wang; Huzhong, Zhang; Yanwu, Li; Gang, Li

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new calibration apparatus has been developed for calibrating quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) from 10-8 Pa to 10-2 Pa for He, N2 and Ar. Based on the apparatus, two calibration methods are introduced to generate standard pressure P i ‧ (or P i ″) of lower than 10-2 Pa, which are named as ‘the SRG measurement method’ and ‘the CDG measurement method’. The SRG measurement method can generate a standard pressure range from 10-8 Pa to 10-5 Pa, and the CDG measurement method can generate a standard pressure range from 10-5 Pa to 10-2 Pa. A molecular flow condition is determined and a QMS is calibrated by the two methods using single gas and mixture gas. The gas flow through the small tube and orifice realizes molecular flow at an upstream pressure of less than 70 Pa. The sensitivities calibration results with the two methods agree well, and the difference is less than 3%. The sensitivity calibrated with single gas is different from that calibrated with mixture gas. Obtained results are roughly consistent with those of previous studies.

  18. Easily usable human-device interface for microwave therapy apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Surducan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the possibility of using a large dot matrix LCD (Liquid Crystal Display as the essential part of a low cost, user friendly human-device interface which is driving a microwave diathermy medical apparatus. The human-device interface uses only four buttons with multiple functionalities, an analog encoder and the said dot matrix LCD. The interface is a part of the embedded system that drives the entire unit, as a stand alone hardware and complex firmware program. This interface can handle the medical treatment parameters in an ergonomic and simple way. The human-device interface has been designed in agreement with the EN60601-1 and EN60601-1-4 requirements using “the simple to complex” writing and validation algorithm. The interface has been manufactured as prototype and tested on our own proprietary microwave hyperthermia and diathermy device and proves to be intuitive and easy to use. The human-device interface firmware is portable to other scientific apparatus as well; however, a reconfiguration of all displayed information is necessary, depending on the purpose of the served equipment. Compared with a colour graphic LCD equipped with touch screen, the interface presented here is definitely less expensive, can be implemented faster and uses  less hardware resources.

  19. Microgravity Flow Regime Data: Buoyancy and Mixing Apparatus Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Adam; Best, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Zero-g two-phase flow data set qualification and flight experiment design have not been standardized and as a result, agreement among researchers has not been reached regarding what experimental conditions adequately approximate those of microgravity. The effects of buoyancy forces and mixing apparatus on the flow regime transitions are presented in this study. The gravity conditions onboard zero-g aircraft are at best 10-3 g which is used to approximate the 10-5 g conditions of microgravity, thus the buoyancy forces present on zero-g aircraft can become significantly large and unrepresentative of microgravity. When buoyancy forces approach those of surface tension forces, buoyancy induced coalescence occurs. When discussing flow regime transitions, these large buoyancy forces lead to flow regime transitions which otherwise would not occur. The buoyancy attributes of the two-phase flow data sets available in the literature are evaluated to determine which data sets exhibit buoyancy induced transitions. Upon comparison of the representative data sets, the affects of different mixing apparatus can be seen in the superficial velocity flow regime maps.

  20. The ionoluminescence apparatus at the LABEC external microbeam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calusi, S.; Colombo, E. [INFN Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale and NIS Excellence Centre, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Giuntini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: giuntini@fi.infn.it; Giudice, A. Lo [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale and NIS Excellence Centre, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Manfredotti, C. [INFN Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale and NIS Excellence Centre, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Massi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra and Museo di Storia Naturale, Universita di Firenze, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Vittone, E. [INFN Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale and NIS Excellence Centre, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, we describe the main features of the ionoluminescence (IL) apparatus recently installed at the external scanning microbeam facility of the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the INFN LABEC Laboratory in Firenze. The peculiarity of this IL set-up resides in the fact that the light produced by the ion irradiation of the specimen is collected by a bifurcated optical fiber, so that photons are shunted both to a CCD spectrometer, working in the 200-900 nm wavelength range, and to a photomultiplier (PMT). The accurate focusing of the optical system allows high photon collection efficiency and this results in rapid acquisition of luminescence spectra with low ion currents on luminescent materials; simultaneously, luminescence maps with a spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m can be acquired through the synchronization of PMT photon detection with the position of the scanning focused ion beam. An optical filter with a narrow passband facing the photomultiplier allows chromatic selectivity of the luminescence centres. The IL apparatus is synergistically integrated into the existing set-up for ion beam analyses (IBA). The upgraded system permits simultaneous IL and PIXE/PIGE/BS measurements. With our integrated system, we have been studying raw lapis lazuli samples of different known origins and precious lapis lazuli artworks of the Collezione Medicea of Museum of Natural History, University of Firenze, aiming at characterising their composition and provenance.