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Sample records for play active roles

  1. TEACHING SPEAKING BY ROLE-PLAY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilah Fadilah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The students often find some problems in practising English speaking. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice the second language in daily conversation. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. There are many ways that can be done by the students to develop their ability in speaking English. The appropriate technique used by the English teacher also supports their interested in practising their speaking. One of the techniques that can be applied is role play.

  2. Is it play? Towards a reconceptualisation of role-play from an activity theory perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a reconceptualisation of role play on the basis of the Cultural-Historical theory (Vygotskij -Leont'ev - El'konin). The theory conceives of play as a specific mode of activity defined by a format that includes three basic parameters (rules, degrees of freedom and involvement).

  3. DREAM plays an important role in platelet activation and thrombogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca2+ mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca2+ mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca2+ binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. PMID:27903531

  4. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  5. Motivation within Role-Playing as a Means to Intensify College Students' Educational Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenkova, Olga Mikhailovna; Arkhipova, Irina Vladimirovna; Semenov, Sergei Aleksandrovich; Samarenkina, Saniya Zakirzyanovna

    2015-01-01

    This article covers college students' educational activity issues while studying a foreign language; analyzes special aspects of motivation introduction, their specific features. It also defines role and structure of role-playing. The authors come to the conclusion that introduction of role-playing in an educational process will bring it closer to…

  6. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  7. Physical Activity Plays an Important Role in Body Weight Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases.

  8. Online-offline activities and game-playing behaviors of avatars in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Tan, Qun-Zhao

    2009-11-01

    Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular in China, which provides a potential platform for scientific research. We study the online-offline activities of avatars in an MMORPG to understand their game-playing behavior. The statistical analysis unveils that the active avatars can be classified into three types. The avatars of the first type are owned by game cheaters who go online and offline in preset time intervals with the online duration distributions dominated by pulses. The second type of avatars is characterized by a Weibull distribution in the online durations, which is confirmed by statistical tests. The distributions of online durations of the remaining individual avatars differ from the above two types and cannot be described by a simple form. These findings have potential applications in the game industry.

  9. The role of play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Play is seen as an activity that is fun, voluntary, offers escape, and is fundamentally exciting. Play is however, more than that; it is a working model of flexibility! There is a vital link between play, psychological development and learning. Moreover, the importance of play has gained importance

  10. Sustainability and Science Learning: Perceptions from 8th Grade Students Involved with a Role Playing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Sofia; Baptista, Mónica; Freire, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Raising awareness about sustainability is an urgent need and as such education for sustainability has gained relevancy for the last decades. It is acknowledged that science education can work as an important context for educating for sustainability. The goal of the present paper is to describe a role-playing activity about the construction of a…

  11. Developing Adolescents' Resistance to Sexual Coercion through Role-Playing Activities in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a three dimensional virtual world (3-DVW) to delivery assertiveness training to young adolescents. The case study aims to understand how a sense of presence in VWs facilitates and affect the performance of students role-playing activities to enhance their ability to resist sexual coercion. The results indicate that a…

  12. Developing pharmacy student communication skills through role-playing and active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz Adrian, Julie Ann; Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn

    2015-04-25

    To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger's Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers.

  13. Exploring the Impact of Role-Playing on Peer Feedback in an Online Case-Based Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners' perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners' generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated with higher…

  14. Developing Pharmacy Student Communication Skills through Role-Playing and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Design. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger’s Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Assessment. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Conclusion. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers. PMID:25995519

  15. Enhancing Role-Play Activities with Pocket Camcorder Technology: Strategies for Counselor-Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sara Meghan; Thanasiu, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Counselor-educators can benefit from specific guidelines and creative suggestions when implementing role-play and technology-related teaching strategies in counseling training programs. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to: (a) discuss the use of role-play and video recording in counselor education; (b) introduce counselor-educators to…

  16. Exploring the Impact of Role-Playing on Peer Feedback in an Online Case-Based Learning Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hui Ching

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners’ perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners’ generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated with higher frequency of problem identification in the peer comments. Sixty percent of learners perceived the role-play strategy useful in assisting them to compose and provide meaningful feedback. Multiple motivations drove learners in making decisions on role choice when responding to their peers, mostly for peer benefits. Finally, 90% of learners reported the peer feedback useful or somewhat useful. Based on the findings of this study, we discussed educational and instructional design implications and future directions to further the line of research using role-play strategy to enhance peer feedback activity.

  17. Enhanced reality live role playing

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Jonas; Waern, Annika; Åkesson, Karl-Petter; Björk, Staffan; Falk, Jennica

    2004-01-01

    Live role-playing is a form of improvisational theatre played for the experience of the performers and without an audience. These games form a challenging application domain for ubiquitous technology. We discuss the design options for enhanced reality live role-playing and the role of technology in live role-playing games.

  18. Using Analogy Role-Play Activity in an Undergraduate Biology Classroom to Show Central Dogma Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…

  19. Light-regulated phosphorylation of maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase plays a vital role in its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Qing; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Mei, Ying-Chang; Gao, Zhi-Fang; Chen, Yi-Bo; Qian, Chun-Rong; Hao, Yu-Bo; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2014-05-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)-the major decarboxylase in PEPCK-type C4 plants-is also present in appreciable amounts in the bundle sheath cells of NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 plants, such as maize (Zea mays), where it plays an apparent crucial role during photosynthesis (Wingler et al., in Plant Physiol 120(2):539-546, 1999; Furumoto et al., in Plant Mol Biol 41(3):301-311, 1999). Herein, we describe the use of mass spectrometry to demonstrate phosphorylation of maize PEPCK residues Ser55, Thr58, Thr59, and Thr120. Western blotting indicated that the extent of Ser55 phosphorylation dramatically increases in the leaves of maize seedlings when the seedlings are transferred from darkness to light, and decreases in the leaves of seedlings transferred from light to darkness. The effect of light on phosphorylation of this residue is opposite that of the effect of light on PEPCK activity, with the decarboxylase activity of PEPCK being less in illuminated leaves than in leaves left in the dark. This inverse relationship between PEPCK activity and the extent of phosphorylation suggests that the suppressive effect of light on PEPCK decarboxylation activity might be mediated by reversible phosphorylation of Ser55.

  20. MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and plays a role in bone development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Watanabe

    Full Text Available Mastermind-like 1 (MAML1 is a transcriptional co-activator in the Notch signaling pathway. Recently, however, several reports revealed novel and unique roles for MAML1 that are independent of the Notch signaling pathway. We found that MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, a transcription factor essential for osteoblastic differentiation and chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. MAML1 significantly enhanced the Runx2-mediated transcription of the p6OSE2-Luc reporter, in which luciferase expression was controlled by six copies of the osteoblast specific element 2 (OSE2 from the Runx2-regulated osteocalcin gene promoter. Interestingly, a deletion mutant of MAML1 lacking the N-terminal Notch-binding domain also enhanced Runx2-mediated transcription. Moreover, inhibition of Notch signaling did not affect the action of MAML1 on Runx2, suggesting that the activation of Runx2 by MAML1 may be caused in a Notch-independent manner. Overexpression of MAML1 transiently enhanced the Runx2-mediated expression of alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, in the murine pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2. MAML1(-/- embryos at embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5 had shorter bone lengths than wild-type embryos. The area of primary spongiosa of the femoral diaphysis was narrowed. At E14.5, extended zone of collagen type II alpha 1 (Col2a1 and Sox9 expression, markers of chondrocyte differentiation, and decreased zone of collagen type X alpha 1 (Col10a1 expression, a marker of hypertrophic chondrocyte, were observed. These observations suggest that chondrocyte maturation was impaired in MAML1(-/- mice. MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and plays a role in bone development.

  1. Efflux pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis play a significant role in antituberculosis activity of potential drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balganesh, Meenakshi; Dinesh, Neela; Sharma, Sreevalli; Kuruppath, Sanjana; Nair, Anju V; Sharma, Umender

    2012-05-01

    Active efflux of drugs mediated by efflux pumps that confer drug resistance is one of the mechanisms developed by bacteria to counter the adverse effects of antibiotics and chemicals. To understand these efflux mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we generated knockout (KO) mutants of four efflux pumps of the pathogen belonging to different classes. We measured the MICs and kill values of two different compound classes on the wild type (WT) and the efflux pump (EP) KO mutants in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitors verapamil and l-phenylalanyl-l-arginyl-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Among the pumps studied, the efflux pumps belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) class, encoded by Rv1218c, and the SMR (small multidrug resistance) class, encoded by Rv3065, appear to play important roles in mediating the efflux of different chemical classes and antibiotics. Efflux pumps encoded by Rv0849 and Rv1258c also mediate the efflux of these compounds, but to a lesser extent. Increased killing is observed in WT M. tuberculosis cells by these compounds in the presence of either verapamil or PAβN. The efflux pump KO mutants were more susceptible to these compounds in the presence of efflux inhibitors. We have shown that these four efflux pumps of M. tuberculosis play a vital role in mediating efflux of different chemical scaffolds. Inhibitors of one or several of these efflux pumps could have a significant impact in the treatment of tuberculosis. The identification and characterization of Rv0849, a new efflux pump belonging to the MFS (major facilitator superfamily) class, are reported.

  2. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X.; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependant manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE 2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE 2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE 2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin

  3. Learning through role-playing games: an approach for active learning and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Ferreira Randi

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the use of role-playing games (RPGs as a methodological approach for teaching cellular biology, assessing student satisfaction, learning outcomes, and retention of acquired knowledge. First-year undergraduate medical students at two Brazilian public universities attended either an RPG-based class (RPG group or a lecture (lecture-based group on topics related to cellular biology. Pre- and post-RPG-based class questionnaires were compared to scores in regular exams and in an unannounced test one year later to assess students' attitudes and learning. From the 230 students that attended the RPG classes, 78.4% responded that the RPG-based classes were an effective tool for learning; 55.4% thought that such classes were better than lectures but did not replace them; and 81% responded that they would use this method. The lecture-based group achieved a higher grade in 1 of 14 regular exam questions. In the medium-term evaluation (one year later, the RPG group scored higher in 2 of 12 questions. RPG classes are thus quantitatively as effective as formal lectures, are well accepted by students, and may serve as educational tools, giving students the chance to learn actively and potentially retain the acquired knowledge more efficiently.

  4. Increasing Physical Activity among Adults with Disabilities: Doctors Can Play a Key Role

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Dianna Carroll, a senior health scientist with CDC’s Division of Human Development and Disability, talks about the role of doctors and other health professionals in increasing physical activity among adults with disabilities.

  5. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  6. Learners' Interpersonal Beliefs and Generated Feedback in an Online Role-Playing Peer-Feedback Activity: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback affords interaction and critical thinking opportunities for learners in online courses. However, various factors prevent learners from taking advantage of these promising benefits. This study explored learners' perceptions of the interpersonal factors in a role-playing peer-feedback activity, and examined the types of peer feedback…

  7. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide plays a role in olfactory memory formation in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsa, Rita; Hollósy, Tibor; Tamás, Andrea; Tóth, Gábor; Lengvári, István; Reglodi, Dóra

    2005-11-01

    PACAP plays an important role during development of the nervous system and is also involved in memory processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of PACAP in chicken embryonic olfactory memory formation by blocking PACAP at a sensitive period in ovo. Chicken were exposed daily to strawberry scent in ovo from embryonic day 15. Control eggs were treated only with saline, while other eggs received a single injection of the PACAP antagonist PACAP6-38 at day 15. The consumption of scented and unscented water was measured daily after hatching. Animals exposed to strawberry scent in ovo showed no preference. However, chickens exposed to PACAP6-38, showed a clear preference for plain water, similarly to unexposed chicken. Our present study points to PACAP's possible importance in embryonic olfactory memory formation.

  8. Increasing Physical Activity among Adults with Disabilities: Doctors Can Play a Key Role

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-22

    In this podcast, Dr. Dianna Carroll, a senior health scientist with CDC’s Division of Human Development and Disability, talks about the role of doctors and other health professionals in increasing physical activity among adults with disabilities.  Created: 4/22/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  9. Do family environment factors play a role in adolescents' involvement in organized activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badura, Petr; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sigmund, Erik; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-08-01

    The study assessed the association of family environment factors with adolescents' participation in organized leisure-time activities (OLTA). We used data on 10,472 Czech adolescents aged 11-15 years (49.2% boys) from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The associations of family support, the presence of parental screen-time rules and joint family activities with participation in at least one OLTA were assessed using logistic regression. High family support and the presence of parental screen-time rules were associated with higher odds of OLTA participation. Moreover, adolescents playing sports, indoor games and going for walks with their families at least weekly were more likely to participate in OLTA. Conversely, those spending time in joint family TV/video watching on most days were less likely to do so. A supportive family environment and direct parental involvement in their adolescent children's leisure are associated with OLTA participation in early to middle adolescence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  11. Brain Activity in Fairness Consideration during Asset Distribution: Does the Initial Ownership Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin; Hu, Jie; van Dijk, Eric; Leliveld, Marijke C.; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    Previous behavioral studies have shown that initial ownership influences individuals’ fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not entirely clear whether initial ownership influences the brain activity when a recipient evaluates the fairness of asset distribution. In this study, we randomly assigned the bargaining property (monetary reward) to either the allocator or the recipient in the ultimatum game and let participants of the study, acting as recipients, receive either disadvantageous unequal, equal, or advantageous unequal offers from allocators while the event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Behavioral results showed that participants were more likely to reject disadvantageous unequal and equal offers when they initially owned the property as compared to when they did not. The two types of unequal offers evoked more negative going ERPs (the MFN) than the equal offers in an early time window and the differences were not modulated by the initial ownership. In a late time window, however, the P300 responses to division schemes were affected not only by the type of unequal offers but also by whom the property was initially assigned to. These findings suggest that while the MFN may function as a general mechanism that evaluates whether the offer is consistent or inconsistent with the equity rule, the P300 is sensitive to top-down controlled processes, into which factors related to the allocation of attentional resources, including initial ownership and personal interests, come to play. PMID:22761850

  12. What is the role played by physical activity and exercise in the frailty syndrome? Perspectives for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2010-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity play an important role in physical frailty, but we do not know if they are markers, components and/or correlates of this syndrome. The purpose of this paper is briefly to discuss the potential roles played by physical activity and exercise on the development and progression of frailty, and to propose directions for future research in this field. Exercise practice lowers the levels of some frailty markers, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and uric acid, and also resistance to insulin. The influence of exercise on the main frailty domains is also well established in the literature. Exercise improves muscle strength, gait speed, cognition (particularly executive control related-tasks), weight maintenance, mood and, to a lesser extent, feelings of energy. Although exercise and physical activity positively influence the main frailty markers and domains, most findings were obtained for other elderly populations (e.g., healthy elderly, clinical populations). For future research, efforts must be made to define some key concepts (exercise or physical activity) in selecting study samples and in establishing intervention length. Attention must also be paid to identifying the most efficacious exercise interventions regarding type, frequency, intensity and session duration, and approaching a dose-response relationship between a physically active life-style and frailty. Thus, further research, especially longitudinal randomized controlled trials, is needed to understand the role of physical activity and exercise in the frailty syndrome.

  13. Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins Play an Essential Role in Signalling and Activation of Invasion into Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Hong Tham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The invasive form of malaria parasites is termed a merozoite and it employs an array of parasite proteins that bind to the host cell to mediate invasion. In Plasmodium falciparum, the erythrocyte binding-like (EBL and reticulocyte binding-like (Rh protein families are responsible for binding to specific erythrocyte receptors for invasion and mediating signalling events that initiate active entry of the malaria parasite. Here we have addressed the role of the cytoplasmic tails of these proteins in activating merozoite invasion after receptor engagement. We show that the cytoplasmic domains of these type 1 membrane proteins are phosphorylated in vitro. Depletion of PfCK2, a kinase implicated to phosphorylate these cytoplasmic tails, blocks P. falciparum invasion of red blood cells. We identify the crucial residues within the PfRh4 cytoplasmic domain that are required for successful parasite invasion. Live cell imaging of merozoites from these transgenic mutants show they attach but do not penetrate erythrocytes implying the PfRh4 cytoplasmic tail conveys signals important for the successful completion of the invasion process.

  14. ACHIEVEMENT GOALS AND INTENSIVITY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING FREE PLAY IN CHILDREN: THE MODERATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED SPORT CONFIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lochbaum Marc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine the moderating role of sport confidence and resultant the achievement goal profile with physical activity intensity during free play. Material: participants were 28 children participating in an after-school program. The 28 children completed measures of task and ego goal orientations and sport confidence two weeks prior to having their heart rate monitored during a free play session. Results: indicated that children with high sport confidence were characterized ( p 1.10 by higher task and ego orientations and average heart rate over the course of the free play session when compared to the low sport confidence children. The moderate sport confidence children were not significantly different than the other groups expect for ego orientation though effect sizes indicated this group tended towards being more similar to the high sport confidence group. The results were confounded as all children in the low sport confidence condition were girls. Conclusions: Sport confidence moderates physical activity intensity during free play in children and is characterized by a higher ego orientation and generally higher task orientation. But given all of the low confident children were females, intervention work is needed at early ages with girls to build sport confidence and motivations for both goal orientations to hopefully increase physical activity intensity during free play.

  15. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase plays a key role in regulating MAPKAPK2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Tatsuhiko; Kawai, Kayoko; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    One of three major families of the mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK), p38 as well as JNK, has been shown to transduce extracellular stress stimuli into cellular responses by phospho-relay cascades. Among p38 families, p38α is a widely characterized isoform and the biological phenomena are explained by its kinase activity regulating functions of its downstream substrates. However, its specific contributions to each phenomenon are yet not fully elucidated. For better understanding of the role of MAPKs, especially p38α, we utilized newly established mouse fibroblast cell lines originated from a p38α null mouse, namely, a parental cell line without p38α gene locus, knockout of p38α (KOP), Zeosin-resistant (ZKOP), revertant of p38α (RKOP), and Exip revertant (EKOP). EKOP is smaller in size but grows faster than the others. Although comparable amounts of ERK and JNK are expressed in each cell line, ERK is highly phosphorylated in EKOP even in normal culture conditions. Serum stimulation after serum starvation led to ERK phosphorylation in RKOP and ZKOP, but not in EKOP as much. On the contrary, relative phosphorylation level of JNK to total JNK in response to UV was low in RKOP. And its phosphorylation as well as total JNK is slightly lower in EKOP. RKOP is less sensitive to UV irradiation as judged by the survival rate. Stress response upon UV or sorbitol stimuli, leading to mitogen activate protein kinase activated kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) phosphorylation, was only observed in RKOP. Further experiments reveal that MAPKAPK2 expression is largely suppressed in ZKOP and EKOP. Its expression was recovered by re-introduction of p38α. The loss of MAPKAPK2 expression accompanied by the defect of p38α is confirmed in an embryonic extract prepared from p38α null mice. These data demonstrate that p38 signal pathway is regulated not only by phosphorylation but also by modulation of the expression of its component. Together, we have established cell lines that can be used in

  16. Astrocytes play a key role in activation of microglia by persistent Borna disease virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauder Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV infection of the rat brain is associated with microglial activation and damage to certain neuronal populations. Since persistent BDV infection of neurons is nonlytic in vitro, activated microglia have been suggested to be responsible for neuronal cell death in vivo. However, the mechanisms of activation of microglia in neonatally BDV-infected rat brains remain unclear. Our previous studies have shown that activation of microglia by BDV in culture requires the presence of astrocytes as neither the virus nor BDV-infected neurons alone activate microglia. Here, we evaluated the mechanisms whereby astrocytes can contribute to activation of microglia in neuron-glia-microglia mixed cultures. We found that persistent infection of neuronal cells leads to activation of uninfected astrocytes as measured by elevated expression of RANTES. Activation of astrocytes then produces activation of microglia as evidenced by increased formation of round-shaped, MHCI-, MHCII- and IL-6-positive microglia cells. Our analysis of possible molecular mechanisms of activation of astrocytes and/or microglia in culture indicates that the mediators of activation may be soluble heat-resistant, low molecular weight factors. The findings indicate that astrocytes may mediate activation of microglia by BDV-infected neurons. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that microglia activation in the absence of neuronal damage may represent initial steps in the gradual neurodegeneration observed in brains of neonatally BDV-infected rats.

  17. Active Teaching of Diffusion through History of Science, Computer Animation and Role Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajsek, Simona Strgulc; Vilhar, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    We developed and tested a lesson plan for active teaching of diffusion in secondary schools (grades 10-13), which stimulates understanding of the thermal (Brownian) motion of particles as the principle underlying diffusion. During the lesson, students actively explore the Brownian motion through microscope observations of irregularly moving small…

  18. I Play Roles, Therefore I Am

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    2007-01-01

    -reflecting activity is getting an increasingly growing attention from the media, and the fact that educators, teachers, and development consultants have discovered the potential inherent in role-playing, both as an idea and a strategy. In this essay, we place leisure role-playing in a broader perspective, not only...... Rollespil - i æstetisk, pædagogisk og kulturel sammenhæng (2006), which is the first Danish academic anthology on role-playing as an aesthetic, educational, and cultural phenomenon....

  19. Online role-playing for faculty development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Zahra; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Vyas, Rashmi; Iqbal, Mobeen; Tan, Christina; Diserens, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    There has been a rapid growth of online teaching in the past few years, yet the implementation of role-play for formal educational activities in an online setting is growing more slowly. The use of online role-playing for the development of health professions educators is virtually un-documented in the literature. In the project reported here we use role-playing as a method to motivate and increase active participation in an online web-based discussion on community-based medical education (CBME). The Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education & Research (FAIMER(®) ) Institute hosts virtual group discussions for fellows as part of its fellowship programmes, in order to deepen their knowledge base in health professions education and research. In June 2008, a group of seven FAIMER(®) fellows and faculty members moderated an online discussion on CBME using an online role-play exercise with other fellows and faculty members. Out of a total of 102 fellows, 36 (35.3%) participated actively, which exceeded the typical percentage of list server participation. In addition, a rich discussion resulted in a comprehensive report on the goals, challenges, logistical components, role of Health Ministry policy and the possible ethical mandate of CBME in developing countries. Online role-play encouraged distributed participation among a highly diverse international group of participants, supporting the conclusion that role-playing can be used effectively with mid-career health professional faculty members in the online environment. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  20. Oxidative stress plays a role in high glucose-induced activation of pancreatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Lee, Esder; Chun, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Song, Ki-Ho, E-mail: kihos@catholic.ac.kr

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •High glucose increased production of reactive oxygen species in cultured pancreatic stellate cells. •High glucose facilitated the activation of these cells. •Antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced activation of these cells. -- Abstract: The activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is thought to be a potential mechanism underlying islet fibrosis, which may contribute to progressive β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated that antioxidants reduced islet fibrosis in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no in vitro study demonstrating that high glucose itself can induce oxidative stress in PSCs. Thus, PSCs were isolated and cultured from Sprague Dawley rats, and treated with high glucose for 72 h. High glucose increased the production of reactive oxygen species. When treated with high glucose, freshly isolated PSCs exhibited myofibroblastic transformation. During early culture (passage 1), PSCs treated with high glucose contained an increased number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. During late culture (passages 2–5), PSCs treated with high glucose exhibited increases in cell proliferation, the expression of fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor, release of interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β and collagen, and cell migration. Finally, the treatment of PSCs with high glucose and antioxidants attenuated these changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high glucose increased oxidative stress in primary rat PSCs, thereby facilitating the activation of these cells, while antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced PSC activation.

  1. Oxidative stress plays a role in high glucose-induced activation of pancreatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Lee, Esder; Chun, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Song, Ki-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •High glucose increased production of reactive oxygen species in cultured pancreatic stellate cells. •High glucose facilitated the activation of these cells. •Antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced activation of these cells. -- Abstract: The activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is thought to be a potential mechanism underlying islet fibrosis, which may contribute to progressive β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated that antioxidants reduced islet fibrosis in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no in vitro study demonstrating that high glucose itself can induce oxidative stress in PSCs. Thus, PSCs were isolated and cultured from Sprague Dawley rats, and treated with high glucose for 72 h. High glucose increased the production of reactive oxygen species. When treated with high glucose, freshly isolated PSCs exhibited myofibroblastic transformation. During early culture (passage 1), PSCs treated with high glucose contained an increased number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. During late culture (passages 2–5), PSCs treated with high glucose exhibited increases in cell proliferation, the expression of fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor, release of interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β and collagen, and cell migration. Finally, the treatment of PSCs with high glucose and antioxidants attenuated these changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high glucose increased oxidative stress in primary rat PSCs, thereby facilitating the activation of these cells, while antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced PSC activation

  2. Do family environment factors play a role in adolescents' involvement in organized activities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badura, Petr; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sigmund, Erik; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    The study assessed the association of family environment factors with adolescents' participation in organized leisure-time activities (OLTA). We used data on 10,472 Czech adolescents aged 11-15 years (49.2% boys) from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The associations of

  3. Active Learning through Role Playing: Virtual Babies in a Child Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Devereaux A.; Hupp, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors designed an active learning project for a child development course in which students apply core concepts to a hypothetical baby they "raise" during the term. Students applied developmental topics to their unique, developing child. The project fostered student learning and enthusiasm for the material. The project's versatility makes it…

  4. Analyzing the Learning Process of an Online Role-Playing Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse

    2012-01-01

    Instructional activities based on online discussion strategies have gained prevalence in recent years. Within this context, a crucial research topic is to design innovative and appropriate online discussion strategies that assist learners in attaining a deeper level of interaction and higher cognitive skills. By analyzing the process of online…

  5. EphB2 activity plays a pivotal role in pediatric medulloblastoma cell adhesion and invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, Arend H.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; Hulleman, Esther; van Vuurden, Dannis G.; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Yang, Hui; Scherpen, Frank J. G.; Kampen, Kim R.; Hoving, Eelco W.; Kamps, Willem A.; Diks, Sander H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; de Bont, Eve Line S. J. M.

    Eph/ephrin signaling has bcen implicated in various types of key cancer-enhancing processes, like migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis. In medulloblastoma, invading tumor cells characteristically lead to early recurrence and a decreased prognosis. Based on kinase-activity profiling data

  6. Relative Expression Levels Rather Than Specific Activity Plays the Major Role in Determining In Vivo AKT Isoform Substrate Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel S. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The AKT protooncogene mediates many cellular processes involved in normal development and disease states such as cancer. The three structurally similar isoforms: AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 exhibit both functional redundancy and isoform-specific functions; however the basis for their differential signalling remains unclear. Here we show that in vitro, purified AKT3 is ∼47-fold more active than AKT1 at phosphorylating peptide and protein substrates. Despite these marked variations in specific activity between the individual isoforms, a comprehensive analysis of phosphorylation of validated AKT substrates indicated only subtle differences in signalling via individual isoforms in vivo. Therefore, we hypothesise, at least in this model system, that relative tissue/cellular abundance, rather than specific activity, plays the dominant role in determining AKT substrate specificity in situ.

  7. Cell fusion in osteoclasts plays a critical role in controlling bone mass and osteoblastic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Ninomiya, Ken; Miyamoto, Kana; Suzuki, Toru; Sato, Yuiko

    2008-01-01

    The balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activity is central for maintaining the integrity of bone homeostasis. Here we show that mice lacking dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), an essential molecule for osteoclast cell-cell fusion, exhibited impaired bone resorption and upregulation of bone formation by osteoblasts, which do not express DC-STAMP, which led to increased bone mass. On the contrary, DC-STAMP over-expressing transgenic (DC-STAMP-Tg) mice under the control of an actin promoter showed significantly accelerated cell-cell fusion of osteoclasts and bone resorption, with decreased osteoblastic activity and bone mass. Bone resorption and formation are known to be regulated in a coupled manner, whereas DC-STAMP regulates bone homeostasis in an un-coupled manner. Thus our results indicate that inhibition of a single molecule provides both decreased osteoclast activity and increased bone formation by osteoblasts, thereby increasing bone mass in an un-coupled and a tissue specific manner.

  8. GTPase activity plays a key role in the pathobiology of LRRK2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Xiong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene are associated with late-onset, autosomal-dominant, familial Parkinson's disease (PD and also contribute to sporadic disease. The LRRK2 gene encodes a large protein with multiple domains, including functional Roc GTPase and protein kinase domains. Mutations in LRRK2 most likely cause disease through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism. The expression of human LRRK2 variants in cultured primary neurons induces toxicity that is dependent on intact GTP binding or kinase activities. However, the mechanism(s underlying LRRK2-induced neuronal toxicity is poorly understood, and the contribution of GTPase and/or kinase activity to LRRK2 pathobiology is not well defined. To explore the pathobiology of LRRK2, we have developed a model of LRRK2 cytotoxicity in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protein domain analysis in this model reveals that expression of GTPase domain-containing fragments of human LRRK2 are toxic. LRRK2 toxicity in yeast can be modulated by altering GTPase activity and is closely associated with defects in endocytic vesicular trafficking and autophagy. These truncated LRRK2 variants induce similar toxicity in both yeast and primary neuronal models and cause similar vesicular defects in yeast as full-length LRRK2 causes in primary neurons. The toxicity induced by truncated LRRK2 variants in yeast acts through a mechanism distinct from toxicity induced by human alpha-synuclein. A genome-wide genetic screen identified modifiers of LRRK2-induced toxicity in yeast including components of vesicular trafficking pathways, which can also modulate the trafficking defects caused by expression of truncated LRRK2 variants. Our results provide insight into the basic pathobiology of LRRK2 and suggest that the GTPase domain may contribute to the toxicity of LRRK2. These findings may guide future therapeutic strategies aimed at attenuating LRRK2-mediated neurodegeneration.

  9. Biphasic electrical targeting plays a significant role in schwann cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Sook; Song, Yun Mi; Cho, Tae Hyung; Pan, Hui; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Sung June; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2011-05-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is a promising technique for axonal regeneration of peripheral nerve injuries. However, long-term, continuous ES in the form of biphasic electric current (BEC) to stimulate axonal regeneration has rarely been attempted and the effects of BEC on Schwann cells are unknown. We hypothesized that long-term, continuous ES would trigger the activation of Schwann cells, and we therefore investigated the effect of BEC on the functional differentiation of primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) into Schwann cells, as well as the activity of primary Schwann cells. Differentiation of hMSCs into Schwann cells was determined by coculture with rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cell line). We also investigated the in vivo effects of long-term ES (4 weeks) on axonal outgrowth of a severed sciatic nerve with a 7-mm gap after retraction of the nerve ends in rats by implanting an electronic device to serve as a neural conduit. PC12 cells cocultured with hMSCs electrically stimulated during culture in Schwann cell differentiation medium (Group I) had longer neurites and a greater percentage of PC12 cells were neurite-sprouting than when cocultured with hMSCs cultured in growth medium (control group) or unstimulated hMSCs in the same culture conditions as used for Group I (Group II). Group I cells showed significant upregulation of Schwann cell-related neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor compared to Group II cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Primary Schwann cells responded to continuous BEC with increased proliferation and the induction of nerve growth factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor, similar to Group I cells, and in addition, induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was observed. Immunohistochemical investigation of sciatic nerve regenerates revealed that BEC increased axonal outgrowth significantly. These results demonstrate that BEC enhanced the functional activity of

  10. Hands-On Surgical Training Workshop: an Active Role-Playing Patient Education for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkietkachorn, Apinut; Boonyawong, Pangpoom; Rhunsiri, Peera; Tantiphlachiva, Kasaya

    2017-09-01

    Most patient education involves passive learning. To improve patient education regarding surgery, an active learning workshop-based teaching method is proposed. The objective of this study was to assess level of patient surgical knowledge, achievement of workshop learning objectives, patient apprehension about future surgery, and participant workshop satisfaction after completing a surgical training workshop. A four-station workshop (surgical scrub, surgical suture, laparoscopic surgery, and robotic surgery) was developed to teach four important components of the surgical process. Healthy, surgery-naive adolescents were enrolled to attend this 1-h workshop-based training program. Training received by participants was technically and procedurally identical to training received by actual surgeons. Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were used to assess learning outcomes. There were 1312 participants, with a mean age 15.9 ± 1.1 years and a gender breakdown of 303 males and 1009 females. For surgical knowledge, mean pre-workshop and post-workshop scores were 6.1 ± 1.5 and 7.5 ± 1.5 (out of 10 points), respectively (p education is an effective way to improve understanding of surgery-related processes. This teaching method may also decrease apprehension that patients or potential patients harbor regarding a future surgical procedure.

  11. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor plays a role in neutrophil migration during lipopolysaccharide-induced peritoneal inflammation but not during Escherichia coli-induced peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renckens, Rosemarijn; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Florquin, Sandrine; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is expressed on many different cells, including leukocytes. uPAR has been implicated to play a role in neutrophil migration to sites of inflammation. METHODS: To determine the role that uPAR plays in neutrophil recruitment in response

  12. "Prey Play": Learning about Predators and Prey through an Interactive, Role-Play Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack

    2012-01-01

    "Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…

  13. Role-Play and Student Engagement: Reflections from the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Role-play is viewed by scholars as an effective active learning strategy: it encourages participation among passive learners, adds dynamism to the classroom and promotes the retention of material. But what do students think of role-play? This study surveyed 144 students after a role-play activity in a history course and asked them to identify what…

  14. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  15. Transition problems and play as transitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2005-01-01

    Because too many children experience the transition to school as a culture shock, during the past decade teachers have implemented so-called transition activities in order to bridge the gap betwen pre-school and schoo. However, transition to school also calls for a development of higher mental...... functions, among others the development of children's learning motive. From the view of activity theori, transition to formal education entails crossing boundaries from the activity system play to the activity system of school learning. The transition can be facilitated by developing a 'transitory activity...... system', which mediates between the two systems, ensuring that the result of one system serves as a tool for the next. Advanced forms of play might make up a transitory activity system. The paper describes different forms of play crossing the boundaies of role play (frame-play, aesthetic theme play...

  16. Virtual Playgrounds? Assessing the Playfulness of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kerrie Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Millions of children and adults devote much of their leisure time to playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Most observers commonly categorize computer games as a play activity, but this article asks whether MMORPGs contain activities that might not be play. The author examines the phenomenon of online gaming and…

  17. Arabidopsis ABI5 plays a role in regulating ROS homeostasis by activating CATALASE 1 transcription in seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chao; Ma, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Yu, Yong-Tao; Liang, Shan; Lu, Kai; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2017-05-01

    It has been known that ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. In the present study, we showed that inhibition of the catalase activity with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) inhibits seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines. Compared with Col-0, the seeds of abi5 mutants showed more sensitive to 3-AT during seed germination, while the seeds of ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines showed more insensitive. H 2 O 2 showed the same effect on seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines as 3-AT. These results suggest that ROS is involved in the seed germination mediated by ABI5. Further, we observed that T-DNA insertion mutants of the three catalase members in Arabidopsis displayed 3-AT-insensitive or -hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination, suggesting that these catalase members regulate ROS homeostasis in a highly complex way. ABI5 affects reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by affecting CATALASE expression and catalase activity. Furthermore, we showed that ABI5 directly binds to the CAT1 promoter and activates CAT1 expression. Genetic evidence supports the idea that CAT1 functions downstream of ABI5 in ROS signaling during seed germination. RNA-sequencing analysis indicates that the transcription of the genes involved in ROS metabolic process or genes responsive to ROS stress is impaired in abi5-1 seeds. Additionally, expression changes in some genes correlative to seed germination were showed due to the change in ABI5 expression under 3-AT treatment. Together, all the findings suggest that ABI5 regulates seed germination at least partly by affecting ROS homeostasis.

  18. Play Therapy: Role in Reading Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the literature concerning the role of play therapy (particularly sandplay and nondirected play therapy) in the improvement of reading. Suggests that the role of play therapy is to support the child, encourage the child, and build self-esteem thus creating the optimal learning environment for reading improvement. (RS)

  19. Home environment as a predictor of child's language: A mediating role of family literacy activities and symbolic play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja-Peklaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we explored the ways in which SES-related factors of family environment affect child's language across toddlerhood and early childhood. We proposed a mediational path model in which we presumed that family literacy activities and parental encouragement of symbolic play acted as mediating variables, mediating the effect of parental education, family possessions and parent-to-child speech on child's language. The sample included 99 families with children, aged from 1 to 6 years. The data were collected in the family home, mostly via direct observation and by using a semi-structured interview with parents. The findings suggest that high-SES parents and parents who used a more complex and supportive speech, more frequently involved their children in different literacy activities. The effect of the parent-to-child speech on child's language proved to be mediated by parental use of mental transformations during symbolic play with a child.

  20. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  1. Teaching Speaking Skills from Role-play to Communicative Competence via Information-gap and Opinion-gap Activities. One Teacher's Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullard, Sue

    1986-01-01

    The task of the teacher of foreign languages is to enable the students to progress gradually from teacher/coursebook controlled utterances to complete linguistic autonomy. Role play and a progression of information-gap activities are discussed in terms of developing students' personal autonomy at each level of linguistic competence. (Author/LMO)

  2. Moving educational role-play beyond entertainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Educational role-play has long proved an effective tool for consultants trying to develop the skills that employees are using for performing certain job functions. However, while educational role-play often is presented as an entertaining means for learning, such insistence on making learning gam...

  3. Assessment of the nutrition and physical activity education needs of low-income, rural mothers: can technology play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Nancy L; Billing, Amy S; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Tournas-Hardt, Amy

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of low-income, rural mothers regarding their need for nutrition and physical activity education and the role of technology in addressing those needs. Quantitative and qualitative research was combined to examine the nature and scope of the issues faced by this target population. Women who were currently receiving food stamps and had children in nursery school to eighth grade were recruited through a state database to participate in a telephone survey (N = 146) and focus groups (N = 56). Low-income, rural mothers were aware of and practiced many health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity, but they faced additional barriers due to their income level, rural place of residence, and having children. They reported controlling the fat content in the food they cooked and integrating fruits and vegetables but showed less interest in increasing fiber consumption. They reported knowing little about physical activity recommendations, and their reported activity patterns were likely inflated because of seeing housework and child care as exercise. To stretch their food budget, the majority reported practicing typical shopping and budgeting skills, and many reported skills particularly useful in rural areas: hunting, fishing, and canning. Over two-thirds of the survey respondents reported computer access and previous Internet use, and most of those not yet online intended to use the Internet in the future. Those working in rural communities need to consider technology as a way to reach traditionally underserved populations like low-income mothers.

  4. ERK1/2 signaling plays an important role in topoisomerase II poison-induced G2/M checkpoint activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Ryan H; Greer, Patrick M; Cao, Phu T; Cowan, Kenneth H; Yan, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Topo II poisons, which target topoisomerase II (topo II) to generate enzyme mediated DNA damage, have been commonly used for anti-cancer treatment. While clinical evidence demonstrate a capability of topo II poisons in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, accumulating evidence also show that topo II poison treatment frequently results in cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which was associated with subsequent resistance to these treatments. Results in this report indicate that treatment of MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells with topo II poisons resulted in an increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and an subsequent induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation using specific inhibitors markedly attenuated the topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest and diminished the topo II poison-induced activation of ATR and Chk1 kinases. Moreover, decreased expression of ATR by specific shRNA diminished topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest but had no effect on topo II poison-induced ERK1/2 activation. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling had little, if any, effect on topo II poison-induced ATM activation. In addition, ATM inhibition by either incubation of cells with ATM specific inhibitor or transfection of cells with ATM specific siRNA did not block topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest. Ultimately, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling greatly enhanced topo II poison-induced apoptosis. These results implicate a critical role for ERK1/2 signaling in the activation of G2/M checkpoint response following topo II poison treatment, which protects cells from topo II poison-induced apoptosis.

  5. Coevolving residues of (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel proteins play roles in stabilizing active site architecture and coordinating protein dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongbo; Xu, Feng; Hu, Hairong; Wang, Feifei; Wu, Qi; Huang, Qiang; Wang, Honghai

    2008-12-01

    Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) is a representative of (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel proteins-the most common enzyme fold in nature. To better understand how the constituent amino-acids work together to define the structure and to facilitate the function, we investigated the evolutionary and dynamical coupling of IGPS residues by combining statistical coupling analysis (SCA) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The coevolving residues identified by the SCA were found to form a network which encloses the active site completely. The MD simulations showed that these coevolving residues are involved in the correlated and anti-correlated motions. The correlated residues are within van der Waals contact and appear to maintain the active site architecture; the anti-correlated residues are mainly distributed on opposite sides of the catalytic cavity and coordinate the motions likely required for the substrate entry and product release. Our findings might have broad implications for proteins with the highly conserved (betaalpha)(8)-barrel in assessing the roles of amino-acids that are moderately conserved and not directly involved in the active site of the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel. The results of this study could also provide useful information for further exploring the specific residue motions for the catalysis and protein design based on the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel scaffold.

  6. Mycobacterial secretion systems ESX-1 and ESX-5 play distinct roles in host cell death and inflammasome activation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah

    2011-09-28

    During infection of humans and animals, pathogenic mycobacteria manipulate the host cell causing severe diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. To understand the basis of mycobacterial pathogenicity, it is crucial to identify the molecular virulence mechanisms. In this study, we address the contribution of ESX-1 and ESX-5 - two homologous type VII secretion systems of mycobacteria that secrete distinct sets of immune modulators - during the macrophage infection cycle. Using wild-type, ESX-1- and ESX-5-deficient mycobacterial strains, we demonstrate that these secretion systems differentially affect subcellular localization and macrophage cell responses. We show that in contrast to ESX-1, the effector proteins secreted by ESX-5 are not required for the translocation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium marinum to the cytosol of host cells. However, the M. marinum ESX-5 mutant does not induce inflammasome activation and IL-1b activation. The ESX-5 system also induces a caspase-independent cell death after translocation has taken place. Importantly, by means of inhibitory agents and small interfering RNA experiments, we reveal that cathepsin B is involved in both the induction of cell death and inflammasome activation upon infection with wild-type mycobacteria. These results reveal distinct roles for two different type VII secretion systems during infection and shed light on how virulent mycobacteria manipulate the host cell in various ways to replicate and spread. Copyright © 2011 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Negotiating succession in a family business - a role play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelzmann-Knafl, Sabine; Winkler, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    . The role-play offers you the possibility to flexibly address various succession-related aspects in family business. It requires a teacher, who is familiar with the family business literature and particularly the research of succession in family business. Furthermore, because role-plays have their own...... dynamics, the teacher should be familiar with applying role-plays in their teaching. In the teaching notes we offer a way to embed the role-play in a five-hour teaching and learning activity addressing the various issues of succession in family firms. You could, however, do only the role-play, for instance......Negotiating succession is crucial for a family business. This role-play will enable students to simulate a family conference of the Mayer & Huber Ltd, a German-based but internationally operating producer of mechanical and electrical locking systems for the automotive industry. During...

  8. Cooperative learning with role play in Chinese pharmacology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin; Xi, Jinglei

    2012-03-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) and role play are both efficient educational tools for enhancing Chinese student active learning and communication skills. This study was designed to obtain student feedback on the format of CL together with role play in the study of pharmacology in Chinese pharmaceutical undergraduates. CL was used in the self-study of new drugs used clinically but neglected in textbook and class teaching, so that groups of students were assigned to become "specialists" in one area of new drugs. Then, these "specialists" taught their new-found knowledge to other groups in role play approach involving an interaction between the pharmacist and a patient. Student perceptions of CL together with role play were examined using an eight-item survey instrument. Students were satisfied with CL together with role play. Majority of the students believed this teaching method enhanced their learning experience, made them gain more pharmacological expertise, increased the awareness of their career in future and self-educational abilities, and fostered their cooperation spirit and confidence. The materials on CL and role play were also believed pertinent. Only 63.4-76.5% and 63.1-37.3% of the students thought "CL and role-play were very funny" and "I felt very relaxed during CL together with role-play", respectively. CL together with role play is an efficient educational tool for enhancing student active-learning and communication skills. But Chinese students will take some time to adapt to this new teaching method.

  9. Social support plays a role in the attitude that people have towards taking an active role in medical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabers, Anne E M; de Jong, Judith D; Groenewegen, Peter P; van Dijk, Liset

    2016-09-21

    There is a growing emphasis towards including patients in medical decision-making. However, not all patients are actively involved in such decisions. Research has so far focused mainly on the influence of patient characteristics on preferences for active involvement. However, it can be argued that a patient's social context has to be taken into account as well, because social norms and resources affect behaviour. This study aims to examine the role of social resources, in the form of the availability of informational and emotional support, on the attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making. A questionnaire was sent to members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel (response 70 %; n = 1300) in June 2013. A regression model was then used to estimate the relation between medical and lay informational support and emotional support and the attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making. Availability of emotional support is positively related to the attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making only in people with a low level of education, not in persons with a middle and high level of education. The latter have a more positive attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making, irrespective of the level of emotional support available. People with better access to medical informational support have a more positive attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making; but no significant association was found for lay informational support. This study shows that social resources are associated with the attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making. Strategies aimed at increasing patient involvement have to address this.

  10. Social support plays a role in the attitude that people have towards taking an active role in medical decision-making.

    OpenAIRE

    Brabers, A.E.M.; Jong, J.D. de; Groenewegen, P.P.; Dijk, L. van

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a growing emphasis towards including patients in medical decision-making. However, not all patients are actively involved in such decisions. Research has so far focused mainly on the influence of patient characteristics on preferences for active involvement. However, it can be argued that a patient’s social context has to be taken into account as well, because social norms and resources affect behaviour. This study aims to examine the role of social resources, in the form...

  11. Live action role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2006-01-01

    Live action role-playing games share a range of characteristics with massively multi-player online games (MMOGs). Because these games have existed for more than 20 years, players of these games have a substantial amount of experience in handling issues pertinent to MMOGs. Survey and review of live...... action role-playing games, whose participant count can be in the thousands, reveal that features such as size, theme, game master-to-player ratio, and others interact to form complex systems that require several different groups of control tools to manage. The way that these games are managed offers...

  12. Qualitative Evaluation of a Role Play Bullying Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Gordon L; Brown, Kathryn; Grubb, Paula; Shay, Amy; Montoya, Karen

    Bullying against nurses is becoming a pervasive problem. In this article, a role play simulation designed for undergraduate nursing students is described. In addition, the evaluation findings from a subsample of students who participated in a role play simulation addressing bullying behaviors are reported. Focus group sessions were completed with a subset of eight students who participated in the intervention. Sessions were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi's procedural steps for qualitative analysis. Themes derived from the data were "The Experience of Being Bullied", "Implementation of the Program", "Desired Outcome of the Program", and "Context of Bullying in the Nursing Profession". Role play simulation was an effective and active learning strategy to diffuse education on bullying in nursing practice. Bullying in nursing was identified as a problem worthy of incorporation into the undergraduate nursing curriculum. To further enhance the learning experience with role play simulation, adequate briefing instructions, opportunity to opt out of the role play, and comprehensive debriefing are essential.

  13. Mycobacterial secretion systems ESX-1 and ESX-5 play distinct roles in host cell death and inflammasome activation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah; Bestebroer, Jovanka; Savage, Nigel D L; De Punder, Karin; Van Zon, Maaike; Wilson, Louis D.; Korbee, Cees J.; Van Der Sar, Astrid M.; Ottenhoff, Tom Hm M; Van Der Wel, Nicole N.; Bitter, Wilbert M.; Peters, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    for the translocation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium marinum to the cytosol of host cells. However, the M. marinum ESX-5 mutant does not induce inflammasome activation and IL-1b activation. The ESX-5 system also induces a caspase-independent cell death

  14. Active Gaming: The Future of Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Lisa; Manning, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine technology-driven games--especially active gaming--as an evolving form of children's play. They offer an overview of play and its developmental benefits, describe the literature on the emergence of technology-driven play, and reflect on the diminishment of physical play in contemporary culture. They suggest that active gaming,…

  15. Some Roles Children Play in Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Nancy; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A child patient may play one of several fixed roles in the family. As scapegoat, his shortcomings are emphasized; as baby, his dependence, weakness, and immaturity are rewarded; as pet, love and praise, some undeserved, are won; and, as peacemaker, he must promote peace at the cost of suppressing his own feelings. (ST)

  16. Role playing research before Dungeons and Dragons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    been published (for a review, see Lieberoth & Trier-Knudsen, 2015). Sometimes the therapeutic concept of “”Psychodrama”” is evoked as an earlier 20th century case (and suggested efficacy) of role playing as a positive tool for personal and psychological change, but digging a bit deeper, it turns out...

  17. Educational role-play: moving beyond entertainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    This paper presents a controversial approach to innovating educational role-play. It is argued that we should stop thinking games as an entertaining mean for facilitating participation, and instead try to see games as a content provider and feedback mechanism. A theoretical model is presented...

  18. Rhythmic Reading and Role-Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombarbdo, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    Children listen, act out and recite nursery rhymes and thus learn about rhyming words, absorb the rhythm of English language, and begin to develop speech sound awareness in an interactive and fun way, which can further enhance reading achievement. Encouraging children to dramatize the rhymes leads to role plays which uses basic vocabulary sight…

  19. Epoxy adhesive plays crucial role at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Epoxy adhesives are set to play a vital role in Europe's biggest-ever scientific experiment at the European Centrefor Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, thereby helping scientists gain a better understanding of the origins of the universe." (1/2 page)

  20. Epoxy adhesive plays crucial role at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Epoxy adhesives are set to play a vital role in Europe's biggest-ever scientific experiment at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, thereby helping scientists gain a better understanding of the origins of the universe." (1 page)

  1. Which factors play a role in Dutch health promotion professionals' decision to recruit actively primary schools to use a web-based smoking prevention programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Oenema, Anke; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2013-12-03

    Municipal Health Promotion Organisations (MHPOs) play an important role in promoting and disseminating prevention programmes, such as smoking prevention programmes, in schools. This study identifies factors that may facilitate or hinder MHPOs' willingness to recruit actively primary schools to use a smoking prevention programme. In 2011, 31 Dutch MHPOs were invited to recruit schools to use a smoking prevention programme. All MHPO employees involved in smoking prevention activities (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing psychological factors and characteristics of their organisation that might affect their decision to be involved in active recruitment of schools. T-tests and multivariate analysis of variance assessed potential differences in psychological and organisational factors between active and non-active recruiters. A total of 45 professionals returned the questionnaire (66.2%). Active recruiters (n = 12) had more positive attitudes (p = 0.02), higher self-efficacy expectations (p primary schools, compared with non-active recruiters. Organisational factors did not discriminate between active and non-active recruiters. Primarily psychological factors seem to be associated with MHPOs' decision to recruit schools actively. This indicates that creating more positive attitude, self-efficacy beliefs and formation of plans may help in getting more MHPOs involved in active recruitment procedures.

  2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 released from activated platelets plays a key role in thrombolysis resistance. Studies with thrombi generated in the Chandler loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, H. A.; van Swieten, P.; Heijnen, H. F.; Sixma, J. J.; Pannekoek, H.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which is released from the alpha-granules of activated platelets, in thrombolysis resistance, we employed a model (the "Chandler loop") that mimics the formation of arterial thrombi in vivo and that can be manipulated in

  3. Welfare Reform: Work-Site-Based Activities Can Play an Important Role in TANF Programs. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined worksite-based activities currently in place to help recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) develop the skills required for successful transition to unsubsidized employment. Data were collected from the following sources: (1) data reported by states to the Department of Health and…

  4. Role-Playing in a Consumption Context: An Experiential Learning Activity Focused on the Consumer Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Veronica L.; Magnotta, Sarah R.; Chang, Hua; Steffes, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Instructors are faced with the challenge of teaching a significant amount of material covering a wide variety of topics in a Principles of Marketing course. In order to present the critical consumer decision-making process concept in a meaningful way while remaining mindful of time constraints, we propose a semi-structured classroom activity that…

  5. The endothelial protein C receptor and activated protein C play a limited role in host defense during experimental tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kager, Liesbeth M.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; de Vos, Alex F.; Wieland, Catharina W.; Schouten, Marcel; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Isermann, Berend; van't Veer, Cornelis; Esmon, Charles T.; van der Poll, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The protein C (PC) system is an important regulator of both coagulation and inflammation. Activated PC (APC), together with its receptor the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), has anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. During tuberculosis (TB), a devastating chronic pulmonary disease

  6. Alternatively Activated Macrophages Play an Important Role in Vascular Remodeling and Hemorrhaging in Patients with Brain Arteriovenous Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukihiko; Sugita, Yasuo; Nakashima, Shinji; Okada, Yousuke; Yoshitomi, Munetake; Kimura, Yoshizou; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Morioka, Motohiro; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    Angiogenic and immunoactive lesions in brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) contribute to hemorrhagic events and the growth of BAVMs. However, the detailed mechanism is unclear. Our objective is to clarify the relationship between hemorrhagic events of BAVM and alternatively activated macrophages in the perinidal dilated capillary network (PDCN). We examined microsurgical specimens of BVMs (n = 29) and focused on the PDCN area. Ten autopsied brains without intracranial disease were the controls. We performed immunostaining of the inflammatory and endothelial cell markers, macrophage markers (CD163 and CD68), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). We evaluated each cell's density and the vessel density in the PDCN and analyzed the relationship to hemorrhagic events of BAVM. The PDCN was involved in all the resected arteriovenous malformations, and these vessels showed a high rate of CD105 expression (72.0 ± 10.64%), indicating newly proliferating vessels. Alternatively activated macrophages were found, with a high rate (85.6%) for all macrophages (controls, 56.6%). In the hemorrhagic cases, the cell density was significantly higher than that in the nonhemorrhagic cases and controls (hemorrhagic group, 290 ± 44 cells/mm(2); nonhemorrhagic group, 180 ± 59 cells/mm(2); and control, 19 ± 8 cells/mm(2)). The cell density of alternatively activated macrophages showed a positive correlation with the vessel density of the PDCN. Double immunostaining showed that VEGF-A was secreted by alternatively activated macrophages. Our data suggest that alternatively activated macrophages may have some relationships with angiogenesis of PDCN and hemorrhagic event of BAVM. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 plays an important role in neuroblastoma cell survival independent of its histone methyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate-Eya, Laurel T; Gierman, Hinco J; Ebus, Marli E; Koster, Jan; Caron, Huib N; Versteeg, Rogier; Dolman, M Emmy M; Molenaar, Jan J

    2017-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is predominantly characterised by chromosomal rearrangements. Next to V-Myc Avian Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Neuroblastoma Derived Homolog (MYCN) amplification, chromosome 7 and 17q gains are frequently observed. We identified a neuroblastoma patient with a regional 7q36 gain, encompassing the enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) gene. EZH2 is the histone methyltransferase of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) that forms the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2. H3K27me3 is commonly associated with the silencing of genes involved in cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation and cancer. High EZH2 expression correlated with poor prognosis and overall survival independent of MYCN amplification status. Unexpectedly, treatment of 3 EZH2-high expressing neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR32, CHP134 and NMB), with EZH2-specific inhibitors (GSK126 and EPZ6438) resulted in only a slight G1 arrest, despite maximum histone methyltransferase activity inhibition. Furthermore, colony formation in cell lines treated with the inhibitors was reduced only at concentrations much higher than necessary for complete inhibition of EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. Knockdown of the complete protein with three independent shRNAs resulted in a strong apoptotic response and decreased cyclin D1 levels. This apoptotic response could be rescued by overexpressing EZH2ΔSET, a truncated form of wild-type EZH2 lacking the SET transactivation domain necessary for histone methyltransferase activity. Our findings suggest that high EZH2 expression, at least in neuroblastoma, has a survival function independent of its methyltransferase activity. This important finding highlights the need for studies on EZH2 beyond its methyltransferase function and the requirement for compounds that will target EZH2 as a complete protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aromatic plants play an important role in promoting soil biological activity related to nitrogen cycling in an orchard ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinxin; Song, Beizhou; Yao, Yuncong; Wu, Hongying; Hu, Jinghui; Zhao, Lingling

    2014-02-15

    Aromatic plants can substantially improve the diversity and structure of arthropod communities, as well as reduce the number of herbivore pests and regulate the abundance of predators and parasitoids. However, it is not clear whether aromatic plants are also effective in improving soil quality by enhancing nutrient cycling. Here, field experiments are described involving intercropping with aromatic plants to investigate their effect on soil nitrogen (N) cycling in an orchard ecosystem. The results indicate that the soil organic nitrogen and available nitrogen contents increased significantly in soils intercropped with aromatic plants. Similarly, the activities of soil protease and urease increased, together with total microbial biomass involved in N cycling, including nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria and azotobacters, as well as the total numbers of bacteria and fungi. This suggests that aromatic plants improve soil N cycling and nutrient levels by enriching the soil in organic matter through the regulation of both the abundance and community structure of microorganisms, together with associated soil enzyme activity, in orchard ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SERCA plays a crucial role in the toxicity of a betulinic acid derivative with potential antimalarial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Denise; Wildner, Andreia C; Silveira, Thayse F; Silva, Gloria N S; Santos, Francine Dos; da Silva, Elenilson F; do Canto, Vanessa P; Visioli, Fernanda; Gosmann, Grace; Bergold, Ana M; Zimmer, Aline R; Netz, Paulo A; Gnoatto, Simone C B

    2018-05-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant infectious diseases that affect poor populations in tropical areas throughout the world. Plants have been shown to be a good source for the development of new antimalarial chemotherapeutic agents, as shown for the discovery of quinine and artemisinin derivatives. Our research group has been working with semisynthetic triterpene derivatives that show potential antimalarial activity toward different strains of Plasmodium falciparum by specifically modulating calcium pathways in the parasite. Promising results were obtained for nanomolar concentrations of the semisynthetic betulinic acid derivative LAFIS13 against the P. falciparum 3D7 strain in vitro, with a selectivity index of 18 compared to a mammalian cell line. Continuing these studies, we present here in vitro and in vivo toxicological evaluations of this compound, followed by docking studies with PfATP6, a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca +2 -ATPase (SERCA) protein. LAFIS13 showed an LD 50 between 300 and 50 mg/kg, and the acute administration of 50 mg/kg (i.p.) had no negative effects on hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. Based on the results of the in vitro assays, LAFIS13 not exerted significant effects on coagulation parameters of human peripheral blood, but a hemolytic activity was verified at higher concentrations. According to the molecular docking study, the PfATP6 protein may be a target for LAFIS13, which corroborates its previously reported modulatory effects on calcium homeostasis in the parasite. Notably, LAFIS13 showed a higher selectivity for the mammalian SERCA protein than for PfATP6, thus impairing the selectivity between parasite and host. In summary, the direct interaction with calcium pumps and the hemolytic potential of the compound proved to be plausible mechanism of LAFIS13 toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase activities toward UDP-Gal and UDP-GalNAc play different roles in the development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M I Daenzer

    Full Text Available In both humans and Drosophila melanogaster, UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE catalyzes two distinct reactions, interconverting UDP-galactose (UDP-gal and UDP-glucose (UDP-glc in the final step of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism, and also interconverting UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-galNAc and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-glcNAc. All four of these UDP-sugars serve as vital substrates for glycosylation in metazoans. Partial loss of GALE in humans results in the spectrum disorder epimerase deficiency galactosemia; partial loss of GALE in Drosophila melanogaster also results in galactose-sensitivity, and complete loss in Drosophila is embryonic lethal. However, whether these outcomes in both humans and flies result from loss of one GALE activity, the other, or both has remained unknown. To address this question, we uncoupled the two activities in a Drosophila model, effectively replacing the endogenous dGALE with prokaryotic transgenes, one of which (Escherichia coli GALE efficiently interconverts only UDP-gal/UDP-glc, and the other of which (Plesiomonas shigelloides wbgU efficiently interconverts only UDP-galNAc/UDP-glcNAc. Our results demonstrate that both UDP-gal and UDP-galNAc activities of dGALE are required for Drosophila survival, although distinct roles for each activity can be seen in specific windows of developmental time or in response to a galactose challenge. By extension, these data also suggest that both activities might play distinct and essential roles in humans.

  11. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) activation plays a central role in cardiac fibrosis induced by pressure overload in rats via TGF-β1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Qi, Hanping; E, Mingyao; Shi, Pilong; Zhang, Qianhui; Li, Shuzhi; Wang, Ye; Cao, Yonggang; Chen, Yunping; Ba, Lina; Gao, Jingquan; Huang, Wei; Sun, Hongli

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is a common pathologic change along with pressure overload. Recent studies indicated that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels played multiple roles in heart. However, the functional role of transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) in cardiac fibrosis remained unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between TRPV3 activation and pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis. Pressure overload rats were successfully established by abdominal aortic constriction (AAC), and cardiac fibrosis was simulated by 100 nM angiotensin II (Ang II) in neonatal cardiac fibroblasts. Echocardiographic parameters, cardiac fibroblast proliferation, cell cycle, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ), and the protein expressions of collagen I, collagen III, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β 1 ), cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) were measured. Echocardiographic and histological measurements suggested that the activation of TRPV3 exacerbated the cardiac dysfunction and increased interstitial fibrosis in pressure overload rats. Further results showed that TRPV3 activation upregulated the expressions of collagen I, collagen III, TGF-β 1 , cyclin E, and CDK2 in vivo and in vitro. At the same time, blocking TGF-β 1 pathway could partially reverse the effect of TRPV3 activation. These results suggested that TRPV3 activation exacerbated cardiac fibrosis by promoting cardiac fibroblast proliferation through TGF-β 1 /CDK2/cyclin E pathway in the pressure-overloaded rat hearts.

  12. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  13. MEK/ERK activation plays a decisive role in yellow fever virus replication: implication as an antiviral therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarnaz, Jonas D; De Oliveira, Leonardo C; Torres, Alice A; Palhares, Rafael M; Casteluber, Marisa C; Rodrigues, Claudiney M; Cardozo, Pablo L; De Souza, Aryádina M R; Pacca, Carolina C; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Kroon, Erna G; Nogueira, Maurício L; Bonjardim, Cláudio A

    2014-11-01

    Exploiting the inhibition of host signaling pathways aiming for discovery of potential antiflaviviral compounds is clearly a beneficial strategy for the control of life-threatening diseases caused by flaviviruses. Here we describe the antiviral activity of the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 against Yellow fever virus 17D vaccine strain (YFV-17D). Infection of VERO cells with YFV-17D stimulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation early during infection. Pharmacological inhibition of MEK1/2 through U0126 treatment of VERO cells blockades not only the YFV-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but also inhibits YFV replication by ∼99%. U0126 was also effective against dengue virus (DENV-2 and -3) and Saint-Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). Levels of NS4AB, as detected by immunofluorescence, are diminished upon treatment with the inhibitor, as well as the characteristic endoplasmic reticulum membrane invagination stimulated during the infection. Though not protective, treatment of YFV-infected, adult BALB/c mice with U0126 resulted in significant reduction of virus titers in brains. Collectively, our data suggest the potential targeting of the MEK1/2 kinase as a therapeutic tool against diseases caused by flaviviruses such as yellow fever, adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccination and dengue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The experiences of context on role play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue in question relates to the preparation that has the staff, for the use of the experiences of the context of children of preschool grade of primary school, in the role plays, for evidence that the social aspect that own the game, being a prerequisite for the formation and development of the child's personality, and being a problem under investigation in educational practice in all aspects of Early Childhood Education.

  15. The PAS domains of the major sporulation kinase in Bacillus subtilis play a role in tetramer formation that is essential for the autokinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehler, Brittany; Haggett, Lindsey; Fujita, Masaya

    2017-08-01

    Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is induced upon starvation. In a widely accepted model, an N-terminal "sensor" domain of the major sporulation kinase KinA recognizes a hypothetical starvation signal(s) and autophosphorylates a histidine residue to activate the master regulator Spo0A via a multicomponent phosphorelay. However, to date no confirmed signal has been found. Here, we demonstrated that PAS-A, the most N-terminal of the three PAS domains (PAS-ABC), is dispensable for the activity, contrary to a previous report. Our data indicated that the autokinase activity is dependent on the formation of a functional tetramer, which is mediated by, at least, PAS-B and PAS-C. Additionally, we ruled out the previously proposed notion that NAD + /NADH ratio controls KinA activity through the PAS-A domain by demonstrating that the cofactors show no effects on the kinase activity in vitro. In support of these data, we found that the cofactors exist in approximately 1000-fold excess of KinA in the cell and the cofactors' ratio does not change significantly during growth and sporulation, suggesting that changes in the cofactor ratio might not play a role in controlling KinA activity. These data may refute the widely-held belief that the activity of KinA is regulated in response to an unknown starvation signal(s). © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. MCL Plays an Anti-Inflammatory Role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Immune Response by Inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb remains a significant menace to global health as it induces granulomatous lung lesions and systemic inflammatory responses during active tuberculosis (TB. Micheliolide (MCL, a sesquiterpene lactone, was recently reported to have a function of relieving LPS-induced inflammatory response, but the regulative role of MCL on the immunopathology of TB still remains unknown. In this experiment, we examined the inhibitory effect of MCL on Mtb-induced inflammatory response in mouse macrophage-like cell line Raw264.7 by downregulating the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome. Evidences showed that MCL decreased the secretion of Mtb-induced inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, MCL dramatically suppressed Mtb-induced activation of iNOS and COX2 as well as subsequent production of NO. Furthermore, MCL inhibited Mtb-induced phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473 in Raw264.7. According to our results, MCL plays an important role in modulating Mtb-induced inflammatory response through PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway and subsequently downregulating the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Therefore, MCL may represent as a potential drug candidate in the adjuvant treatment of TB by regulating host immune response.

  17. Motivations for Play in Computer Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    , but rather composed of multiple motivational drivers that are heavily interrelated and act in concert. Character uniqueness and Discovery & Immersion were the highest ranked motivational categories. Different levels of detail in motivations for playing single-/multi- Player RPGs were located...

  18. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Louws, J; Wiers, RW

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORP...

  19. TOOLS FOR COLABORATIVE LEARNING: A ROLE-PLAYING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ortiz-de-Urbina Criado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Role-playing is an active participation tool that facilitates cooperative learning. It has also proved to be more effective in developing competencies than traditional methods. This technique is essential to make theory and practice compatible as is required in order to adapt subjects to the new education system based on the Bolonia’s agreement, especially in Social Sciences disciplines. Consequently, the objective of this paper is to show the effect and use of role-playing applied to management area. Therefore, we analyze and design the role-playing, putting it in practice in the classroom in Human Resource Management subject of different academic degrees. To conclude, this paper has shown the importance of role-playing as a learning tool and development of skills like work cooperation, problem and conflict solving, decision making, and managing complex systems.

  20. Case studies and role play: learning strategies in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen; Pai, Daiane Dal; Aliti, Graziella Badin; Hoefel, Heloísa Karnas; Azzolin, Karina de Oliveira; Busin, Lurdes; Unicovsky, Margarita Ana Rubin; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2016-01-01

    to report professors' experience in a public university of Southern region of Brazil using case studies and role play as learning strategies for nursing care of hospitalized adults. learning experience report from the Nursing Care of Adults I class of nursing undergraduate course. the development of case studies and role play considered health care needs from epidemiological profile of chronic noncommunicable diseases morbidity and mortality, nursing as an assisting method, and social aspects of hospitalized individuals. Role play planning was made by creating a stage in laboratory of practices and dialogues comprising students and professors interaction. case studies and role play encouraged students to active search for learning and brought theory closer to real health care situations.

  1. The 3'-to-5' exonuclease activity of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase is essential and plays a role in promoting virus genetic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Don B; Evans, David H

    2009-05-01

    Poxviruses are subjected to extraordinarily high levels of genetic recombination during infection, although the enzymes catalyzing these reactions have never been identified. However, it is clear that virus-encoded DNA polymerases play some unknown yet critical role in virus recombination. Using a novel, antiviral-drug-based strategy to dissect recombination and replication reactions, we now show that the 3'-to-5' proofreading exonuclease activity of the viral DNA polymerase plays a key role in promoting recombination reactions. Linear DNA substrates were prepared containing the dCMP analog cidofovir (CDV) incorporated into the 3' ends of the molecules. The drug blocked the formation of concatemeric recombinant molecules in vitro in a process that was catalyzed by the proofreading activity of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase. Recombinant formation was also blocked when CDV-containing recombination substrates were transfected into cells infected with wild-type vaccinia virus. These inhibitory effects could be overcome if CDV-containing substrates were transfected into cells infected with CDV-resistant (CDV(r)) viruses, but only when resistance was linked to an A314T substitution mutation mapping within the 3'-to-5' exonuclease domain of the viral polymerase. Viruses encoding a CDV(r) mutation in the polymerase domain still exhibited a CDV-induced recombination deficiency. The A314T substitution also enhanced the enzyme's capacity to excise CDV molecules from the 3' ends of duplex DNA and to recombine these DNAs in vitro, as judged from experiments using purified mutant DNA polymerase. The 3'-to-5' exonuclease activity appears to be an essential virus function, and our results suggest that this might be because poxviruses use it to promote genetic exchange.

  2. TLR9 played a more important role than TLR2 in the combination of maltose-binding protein and BCG-induced Th1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weihua; Wang, Fang; Liu, Guomu; Zhang, Nannan; Yuan, Hongyan; Jie, Jing; Tai, Guixiang

    2016-11-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that maltose-binding protein (MBP) combined with BCG induced synergistic mouse Th1 activation in vivo. Here, to explore the mechanism of MBP combined with BCG on Th1 activation, mouse purified CD4 + T cells were stimulated with MBP and BCG in vitro. The results showed that MBP combined with BCG synergistically increased IFN-γ production, accompanied with the upregulation of TLR2/9 expressions, suggesting that TLR2/9 were involved in the combination-induced Th1 activation. Next, TLR2 antibodies and TLR9 inhibitor were used to further analyze the effects of TLRs in Th1 activation. Results showed TLR2 antibody partly decreased MBP combined with BCG-induced IFN-γ production, MyD88 expression and IκB phosphorylation, indicating that TLR2-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway was involved in the MBP combined with BCG-induced Th1 activation. Moreover, MBP combined with BCG-induced Th1 activation was completely abrogated by TLR9 inhibitor, suggesting that TLR9-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway played a more important role than TLR2 in the combination-induced Th1 activation. Further study showed that TLR9 inhibitor downregulated TLR2 expression, suggesting that TLR9 signaling regulated TLR2 activation to favor Th1 resonse induced by MBP combined with BCG. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that the cross-talk of TLR2 and TLR9 triggered Th1 activation collaboratively and our findings provided valuable information about designing more effective adjuvant for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Correlation of Playing Role-playing Games and Students' Reading Comprehension of Narrative Text

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Praditya

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the correlation of playing Role-Playing Games and students' reading comprehension of narrative text. Thirty (30) ninth grade students who play Role-Playing Games participated in this study. Their frequency in playing Role-Playing Games and their ability in reading comprehension of narrative text are analyzed by using correlation research design. Correlation research design was used in this study in order to find out the tendency of relation between students' frequen...

  4. Using Role-Playing Games to Broaden Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Jennifer R.; Rauch, Sebastien; Helgegren, Ida; Kain, Jaan-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In today's complex society, there is an increasing demand to include a wider set of skills in engineering curricula, especially skills related to policy, society and sustainable development. Role-playing and gaming are active learning tools, which are useful for learning relationships between technology and society, problem solving in…

  5. Social support plays a role in the attitude that people have towards taking an active role in medical decision-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabers, A.E.M.; Jong, J.D. de; Groenewegen, P.P.; Dijk, L. van

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a growing emphasis towards including patients in medical decision-making. However, not all patients are actively involved in such decisions. Research has so far focused mainly on the influence of patient characteristics on preferences for active involvement. However, it can be

  6. Social support plays a role in the attitude that people have towards taking an active role in medical decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabers, Anne E M; De Jong, Judith D.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Van Dijk, Liset

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a growing emphasis towards including patients in medical decision-making. However, not all patients are actively involved in such decisions. Research has so far focused mainly on the influence of patient characteristics on preferences for active involvement. However, it can be

  7. Membrane Receptor-Induced Changes of the Protein Kinases A and C Activity May Play a Leading Role in Promoting Developmental Synapse Elimination at the Neuromuscular Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomàs, Josep M; Garcia, Neus; Lanuza, Maria A; Nadal, Laura; Tomàs, Marta; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Cilleros, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    Synapses that are overproduced during histogenesis in the nervous system are eventually lost and connectivity is refined. Membrane receptor signaling leads to activity-dependent mutual influence and competition between axons directly or with the involvement of the postsynaptic cell and the associated glial cell/s. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (subtypes mAChR; M 1 , M 2 and M 4 ), adenosine receptors (AR; A 1 and A 2A ) and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB), among others, all cooperate in synapse elimination. Between these receptors there are several synergistic, antagonic and modulatory relations that clearly affect synapse elimination. Metabotropic receptors converge in a limited repertoire of intracellular effector kinases, particularly serine protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC), to phosphorylate protein targets and bring about structural and functional changes leading to axon loss. In most cells A 1 , M 1 and TrkB operate mainly by stimulating PKC whereas A 2A , M 2 and M 4 inhibit PKA. We hypothesize that a membrane receptor-induced shifting in the protein kinases A and C activity (inhibition of PKA and/or stimulation of PKC) in some nerve endings may play an important role in promoting developmental synapse elimination at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This hypothesis is supported by: (i) the tonic effect (shown by using selective inhibitors) of several membrane receptors that accelerates axon loss between postnatal days P5-P9; (ii) the synergistic, antagonic and modulatory effects (shown by paired inhibition) of the receptors on axonal loss; (iii) the fact that the coupling of these receptors activates/inhibits the intracellular serine kinases; and (iv) the increase of the PKA activity, the reduction of the PKC activity or, in most cases, both situations simultaneously that presumably occurs in all the situations of singly and paired inhibition of the mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors. The use of transgenic animals and

  8. Membrane Receptor-Induced Changes of the Protein Kinases A and C Activity May Play a Leading Role in Promoting Developmental Synapse Elimination at the Neuromuscular Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Tomàs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Synapses that are overproduced during histogenesis in the nervous system are eventually lost and connectivity is refined. Membrane receptor signaling leads to activity-dependent mutual influence and competition between axons directly or with the involvement of the postsynaptic cell and the associated glial cell/s. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh receptors (subtypes mAChR; M1, M2 and M4, adenosine receptors (AR; A1 and A2A and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB, among others, all cooperate in synapse elimination. Between these receptors there are several synergistic, antagonic and modulatory relations that clearly affect synapse elimination. Metabotropic receptors converge in a limited repertoire of intracellular effector kinases, particularly serine protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC, to phosphorylate protein targets and bring about structural and functional changes leading to axon loss. In most cells A1, M1 and TrkB operate mainly by stimulating PKC whereas A2A, M2 and M4 inhibit PKA. We hypothesize that a membrane receptor-induced shifting in the protein kinases A and C activity (inhibition of PKA and/or stimulation of PKC in some nerve endings may play an important role in promoting developmental synapse elimination at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. This hypothesis is supported by: (i the tonic effect (shown by using selective inhibitors of several membrane receptors that accelerates axon loss between postnatal days P5–P9; (ii the synergistic, antagonic and modulatory effects (shown by paired inhibition of the receptors on axonal loss; (iii the fact that the coupling of these receptors activates/inhibits the intracellular serine kinases; and (iv the increase of the PKA activity, the reduction of the PKC activity or, in most cases, both situations simultaneously that presumably occurs in all the situations of singly and paired inhibition of the mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors. The use of transgenic animals and various

  9. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...

  10. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  11. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  12. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  13. Investigation of the Fusarium virguliforme Transcriptomes Induced during Infection of Soybean Roots Suggests that Enzymes with Hydrolytic Activities Could Play a Major Role in Root Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Binod B; Baumbach, Jordan L; Singh, Prashant; Srivastava, Subodh K; Yi, Xiaoping; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2017-01-01

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is caused by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, and is a major threat to soybean production in North America. There are two major components of this disease: (i) root necrosis and (ii) foliar SDS. Root symptoms consist of root necrosis with vascular discoloration. Foliar SDS is characterized by interveinal chlorosis and leaf necrosis, and in severe cases by flower and pod abscission. A major toxin involved in initiating foliar SDS has been identified. Nothing is known about how root necrosis develops. In order to unravel the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause root necrosis, the transcriptome of the pathogen in infected soybean root tissues of a susceptible cultivar, 'Essex', was investigated. The transcriptomes of the germinating conidia and mycelia were also examined. Of the 14,845 predicted F. virguliforme genes, we observed that 12,017 (81%) were expressed in germinating conidia and 12,208 (82%) in mycelia and 10,626 (72%) in infected soybean roots. Of the 10,626 genes induced in infected roots, 224 were transcribed only following infection. Expression of several infection-induced genes encoding enzymes with oxidation-reduction properties suggests that degradation of antimicrobial compounds such as the phytoalexin, glyceollin, could be important in early stages of the root tissue infection. Enzymes with hydrolytic and catalytic activities could play an important role in establishing the necrotrophic phase. The expression of a large number of genes encoding enzymes with catalytic and hydrolytic activities during the late infection stages suggests that cell wall degradation could be involved in root necrosis and the establishment of the necrotrophic phase in this pathogen.

  14. Role-playing in the problem-based learning class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2012-01-01

    Learning and teaching have been conceptualized and executed in many styles, such as self-learning, peer learning, and interaction between the learner and mentor. Today, openness to alternative ideas and embracing innovative approaches in nursing education are encouraged in order to meet students' learning interests and needs, and to address ever-changing healthcare requests. Problem-based learning has been widely adopted in nursing education, with various positive effects on students' learning, such as motivated learning, team work, problem-solving skills and critical thinking. Role-plays have been demonstrated as an effective learning strategy that includes an active and experiential feature that facilitates students' autonomy in their health-related learning. However, there is a lack of discussion of whether and how role-play can be used in problem-based learning (PBL). This paper shows the development of a classroom-based innovation using role-play in the PBL class for higher diploma year-one nurse students (a total of 20 students, five per group). This paper consists of five sections: a) the literature on PBL and nurse education, and role-plays as the innovation; b) the PBL case scenario with the illustration of the two role-play scripts, c) student evaluation on role-play in the PBL class; d) discussions on both achievements and limitations of this innovation, and e) the conclusion. It is hoped that this paper will be an example to other nurse educators who are keen on exploring interactive and student-driven learning and teaching strategies in the PBL class. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. RegA Plays a Key Role in Oxygen-Dependent Establishment of Persistence and in Isocitrate Lyase Activity, a Critical Determinant of In vivo Brucella suis Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Abdou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For aerobic human pathogens, adaptation to hypoxia is a critical factor for the establishment of persistent infections, as oxygen availability is low inside the host. The two-component system RegB/A of Brucella suis plays a central role in the control of respiratory systems adapted to oxygen deficiency, and in persistence in vivo. Using an original “in vitro model of persistence” consisting in gradual oxygen depletion, we compared transcriptomes and proteomes of wild-type and ΔregA strains to identify the RegA-regulon potentially involved in the set-up of persistence. Consecutive to oxygen consumption resulting in growth arrest, 12% of the genes in B. suis were potentially controlled directly or indirectly by RegA, among which numerous transcriptional regulators were up-regulated. In contrast, genes or proteins involved in envelope biogenesis and in cellular division were repressed, suggesting a possible role for RegA in the set-up of a non-proliferative persistence state. Importantly, the greatest number of the RegA-repressed genes and proteins, including aceA encoding the functional IsoCitrate Lyase (ICL, were involved in energy production. A potential consequence of this RegA impact may be the slowing-down of the central metabolism as B. suis progressively enters into persistence. Moreover, ICL is an essential determinant of pathogenesis and long-term interactions with the host, as demonstrated by the strict dependence of B. suis on ICL activity for multiplication and persistence during in vivo infection. RegA regulates gene or protein expression of all functional groups, which is why RegA is a key regulator of B. suis in adaptation to oxygen depletion. This function may contribute to the constraint of bacterial growth, typical of chronic infection. Oxygen-dependent activation of two-component systems that control persistence regulons, shared by several aerobic human pathogens, has not been studied in Brucella sp. before. This work

  16. Active Play: Exploring the Influences on Children's School Playground Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda; Telford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Because children spend so much of their time in schools, their playgrounds offer a good setting for promoting active play in young lives. Teachers, instead of considering active play a taxing demand on their busy day, have begun to develop an informal curriculum for it. The authors review the research on children's active play and explores its…

  17. Designing and Evaluating an Online Role Play in Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastinski, Stefan; Watson, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify, through a literature review, key issues regarding how online role plays can be designed and to apply them when designing a role play on conflict management. Design/methodology/approach: By drawing on the key issues identified in the literature review, a role play on conflict management was designed and…

  18. From Togetherness to Equal Partnership in Role Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannikainen, Maritta

    1998-01-01

    Explored different kinds of participation in play and development of joint role play. Observed games and play sessions of a 2-year-old girl in a day care group. Found that the girl proceeded from a feeling of togetherness in a shared space through parallel and successive play actions to reciprocity and equal exchange of play actions. (JPB)

  19. Women play larger role in Latin America's commercial urban waste ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 juin 2016 ... The research examines the role women play in marketing urban waste as a commercial enterprise and their important contribution to municipal recyclable waste activities. This book ... De courts téléromans pour encourager l'éducation financière et l'inclusion des femmes au Pérou. Le fait de ne pas avoir ...

  20. Active play opportunities at child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Saelens, Brian E; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for children's health and development, yet preschoolers are not meeting PA recommendations. The objective of this study was to examine different PA opportunities at child care and how variation in indoor versus outdoor and free versus teacher-led opportunities relate to children's PA. An observational study of 98 children (mean age 4.5 years, 49% girls) from 10 child care centers. Classrooms were observed for at least 4 full days per center (total 50 days) to categorize time into (1) not an active play opportunity (APO); (2) naptime; (3) APO, outdoor free play; (4) APO, outdoor teacher-led; (5) APO, indoor free play; and (6) APO, indoor teacher-led. Children wore accelerometers during observations. Linear regression models examined the influence of APO categories on moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Children's activity was 73% sedentary, 13% light, and 14% MVPA. For 88% of time children did not have APOs, including 26% time as naptime. On average, 48 minutes per day were APOs (41% sedentary, 18% light, and 41% MVPA), 33 minutes per day were outdoors. The most frequent APO was outdoor free play (8% of time); outdoor teacher-led time was Children were more active and less sedentary outdoors versus indoors and during the child-initiated APOs (indoors and outdoors) versus teacher-led APOs. Preschoolers were presented with significantly fewer than recommended opportunities for PA at child care. More APOs are needed for children to meet recommendations, particularly those that encourage more outdoor time, more teacher-led and child-initiated active play, and flexibility in naptime for preschoolers. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. World History Plays, Puzzles and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lawrence

    This instructional resource, for grades 7-10, includes a collection of 10 plays with related learning activities. Units of study include: (1) "Alexander the Great and the Greeks"; (2) "The Black Death and the End of the Middle Ages"; (3) "Robert Clive and Imperialism"; (4) "Christopher Columbus and the Age of…

  2. Role-playing for more realistic technical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Zeuch, A; Dieckmann, P; Roth, C; Schäfer, S; Völkl, M; Schellberg, D; Herzog, W; Jünger, J

    2005-03-01

    Clinical skills are an important and necessary part of clinical competence. Simulation plays an important role in many fields of medical education. Although role-playing is common in communication training, there are no reports about the use of student role-plays in the training of technical clinical skills. This article describes an educational intervention with analysis of pre- and post-intervention self-selected student survey evaluations. After one term of skills training, a thorough evaluation showed that the skills-lab training did not seem very realistic nor was it very demanding for trainees. To create a more realistic training situation and to enhance students' involvement, case studies and role-plays with defined roles for students (i.e. intern, senior consultant) were introduced into half of the sessions. Results of the evaluation in the second term showed that sessions with role-playing were rated significantly higher than sessions without role-playing.

  3. Teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: conveying empathy to performing a suicide assessment: a primer for individual role-playing and scripted group role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Barney, Christine

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a useful introduction to the art of role-playing in both the individual format and the group format using scripted group role-playing (SGRP). Role-playing can provide powerful learning opportunities, but to do so it must be done well. This article imparts guidance toward this goal. SGRP may greatly enhance the acquisition of critical complex interviewing skills, such as suicide assessment and uncovering domestic violence, in health care providers across all disciplines, an educational goal that has not been achievable to date. Although research is at an early stage of development, the hope represented by SGRP is tangible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.

  5. GeoQuest an Interactive Role Playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraffi, Sabina; Sacerdoti, Francesco; Scamardella, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The acquisition of knowledge and enhancing skills at actual time requires different approaches, involving students as much as possible, taking advantage of informal learning strengths and opportunities of formal learning. In this perspective, the game seems to be a perfect vehicle, not a single student's playing but a cooperative one. The GeoQuest project consists of an interactive role-playing game which involves all students using a patented system: the "teaching projector". This system allows the interaction of the class group through the use of smartphones and tablets, and it shows in real-time the game progress to the whole class. Our role-playing game is based on three routes at different degrees. The students, divided into several categories (physicist, chemists, disseminators, technicians, historians) have to follow a geological trail in order to discover the present and the past of the Earth. During the path, students have to pass some doors in teamwork; they allow assessment and represent the main sharing/disclosure moment. The doors allow to modulate the activities according to single lesson, teaching unit, module. Main Objectives: Working on PC by themselves, students could be even more alone: it needs a best fitting between ICT and cooperative learning. Role-playing helps students to reach their goals easily through cooperation; this in order to avoid the risk of loneliness of Inquiry Based Science Education, preserving entirely the educational value. Science Research now is based on field expert interaction: the role-playing game categories reflect the necessary team to get their goal. The several roles allow everyone to enhance their own skills. the "teaching projector" allows students to comment and to evaluate the groups activities and route them, providing real-time corrections to everybody. The playing categories represent all the aspects of the research areas: from scientists (physicists, chemists), to technicians, to disseminators and

  6. CHILDREN'S MOVEMENT SKILLS WHEN PLAYING ACTIVE VIDEO GAMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Johnson, Tara M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Mellecker, Robin R; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-12-01

    Active video games (AVGs) may be useful for movement skill practice. This study examined children's skill execution while playing Xbox Kinect™ and during movement skill assessment. Nineteen children (10 boys, 9 girls; M age=7.9 yr., SD=1.4) had their skills assessed before AVG play and then were observed once a week for 6 wk. while playing AVGs for 50 min. While AVG play showed evidence of correct skill performance (at least 30-50% of the time when playing table tennis, tennis, and baseball), nearly all skills were more correctly performed during skill assessment (generally more than 50% of the time). This study may help researchers to better understand the role AVGs could play in enhancing real life movement skills.

  7. Activated protein C plays no major roles in the inhibition of coagulation or increased fibrinolysis in acute coagulopathy of trauma-shock: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, Satoshi; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Ukai, Tomohiko

    2018-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of acute coagulopathy of trauma-shock (ACOTS) are reported to include activated protein C-mediated suppression of thrombin generation via the proteolytic inactivation of activated Factor V (FVa) and FVIIIa; an increased fibrinolysis via neutralization of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) by activated protein C. The aims of this study are to review the evidences for the role of activated protein C in thrombin generation and fibrinolysis and to validate the diagnosis of ACOTS based on the activated protein C dynamics. We conducted systematic literature search (2007-2017) using PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Clinical studies on trauma that measured activated protein C or the circulating levels of activated protein C-related coagulation and fibrinolysis markers were included in our study. Out of 7613 studies, 17 clinical studies met the inclusion criteria. The levels of activated protein C in ACOTS were inconsistently decreased, showed no change, or were increased in comparison to the control groups. Irrespective of the activated protein C levels, thrombin generation was always preserved or highly elevated. There was no report on the activated protein C-mediated neutralization of PAI-1 with increased fibrinolysis. No included studies used unified diagnostic criteria to diagnose ACOTS and those studies also used different terms to refer to the condition known as ACOTS. None of the studies showed direct cause and effect relationships between activated protein C and the suppression of coagulation and increased fibrinolysis. No definitive diagnostic criteria or unified terminology have been established for ACOTS based on the activated protein C dynamics.

  8. Chirality plays important roles in radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yumei

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic concept of chirality, target specific selectivity and their relationship in radiopharmaceuticals. If the ligands labeled by radionuclides have chiral center, the enantiomers must be separated, or the target specific selectivity will not be good. Chirality is one of the most important factors which must be considered in the study of the structure-activity relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  9. Setting Sight on Role Playing: To Accommodate or to Repudiate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Apriani Fata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To set sight on role play by means to look at EFL teacher’s experience and students’ perspectives of role play (RP technique enactment in teaching speaking by using qualitative design. This research was a qualitative study. It was discharged at a Senior high school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. It provided work for the instrument of observation sheet, field notes and interview guide, and also questionnaire. The methodology designated the combination of four mountainsides to expose in-depth the urgency of role play in which applied since 1936. The result of interview was exposed that the English teacher claimed that role play was a technique applied to promote speaking and it was corroborated by the result of field note. Likewise, regarding students’ perspective depicted that the students indeed agreed on themselves of the usefulness of role play to enhance their speaking skill and motivation. Thus, Students asserted that the learning was more fun and enjoyable through role play itself. It is merely found in this research study that role playing can accommodate students’ need and teacher’s side in English language teaching. Nevertheless, this article applies a small subject as the participant. Therefore, the researchers recommended to have a deep look at reasoning students’ point of view in terms of role play technique implementation in non-English class. And see ascertains how beneficial it is in terms of role play (RP in a large classroom.

  10. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in fish skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo J Magnoni

    Full Text Available AMPK, a master metabolic switch, mediates the observed increase of glucose uptake in locomotory muscle of mammals during exercise. AMPK is activated by changes in the intracellular AMP:ATP ratio when ATP consumption is stimulated by contractile activity but also by AICAR and metformin, compounds that increase glucose transport in mammalian muscle cells. However, the possible role of AMPK in the regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle has not been investigated in other vertebrates, including fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPK activators on glucose uptake, AMPK activity, cell surface levels of trout GLUT4 and expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 as well as the expression of enzymes regulating glucose disposal and PGC1α in trout myotubes derived from a primary muscle cell culture. We show that AICAR and metformin significantly stimulated glucose uptake (1.6 and 1.3 fold, respectively and that Compound C completely abrogated the stimulatory effects of the AMPK activators on glucose uptake. The combination of insulin and AMPK activators did not result in additive nor synergistic effects on glucose uptake. Moreover, exposure of trout myotubes to AICAR and metformin resulted in an increase in AMPK activity (3.8 and 3 fold, respectively. We also provide evidence suggesting that stimulation of glucose uptake by AMPK activators in trout myotubes may take place, at least in part, by increasing the cell surface and mRNA levels of trout GLUT4. Finally, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of genes involved in glucose disposal (hexokinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and citrate synthase and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and did not affect glycogen content or glycogen synthase mRNA levels in trout myotubes. Therefore, we provide evidence, for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting a potentially important role of AMPK in stimulating glucose uptake and utilization in the skeletal muscle of fish.

  11. In- and Out-of-Character: The Digital Literacy Practices and Emergent Information Worlds of Active Role-Players in a New Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores and describes the in-character and out-of-character information worlds and digital literacy practices of role-players, those that create and enact their characters' or avatars' stories, both within and outside of WildStar, a Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) (Carbine Studios, 2015). Utilizing Jaeger…

  12. Role playing games for scientific citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Matthew J.; Squire, Kurt D.

    2012-12-01

    Research has shown that video games can be good for learning, particularly for STEM topics. However, in order for games to be scalable and sustainable, associated research must move beyond considerations of efficacy towards theories that account for classroom ecologies of students and teachers. This study asks how a digital game called Citizen Science, built using tropes and conventions from modern games, might help learners develop identities as citizen scientists within the domain of lake ecology. We conducted an expert-novice study, revealing that games literacy was a mediating variable for content understanding. In a follow-up classroom implementation, games literacy also operated as a variable, although students drove the activity, which mediated this concern. The teacher devised a number of novel pedagogies, such as a field trip, in response to the unit. We found evidence for the most powerful learning occurring through these activities that were reinforced via the curriculum. Students were most engaged by Citizen Science's most "gamelike" features, and learners took up the core ideas of the game. Users also reported the experience was short of commercial gaming experiences, suggesting a tension between game cultures for learning and schools.

  13. WHAT ROLE DO LIBRARIANS PLAY IN ALTMETRICS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves González-Fernández-Villavicencio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to identify the steps that librarians can take concerning altmetrics within the framework of the research support services. The current bibliography on altmetrics has been reviewed. A survey has also been carried out of librarians of Spanish universities to find out their degree of involvement in the matter and the setting up of relevant initiatives. Likewise, a thorough study which would enable librarians to find out about the use which their researchers make of social networks and the interest that they may have in altmetrics is needed. This research offers a user guide for librarians as an orientation in their activities and initiatives related to altmetrics, as well as a list of arguments which justify the reasons why librarians should undertake these initiatives. We contribute a view of altmetrics from the perspective of librarians as a strategic element of dissemination and training in altmetrics.

  14. Foreign Ludicity in Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an explorative case study which, in the first place, aimed to ascertain different types of foreign language play in online role-playing in "Second Life," and which, secondly aimed to describe how various sources of contextual support can explain this foreign language play. Students' written conversation was…

  15. Table-Top Role Playing Game and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tsui-shan

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to observe whether individuals who engaged in table-top role playing game (TRPG) were more creative. Participants total 170 (52 TRPG players, 54 electronic role playing game (ERPG) players and 64 Non-players) aged from 19 to 63. In the current study, an online questionnaire is used, adopting the verbal subtests of…

  16. Role Playing: Applications in Hostage and Crisis Negotiation Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Romano, Stephen J.; Vecchi, Gregory M.

    2008-01-01

    Role playing has been a mainstay of behavioral assessment for decades. In recent years, however, this analogue strategy has also enjoyed widespread application in the field of law enforcement. Most notably, role-play procedures have become an integral component of assessment and training efforts in hostage and crisis negotiation, which attempts to…

  17. Role-Playing and Religion: Using Games to Educate Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Adam L.

    2008-01-01

    I have been experimenting with using role-playing and games in my religion classes for several years and have found that students respond well to these pedagogical tools and methods. After reviewing my experiences, I explore the reasons for students' positive response. I argue that role-playing games capitalize on our students' educational…

  18. When is role playing really experiential? Case studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boess, S.; Saakes, D.; Hummels, C.C.M.; B. Ullmer, xx; A. Schmidt, xx; E. Hornecker, xx; C. Hummels, xx; R. Jacob, xx; E. van der Hoven, xx

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates examples from our work with role playing exercises in design, both in design education and in our own design work. Rationales for role playing in design are: communication within the design process, the increase of technological complexity, the experience and

  19. A Historical Journey in Science Education through Role Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Smita

    2013-01-01

    In order to avoid a routine classroom environment, teachers often employ the use of role-plays. This is an effective strategy because it is essential for teachers to engage their students with information through various methods. Role-playing provides the children with the opportunity to incorporate multiple senses into a knowledge-based, fun…

  20. The Use of Role Play in the Training of Hypnotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    A model has been developed for using role play in the supervision and training of hypnotherapy. Specific techniques can be role played by trainee and supervisor which can enable the trainee to develop skill and confidence in the use of hypnotic techniques. Hypnotic induction, listening, observing and providing feedback, relaxation,…

  1. Efficacy of Role Play in Concert with Lecture to Enhance Student Learning of Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Elliott

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous reports that active learning increases student understanding, many barriers still exist that prevent faculty from shedding the traditional passive lecture and adopting active learning strategies in the classroom. This study looks at the use of role play as an active learning technique to convey new material, or as reinforcement to traditional lecture. A pre- and post-test survey was utilized to determine student learning gains, along with an anonymous survey to determine student attitudes about role play. Student learning gains are similar regardless of class size, role-playing participation or learning style, and reflect an increase in lower order cognition. Attitudes and learning gains indicate role play is preferable as a reinforcement technique, although the order does not matter if both lecture and role play are utilized to convey information. These data provide insight into the best practices of role-playing implementation in concert with traditional lecture format.

  2. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, D.J.; Louws, J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of

  3. Serological evidence that activation of ubiquitous human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) plays a role in chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria (CIU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, D H

    2016-02-01

    Acute infection with viral pathogens in the herpesviridae family can trigger acute urticaria, and reactivation of herpesviridae is associated with cutaneous urticarial-like syndromes such as drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Reactivation of latent herpesviridae has not been studied systematically in chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria (CIU). This review proposes that CIU is an inflammatory disorder with autoimmune features (termed 'CVU' for chronic viral urticaria), based on serology consistent with the hypothesis that reactivation of a latent herpesvirus or -viruses may play a role in CIU. Serology obtained from a cohort of omalizumab (Xolair)-dependent patients with severe CIU was consistent with previous HHV-6 infection, persistent viral gene expression and replication. CIU patients also exhibited serological evidence of increased immune response to HHV-4 (Epstein-Barr virus, or EBV) but not all CIU patients were infected with EBV. These observations, combined with case reports of CIU response to anti-viral therapy, suggest that HHV-6, possibly interacting with HHV-4 in cutaneous tissues, is a candidate for further prospective study as a co-factor in CIU. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  4. Time perspective as a predictor of massive multiplayer online role-playing game playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavska, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between the time perspective (TP) personality trait and massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing. We investigate the question of frequency of playing. The TP was measured with Zimbardo's TP Inventory (ZTPI), which includes five factors-past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future. The study used data from 154 MMORPG players. We demonstrated that TP partially explained differences within a group of players with respect to the frequency of playing. Significant positive correlations were found between present factors and the amount of time spent playing MMORPGs, and significant negative correlation was found between the future factor and the time spent playing MMORPGs. Our study also revealed the influence of future-present balance on playing time. Players who scored lower in future-present balance variables (their present score was relatively high compared with their future score) reported higher values in playing time. In contrast to referential studies on TP and drug abuse and gambling, present fatalistic TP was demonstrated to be a stronger predictor of extensive playing than present hedonistic TP, which opened the question of motivation for playing. The advantage of our study compared with other personality-based studies lies in the fact that TP is a stable but malleable personality trait with a direct link to playing behavior. Therefore, TP is a promising conceptual resource for excessive playing therapy.

  5. Playing Against the Modern World? : Role-Playing Games in Late Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Playing Reality is an anthology of articles on live role-playing, a new art from where the Nordic countries are at the front edge. This book covers a wide range of topics and genres, from practical advice, historical reviews and visions of possible futures to semiotic and philosophical analysis. They Show some of the diversity of participatory arts, and will thus be of interest for anyone in the fields of art, education or performance. It wouldn't be misleading to claim that live role-playing...

  6. The function of game and role playing in adult education

    OpenAIRE

    Žáková, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    The subjects of this work are game, role and role playing in upbringing, education and training, and in personnel practice. The work uses knowledge of pedagogy, psychology and sociology, and focuses on social interaction and personality development. It introduces basic educational, training and therapeutic methods and procedures, including methods in the field of adult education, where the core of these methods lies in playing roles. It presents brief characteristics of individual methods, in...

  7. Creative Classrooms through Game-Based Role-Play Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    studies a framework that anchors the curriculum in game-based role-play scenarios and offers affordances for the learners to immerse themselves in the multiple perspectives of the roles. In this way of introducing problem based learning in immersive narrative environments, the learners are provided......-based role-play scenarios as a learning tool that can integrate the curriculum in meaningful context, and how it has impacted on the interaction and creative learning experiences in the class....

  8. The Many Faces of Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitchens, Michael; Drachen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing games have grown and evolved into a large number of forms in the last thirty years, spanning digital as well as non-digital media. They demonstrate a wide variety in the number of participants, style of play and the formal and informal systems that govern them. Despite this diversity...... players at least seem to think they know when something is a role-playing game. Yet there is no commonly accepted definition which both captures games generally accepted as role-playing games and distinguishes them from other, similar, games which begs the question, whether roleplaying games are united...... by anything more than a colloquial name. Additionally, research involving these games is hampered by lack of a widely accepted definition of what constitutes a roleplaying game, as it is then not even possible to clearly delineate the subject of such research. In this paper various example of role-playing...

  9. NM23-H2 may play an indirect role in transcriptional activation of c-myc gene expression but does not cleave the nuclease hypersensitive element III1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Carey, Steven S.; Zuohe, Song; Gokhale, Vijay M.; Hu, Xiaohui; Murata, Lauren B.; Maes, Estelle M.; Weichsel, Andrzej; Sun, Daekyu; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.; Montfort, William R.; Hurley, Laurence H.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of G-quadruplex structures within the nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) III 1 region of the c-myc promoter and the ability of these structures to repress c-myc transcription have been well established. However, just how these extremely stable DNA secondary structures are transformed to activate c-myc transcription is still unknown. NM23-H2/nucleoside diphosphate kinase B has been recognized as an activator of c-myc transcription via interactions with the NHE III 1 region of the c-myc gene promoter. Through the use of RNA interference, we confirmed the transcriptional regulatory role of NM23-H2. In addition, we find that further purification of NM23-H2 results in loss of the previously identified DNA strand cleavage activity, but retention of its DNA binding activity. NM23-H2 binds to both single-stranded guanine- and cytosine-rich strands of the c-myc NHE III 1 and, to a lesser extent, to a random single-stranded DNA template. However, it does not bind to or cleave the NHE III 1 in duplex form. Significantly, potassium ions and compounds that stabilize the G-quadruplex and i-motif structures have an inhibitory effect on NM23-H2 DNA-binding activity. Mutation of Arg 88 to Ala 88 (R88A) reduced both DNA and nucleotide binding but had minimal effect on the NM23-H2 crystal structure. On the basis of these data and molecular modeling studies, we have proposed a stepwise trapping-out of the NHE III 1 region in a single-stranded form, thus allowing single-stranded transcription factors to bind and activate c-myc transcription. Furthermore, this model provides a rationale for how the stabilization of the G-quadruplex or i-motif structures formed within the c-myc gene promoter region can inhibit NM23-H2 from activating c-myc gene expression.

  10. Foxo1 and Foxp1 play opposing roles in regulating the differentiation and antitumor activity of TH9 cells programmed by IL-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Enguang; Ma, Xingzhe; Lu, Yong; Yang, Maojie; Wang, Qiang; Xue, Gang; Qian, Jianfei; Wang, Siqing; Yi, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Tumor-specific CD4+ T helper 9 (TH9) cells, so-called because of their production of the cytokine interleukin-9 (IL-9), are a powerful effector T cell subset for cancer immunotherapy. We found that pretreatment of naïve CD4+ T cells with IL-7 further enhanced their differentiation into TH9 cells and augmented their antitumor activity. IL-7 markedly increased the abundance of the histone acetyltransferase p300 by activating the STAT5 and PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathways and promoting the acetylation of histones at the Il9 promoter. As a result, the transcriptional regulator Foxo1 was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus, bound to the Il9 promoter, and induced the production of IL-9 protein. In contrast, Foxp1, which bound to the Il9 promoter in naïve CD4+ T cells and inhibited Il9 expression, was outcompeted for binding to the Il9 promoter by Foxo1 and translocated to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, forced expression of Foxo1 or a deficiency in Foxp1 in CD4+ T cells markedly increased the production of IL-9, whereas a deficiency in Foxo1 inhibited the ability of IL-7 to enhance the differentiation and antitumor activity of TH9 cells. Thus, we identified the roles of Foxo1 as a positive regulator and Foxp1 as a negative regulator of TH9 cell differentiation and antitumor activity, which may provide potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:29018172

  11. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; Duncan, Robin E; Bazinet, Richard P; Archer, Michael C

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from (14)C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as (14)C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2-3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-09-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology.

  13. PERSONALITY AND CHARACTER PREFERENCE IN ROLE-PLAYING GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Ramos-Villagrasa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In role-playing games players perform participative and episodic stories. Personality is a psychological construct associated with decision processes in many aspects of life. In this study, we analyzed if Big Five Personality Factors were related to game character preferences in the role-playing game “Dungeons & Dragons”. Results show that Personality is related only in the decision of character’s class. We also study the relationship between Personality and plots in role-playing games (action, intrigue, mystery, and personal relationships. Finally, recommendations to further investigation were given.

  14. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E., E-mail: kathryn.hopperton@mail.utoronto.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Duncan, Robin E., E-mail: robin.duncan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Bazinet, Richard P., E-mail: richard.bazinet@utoronto.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Archer, Michael C., E-mail: m.archer@utoronto.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as {sup 14}C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare

  15. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Duncan, Robin E.; Bazinet, Richard P.; Archer, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from 14 C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as 14 C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare utilization of

  16. Effect of combined teaching method (role playing and storytelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of combined teaching method (role playing and storytelling) on creative ... Remember me ... Background and Purpose: Storytelling promotes imagination and satisfies curiosity in children and creates learning opportunities in them.

  17. Older women play predominant role in building social ties and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... Older women play predominant role in building social ties and preventing ... brief demonstrates their contribution to building social cohesion and driving ... From learning to policy-oriented research: Lessons from South Africa's ...

  18. Penerapan Metode Role Playing Dalam Meningkatkan Motivasi Belajar Anak Usia Play Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Anita Alfiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSalah satu faktor penting dalam kegiatan belajar (KBM untuk anak usia play group adalah guru yang memahami berbagai macam karakterisik peserta didik dan peduli terhadap kebutuhan anak didiknya.Namun Dari hasil penelitian dan kenyataan di lapangan, menunjukkan bahwa pelaksanaan kegiatan belajar mengajar (KBM untuk anak-anak usia play group masih banyak kelemahan dan kekurangannya karenanya  guru juga harus mampu menguasai teknik dan metode dalam  mengajar B untuk anak.Anak didik pada usia play group.Dengan demikian, metode pembelajaran merupakan alat untuk menciptakan proses belajar mengajar.Subana dan Sunarti (2000 : 20 Berpendapat metode adalah rencana penyajian bahan yang menyeluruh dengan urutan yang sistematis berdasarkan approach tertentu. Jadi metode merupakan cara melaksanakan pekerjaan, sedangkan approach, dapat tumbuh beberapan metode. Role Playing adalah suatu cara penguasaan bahan-bahan pelajaran melalui pengembangan imajinasi dan penghayatan siswa. Pengembangan imajinasi dan penghayatan dilakukan siswa dengan memerankannya sebagai tokoh hidup atau benda mati. Permainan ini pada umumnya dilakukan lebih dari satu orang, hal itu bergantung kepada apa yang diperankan.Role Playing yakni memainkan peranan dari peran-peran yang sudah pasti berdasarkan kejadian terdahulu, yang dimaksudkan untuk menciptakan kembali situasi sejarah/peristiwa masa lalu, menciptakan kemungkinan-kemungkinan kejadian masa yang akan datang, menciptakan peristiwa mutakhir yang dapat diperkaya atau mengkhayal situasi pada suatu tempat dan atau waktu tertentu. berarti metode (Role Playing adalah metode pembelajaran yang di dalamnya menampakkan adanya perilaku pura-pura dari siswa yang terlihat dan atau peniruan situasi dari tokoh-tokoh sejarah sedemikian rupa. Dengan demikian  metode Bermain Peran (RolePlayingadalah metode yang melibatkan siswa untuk pura-pura memainkan peran/ tokoh yang terlibat dalam proses sejarah. Teknik ini juga digunakan untuk dapat

  19. Representation of Cultural Role-Play for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Thomas; Pepe, Aaron; Rosenzweiz, Larry; Paulus, John; Yi, Ahn Na

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Defense (000) has successfully applied a number of methods for cultural familiarization training ranging from stand-up classroom training, to face-to-face live role-play, to so-called smart-cards. Recent interest has turned to the use of single and mUlti-player gaming technologies to augment these traditional methods of cultural familiarization. One such system, termed CulturePad, has been designed as a game-based role-play environment suitable for use in training and experimentation involving cultural roleplay scenarios. This paper describes the initial CulturePad effort focused on a literature review regarding the use of role-play for cultural training and a feasibility assessment of using a game-mediated environment for role-play. A small-scale pilot involving cultural experts was conducted to collect qualitative behavioral data comparing live role-play to game-mediated role-play in a multiplayer gaming engine.

  20. The role of play in Danish child care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    of child care. To illustrate how play is a developmental activitity for children, an example of a social fantasy play episode is analysed in order to substantiate the claim: that children’s self-organised play-activities propels social development, authenticity and democratic values.......Children’s play is an immensely central part of child care in Scandinavia. This chapter describes how children’s play with peers and friends is supported by the pedagogical environment of Danish child care. It is argued that play is an existential project for children and that opportunites to play...... freely teaches children to become part of the social order, to become good friends and to solve differences through negotiation. Throughout the chapter the environment facilitating children’s play is illustrated with reference to typical Danish child care practices and research results on quality...

  1. Character Play – The use of game characters in multi- player Role Playing Games across platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, M.; Brolund, T.

    2008-01-01

    histories of game characters. This article presents results from a comprehensive empirical study of the way complex game characters are utilized by players in multiplayer role-playing games across two different media platforms. The results indicate that adult players are capable of comprehending...... and utilizing game characters with well-defined personalities and backgrounds, as well as rules-based components. Furthermore, that the game format plays a significant role in the pattern of usage of the character elements. This pattern appears directly linked with variations in the way that the different game...

  2. Role Playing Game (RPG on nursing undergraduate course: educational potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Nathale Soares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of a Role Playing Game as an educational strategy in Undergraduate Nursing course, emphasizing its subjective implications in understanding aspects of the profession. This is a qualitative study, conducted through an evaluative research, of deployment analysis type. Nursing students of the 3rd period participated. The instrument to collection was Memories of Game, reports prepared by students after game sessions. The game is a non-traditional educational strategy that enabled approach to students through professional practice, active participation, self-reflection and reflection on professional practice. This strategy favored individualization processes, allowing students to experience situations similar to the nursing practice and exercise skills such as teamwork and creativity. The expansion of studies that address the subjective processes in higher education, through simulation games, can contribute to better design of health development processes.

  3. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  4. The Role of Play in Children’s Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Boucher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Play is the universal language of childhood and the time and opportunity to play is every child’s right. The role of play as a vehicle for communication, a tool for distraction and its value in the holistic development of a normal child is without dispute. The role and value of play increase proportionately when a child is made more vulnerable through illness or disability. Despite this, providing time and opportunities to play can be overlooked or considered to be of little importance or relevance when the focus of the adult carers is the amelioration of clinical symptoms of the illness and on lessening the psychological impact the illness may have on the child. This paper outlines the role and the value of play as an integral component in the provision of palliative care for children with chronic, life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. It will show how providing appropriate equipment, sufficient time and relevant play opportunities not only improves the very sick child’s psychological wellbeing, but also allows the child to cast aside the confines and restrictions imposed upon them by their illness and for a few golden moments to be nothing more than a child at play.

  5. Using dramatic role-play to develop emotional aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dinapoli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As university educators, we need to prepare students for the transition from the information age to what Daniel H. Pink (2005 calls the conceptual age, which is governed by artistry, empathy and emotion, by including in the curricula activities that stimulate both hemispheres of the brain. This can be done by promoting activities that energize what Daniel Goleman (1995 refers to as emotional intelligence, and it further maintains that, as Paul Ekman (2003 suggests, the ability to detect feelings improves communication. Recognizing the need to include in the curricula procedures that help develop students’ right brain aptitudes and enhance their communication skills, I have endeavoured to introduce dramatic scene study as a sustained activity in my English for Specific Purposes courses at the Universidad de Valencia. My aim was to energize the students’ creative and emotional aptitudes, as well as to dynamize effective teamwork. This article sustains that dramatic role-play, based on scripted scene study and related improvisational activities, is one way of achieving this.

  6. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  7. Insights into the structure-activity relationship of the anticancer compound ZJ-101, a derivative of marine natural product superstolide A: A role played by the lactone moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haibo; Qian, Shan; Head, Sarah A; Liu, Jun O; Jin, Zhendong

    2016-10-01

    Compound ZJ-101, a structurally simplified analog of the marine natural product superstolide A, was previously developed in our laboratory. In the subsequent structure-activity relationship study, a new analog ZJ-109 was designed and synthesized to probe the importance of the lactone moiety of the molecule by replacing the lactone in ZJ-101 with a lactam. The biological evaluation showed that ZJ-109 is about 8-12 times less active against cancer cells in vitro than ZJ-101, suggesting that the lactone moiety of the molecule is important for its anticancer activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydathode trichomes actively secreting water from leaves play a key role in the physiology and evolution of root-parasitic rhinanthoid Orobanchaceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Světlíková, P.; Hájek, Tomáš; Těšitel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2015), s. 61-68 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : active water transport * parasite * water regime Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.982, year: 2015

  9. Chlorogenic Acid and Rutin Play a Major Role in the In Vivo Anti-Diabetic Activity of Morus alba Leaf Extract on Type II Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi, Attila; Martins, Ana; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Seres, Adrienn; Zupkó, István

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of the white mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) are used worldwide in traditional medicine as anti-diabetics. Various constituents of mulberry leaves, such as iminosugars (i.e. 1-deoxynojirimicin), flavonoids and related compounds, polysaccharides, glycopeptides and ecdysteroids, have been reported to exert anti-diabetic activity, but knowledge about their contribution to the overall activity is limited. The objective of the present work was to determine the in vivo anti-diabetic activity of an extract of mulberry leaves (MA), and to examine to what extent three major constituents, chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin, might contribute to the observed activity. Quantities of the three constituents of interest in the extract were determined by using HPLC-DAD. Activity was determined by using a type II diabetic rat model. After 11 days of per os administration of 250 or 750 mg/kg of MA or the corresponding amounts of each individual compound, a dose dependent decrease of non-fasting blood glucose levels were found for MA, chlorogenic acid and rutin, but not for isoquercitrin. Based on our results, chlorogenic acid and rutin might account for as much as half the observed anti-diabetic activity of MA, hence they can be considered as excellent markers for the quality control of mulberry products. PMID:23185641

  10. Recurring DNA copy number gain at chromosome 9p13 plays a role in the activation of multiple candidate oncogenes in progressing oral premalignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towle, Rebecca; Tsui, Ivy F L; Zhu, Yuqi; MacLellan, Sara; Poh, Catherine F; Garnis, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Genomic alteration at chromosome 9p has been previously reported as a frequent and critical event in oral premalignancy. While this alteration is typically reported as a loss driven by selection for CDKN2A deactivation (at 9p21.3), we detect a recurrent DNA copy number gain of ∼2.49 Mbp at chromosome 9p13 in oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) that later progressed to invasive lesions. This recurrent alteration event has been validated using fluorescence in situ hybridization in an independent set of OPLs. Analysis of publicly available gene expression datasets aided in identifying three oncogene candidates that may have driven selection for DNA copy number increases in this region (VCP, DCTN3, and STOML2). We performed in vitro silencing and activation experiments for each of these genes in oral cancer cell lines and found that each gene is independently capable of upregulating proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. We next analyzed the activity of each of these genes in biopsies of varying histological grades that were obtained from a diseased oral tissue field in a single patient, finding further molecular evidence of parallel activation of VCP, DCTN3, and STOML2 during progression from normal healthy tissue to invasive oral carcinoma. Our results support the conclusion that DNA gain at 9p13 is important to the earliest stages of oral tumorigenesis and that this alteration event likely contributes to the activation of multiple oncogene candidates capable of governing oral cancer phenotypes

  11. Oxidative stress, caspase-3 activation and cleavage of ROCK-1 play an essential role in MeHg-induced cell death in primary astroglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alessandra Antunes; López-Granero, Caridad; Farina, Marcelo; Rocha, João B T; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Methylmercury is a toxic environmental contaminant that elicits significant toxicity in humans. The central nervous system is the primary target of toxicity, and is particularly vulnerable during development. Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1) is a major downstream effector of the small GTPase RhoA and a direct substrate of caspase-3. The activation of ROCK-1 is necessary for membrane blebbing during apoptosis. In this work, we examined whether MeHg could affect the RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway in primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. Exposure of cells with 10 μM MeHg decreased cellular viability after 24 h of incubation. This reduction in viability was preceded by a significant increase in intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, as well as a reduced NAD + /NADH ratio. MeHg also induced an increase in mitochondrial-dependent caspase-9 and caspase-3, while the levels of RhoA protein expression were reduced or unchanged. We further found that MeHg induced ROCK-1 cleavage/activation and promoted LIMK1 and MYPT1 phosphorylation, both of which are the best characterized ROCK-1 downstream targets. Inhibiting ROCK-1 and caspases activation attenuated the MeHg-induced cell death. Collectively, these findings are the first to show that astrocytes exposed to MeHg showed increased cleavage/activation of ROCK-1, which was independent of the small GTPase RhoA. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Activation of p44/42 MAPK plays a role in the TBT-induced loss of human natural killer (NK) cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudimah, Fred D; Griffey, Denisha; Wang, Xiaofei; Whalen, Margaret M

    2010-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells destroy (lyse) tumor cells, virally infected cells, and antibody-coated cells. Previous studies indicated that exposure to the environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT) decreases the lytic function of NK cells and activates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), including p44/42 (Aluoch and Whalen Toxicology 209:263-277, 2005). If activation of p44/42 is required for TBT-induced decreases of lytic function, then activation of p44/42 to similar extents by pharmacological agents such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) should mimic to some extent changes induced in NK cells with TBT exposures. NK cells were exposed to PMA concentrations between 0.25 and 10 nM for 10 min, 1 h, and 6 h before determining the lytic function ((51)Cr release assay) and phosphorylation state of MAPKs (Western blot). A 1-h exposure of NK cells to 5 nM PMA resulted in a loss of lytic function of 47%. Western blot analysis showed that a 1-h exposure to 5 nM PMA caused a sixfold increase in phospho-p44/42 levels. Previous studies showed a fivefold increase in phospho-p44/42 in response to a 1-h exposure to 300 nM TBT. Exposure to 300 nM TBT caused about a 40% decrease in lytic function. This study supports the hypothesis that p44/42 activation (as seen with TBT exposures) can cause a loss of NK-cell lytic function.

  13. Activation of p44/42 MAPK Plays a Role in the TBT-induced Loss of Human Natural Killer (NK) Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudimah, Fred D.; Griffey, Denisha; Wang, Xiaofei; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells destroy (lyse) tumor cells, virally infected cells and antibody-coated cells. Previous studies indicated that exposure to the environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT) decreases the lytic function of NK cells and activates mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), including p44/42 (Aluoch and Whalen, 2005). If activation of p44/42 is required for TBT-induced decreases of lytic function, then activation of p44/42 to similar extents by pharmacological agents such as Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) should mimic to some extent changes induced in NK cells with TBT exposures. NK cells were exposed to PMA concentrations between 0.25 and 10 nM for 10 min, 1 h, and 6 h before determining the lytic function (51Cr release assay) and phosphorylation state of MAPKs (Western blot). A 1 h exposure of NK cells to 5 nM PMA resulted in a loss of lytic function of 47%. Western blot analysis showed that a 1 h exposure to 5 nM PMA caused a 6 fold increase in phospho-p44/42 levels. Previous studies showed a 5 fold increase in phospho-p44/42 in response to a 1 h exposure to 300 nM TBT. Exposure to 300 nM TBT caused about a 40% decrease in lytic function. This study supports the hypothesis that p44/42 activation (as seen with TBT exposures) can cause a loss of NK-cell lytic function. PMID:20213532

  14. PLAY ACTIVITY WITH MILITARY TOYS AT PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nikolaevna Aleshina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes various attitudes to military toys, both positive and negative, existing in Russia and abroad. Toy weapons are viewed as a separate type of military toy. The study looks at the impact of military toys on children’s emotions and personality. The study looks at how children play games on their own and the way they organize them. We have conducted an experiment where three types of toys were used – military toys, soft toys and objects that act as toy substitutes. The study of games and the roles children took showed their poor playing skills. The research has detected existing connection between imagination and thinking ability and the children’s play activity. None of the children took the role of ‘the defender of the weak’ or ‘Patria’s defender’, which contradicts the results of an opinion survey of children’s parents who think that military toys help to develop ‘patriotism’, ‘courage’, and ‘teach to protect the weak’.Repeated observation of the way the same children play with military toys has shown that they take the role of defenders of the motherland or the weak only after watching TV-programmes or fiction films which show male characters defending their motherland or the weak using weapons, which shows that children’s games have social character.The experiment’s results detected what activity adults, who are concerned with the young generation’s attitude to weapons and violence, should perform. It is vital to strengthen children’s moral, ethical and cognitive spheres first, and only in second place fight against sales of military toys both in Russia and abroad.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-53

  15. What role can nuclear power play in mitigating global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to look at nuclear fission, as one of the available options, and evaluate qualitatively the extent to which it can play a role in greenhouse gas reduction strategies during the next three decades. No attempt will be made here to make a quantitative comparison with alternative energy supplies, or with energy efficiency measures

  16. A Recruiting and Hiring Role-Play: An Experiential Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Robert; Collins, Marianne K.

    2012-01-01

    Creating experiential learning opportunities that engage students, meet marketing curricula objectives, and fit the application in a traditional semester course is extremely challenging. This paper describes a role-playing simulation offered concurrently to the professional selling and sales management classes in which the selling students act as…

  17. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ROLE PLAY IN TEACHING SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Suryani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is one of essential skills that should be mastered by students. In fact, the students face difficulties in speaking such as difficulty to arrange the sentences, fear of making mistakes, and lack of motivation. It is supported by Nunan (1993, he states that there are some challenges in teaching speaking skill in EFL classroom namely lack of motivation, and they tend to use their first language. Related to those problems, role play is offered to overcome the problems in speaking. The aim of the research was to know the effect of using role play in teaching speaking. The research used pre-experimental design with one group pre test and post test design which consist of 30 students as the sample. The data were obtained by using pre test and post test. Then, obtained data were analyzed by using SPSS 20. The result of the research showed that significance value was .00 and it is lower than the significance level .05. It means that the null hypothesis was rejected. Thus, teaching speaking by using role play has a significant effect on improving the students’ speaking ability.    Keywords: role play, speaking, motivation

  18. From MMORPG to a Classroom Multiplayer Presential Role Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Heinz; Jimenez, Felipe; Nussbaum, Miguel; Gajardo, Ignacio; Andreu, Juan Jose; Villalta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has grown enormously, with communities of players reaching into the millions. Their fantasy narratives present multiple challenges created by the virtual environment and/or other players. The games' potential for education stems from the fact that players are immersed in a…

  19. Player-Character Dynamics in Multi- Player Role Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, D.; Brolund, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...

  20. Confronting Prejudiced Comments: Effectiveness of a Role-Playing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; McDonough, Tracy A.; Bodle, James H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether a role-playing exercise, similar to that developed by Plous (2000), increases students' ability to generate effective responses to prejudiced comments. We assessed social psychology students' (n = 23) ability to respond to prejudiced comments before and after the exercise, and compared their performance to that of 2 other…

  1. CGRP may play a causative role in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L H; Haderslev, P A; Jacobsen, V B

    2002-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been detected in increased amounts in external jugular venous blood during migraine attacks. However, it is unknown whether this is secondary to migraine or whether CGRP may cause headache. In a double-blind crossover study, the effect of human alphaCGRP...... attacks may play a causative role....

  2. Designing Role-Playing Video Games for Ethical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, Karen

    2017-01-01

    How can we better design games, such as role-playing video games (RPGs), to support the practice of ethical thinking? Ethical thinking is a critical component of twenty-first century citizenship and we need to design ways to creatively support its practice. This study investigates how male participants, ages 18-34, make ethical decisions in three…

  3. The Ecology of Role Play: Intentionality and Cultural Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolutionary function of children's pretence. The everyday, cultural environment that children engage with is of a highly complex structure. Human adaptation, thus, becomes, by analogy, an equally complex process that requires the development of life skills. Whilst in role play children engage in "mimesis" and…

  4. Understanding the role played by parents, culture and the school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the role played by parents, culture and the school curriculum in socializing young women on sexual health issues in rural South African communities. ... highlight a need for designing interventions that can create awareness for parents on the current developmental needs and sexual behavior of adolescents.

  5. Early Activation of Apoptosis and Caspase-independent Cell Death Plays an Important Role in Mediating the Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of WP 631 in Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Arkadiusz; Denel-Bobrowska, Marta; Rogalska, Aneta; Bukowska, Barbara; Maszewski, Janusz; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed explanation of the mechanism of bisanthracycline,?WP 631 in comparison to doxorubicin (DOX), a first generation anthracycline, currently the most widely used pharmaceutical in clinical oncology. Experiments were performed in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells which are otherwise resistant to standard drugs such as cis-platinum and adriamycin. As attention was focused on the ability of WP 631 to induce apoptosis, this was examined using a double staining method with Annexin V and propidium iodide probes, with measurement of the level of intracellular calcium ions and cytosolic cytochrome c. The western blotting technique was performed to confirm PARP cleavage. We also investigated the involvement of caspase activation and DNA degradation (comet assay and immunocytochemical detection of phosphorylated H2AX histones) in the development of apoptotic events. WP 631 demonstrated significantly higher effectiveness as a pro-apoptotic drug than DOX. This was evident in the higher levels of markers of apoptosis, such as the externalization of phosphatidylserine and the elevated level of cytochrome c. An extension of incubation time led to an increase in intracellular calcium levels after treatment with DOX. Lower changes in the calcium content were associated with the influence of WP 631. DOX led to the activation of all tested caspases, 8, 9 and 3, whereas WP 631 only induced an increase in caspase 8 activity after 24h of treatment and consequently led to the cleavage of PARP. The lack of active caspase 3 had no outcome on the single and double-stranded DNA breaks. The obtained results show that WP 631 was considerably more genotoxic towards the investigated cell line than DOX. This effect was especially visible after longer times of incubation. The above detailed studies indicate that WP 631 generates early apoptosis and cell death independent of caspase-3, detected at relatively late time points. The observed differences in the

  6. Dietary gamma oryzanol plays a significant role in the anti-inflammatory activity of rice bran oil by decreasing pro-inflammatory mediators secreted by peritoneal macrophages of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Sugasini, D; Lokesh, B R

    2016-10-28

    Ricebran oil (RBO) is promoted as heart friendly oil because of its ability to maintain serum lipids at desirable levels. Inflammation also plays an important role on cardiovascular health. The role of minor constituents present in unsaponifiable fraction (UF) of RBO on inflammatory markers is not well understood. To evaluate this, we have taken RBO with UF (RBO-N), RBO stripped of UF (RBO-MCR) and RBO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO (UFRBO) or Gamma-Oryzanol (γ-ORY) were added in AIN-93 diets which was then fed to Wistar rats for a period of 60 days. Groundnut oil with UF (GNO-N), UF removed GNO (GNO-MCR) and GNO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO or γ-ORY was also used for comparison. The peritoneal macrophages from the rats were activated and pro-inflammatory mediators such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), eicosanoids, cytokines, hydrolytic enzymes of lysosomal origin were monitored. The results indicated that UF of RBO and γ-ORY supplemented in the dietary oils play a significant role in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by macrophages. Hence γ-ORY in RBO significantly contributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of RBO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Turkish Foreign Language Learners' Roles and Outputs: Introducing an Innovation and Role-Playing in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Cigdem; Comoglu, Irem; Baran, Bahar

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to design of the two activities "introducing an innovation" and "role playing" in Second Life (SL) and to evaluate qualitatively Turkish foreign language learner's roles and outputs before, while, and after the implementation of the activities. The study used community of inquiry model consisting of cognitive…

  8. Children's active play: self-reported motivators, barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Brockman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has important benefits for children's physical health and mental wellbeing, but many children do not meet recommended levels. Research suggests that active play has the potential to make a valuable contribution to children's overall physical activity, whilst providing additional cognitive, social and emotional benefits. However, relatively little is known about the determinants of UK children's active play. Understanding these factors provides the critical first step in developing interventions to increase children's active play, and therefore overall physical activity. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: (i factors which motivate children to take part in active play; (ii factors which limit children's active play and (iii factors which facilitate children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Children were motivated to engage in active play because they perceived it to be enjoyable, to prevent boredom, to have physical and mental health benefits and to provide freedom from adult control, rules and structure. However, children's active play was constrained by a number of factors, including rainy weather and fear of groups of teenagers in their play spaces. Some features of the physical environment facilitated children's active play, including the presence of green spaces and cul-de-sacs in the neighbourhood. Additionally, children's use of mobile phones when playing away from home was reported to help to alleviate parents' safety fears, and therefore assist children's active play. Children express a range of motivational and environmental factors that constrain and facilitate their active play. Consideration of these factors should improve effectiveness of interventions designed to increase active play.

  9. Children's active play: self-reported motivators, barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Rowan; Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-06-10

    Physical activity has important benefits for children's physical health and mental wellbeing, but many children do not meet recommended levels. Research suggests that active play has the potential to make a valuable contribution to children's overall physical activity, whilst providing additional cognitive, social and emotional benefits. However, relatively little is known about the determinants of UK children's active play. Understanding these factors provides the critical first step in developing interventions to increase children's active play, and therefore overall physical activity. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: (i) factors which motivate children to take part in active play; (ii) factors which limit children's active play and (iii) factors which facilitate children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Children were motivated to engage in active play because they perceived it to be enjoyable, to prevent boredom, to have physical and mental health benefits and to provide freedom from adult control, rules and structure. However, children's active play was constrained by a number of factors, including rainy weather and fear of groups of teenagers in their play spaces. Some features of the physical environment facilitated children's active play, including the presence of green spaces and cul-de-sacs in the neighbourhood. Additionally, children's use of mobile phones when playing away from home was reported to help to alleviate parents' safety fears, and therefore assist children's active play. Children express a range of motivational and environmental factors that constrain and facilitate their active play. Consideration of these factors should improve effectiveness of interventions designed to increase active play.

  10. MODEL ROLE PLAYING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN SIKLUS AKUNTANSI PERUSAHAAN DAGANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarot Tri Tri Bowo Santoso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting lesson is considered as a difficult lesson by most students in SMK/SMA. It is even sometimes worse with the less ability of accounting teachers to select learning methods thatcan attract students’ attention and thought. Therefore, it is necessary to find an alternative learning which can help students to involve in the real situation which is fun and memorable. The learning model which can fulfill the fun situation is the role playing. The steps to implement this model in the learning of accounting cycle for trade firm are to divide students in groups and to give each of them an opportunity to play a role. In practice, each student changers the role weekly based on the order. The model makesstuents easier to understand the basic accounting and leads the teachers evaluate the materials if the lack of conformity occurs during the learning.

  11. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  12. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA

  13. Role-play as a pedagogical method to prepare students for practice: The students’ voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Westrup

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss how and why role-play supports students in gaining insights into complex leadership situations. We give voice to the students by illustrating their experiences in a role-playing activity involving a human resource management issue designed, performed, and evaluated as part of a management program. The results show that the role-playing supports the students by stimulating them to understand the issue from various perspectives, hence performing an overall change of perspectives. The role-playing exercise also enabled the students to create a collective understanding of the situation. The active social interactions and conversations of role-playing contributed to establishing a sense of community among the students. We argue that role-play could be a viable and forceful pedagogical method whereby teachers give their students the opportunity to prepare for practice. However, to implement role-play as an alternative method of learning requires that the method is a part of the institutional learning space.

  14. Play a Starring Role in Your Textbook: A Digital Web Platform with an Embedded Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielvogel, Laura; Spielvogel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we introduce our digital e-textbook web platform with an integrated role-playing game, which has been created for "introduction to anthropology" courses. We believe that textbooks have the potential to do more to motivate students' pursuit of learning if their material (topically organised chapters supported by…

  15. Solitary Active Videogame Play Improves Executive Functioning More Than Collaborative Play for Children with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Rachel M; Colon, Nirmaliz

    2016-12-01

    This pilot study examined the impact of playing an active videogame on executive functioning (EF) skills for children with special needs, who typically have lower EF skills. Acute EF change was measured in 36 children with a range of special needs, including mental health disorders and developmental disabilities. Participants were assigned to one of two active videogame conditions: playing alone and playing with a peer. Two different EF tasks were conducted pre- and postplay. Children who played alone increased their accuracy performance more than children in the paired-play condition on two measures of EF. The study explored potential covariates of prior videogame experience, age, and enjoyment, but none of these variables related to EF change. This study's findings support active videogame play as an activity that can boost EF skills for children with special needs when they play alone. Future research should continue to examine the relationships between EF and active videogame play with a peer to elucidate the contributions of social interactions.

  16. Social interactions in massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Helena; Griffiths, Mark D

    2007-08-01

    To date, most research into massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has examined the demographics of play. This study explored the social interactions that occur both within and outside of MMORPGs. The sample consisted of 912 self-selected MMORPG players from 45 countries. MMORPGs were found to be highly socially interactive environments providing the opportunity to create strong friendships and emotional relationships. The study demonstrated that the social interactions in online gaming form a considerable element in the enjoyment of playing. The study showed MMORPGs can be extremely social games, with high percentages of gamers making life-long friends and partners. It was concluded that virtual gaming may allow players to express themselves in ways they may not feel comfortable doing in real life because of their appearance, gender, sexuality, and/or age. MMORPGs also offer a place where teamwork, encouragement, and fun can be experienced.

  17. Character selecting advisor for a role-playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Carol L.; Berlanga, Felicia

    1994-01-01

    Role-playing games have been a source of much pleasure and merriment for people of all ages. The process of developing a character for a role-playing game is usually very, very time consuming, delaying what many players consider the most entertaining part of the game. An expert system has been written to assist a player in creating a character by guiding the player through a series of questions. This paper discusses the selection of this topic, the knowledge engineering, the software development, and the resulting program that cuts the time of character development from about 4 hours to 30 minutes. The program was written on a PC and an Apollo in CLIPS 4.3 and currently runs on the Apollo.

  18. What role does taste play in school meal interventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Anne Marie; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    dialogue around taste on factors such as physical and psychological well-being, empowerment, school enjoyment, and academic outcomes. By taking steps to accurately evaluate and improve the taste of school food and by creating avenues for students to express their opinions and develop a meaningful sense......School lunch plays an important role in the well-being of students. However, studies have given evidence that school lunch may not be satisfactory to students. Evidence shows that taste plays an influential role in students’ food decisions and eating experiences. This narrative review finds...... that interventions around improving school lunch mainly focus on increasing intake of target foods or food groups, and few studies exist that examine other outcomes such as food enjoyment or well-being. Future interventions could explore the impact of increasing student engagement around school lunch and opening...

  19. Enhancing interest in statistics among computer science students using computer tool entrepreneur role play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judi, Hairulliza Mohamad; Sahari @ Ashari, Noraidah; Eksan, Zanaton Hj

    2017-04-01

    Previous research in Malaysia indicates that there is a problem regarding attitude towards statistics among students. They didn't show positive attitude in affective, cognitive, capability, value, interest and effort aspects although did well in difficulty. This issue should be given substantial attention because students' attitude towards statistics may give impacts on the teaching and learning process of the subject. Teaching statistics using role play is an appropriate attempt to improve attitudes to statistics, to enhance the learning of statistical techniques and statistical thinking, and to increase generic skills. The objectives of the paper are to give an overview on role play in statistics learning and to access the effect of these activities on students' attitude and learning in action research framework. The computer tool entrepreneur role play is conducted in a two-hour tutorial class session of first year students in Faculty of Information Sciences and Technology (FTSM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, enrolled in Probability and Statistics course. The results show that most students feel that they have enjoyable and great time in the role play. Furthermore, benefits and disadvantages from role play activities were highlighted to complete the review. Role play is expected to serve as an important activities that take into account students' experience, emotions and responses to provide useful information on how to modify student's thinking or behavior to improve learning.

  20. On-Line Role-Play as a Teaching Method in Engineering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Adolfo; Conde, Olga Ma.; Quintela, Ma. Ángeles; Mirapéix, Jesús Ma.; López-Higuera, José Miguel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose adapting role-play teaching methodology to engineering studies. The role of a maintenance technician, a relevant job profile for engineering graduates is has chosen. The interaction is based on email exchange, with the instructor included in the simulation to help guide the activity and achieve learning objectives. In this…

  1. Hevin plays a pivotal role in corneal wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Chaurasia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hevin is a matricellular protein involved in tissue repair and remodeling via interaction with the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM proteins. In this study, we examined the functional role of hevin using a corneal stromal wound healing model achieved by an excimer laser-induced irregular phototherapeutic keratectomy (IrrPTK in hevin-null (hevin(-/- mice. We also investigated the effects of exogenous supplementation of recombinant human hevin (rhHevin to rescue the stromal cellular components damaged by the excimer laser. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild type (WT and hevin (-/- mice were divided into three groups at 4 time points- 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Group I served as naïve without any treatment. Group II received epithelial debridement and underwent IrrPTK using excimer laser. Group III received topical application of rhHevin after IrrPTK surgery for 3 days. Eyes were analyzed for corneal haze and matrix remodeling components using slit lamp biomicroscopy, in vivo confocal microscopy, light microscopy (LM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, immunohistochemistry (IHC and western blotting (WB. IHC showed upregulation of hevin in IrrPTK-injured WT mice. Hevin (-/- mice developed corneal haze as early as 1-2 weeks post IrrPTK-treatment compared to the WT group, which peaked at 3-4 weeks. They also exhibited accumulation of inflammatory cells, fibrotic components of ECM proteins and vascularized corneas as seen by IHC and WB. LM and TEM showed activated keratocytes (myofibroblasts, inflammatory debris and vascular tissues in the stroma. Exogenous application of rhHevin for 3 days reinstated inflammatory index of the corneal stroma similar to WT mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hevin is transiently expressed in the IrrPTK-injured corneas and loss of hevin predisposes them to aberrant wound healing. Hevin (-/- mice develop early corneal haze characterized by severe chronic inflammation and stromal fibrosis that can be rescued

  2. Economy and technology roles played by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Eiji

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the survey analysis made by Atomic Energy Commission on the roles in economy and technology played in the nuclear energy development and utilization, the following are described: economic roles in nuclear energy development and utilization (the present state of nuclear power industry in Japan and the economy effects); technological roles in the same (the present state of nuclear power technology in Japan and the technology effects). The economy effects in other areas are on higher level than in other industries etc. Then, in the technology effects, system technology and quality control in the nuclear power possess significant effects in other areas. While the nuclear energy development and utilization is important in Japan's energy security, it is contributing largely to the economy and society in Japan. (Mori, K.)

  3. The role of play objects and object play in human cognitive evolution and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Felix; Johannsen, Niels N; Högberg, Anders; Nowell, April; Lombard, Marlize

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution, we address a major puzzle in the evolution of human material culture: If maturing individuals just learn their parental generation's material culture, then what is the origin of key innovations as documented in the archeological record? We approach this question by coupling a life-history model of the costs and benefits of experimentation with a niche-construction perspective. Niche-construction theory suggests that the behavior of organisms and their modification of the world around them have important evolutionary ramifications by altering developmental settings and selection pressures. Part of Homo sapiens' niche is the active provisioning of children with play objects - sometimes functional miniatures of adult tools - and the encouragement of object play, such as playful knapping with stones. Our model suggests that salient material culture innovation may occur or be primed in a late childhood or adolescence sweet spot when cognitive and physical abilities are sufficiently mature but before the full onset of the concerns and costs associated with reproduction. We evaluate the model against a series of archeological cases and make suggestions for future research. © 2018 The Authors Evolutionary Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The role of play objects and object play in human cognitive evolution and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Niels N.; Högberg, Anders; Nowell, April; Lombard, Marlize

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution, we address a major puzzle in the evolution of human material culture: If maturing individuals just learn their parental generation's material culture, then what is the origin of key innovations as documented in the archeological record? We approach this question by coupling a life‐history model of the costs and benefits of experimentation with a niche‐construction perspective. Niche‐construction theory suggests that the behavior of organisms and their modification of the world around them have important evolutionary ramifications by altering developmental settings and selection pressures. Part of Homo sapiens' niche is the active provisioning of children with play objects — sometimes functional miniatures of adult tools — and the encouragement of object play, such as playful knapping with stones. Our model suggests that salient material culture innovation may occur or be primed in a late childhood or adolescence sweet spot when cognitive and physical abilities are sufficiently mature but before the full onset of the concerns and costs associated with reproduction. We evaluate the model against a series of archeological cases and make suggestions for future research. PMID:29446561

  5. Drama and Role Playing in Teaching Practice: The Role of Group Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara

    2012-01-01

    The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…

  6. RECORDED-ROLE PLAY IN EFL CLASSROOM: A WAY OF MAXIMIZING STUDENTS‟ POTENTIAL IN SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krismiyati Krismiyati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English for non English Department students will be quite a challenge as the students have various background and interest. Handling those students in a big number in a class that requires them to speak is another impending challenge. This is an action research on role-play in English classroom for Information Technology students. This study tries to see whether recorded-role play could maximize students‘ potential in speaking. This study involved 30 students taking English course in Information Technology Faculty. The students were given a situation in which they had to act the role play. They drafted the role -play before they recorded it. The result shows that students felt less tense in acting the role. They also got more time to practice their pronunciation before recording. It even gave students who felt reluctant and shy in the class to actively participate. In addition, students could play around with the supporting background sound to show their creativity. Surprisingly, most students do their best to show their effort in their speaking as the end-product would be played in the classroom, even the most quiet students performed really well. Finally, this recorded-role play proved to be an effective way to maximize students‘ potential in speaking.

  7. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  8. Playful Interactions Stimulating Physical Activity in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Janienke; Bekker, Tilde; Vanden Abeele, Vero

    In this position paper we describe our vision on designing playful interactions to persuade people to be physically active in public spaces. Social embeddedness and playful interaction are the core elements of this vision. We illustrate how our design vision is incorporated into innovative concepts...... to motivate each other to be physically active by creating challenges for each other. Designing playful solutions for public spaces asks for low-threshold solutions that support easy stepping in and stepping out solutions....

  9. "Try Walking in Our Shoes": Teaching Acculturation and Related Cultural Adjustment Processes through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Tomaso, Cara C.; Audley, Shannon; Pole, Nnamdi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe several role-playing exercises on acculturation and relevant cultural adjustment processes that we incorporated into Tomcho and Foel's classroom activity on acculturation, and we report data that examine subsequent changes in students' responses on pretest and posttest measures shortly after the activity and present…

  10. Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Bermain Peran (Role Playing dalam Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Ekonomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hartati

    2012-06-01

    achievement was low. Apply Role playing learning method can fix the problem of low student achievement. The problems are ;(1could student acvities on role playing method increase student achievement?, (2How are student responses about role playing method?. The purposed are :(1to define student acvities on role playing method increase student achievement,(2to describe student responses about role playing method. This class action reaseacrh, use 2 cyclus. Each cyclus consist of planing, action, observation and reflection. Researcher found datas, consist of: student learning activity based on observation paper, post test result and questionnaire student responses at the last meeting. Cycles I result show activity of students at 57.82% mean of student achievement are 72 with classical achievement 68.18% and student responses hits 64.58% in the positive criteria. Cycles II result show activity of students at 78.9% mean of student achievement are 84 with classical achievement 95.45% and student responses hits 77.56% in the positive criteria. The conclusion are: (1 increasing of student activity has impact to add student achievement, (2 observation of class learning activity shown positive result. Suggestions relating to the results of this study are: (1 teachers can apply role playing to improve student achievement in case, teacher should present outline of materials. (2 students are advised to read a material to more actively explore the imagination and respond positively to the process of learning.

  11. MicroRNA-27b plays a role in pulmonary arterial hypertension by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ dependent Hsp90-eNOS signaling and nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Rui; Bao, Chunrong; Jiang, Lianyong; Liu, Hao; Yang, Yang; Mei, Ju; Ding, Fangbao, E-mail: dbcar126@126.com

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary artery endothelial dysfunction is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Based on recent studies showing that microRNA (miR)-27b is aberrantly expressed in PAH, we hypothesized that miR-27b may contribute to pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in PAH. The effect of miR-27b on pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and the underlying mechanism were investigated in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) in vitro and in a monocrotaline (MCT)-induced model of PAH in vivo. miR-27b expression was upregulated in MCT-induced PAH and inversely correlated with the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and miR-27b inhibition attenuated MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and remodeling and prevented PAH associated right ventricular hypertrophy and systolic pressure in rats. PPARγ was confirmed as a direct target of miR-27b in HPAECs and shown to mediate the effect of miR-27b on the disruption of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling to Hsp90 and the suppression of NO production associated with the PAH phenotype. We showed that miR-27b plays a role endothelial function and NO release and elucidated a potential mechanism by which miR-27b regulates Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling by modulating PPARγ expression, providing potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of PAH. - Highlights: • miR-27b plays a role in endothelial function and NO release. • miR-27b inhibition ameliorates MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and PAH. • miR-27b targets PPARγ in HPAECs. • miR-27b regulates PPARγ dependent Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling.

  12. Energy expenditure while playing active and inactive video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Woodruff, Sarah J; Manske, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    To examine energy expenditure (EE) when playing active and inactive videogames (VG). Predicted EE was measured among 51 undergraduate students while playing active and inactive VG (Ontario, Canada). Predicted EE was significantly higher playing the active VG compared to the inactive VG according to heart rate monitor (97.4 kcal vs 64.7 kcal) and SenseWear armband (192.4 kcal vs 42.3 kcal) estimates. Active VG may be a viable intervention tool for increasing EE among students who would otherwise be spending time in sedentary screen-based behaviors.

  13. PDGFRα plays a crucial role in connective tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Shinjiro; Ishii, Yoko; Hamashima, Takeru; Yamamoto, Seiji; Mori, Hisashi; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Shen, Jie; Inoue, Ran; Nishizono, Hirofumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Majima, Masataka; Abraham, David; Miyawaki, Toshio; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2015-12-07

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a pivotal role in the remodeling of connective tissues. Emerging data indicate the distinctive role of PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα) in this process. In the present study, the Pdgfra gene was systemically inactivated in adult mouse (α-KO mouse), and the role of PDGFRα was examined in the subcutaneously implanted sponge matrices. PDGFRα expressed in the fibroblasts of Pdgfra-preserving control mice (Flox mice), was significantly reduced in the sponges in α-KO mice. Neovascularized areas were largely suppressed in the α-KO mice than in the Flox mice, whereas the other parameters related to the blood vessels and endothelial cells were similar. The deposition of collagen and fibronectin and the expression of collagen 1a1 and 3a1 genes were significantly reduced in α-KO mice. There was a significantly decrease in the number and dividing fibroblasts in the α-KO mice, and those of macrophages were similar between the two genotypes. Hepatocyte growth factor (Hgf) gene expression was suppressed in Pdgfra-inactivated fibroblasts and connective tissue. The findings implicate the role of PDGFRα-dependent ECM and HGF production in fibroblasts that promotes the remodeling of connective tissue and suggest that PDGFRα may be a relevant target to regulate connective tissue remodeling.

  14. How Does the Use of Role-Play Affect the Learning of Year 4 Children in a Predominately EAL Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Katrina; Mistry, Malini Tina

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates role-play activities and how they can be used within learning for English as an Additional Language (EAL) pupils in a Key Stage 2 setting in England. Through observations, results showed effective role-play activities can be beneficial to EAL pupils, allowing them to practice words and phrases in a relaxed atmosphere…

  15. The implementation of role play in education of pre-service vocational teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, L.; Pardjono, P.

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to: 1) explain the enhancement of students’ understanding about models of learning through role-play approach, and 2) find out the students’ response to the implementation of role-playing. Role-play is a technique that allows students to explore realistic situations by interacting with other people in a managed way in order to develop experience and trial different strategies in a supported environment. This is a Classroom Action Research consisting 2 cycles, held in the Apparel Pre-service Teacher Education Programs, Universitas Negeri Surabaya in 2016, in the subject of Teaching and Learning Strategy. The number of research subject is 54 students. Data collected by giving test and questionnaire. The data analyzed by descriptive analysis. The result states that:1) Role-play succeeds to improve student understanding of learning models; 2) The student’s’ response shows that the role-play is an exciting activity, provide an opportunity for students to be creative, and easy to be applied. Role-play has flexibility for implemented at the university level, accelerates the student’s understanding of learning materials, trains the students’ independence, responsibility, awareness to others as important provisions to become a teacher.

  16. The role of play themes in non-directive play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Virginia; Edge, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    Describing the processes underlying play therapy is important for evidence based practice in child therapy. Employing play themes to describe children's play session contents is in widespread use by practitioners, but an adequate classification of these themes for non-directive play therapy practice has not yet been established. This article sets out to fill this gap by first describing how themes can be distinguished and distilled from the contents of play therapy contents. Second, a classification of main themes and sub-themes with exemplars to illustrate these concepts which is compatible with non-directive play therapy practice is set out. Finally a pilot project with experienced play therapists to test this classification in practice is suggested, along with the research questions that will need to be investigated in the shorter and longer terms.

  17. Does genomic imprinting play a role in autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Cristina; Monk, David

    2011-01-01

    In the 19th century Gregor Mendel defined the laws of genetic inheritance by crossing different types of peas. From these results arose his principle of equivalence: the gene will have the same behaviour whether it is inherited from the mother or the father. Today, several key exceptions to this principle are known, for example sex-linked traits and genes in the mitochondrial genome, whose inheritance patterns are referred to as 'non mendelian'. A third, important exception in mammals is that of genomic imprinting, where transcripts are expressed in a monoallelic fashion from only the maternal or the paternal chromosome. In this chapter, we discuss how parent-of-origin effects and genomic imprinting may play a role in autoimmunity and speculate how imprinted miRNAs may influence the expression of many target autoimmune associated genes.

  18. Galactic Winds and the Role Played by Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy M.; Thompson, Todd A.

    Galactic winds from star-forming galaxies play at key role in the evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium. They transport metals out of galaxies, chemically enriching the intergalactic medium and modifying the chemical evolution of galaxies. They affect the surrounding interstellar and circumgalactic media, thereby influencing the growth of galaxies though gas accretion and star formation. In this contribution we first summarize the physical mechanisms by which the momentum and energy output from a population of massive stars and associated supernovae can drive galactic winds. We use the prototypical example of M 82 to illustrate the multiphase nature of galactic winds. We then describe how the basic properties of galactic winds are derived from the data, and summarize how the properties of galactic winds vary systematically with the properties of the galaxies that launch them. We conclude with a brief discussion of the broad implications of galactic winds.

  19. [Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Andreozzi, Paola; Chiriac, Iulia Maria; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vulcano, Achiropita; Servello, Adriana; Marigliano, Benedetta; Marigliano, Vincenzo

    2011-06-01

    Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?Depression is the most common comorbidity in the elderly, and it is a major determinant of disability. The late-onset depression in highly associated to cardiovascular disease. Depressive symptoms may follow vascular brain damage, especially when mood regulating areas are affected. However depression is strongly associated to vascular disease even when there is no manifest brain damage. Recently great attention has been given to chronic inflammation, both related to depression and vascular disease. Both experimental and clinical evidence shows that a rise in the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids in depressed patients is associated with defect in serotonergic function. Chronic inflammation may underlie many forms of depression associated with vascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The importance of the inflammation hypothesis of depression lies is that psychotropic drugs may have central anti-inflammatory action, and that new generation of central anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful in depression treatment.

  20. BAP1 PLAYS A SURVIVAL ROLE IN CUTANEOUS MELANOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny Ching-Ni; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie Tompers; Tsao, Hensin

    2014-01-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous/ocular melanoma (CM/OM) predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of cutaneous melanoma is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in cutaneous melanoma and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared to nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony forming capability, induced apoptosis and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may play a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology which is context and cell dependent. PMID:25521456

  1. Doublecortin May Play a Role in Defining Chondrocyte Phenotype

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    Dongxia Ge

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development of articular cartilage has not been well understood and the role of doublecortin (DCX in determination of chondrocyte phenotype is unknown. Here, we use a DCX promoter-driven eGFP reporter mouse model to study the dynamic gene expression profiles in mouse embryonic handplates at E12.5 to E13.5 when the condensed mesenchymal cells differentiate into either endochondral chondrocytes or joint interzone cells. Illumina microarray analysis identified a variety of genes that were expressed differentially in the different regions of mouse handplate. The unique expression patterns of many genes were revealed. Cytl1 and 3110032G18RIK were highly expressed in the proximal region of E12.5 handplate and the carpal region of E13.5 handplate, whereas Olfr538, Kctd15, and Cited1 were highly expressed in the distal region of E12.5 and the metacarpal region of E13.5 handplates. There was an increasing gradient of Hrc expression in the proximal to distal direction in E13.5 handplate. Furthermore, when human DCX protein was expressed in human adipose stem cells, collagen II was decreased while aggrecan, matrilin 2, and GDF5 were increased during the 14-day pellet culture. These findings suggest that DCX may play a role in defining chondrocyte phenotype.

  2. Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T; Priebe, MG; Harmsen, HJM; Stellaard, F; Sun, XH; Welling, GW; Vonk, RJ

    The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28

  3. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  4. Exploring Game Experiences and Game Leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, YeiBeech; Ryu, SeoungHo

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the in-game experiences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players focusing on game leadership and offline leadership. MMORPGs have enormous potential to provide gameplayers with rich social experiences through various interactions along with social activities such as joining a game community, team play…

  5. Children's Engagement in Play at Home: A Parent's Role in Supporting Play Opportunities during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForett, Doré R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parents' developmentally appropriate beliefs about young children's play and parents' views on their child's play skills. This exploratory secondary data analysis was drawn from data on low-income African-American and Latino parents and their children (n = 109) participating in Head Start programmes in the USA. Compared with…

  6. Biorhythms in the activity of children during free play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, M G; Ellis, M J; Bohrer, R E

    1973-07-01

    The interaction between the arousal to action of environmental stimuli and recovery from that activity was presumed to generate biorhythms in the activity level of children. The level of environmental stimuli was manipulated by varying the play-group size and the apparatus, and higher environmental complexity was expected to produce more pronounced rhythms. The heart rates of 16 subjects playing in monad, dyad, and tetrad group sizes, in two playroom configurations, were monitored and spectral analysis used to locate significant biorhythms. There was a tendency toward 40-min (slow frequency) and 15-min (fast frequency) biorhythms. The group size manipulation produced the strongest biorhythmic behavior in the dyadic groups. Apparatus differences were not significant but the configuration containing a minimum quantity of play apparatus produced more variable activity than the configuration containing a large amount of play apparatus.

  7. Biorhythms in the activity of children during free play1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, M. G.; Ellis, M. J.; Bohrer, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The interaction between the arousal to action of environmental stimuli and recovery from that activity was presumed to generate biorhythms in the activity level of children. The level of environmental stimuli was manipulated by varying the play-group size and the apparatus, and higher environmental complexity was expected to produce more pronounced rhythms. The heart rates of 16 subjects playing in monad, dyad, and tetrad group sizes, in two playroom configurations, were monitored and spectral analysis used to locate significant biorhythms. There was a tendency toward 40-min (slow frequency) and 15-min (fast frequency) biorhythms. The group size manipulation produced the strongest biorhythmic behavior in the dyadic groups. Apparatus differences were not significant but the configuration containing a minimum quantity of play apparatus produced more variable activity than the configuration containing a large amount of play apparatus. PMID:4714575

  8. Using Online Role-Play to Promote Collaborative Argument and Collective Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance; Beach, Richard; Boeser, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how students use online role-play to collaborate and change real school policy. Playing different characters in an online role-play, students explore controversial aspects of Internet filtering and adopt a plan to change their school's policy. Through engaging in collaborative argumentation during their role-play, students…

  9. Playing active video games increases energy expenditure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Diana L; Pratt, Lauren V; Hester, Casey N; Short, Kevin R

    2009-08-01

    To compare energy expenditure rates in children playing the physically active video games, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) and Nintendo's Wii Sports in relation to treadmill walking. Energy expenditure, heart rate, step rate, and perceived exertion were measured in 14 boys and 9 girls (ages 10-13 years; BMI at 3-98th percentile for age and gender) while watching television at rest, playing DDR at 2 skill levels, playing Wii bowling and boxing, and walking at 2.6, 4.2, and 5.7 km/h. Arterial elasticity was measured at rest and immediately after gaming. Compared with watching television, energy expenditure while gaming or walking increased 2- to 3-fold. Similarly, high rates of energy expenditure, heart rate, and perceived exertion were elicited from playing Wii boxing, DDR level 2, or walking at 5.7 km/h. This occurred despite variations in step rate among activities, reflecting greater use of upper body during Wii play (lowest step rate) than during walking (highest step rate) or DDR play. Wii bowling and beginner level DDR elicited a 2-fold increase in energy expenditure compared to television watching. Large-artery elasticity declined immediately after both DDR and Wii. The change was inversely related to the increment in energy expenditure above rest achieved during the activity. Energy expenditure during active video game play is comparable to moderate-intensity walking. Thus, for children who spend considerable time playing electronic screen games for entertainment, physically active games seem to be a safe, fun, and valuable means of promoting energy expenditure.

  10. Copy number variation plays an important role in clinical epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917

  11. Sex Differences in Depression: Does Inflammation Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Heather M; Padin, Avelina C; Kuo, Jennifer L; Hughes, Spenser; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-10-01

    Women become depressed more frequently than men, a consistent pattern across cultures. Inflammation plays a key role in initiating depression among a subset of individuals, and depression also has inflammatory consequences. Notably, women experience higher levels of inflammation and greater autoimmune disease risk compared to men. In the current review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and depression and describe how this link may be particularly relevant for women. Compared to men, women may be more vulnerable to inflammation-induced mood and behavior changes. For example, transient elevations in inflammation prompt greater feelings of loneliness and social disconnection for women than for men, which can contribute to the onset of depression. Women also appear to be disproportionately affected by several factors that elevate inflammation, including prior depression, somatic symptomatology, interpersonal stressors, childhood adversity, obesity, and physical inactivity. Relationship distress and obesity, both of which elevate depression risk, are also more strongly tied to inflammation for women than for men. Taken together, these findings suggest that women's susceptibility to inflammation and its mood effects may contribute to sex differences in depression. Depression continues to be a leading cause of disability worldwide, with women experiencing greater risk than men. Due to the depression-inflammation connection, these patterns may promote additional health risks for women. Considering the impact of inflammation on women's mental health may foster a better understanding of sex differences in depression, as well as the selection of effective depression treatments.

  12. Ludic role of religious rituals. The use of play for religious ceremony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocan Tudor Cosmin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper was made as part of a wider research I made about rituals and their meaning and roles they are playing in the religious system of thinking. The way they are thought, displayed, precisely followed as instructed and believed, makes them a powerful social act that has been always provided by any religion, and also a tool for religion to make the human society what it is today. After I speak about what is a ritual and its religious content in general, I am enumerating roles and functions of play and theatre in particular have, both for profane and religious purpose. Do we still use play/games as adults because they are rewarding, they give us pleasure? They are used as means of relaxation, or for continuing the age of childhood; or it is in our nature to play games in everything we do? In this paper I have emphasized play as adaptive potentiation or adaptive variability useful both in therapy, as in religious ceremony. The relation and comparison of rituals with play is due to the fact that playing is the most engaging behavior performed by man and animals, and it can be found as foundation of almost any ritualist activity.

  13. Where do the children play? The influence of playground equipment on physical activity of children in free play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Thomas A; Meriwether, Rebecca A; Baker, Erin T; Rice, Janet C; Webber, Larry S

    2008-03-01

    Promotion of physical activity in children depends on an understanding of how children use play equipment. We conducted observations over 2 years of children in 2nd through 8th grades in a schoolyard with 5 distinct play areas with different amounts of play equipment. Children were more likely to play in areas with more installed play equipment, with densities of children in equipped areas 3.3 to 12.6 times higher than in an open grassy field. There were no significant differences by play area in the percent of children who were physically active at all, but children were more likely to be very active in areas with basketball goals and an installed play structure than in an open field. Playground equipment appeared to have a strong influence on where children played and a moderate influence on levels of activity. To maximize physical activity in children, playgrounds should be designed with ample and diverse play equipment.

  14. Could Lipoprotein Lipase Play a Role in Alzheimer's Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Blain

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent literature on the role of lipoprotein lipase in the central nervous system with a focus on its recently described role in synaptic remodeling. This novel role could have implication for Alzheimer's disease treatment.

  15. ROL-PLAYING AND GENDER ROLES JUEGOS DE ROL Y ROLES DE GÉNERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Carbó García

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role playing games evolution from the Gender perspective. The authors analyze the evolution of the role playing games and the progressive incorporation of women to this form of games.El artículo analiza la evolución de los juegos de rol desde la perspectiva de los estudios de género. Los autores analizan la evolución de los juegos de rol y la incorporación progresiva de las mujeres a esta forma de ocio.

  16. Melatonin plays a protective role in postburn rodent gut pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghoul, Walid M; Abu-Shaqra, Steven; Park, Byeong Gyu; Fazal, Nadeem

    2010-05-17

    Melatonin is a possible protective agent in postburn gut pathophysiological dynamics. We investigated the role of endogenously-produced versus exogenously-administered melatonin in a major thermal injury rat model with well-characterized gut inflammatory complications. Our rationale is that understanding in vivo melatonin mechanisms in control and inflamed tissues will improve our understanding of its potential as a safe anti-inflammatory/antioxidant therapeutic alternative. Towards this end, we tested the hypothesis that the gut is both a source and a target for melatonin and that mesenteric melatonin plays an anti-inflammatory role following major thermal injury in rats with 3rd degree hot water scald over 30% TBSA. Our methods for assessing the gut as a source of melatonin included plasma melatonin ELISA measurements in systemic and mesenteric circulation as well as rtPCR measurement of jejunum and terminal ileum expression of the melatonin synthesizing enzymes arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in sham versus day-3 postburn rats. Our melatonin ELISA results revealed that mesenteric circulation has much higher melatonin than systemic circulation and that both mesenteric and systemic melatonin levels are increased three days following major thermal injury. Our rtPCR results complemented the ELISA data in showing that the melatonin synthesizing enzymes AA-NAT and HIOMT are expressed in the ileum and jejunum and that this expression is increased three days following major thermal injury. Interestingly, the rtPCR data also revealed negative feedback by melatonin as exogenous melatonin supplementation at a dose of 7.43 mg (32 micromole/kg), but not 1.86 mg/kg (8 micromole/kg) drastically suppressed AA-NAT mRNA expression. Our methods also included an assessment of the gut as a target for melatonin utilizing computerized immunohistochemical measurements to quantify the effects of exogenous melatonin

  17. THE ROLE PLAY AND THE CHILD WITH AUTISM IN THE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the play of make-believe for children with autism, focusing on the symbolic resources it uses in asserting roles. It is based on the theoretical contributions of the historical-cultural perspective, with Vygotsky as its main exponent. The research was carried out in a public school of Early Childhood Education, in Brasília. From the microgenetic analysis, the research had six children diagnosed with autism, at the ages of 4 and 6 years, included in Special Class, as participants. The play situations were videotaped and later transcribed in episode format. In the data analysis, we identified two axes, namely: 1 The construction of the role play and; 2 Assumption of roles by the child with autism: set design and imagery resources. The results reveal the role of the other (intentional participation in the constitution of play activity, especially the role of the adult. In addition, they demonstrate that pedagogical mediation, including the creation of 'scenarios', is fundamental for the extension of the symbolic experience of the child with autism.

  18. Pragmatic evaluation of the Go2Play Active Play intervention on physical activity and fundamental movement skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Avril; Hughes, Adrienne R; Janssen, Xanne; Reilly, John J

    2017-09-01

    Active play is a novel approach to addressing low physical activity levels and fundamental movement skills (FMS) in children. This study aimed to determine if a new school-based, 'Go2Play Active Play' intervention improved school day physical activity and FMS. This was a pragmatic evaluation conducted in Scotland during 2015-16. Participants ( n  = 172; mean age = 7 years) were recruited from seven primary schools taking part in the 5-month intervention, plus 24 participants not receiving the intervention were recruited to act as a comparison group.189 participants had physical activity measured using an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer at baseline and again at follow-up 5 months later. A sub-sample of participants from the intervention ( n  = 102) and comparison ( n  = 21) groups had their FMS assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) at baseline and follow-up. Changes in school day physical activity and FMS variables were examined using repeated measures ANOVA. The main effect was 'group' on 'time' from baseline to follow-up. Results indicated there was a significant interaction for mean counts per minute and percent time in sedentary behavior, light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (all p  skills score and percentile (both p  = 0.02), but no significant interaction for object control skills score ( p  = 0.1) and percentile ( p  = 0.3). The Go2Play Active Play intervention may be a promising way of improving physical activity and FMS but this needs to be confirmed in an RCT.

  19. Physical Activity Pattern of Malaysian Preschoolers: Environment, Barriers, and Motivators for Active Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs. © 2016 APJPH.

  20. INTERVALS OF ACTIVE PLAY AND BREAK IN BASKETBALL GAMES

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    Pavle Rubin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the research comes from the need for decomposition of a basketball game. The aim was to determine the intervals of active game (“live ball” - term defined by rules and break (“dead ball” - term defined by rules, by analyzing basketball games. In order to obtain the relevant information, basketball games from five different competitions (top level of quality were analyzed. The sample consists of seven games played in the 2006/2007 season: NCAA Play - Off Final game, Adriatic League finals, ULEB Cup final game, Euroleague (2 games and the NBA league (2 games. The most important information gained by this research is that the average interval of active play lasts approximately 47 seconds, while the average break interval lasts approximately 57 seconds. This information is significant for coaches and should be used in planning the training process.

  1. Playful persuasion to support older adults’ social and physical activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero Herrera, N.A.; Sturm, Janienke; Bekker, M.M.; Valk, de L.C.T.; Kruitwagen, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a case study in which we examine how to develop playful persuasive solutions to motivate older adults to maintain or increase their social and physical activities. By including various stakeholders (older adults, family, and care givers) and by designing for transitions in

  2. Engagement, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2014-02-01

    Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Young adults aged 18-35 (N = 97, 50 female) game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterward. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, χ(2)(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Assessing Women's Responses to Sexual Threat: Validity of a Virtual Role-Play Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of a role-play procedure that uses virtual reality technology to assess women's responses to sexual threat. Forty-eight female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a standard, face-to-face role-play (RP) or a virtual role-play (VRP) of a sexually coercive situation. A multimethod assessment…

  4. "The Learning Sticks": Reflections on a Case Study of Role-Playing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sue; Thomas, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Use of role-plays to develop deep student-learning has many advocates. Role-play is a powerful approach for learning that develops relevant skills in a range of disciplines and situations. In Higher Education, sustainability programmes role-play pedagogy appears to have great relevance for developing the competencies that these graduates will…

  5. Predicting The Outcome of Marketing Negotiations: Role-Playing versus Unaided Opinions

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong; Philip D. Hutcherson

    2005-01-01

    Role -playing and unaided opinions were used to forecast the outcome of three negotiations. Consistent with prior re search, role-playing yielded more accurate predictions. In two studies on marketing negotiations, the predictions based on role-playing were correct for 53% of the predictions while unaided opinions were correct for only 7% (p

  6. Using Role-Play for Expert Science Communication with Professional Stakeholders in Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Lindsey; Stokes, Alison; Crowley, Kate; Roberts, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores role-play pedagogies in learning and communicating about cutting-edge flood science by flood risk management professionals in local government. It outlines role-play process/structure and evaluates participant perceptions of their learning experiences. Issues were impacts of prior role-play experience on attitudes brought to…

  7. Heroes of Resiliency and Reciprocity: Teachers' Supporting Role for Reconceptualizing Superhero Play in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathleen I.

    2016-01-01

    Superhero play is a specialised form of fantasy play with considerable appeal to young children. During superhero play, children have opportunities to pretend and often to play different types of roles within a safe and caring environment. When guided appropriately in an early childhood classroom, superhero play gives young children opportunities…

  8. Metabolism plays the key roles in Th cells differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hosseinzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing rate of autoimmunity in recent decades cannot be related to only genetic instabilities and disorders. Diet can directly influence our health. Studies have shown that there is a relationship between nutritional elements and alteration in the immune system. Among immune cells, the function of T lymphocyte is important in directing immune response. T CD4+ cells lead other immune cells to respond to pathogens by secreting cytokines. HIV+ patients, who have largely lost their T CD4+ cells, are susceptible to opportunistic infections, which do not normally affect healthy people. It seems that the metabolism of T cells is critical for their differentiation and their consequent functions. After activation, T cells need to undergo clonal expansion, which is a high energy- consuming process. Studies have shown that specific metabolites deprivation or their excess supply affects T CD4+cells subsets differentiation. Abnormal induction of subsets of T CD4+ cells causes some autoimmunity reactions and hyper-sensitivity as well, which may result from imbalance of diet uptake. In this mini-review, we describe the findings about fatty acids, glucose, amino acids, and vitamins, which are effective in determining the fates of T CD4+ cells. These findings may help us uncover the role of diet in autoimmune diseases.

  9. Paraflocculus plays a role in salicylate-induced tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yali; Liu, Junxiu; Jiang, Qin; Duan, Qingchuan; Mao, Lanqun; Ma, Furong

    2017-09-01

    Tinnitus impairs quality of life of about 1-2% of the whole population. In most severe situation, tinnitus may cause social isolation, depression and suicide. Drug treatments for tinnitus are generally ineffective, and the mechanisms of tinnitus are still undetermined. Accumulating evidence suggests that tinnitus is related to changes of widespread brain networks. Recent studies propose that paraflocculus (PFL), which is indirectly connected to various cortical regions, may be a gating zone of tinnitus. So we examined the electrophysiological changes and neurotransmitter alterations of the PFL in a rat model of sodium salicylate (SS)-induced tinnitus. We found that spontaneous firing rate (SFR) of the putative excitatory interneurons of the PFL was significantly increased. The level of glutamic acid, which is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, was also dramatically increased in the PFL after SS treatment. These results confirmed the hyperactivity of PFL in the rats with SS-treatment, which might be due to the increased glutamic acid. Then we examined the SFR of the auditory cortex (AC), the center for auditory perception, before and after electrical stimulation of the PFL. 71.4% (105/147) of the recorded neurons showed a response to the stimulation of the PFL. The result demonstrated that stimulation of the PFL could modulate the activity of the AC. Our study suggests a role of PFL in SS-induced tinnitus and AC as a potential target of PFL in the process of tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The importance and possibilities of role playing on children surgery classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goremykin I.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the first experience in the implementation into the pedagogical process of one of the methods of active training — role playing. The need for intensification of medical education process is linked primarily to the rapid increase in the volume required to provide students with information and the lack of training time. The analysis showed that the game significantly increases the level of students' knowledge, but require substantial modernization of the educational process.

  11. Modified Active Videogame Play Results in Moderate-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monedero, Javier; McDonnell, Adam C; Keoghan, Melissa; O'Gorman, Donal J

    2014-08-01

    Large proportions of the population do not meet current American College of Sports Medicine physical activity recommendations, and innovative approaches are required. Most active videogames do not require a significant amount of energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to determine if modifying an active videogame increased exercise intensity to meet current physical activity recommendations. After completing a maximal oxygen uptake test, participants did a familiarization session on a separate day. Thirteen healthy participants 24.2±3.4 years of age played (1) a sedentary videogame, (2) an active videogame, and (3) a modified active videogame designed to increase physical activity for 46 minutes in a randomized order on separate days. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, heart rate reserve, percentage of maximal heart rate, metabolic equivalents of task, and energy expenditure were significantly higher during the modified active videogame trial than during the active videogame or sedentary videogame trials and also between the active videogame and sedentary videogame. A simple modification to an existing active videogame was sufficient to reach moderate exercise intensity. Active videogames could provide an important option for increasing daily physical activity and reducing sedentary time.

  12. Trancending the classrom: A practical guide to remote role plays in teaching international negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the pedagogical value of using remote role plays in cross-cultural negotiations between two classes taught simultaneously at different and geographically distant institutions. We argue that remote role-play simulations provide valuable teaching and learning experiences...... of some critical limitations of “traditional” in-class role plays, followed by a practical guide to remote role plays and a report of our experiences with them. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of remote role plays as a teaching tool for international negotiation classes and the key...

  13. Could borate have played a role in the RNA World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, E. S.; Bada, J. L.; Hazen, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Two scenarios have been proposed for boron to play a critical role in the stabilization of ribose and other sugars in the ribonucleic acid (RNA) World, >3.8 Ga ago. One scenario envisages oligomeric RNA being synthesized in subaerial intermountane desert valleys in which groundwater was enriched in borate from breakdown of tourmaline (Benner et al. 2012 doi: 10.1021/ar200332w). In the alternative scenario, borates are enriched in hydrothermal environments (3.8 Ma as they are today and (2) plate tectonics was the prevailing regime. The postulated non-marine borate deposits would have been associated with continental collision and subduction with volcanism releasing B, whereas in the second scenario, ocean floor caught up in an early phase of subduction is considered a favorable site for borate formation. Because borate deposits are typically ephemeral and poorly preserved, the lack of evidence in the geologic record for these scenarios does not invalidate them. For example, the oldest reported non-marine borate deposits analogous to the type postulated in first scenario are only 20 Ma, but metamorphosed borates of Precambrian age have been interpreted to have non-marine evaporite precursors, the oldest being 2.4-2.1 Ga in the Liaoning-Jilin area, China. The first B minerals so far reported in the geologic record are metamorphic dravite-schorl tourmalines in the 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua supracrustal belt (southern West Greenland), where there is good evidence for seafloor spreading and subduction. The precursors to the Isua tourmalines are reported to include B-bearing marine clay minerals and detrital tourmaline. The relatively high Li contents in zircon from Jack Hills, Australia, have been cited as evidence for the presence of granitic (s. l.) "protocontinental" crust by 4.3 Ga (Ushikuba et al. 2008 doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.05.032; Valley et al. 2010 Rec Geol Surv W Aust, 5-7), but the existence of conventional plate tectonics prior to 3.8 Ga remains controversial

  14. Game-playing in interdisciplinary design and planning teams : A role-play simulation as a learning method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruil, A.W.; Van der Toorn Vrijthoff, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present our experiences in setting up and fulfilling a role-play simulation in an academic context. This simulation was set up for the first time in February 2010 to teach 260 students in their final semester in the Bachelor, the bachelor 6, of the Faculty of Architecture how to

  15. Playing in "Trelis Weyr": Investigating Collaborative Practices in a "Dragons of Pern" Role-Play-Game Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined adolescents' and emerging adults' literate and social practices within the context of a role-play-game (RPG) forum, investigating the ways participants read and collaboratively composed within this space. As a researcher, I was interested in how this space functioned and how the interactions between…

  16. On-line role-play as a teaching method in engineering studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Cobo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose to adapt the role-play teaching methodology to engineering studies, trying to overcome obstacles like its exclusive association with fantasy games or its demand of social skills. We have chosen the role of a maintenance technician, a relevant job profile for engineering graduates. The interaction is based on email exchange, and the instructor is included in the simulation to guide the activity development and the achievement of the learning objectives. In this paper, our experience with this methodology, its implementation, results and student feedback are presented.

  17. Playing educational activities as a condition of cooperation skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilova A. P.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article made an analysis of the training playing activity from the point of view of its influence on the development of collaboration skills among the participants of game sessions, spelled out the conditions for achieving this goal and the necessary ingredients for the organization of effective interpersonal interaction in the process of learning game, based on the rules and ethical norms that do not allow to manipulate and interact correctly.

  18. Motivations to play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: evidence from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetta Dauriat, Francesca; Zermatten, Ariane; Billieux, Joël; Thorens, Gabriel; Bondolfi, Guido; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have linked massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with possible problematic usage or internet addiction. The main goal of the present study was to assess links between motivations to play in MMORPGs and addictive involvement in such types of games. A total of 696 gamers responded to an online survey. Five distinct motivations to play were identified in gamers: achievement, socializing, immersion, relaxing and escaping. Multiple regression analysis revealed that addictive MMORPG use patterns are predicted by achievement, escapism and socializing motives. Gender was also a significant predictor of problematic involvement in MMORPGs. Moreover, addictive MMORPG use positively correlated with the weekly time devoted to playing MMORPGs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Interdisciplinary Design Studio Education: Place through the activity of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatos Adiloglu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the activity of play in design education among university students with interdisciplinary background. The study subscribes to social theories of learning and takes into account an international summer school which brought visual communication design and architecture students and instructors together at the intersection of design in Istanbul asking such questions: How can student learning activity in design education are fostered? How can studio experience be formulated to cultivate the understanding of place? In this study the international group acted as a learning community. Istanbul served at her best offering her potential for making connections through exploration and discovery. The paper casts student tasks formulated as playful graphic expression and reflects student statements, unfolding connections made across filters of space, time and movement in the working process of visual design studio. The particular design studio experiences uncover how students reconstructed their own texts. The study as a result releases the fact that one might best come to know a place through the activity of play and this kind of knowing is one that constantly evolving.

  20. Brain activity and desire for Internet video game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue-induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for Internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those that have been linked with craving for drugs or pathologic gambling. This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 19 healthy male adults (age, 18-23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel Internet video game, "War Rock" (K2 Network, Irvine, CA). Using segments of videotape consisting of 5 contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control, and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a 7-point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. In responding to Internet video game stimuli, compared with neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (false discovery rate Internet video game showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal precentral gyrus, right parietal postcentral gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the Internet video game in the subjects who played more Internet video game was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to Internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathologic gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal

  1. Do quarks play an explicit role as nuclear constituents ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1986-10-01

    Experimental signatures for explicit roles of quarks as nuclear constituents are looked for. It is stressed that hyperons in nuclei may reveal unique information on nuclear interior and possible quark deconfinement. Future directions of hypernuclear spectroscopy are discussed. (author)

  2. Pragmatic evaluation of the Go2Play Active Play intervention on physical activity and fundamental movement skills in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Johnstone

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Active play is a novel approach to addressing low physical activity levels and fundamental movement skills (FMS in children. This study aimed to determine if a new school-based, ‘Go2Play Active Play’ intervention improved school day physical activity and FMS. This was a pragmatic evaluation conducted in Scotland during 2015–16. Participants (n = 172; mean age = 7 years were recruited from seven primary schools taking part in the 5-month intervention, plus 24 participants not receiving the intervention were recruited to act as a comparison group.189 participants had physical activity measured using an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer at baseline and again at follow-up 5 months later. A sub-sample of participants from the intervention (n = 102 and comparison (n = 21 groups had their FMS assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 at baseline and follow-up. Changes in school day physical activity and FMS variables were examined using repeated measures ANOVA. The main effect was ‘group’ on ‘time’ from baseline to follow-up. Results indicated there was a significant interaction for mean counts per minute and percent time in sedentary behavior, light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA (all p < 0.01 for school day physical activity. There was a significant interaction for gross motor quotient (GMQ score (p = 0.02 and percentile (p = 0.04, locomotor skills score and percentile (both p = 0.02, but no significant interaction for object control skills score (p = 0.1 and percentile (p = 0.3. The Go2Play Active Play intervention may be a promising way of improving physical activity and FMS but this needs to be confirmed in an RCT.

  3. Facebook Role Play Addiction - A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive-Impulsive Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study.

  4. Facebook Role Play Addiction – A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive–Impulsive Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study. PMID:27156380

  5. The Role of Structural Characteristics in Problematic Video Game Play: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The research literature suggests that the structural characteristics of video games may play a considerable role in the initiation, development and maintenance of problematic video game playing. The present study investigated the role of structural characteristics in video game playing behaviour within a sample of 421 video game players aged…

  6. Beyond self-selection in video game play: an experimental examination of the consequences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M

    2007-10-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of video games. Existing work is limited by the use of correlational designs and is thus unable to make causal inferences or remove self-selection biases from observed results. The recent development of online, socially integrated video games (massively multiplayer online role-playing games [MMORPGs]) has created a new experience for gamers. This randomized, longitudinal study examined the effects of being assigned to play different video game types on game usage, health, well-being, sleep, socializing, and academics. One hundred 18- to 20-year-old participants (73% male; 68% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to play arcade, console, solo computer, or MMORPG games for 1 month. The MMORPG group differed significantly from other groups after 1 month, reporting more hours spent playing, worse health, worse sleep quality, and greater interference in "real-life" socializing and academic work. In contrast, this group also reported greater enjoyment in playing, greater interest in continuing to play, and greater acquisition of new friendships. MMORPGs represent a different gaming experience with different consequences than other types of video games and appear to pose both unique risks and benefits from their use.

  7. The differences in physical activity levels in preschool children during free play recess and structured play recess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Frank

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Physical activity (PA is important in reducing childhood obesity, yet a majority of children are not meeting PA guidelines. Schools have been identified as a place to promote childhood PA. The purpose of this study was to determine the best type of physically active recess period to increase preschool-aged children's PA. Methods: PA was measured via accelerometers in preschool-aged children (n = 29 during three, 30-min recess conditions (control; structured play; free play on separate school days. Tertile splits were performed based on PA during the free play condition and children were divided into three groups: highly, moderately and least active. Results: For the aggregated sample, children were more (p ≤ 0.001 active during the free play (1282 ± 662 counts. min−1 and structured play (1416 ± 448 counts. min−1 recess versus the control condition (570 ± 460 counts. min−1 and activity was not different between the free play and structured conditions. However, children who were the most active during free play (1970 ± 647 counts·min−1 decreased (p ≤ 0.05 activity during structured play (1462 ± 535 counts·min−1, whereas children who were moderately active (1031 ± 112 counts·min−1 or the least (530 ± 239 counts·min−1 active during free play increased activity during structured play (1383 ± 345 counts·min−1 moderately active, 1313 ± 413 counts·min−1 least active. Conclusion: Providing a physically-active recess period will contribute to preschool-aged children meeting the recommended PA guidelines; however, different children may respond in a different way based upon the structure of the recess period.

  8. Some personal notes on role plays as an excellent teaching tool : commentary on "using and developing role plays in teaching aimed at preparing for social responsibility".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Iris

    2013-12-01

    Role plays are extremely valuable tools to address different aspects of teaching social responsibility, because they allow students to "live through" complex ethical decision making dilemmas. While role plays are getting high marks from students because their entertainment value is high, their educational value depends on their closeness to students' work experience and the skills of the teacher in helping students comprehend the lessons they are meant to convey.

  9. Benzodiazepines still play a role in modern psychiatric therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Videbech, Poul; Osler, Merete

    2017-01-01

    , and that BZ cause traffic accidents, increased mortality and dementia. In Denmark, the use of BZ has been substantially reduced. In this article it is argued, that not all patients habituate, that most of the epidemiological findings are hampered by confounding, and that there still is a role for long...

  10. Scavenger Receptor BI Plays a Role in Facilitating Chylomicron Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Out, R.; Kruijt, J.K.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Hildebrand, R.B.; Vos, P. de; Eck, M. van; Berkel, T.J.C. van

    2004-01-01

    The function of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in mediating the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol esters is well established. However, the potential role of SR-BI in chylomicron and chylomicron remnant metabolism is largely unknown. In the present

  11. (Role) Playing Politics in an Environmental Chemistry Lecture Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Meredith A.; Higgins, Daniel A.

    2007-01-01

    Participation of environmental chemistry students in mock congressional hearings is described, as a means of helping them better develop their speaking and debating skills. The activity brings active learning principles into the classroom and greatly increases student participation in an otherwise traditional lecture course.

  12. Brain activity and desire for internet video game play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A.; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those which have been linked with craving for drugs or pathological gambling. Methods This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic MRI and fMRI data from 19 healthy male adults (ages 18–23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel internet video game, “War Rock” (K-network®). Using segments of videotape consisting of five contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a seven point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. Results In responding to internet video game stimuli, compared to neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (FDR video game (MIGP) cohort showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal pre-central gyrus, right parietal post-central gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the internet video game in the MIGP cohort was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. Discussion The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathological gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus. PMID:21220070

  13. Can Role-Play with Virtual Humans Teach Interpersonal Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    2007, with concentrations in cinema -television and technology commercialization. He has led several mixed-reality- and game-based training efforts at...options was: t(19) = 2.10, p = .07. Because the wording of the options was identical for both role-players, this result may indicate that the...related potential limitation of our experimental design is that the pretest and posttest versions of the SJT are identical . It could be argued that

  14. The Implementation of Role Play to Improve EFL Speaking Skill of the Second Semester Students of Akademi Bahasa Asing Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rochman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is an important skill learned by English student although English covers four skills namely speaking, listening, speaking and writing. Speaking is the main bridge for the students to master English. Unfortunately the fact has shown that the students were quite difficult to improve their speaking skill because they were accustomed to use their native language language in their daily life than using English. The above facts signify that the lecturer should apply the techniques that can motivate students to speak and engage students in encouraging activities. One of the techniques that encourage students to speak is role play. Role play is the choice implemented by the researcher in improving the speaking skill of the first year students at ABA Balikpapan since using role play, the students can express their idea, opinion, and feeling well in their performance without being worried to make mistake. Based on the result of the study, it can be concluded that the result of this research was satisfying. This research claims that it was successful in the effort in improving students’ English speaking skill through Role-Play. Role-Play activity could increase the students’ motivation in joining the teaching and learning activity. Their motivation is reflected in their efforts in preparing the Role-Play.

  15. The significance and perspectives of role playing as a teaching method in process oriented nursing education

    OpenAIRE

    小松, 万喜子; 冨岡, 詔子; 山崎, 章恵; 柳澤, 節子; 百瀬, 由美子

    1999-01-01

    This study was to report the results of students' responses to role playing which has been introduced as a teaching method in adult nursing clinical practice. About 80% of 79 students participated, positively evaluated their experiences in role playing as useful to their clinical practice, with 20% claiming negatively as not useful. An overall result suggested the usefulness of role playing as a method to enhance students' general readiness to their clinical practice. As students with negativ...

  16. Role-play and the Industrial Revolution: an STS approach to the teaching of steam engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabka, Diego; Pereira de Pereira, Alexsandro; Lima Junior, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Role-play is an interesting, although underexplored, way of teaching physics in high school. This paper presents a science-technology-society (STS) approach to the teaching of heat engines based on a role-play of the Industrial Revolution. Enacting the role-play, students are presented not only to scientific concepts, but also to the social and technological controversies of industrial development.

  17. Transferring Psycho-pedagogical Role-Play in Digital Environments: Tools and Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Aquila, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Since its origins, role-play technique has been adapted and applied in various ways to different settings and contexts, and for different purposes. It is used in many disciplines, such as psychology, organizational change, sociology and pedagogy. Psychodrama, sociodrama and simulation settings represent different implementations of role-play, which have been exploited in psychotherapy, education, business, organizational and training contexts. Role-play has been extensively recognised as a po...

  18. Benzodiazepines still play a role in modern psychiatric therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Videbech, Poul; Osler, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZ) are widely used for anxiety across psychiatric diagnoses, but for the last decades regulation has been increasingly tight due to problems with tolerance, addiction, withdrawal symptoms and cognitive side effects. Some guidelines claim that BZ only work for a few weeks......, and that BZ cause traffic accidents, increased mortality and dementia. In Denmark, the use of BZ has been substantially reduced. In this article it is argued, that not all patients habituate, that most of the epidemiological findings are hampered by confounding, and that there still is a role for long...

  19. The embodied energy in trade: What role does specialization play?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasim, Anwar A.

    2015-01-01

    Many industrialized countries are net importers of embodied energy and emissions, while many developing countries are net exporters. We examine the role of specialization in driving these trade patterns by conducting a spatial index decomposition analysis on the embodied energy in net exports for 41 economies. The results reveal that industrialized countries have generally offshored energy intensive production, which many developing countries specialize in. We find that specialization, on average, makes the biggest contribution, accounting for roughly 50% of a country's embodied energy in net exports. However, other factors, namely energy intensity and the trade balance, combine to make an equally important contribution. In summary, specialization, despite its significant role, is not the only cause of the embodied energy trade patterns observed between industrialized and developing countries. - Highlights: • The embodied energy in net exports is decomposed into three contributors. • The three contributors are intensity, specialization, and the trade balance. • On average, specialization accounts for roughly 50% of embodied energy flows. • The combination of intensity and trade balance effects is equally important.

  20. Action Simulation Plays a Critical Role in Deceptive Action Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; Di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in

  1. Perioxidases play important roles in abscisic acid (ABA)-simulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf photosynthetic activity limited by summer heat stress represents large constraint to production process of fruit trees. To cope with this problem, we tested photosystem II (PS II) thermostability in clonal apple tree rootstocks with different growth intensity - semi-vigorous-MM106 and dwarfing-J-TE-F experiencing summer ...

  2. Theoretical aspects of business role-playing game for senior students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faychuk Olena Leonidivna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some theoretically grounded features of the business role-playing game determined to improve the learning process of senior students (specialization «Social work». The authors give the classification of business role-playing games, benefits and effective application of the rules of role-plays, and possibilities of using them in the learning process. Business role-playing games provide students’ initiative, emotional saturation of the learning process and help to assimilate the basic theoretical knowledge.

  3. OPEC fund will continue to play it vital role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, H

    1986-09-01

    An interview elicits personal views on the role of and issues related to the OPEC Fund from one of those responsible for its founding. Hurtado comments that the Fund is not likely to change direction, although it accepts the agricultural and industrial development priorities of recipients. He also notes a weakness in the International Fund for Agricultural Development. A shortfall of income as Member Countries respond to falling oil prices will require some management changes in the future, but he sees greater unity among OPEC and Third World countries as a result of current economic strains. The industrialized world, which has provided only one sixth as much aid as OPEC, could apply its savings from current low import prices to help developing countries. North-South cooperation is cyclical, and he expects the current situation to have a positive effect on cooperation.

  4. Serious Simulation Role-Playing Games for Transformative Climate Change Education: "World Climate" and "Future Climate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.; Jones, A.; Merhi, H.; Hunt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change, its mitigation, and adaption to its impacts are among the greatest challenges of our times. Despite the importance of societal decisions in determining climate change outcomes, flawed mental models about climate change remain widespread, are often deeply entrenched, and present significant barriers to understanding and decision-making around climate change. Here, we describe two simulation role-playing games that combine active, affective, and analytical learning to enable shifts of deeply held conceptions about climate change. The games, World Climate and Future Climate, use a state-of-the-art decision support simulation, C-ROADS (Climate Rapid Overview and Decision Support) to provide users with immediate feedback on the outcomes of their mitigation strategies at the national level, including global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and concentrations, mean temperature changes, sea level rise, and ocean acidification. C-ROADS outcomes are consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMS), such as those used by the IPCC, but runs in less than one second on ordinary laptops, providing immediate feedback to participants on the consequences of their proposed policies. Both World Climate and Future Climate role-playing games provide immersive, situated learning experiences that motivate active engagement with climate science and policy. In World Climate, participants play the role of United Nations climate treaty negotiators. Participant emissions reductions proposals are continually assessed through interactive exploration of the best available science through C-ROADS. Future Climate focuses on time delays in the climate and energy systems. Participants play the roles of three generations: today's policymakers, today's youth, and 'just born.' The game unfolds in three rounds 25 simulated years apart. In the first round, only today's policymakers make decisions; In the next round, the young become the policymakers and inherit the

  5. Scenes of shame, social Roles, and the play with masks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article explores various scenes of shame, raising the questions of what shame discloses about the self and how this self-disclosure takes place. Thereby, the common idea that shame discloses the self’s debasement will be challenged. The dramatic dialectics of showing and hiding display a much...... reflected, the self’s active reflections on its shame are to be taken into account. As examples from Milan Kundera, Shakespeare’s King Lear, a line from Kingsley Amis, a speech by Vaclav Havel and Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments indicate, self-(re)presentation in the public and the private sphere...

  6. Contrasting Roles of Dopamine and Noradrenaline in the Motivational Properties of Social Play Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Servadio, Michela; van Swieten, Maaike M H; Houwing, Danielle J; Aalderink, Mandy; Driel, Nina V; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2016-02-01

    Social play behavior, abundant in the young of most mammalian species, is thought to be important for social and cognitive development. Social play is highly rewarding, and as such, the expression of social play depends on its pleasurable and motivational properties. Since the motivational properties of social play have only sporadically been investigated, we developed a setup in which rats responded for social play under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a key role in incentive motivational processes, and both dopamine and noradrenaline have been implicated in the modulation of social play behavior. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine and noradrenaline in the motivation for social play. Treatment with the psychostimulant drugs methylphenidate and cocaine increased responding for social play, but suppressed its expression during reinforced play periods. The dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR-12909 increased responding for social play, but did not affect its expression, whereas the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine decreased responding for social play as well as its expression. The effects of methylphenidate and cocaine on responding for social play, but not their play-suppressant effects, were blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist α-flupenthixol. In contrast, pretreatment with the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 prevented the play-suppressant effect of methylphenidate, but left its effect on responding for social play unaltered. In sum, the present study introduces a novel method to study the incentive motivational properties of social play behavior in rats. Using this paradigm, we demonstrate dissociable roles for dopamine and noradrenaline in social play behavior: dopamine stimulates the motivation for social play, whereas noradrenaline negatively modulates the motivation for social play behavior and its expression.

  7. Skill-Based and Planned Active Play Versus Free-Play Effects on Fundamental Movement Skills in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Lindsay; Keats, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Fundamental movement skill interventions are important for promoting physical activity, but the optimal intervention model for preschool children remains unclear. We compared two 8-week interventions, a structured skill-station and a planned active play approach, to a free-play control condition on pre- and postintervention fundamental movement skills. We also collected data regarding program attendance and perceived enjoyment. We found a significant interaction effect between intervention type and time. A Tukey honest significant difference analysis supported a positive intervention effect showing a significant difference between both interventions and the free-play control condition. There was a significant between-group difference in group attendance such that mean attendance was higher for both the free-play and planned active play groups relative to the structured skill-based approach. There were no differences in attendance between free-play and planned active play groups, and there were no differences in enjoyment ratings between the two intervention groups. In sum, while both interventions led to improved fundamental movement skills, the active play approach offered several logistical advantages. Although these findings should be replicated, they can guide feasible and sustainable fundamental movement skill programs within day care settings.

  8. Cysteine homeostasis plays an essential role in plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Consolación; Bermúdez, M Ángeles; Romero, Luis C; Gotor, Cecilia; García, Irene

    2012-01-01

    • Cysteine is the metabolic precursor of essential biomolecules such as vitamins, cofactors, antioxidants and many defense compounds. The last step of cysteine metabolism is catalysed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), which incorporates reduced sulfur into O-acetylserine to produce cysteine. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the main OASTL isoform OAS-A1 and the cytosolic desulfhydrase DES1, which degrades cysteine, contribute to the cytosolic cysteine homeostasis. • Meta-analysis of the transcriptomes of knockout plants for OAS-A1 and for DES1 show a high correlation with the biotic stress series in both cases. • The study of the response of knockout mutants to plant pathogens shows that des1 mutants behave as constitutive systemic acquired resistance mutants, with high resistance to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, salicylic acid accumulation and WRKY54 and PR1 induction, while oas-a1 knockout mutants are more sensitive to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. However, oas-a1 knockout mutants lack the hypersensitive response associated with the effector-triggered immunity elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 avrRpm1. • Our results highlight the role of cysteine as a crucial metabolite in the plant immune response. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. IFT46 plays an essential role in cilia development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Hwang, Kyu-Seok; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Ji-Ae, Kim; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Ko, Je Yeong; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Jeong, Yun-Mi; You, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Joon; Park, Doo-Sang; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Aizawa, Shinichi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Park, Jong-Hoon; Zhou, Weibin; Kim, Nam-Soon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based structures that project into the extracellular space. Ciliary defects are associated with several human diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, primary ciliary dyskinesia, left-right axis patterning, hydrocephalus and retinal degeneration. However, the genetic and cellular biological control of ciliogenesis remains poorly understood. The IFT46 is one of the highly conserved intraflagellar transport complex B proteins. In zebrafish, ift46 is expressed in various ciliated tissues such as Kupffer’s vesicle, pronephric ducts, ears and spinal cord. We show that ift46 is localized to the basal body. Knockdown of ift46 gene results in multiple phenotypes associated with various ciliopathies including kidney cysts, pericardial edema and ventral axis curvature. In ift46 morphants, cilia in kidney and spinal canal are shortened and abnormal. Similar ciliary defects are observed in otic vesicles, lateral line hair cells, olfactory pits, but not in Kupffer’s vesicle. To explore the functions of Ift46 during mouse development, we have generated Ift46 knock-out mice. The Ift46 mutants have developmental defects in brain, neural tube and heart. In particular Ift46(−/−) homozygotes displays randomization of the embryo heart looping, which is a hallmark of defective left-right (L/R) axis patterning. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IFT46 has an essential role in vertebrate ciliary development. PMID:25722189

  10. Sleep apps: what role do they play in clinical medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Christopher P; Williams, Adrian J

    2017-11-01

    Today's smartphones boast more computing power than the Apollo Guidance Computer. Given the ubiquity and popularity of smartphones, are we already carrying around miniaturized sleep labs in our pockets? There is still a lack of validation studies for consumer sleep technologies in general and apps for monitoring sleep in particular. To overcome this gap, multidisciplinary teams are needed that focus on feasibility work at the intersection of software engineering, data science and clinical sleep medicine. To date, no smartphone app for monitoring sleep through movement sensors has been successfully validated against polysomnography, despite the role and validity of actigraphy in sleep medicine having been well established. Missing separation of concerns, not methodology, poses the key limiting factor: The two essential steps in the monitoring process, data collection and scoring, are chained together inside a black box due to the closed nature of consumer devices. This leaves researchers with little room for influence nor can they access raw data. Multidisciplinary teams that wield complete power over the sleep monitoring process are sorely needed.

  11. A history of the concept of the stimulus and the role it played in the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassedy, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The term stimulus, as it was used in science from its earliest appearance in the sixteenth century up to the beginning of the nineteenth century, shows a gradual progress in denotation from the physical object designed to produce nervous and muscular excitation to the generically conceived event or object that initiates sensory or motor activity. To this shift corresponds a shift in the understanding of sensory experience. Johannes Muller's law of specific energy of sensory nerves played a major role in the shift, and Hermann von Helmholtz gave the shift its most thorough philosophical explanation.

  12. A novel microglial subset plays a key role in myelinogenesis in developing brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Holtman, Inge; Krueger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system that contribute to homeostasis and neuroinflammation. Although known to play an important role in brain development, their exact function has not been fully described. Here we show that in contrast to healthy adult and inflammation......-activated cells, neonatal microglia show a unique myelinogenic and neurogenic phenotype. A CD11c+ microglial subset that predominates in primary myelinating areas of the developing brain expresses genes for neuronal and glial survival, migration and differentiation. These cells are the major source of insulin...

  13. Omentin - a new adipokine with many roles to play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halabis Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is at a point of high interest in medical research, not only as an energy depot, but also because it secretes nearly more than 600 cytokines. These are termed‚ adipokines’. Human adipokines are involved in numerous metabolic processes, including the regulation of appetite, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, inflammation and cardiovascular activity. Thus, these could be clinically important as a markers of adipose tissue function and increased metabolic risk. The search for novel adipokines linking obesity to related co-morbidities has become a major topic in obesity research. In such work, there is an increasing need to define their function, their molecular targets and their potential clinical relevance as biomarkers or in the treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases.

  14. The Role that Natural Environment Plays in Reducing Noise Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Saber Maash

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is one of the major problems for the present time and it can affect the life of human being. Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. Researchers have mentioned a lot of devastating effects of noise that can disrupt the physical and psychological health of human beings. Noise pollution has also been considered as an important issue which needs to be solved in industrial countries and also as a main factor that is required to be minimized in factory construction and also in producing machinery. In the current article we are aimed at discussing some solutions that natural environment can bring to mankind regarding the reduction of noise pollution.

  15. HJV and HFE Play Distinct Roles in Regulating Hepcidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wang, Hao; An, Peng; Tao, Yunlong; Deng, Jiali; Zhang, Zhuzhen; Shen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Caiyong; Min, Junxia; Wang, Fudi

    2015-05-20

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an iron overload disease that is caused by mutations in HFE, HJV, and several other genes. However, whether HFE-HH and HJV-HH share a common pathway via hepcidin regulation is currently unclear. Recently, some HH patients have been reported to carry concurrent mutations in both the HFE and HJV genes. To dissect the roles and molecular mechanisms of HFE and/or HJV in the pathogenesis of HH, we studied Hfe(-/-), Hjv(-/-), and Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) double-knockout mouse models. Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) mice developed iron overload in multiple organs at levels comparable to Hjv(-/-) mice. After an acute delivery of iron, the expression of hepcidin (i.e., Hamp1 mRNA) was increased in the livers of wild-type and Hfe(-/-) mice, but not in either Hjv(-/-) or Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) mice. Furthermore, iron-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was not detected in the livers of Hjv(-/-) or Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) mice. We generated and phenotypically characterized Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) double-knockout mice. In addition, because they faithfully phenocopy clinical HH patients, these mouse models are an invaluable tool for mechanistically dissecting how HFE and HJV regulate hepcidin expression. Based on our results, we conclude that HFE may depend on HJV for transferrin-dependent hepcidin regulation. The presence of residual hepcidin in the absence of HFE suggests either the presence of an unknown regulator (e.g., TFR2) that is synergistic with HJV or that HJV is sufficient to maintain basal levels of hepcidin.

  16. Parliamentarians play key role in linking population and social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Hirofunti Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the UNFPA, delivered the statement of Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UNFPA at the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD) in Cairo in September 1994 made a significant impact on the attitudes and support of parliamentarians regarding population issues. The Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) brought together a group of parliamentarians from all over the world to discuss population issues and social development. The World Summit included in its deliberations the accumulated experiences of earlier international conferences dealing with social economic issues. The ICPD Program of Action addressed concerns relevant to the agenda of the Social Summit: the crucial contribution that early population stabilization will make towards the attainment of sustainable development; the significant role of integrated policies on population and development in creating employment; the importance of population policies and programs in alleviating poverty; the contributions of reproductive health policies, including high-quality family planning services, to the enhancement of the status of women and to the achievement of gender equality; the synergy between education, family planning, and the general improvement of the human condition; and the relationship between population pressures, poverty, and environmental degradation. The ICPD Program of Action also identified critically important population and development objectives, such as ensuring access to education, especially of girls; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health and family planning services. Now the challenge is to mobilize the necessary resources for the Social Summit.

  17. Medical Students' Acquisition of Adolescent Interview Skills after Coached Role Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Paritosh; Fisher, Jennifer H; Hanson, Janice L

    2018-04-01

    To develop and evaluate an educational activity designed to teach the adolescent Home, Education and employment, Eating, Activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression, and Safety (HEADS) examination. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were third-year medical students in their pediatric clerkships. Students received an article on the HEADS interview and attended an adolescent medicine educational session. The session included individualized goal-setting and coached role play. Students' skills in doing a HEADS interview were evaluated through a standardized patient encounter (SPE) with a checklist and a retrospective pre- and post-test survey. The SPE checklist was used to assess whether the students included questions in 6 key areas of a HEADS interview. One hundred fifty-two students participated. During the SPE, 90% of students queried the adolescent's home life, 91% education, 82% activities, 84% drug/substance abuse, 95% sexual history, and 61% symptoms of depression. Pre- and postintervention data were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis Test and showed a statistically significant difference in the students' ability to list key topic areas of the HEADS exam (P interview using the HEADS exam (P interview during a SPE. Only three-fifths of the students, however, included questions about symptoms of depression. Coached role play with goal-setting facilitated effective learning of this approach to adolescent interviewing. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  19. Action simulation plays a critical role in deceptive action recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-09

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in the ability to recognize deceptive body movements. We recorded motor-evoked potentials during a faked-action discrimination (FAD) task: participants watched videos of actors lifting a cube and judged whether the actors were trying to deceive them concerning the real weight of the cube. Seeing faked actions facilitated the observers' motor system more than truthful actions in a body-part-specific manner, suggesting that motor resonance was sensitive to deceptive movements. Furthermore, we found that TMS virtual lesion to the anterior node of the action observation network, namely the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), reduced perceptual sensitivity in the FAD task. In contrast, no change in FAD task performance was found after virtual lesions to the left temporoparietal junction (control site). Moreover, virtual lesion to the IFC failed to affect performance in a difficulty-matched spatial-control task that did not require processing of spatiotemporal (acceleration) and configurational (limb displacement) features of seen actions, which are critical to detecting deceptive intent in the actions of others. These findings indicate that the human IFC is critical for recognizing deceptive body movements and suggest that FAD relies on the simulation of subtle changes in action kinematics within the motor system.

  20. On detecting the playing/non-playing activity of musicians in symphonic music videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazzica, A.; Liem, C.C.S.; Hanjalic, A.

    2016-01-01

    Information on whether a musician in a large symphonic orchestra plays her instrument at a given time stamp or not is valuable for a wide variety of applications aiming at mimicking and enriching the classical music concert experience on modern multimedia platforms. In this work, we propose a novel

  1. Active and non-active video gaming among Dutch adolescents: who plays and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; de Vet, Emely; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of study was to determine prevalence and identify demographic correlates of active and non-active gaming among adolescents. Cross-sectional. A survey, assessing game behavior and correlates, was conducted among adolescents (12-16 years, n = 373), recruited via schools. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine demographic correlates of active gaming (≥ 1 h per week) and non-active gaming (>7h per week). Of all participants (n=373), 3% reported to play exclusively active games, 40% active games and non-active games, 40% exclusively non-active games, and 17% not playing video games at all. Active gaming adolescents played active games on average on 1.5 (sd = 1.2) days per school week for 36 (sd = 32.9)min and 1 (sd = 0.54) day per weekend for 42 (sd = 36.5)min. Non-active gaming adolescents played on average on 3.3 (sd = 1.6) days per school week for 65 (sd = 46.0)min and 1.4 (sd = 0.65) days per weekend for 80 (sd = 50.8)min. Adolescents attending lower levels of education were more likely to play active games ≥ 1 h per week than adolescents attending higher educational levels. Boys and older adolescents were more likely to play non-active games >7h per week, than girls or younger adolescents. Many adolescents play active games, especially those following a lower educational level, but time spent in this activity is relatively low compared to non-active gaming. To be feasible as a public health strategy, active gaming interventions should achieve more time is spent on active gaming at the expense of non-active gaming. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to reduce teenage pregnancy. ... South African Journal of Education ... study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy.

  3. Learning by Doing in Leadership Education: Experiencing Followership and Effective Leadership Communication through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Filiz; Lebron, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a role-play exercise to illustrate the influence of followership styles and effective communication on leader-follower relationship formation and development. We provide the pedagogical theory and evidence behind using role-plays in classroom settings, followed by a literature review pertaining to…

  4. The Strategic Micro-Firm: A Role Play In Management Training for Dynamic Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabe, Federico; Busco, Cristiano; Davidsen, Pal I.; Lambri, Maurizio; Zatta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the main characteristics of the role-playing game "Strategic Micro-Firm" which aims to reproduce the fundamental features of a complex supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: A specific role-playing game is presented, in which a Balanced Scorecard is used as the reporting device and is…

  5. E-learning Constructive Role Plays for EFL Learners in China's Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Suwanthep, Jitpanat

    2011-01-01

    Recently, speaking has played an increasingly important role in second/foreign language settings. However, in many Chinese universities, EFL students rarely communicate in English with other people effectively. The existing behavioristic role plays on New Horizon College English (NHCE) e-learning do not function successfully in supplementing EFL…

  6. Teacher's Guide to Canal. The Middlesex Canal: A Role Playing Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Cary W.; Tedesco, Paul H.

    The document consists of a role-playing game and related teacher's guide designed to illustrate decision-making processes leading to the building of the Middlesex Canal in Massachusetts in 1793. The primary educational objective is to involve students in the decision-making process through role play. The game is designed to facilitate…

  7. What Role Does Taste Play in School Meal Studies? A Narrative Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Annemarie; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    School meals play an important role in student well-being. However, studies have given evidence that school meals may not be satisfactory to students. Evidence suggests that taste plays an influential role in students' food decisions and eating experiences. This review of current research finds that studies around improving school meals mainly…

  8. Role-Playing in Science Education: An Effective Strategy for Developing Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Elaine V.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing can be an engaging and creative strategy to use in the college classroom. Using official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, event, or personality, the instructional strategy alternately referred to as role-playing, dramatic improvisation, or first-person characterization can be an…

  9. Role Playing in Physical Education to Teach in the Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury

    2014-01-01

    Using role playing during physical education provides limitless opportunities for intervention and for the demonstration of personal and social qualities. The purpose of this article is to provide easy steps for implementing role playing as a strategy to teach social skills to students in the physical education setting.

  10. What Students Need: Exploring Teachers' Views via Imagined Role-Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazkis, Rina; Nejad, Masomeh Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Role-playing is an unscripted dramatic technique that encourages participants to improvise behaviors that illustrate expected actions of persons involved in defined situations. However, among various uses in developing professionals, the use of role-playing in teacher education is rather rare. To give all students the opportunity to participate in…

  11. 25 CFR 900.229 - What role will the awarding official play during an appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What role will the awarding official play during an appeal? 900.229 Section 900.229 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Post-Award Contract Disputes § 900.229 What role will the awarding official play...

  12. The Evaluation of Role-Playing in the Context of Teaching Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo; Feierabend, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Role-plays are a common pedagogical tool in the Social Sciences. As an imitation of societal practices, role-plays are thought to support the development of argumentation and decision-making skills among learners. However, argumentation and decision making are also goals in science education in general and in socioscientific issues-oriented…

  13. You Must Participate: Violating Research Ethical Principles through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the use of role-play to teach research ethics in three semesters of a research methods class. Small groups of students were assigned one of nine ethical norms discussed in the course textbook and the American Sociological Association Code of Ethics. Each group role-played the violation of their assigned ethic to the class. The…

  14. Using a Corporate Partnership to Enhance Learning in a Sourcing Negotiation Role-play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Janet L.; Eboch, Karen; Gilberg, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Although role-plays can be effective teaching tools for buyer-supplier negotiation, learning can be somewhat limited because typically novices are negotiating with each other. We describe how we collaborated with a corporate partner, CACI International, to develop and implement a repeatable sourcing and negotiation role-play that helps to address…

  15. Mars Colony: Using Role-Play as a Pedagogical Approach to Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Nathan; Wood, Aja; Soldan, Katie; Tai, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss role-play as a pedagogical strategy to engage kindergarten and first-grade students in science and engineering. They present a five-part Mars colony lesson that they developed for a blended class, during which students role-play a space-exploration story that enables them to gain a firsthand perspective of what…

  16. Role-Play in Literature Lectures: The Students' Assessment of Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riain, Isobel Ní; Dawson, Ciarán; McCarthy, Marian

    2018-01-01

    The following article is based on a piece of qualitative research on the use of role-play in a literature module in the Modern Irish Dept. of University College Cork, Ireland, in 2015. There were 18 students involved in the research. The aim of the research was to investigate if students associate learning with the use of role-play in literature…

  17. Rules out of Roles: Differences in Play Language and Their Developmental Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongho; Kellogg, David

    2007-01-01

    Using a discourse analytic approach from the work of Hoey (1991) and a dual processing model from Wray (2000), this paper compares the language produced by the same classes of children when they are engaged in role-play and when they are playing rule-based games. We find that role-play tends to be richer in "frozen" pair parts, where the responses…

  18. Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to reduce teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Can the use of a method such as role play help reduce sexual risk behaviour among KwaZulu-Natal learners? A study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy. Within the framework of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, learners participated in role plays covering five topics - choice, self-respect and emotional abuse; partner coercion/negotiation about having sex; visiting the clinic for contraception; perceived and purchasing value of the child support grant; and testing for HIV. We report on the organisation, implementation and evaluation of the role plays. Data from facilitators, educators and learners were triangulated and suggest that role play has potential for building self-efficacy among learners with respect to sexual behaviour.

  19. Maternal attitude and child interest in various play activities before and after mother-child play sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Play stimulates children’s growth and development. When mothers and their children play, a positive attitude from the mother and adequate interest from the child is required. Little is known about the play activities that effectively stimulate such positive maternal attitude and child interest. Objective To assess for associations between various play activities with maternal attitude and child interest before and after mother-child play sessions. Methods Pre-post intervention questionnaires were distributed to mothers before and after playing with their children. Children were aged 1-5 years, from two play sites (in Surabaya and Makassar, and included using purposive sampling. Eight types of toys/play activities were provided. The allocated time for answering the 17-question survey was 15 minutes. Average scores before and after the mother-child play sessions were analyzed using paired T-test. Results We collected 264 valid questionnaires, 235 in Surabaya and 29 in Makassar. Improvement of maternal attitude after the mother-child play session was found in 132 mothers [mean diff. 0.07 (SD 0.42; 95%CI -0.117 to -0.015; P=0.011]. Play activities with significant improvements in maternal attitude were jigsaw puzzle [mean diff. 0.09 (SD 0.66; 95% CI 0.007 to 0.167;P= 0.033, Lego blocks (mean diff.-0.10 (SD 0.69; 95%CI -0.186 to -0.018; P=0.017, mini-gardening (mean diff. -0.15 (SD 0.75; 95%CI -0.238 to -0.057; P=0.002, sandbox [mean diff.-0.24 (SD 0.83; 95%CI -0.339 to – 0.138; P < 0.001], fishing [mean diff. -0.17 (SD 0.68; 95%CI -0.253 to -0.088; P < 0.001], and animal figurines [mean diff. -0.21 (SD 0.75; 95%CI -0.3 to -0.117;P <0.001]. Improvement of child interest was found in 161 children [mean diff. 0.20 (SD 0.52; 95%CI -0.264 to -0.116; P<0.001]. Play activities with significant improvements in child interest were jigsaw puzzle, Lego blocks, origami, mini-gardening, fishing, and animal figurines. Conclusion Some mother

  20. Self-Actualization of Youth Subculture Members (Role-Playing Movement as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Zhuravleva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the research of youth subculture members’ self-actualization (role-playing movement as an example. It describes certain characteristics of role-players’ self-actualization, its structure, and also its gender and age specific features. It has been proven that the level of self-actualization of the members of the role-playing movement is higher than of the people who are not interested in it and that taking part in role-playing games is a more significant factor for the self-actualization of the personality than the gender and age of the players.

  1. What role can simulation model predictions play in environmental decisions: carbon dioxide as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emanuel, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    Frequently, when an environmental issue requiring quantitative analysis surfaces, the development of a model synthesizing all aspects of the problem and applicable at each stage of the decision process is proposed. A more desirable alternative is to generate models specifically designed to meet the requirements of each level in decision making and which can be adapted in response to the changing status of the environmental issue. Various models of the global carbon cycle constructed to predict levels of CO 2 in the atmosphere as a result of man's activities are described to illustrate this point. In summary, the progression of models developed to analyze the global carbon cycle in resolving the CO 2 /climate issue indicates the changing character of models depending on the immediate role they play in environmental decision making. The dominant and successful role served by models in the carbon cycle problem points to the desirability of this flexible approach

  2. SIRT1 may play a crucial role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Erika; Bori, Zoltán; Chabert, Clovis; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Naito, Hisashi; Machida, Shuichi; Davies, Kelvin Ja; Murlasits, Zsolt; Fry, Andrew C; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    Silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) activity and content increased significantly in overload-induced hypertrophy. SIRT1-mediated signalling through Akt, the endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediated pathway, regulates anabolic process in the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. The regulation of catabolic signalling via forkhead box O 1 and protein ubiquitination is SIRT1 dependent. Overload-induced changes in microRNA levels regulate SIRT1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling. Significant skeletal muscle mass guarantees functional wellbeing and is important for high level performance in many sports. Although the molecular mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been well studied, it still is not completely understood. In the present study, we used a functional overload model to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Two weeks of muscle ablation resulted in a 40% increase in muscle mass, which was associated with a significant increase in silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) content and activity (P overload-induced hypertrophy. These findings, along with the well-known regulatory roles that SIRT1 plays in modulating both anabolic and catabolic pathways, allow us to propose the hypothesis that SIRT1 may actually play a crucial causal role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. This hypothesis will now require rigorous direct and functional testing. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  3. Use of Simulated Psychosocial Role-Playing to Enhance Nursing Students' Development of Soft Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrecht, Christina; Montenery, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Effective communication and interaction enable nurses to develop caring, empathetic, and respectful relationships with patients and families. However, most nurses feel a lack of preparation in the "soft" skills of communication, professionalism, and leadership. Nurse managers are seeking graduates with strong emotional quotient characteristics such as self-awareness, motivation, self-regulation, empathy, and social skills. Assisting nursing students to develop these intangible, high-level skills presents an ongoing challenge to nurse educators. This creative teaching learning strategy examines the use of psychosocial role-playing skits to enhance nursing student development of the soft skills of nursing. In this strategy, senior level nursing students work in small groups to develop and present realistic 3- to 5-minute skits based on common nurse-patient, nurse-family, or nurse-health care team interactions that incorporate the concepts of therapeutic communication, interpersonal interaction, empathy, active listening, teamwork, delegation, and/or professionalism, followed by a debriefing session. Student feedback suggests that confidence and competence related to the skills of therapeutic communication, interpersonal interaction, empathy, active listening, teamwork, delegation, and professionalism may improve by incorporating soft skill psychosocial role-playing into a nursing education course of study.

  4. EFEKTIVITAS METODE ROLE PLAYING PADA MENDESKRIPSIKAN PELAYANAN PRIMA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Tri Lestari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efektivitas metode pembelajaran role playing pada pokok bahasan mendeskripsikan pelayanan prima untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa kelas X Administrasi Perkantoran SMK Hidayah Semarang. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas X AP SMK Hidayah Semarang Tahun Ajaran 2011/2012. Prosedur penelitian ini merupakan siklus kegiatan pembelajaran yang terdiri dari dua siklus, dimana setiap siklus meliputi perencanaan, pelaksanaan tindakan, pengamatan dan refleksi. Instrumen pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini adalah tes evaluasi yang berupa tes objektif pada tiap akhir siklus dan lembar observasi untuk aktivitas siswa dan kinerja guru. Hasil belajar kognitif siswa pada siklus I sebesar 74,5 dengan ketuntasan klasikal 66,7%. Rata-rata hasil belajar siklus II sebesar 82,5 dengan ketuntasan klasikal 96,7%. Adapun sikap siswa terhadap pembelajaran pada siklus I sebesar 55% dan pada siklus II mencapai peningkatan sebesar 87,5%. Sedangkan kinerja guru pada siklus I mencapai 58,3% dan pada siklus II meningkat menjadi 93,1%. Penerapan metode pembelajaran role playing pada pokok bahasan mendeskripsikan pelayanan prima efektif untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa kelas X Administrasi Perkantoran SMK Hidayah Semarang. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ The purpose from this research was to determine effectiveness of role playing in describing excellent service to improve students� result class X AP Hidayah Vocational School of Semarang year 2011/2012. The subject of this research is the class X AP of Hidayah Vocational School of Semarang year 2011/2012. The procedure of this research is a cycle of learning activities that consists of two cycles, in which each cycle includes planning, implementation of the action, observation and reflection. Instrument of data collection is the evaluation tests in the form of objective tests at each end of the cycle and observation

  5. Early-life soy exposure and gender-role play behavior in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgent, Margaret A; Daniels, Julie L; Edwards, Lloyd J; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Rogan, Walter J

    2011-12-01

    Soy-based infant formula contains high levels of isoflavones. These estrogen-like compounds have been shown to induce changes in sexually dimorphic behaviors in animals exposed in early development. We examined gender-role play behavior in relation to soy-based and non-soy-based infant feeding methods among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We studied 3,664 boys and 3,412 girls. Four exposure categories were created using data from questionnaires administered at 6 and 15 months postpartum: primarily breast, early formula (referent), early soy, and late soy. Gender-role play behavior was assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI). Associations between infant feeding and PSAI scores at 42 months of age were assessed using linear regression. Post hoc analyses of PSAI scores at 30 and 57 months were also conducted. Early-infancy soy use was reported for approximately 2% of participants. Mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] PSAI scores at 42 months were 62.3 (62.0, 62.6) and 36.9 (36.6, 37.2) for boys and girls, respectively. After adjustment, early soy (vs. early formula) feeding was associated with higher (less feminine) PSAI scores in girls (β = 2.66; 95% CI: 0.19, 5.12) but was not significantly associated with PSAI scores in boys. The association between soy exposure and PSAI scores in girls was substantially attenuated at 30 and 57 months. Although not consistent throughout childhood, early-life soy exposure was associated with less female-typical play behavior in girls at 42 months of age. Soy exposure was not significantly associated with play behavior in boys.

  6. Cadmium-induced heme-oxygenase-1 expression plays dual roles in autophagy and apoptosis and is regulated by both PKC-δ and PKB/Akt activation in NRK52E kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Keum-Young; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects cells against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress. However, the mechanism underlying this protection is not well understood. In this study, we elucidated the role of HO-1 in Cd-induced cytotoxicity. Exposure of NRK52E cells to Cd induced protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt, protein kinase C (PKC)-δ, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3αb phosphorylation, and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α dephosphorylation. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt resulted in HO-1 suppression and eIF2α activation, which partially suppressed CHOP and PARP-1 cleavage, but promoted autophagy and decreased cell viability. Pharmacological inactivation of PKC-δ markedly suppressed Cd-induced phospho-serine (p-Ser) GSK3αβ, and HO-1, and partially inhibited PARP-1 cleavage, but massively induced autophagy and decreased cell viability. Pharmacological upregulation of p-Ser GSK3αβ enhanced Cd-induced HO-1, CHOP, and PARP-1 cleavage, but decreased autophagy. Genetic deficiency of GSK3β suppressed HO-1 and PARP-1 cleavage and increased autophagy. Genetic suppression of HO-1 reduced Cd-induced PARP-1 cleavage, but increased LC3-II. Cd exposure led to accumulation of p-PKC-δ, p-Ser GSK3αβ, and HO-1 in the nucleus and particulate fractions, suggesting that they have dual functions in response to Cd. N-acetylcysteine treatment suppressed Cd-induced activation of PKC-δ and Akt. These results indicate that HO-1 induced by Cd exposure is regulated by PKC-δ, p-Ser GSK3αβ, and PKB/Akt, which restrain autophagic cell death, but mildly induce apoptosis in NRK52E cells. Together, the results suggest that HO-1 expression in response to Cd maintains cellular homeostasis during oxidative stress.

  7. Caspase-11 Plays a Protective Role in Pulmonary Acinetobacter baumannii Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shao, Yue; Li, Shengjun; Xin, Na; Ma, Tingxian; Zhao, Chenghai; Song, Min

    2017-10-01

    Activation of caspase-11 by some Gram-negative bacteria triggers the caspase-1/interleukin 1β (IL-1β) pathway, independent of canonical inflammasomes. Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative, conditionally pathogenic bacterium that can cause severe pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients. A. baumannii was revealed to activate canonical and noncanonical inflammasome pathways in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Pulmonary infection of caspase-11 -/- mice with A. baumannii showed that caspase-11 deficiency impaired A. baumannii clearance, exacerbated pulmonary pathological changes, and enhanced susceptibility to A. baumannii These data indicate that the caspase-11-mediated innate immune response plays a crucial role in defending against A. baumannii . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. The motivation of children to play an active video game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin A Paw, Marijke J M; Jacobs, Wietske M; Vaessen, Ellen P G; Titze, Sylvia; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a weekly multiplayer class on the motivation of children aged 9-12 years to play an interactive dance simulation video game (IDSVG) at home over a period of 12 weeks. A sample of 27 children was randomly assigned to (1) a home group instructed to play the IDSVG at home; (2) a multiplayer group instructed to play the IDSVG at home and to participate in a weekly IDSVG multiplayer class. Participants were asked to play the IDSVG as often as they liked and report the playing time daily on a calendar for a 12-week period. Motivation to play was assessed by the playing duration of IDSVG in minutes and the dropout during the study. Mean age of the 16 children who completed the study was 10.6+/-0.8 years. During the 12-week intervention period, the multiplayer group played approximately twice as many minutes (901min) as the home group (376min, p=0.13). Dropout was significantly (p=0.02) lower in the multiplayer group (15%) than in the home group (64%). Our findings suggest that multiplayer classes may increase children's motivation to play interactive dance simulation video games.

  9. Sexually dimorphic role for vasopressin in the development of social play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Paul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established role of vasopressin (AVP in adult social behavior, its role in social development is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we focus on the most prominent social behavior of juvenile rats, social play. Previous pharmacological experiments in our laboratory suggested that AVP regulates play in a sex- and brain region-specific manner in juvenile rats. Here we investigate the role of specific AVP systems in the emergence of social play. We first characterize the development of play in male and female Wistar rats and then ask whether the development of AVP mRNA expression correlates with the emergence of play. Unexpectedly, play emerged more rapidly in weanling-aged females than in males, resulting in a sex difference opposite of that typically reported for older, juvenile rats. AVP mRNA and play were correlated in males only, with a negative correlation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and a positive correlation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These findings support the hypothesis that AVP acts differentially on multiple systems in a sex-specific manner to regulate social play and suggest a role for PVN and BNST AVP systems in the development of play. Differential neuropeptide regulation of male and female social development may underlie well-documented sex differences in incidence, progression, and symptom severity of behavioral disorders during development.

  10. Activity and energy expenditure in older people playing active video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynne M; Maddison, Ralph; Pfaeffli, Leila A; Rawstorn, Jonathan C; Gant, Nicholas; Kerse, Ngaire M

    2012-12-01

    Tayl To quantify energy expenditure in older adults playing interactive video games while standing and seated, and secondarily to determine whether participants' balance status influenced the energy cost associated with active video game play. Cross-sectional study. University research center. Community-dwelling adults (N=19) aged 70.7±6.4 years. Participants played 9 active video games, each for 5 minutes, in random order. Two games (boxing and bowling) were played in both seated and standing positions. Energy expenditure was assessed using indirect calorimetry while at rest and during game play. Energy expenditure was expressed in kilojoules per minute and metabolic equivalents (METs). Balance was assessed using the mini-BESTest, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Timed Up and Go (TUG). Mean ± SD energy expenditure was significantly greater for all game conditions compared with rest (all P≤.01) and ranged from 1.46±.41 METs to 2.97±1.16 METs. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure, activity counts, or perceived exertion between equivalent games played while standing and seated. No significant correlations were observed between energy expenditure or activity counts and balance status. Active video games provide light-intensity exercise in community-dwelling older people, whether played while seated or standing. People who are unable to stand may derive equivalent benefits from active video games played while seated. Further research is required to determine whether sustained use of active video games alters physical activity levels in community settings for this population. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  12. A meta-study of qualitative research examining determinants of children's independent active free play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Homan; Tamminen, Katherine A; Clark, Alexander M; Slater, Linda; Spence, John C; Holt, Nicholas L

    2015-01-24

    To produce a meta-study by completing a systematic review of qualitative research examining determinants of independent active free play in children. Following systematic electronic and manual searches and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 46 studies were retained and subjected to meta-method, meta-theory, and meta-data analyses, followed by a final meta-synthesis. Identified determinants of independent active free play were child characteristics (age, competence, and gender), parental restrictions (safety concerns and surveillance), neighborhood and physical environment (fewer children to play with, differences in preferences for play spaces between parents and children, accessibility and proximity, and maintenance), societal changes (reduced sense of community, good parenting ideal, changing roles of parents, privatization of playtime and play spaces), and policy issues (need to give children voice). An ecological model depicting these factors, and the relationships therein, was created. This comprehensive meta-study helps establish a knowledge base for children's independent active free play research by synthesizing a previously fragmented set of studies. Parents' perceived safety concerns are the primary barrier to children's active free play. These safety concerns are moderated by child-level factors (age, competence, gender) and broader social issues. Interventions should focus on community-level solutions that include children's perspectives. From a methods perspective, the reviewed studies used a range of data collection techniques, but methodological details were often inadequately reported. The theoretical sophistication of research in this area could be improved. To this end, the synthesis reported in this study provides a framework for guiding future research.

  13. Urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of Helicobacter pylori in a viscous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Yoshiyama, H; Takeuchi, H; Mizote, T; Okita, K; Nakazawa, T

    1998-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibits chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide, acetohydroxamic acid, and sodium bicarbonate. In buffer, the chemotactic activities of a urease-positive strain were higher than those of the isogenic urease-negative strain. Moreover, the chemotactic activities of the urease-positive strain were increased in a viscous solution containing 3% polyvinylpyrrolidone, whereas those of the urease-negative mutant were not. These results are in accordance with the fact that the mutant strain did not show swarming in motility agar regardless of having flagella. Incubation of the wild-type strain with flurofamide resulted in partial inhibition of the chemotactic activities in the viscous solution. In addition, incubation with acetohydroxamic acid, a low-molecular-weight, diffusible urease inhibitor, resulted in complete loss of chemotactic activity in the viscous solution. The inhibition of the chemotactic activity by urease inhibitors paralleled the inhibition of urease. The chemotactic activity of H. pylori was also inhibited by the proton carrier carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, showing that H. pylori utilizes proton motive force for motility. These results indicate that cytoplasmic urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of H. pylori under a condition that mimics the ecological niche of the bacterium, the gastric mucous layer.

  14. Histidine Metabolism and IGPD Play a Key Role in Cefquinome Inhibiting Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus xylosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-hui Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus xylosus (S. xylosus is an AT-rich and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS. It is normally regarded as non-pathogenic, however, recent studies have demonstrated that it is related to human opportunistic infections and bovine mastitis. In addition, S. xylosus strains have the ability to form biofilm. Biofilms are also involved in chronic infections and antibiotic resistance, there are only a few reports about cefquinome inhibiting S. xylosus biofilm formation and the protein targets of cefquinome. In our study, we found that sub-MICs of cefquinome were sufficient to inhibit biofilm formation. To investigate the potential protein targets of cefquinome, we used iTRAQ for the analyses of cells at two different conditions: 1/2-MIC (0.125 μg/mL cefquinome treatment and no treatment. Using iTRAQ technique and KEGG database analysis, we found that proteins differently expression in histidine metabolism pathway may play a role in the process by which 1/2-MIC (0.125 μg/mL cefquinome inhibits S. xylosus biofilm formation. Interestingly, we found a sharply down-regulated enzyme [A0A068E9J3 imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase (IGPD] involved in histidine metabolism pathway in cefquinome-treated cells. We demonstrated the important role of IGPD in sub-MICs cefquinome inhibiting biofilm formation of S. xylosus by gene (hisB knockout, IGPD enzyme activity and histidine content assays. Thus, our data sheds light on important role of histidine metabolism in S. xylosus biofilm formation; especially, IGPD involved in histidine metabolism might play a crucial role in sub-MICs cefquinome inhibition of biofilm formation of S. xylosus, and we propose IGPD as an attractive protein target of cefquinome.

  15. Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: a study of role-played enactments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Jane; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it.

  16. Adult play fighting and potential role of tail signals in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Adult strepsirrhines have been completely neglected in the study of animal play. I focused on adult play fighting and the role of tail-play as a signal in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Tail-play is performed during play fighting, when lemurs anoint or, more rarely, wave their tails toward the playmate. During the prereproductive period, male and female lemurs engaged in play fighting with comparable frequencies, as was expected to occur in monomorphic species such as L. catta. The dyads showing low aggression rates engaged most frequently in play fighting, and polyadic play was frequently performed. Signals seem to be important in avoiding escalation to real aggression, especially when the playfulness of performers can be misunderstood by recipients. Tail-play was most frequent (a) in the dyads with low grooming rates (low familiarity degree) and (b) during the most risky play sessions (polyadic ones). Thus, tail-play can be considered as a useful tool for play communication in ringtailed lemurs. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Setting them up for lifetime activity: Play competence perceptions and physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Hesketh, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2017-09-01

    Possessing positive physical perceived competence is important for physical activity in older children. Young children are primarily physically active through play-based behaviour rather than through organised sports and activities, so understanding how play perceptions might influence physical activity behaviour is important. The study purpose was to assess if perceived active play competence is associated with young children's physical activity. Cross sectional study. This paper uses two different samples drawn from the same Australian city, both collected in 2013. The first sample included 152 children (49% boys) aged 4-5 years (M=4.7, SD=0.47), the second sample included 78 children (55% boys) aged 5-8 years (M=6.6, SD=0.93). The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence was used to assess children's perceived competence in six skill-related play activities. Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed for 8 consecutive days via accelerometers. A general linear model with the mean minutes in MVPA per day as the outcome, perceived play competence as the independent variable and adjusting for relevant confounders was performed in each sample. Perceived active play competence was not related to MVPA min/day (B=0.44, p=0.323) in the younger sample, but was in the older sample (B=1.53, p=0.026), explaining 24% of adjusted variance. Positive findings in the older sample show school-aged children need exposure to play based activities in order to develop the positive self-perception needed to engage in MVPA every day. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A conserved glutamine plays a central role in LOV domain signal transmission and duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Abigail I.; Ko, Wen-Huang; Harper, Shannon M.; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2009-01-01

    Light is a key stimulus for plant biological functions, several of which are controlled by light-activated kinases known as phototropins, a group of kinases that contain two light-sensing domains (LOV, Light-Oxygen-Voltage domains) and a C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain. The second sensory domain, LOV2, plays a key role in regulating kinase enzymatic activity via the photochemical formation of a covalent adduct between a LOV2 cysteine residue and an internally-bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) chromophore. Subsequent conformational changes in LOV2 lead to the unfolding of a peripheral Jα helix, and ultimately, phototropin kinase activation. To date, the mechanism coupling bond formation and helix dissociation has remained unclear. Previous studies found that a conserved glutamine residue (Q513 in the Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 (AsLOV2) domain) switches its hydrogen-bonding pattern with FMN upon light stimulation. Located in the immediate vicinity of the FMN binding site, this Gln residue is provided by the Iβ strand that interacts with the Jα helix, suggesting a route for signal propagation from the core of the LOV domain to its peripheral Jα helix. To test whether Q513 plays a key role in tuning the photochemical and transduction properties of AsLOV2, we designed two point mutations, Q513L and Q513N, and monitored the effects on the chromophore and protein using a combination of UV-visible absorbance and circular dichroism spectroscopy, limited proteolysis, and solution NMR. The results show that these mutations significantly dampen the changes between the dark and lit state AsLOV2 structures, leaving the protein in a pseudo-dark state (Q513L) or a pseudo-lit state (Q513N) conformation. Further, both mutations changed the photochemical properties of this receptor, particularly the lifetime of the photoexcited signaling states. Together, these data establish that this residue plays a central role in both spectral tuning and signal propagation from

  19. Conflicts in Chemistry: The Case of Plastics, a Role-Playing Game for High School Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Deborah H.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts in Chemistry: The Case of Plastics, an innovative role-playing activity for high school students, was developed by the Chemical Heritage Foundation to promote increased public understanding of chemistry. The pilot program included three high school teachers and their students at three different schools and documented implementation and…

  20. Experiencing Emotion across a Semester-Long Family Role-Play and Reflecting Team: Implications for Counselor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrawood, Laura K.; Parmanand, Shawn; Wilde, Brandon J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of role-play and reflecting teams have been established as acceptable practices in the education of counselors-in-training. However, the current counseling literature does not identify the range of emotion experienced by students, as they participate in experiential activities. This manuscript identifies the emotions experienced by…

  1. The role of structural characteristics in problem video game playing: a review

    OpenAIRE

    King, DL; Delfabbro, PH; Griffiths, MD

    2010-01-01

    The structural characteristics of video games may play an important role in explaining why some people play video games to excess. This paper provides a review of the literature on structural features of video games and the psychological experience of playing video games. The dominant view of the appeal of video games is based on operant conditioning theory and the notion that video games satisfy various needs for social interaction and belonging. However, there is a lack of experimental and ...

  2. Problematic usage among highly-engaged players of massively multiplayer online role playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christopher S; Malesky, L Alvin

    2008-08-01

    One popular facet of Internet gaming is the massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Some individuals spend so much time playing these games that it creates problems in their lives. This study focused on players of World of Warcraft. Factor analysis revealed one factor related to problematic usage, which was correlated with amount of time played, and personality characteristics of agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion.

  3. The role played by recruitment agencies in the emigration of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role played by recruitment agencies in the emigration of South African nurses. ... Many nurses who leave the Republic of South Africa might use recruitment agencies' assistance. These concerns raised by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation: What role can economic instruments play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ring, I.; Drechsler, M.; Teeffelen, van A.J.A.; Irawan, S.; Venter, O.

    2010-01-01

    Tradable permits and intergovernmental fiscal transfers play an increasing role in both biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation. In comparison to regulatory and planning approaches these economic instruments offer a more flexible and cost-effective approach to biodiversity conservation.

  5. Highlight: Private sector could play a major role in feeding Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-08

    Sep 8, 2014 ... Highlight: Private sector could play a major role in feeding Africa ... scale, we will need to involve the private sector," said IDRC President Jean Lebel. ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and ...

  6. Learner Interaction in a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG): A Sociocultural Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants' text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a…

  7. What Can Students Learn in an Extended Role-Play Simulation on Technology and Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In a small course on technology and society, students participated in an extended role-play simulation for two weeks. Each student played a different adult character in a fictional community, which faces technological decisions in three scenarios set in the near future. The three scenarios involved stem cell research, nanotechnology, and privacy.…

  8. A Taxonomy of Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytheway, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Initiated in response to informal reports of vocabulary gains from gamers at universities in New Zealand and the Netherlands, this qualitative study explored how English language learners autonomously learn vocabulary while playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Using research processes inherent in Grounded Theory, data…

  9. Exploring the Use of Role Play in a School-Based Programme to Reduce Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra; Diamini, Nthabiseng; Khanyile, Zama; Mpanza, Lloyd; Sathiparsad, Reshma

    2012-01-01

    Can the use of a method such as role play help reduce sexual risk behaviour among KwaZulu-Natal learners? A study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy. Within the framework of Bandura's Social Cognitive…

  10. The branding role that product labelling plays within integrated marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. This study focuses on empirically determining the branding role that product labelling plays as a strategic element in Integrated Marketing Communication functioning within the food and beverage industry. This research topic was selected for a number of reasons. Firstly, there is a general misconception of the definition of the term Integrated Marketing Communication. Secondly, there is also an emergence of the perception that labelling plays an important role as a strategic element i...

  11. Using group role-playing games with gifted children and adolescents: A psychosocial intervention model

    OpenAIRE

    Rosselet, J. G.; Stauffer, S. D.

    2013-01-01

    Gifted children develop asynchronously, often advanced for their age cognitively, but at or between their chronological and mental ages socially and emotionally (Robinson, 2008). In order to help gifted children and adolescents develop and practice social and emotional self-regulation skills, we investigated the use of an Adlerian play therapy approach during pen-and-paper role-playing games. Additionally, we used Goffman's (1961, 1974) social role identification and distance to encourage par...

  12. How Might Civilian Technology Firms Play A Role In The Defense Industrial Base Going Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY FIRMS PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE GOING FORWARD? by Daniel J. Shipman December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Mie...2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HOW MIGHT CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY FIRMS PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL...the competitive business environment of Department of Defense (DOD) vendors and whether the market is favorable for non-traditional, technology

  13. Teaching to Play Performing a Main Role -- Effective Method of Pretend Play Facilitation in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrova, Vlasta

    2013-01-01

    We compared the efficiency of teacher's direct and indirect intervention into pretend play. Three hundred sixty-eight kindergarten children and 92 qualified kindergarten teachers were involved in the study. In the control group, a teacher indirectly initiated a play, creating a playing corner adjusted to the theme of the pretend play and during…

  14. Following the actors and avatars of massively multi-user online role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2007-01-01

    held in high esteem by a group, or guild, of avatars and actors, these are activities, which may be conceived of as being complex, reflective practices. To become a skilled, professional, high-level avatar is hard work, it may take months, and only then, can the avatar perform without the many......’ conceptions of the virtual worlds, 2) their choices and constructions of mediating avatars, 3) the diversity of social interactions, 4) the constructions of self experienced and expressed while reflecting on action and communication, and 5) the interplay between the virtual worlds and the actors’ life worlds......In the massively multi-user online role-playing games of e.g. EverQuest I & II and the World of Warcraft, millions of actors inhabit and create new places and spaces for communication and social interaction (Castranova 2001, Gee, 2003, Goffman 1974/86, Jensen 2006a, Qvortrup 2001, 2002). Some...

  15. Public health policy decisions on medical innovations: what role can early economic evaluation play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Susanne; John, Jürgen

    2009-02-01

    Our contribution aims to explore the different ways in which early economic data can inform public health policy decisions on new medical technologies. A literature research was conducted to detect methodological contributions covering the health policy perspective. Early economic data on new technologies can support public health policy decisions in several ways. Embedded in horizon scanning and HTA activities, it adds to monitoring and assessment of innovations. It can play a role in the control of technology diffusion by informing coverage and reimbursement decisions as well as the direct public promotion of healthcare technologies, leading to increased efficiency. Major problems include the uncertainty related to economic data at early stages as well as the timing of the evaluation of an innovation. Decision-makers can benefit from the information supplied by early economic data, but the actual use in practice is difficult to determine. Further empirical evidence should be gathered, while the use could be promoted by further standardization.

  16. Microbial functional diversity plays an important role in the degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Samrat; Tribedi, Prosun

    2018-03-01

    Towards bioremediation of recalcitrant materials like synthetic polymer, soil has been recognized as a traditional site for disposal and subsequent degradation as some microorganisms in soil can degrade the polymer in a non-toxic, cost-effective, and environment friendly way. Microbial functional diversity is a constituent of biodiversity that includes wide range of metabolic activities that can influence numerous aspects of ecosystem functioning like ecosystem stability, nutrient availability, ecosystem dynamics, etc. Thus, in the current study, we assumed that microbial functional diversity could play an important role in polymer degradation in soil. To verify this hypothesis, we isolated soil from five different sites of landfill and examined several microbiological parameters wherein we observed a significant variation in heterotrophic microbial count as well as microbial activities among the soil microcosms tested. Multivariate analysis (principle component analysis) based on the carbon sources utilization pattern revealed that soil microcosms showed different metabolic patterns suggesting the variable distribution of microorganisms among the soil microcosms tested. Since microbial functional diversity depends on both microbial richness and evenness, Shannon diversity index was determined to measure microbial richness and Gini coefficient was determined to measure microbial evenness. The tested soil microcosms exhibited variation in both microbial richness and evenness suggesting the considerable difference in microbial functional diversity among the tested microcosms. We then measured polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) degradation in soil microcosms after desired period of incubation of PHB in soil wherein we found that soil microcosms having higher functional diversity showed enhanced PHB degradation and soil microcosms having lower functional diversity showed reduced PHB degradation. We also noticed that all the tested soil microcosms showed similar pattern in both

  17. Senataxin plays an essential role with DNA damage response proteins in meiotic recombination and gene silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier J Becherel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Senataxin, mutated in the human genetic disorder ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2, plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity by coordination of transcription, DNA replication, and the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that senataxin is essential for spermatogenesis and that it functions at two stages in meiosis during crossing-over in homologous recombination and in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI. Disruption of the Setx gene caused persistence of DNA double-strand breaks, a defect in disassembly of Rad51 filaments, accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids (R-loops, and ultimately a failure of crossing-over. Senataxin localised to the XY body in a Brca1-dependent manner, and in its absence there was incomplete localisation of DNA damage response proteins to the XY chromosomes and ATR was retained on the axial elements of these chromosomes, failing to diffuse out into chromatin. Furthermore persistence of RNA polymerase II activity, altered ubH2A distribution, and abnormal XY-linked gene expression in Setx⁻/⁻ revealed an essential role for senataxin in MSCI. These data support key roles for senataxin in coordinating meiotic crossing-over with transcription and in gene silencing to protect the integrity of the genome.

  18. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shan Wu

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  19. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Jie; Jew, Chris P; Wager-Miller, James; Straiker, Alex; Spencer, Corinne; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  20. Role-play facilitates children's mindreading of those with atypical color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumi, Fumikazu; Koyasu, Masuo

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role-play experience on children's mindreading ability. Forty-one primary school children (20 boys, 21 girls, mean age: 9.37 years, range: 8-11 years) were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an order issued by a "manager" who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two managers: one was a monkey manager with normal color vision, and the other was a dog manager with restricted color vision. The monkey manager could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog manager saw some objects in different colors. Participants were required to respond according to the manager's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog manager saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey manager. Before the test phase, participants in the role-play group were provided a role-play experience in which they assumed the role of the dog manager with restricted color vision. The experimental data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 mixed-design ANOVA (role-play condition × communication partner condition) to examine differences in the error rate. Both main effects and its interaction were significant. According to the post-hoc analyses, participants in the no-role-play condition made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas no such difference was found among participants in the role-play condition. These results suggest that role-play experience could facilitate mindreading of characters with restricted color vision.

  1. Neurospora COP9 signalosome integrity plays major roles for hyphal growth, conidial development, and circadian function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Zhou

    Full Text Available The COP9 signalosome (CSN is a highly conserved multifunctional complex that has two major biochemical roles: cleaving NEDD8 from cullin proteins and maintaining the stability of CRL components. We used mutation analysis to confirm that the JAMM domain of the CSN-5 subunit is responsible for NEDD8 cleavage from cullin proteins in Neurospora crassa. Point mutations of key residues in the metal-binding motif (EX(nHXHX(10D of the CSN-5 JAMM domain disrupted CSN deneddylation activity without interfering with assembly of the CSN complex or interactions between CSN and cullin proteins. Surprisingly, CSN-5 with a mutated JAMM domain partially rescued the phenotypic defects observed in a csn-5 mutant. We found that, even without its deneddylation activity, the CSN can partially maintain the stability of the SCF(FWD-1 complex and partially restore the degradation of the circadian clock protein FREQUENCY (FRQ in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that CSN containing mutant CSN-5 efficiently prevents degradation of the substrate receptors of CRLs. Finally, we found that deletion of the CAND1 ortholog in N. crassa had little effect on the conidiation circadian rhythm. Our results suggest that CSN integrity plays major roles in hyphal growth, conidial development, and circadian function in N. crassa.

  2. Computer Programming: An Activity as Compelling as Game Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Goulding

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Game motif programming exercises (GM-Games were developed to help novices develop complex client server game systems within their freshman year. GM-Games foster a strong work ethic in as much as they reproduce the challenges and excitement associated with game play; yet their purpose is the development of advanced programming skills. We have found that young people are just as interested in mastering programming skills as they are in mastering the shooting, racing or strategy skills required in many entertainment games. We describe in this paper how GM-Games imitate many of the aspects of game play.

  3. Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase plays a key role in lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Lee, Su-Min; Son, Byung-Gap; Lee, Soh-Hyun; Ryoo, Zae Young; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Park, Jeen-Woo; Park, Dong-Chan; Song, Byoung J; Veech, Richard L; Song, Hebok; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2004-09-17

    NADPH is an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions including glutathione metabolism and fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. We have reported recently an important role for mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in cellular defense against oxidative damage by providing NADPH needed for the regeneration of reduced glutathione. However, the role of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) is still unclear. We report here for the first time that IDPc plays a critical role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. During differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, both IDPc enzyme activity and its protein content were increased in parallel in a time-dependent manner. Increased expression of IDPc by stable transfection of IDPc cDNA positively correlated with adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, whereas decreased IDPc expression by an antisense IDPc vector retarded adipogenesis. Furthermore, transgenic mice with overexpressed IDPc exhibited fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. In the epididymal fat pads of the transgenic mice, the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were markedly elevated. The hepatic and epididymal fat pad contents of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA in the transgenic mice were significantly lower, whereas the total triglyceride and cholesterol contents were markedly higher in the liver and serum of transgenic mice compared with those measured in wild type mice, suggesting that the consumption rate of those lipogenic precursors needed for fat biosynthesis must be increased by elevated IDPc activity. Taken together, our findings strongly indicate that IDPc would be a major NADPH producer required for fat and cholesterol synthesis.

  4. Reflecting on Role Play in Geographic Education: The Case of the Banana War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Hilda E.

    2004-01-01

    Debates over the nature and extent of globalization raise many issues to be addressed in a geographic education. In this paper, I briefly review case method instruction and role-play as teaching strategies suitable for material on globalization and other geographic subject matter, and then sketch an overview of an undergraduate geography role-play…

  5. Toll-like receptor 4 plays a protective role in pulmonary tuberculosis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branger, Judith; Leemans, Jaklien C.; Florquin, Sandrine; Weijer, Sebastiaan; Speelman, Peter; van der Poll, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) play an essential role in the innate recognition of microorganisms by the host. To determine the role of TLR4 in host defense against lung tuberculosis, TLR4 mutant (C3H/HeJ) and wild-type (C3H/HeN) mice were intranasally infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TLR4

  6. An exploratory study of the association between online gaming addiction and enjoyment motivations for playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Z; Williams, GA; Griffiths, MD

    2015-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are a popular form of entertainment used by millions of gamers worldwide. Potential problems relating to MMORPG play have emerged, particularly in relation to being addicted to playing in such virtual environments. In the present study, factors relating to online gaming addiction and motivations for playing in MMORPGs were examined to establish whether they were associated with addiction. A sample comprised 1,167 gamers who were survey...

  7. The motivation of children to play an active video game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Jacobs, W.M.; Vaessen, E.P.G.; Titze, S.; van Mechelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a weekly multiplayer class on the motivation of children aged 9-12 years to play an interactive dance simulation video game (IDSVG) at home over a period of 12 weeks. A sample of 27 children was randomly assigned to (1) a home group

  8. Day care quality and children's free play activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, D L; Powers, C P

    1983-07-01

    Social and nonsocial behavior of white, middle-class preschoolers in high, moderate, and low quality day care centers were contrasted. Children in high quality centers were more likely to interact positively with adults, while children in lower quality programs were more likely to engage in solitary play and aimless wandering.

  9. Metabolic changes associated with playing active video game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty adults (10 males and 10 females) between 19 and 25 years of age played Nintendo Wii Boxing™ for 15 minutes. ... the VO2max assessment. ... opponent when compared to when at rest (1.1 ± 0.1 kcal•min-1), while no significant differences were found between the two video game opponents or males and females.

  10. Role-play as an educational tool in medication communication skills: Students' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, S H; Kalpana, L; Veena, R M; Bharath Kumar, V D

    2016-10-01

    Medication communication skills are vital aspects of patient care that may influence treatment outcomes. However, traditional pharmacology curriculum deals with imparting factual information, with little emphasis on patient communication. The current study aims to explore students' perceptions of role-play as an educational tool in acquiring communication skills and to ascertain the need of role-play for their future clinical practice. This questionnaire-based study was done in 2 nd professional MBBS students. A consolidated concept of six training cases, focusing on major communication issues related to medication prescription in pharmacology, were developed for peer-role-play sessions for 2 nd professional MBBS ( n = 122) students. Structured scripts with specific emphasis on prescription medication communication and checklists for feedback were developed. Prevalidated questionnaires measured the quantitative aspects of role-plays in relation to their relevance as teaching-learning tool, perceived benefits of sessions, and their importance for future use. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. The role-play concept was well appreciated and considered an effective means for acquiring medication communication skills. The structured feedback by peers and faculty was well received by many. Over 90% of the students reported immense confidence in communicating therapy details, namely, drug name, purpose, mechanism, dosing details, and precautions. Majority reported a better retention of pharmacology concepts and preferred more such sessions. Most students consider peer-role-play as an indispensable tool to acquire effective communication skills regarding drug therapy. By virtue of providing experiential learning opportunities and its feasibility of implementation, role-play sessions justify inclusion in undergraduate medical curricula.

  11. Role-play as an educational tool in medication communication skills: Students’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, S. H.; Kalpana, L.; Veena, R. M.; Bharath Kumar, V. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Medication communication skills are vital aspects of patient care that may influence treatment outcomes. However, traditional pharmacology curriculum deals with imparting factual information, with little emphasis on patient communication. The current study aims to explore students’ perceptions of role-play as an educational tool in acquiring communication skills and to ascertain the need of role-play for their future clinical practice. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based study was done in 2nd professional MBBS students. A consolidated concept of six training cases, focusing on major communication issues related to medication prescription in pharmacology, were developed for peer-role-play sessions for 2nd professional MBBS (n = 122) students. Structured scripts with specific emphasis on prescription medication communication and checklists for feedback were developed. Prevalidated questionnaires measured the quantitative aspects of role-plays in relation to their relevance as teaching–learning tool, perceived benefits of sessions, and their importance for future use. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Results: The role-play concept was well appreciated and considered an effective means for acquiring medication communication skills. The structured feedback by peers and faculty was well received by many. Over 90% of the students reported immense confidence in communicating therapy details, namely, drug name, purpose, mechanism, dosing details, and precautions. Majority reported a better retention of pharmacology concepts and preferred more such sessions. Conclusions: Most students consider peer-role-play as an indispensable tool to acquire effective communication skills regarding drug therapy. By virtue of providing experiential learning opportunities and its feasibility of implementation, role-play sessions justify inclusion in undergraduate medical curricula. PMID:28031605

  12. On play and playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  13. Insights into the structure-activity relationship of the anticancer compound ZJ-101, a derivative of marine natural product superstolide A: A critical role played by the conjugated trienyl lactone moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shan; Shah, Aashay K; Head, Sarah A; Liu, Jun O; Jin, Zhendong

    2016-08-01

    Compound ZJ-101, a structurally simplified analog of the marine natural product superstolide A, was previously developed in our laboratory. In the subsequent structure-activity relationship study, two new analogs, ZJ-105 and ZJ-106, were designed and synthesized to probe the importance of the conjugated trienyl lactone moiety of the molecule by replacing the C2-C3 double bond in ZJ-101 with a single bond and switching the geometry of the C4-C5 double bond in ZJ-101 from Z to E, respectively. Biological evaluation showed that ZJ-105 completely loses antiproliferative activity whereas ZJ-106 is significantly less active against cancer cells in vitro than ZJ-101, suggesting that the conjugated trienyl lactone moiety of the molecule is critical for its anticancer activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Not Just "A Walking the Dog": Dog Walking and Pet Play and Their Association With Recommended Physical Activity Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen E; Wood, Lisa; Christian, Hayley; Trapp, Georgina S A

    2015-01-01

    To examine the role of pet play and dog walking in children's and adolescents' leisure time, and the relationship between these activities and physical activity. The study design was observational. The study setting was metropolitan Perth and nonmetropolitan regions in Western Australia. The study included 1097 primary school (mean age, 10.1 years; SD, 1.6 years) and 657 secondary school (mean age, 14.0 years; SD, 1.3 years) students. Validated measures of total physical activity, dog walking, and pet play activity (prevalence and time) were calculated. Generalized linear models tested for differences between proportions, while adjusting for socioeconomic status, age, and school-level clustering. Approximately one third of primary school and one quarter of secondary school students reported that they walked the dog at least once in the last week. Pet play was the most common play activity for primary and secondary school girls, and the second and third most popular play activity for secondary and primary school boys, respectively. Secondary school students who walked the dog or played with pets spent an average of 1 hour per week on each activity, and they were significantly more likely (p physical activity recommendations than secondary school students not reporting these activities. Given the significant proportion of young people who frequently engage in dog walking and pet play, and the high level of pet ownership in many Western countries, promotion of these activities to support young people's health is warranted.

  15. Facilitating pragmatic skills through role-play in learners with language learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoola, Fareeaa; Flack, Penelope S; Karrim, Saira B

    2017-07-26

    Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD) typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed.) Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.

  16. Facilitating pragmatic skills through role-play in learners with language learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareeaa Abdoola

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. Method: The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed. Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results: Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Conclusion: Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.

  17. Biotransformation effect of Bombyx Mori L. may play an important role in treating diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.

  18. Uncaria rhynchophylla (miq) Jack plays a role in neuronal protection in kainic acid-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Su, Shan-Yu; Jan, Ya-Min; Hsieh, Ching-Tou; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Jack (UR) is one of many Chinese herbs. Our previous studies have shown that UR has both anticonvulsive and free radical-scavenging activities in kainic acid (KA)-treated rats. The aim of the present study was to use the effect of UR on activated microglia, nitric oxide synthase, and apoptotic cells to investigate its function in neuroproction in KA-treated rats. UR of 1.0 or 0.5 g/kg was orally administered for 3 days (first day, second day, and 30 min prior to KA administration on the third day), or 10 mg/kg (intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 30 min prior to KA (2 microg/2 microl) was injected into the right hippocampus region of Sprague-Dawly rats. ED1 (mouse anti rat CD68), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactive cells and apoptotic cells were observed in the hippocampus region. The results indicated that 1.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg of UR and 10 mg/kg of L-NAME reduced the counts of ED1, nNOS, iNOS immunoreactive cells and apoptotic cells in KA-treated rats. This study demonstrates that UR can reduce microglia activation, nNOS, iNOS and apoptosis, suggesting that UR plays a neuro-protective role against neuronal damage in KA-treated rats.

  19. Play Equipment, Physical Activity Opportunities, and Children's Activity Levels at Childcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S. Gubbels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls. Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  20. The nonstructural proteins of Nipah virus play a key role in pathogenicity in experimentally infected animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Yoneda

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV P gene encodes P protein and three accessory proteins (V, C and W. It has been reported that all four P gene products have IFN antagonist activity when the proteins were transiently expressed. However, the role of those accessory proteins in natural infection with NiV remains unknown. We generated recombinant NiVs lacking V, C or W protein, rNiV(V-, rNiV(C-, and rNiV(W-, respectively, to analyze the functions of these proteins in infected cells and the implications in in vivo pathogenicity. All the recombinants grew well in cell culture, although the maximum titers of rNiV(V- and rNiV(C- were lower than the other recombinants. The rNiV(V-, rNiV(C- and rNiV(W- suppressed the IFN response as well as the parental rNiV, thereby indicating that the lack of each accessory protein does not significantly affect the inhibition of IFN signaling in infected cells. In experimentally infected golden hamsters, rNiV(V- and rNiV(C- but not the rNiV(W- virus showed a significant reduction in virulence. These results suggest that V and C proteins play key roles in NiV pathogenicity, and the roles are independent of their IFN-antagonist activity. This is the first report that identifies the molecular determinants of NiV in pathogenicity in vivo.

  1. Extracellular histones play an inflammatory role in acid aspiration-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Wen, Zongmei; Guan, Li; Jiang, Ping; Gu, Tao; Zhao, Jinyuan; Lv, Xin; Wen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a key feature in acid aspiration-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the factors that trigger inflammation are unclear. The authors hypothesize that extracellular histones, a newly identified inflammatory mediator, play important roles in the pathogenesis of ARDS. The authors used a hydrochloric acid aspiration-induced ARDS model to investigate whether extracellular histones are pathogenic and whether targeting histones are protective. Exogenous histones and antihistone antibody were administered to mice. Heparin can bind to histones, so the authors studied whether heparin could protect from ARDS using cell and mouse models. Furthermore, the authors analyzed whether extracellular histones are clinically involved in ARDS patients caused by gastric aspiration. Extracellular histones in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of acid-treated mice were significantly higher (1.832 ± 0.698) at 3 h after injury than in sham-treated group (0.63 ± 0.153; P = 0.0252, n = 5 per group). Elevated histones may originate from damaged lung cells and neutrophil infiltration. Exogenous histones aggravated lung injury, whereas antihistone antibody markedly attenuated the intensity of ARDS. Notably, heparin provided a similar protective effect against ARDS. Analysis of plasma from ARDS patients (n = 21) showed elevated histones were significantly correlated with the degree of ARDS and were higher in nonsurvivors (2.723 ± 0.2933, n = 7) than in survivors (1.725 ± 0.1787, P = 0.006, n = 14). Extracellular histones may play a contributory role toward ARDS by promoting tissue damage and systemic inflammation and may become a novel marker reflecting disease activity. Targeting histones by neutralizing antibody or heparin shows potent protective effects, suggesting a potentially therapeutic strategy.

  2. Identification of a peptide binding protein that plays a role in antigen presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, E.K.; Margoliash, E.; Pierce, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The helper T-cell response to globular proteins appears, in general, to require intracellular processing of the antigen, such that a peptide fragment containing the T-cell antigenic determinant is released and transported to and held on the surface of an Ia-expressing, antigen-presenting cell. However, the molecular details underlying these phenomena are largely unknown. The means by which antigenic peptides are anchored on the antigen-presenting cell surface was investigated. A cell surface protein is identified that was isolated by it ability to bind to a 24-amino acid peptide fragment of pigeon cytochrome c, residues 81-104, containing the major antigenic determinant for B10.A mouse T cells. This peptide binding protein, purified from [ 35 S]methionine-labeled cells, appears as two discrete bands of ≅72 and 74 kDa after NaDodSO 4 /PAGE. The protein can be eluted from the peptide affinity column with equivalent concentrations of either the antigenic pigeon cytochrome c peptide or the corresponding nonantigenic peptide of mouse cytochrome c. However, it does not bind to the native cytochromes c, either of pigeon or mouse, and thus the protein appears to recognize some structure available only in the free peptides. This protein plays a role in antigen presentation. Its expression is not major histocompatibility complex-restricted in that the blocking activity of the antisera can be absorbed on spleen cells from mice of different haplotypes. This peptide binding protein can be isolated from a variety of cell types, including B cells, T cells, and fibroblasts. The anchoring of processed peptides on the cell surface by such a protein may play a role in antigen presentation

  3. "Fair Play": A Videogame Designed to Address Implicit Race Bias Through Active Perspective Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Belinda; Kaatz, Anna; Chu, Sarah; Ramirez, Dennis; Samson-Samuel, Clem; Carnes, Molly

    2014-12-01

    Having diverse faculty in academic health centers will help diversify the healthcare workforce and reduce health disparities. Implicit race bias is one factor that contributes to the underrepresentation of Black faculty. We designed the videogame "Fair Play" in which players assume the role of a Black graduate student named Jamal Davis. As Jamal, players experience subtle race bias while completing "quests" to obtain a science degree. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to play the game would have greater empathy for Jamal and lower implicit race bias than participants randomized to read narrative text describing Jamal's experience. University of Wisconsin-Madison graduate students were recruited via e-mail and randomly assigned to play "Fair Play" or read narrative text through an online link. Upon completion, participants took an Implicit Association Test to measure implicit bias and answered survey questions assessing empathy toward Jamal and awareness of bias. As hypothesized, gameplayers showed the least implicit bias but only when they also showed high empathy for Jamal (P=0.013). Gameplayers did not show greater empathy than text readers, and women in the text condition reported the greatest empathy for Jamal (P=0.008). However, high empathy only predicted lower levels of implicit bias among those who actively took Jamal's perspective through gameplay (P=0.014). A videogame in which players experience subtle race bias as a Black graduate student has the potential to reduce implicit bias, possibly because of a game's ability to foster empathy through active perspective taking.

  4. Third Year Medical School Students' Experiences of Revealing Patients' Stories through Role Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansever, Zeliha; Avsar, Zeynep; Tastan, Kenan

    2015-02-01

    Studying medicine is hard and it takes longer time compared to other majors. In addition, medical students find medical education boring. It is now necessary to turn medical education into an enjoyable and interesting way. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of an educational program related to how to learn taking medical history and how an effective patient-doctor interview should be. The program is structured in various scenarios, on the students learning skills, by the "role playing" method. A scenario prepared by the lecturer was employed in this study. While one of the students acted in a doctor role, the other one played in the role of patient's relative. The lecturer always played in the role of patient. After performing the role playing, students' written and oral feedbacks were gathered. Data were analysed by using SPSS 20.0 program. A total of 470 feedbacks (51.3% were given by the female students) were taken from the students. Thirty-three volunteer students, nineteen of them were male, took part in the role playing. In the patient-doctor interview, the field that students were best were greeting the patients and dealing only with patients during the examination. The mean scores were 3.81±0.95 and 3.79±0.94 respectively. The ability to "summarize" and to "address the patient with his/her name" had the lowest scores; the mean scores of the students in these areas were 2.94±1.11 and 2.70±1.31, respectively. Medical education is a long and tough process. Therefore, it should be interesting, attention getting and cheerful. Role playing can be effective in meeting that need.

  5. Role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of individuals with different perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikazu Furumi

    Full Text Available The present study examined effects of role-play experience on reading the mind of people with different perception. It is normally difficult but very important in daily life to understand people with different characteristics, including those with restricted color vision. We explored the mechanisms of reading the mind of people with different perception. Forty university students were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop computer, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an instruction issued by a partner who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two partners: one was a monkey with normal color vision and the other was a dog with restricted color vision. The monkey could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog saw some objects in different colors (e.g., he saw as yellow objects that the participants saw as red. Participants were required to respond according to the partner's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions (i.e., mind read, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey. Before the test phase, the role-play group had a role-play experience in which participants assumed the role of people with restricted color vision. No-role-play participants made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas among role-play participants, there was no difference between conditions. These results suggest that role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of people with perceptual experiences different from our own.

  6. Integration of simulations and visualizations into classroom contexts through role playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysey, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    While simulations create a novel way to engage students, the idea of numerical modeling may be overwhelming to a wide swath of students - particularly non-geoscience majors or those students early in their earth science education. Yet even for these students, simulations and visualizations remain a powerful way to explore concepts and take ownership over their learning. One approach to bring these tools into the classroom is to introduce them as a component of a larger role-playing activity. I present two specific examples of how I have done this within a general education course broadly focused on water resources sustainability. In the first example, we have created an online multi-player watershed management game where players make management decisions for their individual farms, which in turn set the parameters for a watershed-scale groundwater model that continuously runs in the background. Through the simulation students were able to influence the behavior of the environment and see feedbacks on their individual land within the game. Though the original intent was to focus student learning on the hydrologic aspects of the watershed behavior, I have found that the value of the simulation is actually in allowing students to become immersed in a way that enables deep conversations about topics ranging from environmental policy to social justice. The second example presents an overview of a role playing activity focused on a multi-party negotiation of water rights in the Klamath watershed. In this case each student takes on a different role in the negotiation (e.g., farmer, energy producer, government, environmental advocate, etc.) and is presented with a rich set of data tying environmental and economic factors to the operation of reservoirs. In this case the simulation model is very simple, i.e., a mass balance calculator that students use to predict the consequences of their management decisions. The simplicity of the simulator, however, allows for

  7. Histone deacetylases play a major role in the transcriptional regulation of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir K Chaal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The apparent paucity of molecular factors of transcriptional control in the genomes of Plasmodium parasites raises many questions about the mechanisms of life cycle regulation in these malaria parasites. Epigenetic regulation has been suggested to play a major role in the stage specific gene expression during the Plasmodium life cycle. To address some of these questions, we analyzed global transcriptional responses of Plasmodium falciparum to a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylase activities (HDAC. The inhibitor apicidin induced profound transcriptional changes in multiple stages of the P. falciparum intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC that were characterized by rapid activation and repression of a large percentage of the genome. A major component of this response was induction of genes that are otherwise suppressed during that particular stage of the IDC or specific for the exo-erythrocytic stages. In the schizont stage, apicidin induced hyperacetylation of histone lysine residues H3K9, H4K8 and the tetra-acetyl H4 (H4Ac4 and demethylation of H3K4me3. Interestingly, we observed overlapping patterns of chromosomal distributions between H4K8Ac and H3K4me3 and between H3K9Ac and H4Ac4. There was a significant but partial association between the apicidin-induced gene expression and histone modifications, which included a number of stage specific transcription factors. Taken together, inhibition of HDAC activities leads to dramatic de-regulation of the IDC transcriptional cascade, which is a result of both disruption of histone modifications and up-regulation of stage specific transcription factors. These findings suggest an important role of histone modification and chromatin remodeling in transcriptional regulation of the Plasmodium life cycle. This also emphasizes the potential of P. falciparum HDACs as drug targets for malaria chemotherapy.

  8. Histone deacetylases play a major role in the transcriptional regulation of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaal, Balbir K; Gupta, Archna P; Wastuwidyaningtyas, Brigitta D; Luah, Yen-Hoon; Bozdech, Zbynek

    2010-01-22

    The apparent paucity of molecular factors of transcriptional control in the genomes of Plasmodium parasites raises many questions about the mechanisms of life cycle regulation in these malaria parasites. Epigenetic regulation has been suggested to play a major role in the stage specific gene expression during the Plasmodium life cycle. To address some of these questions, we analyzed global transcriptional responses of Plasmodium falciparum to a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylase activities (HDAC). The inhibitor apicidin induced profound transcriptional changes in multiple stages of the P. falciparum intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) that were characterized by rapid activation and repression of a large percentage of the genome. A major component of this response was induction of genes that are otherwise suppressed during that particular stage of the IDC or specific for the exo-erythrocytic stages. In the schizont stage, apicidin induced hyperacetylation of histone lysine residues H3K9, H4K8 and the tetra-acetyl H4 (H4Ac4) and demethylation of H3K4me3. Interestingly, we observed overlapping patterns of chromosomal distributions between H4K8Ac and H3K4me3 and between H3K9Ac and H4Ac4. There was a significant but partial association between the apicidin-induced gene expression and histone modifications, which included a number of stage specific transcription factors. Taken together, inhibition of HDAC activities leads to dramatic de-regulation of the IDC transcriptional cascade, which is a result of both disruption of histone modifications and up-regulation of stage specific transcription factors. These findings suggest an important role of histone modification and chromatin remodeling in transcriptional regulation of the Plasmodium life cycle. This also emphasizes the potential of P. falciparum HDACs as drug targets for malaria chemotherapy.

  9. Performing self, performing character: Exploring gender performativity in online role-playing games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Osborne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Online narrative (fiction-based role-playing games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs provide a ludic structure in which role players enact the gender and sexuality of their avatars. To investigate how role players perceive and perform their avatars' gender and sexuality in online games, I invited role players from MMORPGs and narrative RPGs to participate in an online survey. This study examines how the online game environment mediates players' self-expression and their acceptance of minority identities. Qualitative analysis of the data collected suggests that players who demonstrate empathy with and examination of their avatars' genders and sexualities, and who experience a sense of belonging within the game structure, are able to form positive interpersonal relationships that allow them to accept others' expressed identities.

  10. APPLICATION METHODS TO INCREASE OF ROLE PLAYING ON LEARNING MATERIALS PRESERVING NKRI (PENERAPAN METODE ROLE PLAY UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR PADA MATERI MENJAGA KEUTUHAN NKRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfudin -

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Uncertainty in the nation's economy, the impact of globalization as well as various crises and disasters are problems that may lead to national disintegration which make few groups want to secede from NKRI. All these problems unilaterally are evidences of the unreliability of civic education learning as a subject that mandates to maintain the integrity of NKRI, not in the macro scope but in giving civic education as early as possible from the elementary school. The learning outcomes of civic education learning do not only include the acquisition of knowledge, but more to the acquisition of feeling and behavior. Consequently, in the pre-cycle, the researcher found difficulties to integrate the two domains, which made the learning outcomes below the mini-mum mastery criteria, students’ behavior lacking the feeling of love to their homeland and stu-dents’ motivation in learning low. To solve the problems, the researcher used role play method and as a result, after two cycles, students’ learning outcomes increased. The percentage of stu-dents’ minimum mastery criteria increased from 52% (score 75 to 69% in cycle I and 96% in cycle II. In addition, the students’ were more motivated in learning, followed ceremony in an or-derly manner, and behaved in ways that reflect the love of homeland. It can be concluded that ap-plying role play method in the lesson of preserving the integrity of NKRI at Grade V SDN Cilengkrang North Sumedang Regencey, students’ learning outcomes could be improved. Keywords: Role Play Method, Civic Education Learning, Integrity of The Unitary State of The Republic of Indonesia Abstrak. Ketidakpastian kondisi perekonomian bangsa, pengaruh globalisasi serta berbagai krisis dan bencana merupakan permasalahan yang merujuk ke arah disintegrasi bangsa. Sehingga segelintir kelompok ingin memisahkan diri dari NKRI. Semua permasalahan diatas secara sepihak merupakan suatu bukti ketidak mempanan pembelajaran PKn

  11. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Bassiri, Hamid; Guan, Peng; Wiener, Susan; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André; Orange, Jordan S; Nichols, Kim E

    2013-04-25

    The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells. The strict developmental requirement for SAP has made it difficult to discern its possible involvement in mature iNKT cell functions. By using temporal Cre recombinase-mediated gene deletion to ablate SAP expression after completion of iNKT cell development, we demonstrate that SAP is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced iNKT cell cytotoxicity against T-cell and B-cell leukemia targets in vitro and iNKT-cell-mediated control of T-cell leukemia growth in vivo. These findings are not restricted to the murine system: silencing RNA-mediated suppression of SAP expression in human iNKT cells also significantly impairs TCR-induced cytolysis. Mechanistic studies reveal that iNKT cell killing requires the tyrosine kinase Fyn, a known SAP-binding protein. Furthermore, SAP expression is required within iNKT cells to facilitate their interaction with T-cell targets and induce reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center to the immunologic synapse (IS). Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.

  12. The transcription factor NFATp plays a key role in susceptibility to TB in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Via

    Full Text Available In T cells, the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells p (NFATp is a key regulator of the cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interferon-γ (IFN-γ. Here, we show that NFATp-deficient (NFATp(-/- mice have a dramatic and highly significant increase in mortality after Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb infection as compared to mortality of control animals after MTb infection. Animals deficient in NFATp have significantly impaired levels of TNF and IFN-γ transcription and protein expression in naïve or total CD4(+ T cells, but display wild-type levels of TNF mRNA or protein from MTb-stimulated dendritic cells (DC. The rapid mortality and disease severity observed in MTb-infected NFATp(-/- mice is associated with dysregulated production of TNF and IFN-γ in the lungs, as well as with increased levels of TNF, in their serum. Furthermore, global blocking of TNF production by injection of a TNF neutralizaing agent at 6 weeks, but not 12 weeks, post-MTb-infection further decreased the survival rate of both wild-type and NFATp(-/- mice, indicating an early role for TNF derived from cells from the monocyte lineage in containment of infection. These results thus demonstrate that NFATp plays a critical role in immune containment of TB disease in vivo, through the NFATp-dependent expression of TNF and IFN-γ in T cells.

  13. Novel Pectate Lyase Genes of Heterodera glycines Play Key Roles in the Early Stage of Parasitism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Peng

    Full Text Available Pectate lyases are known to play a key role in pectin degradation by catalyzing the random cleavage of internal polymer linkages (endo-pectinases. In this paper, four novel cDNAs, designated Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7, that encode pectate lyases were cloned and characterized from the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. The predicted protein sequences of HG-PEL-3, HG-PEL-4 and HG-PEL-6 differed significantly in both their amino acid sequences and their genomic structures from other pectate lyases of H. glycines (HG-PEL-1, HG-PEL-2 and HG-PEL-7. A phylogenetic study revealed that the pectate lyase proteins of H. glycines are clustered into distinct clades and have distinct numbers and positioning of introns, which suggests that the pectate lyase genes of H. glycines may have evolved from at least two ancestral genes. A Southern blot analysis revealed that multiple Hg-pel-6-like genes were present in the H. glycines genome. In situ hybridization showed that four novel pectate lyases (Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7 were actively transcribed in the subventral esophageal gland cells. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay supported the finding that the expression of these genes was strong in the egg, pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile (J2 and early parasitic J2 stages and that it declined in further developmental stages of the nematode. This expression pattern suggests that these proteins play a role in the migratory phase of the nematode life cycle. Knocking down Hg-pel-6 using in vitro RNA interference resulted in a 46.9% reduction of the number of nematodes that invaded the plants and a 61.5% suppression of the development of H. glycines females within roots compared to the GFP-dsRNA control. Plant host-derived RNAi induced the silencing of the Hg-pel-6gene, which significantly reduced the nematode infection levels at 7 Days post inoculation (dpi. Similarly, this procedure reduced the number of female adults at 40 dpi

  14. Learner interaction in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG): A sociocultural discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants’ text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a sociocultural perspective. Qualitative analysis reveals the presence of interactional features associated with the development of sociocultural competence...

  15. Verbal Communication of Story Facilitators in Multi-player Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Brolund, Thea; Hitchens, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study, the ver......Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study......, the verbal communication of game masters in a series of role-playing game sessions is categorized and analyzed depending on form and content, using protocol analysis, establishing a model for the verbal communication of game masters....

  16. What is the meaning and nature of active play for today's children in the UK?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Rowan; Fox, Kenneth R; Jago, Russell

    2011-03-07

    Preventing the decline in physical activity which occurs around 10-11 years of age is a public health priority. Physically active play can make unique contributions to children's development which cannot be obtained from more structured forms of physical activity. Encouraging active play in children's leisure time has potential to increase physical activity levels while promoting optimal child development. Aspired wisdom states that contemporary British children no longer play outdoors, but systematic evidence for this is lacking. We need to build a more informed picture of contemporary children's play before we consider interventions to increase it. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: 1) children's perceptions of 'play'; 2) how much of their play is active play; and 3) contexts of children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Children's perceptions of play were broad and included both physically active and sedentary behaviours. Children reported that they frequently engaged in active play and valued both the physical and social benefits it provided. Whereas boys frequently reported having a 'kick about' or riding bikes as their preferred forms of active play, girls were less likely to report a specific activity. Additionally, boys reported greater independent mobility in their active play compared to girls. Finally, boys were more likely to report playing with neighbourhood friends but girls more frequently reported playing with family members. Promoting active play in children's leisure time may increase the physical activity of children, but interventions may need to be tailored according to gender.

  17. What is the meaning and nature of active play for today's children in the UK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jago Russell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing the decline in physical activity which occurs around 10-11 years of age is a public health priority. Physically active play can make unique contributions to children's development which cannot be obtained from more structured forms of physical activity. Encouraging active play in children's leisure time has potential to increase physical activity levels while promoting optimal child development. Aspired wisdom states that contemporary British children no longer play outdoors, but systematic evidence for this is lacking. We need to build a more informed picture of contemporary children's play before we consider interventions to increase it. Methods Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: 1 children's perceptions of 'play'; 2 how much of their play is active play; and 3 contexts of children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Results Children's perceptions of play were broad and included both physically active and sedentary behaviours. Children reported that they frequently engaged in active play and valued both the physical and social benefits it provided. Whereas boys frequently reported having a 'kick about' or riding bikes as their preferred forms of active play, girls were less likely to report a specific activity. Additionally, boys reported greater independent mobility in their active play compared to girls. Finally, boys were more likely to report playing with neighbourhood friends but girls more frequently reported playing with family members. Conclusions Promoting active play in children's leisure time may increase the physical activity of children, but interventions may need to be tailored according to gender.

  18. Footballs versus Barbies: Childhood Play Activities as Predictors of Sport Participation by Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiliano, Traci A.; Popp, Kathryn E.; Knight, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the extent to which women's childhood play activities predicted future sport participation. College athletes and nonathletes completed a survey on childhood play and adult sports experiences. Playing with masculine toys and games, playing in predominantly male or mixed groups, and being a tomboy characterized women who later became…

  19. Spondylolysis in Active Adolescents: Expediting Return to Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, James L.; Rifat, Sami F.

    2001-01-01

    Spondylolysis is a common cause of back pain in active adolescents. For prolonged pain, an aggressive workup and specific diagnosis are needed. History and physical exam findings are not diagnostic. Tests beyond radiographs (computed tomography, bone scans, and magnetic resonance imaging) are necessary to determine metabolic activity and full…

  20. Playing Goffman's Information Game: A Classroom Activity Involving Student Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Charles Allan

    2017-01-01

    Goffman's dramaturgical approach is frequently used to introduce undergraduate students to the sociological understanding of human interaction. While a number of scholars have designed engaging student activities that highlight Goffman's approach, most of these activities tend to involve atypical embarrassing interactions or norm-breaking…

  1. Meningkatkan Kepercayaan Diri Remaja Putri Melalui Layanan Penguasaan Konten Teknik Role Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ida Farida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui peningkatan kepercayaan diri remaja putri pubertas awal setelah diberikan layanan penguasaan konten dengan teknik role playing. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian pre eksperimen. Populasinya remaja putri pubertas awal kelas VII SMP N 13 Semarang. Teknik sampling yang digunakan purposive sampling, dengan sampel 16 remaja putri pubertas awal yang memiliki kecenderungan kepercayaan diri rendah. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan skala psikologi berupa skala kepercayaan diri. Analisis datanya  menggunakan uji wilcoxon match pair dan deskriptif persentase. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa layanan penguasaan konten dengan teknik role playing dapat meningkatkan kepercayaan diri remaja putri pubertas awal, dengan nilai zhitung = 0 < ztabel = 30. Simpulan dari penelitian ini yakni terdapat peningkatan kepercayaan diri remaja putri pubertas awal setelah diberikan layanan penguasaan konten dengan teknik role playing. This study seeks to find out the increasing confidence of female adolescent in early  puberty  after getting mastery content counseling by role playing technique. This research was using pre-experimental design with  female adolescents of seven graders in SMP N 13 Semarang as the  population. Purposive sampling technique was used  in this study. Sixteen adolescents in their early puberty that had tendency of  low self confidence was used as sample. Method for collecting data was used self confident scale; whereas, the data analysis used wilcoxon match pair test and descriptive percentage. The result of this study showed that counseling of mastery content by role playing technique was able to increase self confidence of female adolescent in early puberity with the score zcount = 0 < ztable= 30. It can concluded that there was increasing of self confidence for female adolescent in early puberty after getting counseling of mastery content by role playing.

  2. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activitie...

  3. Fostering creativity, empathy and self-regulation through story-based educational role-play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    is an interactive approach to learning that involves students in collaborative, creative problem solving in meaningful contexts. A R&D project in Danish schools has studied how the curriculum for grades 6-10 can be embedded in immersive narrative roleplay scenarios, and the implications for the learners’ motivation...... engaging the learners in narrative educational role-play. These include how the learners engagement in role-play can afford emotionally encoded memory, socially and contextually anchored interactions with the learning material as well as empathy and self-regulation.Based on the findings from the R...

  4. Social Psychological Aspects of Addiction to Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinova T.Y.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of how massively multiplayer online role¬playing games (MMORPG affect the behavior of players. Basing on a series of research, the paper analyzes how massively multiplayer online role¬playing games are created and highlights their specifics that possibly contribute to the development of psychological addiction to such games. The authors describe the outcomes of their own research on motivation in persons with gaming addiction aged 18 and up, with over 1 year of gaming experience. These out-comes suggest that current traditional criteria developed for assessing gaming addiction cannot be applied to this particular form of addictive behavior.

  5. Virtual firm as a role-playing tool for biomedical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonov, Oleg; Soto-Romero, Georges; Guyon, Florent; Courjal, Nadège; Euphrasie, Sebatien; Yahiaoui, Reda; Butterlin, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes design of a role-playing tool based on the experience of the practice firm which allows participants to obtain relevant and practical on-the-job experience. The students played the roles of the employees and the applicants for vacant positions at the virtual firm - a small business specialized in biomedical sector - founded to design the demonstration vehicle for a biomedical device. We found that this innovative concept may be used to improve the young engineers performance and to facilitate their post-graduate integration.

  6. What Role do Metaphors Play in Game-based Learning Processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learningemerges in association to game-embedded metaphors.As shown in this chapter, metaphorsseem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participantswith a suitcase containing...

  7. What Role do Metaphors Play in Game-Based Learning Processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learning emerges in association to game-embedded metaphors. As shown in this chapter, metaphors seem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participants with a suitcase containing...

  8. Senior veterinary students' perceptions of using role play to learn communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jennifer C; Bateman, Shane W

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies of veterinary practice have suggested a correlation between well-developed communication skills and job satisfaction, career retention, customer satisfaction, decreased lawsuits, and financial remuneration for veterinarians. Veterinary educators are under growing pressure to teach functional communication skills to veterinary students; however, the methods employed have not been well evaluated. In this study we have evaluated veterinary student's attitudes to learning communication skills by participating in role play. The study indicates that experiential learning modalities such as role play are perceived as effective by students, despite reluctance to participate and some discomfort surrounding participation.

  9. Improving Students’ Speaking Skill through Communication Game, Recorded Role Play and Peer Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friska Arismayang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to improve students’ speaking skills using the combined strategies of communication game, recorded role play and peer feedback activities. This action research took place at an English institution in Jakarta, Indonesia and collected the data by observing the learning process with the collaborator, analyzing the video during the class, making field notes, conducting tests (pretest and post test and interviewing students. There were three cycles in this study. Results of the tests showed that students’ speaking skills improved. The mean score of pre-test was 3.1, while the mean score of post-test in cycle one was 3.3, cycle two 3.5 and cycle three 3.6. Based on the interview, all students were interested in and excited about the use of the three strategies above. However, there was a problem with the implementation of peer feedback activities; it was time consuming. The results of this study can not only promote an idea for EFL teachers to use the strategies as an alternative approach to teaching speaking skills but also inspire EFL teachers to be more creative in using these three strategies

  10. Experiencing the Elicitation of User Requirements and Recording Them in Use Case Diagrams through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, Gay; McKenna, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a role-play exercise used in a second-year tertiary Systems Analysis and Design course, and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the students' responses to a survey that solicited their perceptions of that role-play experience. The role-play involved students in eliciting user requirements from customers during a Joint…

  11. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi

    2011-01-01

    PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specifi c aim is to assess preschool children ’ s physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy...... and Poland. The parents ’ and children ’ s physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire fi lled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole ’ s BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ^2 test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14...... hour (p active, the Polish are in the middle and the Italians are the least active. The difference in infrastructures (safety of walking streets, access...

  12. Facilitating social work role plays in online courses: The use of video conferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Fitch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Role plays have served an instrumental role in social work education by providing opportunities for students to acquire interaction skills. This project tested various online video conferencing tools to facilitate role plays for students who live in different locations and who are unable to be at the same place at the same time. Key features of the technology included the ability to facilitate real-time interaction, compatibility with laptops and Wi-Fi connections, and the ability to record sessions for later viewing and feedback. Method: Case study design. Results: Students were able to use the videoconferencing software with minimal support. Video quality was not always ideal with contributing factors being the time of day students used the software. There were no distinguishable time and effort demands associated with the online video conferencing compared to classroom role plays. Some students found use of the technology caused them to feel disconnected from their peers compared to face-to-face encounters, while other students found the encounter more intimate in that the pressure to perform in front of others was not felt. Implications: Video conferencing is a promising tool to facilitate social work role plays. Future research needs to assess the acquisition of specific skills compared to traditional classroom students.

  13. Effects of Behavioral Contingencies on Adolescent Active Videogame Play and Overall Activity: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gregory J; Adams, Marc A; Ramirez, Ernesto R; Carlson, Jordan A; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Dillon, Lindsay; Marshall, Simon J

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of four active videogames (AVGs) varying in behavioral contingencies (behavior-consequence relations) on adolescent AVG play and overall activity levels over 4 weeks. Each AVG, manufactured by SSD/Xavix(®) (Shiseido Co. of Japan, Tokyo, Japan), was coded and scored for the number of positive and aversive behavioral contingencies within the games. "Bowling" and "Tennis" were classified as having "higher contingency scores," and "Boxing" and aerobic fitness training were classified as having "lower contingency scores." Adolescents (n=63; 11-15 years old; 62% male; 38% Hispanic; 44% overweight or obese) were randomized to play one of the four AVGs at home and recorded game play sessions in a paper log. Baseline and week 4 assessments were completed at home; week 1, 2, and 3 assessments were completed by telephone. Accelerometers were worn during baseline and weeks 1 and 4. Accelerometer-measured sedentary and light activity hours/day were stable over time, whereas moderate-vigorous physical activity minutes/day increased in the higher contingency group and decreased in the lower contingency group (interaction effect, 6.43, P=0.024). Reported game play minutes decreased in both groups from week 1 to week 4 (-29.42 minutes, P=0.001). There was some support for the hypothesis that AVGs with more behavioral contingencies, compared with AVGs with fewer behavioral contingencies, result in more physical activity. However, overall AVG play decreased substantially after the first week. Further study is needed to better understand how behavioral contingencies can be used in AVGs to enhance their potential to provide health benefits to game players.

  14. S-14: Soccer Injury Prevention Program; How Parents Can Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soccer is classified as a high to moderate-intensity contact sport. It is therefore of importance that the incidence of soccer injuries be reduced through preventive interventions. The purpose of this review is to conclude the importance of a prevention program and explore the role parents have towards minimizing soccer related injuries among children and adolescence football players.METHOD: 42 hand searches, 5 books, and 25 electronic articles were reviewed and relevant results were collected for the purpose of this paper. Selected studies were categorized as follows: soccer injury statistics, injury prevention program, and parents and prevention.RESULTS: 5-16 year of age is a critical age range for soccer related injuries. Some studies have confirmed soccer injuries can be reduced by preventive interventions, and mentioned the importance of prevention program and the role of parents in the program. A few studies reported the efficacy for a positive parent-child relationship and injury prevalence, while other reported the negative influence parental demand on injury rates among children. Moreover, suggestions were made of consideration to parents prior to allowing children to participate in soccer.CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of sports injuries is team work, and parent's role can be as vital as other members of the prevention team. In a successful preventive program, there are steps that parents can take to help kids stay safe on the soccer field or wherever they play or participate in sports activities. Educational materials should be provided to parents by soccer camp organizers before children involve in soccer programs.

  15. Amygdalar glutamatergic neuronal systems play a key role on the hibernating state of hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facciolo Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excitatory transmitting mechanisms are proving to play a critical role on neuronal homeostasis conditions of facultative hibernators such as the Syrian golden hamster. Indeed works have shown that the glutamatergic system of the main olfactory brain station (amygdala is capable of controlling thermoregulatory responses, which are considered vital for the different hibernating states. In the present study the role of amygdalar glutamatergic circuits on non-hibernating (NHIB and hibernating (HIB hamsters were assessed on drinking stimuli and subsequently compared to expression variations of some glutamatergic subtype mRNA levels in limbic areas. For this study the two major glutamatergic antagonists and namely that of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR, 3-(+-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP plus that of the acid α-amine-3-hydroxy-5-metil-4-isoxazol-propionic receptor (AMPAR site, cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX were infused into the basolateral amygdala nucleus. Attempts were made to establish the type of effects evoked by amygdalar glutamatergic cross-talking processes during drinking stimuli, a response that may corroborate their major role at least during some stages of this physiological activity in hibernators. Results From the behavioral results it appears that the two glutamatergic compounds exerted distinct effects. In the first case local infusion of basolateral complexes (BLA with NMDAR antagonist caused very great (p Conclusion We conclude that predominant drinking events evoked by glutamatergic mechanisms, in the presence of prevalently down regulated levels of NR1/2A of some telencephalic and hypothalamic areas appear to constitute an important neuronal switch at least during arousal stage of hibernation. The establishment of the type of glutamatergic subtypes that are linked to successful hibernating states, via drinking stimuli, may have useful bearings toward sleeping disorders.

  16. The right thalamus may play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhu Fan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies have shown that the mammalian thalamus is a key structure for anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and anesthesia-awakening regulation. However, both the dynamic characteristics and probable lateralization of thalamic functioning during anesthesia-awakening regulation are not fully understood, and little is known of the evolutionary basis of the role of the thalamus in anesthesia-awakening regulation. Methods An amphibian species, the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis was used in the present study. The frogs were immersed in triciane methanesulfonate (MS-222 for general anesthesia. Electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded continuously from both sides of the telencephalon, diencephalon (thalamus and mesencephalon during the pre-anesthesia stage, administration stage, recovery stage and post-anesthesia stage. EEG data was analyzed including calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn and permutation entropy (PE. Results Both ApEn and PE values differed significantly between anesthesia stages, with the highest values occurring during the awakening period and the lowest values during the anesthesia period. There was a significant correlation between the stage durations and ApEn or PE values during anesthesia-awakening cycle primarily for the right diencephalon (right thalamus. ApEn and PE values for females were significantly higher than those for males. Discussion ApEn and PE measurements are suitable for estimating depth of anesthesia and complexity of amphibian brain activity. The right thalamus appears physiologically positioned to play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs indicating an early evolutionary origin of the role of the thalamus in arousal and consciousness in land vertebrates. Sex differences exist in the neural regulation of general anesthesia in frogs.

  17. Multilayered Regulation of Ethylene Induction Plays a Positive Role in Arabidopsis Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rongxia; Su, Jianbin; Meng, Xiangzong; Li, Sen; Liu, Yidong; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Shuqun

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene, a key phytohormone involved in plant-pathogen interaction, plays a positive role in plant resistance against fungal pathogens. However, its function in plant bacterial resistance remains unclear. Here, we report a detailed analysis of ethylene induction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst). Ethylene biosynthesis is highly induced in both pathogen/microbe-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), and the induction is potentiated by salicylic acid (SA) pretreatment. In addition, Pst actively suppresses PAMP-triggered ethylene induction in a type III secretion system-dependent manner. SA potentiation of ethylene induction is dependent mostly on MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE6 (MPK6) and MPK3 and their downstream ACS2 and ACS6, two type I isoforms of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACSs). ACS7, a type III ACS whose expression is enhanced by SA pretreatment, is also involved. Pst expressing the avrRpt2 effector gene (Pst-avrRpt2), which is capable of triggering ETI, induces a higher level of ethylene production, and the elevated portion is dependent on SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 and NONEXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1, two key players in SA biosynthesis and signaling. High-order ACS mutants with reduced ethylene induction are more susceptible to both Pst and Pst-avrRpt2, demonstrating a positive role of ethylene in plant bacterial resistance mediated by both PAMP-triggered immunity and ETI. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Role-play facilitates children’s mindreading of those with atypical color perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikazu eFurumi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of role-play experience on children’s mindreading ability. Forty-one primary school children (20 boys, 21 girls, mean age: 9.37 years, range: 8–11 years were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an order issued by a manager who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two managers: one was a monkey manager with normal color vision, and the other was a dog manager with restricted color vision. The monkey manager could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog manager saw some objects in different colors. Participants were required to respond according to the manager's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog manager saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey manager. Before the test phase, participants in the role-play group were provided a role-play experience in which they assumed the role of the dog manager with restricted color vision. The experimental data were analyzed using a 2 x 2 mixed-design ANOVA (role-play condition x communication partner condition to examine differences in the error rate. Both main effects and its interaction were significant. According to the post-hoc analyses, participants in the no-role-play condition made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas no such difference was found among participants in the role-play condition. These results suggest that role-play experience could facilitate mindreading of characters with

  19. From board to bedside - training the communication competences of medical students with role plays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttenberger, Katharina; Graessel, Elmar; Simon, Cosima; Donath, Carolin

    2014-07-05

    Role plays and standardized patients are often used in medical education and have proven to be effective tools for enhancing the communication skills of medical students. Most course concepts need additional time and teaching staff, and there are only a few studies about role plays in the preclinical segment. We developed a highly consolidated concept for the curricular course of 2nd-year medical students, including ten role plays about five subjects: anamnesis, shared decision making, prevention, breaking bad news, and so-called "difficult interactions". Before the course, all students were asked about their expectations and attitudes toward the course. After the course, all students rated the course, their individual learning progress, whether their expectations had been fulfilled, and re-evaluated their attitudes. Questionnaires were self-report measures and had a quantitative and a short qualitative section and were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Group differences (sex, age, role played) were evaluated with t tests at a Bonferonni-corrected significance level of p = .03 and the non-parametric U-tests. Implementing this practical course concept is possible without incurring additional costs. This paper not only shows how that can be done but also provides 5 examples of role scripts for different training subjects. The course concept was highly appreciated by the students. More than 75% felt that they had learned important communication techniques and would be better able to handle difficult situations. Playing the doctor's role was felt to be more useful than playing the patient's role. Women admitted a higher degree of shyness in the beginning and gave higher ratings to their learning progress than men. Students' most frequent wish in the qualitative analysis was to be able to play the doctor's role at least once. The students' answers showed a differentiated pattern, thus suggesting that the influence of social desirability was minimal. Practical skills

  20. Relations between Playing Activities and Fine Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Pufke, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Children's fine motor skills (FMS) are being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of preschool development; yet, we know very little about the experiences that foster their development. We utilized a parent-administered children's fine and gross motor activities questionnaire (MAQ) to investigate links with FMS. We recruited a sample of…

  1. Children and adolescent physical activity participation and enjoyment during active play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddaszadeh, Asal; Ahmadi, Yasamin; Belcastro, Angelo N

    2017-10-01

    Girls' (9-19 years) participation in physical activity (PA) is known to decrease at a faster rate than boys. A reduction in PA attractiveness (enjoyment) and lower psychosocial profile of girls approaching biological maturity may underlie the decreasing rate of PA participation. Since engaging children in active play programs improves health related quality of life indictors and enjoyment levels; the purposes of this study were to: 1) assess psychosocial status and PA attractiveness/enjoyment of boys and girls to an eight-week active play program; and 2) investigate the relationships among PA participation, psychosocial status and PA attractiveness with both age and maturity status for boys and girls following an active play PA program. Thirty-three children (age 9.8±1.3 years; weight 43.1±13.4 kg; BMI 20.8±3.2 kg/m2) were recruited to participate in an active play program for 8 weeks (4x/week; 1hr/d). M-S estimates ranged from -6.7 to -2.5 years away from biological maturity Daily program PA was assessed and compared to pre-post measures of psychosocial functioning and PA attractiveness. Statistical procedures were performed using ANOVA and/or Pearson's correlation r (SPSS v. 22.0) with P=0.05. PA participation in the active play program showed a group average of 39±11% time spent in moderate-vigorous PA (%MVPA) with boys averaging 45% MVPA and girls averaging 30% MVPA (Pattractiveness scores for boys did not change following the program; whereas girls improved from 67±13% to 76±9% (Pattractiveness to %MVPA, 80% of girls reporting positive changes or no change; in contrast 56% of boys responded with negative/less PA attractiveness. PA attractiveness for all children was negatively associated with age (r=-0.19) and/or M-S (r=-0.29). The relationships, however, were gender specific with boys exhibiting a coefficient of -0.28 (age) and -0.61 (M-S) (Pattractiveness promoted less decline in %MVPA for M-S (r=0.18) compared to age (r=-0.17). For girls, approaching

  2. Endomembrane Ca2+-AtPases play a significant role in virus-induced adaptation to oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Sergey; Bækgaard, Lone; Shabala, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Although the role of Ca2+ influx channels in oxidative stress signaling and cross-tolerance in plants is well established, little is known about the role of active Ca2+ efflux systems in this process. In our recent paper,17 we reported Potato Virus X (PVX)-induced acquired resistance to oxidative...... in adaptive responses to oxidative stress by removing excessive Ca2+ from the cytosol, and that their functional expression is significantly altered in PVX-inoculated plants. These findings highlight the crucial role of Ca2+ efflux systems in acquired tolerance to oxidative stress and open up prospects...... stress in Nicotiana benthamiana and showed the critical role of plasma membrane Ca2+/H+ exchangers in this process. The current study continues this research. Using biochemical and electrophysiological approaches, we reveal that both endomembrane P2A and P2B Ca2+-ATPases play significant roles...

  3. Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and, most recently, HIV and AIDS, schools have an important role to play in .... given a basket and invited to go shopping for nappies, rompers, blankets, socks, baby ... in fact, a common concern and provided the opportunity for members to ...

  4. London Debates 2009. What role do museums play in the globalisation of culture ?

    OpenAIRE

    School of Advanced Study

    2010-01-01

    This report underlines the central role museums play in the globalisation of culture, and sets out action points to guide academic research, museum practice and policy-making. A report presenting the most important results of the London Debates, led at the School of Advanced Study in May 2009.

  5. Role-Playing Games for Capacity Building in Water and Land Management: Some Brazilian Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Maria Eugenia; Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Ducrot, Raphaele

    2007-01-01

    Role-playing games in natural resource management are currently being tested as research, training, and intervention tools all over the world. Various studies point out their potential to deal with complex issues and to contribute to training processes. The objective of this contribution is to analyze the limits and potentialities of this tool for…

  6. A Role-Play Game to Facilitate the Development of Students' Reflective Internet Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admiraal, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are currently the most frequent users of the Internet, many youngsters still have difficulties with a critical, reflective, and responsible use of the Internet. A study was carried out on teaching with a digital role-play game to increase students' reflective Internet skills. In this game, students had to promote a fictional…

  7. Using Role-Play to Enhance Foodborne Illness Crisis Management Capacity in the Produce Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreske, Audrey; Ducharme, Diane; Gunter, Chris; Phister, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks have measurable public health effects and often lead to negative produce industry impacts. Reducing loss following a crisis event requires a management plan, although many fresh produce industry members don't have one. Evidence-based workshops using a role-play simulated outbreak were delivered to impact crisis…

  8. What Are the Roles that Children's Drawings Play in Inquiry of Science Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the roles that drawing played in the process of children's acquisition of science concepts. Seventy pre-service teachers through four semesters from a Midwest University in the USA developed lesson plans on science concepts and then taught them to 70 young children ages 4-7, respectively. This experience was…

  9. What role can ISO 17025 play in the South African mining industry? ; Article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa March 2013/ Vol 66(1), pp 15-17 What role can ISO 17025 play in the South African mining industry? Pretorius CJ1 and Chesalokile T2 1CSIR. Centre for Mining Innovation 2South African...

  10. The Role of Peer Guided Play for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacek, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood play has a well-established role in the development of social and cognitive skills that may have important implications for intervention with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet, social and language skills of children with ASD are developmentally different from those of typically developing children, although these…

  11. Roles High School Principals Play in Establishing a Successful Character Education Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francom, Jacob A.

    2016-01-01

    Principal leadership is crucial to the success of a high school character education initiative. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to identify the roles that high school principals play in developing, implementing, and sustaining a high functioning character education program. Data were collected through interviews and…

  12. The Role the Collegiate American Marketing Association Plays in Professional and Entrepreneurial Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Scovotti, Carol; Pointer, Lucille

    2008-01-01

    Professional student organizations offer members a wide range of learning opportunities for applied marketing experiences. Little research exists in the marketing education literature on the role student organizations play in preparing their members for life beyond school. Understanding what students seek as members of such organizations and how…

  13. Electrostatic Stabilization Plays a Central Role in Autoinhibitory Regulation of the Na+,K+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Qiucen; Garcia, Alvaro; Han, Minwoo

    2017-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase is present in the plasma membrane of all animal cells. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the Na+ and K+ electrochemical potential gradients across the membrane, which are essential in numerous physiological processes, e.g., nerve, muscle, and kidney function. Its cellular a...

  14. Excessive Use of Massively Multi-Player Online Role-Playing Games: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zaheer; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are one of the most interesting innovations in the area of online computer gaming. This pilot study set out to examine the psychological and social effects of online gaming using an online questionnaire with particular reference to excessive and "dependent" online gaming. A self-selecting…

  15. Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games as Arenas for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates contemporary research on the use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) in language education. The development and key features of these games are explored. This is followed by an examination of the theories proposed as a basis for game-based learning, and the claims made regarding the value of…

  16. Using Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games for Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Marcus D.; Braswell, Ray

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the use of a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) to foster communication and interaction and to facilitate cooperative learning in an online course. The authors delineate the definition and history of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs), and describe current uses of MMORPGs in education, including…

  17. The Ethanol Project: Exploring Alternative Energy with Role-Play and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project that includes a two-week series of researching, essay writing, and speaking lessons exploring the broader implications of using ethanol as a fuel. The author, a chemistry teacher, describes how she uses a senate hearing discussion of ethanol fuel subsidies as the forum for a role-play. The four components of the…

  18. Enhancing Information Systems Auditing Knowledge with Role-Playing Game: An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpinunwatana, Nitaya

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use and effect of a role-playing game on learners' ability in information systems audit. The study is based on experimental research. Information systems control and audit case study and video had been developed. A total of 75 graduate students undertaking a Master's degree in accounting participated in the experiment. The…

  19. Learning Strategies and Learner Attitudes in the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game Cube World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Shu Li

    2016-01-01

    The rapid progress of technology has revolutionized learning and in the field of computer assisted language learning, the use of digital games has expanded significantly. One type of game that has been attracting interest is massively multiplayer online role-playing games (henceforth MMORPGs). Recent research has drawn attention to the potential…

  20. Evaluation of a communication skills training course for medical students using peer role-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; Qadi, Mahdi Ali; El Deek, Basem Salama; Boker, Abdulaziz Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of using peer role-playing in learning the communication skills as a step in the development of the communication skills training course delivered to pre-clinical medical students. This study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between September 2014 and February 2015 and comprised medical students. Mixed methods design was used to evaluate the developed communication skills training course. Tests were conducted before and after the communication skills training course to assess the students' self-reported communication. After the course, the students completed a satisfaction survey. Focus groups were conducted to assess the behavioural and organisational changes induced by the course. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis.. Of the293 respondents, 246(84%) were satisfied with the course. Overall, 169(58%) subjects chose the lectures as the most helpful methods for learning the communication skills while 124(42%) considered practical sessions as the most helpful method. Besides, 237(81%) respondents reported that the role-play was beneficial for their learning, while 219(75%) perceived the video-taped role-play as an appropriate method for assessing the communication skills. Peer role-play was found to be a feasible and well-perceived alternative method in facilitating the acquisition of communication skills..

  1. Students as "Humans Chromosomes" in Role-Playing Mitosis and Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Yue, Joyce W.; Torres, Kieron M.

    2004-01-01

    Students often find it challenging to understand mitosis and meiosis and determine their processes. To develop an easier way to understand these terms, students are asked to role-play mitosis and meiosis and students themselves act as human chromosomes, which help students to learn differences between mitosis and meiosis.

  2. Role-Play Game-Enhanced English for a Specific-Purpose Vocabulary-Acquisition Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Chen; Chang, Ben

    2016-01-01

    With the advantages of an engaged and authentic role-play game (RPG), this study aims to develop an RPG-enhanced English for specific purposes (ESP) vocabulary-acquisition framework, providing teachers and students a systematic way to incorporate RPG into ESP learning. The framework is composed of five parts: goal, three-level vocabulary sets, RPG…

  3. Personality Correlates of Self-Report, Role-Playing, and In Vivo Measures of Assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Samuel B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Undergraduates completed self-report inventories of assertiveness, participated in behavior role-playing tasks and in vivo measures of assertiveness, and completed the Personality Research Form E (PRF-E). Of 22 PRF-E scales, 11 had at least one significant correlation with assertiveness measures. Some composites of PRF-E scales were related to…

  4. Sales Role-Plays and Mock Interviews: An Investigation of Student Performance in Sales Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sudha; Kothandaraman, Prabakar; Kashyap, Rajiv; Ashnai, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Sales competitions provide students with opportunities to apply their understanding of sales. Despite a long tradition of scholarship on sales role-plays, the answer to what drives student performance in sales competitions remains elusive. In this research, we examine how motivation (work engagement) and ability (cognitive aptitude and…

  5. A Description Grid to Support the Design of Learning Role-Play Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariais, Christelle; Michau, Florence; Pernin, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    To strengthen the motivation of learners, the professional training sector is focusing more and more on game-based learning. In this context, the authors have become interested in the design of Learning Role-Play Game (LRPG) scenarios. The aim of this article is to improve the designers' confidence in the validity of the game-based learning…

  6. Cross-format analysis of the gaming experience in multi-player role playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Newman, K.; Brolund, T.

    2007-01-01

    Forming one of the major genres of games, Role Playing Games (RPGs) have proven an extremely portable concept, and the games are situated across various cultural and format-related boundaries. The effect of porting RPGs between formats is however a subject of which very little is known. This paper...

  7. The use of role playing in managerial learning: A socio constructivistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiller, C.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Patin-Saint-Mieux, B.

    2014-01-01

    This research deals with role playing (RP) aimed at assisting learners to optimize their managerial style. While RP is often used in training sessions, contributions on its evaluations have decreased since the beginning of the 1980s. Although RP as a training method had been criticized for several

  8. The use of role playing in managerial learning: a socio constructivistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiller, Caroline; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Patin-Saint-Mleux, Bertille

    2014-01-01

    This research deals with role playing (RP) aimed at assisting learners to optimize their managerial style. While RP is often used in training sessions, contributions on its evaluations have decreased since the beginning of the 1980s. Although RP as a training method had been criticized for several

  9. Role playing with synthetic cultures: the evasive rules of the game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    This article sums up ten years of experience with over 1400 participants of simulation games using synthetic cultures. Synthetic cultures are scripts for role players. They are derived from the five dimensions of culture in Hofstede¿s model. Playing the synthetic cultures leads to dynamics that

  10. Designing a mobile learning game to investigate the impact of role-playing on helping behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Birgit; Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Schmitz, B., Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013). Designing a mobile learning game to investigate the impact of role-playing on helping behavior. In D. Hernández-Leo et al. (Eds.), Scaling up Learning for Sustained Impact. Proceedings of European Conference on Technology Enhanced

  11. A Novel Ras Effector Pathway Found to Play Significant Role in Tumor Suppression | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; photo by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer Normal cells have mechanisms to prevent the development of cancer. Among these is a type of tumor suppressor mechanism known as oncogene-induced senescence, or OIS, which halts the uncontrolled growth of cells caused by mutations in oncogenes. The oncogene Ras plays a crucial role in inducing OIS

  12. Designing After-School Learning Using the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have become popular for engaging students in a range of learning goals, both in the classroom and the after-school space. In this article, I discuss a specific genre of video game, the massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMO), which has been identified as a dynamic environment for encountering 21st-century workplace…

  13. Understanding Collectivism and Female Genital Cutting through a Family Role-Playing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study is a test of the effectiveness of a classroom role-playing exercise used to increase the understanding of cultural practices with which many Midwestern college students are uncomfortable. I employed a pre-test/post-test comparison group design. Students enrolled in two sections of a general education global issues course (N = 56) were…

  14. Choices and Chances: The Sociology Role-Playing Game--The Sociological Imagination in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joseph M.; Elias, Vicky L.

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a sociology role-playing game (RPG) used to demonstrate the broad range of social forces, institutions, and structures in a semester-long series of in-class and homework assignments. RPGs and other simulation games have been frequently suggested as a useful teaching methodology because of their unique ability to allow…

  15. Young Children's Role-Playing for Enhancing Personal Intelligences in Multiple Intelligences Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Shin, Hwa-Sik; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This article examines young children's role-play in an effort to develop methods with which teachers can enhance children's interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Examining how MI practice is applied in different cultural and social contexts is important because it can provide new insights on enriching and enhancing curricula and…

  16. Role-Playing Game Based Assessment to Fractional Concept in Second Grade Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Fu-Yuan; Hsieh, Mei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a set of Role-playing game (RPG), which was used to explore whether significant differences exist in academic performance and learning attitudes between RPG-based assessment and traditional lectures. This study also investigated the satisfaction of students toward the RPG scenario. Research participants included 100 second…

  17. En introduktion til CARM: The Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Bierring

    2014-01-01

    Dette working paper er en introduktion til og kort diskussion af workshopmetoden Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method (CARM), som er en metode udviklet til at afholde workshops på baggrund af resultater fra interaktionsanalyser. Artiklen er den første introduktion til CARM-metoden på dansk, og...

  18. The Use of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games in CALL: An Analysis of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary CALL research reflects renewed interest in digital games. One aspect of this phenomenon namely, use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), has expanded significantly, highlighting the need for a review. This paper analyzes findings from 10 learner-based studies that draw on accounts of SLA informed by cognitive…

  19. Building Fictional Ethos: Analysing the Rhetorical Strategies of Persona Design for Online Role Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative case study that uses discourse and social semiotic analysis methods in order to examine the rhetorical construction of fictional personas within an online role play used for learning in the college classroom. Of special focus are the differing patterns of semiotic resource use (for example, language and…

  20. Role Play in Blended Learning: A Case Study Exploring the Impact of Story and Other Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracup, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Role play is an increasingly popular technique in tertiary education, being student centred, constructivist and suitable for a range of subject areas. The choice of formats is wide open, with options ranging from the traditional face to face performance through to multi-user online computer games. Some teachers prefer to take advantage of features…

  1. Trading Spaces: An Educator's Ethnographic Exploration of Adolescents' Digital Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Moore, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the author examines a digital role-play in which participants composed an alternate version of "The Hunger Games" (Collins, 2008). Participants imagined characters and posted more than 400 scenes in the online collaboration. The author draws upon ethnographic methods (Merriam, 2009) to describe her participant-observer…

  2. Enhance Learning on Software Project Management through a Role-Play Game in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratou, Vicky; Chatzidaki, Eleni; Xenos, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a role-play game for software project management (SPM) in a three-dimensional online multiuser virtual world. The Opensimulator platform is used for the creation of an immersive virtual environment that facilitates students' collaboration and realistic interaction, in order to manage unexpected events occurring during the…

  3. Playful empowerment, the role of game design innovation in participatory citizenship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.; Marsh, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this talk I will address a changing perspective on design, one in which users are defined as social and economical actors who co-create products and services. We will see that the role of play in its contemporary and digital form for instance through games, apps, interactive toys is essential in

  4. Role Playing: Using Scenarios to Teach the Interrelatedness of Work and the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julie M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes appropriate goals for the role-playing model and types of social problems amenable to its use: achieving a balance between family and work, unemployment, management of economic resources, family contributions to worker productivity, and life-cycle influences on work decisions, among others. (SK)

  5. Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, gender norms in tradi- ... explained that people's beliefs develop from their experiences through social ... In other words, people act upon their in- ... The first role play began by asking learners to think of an occasion where a person ...

  6. Do the COX-2 inhibitors still have a role to play? : guest editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do the COX-2 inhibitors still have a role to play? : guest editorial. A Beeton. Abstract. No Abstract Available Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia Vol.11(2) 2005: 55-60. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics ...

  7. Parenting Talent: A Qualitative Investigation of the Roles Parents Play in Talent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Amanda L.; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kasson, Sarah C.; Perry, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has linked talent development to four factors--early experience, coaching, practice, and motivation. In addition to these factors, contemporary talent experts suggest that parents play a critical role in talent development. The purpose of the present study was to uncover parents' in-time perspectives on the talent development…

  8. Crossing the Border: Science Student Teachers Using Role-Play in Grade 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Martin; Moodley, Trevor; Ekron, Christelle; Ahmed, Zaiboenisha

    2015-01-01

    Drama is used to build knowledge and understanding in science as part of a socio-linguistic, constructivist approach. Role-plays, where learners act as analogues for components and processes, help access abstract ideas. However, a problem restricting many science teachers using these approaches has been that they lack sufficient pedagogical…

  9. An Na+/H+ antiporter gene from wheat plays an important role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    might play an important role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance in plant cells. [Yu J N, Huang J, ..... of TaNHX2 might be related to salt tolerance in wheat. TaNHX2 might also ... This work was supported by National Basic Research Project.

  10. Student Perceptions of a Role-Playing Simulation in an Introductory International Relations Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanello, Sean P.; Kirk, Jason A.; Kromer, Mileah K.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging assumption in undergraduate political science education is that role-playing simulations are an effective teaching tool. While previous studies have addressed the pedagogical advantages of simulations as compared to more traditional teaching techniques, less attention has been paid to student perceptions of these simulations. This…

  11. Social Workers' Perceptions of the Association Between Role Playing Games and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Lis, Eric; Błachnio, Agata; Ring, Lia; Lavenda, Osnat; Mahat-Shamir, Michal

    2018-03-01

    Whereas role-playing and table-top role-play games (RPGs) have been proven to have potential as therapeutic tools, playing RPGs is often stereotypically associated with social incompetence and psychiatric disorders. Knowledge regarding the stereotype and its implications is very scarce specifically among mental health practitioners. Therefore the present study aimed to narrow this gap in knowledge by examining the perception of Social Workers that are considered to be the forefront of mental health-care, in regard to the association between playing RPGs and mental health. A convenience sample of 130 Social Workers, recruited through social networks (e.g. Facebook, WhatsApp etc.), responded to an on-line survey dealing with their perception of their own knowledge on RPGs, the importance of such knowledge and the association between playing RPGs and mental illness. Results indicated an association between having higher knowledge of RPGs and lower perception of a link between playing RPGs and psychopathology. The study's findings emphasize the false stigma and its potential harmful implication on professionals' practice, especially in the context of intake process and primary diagnostic. The effect of familiarity is also discussed in light of the study's findings. • The perception of mental health professionals toward role playing games such as Dungeons and Dragons is understudied. • Social Workers' perception was measured in regard to the connection between use of RPGs and DSM-IV-TR psychopathology. • Greater knowledge of RPGs was found to be associated with lower perception of the connection between use of RPGs and DSM-IV-TR psychopathology.

  12. Interaction with the game and motivation among players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Héctor; Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro, Andrés; Oberst, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about users interacting with Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) is fundamental in order to prevent their potential negative effects on behavior. For this reason, the present study analyzed the relationship between styles of play and motivations. An online questionnaire asking for socio-demographic details, playing style, characteristics of the game played and motivations for playing, was answered by 430 Spanish-speaking MMORPG players (45.1% males). The identified profile for players, far away from the stereotype of an adolescent, consisted in a person who mainly plays on PvP (Player versus Player) servers, choosing the type of game according to his experience. Regarding motivations, they were interested in relating with other players through the game (Socialization), in discovering the game's possibilities and development of its adventures (Exploration), to a lesser extent in leadership and prestige (Achievement) and, lastly, identification with an avatar and escape from reality (Dissociation). Although part of the reason for playing was escapism and/or stress relief, the main motivation had a social nature. We conclude that MMORPG offer an attractive environment for a broad spectrum of people, and we have not been able to confirm the stereotype of a loner avoiding reality, taking refuge in games.

  13. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  14. Competence of medical students in communicating drug therapy: Value of role-play demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayem, Yasin I; Altabtabaei, Abdulaziz S; Mohamed, Mohamed W; Arrfedi, Mansour M; Aljawder, Hasan S; Aldebous, Fahad A; James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A J; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-01-01

    This study used role-play demonstrations to train medical students to communicate drug therapy and evaluated the perceptions on this instructional approach. The second-year medical students who attended a prescription writing session (n = 133), participated in this study. Prescription communication was introduced by using role-play demonstrations. Participant's perceptions were explored by a self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussion. The academic achievement of attendees and nonattendees was compared with an objective structured performance evaluation (OSPE) station that tested students' competence in this skill. Most attendees responded to the questionnaire (81.2%). Almost all respondents expressed their desire to have similar demonstrations in other units. A large proportion of participants reported that role-play demonstrations helped them develop their communication skills, in general, confidence to communicate drug-related information in a prescription, and the ability to explain the aim of drug therapy to patients. Most trainees thought also that they developed skills to communicate instructions on drug use including drug dose, frequency of administration, duration of therapy, adverse drug reactions, and warnings. During the focus group interviews, students thought that role-play was useful but would be more beneficial if conducted frequently in small group as part of the curriculum implementation. The majority of students also reported improved competence in writing a complete prescription. Analysis of attendees and nonattendees grades in the OSPE showed that the former scored higher than the latter group (P = 0.016). Role-play demonstrations were well accepted by medical students and led to the development of their competence in communicating drug therapy to patients.

  15. The role played by different TiO2 features on the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Luca; Meroni, Daniela; Falletta, Ermelinda; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Gervasini, Antonella; Cappelletti, Giuseppe; Ardizzone, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Photocatalytic reactions promoted by TiO2 can be affected by a large number of oxide features (e.g. surface area, morphology and phase composition). In this context, the role played by the surface characteristics (e.g. surface acidity, wettability, etc.) has been often disregarded. In this work, pristine and Ta-doped TiO2 nanomaterials with different phase composition (pure anatase and anatase/brookite mixture) were synthesized by sol-gel and characterized under the structural and morphological point of view. A careful characterization of the acid properties of the materials has been performed by liquid-solid acid-base titration by means of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA) adsorption to determine the acid site density and average acid strength. Photocatalytic tests were performed in the degradation of paracetamol (acetaminophen) under UV irradiation and results were discussed in the light of the detailed scenarios describing the different oxides. The surface acidity of the samples, was recognized as one of the key parameters controlling the photocatalytic activity. A possible molecule degradation route is proposed on the ground of GC-MS and ESI-MS analyses.

  16. Human AQP5 plays a role in the progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kwang Chae

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs have previously been associated with increased expression in solid tumors. However, its expression in hematologic malignancies including CML has not been described yet. Here, we report the expression of AQP5 in CML cells by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. While normal bone marrow biopsy samples (n = 5 showed no expression of AQP5, 32% of CML patient samples (n = 41 demonstrated AQP5 expression. In addition, AQP5 expression level increased with the emergence of imatinib mesylate resistance in paired samples (p = 0.047. We have found that the overexpression of AQP5 in K562 cells resulted in increased cell proliferation. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting AQP5 reduced the cell proliferation rate in both K562 and LAMA84 CML cells. Moreover, by immunoblotting and flow cytometry, we show that phosphorylation of BCR-ABL1 is increased in AQP5-overexpressing CML cells and decreased in AQP5 siRNA-treated CML cells. Interestingly, caspase9 activity increased in AQP5 siRNA-treated cells. Finally, FISH showed no evidence of AQP5 gene amplification in CML from bone marrow. In summary, we report for the first time that AQP5 is overexpressed in CML cells and plays a role in promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. Furthermore, our findings may provide the basis for a novel CML therapy targeting AQP5.

  17. Protein Oxidation in Aging: Does It Play a Role in Aging Progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: A constant accumulation of oxidized proteins takes place during aging. Oxidation of proteins leads to a partial unfolding and, therefore, to aggregation. Protein aggregates impair the activity of cellular proteolytic systems (proteasomes, lysosomes), resulting in further accumulation of oxidized proteins. In addition, the accumulation of highly crosslinked protein aggregates leads to further oxidant formation, damage to macromolecules, and, finally, to apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, protein oxidation seems to play a role in the development of various age-related diseases, for example, neurodegenerative diseases. Recent Advances: The highly oxidized lipofuscin accumulates during aging. Lipofuscin formation might cause impaired lysosomal and proteasomal degradation, metal ion accumulation, increased reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptosis. Critical Issues: It is still unclear to which extent protein oxidation is involved in the progression of aging and in the development of some age-related diseases. Future Directions: An extensive knowledge of the effects of protein oxidation on the aging process and its contribution to the development of age-related diseases could enable further strategies to reduce age-related impairments. Strategies aimed at lowering aggregate formation might be a straightforward intervention to reduce age-related malfunctions of organs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 239–255. PMID:25178482

  18. NBS1 plays a synergistic role with telomerase in the maintenance of telomeres in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najdekrova Lucie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomeres, as elaborate nucleo-protein complexes, ensure chromosomal stability. When impaired, the ends of linear chromosomes can be recognised by cellular repair mechanisms as double-strand DNA breaks and can be healed by non-homologous-end-joining activities to produce dicentric chromosomes. During cell divisions, particularly during anaphase, dicentrics can break, thus producing naked chromosome tips susceptible to additional unwanted chromosome fusion. Many telomere-building protein complexes are associated with telomeres to ensure their proper capping function. It has been found however, that a number of repair complexes also contribute to telomere stability. Results We used Arabidopsis thaliana to study the possible functions of the DNA repair subunit, NBS1, in telomere homeostasis using knockout nbs1 mutants. The results showed that although NBS1-deficient plants were viable, lacked any sign of developmental aberration and produced fertile seeds through many generations upon self-fertilisation, plants also missing the functional telomerase (double mutants, rapidly, within three generations, displayed severe developmental defects. Cytogenetic inspection of cycling somatic cells revealed a very early onset of massive genome instability. Molecular methods used for examining the length of telomeres in double homozygous mutants detected much faster telomere shortening than in plants deficient in telomerase gene alone. Conclusions Our findings suggest that NBS1 acts in concert with telomerase and plays a profound role in plant telomere renewal.

  19. NBS1 plays a synergistic role with telomerase in the maintenance of telomeres in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdekrova, Lucie; Siroky, Jiri

    2012-09-17

    Telomeres, as elaborate nucleo-protein complexes, ensure chromosomal stability. When impaired, the ends of linear chromosomes can be recognised by cellular repair mechanisms as double-strand DNA breaks and can be healed by non-homologous-end-joining activities to produce dicentric chromosomes. During cell divisions, particularly during anaphase, dicentrics can break, thus producing naked chromosome tips susceptible to additional unwanted chromosome fusion. Many telomere-building protein complexes are associated with telomeres to ensure their proper capping function. It has been found however, that a number of repair complexes also contribute to telomere stability. We used Arabidopsis thaliana to study the possible functions of the DNA repair subunit, NBS1, in telomere homeostasis using knockout nbs1 mutants. The results showed that although NBS1-deficient plants were viable, lacked any sign of developmental aberration and produced fertile seeds through many generations upon self-fertilisation, plants also missing the functional telomerase (double mutants), rapidly, within three generations, displayed severe developmental defects. Cytogenetic inspection of cycling somatic cells revealed a very early onset of massive genome instability. Molecular methods used for examining the length of telomeres in double homozygous mutants detected much faster telomere shortening than in plants deficient in telomerase gene alone. Our findings suggest that NBS1 acts in concert with telomerase and plays a profound role in plant telomere renewal.

  20. The Arabidopsis MYB96 transcription factor plays a role in seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Gil; Lee, Kyounghee; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-03-01

    Seed dormancy facilitates to endure environmental disadvantages by confining embryonic growth until the seeds encounter favorable environmental conditions for germination. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) play a pivotal role in the determination of the seed dormancy state. ABA establishes seed dormancy, while GA triggers seed germination. Here, we demonstrate that MYB96 contributes to the fine-tuning of seed dormancy regulation through the coordination of ABA and GA metabolism. The MYB96-deficient myb96-1 seeds germinated earlier than wild-type seeds, whereas delayed germination was observed in the activation-tagging myb96-1D seeds. The differences in germination rate disappeared after stratification or after-ripening. The MYB96 transcription factor positively regulates ABA biosynthesis genes 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE 2 (NCED2), NCED5, NCED6, and NCED9, and also affects GA biosynthetic genes GA3ox1 and GA20ox1. Notably, MYB96 directly binds to the promoters of NCED2 and NCED6, primarily modulating ABA biosynthesis, which subsequently influences GA metabolism. In agreement with this, hyperdormancy of myb96-1D seeds was recovered by an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, while hypodormancy of myb96-1 seeds was suppressed by a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC). Taken together, the metabolic balance of ABA and GA underlies MYB96 control of primary seed dormancy.

  1. Mitochondria Play a Central Role in Nonischemic Cardiomyocyte Necrosis: Common to Acute and Chronic Stressor States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Usman; Cheema, Yaser; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Ahokas, Robert A.; Sun, Yao; Gerling, Ivan C.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Weber, Karl T.

    2012-01-01

    The survival of cardiomyocytes must be ensured as the myocardium adjusts to a myriad of competing physiologic and pathophysiologic demands. A significant loss of these contractile cells, together with their replacement by stiff fibrillar collagen in the form of fibrous tissue accounts for a transition from a usually efficient muscular pump into one that is failing. Cellular and subcellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenic origins of cardiomyocyte cell death have long been of interest. This includes programmed molecular pathways to either necrosis or apoptosis which are initiated from ischemic or nonischemic origins. Herein we focus on the central role played by a mitochondriocentric signal-transducer-effector pathway to nonischemic cardiomyocyte necrosis which is common to acute and chronic stressor states. We begin by building upon the hypothesis advanced by Albrecht Fleckenstein and coworkers some 40 years ago based on the importance of calcitropic hormone- mediated intracellular Ca2+ overloading which predominantly involves subsarcolemmal mitochondria and is the signal to pathway activation. Other pathway components, which came to be recognized in subsequent years, include the induction of oxidative stress and opening of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability transition pore. The ensuing loss of cardiomyocytes and consequent replacement fibrosis, or scarring, represents a disease of adaptation and a classic example of when homeostasis begets dyshomeostasis. PMID:22328074

  2. Quantitative proteomics reveals that peroxidases play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Sakata, Katsumi; Hiraga, Susumu; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Soybean is an important legume crop that exhibits markedly reduced growth and yields under flooding conditions. To unravel the mechanisms involved in recovery after flooding in soybean root, gel-free proteomic analysis was performed. Morphological analysis revealed that growth suppression was more severe with increased flooding duration. Out of a total of 1645 and 1707 identified proteins, 73 and 21 proteins were changed significantly during the recovery stage following 2 and 4 days flooding, respectively. Based on the proteomic, clustering, and in silico protein-protein interaction analyses, six key enzymes were analyzed at the mRNA level. Lipoxygenase 1, which was increased at the protein level during the recovery period, was steadily down-regulated at the mRNA level. The peroxidase superfamily protein continuously increased in abundance during the course of recovery and was up-regulated at the mRNA level. HAD acid phosphatase was decreased at the protein level and down-regulated at the transcript level, while isoflavone reductase and an unknown protein were increased at both the protein and mRNA levels. Consistent with these findings, the enzymatic activity of peroxidase was decreased under flooding stress but increased significantly during the recovery sage. These results suggest that peroxidases might play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots through the scavenging of toxic radicals.

  3. Nuclear science fights malaria. Radiation and molecular techniques can play targeted roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, Steffen; Khan, Baldip; Robinson, Alan; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is the most important insect transmitted disease. Globally there are 300 to 500 million clinical cases of malaria a year. They result in two million deaths per year (one every 30 seconds), more than 90% of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. More than 90% of those affected are children less than five years old. The economic impact of the disease is felt disproportionately by poor families who may spend a fourth of their annual income on prevention and control measures. The causative agents are parasites of the genus Plasmodium and they are transmitted only by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Among key strategies to control malaria are the surveillance of anti-malarial drug efficacy through monitoring the levels of drug resistance, and the reduction of mosquito populations. Nuclear techniques can play important roles in these efforts to combat malaria. This article reports on IAEA activities associated with drug-resistant malaria and describes how molecular methods making use of radioactive isotopes can provide a great advantage in the diagnosis of resistance. The article further presents the IAEA's plans for initiating a research programme to assess the feasibility of developing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a complementary method to control the vector of malaria

  4. Vacuolar processing enzyme plays an essential role in the crystalline structure of glutelin in rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Uemura, Yuji; Inoue, Yoshimi; Takemoto, Yoko; Siddiqui, Sadar Uddin; Ogawa, Masahiro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Satoh, Hikaru

    2010-01-01

    To identify the function of genes that regulate the processing of proglutelin, we performed an analysis of glup3 mutants, which accumulates excess amounts of proglutelin and lack the vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE). VPE activity in developing seeds from glup3 lines was reduced remarkably compared with the wild type. DNA sequencing of the VPE gene in glup3 mutants revealed either amino acid substitutions or the appearance of a stop codon within the coding region. Microscopic observations showed that alpha-globulin and proglutelin were distributed homogeneously within glup3 protein storage vacuoles (PSVs), and that glup3 PSVs lacked the crystalline lattice structure typical of wild-type PSVs. This suggests that the processing of proglutelin by VPE in rice is essential for proper PSV structure and compartmentalization of storage proteins. Growth retardation in glup3 seedlings was also observed, indicating that the processing of proglutelin influences early seedling development. These findings indicate that storage of glutelin in its mature form as a crystalline structure in PSVs is required for the rapid use of glutelin as a source of amino acids during early seedling development. In conclusion, VPE plays an important role in the formation of protein crystalline structures in PSVs.

  5. Revealing phosphoproteins playing role in tobacco pollen activated in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fíla, Jan; Matros, A.; Radau, S.; Zahedi, R. P.; Čapková, Věra; Mock, H. P.; Honys, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 21 (2012), s. 3229-3250 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Project s: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1462; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/2611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Male gametophyte * Metal oxide affinity chromatography * Nicotiana tabacum Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.132, year: 2012

  6. Two MYB-related transcription factors play opposite roles in sugar signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Chao, Yi-Chi; Tseng, Tzu-Wei; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lo, Pei-Ching; Lu, Chung-An

    2017-02-01

    Sugar regulation of gene expression has profound effects at all stages of the plant life cycle. Although regulation at the transcriptional level is one of the most prominent mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated, only a few transcription factors have been identified and demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of sugar-regulated gene expression. OsMYBS1, an R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase gene expression in rice. Arabidopsis contains two OsMYBS1 homologs. In the present study, we investigate MYBS1 and MYBS2 in sugar signaling in Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that MYBS1 and MYBS2 play opposite roles in regulating glucose and ABA signaling in Arabidopsis during seed germination and early seedling development. MYB proteins have been classified into four subfamilies: R2R3-MYB, R1/2-MYB, 3R-MYB, and 4R-MYB. An R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, OsMYBS1, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase genes expression in rice. In this study, two genes homologous to OsMYBS1, MYBS1 and MYBS2, were investigated in Arabidopsis. Subcellular localization analysis showed that MYBS1 and MYBS2 were localized in the nucleus. Rice embryo transient expression assays indicated that both MYBS1 and MYBS2 could recognize the sugar response element, TA-box, in the promoter and induced promoter activity. mybs1 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose, whereas mybs2 seedlings were hyposensitive to it. MYBS1 and MYBS2 are involved in the control of glucose-responsive gene expression, as the mybs1 mutant displayed increased expression of a hexokinase gene (HXK1), chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (CAB1), ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (APL3), and chalcone synthase gene (CHS), whereas the mybs2 mutant exhibited decreased expression of these genes. mybs1 also showed an enhanced response to abscisic acid (ABA) in the seed germination and seedling

  7. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Jiang; Chen, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Qian; Chai, Meng-Long; Li, Qing-Ying; Jiang, Hao; Yuan, Bao; Dai, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Jia-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR- 378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2) and Ras-related nuclear (RAN)-binding protein 10 (RANBP10) were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes overexpressing miR-378. However, the

  8. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. Methods: In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. Results: MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR-378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP, were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1 was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2 and Ras-related nuclear (RAN-binding protein 10 (RANBP10 were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes

  9. Mast cells play no role in the pathogenesis of postoperative ileus induced by intestinal manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Farro, Giovanna; Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Némethova, Andrea; de Vries, Annick; Liston, Adrian; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Rodewald, Hans-Reimwer; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Matteoli, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal manipulation (IM) during abdominal surgery results in intestinal inflammation leading to hypomotility or ileus. Mast cell activation is thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of postoperative ileus (POI). However, this conclusion was mainly drawn using mast cell-deficient mouse models with abnormal Kit signaling. These mice also lack interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) resulting in aberrant gastrointestinal motility even prior to surgery, compromising their use as model to study POI. To avoid these experimental weaknesses we took advantage of a newly developed knock-in mouse model, Cpa3(Cre/+) , devoid of mast cells but with intact Kit signaling. The role of mast cells in the development of POI and intestinal inflammation was evaluated assessing gastrointestinal transit and muscularis externa inflammation after IM in two strains of mice lacking mast cells, i.e. Kit(W-sh/W-sh) and Cpa3(Cre/+) mice, and by use of the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn. Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice lack ICC networks and already revealed significantly delayed gastrointestinal transit even before surgery. IM did not further delay intestinal transit, but induced infiltration of myeloperoxidase positive cells, expression of inflammatory cytokines and recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils into the muscularis externa. On the contrary, Cpa3(Cre/+) mice have a normal network of ICC and normal gastrointestinal. Surprisingly, IM in Cpa3(Cre/+) mice caused delay in gut motility and intestinal inflammation as in wild type littermates mice (Cpa3(+/+) ). Furthermore, treatment with the mast cell inhibitor cromolyn resulted in an inhibition of mast cells without preventing POI. Here, we confirm that IM induced mast cell degranulation. However, our data demonstrate that mast cells are not required for the pathogenesis of POI in mice. Although there might be species differences between mouse and human, our results argue against mast cell inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to shorten POI.

  10. Mast cells play no role in the pathogenesis of postoperative ileus induced by intestinal manipulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Gomez-Pinilla

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intestinal manipulation (IM during abdominal surgery results in intestinal inflammation leading to hypomotility or ileus. Mast cell activation is thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of postoperative ileus (POI. However, this conclusion was mainly drawn using mast cell-deficient mouse models with abnormal Kit signaling. These mice also lack interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC resulting in aberrant gastrointestinal motility even prior to surgery, compromising their use as model to study POI. To avoid these experimental weaknesses we took advantage of a newly developed knock-in mouse model, Cpa3(Cre/+ , devoid of mast cells but with intact Kit signaling. DESIGN: The role of mast cells in the development of POI and intestinal inflammation was evaluated assessing gastrointestinal transit and muscularis externa inflammation after IM in two strains of mice lacking mast cells, i.e. Kit(W-sh/W-sh and Cpa3(Cre/+ mice, and by use of the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn. RESULTS: Kit(W-sh/W-sh mice lack ICC networks and already revealed significantly delayed gastrointestinal transit even before surgery. IM did not further delay intestinal transit, but induced infiltration of myeloperoxidase positive cells, expression of inflammatory cytokines and recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils into the muscularis externa. On the contrary, Cpa3(Cre/+ mice have a normal network of ICC and normal gastrointestinal. Surprisingly, IM in Cpa3(Cre/+ mice caused delay in gut motility and intestinal inflammation as in wild type littermates mice (Cpa3(+/+ . Furthermore, treatment with the mast cell inhibitor cromolyn resulted in an inhibition of mast cells without preventing POI. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we confirm that IM induced mast cell degranulation. However, our data demonstrate that mast cells are not required for the pathogenesis of POI in mice. Although there might be species differences between mouse and human, our results argue against mast

  11. Exosomes play an important role in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Xu, Chengfeng; Hua, Yitong; Sun, Leitao; Cheng, Kai; Jia, Zhongming; Han, Yong; Dong, Jianli; Cui, Yuzhen; Yang, Zhenlin

    2016-12-01

    Release of exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in drug resistance by delivering cargo. Targeting the transfer of exosomes from resistant cells to sensitive cells may be an approach to overcome some cases of drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the potential role of exosomes in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation of culture media from MCF-7/ADR cells (ADR/exo) and MCF-7 parental cells (S/exo). Exosomes were characterized by morphology, exosomal markers and size distribution. The ability of ADR/exo to transfer multidrug resistance was assessed by MTT and real-time quantitative PCR. The different formation and secretion of exosomes were detected by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Then we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis using RNA-Seq technology and real-time quantitative PCR to better understand the gene expression regulation in exosmes formation and release after psoralen treatment. Our data showed that exosomes derived from MCF-7/ADR cells were able to promote active sequestration of drugs and could induce a drug resistance phenotype by transferring drug-resistance-related gene MDR-1 and P-glycoprotein protein. Psoralen could reduce the formation and secretion of exosomes to overcome drug resistance. There were 21 differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) pathway analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the most significantly expressed genes were linked to PPAR and P53 signaling pathways which were related to exosomes formation, secretion and cargo sorting. Psoralen can affect the exosomes and induce the reduction of resistance transmission via exosomes might through PPAR and P53 signaling pathways, which might provide a novel strategy for breast cancer resistance to chemotherapy in the future.

  12. MERS-CoV Accessory ORFs Play Key Role for Infection and Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Cockrell, Adam S.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Yount, Boyd L.; Graham, Rachel L.; McAnarney, Eileen T.; Douglas, Madeline G.; Scobey, Trevor; Beall, Anne; Dinnon, Kenneth; Kocher, Jacob F.; Hale, Andrew E.; Stratton, Kelly G.; Waters, Katrina M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    2017-08-22

    ABSTRACT

    While dispensable for viral replication, coronavirus (CoV) accessory open reading frame (ORF) proteins often play critical roles during infection and pathogenesis. Utilizing a previously generated mutant, we demonstrate that the absence of all four Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) accessory ORFs (deletion of ORF3, -4a, -4b, and -5 [dORF3-5]) has major implications for viral replication and pathogenesis. Importantly, attenuation of the dORF3-5 mutant is primarily driven by dysregulated host responses, including disrupted cell processes, augmented interferon (IFN) pathway activation, and robust inflammation.In vitroreplication attenuation also extends toin vivomodels, allowing use of dORF3-5 as a live attenuated vaccine platform. Finally, examination of ORF5 implicates a partial role in modulation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Together, the results demonstrate the importance of MERS-CoV accessory ORFs for pathogenesis and highlight them as potential targets for surveillance and therapeutic treatments moving forward.

    IMPORTANCEThe initial emergence and periodic outbreaks of MERS-CoV highlight a continuing threat posed by zoonotic pathogens to global public health. In these studies, mutant virus generation demonstrates the necessity of accessory ORFs in regard to MERS-CoV infection and pathogenesis. With this in mind, accessory ORF functions can be targeted for both therapeutic and vaccine treatments in response to MERS-CoV and related group 2C coronaviruses. In addition, disruption of accessory ORFs in parallel may offer a rapid response platform to attenuation of future emergent strains based on both SARS- and MERS-CoV accessory ORF mutants.

  13. Peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus WalKR-dependent cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Delaune

    Full Text Available The WalKR two-component system is essential for viability of Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen. We have shown that WalKR acts as the master controller of peptidoglycan metabolism, yet none of the identified regulon genes explain its requirement for cell viability. Transmission electron micrographs revealed cell wall thickening and aberrant division septa in the absence of WalKR, suggesting its requirement may be linked to its role in coordinating cell wall metabolism and cell division. We therefore tested whether uncoupling autolysin gene expression from WalKR-dependent regulation could compensate for its essential nature. Uncoupled expression of genes encoding lytic transglycosylases or amidases did not restore growth to a WalKR-depleted strain. We identified only two WalKR-regulon genes whose expression restored cell viability in the absence of WalKR: lytM and ssaA. Neither of these two genes are essential under our conditions and a ΔlytM ΔssaA mutant does not present any growth defect. LytM is a glycyl-glycyl endopeptidase, hydrolyzing the pentaglycine interpeptide crossbridge, and SsaA belongs to the CHAP amidase family, members of which such as LysK and LytA have been shown to have D-alanyl-glycyl endopeptidase activity, cleaving between the crossbridge and the stem peptide. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation through crossbridge hydrolysis plays a crucial role in the essential requirement of the WalKR system for cell viability.

  14. Adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) play a critical role in osteoclast formation and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Firas M.; Chitu, Violeta; Sloane, Jennifer; Axelrod, Matthew; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Stanley, E. Richard; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine regulates a wide variety of physiological processes via interaction with one or more G-protein-coupled receptors (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R). Because A1R occupancy promotes fusion of human monocytes to form giant cells in vitro, we determined whether A1R occupancy similarly promotes osteoclast function and formation. Bone marrow cells (BMCs) were harvested from C57Bl/6 female mice or A1R-knockout mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates and differentiated into osteoclasts in the presence of colony stimulating factor-1 and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand in the presence or absence of the A1R antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentyl xanthine (DPCPX). Osteoclast morphology was analyzed in tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase or F-actin-stained samples, and bone resorption was evaluated by toluidine blue staining of dentin. BMCs from A1R-knockout mice form fewer osteoclasts than BMCs from WT mice, and the A1R antagonist DPCPX inhibits osteoclast formation (IC50=1 nM), with altered morphology and reduced ability to resorb bone. A1R blockade increased ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF6 in RAW264.7 cells induced to differentiate into osteoclasts. These studies suggest a critical role for adenosine in bone homeostasis via interaction with adenosine A1R and further suggest that A1R may be a novel pharmacologic target to prevent the bone loss associated with inflammatory diseases and menopause.—Kara, F. M., Chitu, V., Sloane, J., Axelrod, M., Fredholm, B. B., Stanley, R., Cronstein, B. N. Adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) play a critical role in osteoclast formation and function. PMID:20181934

  15. Computer-supported games and role plays in teaching water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Hoekstra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for an interdisciplinary approach in teaching water management. Computer-supported games and role plays offer the potential of creating an environment in which different disciplines come together and in which students are challenged to develop integrated understanding. Two examples are discussed. The River Basin Game is a common-pool resource game in which participants experience the risk of over-abstractions of water in a river basin and learn how this risk relates to the complexity of the system, the conflict between individual and group optimums and the difficulty in achieving good cooperation. The Globalization of Water Role Play makes participants familiar with the global dimension of water management by letting them experience how national governments can integrate considerations of water scarcity and domestic water productivities into decisions on international trade in commodities like food, cotton and bio-energy. The two examples illustrate that play sessions inspire participants to think about the functioning of systems as a whole and to develop good cooperative courses of action, whereby both uncertainties about the system and the presence of different values and perspectives among participants play a role.

  16. Computer-supported games and role plays in teaching water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2012-08-01

    There is an increasing demand for an interdisciplinary approach in teaching water management. Computer-supported games and role plays offer the potential of creating an environment in which different disciplines come together and in which students are challenged to develop integrated understanding. Two examples are discussed. The River Basin Game is a common-pool resource game in which participants experience the risk of over-abstractions of water in a river basin and learn how this risk relates to the complexity of the system, the conflict between individual and group optimums and the difficulty in achieving good cooperation. The Globalization of Water Role Play makes participants familiar with the global dimension of water management by letting them experience how national governments can integrate considerations of water scarcity and domestic water productivities into decisions on international trade in commodities like food, cotton and bio-energy. The two examples illustrate that play sessions inspire participants to think about the functioning of systems as a whole and to develop good cooperative courses of action, whereby both uncertainties about the system and the presence of different values and perspectives among participants play a role.

  17. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Lindqvist

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.

  18. The effects of gender, motor skills and play area on the free play activities of 8-11 year old school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harten, Nathan; Olds, Tim; Dollman, Jim

    2008-09-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the interactions between gender, play area, motor skills and free play activity in 8-11 year old school children. In both studies, boys were more active than girls. In boys, but not in girls, energy expenditure was greater for high-skill than for low-skill children (p = 0.0002), and increased as play area increased (p = 0.01). These results suggest that motor skills and play space are important variables in determining the free play activity of boys, but not of girls. This may be related to widely different play styles among boys and girls.

  19. Entrapment and near Miss: A Comparative Analysis of Psycho-Structural Elements in Gambling Games and Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Faltin

    2011-01-01

    While massively multiplayer online role-playing games like World of Warcraft are often accused of leading to excessive and harmful playing, the only gaming activity that is internationally recognized as a pathological disorder is excessive gambling. The present article seeks to establish empirical data on potential harmful online gaming through a…

  20. Using non-scripted role-play to teach speaking skills: A study of English conversation of Thai college students at Yala Rajbhat University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchanan Naksevee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of the non-scripted role-play activities to improve the oral performance of Thai college students with high and low English proficiency. It attempted to address the following questions: a Do high and low proficiency students perform differently in non-scripted role-play based on scores obtained from pre- and post-tests? If so, how? ; and b Can non-scripted role-play enhance the students’ speaking skills? Which group of students performs better in the non-scripted role-play? The data examined were obtained from tape recorded role-play of 16 non-English-major students (8 each proficiency level during their pre- and post-tests at Yala Rajabhat University in Southern Thailand. The role- play conversations were transcribed and analyzed following the Conversation Analysis (CA framework. The study found that the post test scores of both groups were significantly higher than their pre-test scores at the level of 0.00. The t-test result also revealed that the low proficiency students showed a significant degree of speaking improvement in terms of manner of expression and ability to interact at the level of 0.04 and 0.02 respectively. On the other hand, while improving on the same aspects, the high proficiency students also showed significant improvement in terms of fluency (sig = 0.02. The findings indicated that non- scripted role-play activities helped improve the students’ speaking skills and develop their ability to use the language naturally. Close single-case analyses additionally revealed that despite being traditionally taught conversation lessons with more focus on form and meaning, the participants trained with role-play noticeably improved on the language functions of genuine conversation. It was recommended that role-play activities be used in company with function-focused conversation lessons for the learners’ greater benefits.